WorldWideScience

Sample records for appalachian mined lands

  1. Post-reclamation water quality trend in a Mid-Appalachian watershed of abandoned mine lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Wei, Honghong; Viadero, Roger C

    2011-02-01

    Abandoned mine land (AML) is one of the legacies of historic mining activities, causing a wide range of environmental problems worldwide. A stream monitoring study was conducted for a period of 7 years to evaluate the water quality trend in a Mid-Appalachian watershed, which was heavily impacted by past coal mining and subsequently reclaimed by reforestation and revegetation. GIS tools and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to characterize land cover, to assess temporal trends of the stream conditions, and to examine the linkages between water quality and land cover. In the entire watershed, 15.8% of the land was designated as AML reclaimed by reforestation (4.9%) and revegetation (10.8%). Statistic analysis revealed sub-watersheds with similar land cover (i.e. percentage of reclaimed AML) had similar water quality and all tested water quality variables were significantly related to land cover. Based on the assessment of water quality, acid mine drainage was still the dominant factor leading to the overall poor water quality (low pH, high sulfate and metals) in the watershed after reclamation was completed more than 20 years ago. Nevertheless, statistically significant improvement trends were observed for the mine drainage-related water quality variables (except pH) in the reclaimed AML watershed. The lack of pH improvement in the watershed might be related to metal precipitation and poor buffering capacity of the impacted streams. Furthermore, water quality improvement was more evident in the sub-watersheds which were heavily impacted by past mining activities and reclaimed by reforestation, indicating good reclamation practice had positive impact on water quality over time.

  2. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  3. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystems Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2006-04-30

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During this quarter we worked on methodologies for analyzing carbon in mine soils. A unique property of mine soils is the presence of coal and carboniferous rock particles that are present in mine soils in various sizes, quantities, and qualities. There is no existing method in the literature that may be of use for quantitative estimation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in mine soils that can successfully differentiate between pedogenic and geogenic carbon forms. In this report we present a detailed description of a 16-step method for measuring SOC in mine soils designed for and tested on a total of 30 different mine soil mixtures representing a wide spectrum of mine soils in the hard-rock region of the Appalachian coalfield. The proposed method is a combination of chemical procedure for carbonates removal, a thermal procedure for pedogenic C removal, and elemental C analysis procedure at 900 C. Our methodology provides a means to correct for the carbon loss from the more volatile constituents of coal fragments in the mine soil samples and another correction factor for the protected organic matter that can also remain unoxidized following thermal pretreatment. The correction factors for coal and soil material-specific SOM were based on carbon content loss from coal and SOM determined by a parallel thermal oxidation analysis of pure ground coal fragments retrieved from the same mined site as the soil samples and of coal-free soil rock fragments of sandstone and siltstone origin.

  4. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-02-15

    between states, we found it necessary to utilize an alternative method to determine mined land acreages in the Appalachian region. We have initiated a proof of concept study, focused in the State of Ohio, to determine the feasibility of using images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and/or Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) to accurately identify mined lands.

  5. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    has been validated for softwoods (white pine) on several reclaimed mine sites in the southern Appalachian coal region. The classification model is a viable method for classifying post-SMCRA abandoned mined lands into productivity classes for white pine. A thinning study was established as a random complete block design to evaluate the response to thinning of a 26-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in southwest Virginia. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 32.3 m at base age 50 years. Thinning rapidly increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.84 cm yr{sup -1} compared to 0.58 cm yr{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per hectare. At age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 457.1 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} but was only worth $8807 ha{sup -1}, while the thinned treatment was projected to have 465.8 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}, which was worth $11265 ha{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume being in sawtimber size classes.

  6. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values

  7. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values

  8. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-08-04

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Baseline soil carbon was determined for each of the eighty-one plots. Fertility analysis of soil samples was completed and these data were used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions and the pre-designated plots were fertilized. We also evaluated economic-based policy instruments that are designed to mitigate the reforestation burden borne by the owner of reclaimed mined land. Results suggest that although profitability of reforestation of these previously reclaimed mine lands may be achievable on better sites under lower interest rates, substantial payments would be required to reach &apos

  10. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and

  11. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these

  12. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  13. 75 FR 18500 - Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... AGENCY Guidance on Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean..., titled Improving EPA Review of Appalachian Surface Coal Mining Operations under the Clean Water Act... environmental review of Appalachian surface coal mining operations under the Clean Water Act,...

  14. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  15. Changes in the Extent of Surface Mining and Reclamation in the Central Appalachians Detected Using a 1976-2006 Landsat Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Philip A.; Helmers, David P.; Kingdon, Clayton C.; McNeil, Brenden E.; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; Eshleman, Keith N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining and reclamation is the dominant driver of land cover land use change (LCLUC) in the Central Appalachian Mountain region of the Eastern U.S. Accurate quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this LCLUC affects ecosystem services such as aesthetics, biodiversity, and mitigation of flooding.We used Landsat imagery from 1976, 1987, 1999 and 2006 to map the extent of surface mines and mine reclamation for eight large watersheds in the Central Appalachian region of West Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. We employed standard image processing techniques in conjunction with a temporal decision tree and GIS maps of mine permits and wetlands to map active and reclaimed mines and track changes through time. For the entire study area, active surface mine extent was highest in 1976, prior to implementation of the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, with 1.76% of the study area in active mines, declining to 0.44% in 2006. The most extensively mined watershed, Georges Creek in Maryland, was 5.45% active mines in 1976, declining to 1.83% in 2006. For the entire study area, the area of reclaimed mines increased from 1.35% to 4.99% from 1976 to 2006, and from 4.71% to 15.42% in Georges Creek. Land cover conversion to mines and then reclaimed mines after 1976 was almost exclusively from forest. Accuracy levels for mined and reclaimed cover was above 85% for all time periods, and was generally above 80% for mapping active and reclaimed mines separately, especially for the later time periods in which good accuracy assessment data were available. Among other implications, the mapped patterns of LCLUC are likely to significantly affect watershed hydrology, as mined and reclaimed areas have lower infiltration capacity and thus more rapid runoff than unmined forest watersheds, leading to greater potential for extreme flooding during heavy rainfall events.

  16. Land reclamation beautifies coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coblentz, B. [MSU Ag Communications (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The article explains how the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiments station, MAFES, has helped prepare land exploited by strip mining at North American Coal Corporation's Red Hills Mine. The 5,800 acre lignite mine is over 200 ft deep and uncovers six layers of coal. About 100 acres of land a year is mined and reclaimed, mostly as pine plantations. 5 photos.

  17. Land Mines (Landminen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-02

    making contact with the safety pin of the pull fuze 42. Two locking bolts held the upper and lower case in position during transport, so that there... safety pin out of the extended striker, thus releasing it. These mines were filled with 200 g of explosives. This type of mine was the model for the...by inserting the detonator slide. However, the mine is not fully armed until the safety pin is removed and reinserted until it makes contact with the

  18. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  19. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  20. Predicting release and aquatic effects of total dissolved solids from Appalachian USA coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. L. Daniels; C. E. Zipper; Z. W. Orndorff

    2014-01-01

    Appalachian USA coal mines have been implicated as major stressors to aquatic life in headwater streams via discharge of total dissolved solids (TDS). This paper summarizes column leaching studies of spoils (n [ 50) and refuse and TDS effects on local water quality and biotic response. The initial pH of most materials is near-neutral. Initial specific conductance (SC) values range from 500–1,000 to [3,000 ls/cm, but 2/3 of materials drop below 500 ls/cm after several pore volumes of leaching. Studies of mining-influenced streams have found altered aquatic life, relative to natural conditions with no mining influence, at SC ranging from*200 to*700 ls/cm with depressed aquatic life consistently associated with elevated TDS;mechanisms causing such effects are under investigation. We suggest that active mine operations should be modified to place high TDS producing materials in ways that reduce contact with percolating drainage waters.

  1. Early Environmental Adult Education: An Oral History of Citizen Researchers' Learning in the Appalachian Land Ownership Study, 1979-1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Keara

    2013-01-01

    The Appalachian Land Ownership Study was a participatory action research project in one of our nation's poorest regions suffering from absenteeism, poverty, powerlessness, and improper taxation. In discovering who owned the region's land, the participants sought to organize against the social, economic and environmental injustices imposed on the…

  2. Progress in LIBS for Land Mine Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    a century ago. A handheld metal detector is used to identify a subsurface anomaly that may be a buried land mine. In humanitarian demining, meter...wide lanes are searched for anomalies by swinging a metal detector back and forth just above the ground surface. When the metal detector receives a...postoperational land mine clearance, although the new AN/PSS14 handheld mine detection system that combines a metal detector with a ground- penetrating

  3. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  4. Long-term Effects of Rock Type on Appalachian Coal Mine Soil Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Whitney L; Daniels, W Lee; Haering, Kathryn C; Burger, James A; Zipper, Carl E

    2016-09-01

    Rock-derived overburden material is used as a topsoil substitute for reclamation of Appalachian coal mines. We evaluated five mixtures ( = 4 each) of sandstone (SS) and siltstone (SiS) overburden as topsoil substitutes for 25+ years to quantify changes in mine soil properties. The study area was planted only to tall fescue [ (Schreb.)], but over 50 herbaceous species invaded over time. Standing biomass was highest in early years (5.2-9.3 Mg ha in 1983) and was strongly affected by rock type (SS > SiS), declined significantly by 1989 (1.5-2.4 Mg ha), and then increased again (2×) by 2008. However, there was no long-term rock type effect on standing biomass. Rock fragments and texture differed after 26 yr, with fewer rock fragments in the SS-dominated mixtures (53 vs. 77% in SiS) and lower sand and higher clay in the SiS-dominated mixtures. Soil pH initially ranged from 5.45 (SS) to 7.45 (SiS), dropped for several years, increased in all SiS mixes, and then slowly declined again to 5.65 (SS) to 6.46 (SiS) over the final 15 yr. Total N, organic matter, and cation exchange capacity increased with time, and extractable P decreased. Chemical weathering was most apparent initially, but physical weathering of rock fragments and changes in texture continued throughout the study period. Influences of original rock mixtures remained apparent after 25+ yr in both physical and chemical properties of these mine soils, which remained much coarser than local native soils but were higher in pH, exchangeable cations, and extractable P.

  5. Sustainable Land Management in Mining Areas in Serbia and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Popović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impacts of mining activities on sustainable land management in mining areas in the Republic of Serbia and Romania and discusses the main challenges related to the management of these issues in legislation and practice. Particular attention is paid to land disturbance, mine waste management and land reclamation, as well as access to land for mining purposes, the transfer of mining royalties and the partnerships of the mining industry, governments, communities and civil society for sustainable mining. Both governments are willing to provide the adequate role to mining in strengthening the national economies, but they face numerous constraints in this matter. Sustainable mining practices and consistent implementation of the mining for the closure planning approach, within an improved legislative framework and in cooperation with stakeholders at all levels, create conditions for the development of creative, profitable, environmentally-sound and socially-responsible management and reuse of mine lands.

  6. Mine land reclamation and eco-reconstruction in Shanxi province I: mine land reclamation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-yuan, Hao; Li-xun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Coal resource is the main primary energy in our country, while Shanxi Province is the most important province in resource. Therefore Shanxi is an energy base for our country and has a great significance in energy strategy. However because of the heavy development of the coal resource, the ecological environment is worsening and the farmland is reducing continuously in Shanxi Province. How to resolve the contradiction between coal resource exploitation and environmental protection has become the imperative. Thus the concept of "green mining industry" is arousing more and more attention. In this assay, we will talk about the basic mode of land reclamation in mine area, the engineering study of mine land reclamation, the comprehensive model study of mine land reclamation, and the design and model of ecological agricultural reclamation in mining subsidence.

  7. Sophisticated test facility to detect land mines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Lensen, H.A.; Janssen, Y.H.L.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the Dutch government humanitarian demining project 'HOM-2000', an outdoor test facility has been realized to test, improve and develop detection equipment for land mines. This sophisticated facility, allows us to access and compare the performance of the individual and of a combi

  8. Multispectral image fusion for detecting land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Aimonetti, W.D.; Roeske, F.; Donetti, J.G.; Fields, D.J.; sherwood, R.J.; Schaich, P.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report details a system which fuses information contained in registered images from multiple sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect surface and buried land mines. The sensor suite currently consists of a camera that acquires images in six bands (400nm, 500nm, 600nm, 700nm, 800nm and 900nm). Past research has shown that it is extremely difficult to distinguish land mines from background clutter in images obtained from a single sensor. It is hypothesized, however, that information fused from a suite of various sensors is likely to provide better detection reliability, because the suite of sensors detects a variety of physical properties that are more separable in feature space. The materials surrounding the mines can include natural materials (soil, rocks, foliage, water, etc.) and some artifacts.

  9. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Capo, Rosemary C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Stewart, Brian W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Hedin, Robert S. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weaver, Theodore J. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Edenborn, Harry M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  10. Patch occupancy of stream fauna across a land cover gradient in the southern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, John R.; Peterson, James T.; Cecala, Kristen K.; Maerz, John C.; Jackson, C. Rhett; Gragson, Ted L.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    We modeled patch occupancy to examine factors that best predicted the prevalence of four functionally important focal stream consumers (Tallaperla spp., Cambarus spp.,Pleurocera proxima, and Cottus bairdi) among 37 reaches within the Little Tennessee River basin of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We compared 34 models of patch occupancy to examine the association of catchment and reach scale factors that varied as a result of converting forest to agricultural or urban land use. Occupancy of our taxa was linked to parameters reflecting both catchment and reach extent characteristics. At the catchment level, forest cover or its conversion to agriculture was a major determinant of occupancy for all four taxa. Patch occupancies of Tallaperla, Cambarus, and C. bairdi were positively, and Pleurocera negatively, correlated with forest cover. Secondarily at the reach level, local availability of large woody debris was important forCambarus, availability of large cobble substrate was important for C. bairdi, and stream calcium concentration was important for P. proxima. Our results show the abundance of stream organisms was determined by the taxon-dependent interplay between catchment- and reach-level factors.

  11. Land mine detection using multispectral image fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Aimonetti, W.D.; Roeske, F.; Donetti, J.G.; Fields, D.J.; Sherwood, R.J.; Schaich, P.C.

    1995-03-29

    Our system fuses information contained in registered images from multiple sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect surface and buried land mines. The sensor suite currently consists of a camera that acquires images in six bands (400nm, 500nm, 600nm, 700nm, 800nm and 900nm). Past research has shown that it is extremely difficult to distinguish land mines from background clutter in images obtained from a single sensor. It is hypothesized, however, that information fused from a suite of various sensors is likely to provide better detection reliability, because the suite of sensors detects a variety of physical properties that are more separable in feature space. The materials surrounding the mines can include natural materials (soil, rocks, foliage, water, etc.) and some artifacts. We use a supervised learning pattern recognition approach to detecting the metal and plastic land mines. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the spectral bands add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using a supervised learning pattern classifier (the probabilistic neural network). We present results of experiments to detect land mines from real data collected from an airborne platform, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple spectral bands.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  13. Mining claim activity on Federal Land in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Public Land spatial data sets (shapefile) contains Public Land Survey section polygons that had mining claims recorded in the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's...

  14. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  15. Recycling Facilities - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  16. Fire history, related to climate and land use in three southern Appalachian landscapes in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, William T; Lafon, Charles W; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; LaForest, Lisa B

    2013-09-01

    Fire-maintained ecosystems and associated species are becoming increasingly rare in the southern Appalachian Mountains because of fire suppression policies implemented in the early 20th century. Restoration of these communities through prescribed fire has been hindered by a lack of information on historical fire regimes. To characterize past fire regimes, we collected and absolutely dated the tree rings on cross sections from 242 fire-scarred trees at three different sites in the southern Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina. Our objectives were to (1) characterize the historical frequency of fire in southern Appalachian mixed pine-oak forests, (2) assess the impact of interannual climatic variability on the historical occurrence of fire, and (3) determine whether changes in human culture and land use altered the frequency of fire. Results demonstrate that fires burned frequently at all three sites for at least two centuries prior to the implementation of fire suppression and prevention in the early to mid 20th century. Composite mean fire return intervals were 2-4 yr, and point mean fire return intervals were 9-13 yr. Area-wide fires that burned across multiple stands occurred at 6-13-yr intervals. The majority of fires were recorded during the dormant season. Fire occurrence exhibited little relationship with reconstructed annual drought conditions. Also, fire activity did not change markedly during the transition from Native American to Euro-American settlement or during the period of industrial logging at the start of the 20th century. Fire activity declined significantly, however, during the fire suppression period, with a nearly complete absence of fire during recent decades. The characterization of past fire regimes should provide managers with specific targets for restoration of fire-associated communities in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The fire chronologies reported here are among the longest tree-ring reconstructions of fire

  17. Death and injury caused by land mines in Burma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Petersen, H D; Lykke, J

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-eight Burmese refugees in Thailand were interviewed. One hundred and five of those interviewed had knowledge of a total of 313 persons who had been exposed to land mine explosions. Twenty-three of the interviewed were land mine survivors. They were all male, aged between...... eight and 68 years, and all except one had been injured between 1986 and 1997. Fifteen of the 23 were civilians, eight were guerilla soldiers who were injured either in battle or while deploying or disarming land mines. Those who had stepped on land mines were all crus or femur amputated and had several...... scars on the lower limbs, abdomen and some also on the forearms. Those who had handled a land mine had lost either fingers or hands and one also lost both eyes. This study shows that the frequency of land mine accidents in Burma has been underestimated and that the mortality is high. The study also...

  18. CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-05-19

    The January-March 2004 Quarter was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During year one of this project there was no available mine land to plant in the Hazard area so 107 acres were planted in the Martin county mine location. This year 120 acres was planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres was planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. An additional set of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for special carbon sequestration determinations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on two newly established areas as well as confirmed measurements on the first years plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 tree seedlings.

  19. Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Mountaintop Mining Areas of Central Appalachian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Laura; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates are higher among residents of mountaintop mining (MTM) areas compared to mining and nonmining areas, and to examine the association between greater levels of MTM surface mining and CVD mortality. Methods: Age-adjusted chronic CVD mortality rates from 1999 to 2006 for…

  20. Measures of Vegetation Restoration in Abandoned Mined Lands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By 2004, the occupied and disturbed land area had reached 3.393 million ha by mining, of which forest land took 532 000 ha; In addition, mining also caused 3.721 million -5.316 million ha of degraded forests and woodlands. The impact of mining on environment is multi-fold and deep. Thus it is necessary and significant to approach effective methods to speed up vegetation restoration in abandoned mined lands. Phytoremediation is a relatively new technology (in the lastest decade) and the numbers of plant spec...

  1. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-10-30

    The 2002-2003 Department of Energy plantings amounted to 164 acres containing 111,520 tree seedlings in eastern and western Kentucky. Data gathered on these trees included an inventory to determine survival of all planted species. A sub-sample of seedlings was selected to assess the height and diameter of individual species of seedlings established. Additional efforts involved collection of soil sample and litter samples, analysis of herbaceous ground cover from vegetation clip plots and leaf area on each tree species, and development of tissue collections. All areas were sampled for penetration resistance, penetration depth (or depth to refusal), and bulk density at various depths. Rain fall events and flow rates were recorded. The water quality of runoff samples involved the determination of total and settleable solids and particle size distribution. A study was initiated that will focus on the colonization of small mammals from forest edges to various areas located on reclaimed surface mines. This effort will provide a better understanding of the role small mammals and birds have in the establishment of plant communities on mine lands that will be useful in developing and improving reclamation techniques.

  2. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Bon Jun Koo; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    The first quarter of 2004 was dedicated to tree planting activities in two locations in Kentucky. During the first year of this project there was not available mine land to plant in the Hazard area, so 107 acres were planted in the Martin County mine location. This year 120 acres were planted in the Hazard area to compensate for the prior year and an additional 57 acres were planted on Peabody properties in western Kentucky. Additional sets of special plots were established on each of these areas that contained 4800 seedlings each for carbon sequestration demonstrations. Plantings were also conducted to continue compaction and water quality studies on the newly established areas as well as continual measurements of the first year's plantings. Total plantings on this project now amount to 357 acres containing 245,960 seedlings. During the second quarter of this year monitoring systems were established for all the new research areas. Weather data pertinent to the research as well as hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas. Studies established to assess specific questions pertaining to carbon flux and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals are being quantified. Experimental practices initiated with this research project will eventually allow for the planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and allow mountain top removal areas to be constructed with loose spoil with no grading of the final layers of rooting material when establishing trees for the final land use designation. Monitoring systems have been installed to measure treatment effects on both above and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools in the planting areas. Soil and tissue samples were collected from both years planting and analyses were conducted in the laboratory. Examination of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots continued during the reporting period. Entire planted trees were

  3. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  4. Progress in Researches on Evaluation of Quality of Cultivated Land Consolidated from Coal Mining Subsided Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi; ZHAO; Kening; WU

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of consolidated cultivated land quality can provide basic information for how to perfect the program of land consolidation,as well as a reference for the dynamic monitoring of farmland quality in mining area. Based on the consultation and analysis of related literature,we can conclude that: firstly,most scholars focus on soil consolidation,while consider little about land use and economic condition. Secondly,foreign scholars usually use crop yields to judge the success of land consolidation,while domestic scholars have been evaluated the quality of consolidated cultivated land synthetically from several aspects,such as soil fertility,soil environmental quality,and farmland infrastructure conditions. Specifically,most of the evaluations are static,and indicators are different. Besides,the quality of consolidated cultivated land is generally low,and it lacks systematic research on technologies for improving quality of cultivated land consolidated from coal mining subsided land. It is concluded that future researches should focus on establishing scientific and feasible evaluation system to realize comparison of quality change in the dynamic course of " undisturbed-subsided-consolidated" cultivated land in coal mining areas,as well as technologies for improving quality of cultivated land consolidated from coal mining subsided land.

  5. Socioeconomic considerations regarding a land mine victim with maxillofacial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidara, Emiko Koito; Hosoda, Masaru; Vuty, Sur; Toriumi, Takashi; Seto, Kanichi

    2007-09-01

    This article describes a case we experienced while doing volunteer medical work in Cambodia for six months in 2002. By examining treatment of a 14-year-old female land mine victim with maxillofacial injuries, we report on the present socio-medical situation in Cambodia. This case suggests the lack of infrastructure, facilities, human resources, and patient education make it extremely difficult to provide patients with proper treatment, including general anesthesia. A comparison of land mine victim statistics between 2002 and 2005 reveals significant problems.

  6. Yield and nutritive quality of forage legumes on reclaimed surface mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditsch, D.C.; Collins, M. [University of Kentucky, Quicksand, KY (United States). Robinson Experiment Station

    1998-07-01

    Legumes are important in the long-term nitrogen economy of surface mined lands and for establishing and maintaining quality livestock forage. Little information is available to reclamation specialists for use in selection of forage legume species based on productivity potential, persistence and nutritive quality for livestock. A study was initiated at two sites in the Appalachian coal fields of Kentucky to evaluate monocultures of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) under management regimes suitable for livestock production. Legumes were harvested at the early bloom stage throughout the growing season for dry matter (DM) yield determination. Forage quality was determined by measuring crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose (CEL) and acid detergent lignin (ADL). High DM yields were produced by all species during the first production season (range 6.2-9.2 Mg ha{sup -1}) but yields of all species declined rapidly by year three. Birdsfoot trefoil demonstrated slightly greater drought tolerance during mid-season (July/August) than alfalfa and red clover. With the exception of site {number_sign}1 in 1992 (4 harvests), no more than 3 harvests were made during a single growing season. Crude protein concentration of these forage legumes was found to be within the range commonly measured on undisturbed lands. However, high NDF and ADF values were observed above those reported by others for the same species. These results indicate that it may be difficult to maintain a high level of productivity throughout the five-year bonding period under hay management. Management practices such as summer stockpiling may be necessary to compensate for the rapid and wide fluctuations in DM yield and quality due to low water-holding capacity of mine spoils. 15 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Study on land use changes of the coal mining area based on TM image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bo; YAO Jing; KANG Ting-jun

    2008-01-01

    Based on the two temporal TM images of 1995 and 2001 of one coal mining area, analyzed the variety information of the coal mining area. Relative registration were done with the two images firstly, then cut out the study area for experimental data, classified the coal mining area using supervised classification in ERDAS, the coal mining area will be divided into five categories as water body, agricultural land, construction land, coal mining area and other land. Make land use change matrix, the result shows that in the six years of 1995 to 2001, the change of the utilize of the land is greatly, the main represent is showed as follows: the area of water body, agricultural land and coal mining land had continually increased, on the contrary, construction area and other decreased. The percentage speed of the construction land is the biggest, the value reach -1.08%. The main reasons is that with the exploitation of the coal mine and the reclaim of the land, the exploitation of the coal mining land make the agricultural land and construction area convert into coal mining land, on the other hand with the backfill of the subsided waterlogged land and the reclaim of the subsided land make the coal mining land convert into agricultural land.

  8. Multispectral image feature fusion for detecting land mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Fields, D.J.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Our system fuses information contained in registered images from multiple sensors to reduce the effect of clutter and improve the the ability to detect surface and buried land mines. The sensor suite currently consists if a camera that acquires images in sixible wavelength bands, du, dual-band infrared (5 micron and 10 micron) and ground penetrating radar. Past research has shown that it is extremely difficult to distinguish land mines from background clutter in images obtained from a single sensor. It is hypothesized, however, that information fused from a suite of various sensors is likely to provide better detection reliability, because the suite of sensors detects a variety of physical properties that are more separate in feature space. The materials surrounding the mines can include natural materials (soil, rocks, foliage, water, holes made by animals and natural processes, etc.) and some artifacts.

  9. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宏; 肖兴田; 何志强

    2001-01-01

    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze land destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze and estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan. Open Pit was taken as an example to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economic evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  10. Remote Mine Detection Technologies for Land and Water Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Eddie R.

    1999-05-11

    The detection of mines, both during and after hostilities, is a growing international problem. It limits military operations during wartime and unrecovered mines create tragic consequences for civilians. From a purely humanitarian standpoint an estimated 100 million or more unrecovered mines are located in over 60 countries worldwide. This paper presents an overview of some of the technologies currently being investigated by Sandia National Laboratories for the detection and monitoring of minefields in land and water environments. The three technical areas described in this paper are: 1) the development of new mathematical techniques for combining or fusing the data from multiple sources for enhanced decision-making; 2) an environmental fate and transport (EF&T) analysis approach that is central to improving trace chemical sensing technique; and 3) the investigation of an underwater range imaging device to aid in locating and characterizing mines and other obstacles in coastal waters.

  11. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-10-02

    During this quarter a general forest monitoring program was conducted to measure treatment effects on above ground and below ground carbon C and Nitrogen (N) pools for the tree planting areas. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to Carbon cycling was initiated with the development of plots to examine the influence of mycorrhizae, spoil chemical and mineralogical properties, and use of amendment on forest establishment and carbon sequestration. Efforts continued during this period to examine decomposition and heterotrophic respiration on C cycling in the reforestation plots. Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed surface mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. New plantings required the modification and design and installation on monitoring equipment. Maintenance and data monitoring on past and present installations are a continuing operation. The Department of Mining Engineering continued the collection of penetration resistance, penetration depth, and bulk density on both old and new treatment areas. Data processing and analysis is in process for these variables. Project scientists and graduate students continue to present results at scientific meetings, tours and field days presentations of the research areas are being conducted on a request basis.

  12. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  13. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-08-02

    The April-June 2004 quarter was dedicated to the establishment of monitoring systems for all the new research areas. Hydrology and water quality monitoring continues to be conducted on all areas as does weather data pertinent to the research. Studies assessing specific questions pertaining to carbon flux has been established and the invasion of the vegetation by small mammals is being quantified. The approval of two experimental practices associated with this research by the United States Office of Surface Mining was a major accomplishment during this period of time. These experimental practices will eventually allow for tree planting on long steep slopes with loose grading systems and for the use of loose dumped spoil on mountain top removal areas with no grading in the final layer of rooting material for tree establishment.

  14. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-06-22

    An area planted in 2004 on Bent Mountain in Pike County was shifted to the Department of Energy project to centralize an area to become a demonstration site. An additional 98.3 acres were planted on Peabody lands in western Kentucky and Bent Mountain to bring the total area under study by this project to 556.5 acres as indicated in Table 2. Major efforts this quarter include the implementation of new plots that will examine the influence of differing geologic material on tree growth and survival, water quality and quantity and carbon sequestration. Normal monitoring and maintenance was conducted and additional instrumentation was installed to monitor the new areas planted.

  15. LAND RECLAMATION IS BASIC GUARANTEE OF REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN COAL MINING AREAS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张和生; 刘邦涛; 周丽霞; 崔春香

    1998-01-01

    Necessity of land reclamation is discussed, setting out viewpoint of sustainabledevelopment and land connotation and its attribute and combining destroyed forms andcharacteristics of land in coal mining areas. It is pointed out that land reclamation of coal miningareas is basic guarantee of solving contradiction between coal mining areas and countryside,raising life of resident and ensuring regional sustainable development.

  16. Rehabilitation of gypsum-mined lands in the Indian desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.D.; Kumar, S.; Gough, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    The economic importance of mining in the Indian Desert is second only to agriculture. Land disturbed by mining, however, has only recently been the focus of rehabilitation efforts. This research assesses the success of rehabilitation plans used to revegetate gypsum mine spoils within the environmental constraints of the north-west Indian hot-desert ecosystem. The rehabilitation plan first examined both mined and unmined areas and established assessments of existing vegetative cover and the quality of native soils and mine spoils. Tests were made on the effect of the use, and conservation, of available water through rainwater harvesting, amendment application (for physical and chemical spoil modification), plant establishment protocols, and the selection of appropriate germ plasm. Our results show that the resulting vegetative cover is capable of perpetuating itself under natural conditions while concurrently meeting the needs of farmers. Although the mine spoils are deficient in organic matter and phosphorus, they possess adequate amounts of all other nutrients. Total boron concentrations (>5.0 mg kg-1) in both the topsail and mine spoil indicate potentially phytotoxic conditions. Electrical conductance of mine spoil is 6-10 times higher than for topsail with a near-neutral pH. Populations of spoil fungi, Azotobactor, and nitrifying bacteria are low. The soil moisture storage in rainwater harvesting plots increased by 8% over the control and 48% over the unmined area. As a result of rehabilitation efforts, mine spoils show a steady buildup in organic carbon, and P and K due to the decomposition of farmyard manure and the contribution of nitrogen fixation by the established leguminous plant species. The rehabilitation protocol used at the site appears to have been successful. Following revegetation of the area with a mixture of trees, shrubs, and grasses, native implanted species have become established. Species diversity, measured in terms of species richness

  17. Neutron-based land mine detection system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, H.A.; McDonald, T.E. Jr.; Nebel, R.A.; Pickrell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to examine the feasibility of developing a land mine detection system that can detect nonmetallic (plastic) mines using the detection and analysis of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA). The authors approached this study by first carrying out a review of other nonmetallic land mine detection methods for comparison with the PGNAA concept. They reviewed issues associated with detecting and recording the return gamma signal resulting from neutrons interacting with high explosive in mines and they examined two neutron source technologies that have been under development at Los Alamos for the past several years for possible application to a PGNAA system. A major advantage of the PGNAA approach is it`s ability to discriminate detection speed and need for close proximity. The authors identified approaches to solving these problems through development of improved neutron sources and detection sensors.

  18. The Ministry of Land and Resources Standardized Approval Management of Exploration Right & Mining Right for Rare Earth & Tungsten Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Recently,the Ministry of Land and Resources issued"Notice on Standardizing Approval Management of Exploration Right&Mining Right for Rare Earth Mine&Tungsten Mine"(the"Notice").Rare earth ore and tungsten ore are specific ore varieties prescribed by the State Council for protective exploitation.Since the

  19. Land reclamation in the refuse dump of open coal mines and its following ecology principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Through the research on the model of the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines, it was concerned that ecology was the theoretical basic for the land reclamation of open coal mines. According to the principle of ecological substituting, the land reclamation can be divided into three stages: water and soil conservation,ecological performance and economic performance. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the ecological substituting principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  20. Ecosystem evaluation of post sand mining land in Cimalaka, Sumedang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.F. Sholihah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate ecosystem function of post-sand mining land in northern side of Layapan, Cimalaka, Sumedang, West Java (S 6o 47’ 33.68” and E 107o 58’18.73”, 744 m above sea level. Microclimate and soil characteristics measurements were carried out to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the land. Vegetation analysis was conducted with plotting method. Ecosystem Function Analysis, including Landscape Function Analysis (LFA has been used to analyze the function of landscape. The results showed that average light intensity, air temperature and humidity were 15.2x103 ± 7.3x103 lux, 29.1±1.02oC and 69.7±7.5%. High light intensity made the air temperature rouse higher than normal, which is between 17.1oC to 22oC. As for the soil, soil organic content was 4-11%, porosity 4.65-24.43%, macronutrient content was low and C/N ratio was high. The results showed that LFA value for land stability was 33.24%, water infiltration 37.2%, nutrient cycle rate 15.28%. Those numbers showed that land condition was poor. From the LFA data, it was also known that vegetations had the highest contribution for all LFA parameters. From vegetation analysis, herbs species were 67 while bushes only 9, which at least 40 species were invasive alien species. Species with highest Important Value (IV from herb was Cajanus scarabaeoides and from bush was Mimosa pigra. Both of them are members of Fabaceae. It was concluded that the soil of this post sand mining land was highly nutrient poor; critical and couldn’t perform the regulation, habitat and biomass production function of ecosystem.

  1. Rehabilitation of lands mined for limestone in the Indian desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.D.; Kumar, S.; Gough, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    In the Indian desert, the economics of mining is second only to agriculture in importance. However, research on the rehabilitation of land disturbed by mining has only recently received serious attention. An attempt has been made to determine both the qualitative and quantitative success of rehabilitation plans used to revegetate limestone mine spoils in an area near Barna, northwest arid India. Rehabilitation success was achieved using a combination of rainwater harvesting techniques, soil amendment application approaches, plant establishment methods and the selection of appropriate germplasm material (trees, shrubs and grasses). It is expected that the resulting vegetative cover will be capable of self-perpetuation under natural conditions while at the same time meeting the land-use needs of the local people. The minespoils have adequate levels of the major nutrients (except P, Mo and Se) for proper plant and grazing animal health. Levels of organic matter are low whereas total B concentrations are exceptionally high. Also, the population of soil fungi, Azotobactor, and nitrifying bacteria is negligible. Enhanced plant growth was achieved in treated plots, compared to control plots, where spoil moisture storage was improved by 5-45 per cent. Due to the decomposition of farmyard manure and nitrogen fixation by planted leguminous plant species, the electrical conductance of treated mine spoils increased threefold, CaCO3 content decreased from 20??0 to 5??2 per cent, and organic carbon, P, K, and biological activity increased significantly. The rehabilitation protocol used at the site appears to have been successful because plant self-regeneration is occurring. The increased diversity of woody perennials resulted in 'dominance' being better shared among species and 'evenness' being increased within the plant community elements. The early to mid-successional trends are continuing for six years following initial rehabilitation. This study developed methods for the

  2. Restoration of surface-mined lands with rainfall harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, R.H.; Rickard, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    Strip mining for coal in the arid western US will remove grazing land as energy demands are met. Conventional resotration usually includes leveling the spoil banks and covering them with top soil, fertilizing, seeding and irrigation with well or river water. An overview of research on an alternate method of restoring this land is reported. From 1976 through 1981 studies were conducted on the use of water harvesting, the collection and use of rainfall runoff, to restore the vegetative productivity of strip mined lands in arid regions. These studies tested the technical and economic feasibility of using partially leveled spoil banks at strip mines as catchment areas to collect and direct runoff to the topsoiled valley floor where crops were cultivated. Information was collected on the efficiency of seven treatments to increase runoff from the catchment areas and on the productivity of seven crops. The experiments were conducted in arid areas of Washington, Arizona, and Colorado. It was concluded that water harvesting can replace or augment expensive and inadequate supplies of well and river water in arid regions with a suitable climate. These studies showed that some treatments provided adequate runoff to produce a useful crop in the valleys, thus making this alternative approach to restoration technically feasible. This approach was also potentially economically feasible where the treatment costs of the catchment areas were low, the treatment was effective, the crop was productive and valuable, and earthmoving costs were lower than with conventional restoration involving complete leveling of spoil banks. It was also concluded that water harvesting can be made more effective with further information on catchment area treatments, which crops are most adaptable to water harvesting, the optimum incline of the catchment areas and climatic influences on water harvesting.

  3. Comprehensive study on ecological restoration and land exploitation of mining subsidence in suburbs of Chinese mining cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua Zhou; Lejie Wang

    2014-01-01

    China has nearly a hundred mining cities derived from mining development. While mining development has brought about immense achievements in a city’s economic construction, it has also resulted in different levels of damage to the eco-environment of the mining city, leaving behind a lot of subsided wasteland and heavily confining the sustainable development and transformation there. How to restore and exploit the land and eco-environment disrupted by mining development in an effective way, therefore, has become a pressing challenge that Chinese mining cities are facing. In this paper, the planning and construction of Nanhu Eco-city in the suburb of Tangshan City is analyzed as an example. After characterizing the coal-mining subsided lands in Kailuan Tangshan Mine originated in different periods and under different geological mining conditions and evaluating their safety level, the authors try to demonstrate how eco-restoration and comprehensive land exploitation should be implemented by making the best use of available local resources to achieve‘‘economy-society-environment’’ sustainability and coexistence in a mining city.

  4. Monitoring and inversion on land subsidence over mining area with InSAR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, C.; Lu, Zhiming; Ding, X.

    2011-01-01

    The Wulanmulun town, located in Inner Mongolia, is one of the main mining areas of Shendong Company such as Shangwan coal mine and Bulianta coal mine, which has been suffering serious mine collapse with the underground mine withdrawal. We use ALOS/PALSAR data to extract land deformation under these regions, in which Small Baseline Subsets (SBAS) method was applied. Then we compared InSAR results with the underground mining activities, and found high correlations between them. Lastly we applied Distributed Dislocation (Okada) model to invert the mine collapse mechanism. ?? 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  5. Monitoring coal mine induced residual land subsidence using SBAS and PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzovic, M.; Ghulam, A.

    2013-12-01

    Underground coal mining can cause damage to both property and the environment as a result of mining-induced land subsidence. Illinois, a major coal producer in the United States, is particularly susceptible to mining-induced land subsidence because it has large reserves of underground coal. Identifying and monitoring mining-induced land subsidence is important in order to assist in subsidence planning, minimizing damage to the environment, and prevent damage to structures. Since 1983, coal mining companies are responsible for preventing or correcting damage caused by mining-induced land subsidence. During active mining, land subsidence is monitored using traditional surveying methods, but this monitoring ends after active mining has stopped. In addition, mining-induced land subsidence can continue for decades after the completion of active mining. Traditional surveying methods are time consuming and expensive; therefore, a low-cost method of monitoring land subsidence is of great interest. Satellite based synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) provides a way to remotely measure land subsidence at low-cost, and with multitemporal methods of processing satellite data it reduces problems with standard InSAR and becomes a valuable tool to monitor mining-induced land subsidence. Permanent scatterer interferometry (PSI; Ferretti, et al., 2000, 2001) is a proven method that uses temporally coherent objects, such as buildings and rock outcrops, to improve the accuracy of land displacement measurements. PSI works well in urban areas because of the abundance of buildings, but it is less useful in rural areas. Small baseline subset (SBAS; Berardino, et al., 2002) interferometry uses multiple differential interferograms with small satellite baselines to improve spatial correlation. Both of these methods were used to measure land subsidence from 1992 to 2009 in Springfield, Illinois. Springfield presents a challenge because of the large surrounding rural areas. By

  6. The environment of coal mining areas and the economic evaluation of the land reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-hong; XIAO Xing-tian; HE Zhi-qiang

    2001-01-01

    The environment impact of the coal resources mining was analyzed. The method of economic evaluation for the coal mining was established to analyze lan d destruction. The opportunity cost method was used to quantitatively analyze an d estimate the economic loss of the land destruction by coal mining. At the same time, the dump land reclamation of the Yuanbaoshan Open Pit was taken as an exa mple to evaluate environmental and economical benefit with the method of economi c evaluation for the coal mining areas land reclamation.

  7. Vascular riffle flora of Appalachian streams: the ecology and effects of acid mine drainage on Justificia americana (L. ) Vahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koryak, M.; Reilly, R.J.

    1984-06-01

    Justicia americana is a stout-based colonial plant, abundant in most of the larger, low to moderate gradient streams of the upper Ohio River basin. The distribution of J. americana is related to acid drainage from bituminous coal mining operations in the upper Ohio River drainage basin. Possible fluvial and biological consequences of the colonization or absence of Justicia are considered. Luxuriant growths were noted on gravel bars and riffles of larger, unpolluted streams in the basin. Acid mine drainage severely depresses the growth of the plant, leaving gravel shoals and riffles in the acid streams either barren or dominated by other emergent species. Particular among these new species is Elecocharis acicularis. The elimination of J. americana from suitable habitat adversely affects channel morphology, substrate composition, general aesthetic quality and aquatic stream life in the region. 16 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) presence and proliferation on former surface coal mines in Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Adam J.; Wynne, R.H.; Zipper, Carl E.; Ford, William; Donovan, P. F.; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Invasive plants threaten native plant communities. Surface coal mines in the Appalachian Mountains are among the most disturbed landscapes in North America, but information about land cover characteristics of Appalachian mined lands is lacking. The invasive shrub autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) occurs on these sites and interferes with ecosystem recovery by outcompeting native trees, thus inhibiting re-establishment of the native woody-plant community. We analyzed Landsat 8 satellite imagery to describe autumn olive’s distribution on post-mined lands in southwestern Virginia within the Appalachian coalfield. Eight images from April 2013 through January 2015 served as input data. Calibration and validation data obtained from high-resolution aerial imagery were used to develop a land cover classification model that identified areas where autumn olive was a primary component of land cover. Results indicate that autumn olive cover was sufficiently dense to enable detection on approximately 12.6 % of post-mined lands within the study area. The classified map had user’s and producer’s accuracies of 85.3 and 78.6 %, respectively, for the autumn olive coverage class. Overall accuracy was assessed in reference to an independent validation dataset at 96.8 %. Autumn olive was detected more frequently on mines disturbed prior to 2003, the last year of known plantings, than on lands disturbed by more recent mining. These results indicate that autumn olive growing on reclaimed coal mines in Virginia and elsewhere in eastern USA can be mapped using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager imagery; and that autumn olive occurrence is a significant landscape vegetation feature on former surface coal mines in the southwestern Virginia segment of the Appalachian coalfield.

  9. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TCparks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, accumulator plants, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

  10. Ecological rebuilding and land reclamation in surface mines inShanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the mining industry produces a large amount of derelict land, and muses pollution of water loss and soil erosion as well as other environmental damage in China. As land is under pressure in China, it is now policy to restore or reclaim land despoiled by mining, the aim being to develop sustainable and healthy arable land ecosystems. This paper outlines the principles and approaches of ecological restoration, which have been adopted in Shanxi Province with reference to three typical surface mines. In the research, the principles of ecological engineering and ecological succession are considered as the critical theories of ecological restoration in mine degraded land. Meanwhile, the paper made a comparative research on main links of ecological rebuilding in three surface mines in Shanxi Province, which include new land construction, treatment of toxic substances, control of soil erosion, fertility management, irrigation, ecological planning and the establishment of legislation systems. As the research demonstrated, for successful restoration, new land construction is the fundamental framework, but it must be integrated with ecological engineering including ecological planning, the control of soil erosion and vegetation establishment and ecosystem creation in order to optimiee land productivity and soil fertility. In addition, the establishment of the legislation systems and organization of administration are also indispensable aspects of ecological rebuilding in mined land.

  11. Remote sensing monitoring land use change in Donglutian coal mine, Shuozhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Baoying; Liu, Ling

    2017-01-01

    This paper monitored the coal mine exploitation in Donglutian coal mine, Shuozhou city, Shanxi Province. Landsat satellite images from 2008 to 2016 were selected, and then 15m color composite images were obtained through data processing and image fusion. On this basis, the land use map from 2008 to 2016 was obtained using visual interpretation method. Results showed that the main land use type in this area was cropland, unused land and coalmine. Area of cropland and unused land kept decreasing year by year, while coal mine expanded rapidly. The expansion of coal mine concentrated on two time periods: from 2009 to 2010 and from 2012 to 2013. During these two time periods, topsoil stripping was the main exploitation type, while deep mining was the main type for other times. Results also presented that the exploitation number of small coals kept increasing year by year, from the initial number of 26 at 2008 to 42 at 2016.

  12. Rational Use of Land Resource During the Implementation of Transportless System of Coal Strata Surface Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdkova, T.; Tyulenev, M.; Zhironkin, S.; Trifonov, V. A.; Osipov, Yu M.

    2017-01-01

    Surface mining and open pits engineering affect the environment in a very negative way. Among other pollutions that open pits make during mineral deposits exploiting, particular problem is the landscape changing. Along with converting the land into pits, surface mining is connected with pilling dumps that occupy large ground. The article describes an analysis of transportless methods of several coal seams strata surface mining, applied for open pits of South Kuzbass coal enterprises (Western Siberia, Russia). To improve land-use management of open pit mining enterprises, the characteristics of transportless technological schemes for several coal seams strata surface mining are highlighted and observed. These characteristics help to systematize transportless open mining technologies using common criteria that characterize structure of the bottom part of a strata and internal dumping schemes. The schemes of transportless systems of coal strata surface mining implemented in South Kuzbass are given.

  13. Effects of Land Use Change on Carbon Emission:A Case Study of Yuheng Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yarui; WU; Wenhai; XIA

    2014-01-01

    Land use is the main factor affecting the carbon emission. Taking Yuheng Mining Area as the research object,this paper chose two periods of remote sensing data of 1999 and 2006,and adopted the remote sensing image interpretation and supervised classification to study the changes in land use types and carbon sink in different periods in the mining area. The results showed that the area of arable land was reduced from 166. 96 km2 to 81. 10 km2,the area of woodland was increased from 46.79 km2 to 134. 53 km2,and arable land decreased by 51%,but carbon sink in the mining area still showed a rising trend; the carbon sink value increased by 16. 4 million yuan in 2006 compared to 1999,an increase of 40%,indicating that the reasonable land use pattern can improve the ecological environment,and promote the sustainable development of environment and economy in the mining area.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF LAND USE PLANING AROUND THE LEASED LIMESTONE MINE USING REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities and the waste products produced can have significant impact on the surrounding environment - ranging from localized surface and ground water contamination to the damaging effects of airborne pollutants on the regional ecosystem. The long term monitoring of environmental impacts requires a cost effective method to characterize land cover and land cover changes over time. As per the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forest, Govt. of India, it is mandatory to study and analyze the impacts of mining on its surroundings. The use of remote sensing technology to generate reliable land cover maps is a valuable asset to completing environmental assessments over mining affected areas. In this paper, a case study has been discussed to study the land use – land cover status around 10 Km radius of open cast limestone mine area and the subsequent impacts on environmental as well as social surroundings.

  15. Zoning of land reclamation in coal mining area and new progresses for the past 10 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Xiao; Zhenqi Hu; Yanhua Fu

    2014-01-01

    Coal mining disturbed land is the main sources of land reclamation in China. With the rapid increase of economy and coal production, more and more land has been disturbed by construction and coal mining; thus, land reclamation has become highlights in the past 10 years, and China is boosting land reclamation in mining areas. Distur-bance characteristics vary from region to region, according to natural and geological conditions, coal mining area land reclamation was divided into 3 zones, which are eastern, western and southern. Reclamation strategies are focused on prime farmland protection in eastern and ecological restoration in western and southern zones, respectively. Several innovative reclamation technologies and theories for the past 10 years were introduced in this paper, including concurrent mining and reclamation, Yellow river sediments backfilling, self-reclamation, and topsoil alternatives in opencast mines. Besides, in the government regulation and legal system building respect, several important laws and regulations were issued and implemented in the past 5 years, promoting land reclamation management and supervision greatly. Land reclamation is and will still be one of the most important parts of coal industry in the future, and more efforts and funds are expected to get involved.

  16. Effect of coal resources development and compensation for damage to cultivated land in mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-feng; LIU Yuan-hua; DU Zhuan-ping; CHEN Jie

    2009-01-01

    The exploitation of coal resources inevitably affects, to different degrees, arable land resources and impacts the socio-economic development in mining areas. Therefore it is of great practical importance to probe the rules of the effect from coal resource exploration on arable land. Suitable and effective measures to compensate for damaged to and loss of arable land resources should be taken on the basis of carrying out green mining and reducing damage to limited arable land resources. We have used GIS in simulating the effect of coal resource exploration on arable land. In light of our simulation of the space-time spectrum, the effect is analyzed. Given the socio-economic development conditions of a mining area, specified rational amounts and opportunities for compensation to arable land in mining areas are explored. Finally, from a policy perspective, relevant proposals for rational arable land resource compensation are proposed to facilitate the coordinated development between coal resource exploitation and socio-economy development in mining areas.

  17. Watershed Land Cover/Land Use Mapping Using Remote Sensing and Data Mining in Gorganrood, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Minaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Gorganrood watershed (GW is experiencing considerable environmental change in the form of natural hazards and erosion, as well as deforestation, cultivation and development activities. As a result of this, different types of Land Cover/Land Use (LCLU change are taking place on an intensive level in the area. This research study investigates the LCLU conditions upstream of this watershed for the years 1972, 1986, 2000 and 2014, using Landsat MSS, TM, ETM+ and OLI/TIRS images. LCLU maps for 1972, 1986, and 2000 were produced using pixel-based classification methods. For the 2014 LCLU map, Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA in combination with the data-mining capabilities of Gini and J48 machine-learning algorithms were used. The accuracy of the maps was assessed using overall accuracy, quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement indexes. The overall accuracy ranged from 89% to 95%, quantity disagreement from 2.1% to 6.6%, and allocation disagreement from 2.1% for 2014 to 2.7% for 2000. The results of this study indicate that a significant amount of change has occurred in the region, and that this has as a consequence affected ecosystem services and human activity. This knowledge of the LCLU status in the area will help managers and decision makers to develop plans and programs aimed at effectively managing the watershed into the future.

  18. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 4. A bibliography of integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning, with annotations. [424 citations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L R; LaFevers, J R; Perry, A O; Rice, W Jr

    1976-12-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by planners who, within their areas of responsibility, deal with the problems presented by surface mining and reclamation. Every effort has been made to identify and to annotate those entries considered most useful in the development of plans for reclamation and after-mining land use. The coverage of varied surface mining and reclamation studies is intended to access the reader to documents and works related to legal, economic, and technological aspects: materials that treat with procedural, planning, and regulatory factors pertaining to land use and reclamation. The technical level of each annotated entry has been assessed to rank skills required for the comprehension and utilization of the work in question. This bibliography has been formulated to be used as a tool by municipal, county, and regional planners in a field of study in which guidelines are as yet few and diverse in approach.

  19. Extracting mining subsidence land from remote sensing images based on domain knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xing-feng; WANG Yun-jia; HUANG Tai

    2008-01-01

    Extracting mining subsidence land from RS images is one of important research contents for environment monitoring in mining area. The accuracy of traditional extracting models based on spectral features is low. In order to extract subsidence land from RS images with high accuracy, some domain knowledge should be imported and new models should be proposed. This paper, in terms of the disadvantage of traditional extracting models, imports domain knowledge from practice and experience, converts semantic knowledge into digital information, and proposes a new model for the specific task. By selecting Luan mining area as study area, this new model is tested based on GIS and related knowledge. The result shows that the proposed method is more pre- cise than traditional methods and can satisfy the demands of land subsidence monitoring in mining area.

  20. Monitoring of Land degradation in the mining impacted areas of Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, T.; Renchin, T.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, environmental issue is very important and complicated problem in Mongolia. Mongolia has long suffered from poor mining legislation and almost no regulation of its production . There is a need to undertake analyses of land degradation and land use in Mongolia as an important factor of Environment. Land degradation has been identified as one the priority concerns. Causes of land degradation can be divided into two categories natural and human induced in Mongolia. The second hand level mining contributes to land degradation increased small to large-scale mining, as well as illicit activity resulting in exploitation of the country's mineral resources. In the last decade Mongolia has been developing the mining sector and due to the great number of exploitations the related territories were ecologically damaged. The rivers and lakes are drained, the earth is defiled and all these damages brought the environmental problems. This study aims to monitor land degradation processes in the study area Ongi River Basin of the central region of Mongolia. This area is affected by mining activities and desertification processes. The main reason of drying up Ongiriver and Ulaannuur is definitely changed the Onggi riverbed due to the mining of gold placer deposit and never making technical and biological reclamation. About 60 thousand people and over one million livestock who one living around Onggi river one getting defective of drink water and pasture because of Onggi river and UlaanLake's evaporation. We applied change detection technique and supervised classification using Satellite data. This study contributes to the research which involves policy makers and stakeholders to define and negotiate relevant scenarios in participatory approaches in the local area and to the studies about linking people to pixels. This case study will enable our researchers to plan for the future by making more educated decisions in issues stemming from mining, land degradation, water

  1. Exploring Land use and Land cover change in the mining areas of Wa East District, Ghana using Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basommi, Prosper Laari; Guan, Qingfeng; Cheng, Dandan

    2015-11-01

    Satellite imagery has been widely used to monitor the extent of environmental change in both mine and post mine areas. This study uses Remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques for the assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of mine related areas in Wa East District of Ghana. Landsat satellite imageries of three different time periods, i.e., 1991, 2000 and 2014 were used to quantify the land use/cover changes in the area. Supervised Classification using Maximum Likelihood Technique in ERDAS was utilized. The images were categorized into five different classes: Open Savannah, Closed Savannah, Bare Areas, Settlement and Water. Image differencing method of change detection was used to investigate the changes. Normalized Differential Vegetative Index valueswere used to correlate the state of healthy vegetation. The image differencing showed a positive correlation to the changes in the Land use and Land cover classes. NDVI values reduced from 0.48 to 0.11. The land use change matrix also showed conversion of savannah areas into bare ground and settlement. Open and close savannah reduced from 50.80% to 36.5% and 27.80% to 22.67% respectively whiles bare land and settlement increased. Overall accuracy of classified 2014 image and kappa statistics was 83.20% and 0.761 respectively. The study revealed the declining nature of the vegetation and the significance of using satellite imagery. A higher resolution satellite Imagery is however needed to satisfactorily delineate mine areas from other bare areas in such Savannah zones.

  2. Livestock impacts for management of reclaimed land at Navajo Mine: The decision-making process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, O.J. [BHP World Minerals Navajo Mine, Fruitland, NM (United States); Grogan, S. [Resource Planning & Management Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadzia, K.L. [Resource Management Services, Bernalillo, NM (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Livestock grazing is the post-mining use for reclaimed land at Navajo Mine, a large surface coal mine on the Navajo Nation in northwest New Mexico. The Navajo Mine Grazing Management Program (GMP) uses holistic management on approximately 2,083 ha of reclaimed land to plan for final liability release and return of the land to the Navajo Nation, and to minimize the potential for post-release liability. The GMP began in 1991 to establish that livestock grazing on the reclaimed land is sustainable. Assuming that sustainability requires alternatives to conventional land management practices, the GMP created a Management Team consisting of company staff, local, Navajo Nation, and Federal government officials, and technical advisors. Community members contributed to the formation of a holistic goal for the GMP that articulates their values and their desire for sustainable grazing. Major decisions (e.g., artificial insemination, water supply, supplemental feed) are tested against the goal. Biological changes in the land and the grazing animals are monitored daily to provide early feedback to managers, and annually to document the results of grazing. To date, the land has shown resilience to grazing and the animals have generally prospered. Community participation in the GMP and public statements of support by local officials indicate that the GMP`s strategy is likely to succeed.

  3. Neutralization of potential land mine hazards by abrasive waterjet use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, David A.; Fossey, Robert D.; Thompson, S. J.

    1998-09-01

    A method of neutralizing landmines in which the integrity of the surrounding terrain is retained is herein described. High pressure waterjets which can be used to detect the presence of landmines can then be used to remove the soil and other cover in a plane immediately adjacent to and around the mine so that the side of the mine can be visually inspected through a remote television camera. At that time the flow of water is channeled through a line in which small particles of sand are added to the waterjet which is at a pressure of between 3,000 and 10,000 psi depending on the device which is used. Jet flow rates are on the order of 5 gpm depending on the nozzle configuration used. By bringing this abrasive stream in along a lateral plane through the mine it is possible to intersect, and neutralize, the fusing systems most likely to be used to initiate the charge, in a single pass. At higher flow rates, as the cut is made the jet will generate significant turbulence in the mine body, sufficient to remove a considerable quantity of the explosive which is resident within the mine at the same time as the mine is being dissected. The precision of cut achievable is shown by the longitudinal cutting into two parts of live detonators, as well as representative mine bodies.

  4. Localisation of an Unknown Number of Land Mines Using a Network of Vapour Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Haj Chhadé

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of localising an unknown number of land mines usingconcentration information provided by a wireless sensor network. A number of vapoursensors/detectors, deployed in the region of interest, are able to detect the concentrationof the explosive vapours, emanating from buried land mines. The collected data iscommunicated to a fusion centre. Using a model for the transport of the explosive chemicalsin the air, we determine the unknown number of sources using a Principal ComponentAnalysis (PCA-based technique. We also formulate the inverse problem of determiningthe positions and emission rates of the land mines using concentration measurementsprovided by the wireless sensor network. We present a solution for this problem basedon a probabilistic Bayesian technique using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme,and we compare it to the least squares optimisation approach. Experiments conducted onsimulated data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. Localisation of an unknown number of land mines using a network of vapour detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhadé, Hiba Haj; Abdallah, Fahed; Mougharbel, Imad; Gning, Amadou; Julier, Simon; Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    2014-11-06

    We consider the problem of localising an unknown number of land mines using concentration information provided by a wireless sensor network. A number of vapour sensors/detectors, deployed in the region of interest, are able to detect the concentration of the explosive vapours, emanating from buried land mines. The collected data is communicated to a fusion centre. Using a model for the transport of the explosive chemicals in the air, we determine the unknown number of sources using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based technique. We also formulate the inverse problem of determining the positions and emission rates of the land mines using concentration measurements provided by the wireless sensor network. We present a solution for this problem based on a probabilistic Bayesian technique using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme, and we compare it to the least squares optimisation approach. Experiments conducted on simulated data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Land use-based landscape planning and restoration in mine closure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Fu, Meichen; Hassani, Ferri P; Zeng, Hui; Geng, Yuhuan; Bai, Zhongke

    2011-05-01

    Landscape planning and restoration in mine closure areas is not only an inevitable choice to sustain mining areas but also an important path to maximize landscape resources and to improve ecological function in mine closure areas. The analysis of the present mine development shows that many mines are unavoidably facing closures in China. This paper analyzes the periodic impact of mining activities on landscapes and then proposes planning concepts and principles. According to the landscape characteristics in mine closure areas, this paper classifies available landscape resources in mine closure areas into the landscape for restoration, for limited restoration and for protection, and then summarizes directions for their uses. This paper establishes the framework of spatial control planning and design of landscape elements from "macro control, medium allocation and micro optimization" for the purpose of managing and using this kind of special landscape resources. Finally, this paper applies the theories and methods to a case study in Wu'an from two aspects: the construction of a sustainable land-use pattern on a large scale and the optimized allocation of typical mine landscape resources on a small scale.

  7. Study on Ecosystem Service Value in Pingshuo Mining Area Based on Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Geng-jie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study used satellite photos of 1985, 1990, 1994, 1999 and 2005 in Pingshuo mining area, for the purpose of researching on the change of Ecosystem Service Value (ESV in the past 20 years. It calculated the change amplitude, change velocity and relative change rate of ESV and compared the Sensitivity Index (SI of ESV coefficient. The result is that, the total ESV of Pingshuo mining area descended from 31270.98×104 Yuan in 1985 to 30348.14×104 Yuan in 1990. When the destroyed land had been reclaimed from 1990, ESV had been raised to 31109.05×104 Yuan in 2005. The change amplitude, change velocity and relative change rate of destroyed and reclamation land were the first and second highest among the types of land use in mining area. SI of dry land is the highest, while the destroyed land’s is the lowest. It could conclude that the ESV coefficient of mining area is inelastic. Reclamation should be strengthening in mining area in order to recover ecosystem efficiently.

  8. Geotechnical aspects of development over reclaimed former alluvial mining land and ponds in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, E. B.; Tan, B. K.; Chow, W. S.

    Mining of tin placers in Quaternary alluvium is the main type of mining activity in Peninsular Malaysia over the past hundred years. Worked out mines have left behind a landscape consisting of highly inhomogeneous tailing fill and numerous large and medium size ponds often underlain by thick slurries of fine clay and silt on limestone bedrock. Rapid urbanization around the two main tin mining areas in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, has led to the use of this previously mined land for residential, commercial and industrial purposes. Highly irregular karstic limestone bedrock poses major problems for the construction of high-rise buildings requiring piling to bedrock. Soft slime trapped during tailing deposition or during reclamation has caused numerous and often irreparable damage to houses built on former mining land. Characterization studies were undertaken on two ponds for their chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties with the aim of finding a solution to the reclamation of slime filled mine ponds. Environmental considerations favour the slime material to be used as foundation material or as raw material for ceramic or bricks. Increase of the solid content by dewatering constitutes the best option to increase the strength of the slime material so as to make it acceptable as foundation material after further treatment. Studies indicate that a few reagents can be used to successfully dewater the slime. Development of a reclamation technique along this line is being carried out.

  9. [Soil organic carbon storage changes with land reclamation under vegetation reconstruction on opencast coal mine dump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Chao; Dang, Ting-Hui; Guo, Sheng-Li; Xue, Jiang; Tang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation reconstruction was an effective solution to reclaim the opencast coal mine dump which was formed in the process of mining. To understand the impact of the vegetation reconstruction patterns' on the mine soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was essential for selecting the methods of vegetation restoration and also important for accurately estimating the potential of the soil carbon sequestration. The study area was on the Heidaigou opencast coal mine, which was 15 years reclaimed coal mine dump in Zhungeer, Inner Mongolia autonomous region, we selected 5 vegetation reconstruction patterns (natural recovery land, grassland, bush land, mixed woodland of arbor and bush, arbor land), and 16 vegetation types, 408 soil samples (0-100 m), to study the effect of the vegetation reconstruction patterns on the SOC storage. The results were showed as follows: (1) on the reclaimed coal mine dump, the vegetation reconstruction patterns significantly affected the SOC content and its distribution in the soil profile (P shrub land > arbor forest > mixed forest of arbor and shrub > natural recovery land, in which the grassland, shrub land and arbor forest were about 2.2, 1.3, and 1.3 times of natural recovery land (2.14 g · kg(-1)) respectively. The total nitrogen (TN) showed the similar trends. (2) Among the vegetation types, Medicago sativa had the highest surface SOC content (5.71 g · kg(-1)) and TN content (0.49 g · kg(-1)), that were 171.3% and 166.7% higher than the natural recovery land, and two times of Hippophae rhamnoides, Amorpha fruticosa + Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. (3) The effect of vegetation types on SOC mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm depth, and the effect on TN accounted for 40 cm. (4) For the SOC storage, the order was original landform area > reclaimed dump > new dump and grassland > woodland (including arbor and shrub land). After 15 years revegetation, the soil carbon storage of the grassland, shrub land and arbor land were

  10. Switchgrass and Miscanthus Biomass and Theoretical Ethanol Production from Reclaimed Mine Lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagline, Steffany M.

    Awareness of environmental issues surrounding current energy practices has opened doors for new possibilities for energy solutions. The 2003 Energy Independence and Security Act mandates that by the year 2022, 16 billion gallons per year of fuel in the United States (U.S.) will be coming from cellulosic bioenergy sources. Herbaceous crop species like switchgrass have been proposed as potential cellulosic crops to meet future energy needs. Switchgrass is a native warm season grass to North America and has been studied on marginal lands and reclaimed mine lands for biomass production capabilities in the U.S. Another species which has been considered for bioenergy production capabilities in Europe, Miscanthus, is also a warm season perennial grass that has high biomass production capabilities. Currently, there are no studies done on the cellulosic bioenergy production capabilities of Miscanthus on reclaimed mine lands in the U.S. This study looks at Miscanthus and switchgrass as two potential cellulosic energy crops on reclaimed mine lands as a post-mining land use option for bioenergy production. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  11. Disputes over land and water rights in gold mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, Didi; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes different visions and positions in a conflict between the developer of an open-pit mine in Mexico and project opponents using the echelons of rights analysis framework, distinguishing four layers of dispute: contested resources; contents of rules and regulations; decision-ma

  12. 13 CFR 121.510 - What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for uranium mining?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the size standard for leasing of Government land for uranium mining? 121.510 Section 121.510 Business Credit and Assistance... standard for leasing of Government land for uranium mining? A concern is small for this purpose if...

  13. Infrared processing and sensor fusion for anti-personnel land-mine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Schutte, K.; Breejen, E. den

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of infrared processing and sensor fusion obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance DEtection) that strives for the realization of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-personnel land-mine detection system for humanitarian demin

  14. 30 CFR 946.25 - Approval of Virginia abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following is a list of the dates amendments were submitted to OSM, the dates when the Director's decision... date of final publication in the Federal Register. Original amendment submission date Date of final... Division of Mined Land Reclamation, P.O. Drawer 900, Big Stone Gap, Virginia 24219, or (2) Office...

  15. Detection of anti-personnel land-mines using sensor-fusion techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, F.; Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Breejen, E. den; Schutte, K.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present the sensor-fusion results based on the measurements obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance DEtection system) that strives for the realisation of a vehicle-mounted, multisensor, anti-personnel land-mine detection system for humanitarian

  16. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  17. Mining waste contaminated lands: an uphill battle for improving crop productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining drastically alters the physico-chemical and biological environment of the landscape. Low organic matter content, unfavourable pH, low water holding capacity, salinity, coarse texture, compaction, siltation of water bodies due to wash off of mineral overburden dumps, inadequate supply of plant nutrients, accelerated erosion, acid generating materials, and mobilization of contaminated sediments into the aquatic environment are the principal constraints experienced in mining contaminated sites. A variety of approaches have been considered for reclaiming mine wastes including direct revegetation of amended waste materials, top soiling, and the use of capillary barriers. The simplest technology to improve crop productivity is the addition of organic amendments. Biosolids and animal manure can support revegetation, but its rapid decomposition especially in the wet tropics, necessitates repeated applications. Recalcitrant materials such as “biochars”, which improve soil properties on a long term basis as well as promote soil carbon sequestration, hold enormous promise. An eco-friendly and cost-effective Microbe Assisted Phytoremediation system has been proposed to increase biological productivity and fertility of mine spoil dumps. Agroforestry practices may enhance the nutrient status of degraded mine spoil lands (facilitation. N-fixing trees are important in this respect. Metal tolerant ecotypes of grasses and calcium-loving plants help restore lead, zinc, and copper mine tailings and gypsum mine spoils, respectively. Overall, an integrated strategy of introduction of metal tolerant plants, genetic engineering for enhanced synthesis and exudation of natural chelators into the rhizosphere, improvement of rhizosphere, and integrated management including agroforestry will be appropriate for reclaiming mining contaminated lands.

  18. Temporal and spatial changes of land use and landscape in a coal mining area in Xilingol grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunzhu; Zhang, Baolin; Li, Jiannan; Zhao, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining, particularly surface mining, inevitably disturbs land. According to Landsat images acquired over Xilingol grassland in 2005, 2009 and 2015, land uses were divided into seven classes, i. e., open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial area, farmland, urban area and the original landscape (grassland), using supervised classification and human-computer interactive interpretation. The overall classification accuracies were 97.72 %, 98.43 % and 96.73 %, respectively; the Kappa coefficients were 0.95, 0.97 and 0.95, respectively. Analysis on LUCC (Land Use and Cover Change) showed that surface coal mining disturbed grassland ecosystem: grassland decreased by 8661.15 hm2 in 2005-2015. The area and proportion of mining operation areas (open stope, stripping area, waste-dump area, mine industrial field) increased, but those of grassland decreased continuously. Transfer matrix of land use changes showed that waste-dump had the largest impacts in mining disturbance, and that effective reclamation of waste-dump areas would mitigate eco-environment destruction, as would be of great significance to protect fragile grassland eco-system. Six landscape index showed that landscape fragmentation increased, and the influences of human activity on landscape was mainly reflected in the expansion of mining area and urban area. Remote sensing monitoring of coal surface mining in grassland would accurately demonstrate the dynamics and trend of LUCC, providing scientific supports for ecological reconstruction in surface mining area.

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  20. Min(d)ing the land: The relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining and surface land arrangements in the southern Philippines, eastern DRC and Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Cuvelier, J.; Bockstael, S. van

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) and surface land tenure arrangements, through a comparison of mining areas in the southern Philippines, the eastern DRC and Liberia. In all three cases, ASM takes place in peripheral regions outside central state c

  1. CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF LAND USE IN THE AREAS OF MINING DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żanna Król

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Any process of extracting solid minerals beneath the surface of the Earth affects the subsidence caused by the rock movements. Tthe article attempts to present the impact of underground exploitation of coal in the area of the municipality of Puchaczów, for a change of the use of agricultural land. One of the effects is mining subsidence, which occurred in the area. To minimize a negative impact on the structure of agricultural holdings in Bogdanka mine specific actions should be taken by both the community of sites relegated as well as the local authorities.

  2. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    lower topographic elevations. Several mine adits, waste rock dumps are located along the main stream and a large tailings dump is found next to village Baiut just above the receiving floodplain. Predominant land cover is coniferous and mixed forests with agricultural lands on the downstream floodplain. METHODS Six samples at vaious depths were collected from the two major waste rock dumps in the headwater area, and the large tailings dump was also sampled for heavy metal source characterisation. 11 stream sediment samples were collected along the main surface water contamination transport pathway, and a further 11 soil samples were collected in 2 boreholes in the receptor floodplain in October 2008. Besides background stream sediment samples, samples from the exposed rock formations were also collected in order to capture natural background geochemistry in the studied mineralised area. The collected waste rock, stream sediment, soil and rock samples are analysed for total chemical composition (major elements and heavy metals) by ICP-MS spectroscopy, and XRD is used for the determination of mineralogical composition. Rock sample mineralogy is further investigated in thin-sections by petrological microscopy. According to EU legislation expectations, a special emphasis is taken on the determination of metal mobility from the waste rock dumps and various leaching tests are performed and compared including US EPA, USGS and ISO methods. A simple cathcment-based distributed sediment transport model (Jordan et al, 2005; Jordan et al. 2005, 2008) is used to decribe the pathways and quantities of particle-bound contamination. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Results show that (1) sediments are an efficient means for the preliminary inventory of mine contamination as a preparation for the more detailed hydrological sampling and assessment, and (2) the risk-based contamination assessment of mining sites often located in diverse geological, hydrological and landcover environment requires

  3. Negotiating land: Foreign Firms, Large Scale Mining and Human Rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sharp increase in land acquisitions by foreign firms in African, Asian and Latin-American countries reflects a new phase of global capitalism. Colombia is no exception to this new trend of global capitalism, and in the last decade foreign companies have been visibly involved in the local land market. In this regard, this paper reviews from a Human Rights perspective the land acquisition strategies implemented by three foreign companies engaged in open-pit coal mining operations in La Guajira and Cesar. The results indicate that formality of land ownership and the institutional constraints on firms -related to corporate governance, being listed in stock markets and the veto power of international buyers- have a significant effect on the respect for Human Rights.

  4. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land-use planning. Volume 3C. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: Georgia Kaolin Company Clay Mines, Washington County, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernsey, J L; Brown, L A; Perry, A O

    1978-02-01

    This case study examines the reclamation practices of the Georgia Kaolin's American Industrial Clay Company Division, a kaolin producer centered in Twiggs, Washington, and Wilkinson Counties, Georgia. The State of Georgia accounts for more than one-fourth of the world's kaolin production and about three-fourths of U.S. kaolin output. The mining of kaolin in Georgia illustrates the effects of mining and reclaiming lands disturbed by area surface mining. The disturbed areas are reclaimed under the rules and regulations of the Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968. The natural conditions influencing the reclamation methodologies and techniques are markedly unique from those of other mining operations. The environmental disturbances and procedures used in reclaiming the kaolin mined lands are reviewed and implications for planners are noted.

  5. Ecological bases of land reclamation in the mining regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharytonov, Mykola; Gumentyk, Myhailo; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    The mining production is situated in the several provinces of Ukraine. Specification of the problem coal and mixed sulfide mining activities in Ukraine have resulted in the generation of hundreds of millions of tons of hazardous wastes consisting of rest of manganese and iron oxides, traces of rare elements, sulphur bearing minerals, such as pyrite. These wastes have been / are still deposited, throughout the years, in huge stockpiles and dams. Land restoration in the mining region takes several forms. One of the ways is land reclamation. This way includes forest, recreation and agricultural reclamation. Land reclamation in industrial regions is conducted in one technological cycle with the process of ore mining. The soil mass is taken off, piled up and heaped onto the land after the rock has been replaced. The ecohydrogeological background of reclaimed lands forming and exploration was worked out. It foresee an environment restoration of disturbed lands to manage flow down, atmospheric precipitations taking aside, the process of the reclaimed profile biogenetic horizons formation and promotion with total depth 1.0-1.2 m and involvement of more suitable rocks and artificial drainage building. The effectiveness of different models of land reclamation and heavy metals migration through the rock-soil-plant system was investigated. Field experiments were carried out to study the adaptive potential of plants having different requirements for substrate fertility, with the main task to assess the prospects of land management for the rocks of the Nikopol manganese basin. The rocks exposed to the surface after manganese ore mining, first technical stage of landscape restoration, and plant melioration stages pass into other geochemical conditions and change their physical-chemical properties. During long-term melioration crops have dramatically improved some processes as following: bioweathering of rocks, phytomeliorated rocks fertility growth, etc. Meantime some rocks

  6. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion of land subsided by coal mining using RUSLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Lei; Feng Qiyan; Wu Kan; Meng Qingjun

    2012-01-01

    Based on a RUSLE model,we identified the key factors of the impact on soil erosion induced by coal mining subsidence.We designed a method for predicting LS factors of a mining subsidence basin,using analytical GIS spatial technology.Using the Huainan mining area as an example,we calculated the modulus of erosion,its volume and classified the grade of soil erosion for both the original area and the subsidence basin.The results show that the maximum modulus of erosion and the volume of erosion of the subsidence basin without water logging would increase by 78% and 23% respectively compared with the original situation.The edge of the subsidence basin,where the land subsidence was uneven,is subject to the greatest acceleration in soil erosion.In the situation of water logging after subsidence,the maximum modulus of erosion would decrease if the accumulated slope length were reduced.This maximum modulus around the water logged area within the subsidence basin is equal to that without water logging,while the total volume of erosion decreases.Therefore,mining subsidence aggravates soil erosion especially at the edge of basins where water and soil conservation measures should be taken.

  8. Suitability of dredged material for reclamation of surface-mined land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Van Luik, A.

    1979-12-01

    Eroding ridges of acidic coal-mine spoil in La Salle County, Illinois, were leveled to form a gently-sloped raised plateau. Four test plots were constructed: a control plot and three treatment plots that received a 0.9-m-thick cover of dredged material obtained from the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. Two treatment plots received lime applications and all plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses. Pressure-vacuum soil water samplers were installed, in duplicate, at two levels in the control plot and at three levels in each treatment plot. The three levels in the treatment plots coincided with dredged material, the dredged-material mine-spoil interface, and the underlying mine spoil. Surface water, soil water, and groundwater were monitored for 29 water-quality parameters for one year. Rainfall, air temperature, runoff, and water-level elevation data were collected also. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that the dredged material used in this study does not adversely affect water quality; it supports abundant plant growth, lessens groundwater contamination, and controls acid runoff. The dredged material is judged to be a suitable material for use in reclamation of surface-mined land.

  9. Nanoenhanced Materials for Reclamation of Mine Lands and Other Degraded Soils: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful mine soil reclamation facilitates ecosystem recovery, minimizes adverse environmental impacts, creates additional lands for agricultural or forestry uses, and enhances the carbon (C sequestration. Nanoparticles with extremely high reactivity and deliverability can be applied as amendments to improve soil quality, mitigate soil contaminations, ensure safe land–application of the conventional amendment materials (e.g., manures and biosolids, and enhance soil erosion control. However, there is no report on using nanoenhanced materials for mine soil reclamation. Through reviewing the up-to-date research results on using environment-friendly nanoparticles for agricultural soil quality improvement and for contaminated soil remediation, this paper synthesizes that these nanomaterials with high potentials for mine soil reclamation include zeolites, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, phosphate-based nanoparticles, iron sulfide nanoparticles and C nanotubes. Transport of these particles in the environment and their possible ecotoxicological effects are also discussed. Additionally, this article proposes a practical and economical approach to applying nanotechnology for mine soil reclamation: adding small amounts of nanoparticles to the conventional soil amendment materials and then applying the mixtures for soil quality improvements. Hence the cost of using nanoparticles is reduced and the benefits of both nanoparticles and the conventional amendment materials are harnessed.

  10. Determination of optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines - Strategy and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines is defined as a strategic target. The tactics concerning the achievement of this target, includes estimation of optimal time lag between each lignite site (which is a segment of the whole lignite field) complete exploitation and its reclamation. Subsidizing of reclamation has been determined as a function of this time lag and relevant implementation is presented for parameter values valid for the Greek economy. We proved that the methodology we have developed gives reasonable quantitative results within the norms imposed by legislation. Moreover, the interconnection between strategy and tactics becomes evident, since the former causes the latter by deduction and the latter revises the former by induction in the time course of land reclamation.

  11. Multicultural Counseling: An Appalachian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Kathleen M.; Ritchie, Martin H.

    2006-01-01

    Appalachians have been referred to as the forgotten people and are often overlooked in multicultural counseling. A case study is presented using the extended case method to enhance counselor awareness and demonstrate how counselors can apply knowledge of the Appalachian culture in the provision of best practices for this population.

  12. A study on herbaceous layer in an age series of restored mined land using cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Uniyal Gairola

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation may be described as the plant life of a region. The study of patterns and processes in vegetation at various scales of space and time is useful in understanding landscapes, ecological processes, environmental history and predicting ecosystem attributes such as productivity. Generalized vegetation descriptions, maps and other graphical representations of vegetation types have become fundamental to land use planning and management. They are widely used as biodiversity surrogates in conservation assessments and can provide a useful summary of many non-vegetation landscape elements such as animal habitats, agricultural suitability and the location and abundance of timber and other forest resources. Clustering vegetation data is well known machine learning problem which aims to partition the data set into subsets, so that the data in each subset share some common trait. Present study was done with an objective to study the successional changes in herbaceous vegetation in an age series of restored mined land and also analyzes them by subjecting the vegetation data to cluster analysis. The results of the study reveals that with widespread distribution and dominance of some of the prominent naturals invaders as component of both - the mined sites as well as the undisturbed natural site, the final composition of the community at the restored sites are compiled solely from the existing population of the species and the succession on restored area results in the similar community as that found on undisturbed forest in the same vicinity.

  13. Economic feasibility analysis of water-harvesting techniques for mined-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Marti, M.H.

    1981-07-01

    A water harvesting, agricultural production system, field tested as a means of reclaiming strip-mined land is described. Though the technical feasibility of the system is becoming increasingly apparent, economic feasibility and legal issues may determine its potential application. The purpose of this study is to explore the economic feasibility of the system and to provide information for use in assessing whether further investigation of water harvesting reclamation techniques is warranted. The economic feasibility of the PNL reclamation system hinges on whether its net benefits exceed those of conventional reclamation. This preliminary feasibility study assesses the net private benefits of each system using data for the Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on the Black Mesa in Arizona. To compare the alternative reclamation systems, the present value of direct net benefits (income minus production and reclamation costs) is calculated for grazing (conventional reclamation) or for cropping (PNL reclamation). Three of the PNL system slope treatments have lower estimated total costs than conventional reclamation. The difference is $3895/acre for compacted slope, $3025/acre for salt-compacted slope and $2310/acre for crop-on-slope. These differences constitute a substantial cost advantage for the system on the basis of the present value of land reclamation and maintenance costs. The system also has advantages based on the estimated value of agricultural production capacity. Even the lowest yield levels considered for alfalfa, corn, and pinto beans had higher net present values than grazing.

  14. Demonstrating a Market-Based Approach to the Reclamation of Mined Lands in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich-Mahoney, John; Donnelly, Ellen

    2009-12-31

    This project demonstrated that developing environmental credits on private land—including abandoned mined lands—is dependent on a number of factors, some of them beyond the control of the project team. In this project, acid mine drainage (AMD) was successfully remediated through the construction of a passive AMD treatment system. Extensive water quality sampling both before and after the installation of the passive AMD treatment system showed that the system achieved removal efficiencies and pollutant loading reductions for acidity, iron, aluminum and manganese that were consistent with systems of similar size and design. The success of the passive AMD treatment system should have resulted in water credits if the project had not been terminated. Developing carbon sequestration credits, however, was much more complex and was not achieved in this project. The primary challenge that the project team encountered in meeting the full project objectives was the unsuccessful attempt to have the landowner sign a conservation easement for his property. This would have allowed the project team to clear and reforest the site, monitor the progress of the newly planted trees, and eventually realize carbon sequestration credits once the forest was mature. The delays caused by the lack of a conservation easement, as well as other factors, eventually resulted in the reforestation portion of the project being cancelled. The information in this report will help the public make more informed decisions regarding the potential of using water and carbon, and other credits to support the remediation of minded lands through out the United States. The hope is that by using credits that more mined lands with be remediated.

  15. Sustainable Agroforestry Models for Proposed Food Production in Post-Mined Land Sites of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandi Hermawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reclamation areas of the opencast coal mining in South Sumatera are predominantly compact and nutrient-poor, marginal sites, but have a high potential for cultivation of fast-growing trees and agricultural crops.  This paper aims to promote several models of agroforestry in the post-mined land in South Sumatera as a new strategy in reclaiming degraded soil properties for both enviroment and economic purposes.  About 5,000 ha of coal mining areas were observed to characterize the landscape and soil properties in the area, then overlaid with the landuse maps of post-mining plans issued by the company.  Results showed that about 1,730 ha of the reclamation areas was suitable for agroforestry while the rest was for utilities, camping ground, water pond and grassland.  Three models were proposed for the agroforestry areas, including (i agrisilviculture model (1,190 ha, (ii silvihorticulture model (203 ha, and (iii local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture (337 ha.  Prior to the agroforestry establishment, all reclamation sites were subjected to the revegetation with fast-growing trees and other rejuvenation treatments in order to restore favour soil and microclimate conditions.  The proposed components for each model were as follows: for agrisilviculture model were cultivation on the alley cropping system of trees and food crops, for silvihorticulture model were the plantation of fruit trees in the bench of water pond, and for local-species collection model for agrihortisilviculture were the cultivation of local forest and food crop species.

  16. The consequences for children of explosive remnants of war: Land mines, unexploded ordnance, improvised explosive devices, and cluster bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Hugh G

    2009-01-01

    Land mines are particularly a problem for children. The deaths and loss of body parts have been publicized, but the secondary effects - the loss or maiming of parents, the loss of physical and social space the loss of access to education, and the loss of cultivatable land with the resultant malnutrition and sickness, are less frequently considered. "Explosive Remnants of War" (ERW) is becoming the generic term to refer to land mines, unexploded ordnance, improvised explosive devices and cluster bombs. The United Nations estimates that there are currently as many as 100 million unexploded landmines with an equal number stockpiled around the world waiting to be planted. Mines are designed to be difficult to locate and their clearance is costly. Children in at least 80 countries are at risk due to ERW. The type of mine, the proximity of the child to the explosion, and location of the mine in relation to the child's body are the important determinants of the nature and severity of the injury. Children are especially susceptible to picking up explosive remnants thinking they are toys. The result is commonly loss of the hands, facial injuries, blindness and deafness. Rehabilitation for these children is extremely difficult due to remoteness and the limited resources available.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations as a feasibility tool for non-metallic land-mine detection by thermal-neutron backscattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M; de Meijer, RJ

    2002-01-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations is presented for modelling a simplified land-mine detector system with thermal neutron backscattering (TNB) analysis based on a Cf-252-neutron source. Different aspects and a variety of external conditions, related to localisation and identification of a buried obj

  18. Getting the jump on Mother nature: the advancing technology of applied botany will speed reclamation of mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    By propagating native or indigenous plants in greenhouses on a speeded-up schedule, much guesswork is being taken out of revegetating mined land. Native Plants Inc., which tricks nature by reproducing the biological sequence of plants in a fraction of the natural time, offers reclaimers of disturbed land the plants they want in any quantity on very short notice. Prior to planting, seeds are treated to break their dormancy code. The plants are grown in tubepaks that promote root growth, grow both night and day, and have CO/sub 2/ injected into the air. The company reports a 97% success rate in transplanting its seedlings. Cloning and the unlocking of the germination secrets of plants have great potential for speeding the restoration of mined land. A micropropagation (or tissue culture), whereby parts of a whole plant are removed, sterilized, and grown on a specific nutrient medium are being considered. This technology affords a high degree of selectivity and rapid plant propagation and has far-reaching implications for mine operators faced with the challenges of reclaiming mined land. (DP)

  19. Land-use planning for phosphate mining and resource areas: the central Florida case. A workshop synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J. R.; Toner, W. J.; Guernsey, J. L.; Rifkin, E.

    1980-05-01

    On July 19-20, 1978, a workshop was conducted in Bartow, Florida, on the topic of land-use and reclamation planning in the local phosphate mining region. More than 100 participants attended the workshop representing the phosphate mining industry, environmental groups, research organizations, planning agencies, news media, and governmental regulatory agencies. Various aspects of the environmental and land-use impacts of phosphate mining, together with the state-of-the-art of mitigating adverse impacts, were discussed. The participants were required to work cooperatively to develop a series of alternative land-use plans for a selected mining site that was the focus of a half-day field trip. Overall, the participants developed a number of rational land-use and reclamation plans for the site that were considered acceptable by the majority of the group. There was general agreement that the most valuable aspect of the workshop was the opportunity for individuals with such diverse interests to work cooperatively on a common problem and develop acceptable solutions.

  20. Application of the organic and environment evolving principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu

    2005-01-01

    According to the evolving principle of the organic and environment, firstly, for the purpose of growing and keeping the ground, some legume species were chosen as pioneer plants to improve the construction of soil and increased soil fertility in the light of the land term and soil condition. Along with soil fertility increased, it is necessary to cultivate some shrubs and arbors which have extra resistance. Gradually it becomes the stereoscopic landscape of planting arbor-shrub-herb plants. So that the evolving of the organic and environment can be enhanced. Taking the land reclamation in the refuse dump of Heidaigou open coal mines as the practical example, explained the application of the organic and environment evolving principle on the land reclamation in the open coal mines.

  1. Proceedings of the 34. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium and 35. annual Canadian Land Reclamation Association meeting : reclamation from planning to closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Wambolt, T.; Van Zyl, D.; Riordan, B.; Hargreaves, J.; Pomeroy, K.; Beckett, P.; Giasson, M.; Polster, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity to exchange information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The reclamation of lands disturbed by mineral extraction and processing or by other industrial activity is aimed at returning the land to a level that is equivalent to its pre-industrial activity. The environmental impacts of mine development were discussed along with opportunities to rehabilitate disturbed lands using new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. A broad range of reclamation, restoration and remediation methods for oil sand mining, coal mining and metals in soils were also discussed. The conference featured 30 presentations, including posters, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. 75 FR 18499 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields'' (EPA/600/R-09/138A) and (2... Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields'' and ``A Field-based Aquatic...

  3. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared (TIR imagery is normally acquired at coarser pixel resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform and often the TIR resolution is not suitable for monitoring crop conditions of individual fields or the impacts of land cover changes that are at significantly finer spatial scales. Consequently, thermal sharpening techniques have been developed to sharpen TIR imagery to shortwave band pixel resolutions, which are often fine enough for field-scale applications. A classic thermal sharpening technique, TsHARP, uses a relationship between land surface temperature (LST and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI developed empirically at the TIR pixel resolution and applied at the NDVI pixel resolution. However, recent studies show that unique relationships between temperature and NDVI may only exist for a limited class of landscapes, with mostly green vegetation and homogeneous air and soil conditions. To extend application of thermal sharpening to more complex conditions, a new data mining sharpener (DMS technique is developed. The DMS approach builds regression trees between TIR band brightness temperatures and shortwave spectral reflectances based on intrinsic sample characteristics. A comparison of sharpening techniques applied over a rainfed agricultural area in central Iowa, an irrigated agricultural region in the Texas High Plains, and a heterogeneous naturally vegetated landscape in Alaska indicates that the DMS outperformed TsHARP in all cases. The artificial box-like patterns in LST generated by the TsHARP approach are greatly reduced using the DMS scheme, especially for areas containing irrigated crops, water bodies, thin clouds or terrain. While the DMS technique can provide fine resolution TIR imagery, there are limits to the sharpening ratios that can be reasonably implemented. Consequently, sharpening techniques cannot replace actual thermal band imagery at fine resolutions or missions that

  4. 75 FR 39934 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian...) ``The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian.... ADDRESSES: The draft reports, ``The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems...

  5. 75 FR 51058 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields.... ADDRESSES: The draft reports, ``The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems...

  6. 75 FR 30393 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields.... ADDRESSES: The draft reports, ``The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems...

  7. 76 FR 30938 - The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... AGENCY The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian... Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (EPA/600/R-09/138F... The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central...

  8. State Mines Inspectorate of Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz, Mines Inspectorate Saarbruecken / Mines Inspectorate Rheinland-Pfalz. Annual report 2001. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken / Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 2001. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, R.; Hugo, K.H.; Kuhn, M.; Strauch, T. (comps.)

    2002-07-01

    The annual report of the Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz State Mines Inspectorate and the Mines Inspectorates of the two states provide an insight into the many activities of mines inspectorates and of the current trends in mining engineering. The importance of mining and regional raw materials management is stressed. [German] Der vorliegende Jahresbericht des Oberbergamtes fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz sowie der Bergaemter in beiden Bundeslaendern gibt einen Einblick in das vielfaeltige Arbeitsgebiet der Bergbehoerden. Gleichzeitig vermittelt er einen Ueberblick ueber die bergtechnische Entwicklung und unterstreicht die volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung des Bergbaus und der standortgebundenen Rohstoffwirtschaft.

  9. Field evaluation of seven grasses for use in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Mott, J.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1999-07-01

    Pasture-based systems, dominated by the tussock forming Cenchrus cilliaris cv. Biloela (buffel grass) and the stoloniferous Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (rhodes grass), are commonly used in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in the Bowen Basin of Central Queensland. Although able to establish quickly under favourable conditions, neither species has proven entirely suitable for use in this situation, particularly in providing effective ground cover for erosion control on the re-contoured post-mining landscape. The aim of this study was to evaluate a range of new pasture grasses, with the objective of identifying accessions better adapted to the climatic conditions of the areas requiring revegetation.

  10. 城市污泥在矿山废弃地复垦的应用探讨%Application of Sewage Sludge to the Abandoned Mining Land Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫测辉; 蔡全英; 王江海; 吴启堂

    2001-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the existing problems in reclaimingabandoned mining land and their negative effect on the ecological environment,and in view of the limited factors to reclaim abandoned mining land,this paper puts forward the suggestions of using sewage sludge as an alternative in mining land reclamation.Application of sewage sludge in reclamation has beneficial effects, such as increasing organic matter content, preventing soil erosion,recovering vegetation,and promoting microbial population and its activities.Unfavorable factors including heavy metal and organic pollutant for applications of sewage sludge and their countermeasures are also discussed.

  11. Land Use, Water Quality, and Incidence of Buruli Ulcer in Gold-Mining Regions of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagarty, J.; Voegborlo, R.; Smithwick, E. A.; Singha, K.

    2011-12-01

    Buruli ulcer, an emerging bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, affects populations in many equatorial countries, predominantly in western Africa. Occurring in over thirty countries worldwide, it is the third most common Mycobacterial disease after tuberculosis and leprosy. The disease causes ulcerative lesions and can lead to severe deformity if untreated. While methods of treatment for Buruli ulcer are well known and have a high rate of success, the mode of transmission of Buruli ulcer remains elusive. Multiple hypotheses have been put forward in the search for the vector for this disease. Studies of Buruli ulcer to date seem to conclude that water is, in some way, closely related to the transmission of this disease. In particular, changes in water quality due to changes in land use may contribute to the emergence of Buruli ulcer. We hypothesize that stagnant pools, especially those with low dissolved oxygen and high metals, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations, will provide a favorable environment for M. ulcerans growth and transmission. To explore how climate, land use, and soil and water quality interact to create a favorable environment for Buruli ulcer emergence, we explore seasonal and annual variability in rainfall and temperature, land use, and physical and chemical properties of soil and water at five sites within the country: four in the southern part of the country (three Buruli-endemic communities and one control) and one non-endemic community in the north. The southern control accounts for differences between endemic and non-endemic communities with similar land uses and geological setting. The northern community has experienced massive floods in recent years, and we suspect that, due to this, Buruli ulcer may start to appear in the community. Results from groundwater data indicate that aquifer rock type does not strongly correlate with groundwater chemistry and that groundwater chemistry does not relate to incidence of Buruli ulcer

  12. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  13. Experimental optimisation of a moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source for land mine detection

    CERN Document Server

    Zuin, L; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Fioretto, E; Prete, G; Palomba, M; Pantaleo, A

    2000-01-01

    A moderated sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf source to be used for the detection of buried land mines has been experimentally characterised. The moderating structure was obtained by using an inner sphere of Pb embedded in a high-density polyethylene (HDPe) brick assembly. The number of capture events in a Cd sample placed outside the structure was used, by varying the dimensions of the brick assembly, to determine the best moderator geometry. Furthermore, the detection of land mines by neutron capture reaction on nitrogen nuclei contained in the explosive was simulated by in field measurements placing the Cd sample at different depths in the soil. The obtained results are compared with predictions from Monte Carlo calculations.

  14. Heavy metal speciation and risk assessment in dry land and paddy soils near mining areas at Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guannan; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Erxi; Hou, Jing; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soils has been a long-standing environmental problem in many parts of the world, and poses enormous threats to ecosystem and human health. Speciation of heavy metals in soils is crucial to assessing environmental risks from contaminated soils. In this study, total concentrations and speciation of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured for agricultural soils near mines along the Diaojiang River in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomy Region, China. The sources of heavy metals in soils also were identified to assess their effect on speciation distribution of soil heavy metals. Furthermore, the speciation distribution of Cd and Zn, main soil heavy metal pollutants, in dry land and paddy soils were compared. Results showed that there were two severely polluted regions near mine area reaching alarming pollution level. As, Cd, Pb, and Zn were more affected by mining activities, showing very strong pollution level in soils. The mean percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fraction was highest and up to 46.8 % for Cd, indicating a high environmental risk. Greater bioavailable fractions of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn were found in soils heavily polluted by mining activities, whereas Cr and Ni as geogenic elements in the stable residual fraction. In addition, in the dry land soils, reducible fraction proportion of Cd was higher than that in the paddy soils, whereas exchangeable and carbonate fraction of Cd was lower than that in the paddy soils. Oxidizable fraction of Zn was higher in the paddy soils than that in the dry land soils. The results indicate that the sources of soil heavy metals and land types affect heavy metal speciation in the soil and are significant for environmental risk assessment of soil heavy metal pollutions.

  15. MRI in long-term evaluation of reconstructed hind-feet of land-mine trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: tubasanal@yahoo.com; Bulakbasi, Nail; Kocaoglu, Murat; Yildirim, Duzgun [Department of Radiology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the flap reconstructed hind feet of patients with MRI who were traumatized by land-mine. Materials and methods: T1 and T2 weighted images were obtained in 7 patients, 12 months later the reconstruction of their hind feet by myocutaneous flaps after land-mine trauma. Results: In all patients T2 signal intensities of the myocutaneous flaps were slightly high compared to normal undisturbed muscle. Slight vascular engorgement was noted in the vicinity of the flaps in all cases. There were ankle joint ankylose (n = 1), tarsal coalition (n = 3), sklerosis within the calcaneus (n = 1), bone cortex irregularities (n = 3), absence of calcaneus (n = 4), deformity in talus and bone marrow edema (n = 1), navicular edema (n = 2), remodeling in the superior aspect of talus neck (n = 2), absence of talus (n = 2), talocalcaneal ankylose (n = 1), small collection in the superior aspect of flap (n = 1), drenage canules (n = 1). Conclusion: In reconstructed hind feet by myocutaneus flaps done for land-mine traumas, MRI presents useful information by displaying detailed anatomy of the flaps, bones, joints, soft tissues and associated complications.

  16. A study on monitoring land use/cover change of mining area based on ticket-voting SVM classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Yu, Jie; Ying, Min; Shen, Mingge

    2015-08-01

    Based on the development of classification algorithm applied in monitoring spatio-temporal dynamic changes of coal-- mining areas, several improvements were made on feature space and classification model in this paper. There were two innovations in our study: 1) During building the feature spaces, a new index for extracting information about mining area was created, which can classify mining area and settlements efficiently; 2) a special ticket-voting SVM algorithm with wavelet kernel function was proposed, which provides higher classification accuracy than other traditional classifiers via the secondary classification. Here we took the northeast plain of Pei county in Xuzhou city as a studying region, applying the proposed method to implement the classification by using the image of multi-temporal TM/ETM from the year of 1987 to 2013. How to carry on deep analysis combined with various non-spatial data is much more significant. Then we studied the rules of dynamic changes of land use/cover and further analyzed their driving factors by combining RS interpretation with GIS spatial analysis techniques. In this study, image recognition technology was applied to the problems of environmental change in coal mining area. These explanations provide some valuable supports for human to recognize and deal with the conflicts between economic development and environmental protection in coal mining areas.

  17. Exploiting Stable Mercury Isotopic Analysis to Differentiate between Mercury Sources: Gold Mining vs. Land-Use Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, B. A.; Adler Miserendino, R. A.; Guimarães, J. R.; Veiga, M.; Velasquez-López, P.; Lees, P. S.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Fernandez, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    In parts of the developing world, mercury (Hg) is used to extract gold by amalgamation during artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) and this can lead to contamination of downstream aquatic ecosystems. Differentiation between Hg from ASGM and from other sources of Hg, such as increased erosion from land cover and land use change (LCLUC), is challenging and has lead to heated debates over the dominant sources of elevated Hg in some ecosystems. Here, stable Hg isotopic analysis was applied in two aquatic ecosystems in South America: (1) the Amazonian aquatic ecosystem of Amapá, Brazil downstream of artisanal gold mining (AGM) and (2) the Puyango-Tumbes River ecosystem downstream of Portovelo-Zaruma, Ecuador, a large mining area where both AGM and small-scale gold mining (SGM) are in operation. The Hg isotopic analyses from Amapá, Brazil, do not support AGM as the source of elevated Hg in the downstream aquatic ecosystem. Instead, Hg isotopes are most consistent with the elevated Hg being from preferential migration of Hg from soil erosion, which is likely associated with land use change. Although soils are regarded as Hg sinks in the global Hg cycle, this work suggests that LCLUC can disrupt Hg stores with significant ecological consequences. In contrast in the Southwestern Andean region of Ecuador and Peru, analysis of Hg isotopes and other toxic metals (i.e., Pb, Zn, Cu), which are associated with the larger scale mining and cyanide used during SGM, demonstrate Hg used during gold mining is the predominant source of Hg downstream and can be traced far from the dominant mining area. Although it has been speculated that Hg from SGM in Ecuador was not that mobile or that Hg far downstream of SGM processing plants was from erosion due to LCLUC or from AGM taking place downstream, the isotopically heavy signature of Hg used during gold mining and elevated other metal concentrations were observed ~120 km downstream of Portovelo-Zaruma. Mercury isotopes appear

  18. Relationship between soil texture and soil organic matter content on mined-out lands in Berau, East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAHJUNI HARTATI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Hartati, Sudarmadji T. 2016. Relationship between soil texture and soil organic matter content on mined-out lands in Berau, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 83-88. Post open pit mining may in most cases leave unarable and degraded lands due to heavy soil disturbances and therefore reclamation efforts of such area should be addressed on the revitalization of the soil functions for plant growth. The capability of tropical humid soils, including post open pit mining soils, to support plant growth is largely determined by their organic matter content-nutrient pool, soil aggregation, microbial activity, etc. However, soil organic matter content is, to large extent, governed by the soil clay content which is most likely permanent. This may imply that the soil texture couple with soil organic matter content could be a sound measurement to assess the recovery stages of the mined-out lands in term of soil functions for plant growth. This research was conducted in three sites of reclamation area in Berau, East Kalimantan. Soil texture varied from moderately fine (35-40% clay to fine (40-50% clay and very fine (>50% clay for the BMO, SMO and LMO sites respectively. Soil clay eluviations were found in both of SMO (8 years old revegetation and BMO (>12 years old revegetation sites but not in LMO site. Soil organic matter content ranged from very low (12 and 8 years old revegetation when the organic matter content reaching its maximum. The very fine soil texture does not show clay eluviations process until > 12 years old revegetation even containing the highest organic C content and reaches its maximum at 8-10 years old revegetation.

  19. Land and natural resource information and some potential environmental effects of surface mining of coal in the Gillette area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, William Richard; Hadley, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Campbell County, along the east margin of the Powder River Basin in northeastern Wyoming, contains more coal than any other county in the United States. The principal deposit is the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed. The bed is 50-100 feet (15-30 meters) thick over large areas, lies less than 200 feet (60 meters) deep in a north-south trending strip nearly 100 miles (161 kilometers) long and 2-3 miles (3-5 kilometers) wide, and contains an estimated 15 billion tons (13.6 billion metric tons) of sub-bituminous, low-sulfur coal that is presently considered to be accessible to surface mining. Extensive mining of this deposit has the potential for causing a variety of environmental impacts and has been a matter of much public concern and debate in recent years. An integrated program of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and related studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in central Campbell County provides basic information about the land and its resources, including (1) characteristics of the landscape, (2) properties of rocks and surface materials, (3) depth and thickness of coal, (4) streamflow, (5) depth to ground water, (6) quality of ground water, (7) sediment yield, (8) concentrations of trace elements in soils, rocks, coal, vegetation, and water, and (9) current land use. The data are used to analyze and predict some of the potential environmental effects of surface mining, such as the extent of land disturbance, nature and degree of landscape modification, and disruption of surface-water and ground-water systems. Advance knowledge and understanding of these and other problems are useful in the planning and regulation of future leasing, mining, reclamation, and related activities.

  20. Ecological rehabilitation and phytoremediation with four grasses in oil shale mined land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H P

    2004-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum), St. Augustine grass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and bana grass (Pennisetum glaucumxP. purpureum) were selected to rehabilitate the degraded ecosystem of an oil shale mined land of Maoming Petro-Chemical Company located in Southwest of Guangdong Province, China. Among them, vetiver had the highest survival rate, up to 99%, followed by bahia and St. Augustine, 96% and 91%, respectively, whereas bana had the lowest survival rate of 62%. The coverage and biomass of vetiver were also the highest after 6-month planting. Fertilizer application significantly increased biomass and tiller number of the four grasses, of which St. Augustine was promoted most, up to 70% for biomass, while vetiver was promoted least, only 27% for biomass. Two heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) tested in this trial had different concentrations in the oil shale residue, and also had different contents and distributions in the four grass species. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in the four grasses presented a disparity of only 1.6-3.8 times, but their uptake amounts to the two metals were apart up to 27.5-35.5 times, which was chiefly due to the significantly different biomasses among them. Fertilizer application could abate the ability of the four species to accumulate heavy metals, namely concentration of heavy metals in plants decreased as fertilizer was applied. The total amount of metals accumulated by each plant under the condition of fertilization did not decrease due to an increase of biomass. In summary, vetiver may be the best species used for vegetation rehabilitation in oil shale disposal piles.

  1. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  2. The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Henderson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in response to "Top-Down, Routinized Reform in Low-income, Rural Schools: NSF's Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative, by Robert Bickel, Terry Tomaskek, and Teresa Hardman Eagle which was published in the Education Policy Analysis Archives as Number 12 of Volume 8 on February 21, 2000.

  3. Mining-induced land use and landscape changes in Roşia Montană metallogenetic field during the last 90 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrina N. Ştefănescu,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the changes in landscape induced by the occurrence of mining wastesstructures and exploitation voids, as a result of the mining activities in the last 90 years in Rosia Montanametallogenetic field. This is performed by comparing the land use distribution in the investigated area inthe years 1913 and 2006. The impact of mining on landscape reflects itself in the large areas no longerused as agricultural or forestry lands and in the visual footprint. The results of the comparison show thatthe practice of surface mining after the year 1971 has increased the scale and amplitude of landscapechanges along the time. The landscape changes are significant and should be carefully analyzed whenconsidering the post-mining planning.

  4. Assessing post-industrial land cover change at the Pine Point Mine, NWT, Canada using multi-temporal Landsat analysis and landscape metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClerc, Emma; Wiersma, Yolanda F

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates land cover change near the abandoned Pine Point Mine in Canada's Northwest Territories. Industrial mineral development transforms local environments, and the effects of such disturbances are often long-lasting, particularly in subarctic, boreal environments where vegetation conversion can take decades. Located in the Boreal Plains Ecozone, the Pine Point Mine was an extensive open pit operation that underwent little reclamation when it shut down in 1988. We apply remote sensing and landscape ecology methods to quantify land cover change in the 20 years following the mine's closure. Using a time series of near-anniversary Landsat images, we performed a supervised classification to differentiate seven land cover classes. We used raster algebra and landscape metrics to track changes in land cover composition and configuration in the 20 years since the mine shut down. We compared our results with a site in Wood Buffalo National Park that was never subjected to extensive anthropogenic disturbance. This space-for-time substitution provided an analog for how the ecosystem in the Pine Point region might have developed in the absence of industrial mineral development. We found that the dense conifer class was dominant in the park and exhibited larger and more contiguous patches than at the mine site. Bare land at the mine site showed little conversion through time. While the combination of raster algebra and landscape metrics allowed us to track broad changes in land cover composition and configuration, improved access to affordable, high-resolution imagery is necessary to effectively monitor land cover dynamics at abandoned mines.

  5. Case study on the extraction of land cover information from the SAR image of a coal mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhao-ling; LI Hai-quan; DU Pei-jun

    2009-01-01

    In this study, analyses are conducted on the information features of a construction site, a cornfield and subsidence seeper land in a coal mining area with a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image of medium resolution. Based on features of land cover of the coal mining area, on texture feature extraction and a selection method of a gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of the SAR image, we propose in this study that the optimum window size for computing the GLCM is an appropriate sized window that can effectively distinguish different types of land cover. Next, a band combination was carried out over the text feature images and the band-filtered SAR image to secure a new multi-band image. After the transformation of the new image with principal component analysis, a classification is conducted selectively on three principal component bands with the most information. Finally, through training and experimenting with the samples, a better three-layered BP neural network was established to classify the SAR image. The results show that, assisted by texture information, the neural network classification improved the accuracy of SAR image clas-sification by 14.6%, compared with a classification by maximum likelihood estimation without texture information.

  6. Land application of mine water causes minimal uranium loss offsite in the wet-dry tropics: Ranger Uranium Mine, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Saqib; Streten, Claire; Parry, David L; McGuinness, Keith A; Lu, Ping; Gibb, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    Ranger Uranium Mine (RUM) is situated in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia. Land application (irrigation) of stockpile (ore and waste) runoff water to natural woodland on the mine lease is a key part of water management at the mine. Consequently, the soil in these Land Application Areas (LAAs) presents a range of uranium (U) and other metals concentrations. Knowledge of seasonal and temporal changes in soil U and physicochemical parameters at RUM LAAs is important to develop suitable management and rehabilitation strategies. Therefore, soil samples were collected from low, medium, high and very high U sites at RUM LAAs for two consecutive years and the effect of time and season on soil physicochemical parameters particularly U and other major solutes applied in irrigation water was measured. Concentrations of some of the solutes applied in the irrigation water such as sulphur (S), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca) showed significant seasonal and temporal changes. Soil S, Fe and Ca concentration decreased from year 1 to year 2 and from dry to wet seasons during both years. Soil U followed the same pattern except that we recorded an increase in soil U concentrations at most of the RUM LAAs after year 2 wet season compared to year 2 dry season. Thus, these sites did not show a considerable decrease in soil U concentration from year 1 to year 2. Sites which contained elevated U after wet season 2 also had higher moisture content which suggests that pooling of U containing rainwater at these sites may be responsible for elevated U. Thus, U may be redistributed within RUM LAAs due to surface water movement. The study also suggested that a decrease in U concentrations in LAA soils at very high U (>900 mg kg(-1)) sites is most likely due to transport of particulate matter bound U by surface runoff and U may not be lost from the surface soil due to vertical movement through the soil profile. Uranium attached to particulate matter may reduce its potential for environmental

  7. Terrestrial Carbon Losses from Mountaintop Coal Mining Offsets Regional Forest Carbon Sequestration in the 21ST Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, P. M.; Campbell, J. E.; Fox, J.

    2012-12-01

    Studies that quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon sources and sinks provide process-level information for predicting future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide as well as verification of current emission agreements. Assessments of carbon sources and sinks for North America that compare top-down atmospheric constraints with bottom-up inventories find particularly large carbon sinks in the southeastern US. However, this southeastern US sink may be impacted by extreme land-use disturbance events due to mountaintop coal mining (MCM). Here we apply ecosystem modeling and field experiment data to quantify the potential impact of future mountaintop coal mining on the carbon budget of the southern Appalachian forest region. For projections based on historical mining rates and the continued regrowth of un-mined forests, we find that the southern Appalachian forests switch from a net carbon sink to a net carbon source by year 2025 to 2033 with a 30% to 35% loss is terrestrial carbon stocks relative to a scenario with no future mining of forest carbon by the year 2100. Alternatively, scenarios of forest sequestration due to the offsetting effects of CO2 fertilization and enhanced soil respiration result in a 15% to 24% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks by the year 2100 for mining scenarios relative to scenarios with no future mining. These results suggest that while stack emissions are the dominant life-cycle in coal-fired electricity, accounting for mountaintop coal mining in bottom-up inventories may be a critical land-use component of regional carbon budgets.

  8. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  9. Ocular trauma from land mines among soldiers treated at a University Hospital in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently ocular combat injuries are complex and associated with poor visual outcomes. Our objective is to characterize the military population that suffer land mine combat ocular trauma in Colombia and indentify the type of wound, treatment and visual outcomes.Methods: Retrospectively review of medical history of soldiers evaluated in Pablo Tobon Uribe Hospital, whom had land mine trauma during January of 2004 and December 2012.Results: 635 soldiers had land mine trauma, 153 of them had ocular trauma (226 eyes.  Open ocular trauma was observed in 29.6%. The Ocular Trauma Score was calculated in 183 eyes, the initial visual acuity was not possible to be reported in the rest of them; the 45% of the eyes were classified in category 3. Three patients had no light perception in both eyes. 97.3% of the eyes received medical treatment and 49.1% had surgery also. Primary evisceration was made in 5.8% and enucleation in 1.8%. Intraocular foreign body was observed by ultrasonography in 11.1% and in 5.8% by orbital tomography. Eleven patients were legally blind at discharge.Conclusions: The ocular trauma related to a landmine is highly destructive at an ocular level.  The treatments associated with better visual outcomes are primary closure of globe and systemic antibiotics; although the characteristics of the wound itself are the main prognostic factor. The Ocular trauma score is a useful tool for determining visual outcome in combat ocular trauma. 

  10. Application of waste mushroom on land reclamation in the refuse dump of Haizhou Open-pit Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-fu; WANG Xiu-lan

    2009-01-01

    In order to rapidly increase the degree of maturation of the soil in land reclama-tion of the refuse dump of the Haizhou open-pit mines,the application of waste mushroom in the process of soil improvement in the dump was studied.Through the research on plant growth,root development and microbial changes in soil and change of physical and chemical characteristics of the plot,the result shows that waste mushroom can increase the degree of maturation of the soil and improve soil fertility.

  11. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land use planning. Volume 3B. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: international minerals and chemical corporation, phosphate operations, Polk County, Florida. [Land reclamation and use planning for phosphate operations in Polk County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J R; Brown, L A; Fountain, R C

    1977-02-01

    The reports in this series are designed primarily to familiarize professional land use and resource planners with the range of possibilities and effective procedures for achieving integrated mining, reclamation, and land use planning. These reports are based on a research program which included an extensive literature review, the compilation and analysis of case study data, and close coordination and interaction with related government programs. In Volume 3, A Guide to Mined Area Reclamation Technology for Reclamation and Land Use Planners, the method used to reclaim land in each of several mineral industries are discussed in relation to the physical and cultural constraints that must be considered in planning a reclamation program. Much of the information for this document was obtained from case studies conducted in several mining districts. Volume 3B presents data from a case study of surface mining and reclamation planning, International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Phosphate Operations, Polk County, Florida.

  12. 78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... remedial action under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) \\12\\ or listed for... uranium mines. As proposed, our rule would provide the option for certified States and Tribes to...

  13. The DTIC Review. Volume 2, Number 1: Land Mine Warfare: Detection and Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    mines, and (5) creating a system to verify the restrictions on mine usage . In the conference report accompanying the National Defense Authorization...announcement of this document This will normally correspond to the Document Availabilty (11). However, where further distribution (beyond the audience...distribution of various materials within the natural environment. Low Light Level Television (LLLTV): Another possibility of the usage of the visible

  14. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF OPEN CAST COAL MINES ON LAND USE/ LAND COVER USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUE: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANIL Z CHITADE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrialisation plays vital role in the overall development and progress of any region. Along with the development, on the same time, it has the adverse impact on environment such as air pollution, water pollution and many others.Wardha basin of Chandrapur district (M.S has abounded with ample high quality coal minerals. This region has witnessed a lot of changes in land use/land cover (LULC due to exploration of coal minerals and subsequently the adverse impact on environment. This research explains the use of remote sensing (RS, Global positioning system (GPS, and GIS technology for the detection of LULC changes. In this work LULC changes have been detected using remotely sensed images during the period from 1990 to 2010, using Landsat-TM image of year 1990 and Cartosat-I image of year 2010. The above images were rectified and georeferenced using GPS data collected by point positioning mode observations.Ground truthing for the LULC classification accuracy assessment has been done using GPSinstrument. Image analysis operations have been carried out using Erdas Imagine software. Various effects of coal mining activities on the Land use have been highlighted.

  15. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  16. Quantification of changes in oil sands mining infrastructure land based on RapidEye and SPOT5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Lantz, Nicholas; Guindon, Bert; Shipman, Todd; Chao, Dennis; Raymond, Don

    2013-10-01

    Natural resources development, spanning exploration, production and transportation activities, alters local land surface at various spatial scales. Quantification of these anthropogenic changes, both permanent and reversible, is needed for compliance assessment and for development of effective sustainable management strategies. Multi-spectral high resolution imagery data from SPOT5 and RapidEye were used for extraction and quantification of the anthropogenic and natural changes for a case study of Alberta bitumen (oil sands) mining located near Fort McMurray, Canada. Two test sites representative of the major Alberta bitumen production extraction processes, open pit and in-situ extraction, were selected. A hybrid change detection approach, combining pixel- and object-based target detection and extraction, is proposed based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). The extraction results indicate that the changed infrastructure landscapes of these two sites have different footprints linked with their differing oil sands production processes. Pixeland object-based accuracy assessments have been applied for validation of the change detection results. For manmade disturbances, other than fine linear features such as the seismic lines, accuracies of about 80% have been achieved at the pixel level while, at the object level, these rise to 90-95%. Since many disturbance features are transient, the land surface changes by re-growth of vegetation and the capability for natural restoration on the mining sites have been assessed.

  17. Reconnaissance of stream biota and physical and chemical water quality in areas of selected land use in the coal-mining region, southwestern Indiana, 1979-80

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    To help meet the goals of the Surface-Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, the U.S. Geological Survey is assessing the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of surface water within the coal-mining region of southwestern Indiana. This report discusses benthic-invertebrate and periphyticalgal communities in streams draining homogeneous-agricultural, forested, active/reclaimed-mine, reclaimed-mine, and unreclaimed-mine watersheds--and relates the biological communities to the physical and chemical characteristics of the streams. Alkalinity and pH were lower and the concentrations of dissolved solids, suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, sulfate, iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc were higher in unreclaimed-mine watersheds than in the other land-use watersheds. Numbers and community diversity of benthic invertebrates were less at sites affected by mining than at agricultural or forested sites, owing to (1) synergistic effects of low pH, metals, and unsuitable habitat and (2) lack of colonizing drift organisms because of the small drainage area upstream from the mined area. Only a few organisms, such as the caddisflies Cheumatopsyche and Hydropsyche and the chironomids Chironomus and Cricotopus were found in streams draining mine areas.

  18. Land reclamation in the lignite open pit mining industry of Central and Eastern Europe - a comparative discourse; Rekultivierung im Braunkohlenbergbau Mittel- und Osteuropas - eine vergleichende Betrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie, Freiberg (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    This comparative discourse on land reclamation in the Central and East European lignite mining regions is based on a complex analysis of the prevailing natural, geological, technological and social conditions. Considering the above conditions, the reclaimed land in the mined-out lignite mines of Central and Eastern Europe will predominantly be used as forests, although farming is also possible under particularly suitable conditions. Some of the land is given over to recreational purposes and integrated into the relevant landscape. Large lakes in residual holes of former lignite mines have only been created in Germany so far, where the special requirements of nature preservation have also been given attention. As regards the planning and financing regulations and the regulations coordinating the use of the post-mining land, there are differences between the individual countries which must be attributed to the rather diverse legal conditions. In general, the tasks associated with recultivation are defined similarly, are based on scientific investigations and are implemented at a very high level. The exchange of experience should be continued also in the future. (orig.)

  19. Hydrologic budget and conditions of Permian, Pennsylvanian, and Mississippian aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Yager, Richard M.; Nelms, David L.; Ladd, David E.; Monti,, Jack; Kozar, Mark D.

    2015-08-13

    In response to challenges to groundwater availability posed by historic land-use practices, expanding development of hydrocarbon resources, and drought, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers in 2013 that incorporated a hydrologic landscape approach to estimate all components of the hydrologic system: surface runoff, base flow from groundwater, and interaction with atmospheric water (precipitation and evapotranspiration). This assessment was intended to complement other Federal and State investigations and provide foundational groundwater-related datasets in the Appalachian Plateaus.

  20. Executive summary: Chapter A.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels from the Appalachian basin region have been major contributors to the Nation’s energy needs over much of the last three centuries. Early records indicate that Appalachian coal was first mined in the middle 1700s (Virginia and Pennsylvania) and was used sparingly to fuel colonial settlements and, later, a fledgling industrial-based economy along the eastern seaboard of the United States (de Witt and Milici, 1989). In 2011, central Appalachian basin coal production accounted for approximately 77 percent of all U.S. metallurgical (or coking) coal and 29 percent of total U.S. production (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2013). Following initial discoveries and commercial use in western New York (1821) and Ohio and West Virginia (mid-1830s), the Appalachian petroleum (oil and gas) industry began in earnest in 1859 with the discovery of oil at the Drake well in northwestern Pennsylvania. Between 1860 and 1989, the Appalachian basin produced more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 30 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) from more than 500,000 wells (de Witt and Milici, 1989). Although both oil and gas continue to be produced in the Appalachian basin, most new wells in the region are drilled in shale reservoirs to produce natural gas.

  1. Protocols for the remediation of lands impacted by former coal mining operations, Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgeron, S. [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Abandoned underground coal mines can pose health and safety risks to persons working in close proximity to the former mining operations. This paper described protocols used to address potential coal mining hazards at the Sydney coal field in Nova Scotia (NS). The protocols document was developed by a mine workings group consisting of government agencies, consultants, and the owners of the mine site. Hazards at the mine included unstable ground caused by the collapse of abandoned coal mine workings; unsecured abandoned mine openings; potential accidental discharges of untreated mine waters; and the potential release of hazardous mine gases. A 5 remediation protocol process was established to include (1) information gathering, (2) an initial mine site investigation, (3) a mine workings report, (4) a detailed mine site investigation, and (5) a mine openings remediation. The protocols can be used to identify the potential hazards posed during investigations and remediation activities. 26 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Modeling multiple land use changes using ANN, CART and MARS: Comparing tradeoffs in goodness of fit and explanatory power of data mining tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyebi, Amin; Pijanowski, Bryan C.

    2014-05-01

    Over half of the earth's terrestrial surface has been modified by humans. This modification is called land use change and its pattern is known to occur in a non-linear way. The land use change modeling community can advance its models using data mining tools. Here, we present three data mining land use change models, one based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN), another on Classification And Regression Trees (CART) and another Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). We reconfigured the three data mining models to concurrently simulate multiple land use classes (e.g. agriculture, forest and urban) in South-Eastern Wisconsin (SEWI), USA (time interval 1990-2000) and in Muskegon River Watershed (MRW), Michigan, USA (time interval 1978-1998). We compared the results of the three data mining tools using relative operating characteristic (ROC) and percent correct match (PCM). We found that ANN provided the best accuracy in both areas for three land use classes (e.g. urban, agriculture and forest). In addition, in both regions, CART and MARS both showed that forest gain occurred in areas close to current forests, agriculture patches and away from roads. Urban increased in areas of high urban density, close to roads and in areas with few forests and wetlands. We also found that agriculture gain is more likely for the areas closer to the agriculture and forest patches. Elevation strongly influenced urbanization and forest gain in MRW while it has no effect in SEWI.

  3. Boninites: Characteristics and tectonic constraints, northeastern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Jacobi, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Boninites are high Mg andesites that are thought to form in suprasubduction zone tectonic environments as primary melts from refractory mantle. Boninites provide a potential constraint on tectonic models for ancient terranes that contain boninites because the only unequivocal tectonic setting in which "modern" boninites have been recognized is a fore-arc setting. Tectonic models for "modern" boninite genesis include subduction initiation ("infant arc"), fore-arc spreading, and the forearc side of intra-arc rifting (spreading). These models can be differentiated by the relative age of the boninites and to a lesser degree, geochemistry. The distinctive geochemistry of boninites promotes their recognition in ancient terranes. As detailed in this report, several mafic terranes in the northeastern Appalachians contain boninites; these terranes were situated on both sides of Iapetus. The characteristics of these boninites can be used to constrain tectonic models of the evolution of the northeastern Appalachians. On the Laurentian side of Iapetus, "infant arc" boninites were not produced ubiquitously during the Cambrian subduction initiation, unless sampling problems or minimum age dates obscure a more widespread boninite "infant arc". The Cambrian subduction initiation on the Laurentian side was probably characterized by both "infant arc" boninitic arc construction (perhaps the >496 Ma Hawley Formation and the >488 Ma Betts Cove Ophiolite) and "normal" arc construction (Mt. Orford). This duality is consistent with the suggestion that the pre-collisional geometry of the Laurentian margin was complex. The Bay of Islands Complex and Thetford Mines ophiolite boninites are likely associated with forearc/intra-arc spreading during the protracted evolution of the Cambrian arc system. The relatively young boninites in the Bronson Hill Arc suggest that the Taconic continuous eastward subduction tectonic model is less tenable than other models. On the Gondwana side of Iapetus, the

  4. Detection of land mines with passive IR and MMW imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivelle, Francois C.; Lhomme, Patrick

    1997-07-01

    A review of physical properties of passive sensors working in IR and millimetric wavelength points out main advantages and drawbacks of each technology. To verify and to assess qualitatively the behavior of senors working in these spectral bands, we have collected data with 3 IR sensors and a passive millimeter wave (PmmW) imager. Priority was given to plastic AT mines and blast AP mines laid or buried in sand, compost or in grass. With the MIR and the FIR sensors used, most of the plastic mines were detectable when laid and unobscured. With the PmmW sensor the detection of laid mine is improved, compare to IR, and the number of false- alarms is reduced, but because of the better spatial resolution of IR sensors their classification capability is better than with the PmmW imager. Each technology can take benefits from the fusion or combination of IR and PmmW sensors. An attempt of data fusion at a pixel level is presented.

  5. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...: Surface And Groundwater Monitoring; Hydrologic Balance: Transfer Of Wells; Hydrologic Balance: Water...; Impoundments, Hydrologic Balance: Ground Water Protection; Hydrologic Balance: Underground Mine Entry and...: Protection; 816.54, 816.55, 816.56, Hydrologic Balance: Water Quality 816.57; 816.61-U, 816.64-U,...

  6. 76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... Monitoring; Hydrologic Balance: Transfer Of Wells; Hydrologic Balance: Water Rights and Replacement... Balance: Ground Water Protection; Hydrologic Balance: Underground Mine Entry and Access Discharges...; Hydrologic Balance: 816.100, 816.101-S, 816.101-U, Water Quality Standards and 816.102, 816.106,...

  7. A study on optimization and rehabilitation of damaged land of surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sun Duck; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The demand of nonmetal minerals is ever increasing according to the expansion of national economy. Especially, limestone takes more than 75% of total production of nonmetal minerals, and 125 limestone mines are producing 84,740,000 tones annually 90% of which are adopting open pit mining system. However, recently, open pit mining systems are being discouraged by the stringent environmental regulations. In this research, general survey for present status and difficulties in view of operational and regulatory point of view. Considering production scale, shape of deposit, topography and quality, new mining system has been researched for minimizing environmental impacts and maximizing economical viability. Two sample mines were chosen and the model design were suggested one of which steeply inclined deposit producing 500,000 m{sup 3}/year and the other one is mildly inclines deposit producing 2,040,000 m{sup 3}/year. In case of former one, replacing stationary crusher by portable one, 14,440 cm{sup 2} of forest damage could be reduced and cost savings of 698.53 won/m{sup 3}, internal rate of return of 22.98% and pay back period of 4.3 year could be achieved respectively. On the other hand, in case of latter one, by redesign of blasting methods and hauling route, 207,192 m{sup 2} of forest damage could be reduced and cost savings of 999 won/m{sup 3}, internal rate of return of 96.2% and pay back period of 1.0 year could be achieved respectively. (author). 16 refs., 54 tabs., 35 figs.

  8. Terrestrial carbon losses from mountaintop coal mining offset regional forest carbon sequestration in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Fox, James F.; Acton, Peter M.

    2012-12-01

    Studies that quantify the spatial and temporal variability of carbon sources and sinks provide process-level information for the prediction of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide as well as verification of current emission agreements. Assessments of carbon sources and sinks for North America that compare top-down atmospheric constraints with bottom-up inventories find particularly large carbon sinks in the southeastern US. However, this southeastern US sink may be impacted by extreme land-use disturbance events due to mountaintop coal mining (MCM). Here we apply ecosystem modeling and field experiment data to quantify the potential impact of future mountaintop coal mining on the carbon budget of the southern Appalachian forest region. For projections based on historical mining rates, grassland reclamation, and the continued regrowth of un-mined forests, we find that the southern Appalachian forests switch from a net carbon sink to a net carbon source by year 2025-33 with a 30%-35% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks relative to a scenario with no future mining by the year 2100. Alternatively, scenarios of forest sequestration due to the effect of CO2 fertilization result in a 15%-24% loss in terrestrial carbon stocks by the year 2100 for mining scenarios relative to scenarios with no future mining. These results suggest that while power plant stack emissions are the dominant life-cycle stage in coal-fired electricity, accounting for mountaintop coal mining in bottom-up inventories may be a critical component of regional carbon budgets.

  9. Ohio's Abandoned Mine Lands Reclamation Program: a Study of Data Collection and Evaluation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, S. L.

    1982-01-01

    The planning process for a statewide reclamation plan of Ohio abandoned minelands in response to the Federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 included: (1) the development of a screening and ranking methodology; (2) the establishment of a statewide review of major watersheds affected by mining; (3) the development of an immediate action process; and (4) a prototypical study of a priority watershed demonstrating the data collection, analysis, display and evaluation to be used for the remaining state watersheds. Historical methods for satisfying map information analysis and evaluation, as well as current methodologies being used were discussed. Various computer mapping and analysis programs were examined for their usability in evaluating the priority reclamation sites. Hand methods were chosen over automated procedures; intuitive evaluation was the primary reason.

  10. Testing landscape modeling approaches for environmental impact assessment of mining land use on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in the foothills region of west central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbaluk, M.D. [Elk Valley Coal Corp., Hinton, AB (Canada). Cardinal River Operations

    2008-07-01

    The Cheviot open pit coal mine is located on the front range of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirements for the mining project included an assessment of the cumulative effects of past, existing, and immanent activities on a 3040 km{sup 2} study area radiating approximately 25 km around the proposed project area. The grizzly bear was identified as a flagship valued ecosystem component (VEC) for assessing the regional cumulative effects of the proposed Cheviot project. In this portion of the study, a grizzly bear habitat effectiveness model was used to monitor grizzly bear response to mining land use in the study area. An investigation of grizzly bear movement paths prior to and during mine disturbances demonstrated that mining land use does not present significant barriers to grizzly bear activities. The study demonstrated the importance of using inductive modelling tools at appropriate scales, as well as the use of site-specific empirical data. It was concluded that continued monitoring of mining sites is needed to ensure that adaptive management processes are improved. A review of the Cheviot cumulative environmental effects (CEA) process was also provided. 17 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Effects of heavy metal pollution from mining and smelting on enchytraeid communities under different land management and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Paweł; Sobczyk, Łukasz

    2015-12-01

    We studied enchytraeid communities in several habitats polluted by heavy metals from Zn-Pb mining and smelting activities. We sampled 41 sites that differed in the type of substratum (carbonate rock, metal-rich carbonate mining waste, siliceous sand) and land management (planting Scots pine, topsoiling, leaving to natural succession), and the distance from the smelter. Our main aims were to determine which pollution variables and natural factors most influenced enchytraeid species composition, richness and density, and examine what was the effect of planting Scots pine (reclamation) on enchytraeid communities. The soils harboured on average 1 to 5 enchytraeid species and 700 to 18,300 individuals per square metre, depending on the habitat. These figures were generally lower than those reported from unpolluted regions. Redundancy and multiple regression analyses confirmed the negative impact of heavy metal pollution on both enchytraeid community structure and abundance. Among pollution variables, the distance from the smelter best explained the variation in enchytraeid communities. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soil had less (e.g. total Pb and exchangeable Zn) or negligible (water-soluble forms) explanatory power. Natural soil properties were nearly irrelevant for enchytraeids, except for soil pH, which determined the species composition. Plant species richness was an important explanatory variable, as it positively affected most parameters of enchytraeid community. The results of two-by-two factorial comparisons (planting Scots pine vs. natural succession; carbonate mining waste vs. siliceous sand) suggest that reclamation can improve soil quality for biota, since it increased the diversity and abundance of enchytraeids; this effect was not dependent on the type of substratum. In conclusion, enchytraeids responded negatively to heavy metal pollution and their response was consistent and clear. These animals can be used as indicators of metal toxicity

  12. Agricultural land contamination by heavy metals around the former mining site of Bechateur (northern Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, G.; Soussi, R.; Soussi, F.; Boularbah, A.

    2012-04-01

    The activity of the former Pb-Zn mine of Jebel Ghozlen (Béchateur. extreme northern Tunisia) generated during the last century large quantities of tailings (extraction, flotation, gravimetry) deposited as three heap between the mine site and the shoreline located 700 m away. Areas surrounding the mine site are agricultural and are crossed by two rivers, one of which crosses the main heap. The minerals that make up these wastes are calcite, dolomite, quartz, gypsum, pyrite, barite, smithsonite, cerussite and galena. The amounts of Zn, Cd and Pb in the wastes vary between 1.3 and 9.3%, 1.1% and 5.7 and 185 and 410 mg kg-1, respectively. Soils in the study area are carbonated and are characterized by a silt-sand texture. The clay fraction is dominated by kaolinite. The chemical analysis of thirty samples collected over an area of 3 km2 shows that the amounts of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur vary from 0.7 % to 2.5 % and 0.08 % to 0.96 %, respectively, while those of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 300 to 22 000 mg kg-1, 85 to 3000 mg kg-1 and 2 to 47 mg kg-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of metals were found in flood plains at 500 m downstream of the mine site. Extraction tests using deionized water and a 0.1 M CaCl2 solution were performed to assess the mobility of Zn, Pb and Cd in contaminated and reference soil samples collected within the study area. The results of extraction with deionized water showed that the leached amounts of Zn and Cd range between 0.2 and 4 mg kg-1 and 0.02 and 0.2 mg kg-1, respectively; while that of Pb is quite near the detection limit. During the extraction with CaCl2 the leached amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd range from 0.3 to 86 mg kg-1, 2 to 6 mg kg-1 and 0.05 to 0.9 mg kg-1, respectively. Thus, the mobility of Cd, Zn and Pb in CaCl2 solution (0.8 %, 0.4 % and 0.3 %, respectively) is higher compared with the extraction with deionized water (0.2%, 0.1% and 0.02 %, respectively). Toxicity tests were conducted on these soils

  13. Monitoring Land Subsidence over Mining Areas with Sentinel-1 Differential SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirek, Katarzna

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents possibilities for monitoring man- made surface deformation on example of two areas (Fig. 1): Upper Silesian Coal Basin and Lubelskie Coal Basin (Poland). Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired by Sentinel-1A satellite are utilized in subsidence studies. Satellite radar interferometry technique (InSAR) was used to detecting and monitoring subsidence. There are clearly visible on obtained interferograms subsidence troughs as a distinctive concentric fringes. This study is a part of initiated the SSUMMO project (Surface Subsidence Multidisciplinary Monitoring). The project will provide multidisciplinary monitoring of mining areas and it will prepare the methodology and research software for continuous observation of the impact of exploitation on surface.

  14. A data mining approach for sharpening satellite thermal imagery over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is normally acquired at coarser pixel resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform and often the TIR resolution is not suitable for monitoring crop conditions of individual fields or the impacts of land cover changes which are at significant...

  15. 78 FR 65589 - Leasing of Osage Reservation Lands for Oil and Gas Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Part 226 RIN 1076-AF17 Leasing of Osage Reservation Lands for Oil and Gas... update the leasing procedures and rental, production, and royalties requirements for oil and gas on...

  16. A novel understanding of land use characteristics caused by mining activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Rao, Yongheng; Geng, Yuhuan

    2017-01-01

    . To find out the exact range, this paper sets up 12 gradients composed of mineral locations and 11 surrounding gradients with an interval of 3 km. And the “D-C-S” (Disturbance-Continuity- Sustainability) framework was then established to evaluate land use characteristics, including 9 indices in the three...

  17. Factors of Reclamation Success at the Lignite Strip-Mined Land in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Panagopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The adverse ecological conditions at the lignite mines of Ptolemaida make the landscape reclamation difficult. The naturally established vegetation and soil properties were studied prior to reclamation. Various forest species were planted to assess the afforestation potential. The natural vegetation was heterogeneous but can be used for the analysis of the site. The soil of the spoil heaps was heterogeneous with unfavourable physicochemical properties. Surface soil temperature was still 24º C higher in bare soil than in soil covered with vegetation. The most successful species of the afforestation trial were Robinia pseudoacacia and Cedrus atlantica. Covering of fly ash spoils with topsoil presented poor results, while sewage sludge gave a favorable amelioration response in areas with high fly ash content. Topsoil from older stands was the suggested method to establish Robinia pseudoacacia. Reclamation success was dependent on appropriate planning; thus, the new landscape had to be designed in harmony with the surrounding landscape before the start of the mining activity.

  18. Inventarization of potential plant for phytoremediation on degraded land and water mined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NURIL HIDAYATI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems in degraded mined ecosystem is contamination of soil and water by toxic substances, mainly heavy metal such as Pb and others such as cyanide. Phytoremediation could be used as an alternative technique to overcome this problem. Phytoremediation is defined as clean up of pollutans primarily mediated by photosynthetic plants. These plants have several beneficial characteristics such as the ability to accumulate metal in their shoots and an especially high tolerance to heavy metals. This research was carried out to study the potencies of local species to accumulate Pb and cyanide. Seventeen species were collected from mined waste area (namely tailing area and then the cyanide and Pb accumulated in each species were analyzed. The result showed that some species accumulated Pb and cyanide in high concentration such as Ipomoea sp. (35.70 ppm cyanida and Mikania cordata (Burm.f. B.L.Robinson (11.65 ppm Pb. A series of research is needed to prove that these species are potential as heavy metal and cyanide accumulators.

  19. Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz Mines Inspectorate. Annual report 1996. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 1996. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The annual report of the Saarland and Rheinland-Pfalz Mines Inspectorate outlines the economic and technical developments in mining in these two German states as well as the activities of the mining authorities in all fields of mining. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Jahresbericht des Oberbergamtes fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz gibt einen Ueberblick zur bergwirtschaftlichen und bergtechnischen Entwicklung in beiden Bundeslaendern und vermittelt einen umfassenden Einblick in die Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden in den vielfaeltigen Bergbauzweigen. (orig.)

  20. Effect of Land Reclamtion on Nutrient Distribution in Reclaimed Farmlands Overlying Xuzhou Underground Coal Mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.M.KOROMA; ZHENGCHUNRONG; 等

    1998-01-01

    This research was carried out to evaluate the effect of the reclamation procedure with respect to soil fertility and nutrient distribution pattern in the reprecipitated recalimed soil .Although there was an obvious indication of low levels of essential unturents in the reclaimed farmalnds (organic matter=0.32 g kg-1 ,total N=380.8 mg kg-1 ,available P=4.7mg kg-1),compared to the undisturbed farmlands (organic matter=2.5g kg-1 ,total N=1220 g kg-1 ,available P=20.8mg kg-1),the uneven pattern of nutrient distribution was also shwon to have been the major limitaion to successful reclamation Further improvement can be achieved through the integration of intensive eco-farming systems using proper fertiizer field correction (PFFC),and organic manure for successful reestablishment and managenent of newly reclaimed farmlands overlying the Xuzhou coal mine subsidence.

  1. Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken/Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Annual report 1999. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken/Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 1999.. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, R.; Hugo, K.H.; Kuhn, M.; Strauch, T. (comps.)

    1999-07-01

    The developments in Saarland and Rhineland-Palatinate mining are presented. Structure and responsibilities of the regional mines inspectorate are described, and their activities in the following fields are reported: industrial safety, health, mining and safety, mining and environmental protection. (orig.) [German] Nach Darstellung der bergwirtschaftlichen Entwicklung im Saarland und im Land Rheinland-Pfalz wird ueber den Aufbau und die Zustaendigkeit der Bergbehoerden sowie ueber deren Taetigkeiten auf folgenden Gebieten berichtet: Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz, Bergtechnik und Sicherheit, Bergbau und Umwelt. (orig.)

  2. Quantification of anthropogenic and natural changes in oil sands mining infrastructure land based on RapidEye and SPOT5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert; Lantz, Nicholas; Shipman, Todd; Chao, Dennis; Raymond, Don

    2014-06-01

    Natural resources development, spanning exploration, production and transportation activities, alters local land surface at various spatial scales. Quantification of these anthropogenic changes, both permanent and reversible, is needed for compliance assessment and for development of effective sustainable management strategies. Multi-spectral high resolution imagery data from SPOT5 and RapidEye were used for extraction and quantification of the anthropogenic and natural changes for a case study of Alberta bitumen (oil sands) mining located in the Western Boreal Plains near Fort McMurray, Canada. Two test sites representative of the major Alberta bitumen production extraction processes, open pit and in situ extraction, were selected. A hybrid change detection approach, combining pixel- and object-based target detection and extraction, is proposed based on Change Vector Analysis (CVA). The extraction results indicate that the changed infrastructure landscapes of these two sites have different footprints linked with their differing oil sands production processes. Pixel- and object-based accuracy assessments have been applied for validation of the change detection results. For manmade disturbances, except for those fine linear features such as the seismic lines, accuracies of about 80% have been achieved at the pixel level while, at the object level, these rise to 90-95%. Since many disturbance features are transient, a new landscape index, entitled the Re-growth Index, has been formulated at single object level specifically to monitor restoration of these features to their natural state. It is found that the temporal behaviour of the Re-growth Index in an individual patch varies depending on the type of natural land cover. In addition, the Re-growth Index is also useful for assessing the detectability of disturbed sites.

  3. Methodological proposal for defining mining vocation in Venezuelan land-use planning; Propuesta metodologica para definir la vocacion minera en el contexto del ordenamiento territorial venezolano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares Salinas, R. Y.; Dall Pozzo, F.; Castillo Padron, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    Mining is an economic activity which is necessary to provide raw materials for the different socio-productive networks of the country. Its application depends on the mineralogical occurrence offered by the geological conditions of an area and requires planning due to the fact that it needs to be located in a geographical space and the environment fragility of this space and the socio-economic and political-institutional legislation at a given moment all have to be taken into account. Therefore, the objective of this research consists of a proposal for a methodological model to define areas with mining adapted to the Venezuelan context of land-use planning, in order to assign mining uses to the most appropriate areas for that goal, considering the selection, assessment and integration of a series of variables and indicators adjusted to the thematic information available. (Author)

  4. Cooperative Educational Project - The Southern Appalachians: A Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.; Back, J.; Tubiolo, A.; Romanaux, E.

    2001-12-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains, a popular recreation area known for its beauty and rich biodiversity, was chosen by the U.S. Geological Survey as the site to produce a video, booklet, and teachers guide to explain basic geologic principles and how long-term geologic processes affect landscapes, ecosystems, and the quality of human life. The video was produced in cooperation with the National Park Service and has benefited from the advice of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere Cooperative, a group of 11 Federal and three State agencies that works to promote the environmental health, stewardship, and sustainable development of the resources of the region. Much of the information in the video is included in the booklet. A teachers guide provides supporting activities that teachers may use to reinforce the concepts presented in the video and booklet. Although the Southern Appalachians include some of the most visited recreation areas in the country, few are aware of the geologic underpinnings that have contributed to the beauty, biological diversity, and quality of human life in the region. The video includes several animated segments that show paleogeographic reconstructions of the Earth and movements of the North American continent over time; the formation of the Ocoee sedimentary basin beginning about 750 million years ago; the collision of the North American and African continents about 270 million years ago; the formation of granites and similar rocks, faults, and geologic windows; and the extent of glaciation in North America. The animated segments are tied to familiar public-access localities in the region. They illustrate geologic processes and time periods, making the geologic setting of the region more understandable to tourists and local students. The video reinforces the concept that understanding geologic processes and settings is an important component of informed land management to sustain the quality of life in a region. The video and a

  5. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML. PMID:27023575

  6. Exploring an Ecologically Sustainable Scheme for Landscape Restoration of Abandoned Mine Land: Scenario-Based Simulation Integrated Linear Programming and CLUE-S Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Shiwen; Huang, Yajie; Cao, Meng; Huang, Yuanfang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-03-24

    Understanding abandoned mine land (AML) changes during land reclamation is crucial for reusing damaged land resources and formulating sound ecological restoration policies. This study combines the linear programming (LP) model and the CLUE-S model to simulate land-use dynamics in the Mentougou District (Beijing, China) from 2007 to 2020 under three reclamation scenarios, that is, the planning scenario based on the general land-use plan in study area (scenario 1), maximal comprehensive benefits (scenario 2), and maximal ecosystem service value (scenario 3). Nine landscape-scale graph metrics were then selected to describe the landscape characteristics. The results show that the coupled model presented can simulate the dynamics of AML effectively and the spatially explicit transformations of AML were different. New cultivated land dominates in scenario 1, while construction land and forest land account for major percentages in scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Scenario 3 has an advantage in most of the selected indices as the patches combined most closely. To conclude, reclaiming AML by transformation into more forest can reduce the variability and maintain the stability of the landscape ecological system in study area. These findings contribute to better mapping AML dynamics and providing policy support for the management of AML.

  7. Plant Species Richness After Revegetation on The Reclaimed Coal Mine Land of PT Adaro Indonesia, South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Arief Soendjoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus of monitoring was the plant purposely cultivated because after re-vegetation, there were a very few of other plants growing naturally on reclimed coal mining area which were recorded, whereas these plants had important values. The research aimed to record all plants and to identify predominant plants over the reclaimed land of PT Adaro Indonesia. There were four sampling locations with 13 squares of 50 × 20 m2 on each location established and on each square there were 5 plots of 2 × 2 m2 plotse made. Both plant species and its individual number of woodyplantsaplings were recorded on each square, so in each plot, there were small species and its individual number of either woody-plant seedlings or non-woody plants (herbs/shrubs, grasses, ferns. The relative density and the relative frequency of woody or non-woody plants were summed to obtain the important value index (IVI of each successional stage. There were 107 plant species consisting of 32, 43, 27, and 5 species of saplings,seedlings/herbs/shrubs, grasses, and ferns respectively. From those species, 16 species of woody plants and 2 species of herbs were planted purposely,other species grew naturally and even some of them were dominants. Either the number of plants or the dominating plant is varied according to the sampling location and the growing stage.Keywords: plant, revegetation, richness, sapling, seedling

  8. Numerical simulation of land subsidence and verification of its character for an iron mine using sublevel caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Shuai; Song Weidong; Deng Dan; Lei Yuankun; Lan Jianqiang

    2016-01-01

    Combined with a digital bored photography system and in-situ statistics concerning the joints and fis-sures of both ore-body and surrounding rock, a 2D discrete model was constructed using UDEC. The stress field and displacement field changes of different sublevel stoping systems were also studied. Changes in the overlying rock strata settlement pattern has been analyzed and validated by in-situ monitoring data. The results show that:in the caving process, there exists an obvious delay and jump for the overlying rock strata displacement over time, and a stable arch can be formed in the process of caving, which leads to hidden goafs. Disturbed by the mining activity, a stress increase occurred in both the hanging wall and the foot wall, demonstrating a hump-shaped distribution pattern. From the comparison between simu-lation results and in-situ monitoring results, land subsidence shows a slow-development, sudden-failure, slow-development cycle pattern, which leads eventually to a stable state. This pattern validates the existence of balanced arch and hidden goafs.

  9. Power Plant Discharge Structure, Delta Stabilization Dike, and On-Land Taconite Tailings Disposal, Reserve Mining Company, Silver Bay, Lake County, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    present time it is not known what would be the ultimate configuration of the delta. Dr. Duncan Hay of Western Canada Hydraulic Laboratories Ltd ., a...Authority of Duluth U.S. Steel Corporation Reserve Mining Company Kemberlands, Ltd . Northern Land Company Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railroad Company...Alan R. Woolworth , Chief Archaeologist, Minnesota Historical Society. Respectfj4y issellfW. Fridley State Historic Preserv on Officer RlF/cr cc: Alan

  10. Characterizing historical (1992-2010) transitions between grassland and cropland in mainland France through mining land-cover survey data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Xiao; Catherine Mignolet; Jean-Franois Mari; Marc Benot

    2015-01-01

    Grassland, as one of the largest ecosystems on the earth, supports various goods and services to humanity. Historical y, humans have increased agricultural output primarily by cropland expansion and agricultural intensiifcation. The cropland area was primarily gained at the expense of grassland and forests. Apart from grassland conversion, increasing consumption of calorie-and meat-intensive diets drives the intensiifcation of livestock systems, which is shifting steadily from grazing to feeding with crops. To cope with the environmental degradation due to agriculture, various forms of‘green payment’ were implemented to promote the adoption of sustainable farming practices over the last two decades in the European Union. The aim of this study is to monitor the recent transitions (1992–2010) between grassland and cropland during two Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms at the French mainland scale. We proposed an innovative approach to link grassland con-version to agricultural commodities and farming systems practices. We ifrst assessed the grassland-to-cropland conversion and further investigated the crop sequence patterns that were observed to be dominant after the conversion through mining land-cover survey data Teruti and Teruti-Lucas. We found the trends of the transitions between grassland and cropland over the two time intervals:The loss of grassland (1992–2003) and restoration or re-expansion of grassland (2006–2010) in mainland France. Our ifnding on the crop sequence patterns after the grassland conversion reveals two notable evolutions of agricultural production systems. These evolutions were related to the increase in the proportion of cropland in the total agricultural land use. One evolution was most likely inlfuenced by the demand for fodder:The conversion from grazing livestock to feeding livestock. Another evolution was the conversion from livestock production to ifeld crop production. Our results indicate that the intensiifcation of

  11. Accuracy of land use change detection using support vector machine and maximum likelihood techniques for open-cast coal mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan

    2016-08-01

    One objective of the present study was to evaluate the performance of support vector machine (SVM)-based image classification technique with the maximum likelihood classification (MLC) technique for a rapidly changing landscape of an open-cast mine. The other objective was to assess the change in land use pattern due to coal mining from 2006 to 2016. Assessing the change in land use pattern accurately is important for the development and monitoring of coalfields in conjunction with sustainable development. For the present study, Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data of 2006 and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI)/Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) data of 2016 of a part of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India, were used. The SVM classification technique provided greater overall classification accuracy when compared to the MLC technique in classifying heterogeneous landscape with limited training dataset. SVM exceeded MLC in handling a difficult challenge of classifying features having near similar reflectance on the mean signature plot, an improvement of over 11 % was observed in classification of built-up area, and an improvement of 24 % was observed in classification of surface water using SVM; similarly, the SVM technique improved the overall land use classification accuracy by almost 6 and 3 % for Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images, respectively. Results indicated that land degradation increased significantly from 2006 to 2016 in the study area. This study will help in quantifying the changes and can also serve as a basis for further decision support system studies aiding a variety of purposes such as planning and management of mines and environmental impact assessment.

  12. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  13. The Research Progress of Land Reclamation in Mining Area in Domestic and Abroad%国内外矿区土地复垦研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 张和生

    2013-01-01

    The damaged land and environmental deterioration caused by the large-scale exploiting of mineral resources are the focused issue concerned by national and international research. And the land reclamation and ecological environmental recovery have been highly valued all over the world. An overview of the history and stage characteristics of land reclamation was showed, and the new development of theory, method and technology for land reclamation in domestic and abroad in recent years was summarized. Meanwhile, combined with the new Land Reclamation Ordinance and the academic frontier land reclamation thoughts and research idea about coal mining area in foreign countries, the future research direction of mining area land reclamation in China was pointed out.%人类对矿产资源的大规模开采导致的矿区土地受损及环境恶化一直是国内外研究关注的热点,矿区土地复垦和生态环境恢复也一直受到世界相关国家的高度重视.本文在概括国内外土地复垦历程及阶段特征的基础上,介绍了世界发达国家土地复垦新进展及我国在土地复垦理论、方法和技术方面取得的成绩;针对我国新发布的《土地复垦条例》,借鉴国外先进土地复垦的理论和技术,探讨了我国矿区土地复垦未来的研究方向.

  14. Land-Use Analysis and Simulated Effects of Land-Use Change and Aggregate Mining on Groundwater Flow in the South Platte River Valley, Brighton to Fort Lupton, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Langer, W.H.; Daniels, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Land use in the South Platte River valley between the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, Colo., is undergoing change as urban areas expand, and the extent of aggregate mining in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area is increasing as the demand for aggregate grows in response to urban development. To improve understanding of land-use change and the potential effects of land-use change and aggregate mining on groundwater flow, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the cities of Brighton and Fort Lupton, analyzed socioeconomic and land-use trends and constructed a numerical groundwater flow model of the South Platte alluvial aquifer in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area. The numerical groundwater flow model was used to simulate (1) steady-state hydrologic effects of predicted land-use conditions in 2020 and 2040, (2) transient cumulative hydrologic effects of the potential extent of reclaimed aggregate pits in 2020 and 2040, (3) transient hydrologic effects of actively dewatered aggregate pits, and (4) effects of different hypothetical pit spacings and configurations on groundwater levels. The SLEUTH (Slope, Land cover, Exclusion, Urbanization, Transportation, and Hillshade) urban-growth modeling program was used to predict the extent of urban area in 2020 and 2040. Wetlands in the Brighton-Fort Lupton area were mapped as part of the study, and mapped wetland locations and areas of riparian herbaceous vegetation previously mapped by the Colorado Division of Wildlife were compared to simulation results to indicate areas where wetlands or riparian herbaceous vegetation might be affected by groundwater-level changes resulting from land-use change or aggregate mining. Analysis of land-use conditions in 1957, 1977, and 2000 indicated that the general distribution of irrigated land and non-irrigated land remained similar from 1957 to 2000, but both land uses decreased as urban area increased. Urban area increased about 165 percent from 1957 to 1977 and about 56 percent from

  15. Estimating benthic secondary production from aquatic insect emergence in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill (MTR/VF) coal mining recountours the Appalachian landscape, buries headwater stream channels, and degrades downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to compare benthic community production estimates, based on seasonal insect emergen...

  16. Copper, zinc and lead biogeochemistry in aquatic and land plants from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal) and north of Morocco mining areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, Nuno; Bobos, Iuliu; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Dekayir, Abdelilah

    2015-02-01

    The ability of aquatic (Juncus effusus L., Scirpus holoschoenus L., Thypha latifolia L. and Juncus sp.) and land (Cistus ladanifer L., Erica andevalensis C.-R., Nerium oleander L., Isatis tinctoria L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cynodon dactylon L. and Hordeum murinum L.) plants from Portugal (Aljustrel, Lousal and São Domingos) and Morocco (Tighza and Zeida) mining areas to uptake, translocate and tolerate heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) was evaluated. The soils (rhizosphere) of the first mining area are characterized by high acidity conditions (pH 2-5), whereas from the second area, by alkaline conditions (pH 7.0-8.5). Physicochemical parameters and mineralogy of the rhizosphere were determined from both areas. Chemical analysis of plants and the rhizosphere was carried out by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The sequential chemical extraction procedure was applied for rhizosphere samples collected from both mining areas. In the acid conditions, the aquatic plants show a high capacity for Zn bioaccumulation and translocation and less for Pb, reflecting the following metal mobility sequence: Zn > Cu > Pb. Kaolinite detected in the roots by infrared spectroscopy (IR) contributed to metal fixation (i.e. Cu), reducing its translocation to the aerial parts. Lead identified in the roots of land plants (e.g. E. andevalensis) was probably adsorbed by C-H functional groups identified by IR, being easily translocated to the aerial parts. It was found that aquatic plants are more efficient for phytostabilization than bioaccumulation. Lead is more bioavailable in the rhizosphere from Morocco mining areas due to scarcity of minerals with high adsorption ability, being absorbed and translocated by both aquatic and land plants.

  17. Radionuclides in milk of dairy heifers raised on forages harvested from phosphatic clay soils on reclaimed mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, C.R.; Umana, R.; Hayen, M.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Alfalfa (AR; Medicago sativa L.) and corn (CSR; Zea mays L.) were grown in phosphatic clay soils on phosphate-mined reclaimed land in central Florida. Corn (CSC) also was grown on unmined land and served as a control forage. Upon harvesting, plants were chopped and ensiled. Concentrations of {sup 226}Ra averaged 2.44, 0.26 and 0.15; {sup 210}Pb averaged 1.04, 0.63, and 0.52; and {sup 210}Po averaged 1.59, 0.59, and 1.26 Bq kg{sup -1} DM for AR, CSR, and CSC, respectively. These forages were fed separately to Holstein dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus) (n=15 per forage) from approximately 9 to 25 mo of age. Heifers gave birth to calves at approximately 24 mo of age. Samples of milk were collected on d 1, 15, and 30 of lactation and analyzed for radionuclides. Averaged across sampling days, heifers fed AR had greater milk concentrations of {sup 226}Ra compared with those fed CSR (0.27 vs. 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), which, in turn, had greater milk concentrations compared with heifers fed CSC (0.22 vs. 0.13 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.05). Heifers fed AR also had greater milk concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared with heifers fed CSR (0.58 vs. 0.30 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), but values of CSR-fed heifers were not different from CSC-fed heifers (0.45 Bq kg{sup -1} DM). Lead-210 was greater in milk from heifers fed CSR compared with those fed AR or CSC (1.38 vs. 0.94 and 0.92 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.13), respectively. Plasma S and Cu concentrations suggested subclinical molybdenosis in heifers fed AR. However, all heifers grew at an acceptable rate, conceived normally, had normal gestation periods, gave high quality colostrum at calving, and produced similar amounts of milk. 17 refs., 9 tabs.

  18. Energy Drink Use Among Ohio Appalachian Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Genevieve; Shoben, Abigail; Pasch, Keryn E; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine-containing energy drinks have emerged as a public health concern due to their association with caffeine toxicity and alcohol use. Despite the fact that previous research has linked caffeine use in the form of coffee drinking to smoking, there is little research examining the association between energy drinks and smoking. The present study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with energy drink use among a sample of rural Ohio Appalachian smokers. It was hypothesized that male gender, young age (21-30 years.) and alcohol use would be associated with energy drink use. A sample of adult smokers (n = 298) from Ohio Appalachian counties were interviewed regarding demographic and behavioral factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between these factors and energy drink use. Seventy percent of Ohio Appalachian smokers studied had ever used an energy drink and 40 % had used an energy drink in the past month. Young age, male gender, and single marital status were associated with higher odds of ever having used an energy drink. Young age, and binge drinking were associated with higher odds of past 30-day use while abstinence from drinking was associated with lower odds of past 30-day use. Ohio Appalachian adult smokers had higher rates of energy drink use compared to previous estimates of ever or past month use found in other studies. The combined use of caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol warrants attention due to potential for health risk.

  19. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN: Abandoned Mine Lands, Miscellaneous Site Features in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — AML_POLY, the predecessor of COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN, is a 1:24,000-scale polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations and extents of Abandoned Mine...

  20. Avoiding integrity land mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Ben W

    2007-04-01

    How does a large multinational keep thousands of employees, operating in hundreds of countries, honest in a high-pressure business environment? As the chief legal officer at General Electric for nearly 20 years, Ben Heineman was part of the senior management group that sought to do just that--to make sure its executives and employees are moved to do the right thing as strongly as they are motivated to make their numbers. Heineman describes a set of systems that combine the communication of clear expectations with oversight, deterrence, and incentives. Nowhere are the expectations higher--and the sanctions more powerful--than for top executives. Heineman recounts example after example of senior leaders terminated for ethical lapses even when the business consequences of doing so were painful--and even when they had no direct knowledge of the violations occurring on their watch. To make expectations clear throughout the company, GE has systematically sought to set uniform standards that stay well ahead of current legal developments and stakeholders' changing attitudes about corporate accountability. Responsibility for implementing those standards, which are embedded in GE's operating practices, rests with the business leaders in the field. Oversight is both methodical and multifaceted. A host of auditing and assessment systems enables GE to compare the performance of its various business units against one another and against industry benchmarks. Perhaps the most powerful is the company's ombudsman system, which doesn't just allow but requires employees to lodge concerns. Failures to report into the system or up the line, or retaliation in any form, are firing offenses. The current intense focus on board-level governance has missed the point, Heineman argues. It is time to shift the debate from board oversight of the CEO to how top company leaders can most effectively infuse integrity at all levels of the corporation.

  1. Sediment and epilithon metabolism and hydrolytic activity in streams affected by mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Despite regulations requiring that potential mpacts to stream function be considered in determining compensatory mitigation associated with permitted fill activities, asse...

  2. Soil quality index as a tool for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) monoculture conversion planning on afforested, reclaimed mine land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski

    2014-01-01

    In Central Europe, a large portion of post-mining sites were afforested with Scots pine, which is characterized by good adaptability and a tolerance for poor habitat at the beginning of forest ecosystem development. Conversion of monoculture on mine sites into more biodi-verse mixed hardwood forests, especially on more fertile deposits, can be an emerging need in this part of Europe in next decades. The ability to classify the forests at these post-mining sites will facilitate proper species selection as well as the management and formation of the developed ecosystem’s stability. This work describes the guidelines that can be followed to assess reclaimed mine soil (RMS) quality, using the mine soil quality index (MSQI) and a classification of developed forest sites as a basis of tree-stand species selection and conversion of pine monocul-tures. The research was conducted on four post-mining facilities (lignite, hard coal, sulphur, and sand pit mining areas) on different RMS sub-strates dominant in Central Europe. Soil quality assessment takes into account the following features of the soil: texture soil nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P); acidity (pH KCl); and Corg-to-Nt ratio in the initial organic horizon. An analysis was conducted of classification systems using the MSQI validation correlation (atp =0.05) with vegetation features af-fected by succession: aboveground biomass of forest floor and ecological indicators of vascular plants (calculated on the basis of Ellenberg’s (2009) system). Eventually, in the analysed data set, the MSQI ranged from 0.270 for soils on quaternary sands to 0.720 for a mix of quaternary loamy sands with neogene clays. Potential forest habitat types and the role of the pine in the next generation of tree stands on different RMS parent rock substrate were proposed.

  3. Reconnaissance for determining effects of land use and surficial geology on concentrations of selected elements on streambed materials from the coal-mining region, southwestern Indiana, October 1979 to March 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, W.G.; Boje, Rita R.

    1982-01-01

    Streambed materials were collected in October 1979 from 69 watersheds in Southwest Indiana having predominantly forested, agricultural, reclaimed, and unreclaimed mined land use to determine whether concentrations of sorbed and acid-soluble metals and trace elements were affected by land use and surficial geology. Analysis of variance indicated that 10% or more of the total variation in aluminum, arsenic, cobalt, iron, nickel, selenium, and zinc concentrations on streambed materials was accounted for by differences in land use. Concentrations of aluminum, cobalt, iron, nickel, selenium, and zinc on streambed materials smaller than 0.062-millimeter from mined watersheds were significantly greater than the concentrations of these elements on streambed materials from agricultural and forested watersheds. The greater concentrations of these elements on streambed materials are due to (1) their concentrations in mine drainage and their subsequent absorption and (or) copecipitation with the oxides and hydroxides of aluminum and iron and (2) their concentrations in coal and pyritic material in streambed materials. (USGS)

  4. Study on different thickness topsoil quality of reclaimed land filling with coal gangue in coal mine area begin{center} —-A case study of xinzhuangzi coal mine, china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liangji; Yan, Jiaping; Gao, Yongmei

    2010-05-01

    for land reclamation of coal mine area, coal gangue is used to fill in the subsided area, then native topsoil is covered on the top of coal gangue and phytoremediation method is adopted to enhance the topsoil quality. But different topsoil thickness and topsoil quality will lead different crop production, for choose the best thickness of topsoil, three reclaimed land with different topsoil thickness of 30cm, 50cm, 60cm are selected as experiment field, pH, EC, organic matte, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium are surveyed as detected indexes, correlation analysis method is adopted to calculate the weight of different index, then the comprehensive index value of topsoil will be calculated combined with membership grade of different index. The result shows the topsoil comprehensive index values are 0.5111, 0.6205, 0.4872 respectively and the topsoil quality of reclaimed land with topsoil thickness 50cm is the best. Keywords: topsoil thickness, soil quality, weight, comprehensive index value

  5. Drug Use among Urban Ethnic Youth: Appalachian and Other Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Clyde B.; Watkins, Virginia McCoy

    1980-01-01

    Research findings show that, compared with Black, Polish, and other ethnic urban youth, urban Appalachian teenagers exhibit greater symptomatic behavior indicating severe difficulties in coping with urban environments. Particularly striking among these patterns, which hold for both females and males, is the heavy drug use among Appalachian youth.…

  6. 7 CFR 1005.2 - Appalachian marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appalachian marketing area. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA...

  7. Behavior-Based Approach for the Detection of Land Mines Utilizing off the Shelf Low Cost Autonomous Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Nour Alshbatat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several countries all of the world are affected by landmines. The presence of mines represents a major threat to lives and causes economic problems. Currently, detecting and clearing mines demand specific expertise with special equipment. In this context, this paper offers the design and development of an intelligent controller which can control and enable the robot to detect mines by means of sensors and of processing the fused information to guide soldiers when passing landmines.  This is accomplished by broken down the overall system into two subsystems: sensor technologies and robotic device. Sensors devices include infrared distance sensor, metal detector, ultrasonic range finder, accelerometer sensor, while the structure of the robot in our case consists mainly  of a commercial  off-the-shelf  parts which  are  available  at  low  costs. The proposed controller is mainly based on creating fuzzy rules that reflect the behaviors of soldier beings in controlling a robot in a well known landmine. Simulation and experimental results are presented her to prove the efficiency of the proposed approach. The results show that the system is able to detect landmines and guide soldiers while crossing mines area.

  8. Assessment of the capability of remote sensing and GIS techniques for monitoring reclamation success in coal mine degraded lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Shivesh Kishore; Samadder, Sukha Ranjan; Maiti, Subodh Kumar

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present study is to monitor reclamation activity in mining areas. Monitoring of these reclaimed sites in the vicinity of mining areas and on closed Over Burden (OB) dumps is critical for improving the overall environmental condition, especially in developing countries where area around the mines are densely populated. The present study evaluated the reclamation success in the Block II area of Jharia coal field, India, using Landsat satellite images for the years 2000 and 2015. Four image processing methods (support vector machine, ratio vegetation index, enhanced vegetation index, and normalized difference vegetation index) were used to quantify the change in vegetation cover between the years 2000 and 2015. The study also evaluated the relationship between vegetation health and moisture content of the study area using remote sensing techniques. Statistical linear regression analysis revealed that Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) coupled with Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) is the best method for vegetation monitoring in the study area when compared to other indices. A strong linear relationship (r(2) > 0.86) was found between NDVI and NDMI. An increase of 21% from 213.88 ha in 2000 to 258.9 ha in 2015 was observed in the vegetation cover of the reclaimed sites for an open cast mine, indicating satisfactory reclamation activity. NDVI results indicated that vegetation health also improved over the years.

  9. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  10. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.-H.; Basim, B.; Luttrell, G.H.; Phillips, D.I. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jiang, D.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Meloy, T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-01-28

    Novel chemicals that can be used for increasing the efficiency of fine coal dewatering was developed at Virginia Tech. During the past quarter, Reagent A was tested on three different coal samples in laboratory vacuum filtration tests. these included flotation products from Middle Fork plant, Elkview Mining Company, and CONSOL, Inc. the tests conducted with the Middle Fork coal sample (100 mesh x 0) showed that cake moisture can be reduced by more than 10% beyond what can be achieved without using dewatering aid. This improvement was achieved at 1 lb/ton of Reagent A and 0.1 inch cake thickness. At 0. 5 inches of cake thickness, this improvement was limited to 8% at the same reagent dosage. the results obtained with the Elkview coal (28 mesh x 0) showed similar advantages in using the novel dewatering aid. Depending on the reagent dosage, cake thickness, drying cycle time and temperature, it was possible to reduce the cake moisture to 12 to 14% rage. In addition to achieving lower cake moisture, the use of Reagent A substantially decreased the cake formation time, indicating that the reagent improves the kinetics of dewatering, The test results obtained with CONSOL coal were not as good as with the other coals tested in the present work, which may be attributed to possible oxidation and/or contamination.

  11. 矿区土地复垦规划三维可视化技术%3 D Visualization Technology of the Mining Area Land Reclamation Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超; 王海峰; 王世东

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem that the traditional two-dimensional mine reclamation plan can not express and analyze the spatial data and attribute data required by user,the construction and visualization methods of land reclamation of three-dimensional landscape model in mining area based on ArcGIS is investigated. The ArcGIS 3D analyst module is used to establish the 3D landscape models of land reclamation area,and analyze the slope ingredient,slope aspect and cut and fill in reclamation area. According to the data,the location,size and scope of landscape entities in the 3D landscape model,including farmland,woodland,residential areas,roads,ponds and others,are identified so as to make a scientific and reasonable land-scape planning. A greater degree of real scene planning was achieved. Taking the Fengying Mine in Jiaozuo as a case,the appli-cation of 3D visualization technology in the landscape planning was studied. The results showed that the three-dimensional landscape model construction methods of land reclamation based on ArcGIS is real and correct. It can help to improve overall mining efficiency of land reclamation and scientificity and authenticity of landscape planning.%为了解决传统的二维矿区复垦平面规划不能满足用户对空间数据和属性数据进行表达和分析的问题,研究了基于ArcGIS的矿区土地复垦三维景观模型的构建及可视化方法。利用ArcGIS平台的3D Analyst模块,建立矿区土地复垦区的三维景观模型,并对复垦区进行坡度、坡向分析和挖填方分析,根据分析得到的数据确定耕地、林地、居民区、道路、鱼塘等景观实体在三维景观模型中的位置、面积及范围,并对三维模型整体区域进行科学合理的景观规划,实现了较大程度的真实场景规划。以焦作市冯营矿区为例,研究了通过复垦区景观三维可视化技术进行规划的应用过程。结果表明,所研究的基于ArcGIS的矿区

  12. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the VAG Mine Site in Eden and Lowell, Vermont. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vermont Asbestos Group (VAG) Mine site in Eden, Vermont, and Lowell, Vermont, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Chino Mine in Silver City, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Chino Mine site in Silver City, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Effect of Intermittent Flow on the Mobility of Metals from Abandoned Uranium Mine Waste Sites on Native American Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasarala, S.; Ali, A.; Artyushkova, K.; Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Cerrato, J.

    2015-12-01

    Column experiments were conducted to study the effect of intermittent flow on the mobility of metals from abandoned uranium mine waste sites in Blue Gap Tachee (BGT), AZ and Laguna, NM. Intermittent flow represent the rainfall patterns in the southwestern United States, involving alternate wet and dry cycles. In order to simulate these rainfall patterns shorter wet periods of 15, 30, 60, 120 and 360 minutes, followed by longer dry periods of 24 hours, were adopted for the column experiments. The experiment involved sequential leaching of sediments from Laguna and BGT with 18MὨ water (pH 5.4), Synthetic Rain Water (SRW, pH 5.6), 10mM bicarbonate solution (pH 7.9) and 10mM acetic acid (pH 3.4) solution that represent the environmentally relevant conditions as witnessed in BGT water samples (pH 3.8 and 7.4). These reagents were specifically chosen to target most metal species through various transport mechanisms which include advective-dispersive forces, ion-exchange, desorption and dissolution. With just 18MὨ water and SRW almost 90 µg/L of U, 4500 µg/L of V and 20 µg/L of As were released from BGT mine waste while the Laguna sample showed the release of 380 µg/L of U, 2 µg/L of V and 40 µg/L of As. The released U concentrations were 3-13 times its EPA MCL for U which under natural circumstances could threaten the proximate communities. Bicarbonate and acetic acid extractions on the other hand released 3500-6000 µg/L of U, 50-3000 µg/L of V and 14-35 µg/L of As from both Laguna and BGT mine waste respectively. Based on our previously published results, U and V from the uranyl-vanadate (U-V) species within BGT mine waste samples were only partially released with bicarbonate unlike the column experiments where almost all of the U and V from the U-V species were dissolved and released using 10mM bicarbonate solution. For reference, the columns were also leached continuously with bicarbonate and acetic acid for a week (each), to identify if the phases were

  16. Short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. : a land use option for carbon sequestration on reclaimed mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinkenstein, A.; Bohm, C.; Freese, D. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; Huttl, R.R. [Brandenburg Univ. of Technology, Cottbus (Germany). Soil Protection and Recultivation; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A study in northeast Germany has shown that the establishment of short rotation coppices (SRC) of Robinia pseudoacacia L. may be a viable option for improving farmers income on marginal soils. The plantations produce woody biomass at a fast rate for energy use. Carbon is accumulated in the harvestable biomass, as well as in the stump and the roots. These plant compartments form a long-term carbon storage pool because they can survive a harvest, stay vital at the site and continue to grow as the plant ages. As organic litter decomposes, additional carbon is sequestered under SRC as soil organic carbon. The carbon sequestration in SRC of R. pseudoacacia on mining sites within the Lower Lusatian region in northeast Germany was studied and the results were complemented with findings of current field studies conducted on reclaimed mine sites. The average above ground dry matter productivity of R. pseudoacacia was found to be 3 to 10 Mg per hectare per year, depending on the plantation age and rotation period. It has been estimated that the carbon storage within the soil accounts to a carbon sequestration of up to 6 Mg per hectare per year for a soil depth of 60 cm.

  17. [Comparison of soil fertility among open-pit mine reclaimed lands in Antaibao regenerated with different vegetation types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Li, Jin-chuan; Yue, Jian-ying; Zhou, Xiao-mei; Guo, Chun-yan; Lu, Ning; Wang, Yu-hong; Yang, Sheng-quan

    2013-09-01

    Re-vegetation is mainly applied into regeneration in opencast mine to improve the soil quality. It is very important to choose feasible vegetation types for soil restoration. In this study, three typical forest restoration types were studied at Antaibao mine, namely, Medicago sativa, mixed forests Pinus taebelaefolius-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii and Elaeagnus angustifolia-Robinia pseudoacacia-Caragana korshinskii-Hipophae rhamnoides, to determine the nutrient contents and enzyme activities in different soil layers. The results showed that re-vegetation markedly increased soil nutrient contents and the enzyme activities during the restoration process. The nutrient content of soil in the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest field was significantly higher than those in other plots. It was found that the soil of the P. taebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii mixed forest had the highest integrated fertility index values. In conclusion, the restoration effects of the P. zaebelaefolius-R. pseudoacacia-C. Korshinskii mixed forest was better than that of E. angustifolia-R. pseudoacacia-C. korshinskii-H. rhamnoides, while M. sativa grassland had the least effect.

  18. Appalachian region oilfield reservoir investigations, Gordon Stray, Gordon, and fourth sands, Smithfield field, Grant District, Wetzel County, W. Va

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whildon, C.E. Jr.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.

    1965-09-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines is investigating the susceptibility of selected pressure-depleted Appalachian region oil reservoirs to more intensive oil recovery methods. A map shows the well locations, formation samples and published reports of wells cored under the current reservoir evaluation program. Also, a map shows a part of Wetzel County, W. Va., showing oil-productive areas, the location of the cored well and geologic structure. A columnar section is given of the geological formations in the vicinity of the cored wells. Well logs were taken to supplement core information. Core analysis, well logs, geology, field development, and production history are presented. (19 refs.)

  19. 矿业城市土地损毁生态风险评价与空间防范策略%Ecological risk assessment and spatial prevention tactic of land destruction in mining city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常青; 刘丹; 刘晓文

    2013-01-01

    Mining is a key economic activity, and it contributes greatly to the economic growth of China. However, the consequents of land destruction, such as ecological losses and environmental pollution, could adversely damage the living environment and sustainable development of the mining area. In recent years, research studies on ecological risk assessment have been hotspots in the field of land use and environmental science for mining cities. Land destruction is recognized as the most direct and obvious source of ecological risk in mining areas. A lot of theoretical frameworks and qualification models have been built to evaluate the ecological risk of land destruction. However, it is not clear how the spatial heterogeneity of ecological risk based on land destruction can be quantitatively visualized, and what kind of targeted prevention measures should be taken in various types and grades of ecological risk, which leads to some ineffectiveness of land reclamation plans in mining cities. In this paper, a framework for ecological risk assessment and spatial prevention of land destruction for the mining city was proposed. Liaoyuan city in Jilin province, as one of the representative mining areas in China, was chosen as the case area. First, the data of land use type, land destruction type and site were vectored into a GIS platform, and an integrated GIS-based model involving the ecological sensitivity evaluation, the cumulative effect evaluation of land destruction and the evaluation of the probability of exposure to destructed lands, were constructed and applied to quantify the comprehensive value of ecological risk based on land destruction. Secondly, the spatial pattern of ecological risk of land destruction was visualized and illustrated by four zones with degrees of comprehensive value:the high-risk zone (2.5%of the total area), the medium-risk zone (17.4%of the total area), the low-risk zone (39.1%of the total area) and the risk-free zone (41%of the total area), in

  20. Characterization of major-ion chemistry and nutrients in headwater streams along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and within adjacent watersheds, Maine to Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Pope, Jason P.; Dieffenbach, Fred

    2012-01-01

    An inventory of water-quality data on field parameters, major ions, and nutrients provided a summary of water quality in headwater (first- and second-order) streams within watersheds along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (Appalachian Trail). Data from 1,817 sampling sites in 831 catchments were used for the water-quality summary. Catchment delineations from NHDPlus were used as the fundamental geographic units for this project. Criteria used to evaluate sampling sites for inclusion were based on selected physical attributes of the catchments adjacent to the Appalachian Trail, including stream elevation, percentage of developed land cover, and percentage of agricultural land cover. The headwater streams of the Appalachian Trail are generally dilute waters, with low pH, low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and low concentrations of nutrients. The median pH value was slightly acidic at 6.7; the median specific conductance value was 23.6 microsiemens per centimeter, and the median ANC value was 98.7 milliequivalents per liter (μeq/L). Median concentrations of cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) were each less than 1.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and median concentrations of anions (bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate) were less than 10 mg/L. Differences in water-quality constituent levels along the Appalachian Trail may be related to elevation, atmospheric deposition, geology, and land cover. Spatial variations were summarized by ecological sections (ecosections) developed by the U.S. Forest Service. Specific conductance, pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate) were all negatively correlated with elevation. The highest elevation ecosections (White Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, and Allegheny Mountains) had the lowest pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions. The lowest elevation ecosections (Lower New England and Hudson Valley) generally had the highest pH, ANC, and

  1. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  2. Microscopically focused synchrotron X-ray investigation of selenium speciation in soils developing on reclaimed mine lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Amy L; Strawn, Daniel G; Marcus, Matthew A; Fakra, Sirine; Johnson-Maynard, Jodi L; Möller, Gregory

    2006-01-15

    Chemical speciation determines Se solubility and therefore its bioavailability and potential for transport in the environment. In this study we investigated the speciation of Se in soil developed on reclaimed mine sites in the U.S. Western Phosphate Resource Area (WPRA) using micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) mapping. Selenium was nonuniformly distributed in the soils and positively correlated with Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Ni. Sixteen points of interest (POI) from three soil samples were analyzed with micro-XANES spectroscopy. The XANES data indicated that Se is present in the soils in at least three oxidation states, Se(-II, 0), Se(IV), and Se(VI). Selenides or elemental Se dominated 7 of the 16 POI. Selenate was the dominant species at only one of the POI. The remaining eight POI were composed of both Se(IV) and Se(VI), with minor Se(-II, 0) contributions. The results of this research suggest that the reduced Se species in the soil parent material are oxidizing to Se(VI), one of the more mobile species of Se in the environment. This information can be used to better predict and manage Se availability in soils.

  3. Role of the different planting age of seabuckthorn forests to soil amelioration in coal mining subsidence land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinli Bi; Yanxu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) on soil amelioration, using the space replacement method, soil physical and chemical indexes as well as the microorganism quantity and soil enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that:the soil bulk density of surface soil decreased and soil porosity and field capacity increased after afforestation with seabuckthorn. The plant was found to effectively reduce the soil pH, increase the soil conductivity, soil organic matters and available nutrients. Soil microorganism quantity, soil enzyme activities were both higher in 0–20 cm layer than in 20–40 cm layer. With the increase years of remediation with seabuckthorn, the quantity of soil microorganism and enzyme activities were increasing to a higher level 5 to 8 years later. Our study indicates that seabuckthorn can effectively improve soil physical and chemical properties, increase the quantity of soil microor-ganisms and enzyme activities, which is of great significance for the ecosystem restoration in mining areas.

  4. Study of Bryophytes in Indigenous Lead and Zinc Mining Waste Land in Bijie Area%毕节地区土法冶炼铅锌废弃地苔藓植物研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江洪; 向良志

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为进一步研究毕节地区铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物在废弃地的重金属修复的应用提供参考.[方法]对毕节地区铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物进行全面调查、标本采集和初步鉴定,并与铜矿、金矿、汞矿区苔藓植物进行比较.[结果]铅锌矿废弃地有苔藓植物4科、14属、30种,有丛藓科和真藓科2个优势科.与铜矿、金矿、汞矿区苔藓植物相比,铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物物种丰富度指数最低,为-0.958 0,种相似性指数也最低,为13.56%,铅锌矿废弃地苔藓植物生活型以矮丛集型为主.在4个矿区中,有5种广泛分布的苔藓植物种类,分别是北地扭口藓、双色真藓、银藓、卵蒴丝瓜藓、硬叶对齿藓.[结论]这些种类为进一步利用苔藓植物研究铅锌矿废弃地植被修复提供较好的材料.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide the reference for the application of the bryophytes in the vegetation restoration of the heavy metals in lead and zinc mining waste land in Bijie Area. [ Method] The comprehensive investigation, the collection, and the identification of the bryophyte in lead and zinc mining waste land in Bijie area were carried out. And the bryophytes in lead and zinc mining waste land were compared with those of copper mine, gold mine and mercury mine. [ Result] 30 mosses species in 14 genera of 4 families were reported at the region. There were two dominiant families that were pottiaceae and bryaceae in the region. And species richness of the bryophytes was the lowest in lead and zinc mining waste land, and it was -0. 958 0. The similarity coefficient of the species was the lowest, too. It was 13.56%. Short turfs was the dominant life-forms of the bryophytes in lead and zinc mining waste land. At the same time, there were 4 species of widespread bryophytes found in the four mine. They were Barbula fallax Hedw. , Bryum dichotomum Hedw. , Anomobryum filiforme ( dicks. ) husn. , Pohlia proligera ( kindb

  5. Impact of reclamation-driven land use change on vegetation carbon store in mining areas%复垦矿区土地利用类型变化对植被碳储量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国伟; 赵艳玲; 付艳华; 倪巍; 张艳; 余建新

    2015-01-01

    Mining activities and climate change severely impact eco-environment of the mining areas. However, land reclamation effectively reclaimed the mining area and restored the environment. It is important for ecological benefit evaluation in restoration of mining area to analyze the effect of climate change and human factors on ecological environment of mining areas. The researches concerning carbon storage of soil and vegetation in the mining area have gained a lot of results and provide us an effective tool for further evaluating the effect of climate and human activity on environment in the areas. In this study, we estimated vegetation carbon storage using a modified CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach, CASA) model in Ji’ning where the environment had been highly disturbed by mining and reclamation activities. Then Chikug’ model was used to evaluate the effects of both climate change on carbon storage of the mining area. The results suggested that: 1) with year 2003 as a key point, the carbon storage in the research area increased from 1987 to 2003, and then decreased till 2010, and increased again during 20102014. The carbon storage of the study area in 2003 was the highest point (4 645.738 t) during the study period, and in 2010 was the lowest point (3 687.741 t). 2) The net primary productivity (NPP) of vegetation in the mining area was changed by comprehensive effect of both climate and human activity. The range of disturbance of climate change on carbon density was 2.8329.465 gm2, the range of disturbance of mining activities on carbon density was 9.89713.435 gm2, and the range of disturbance of combined mining activities and land reclamation on carbon density was 11.13212.839 gm2. The amplitude of carbon density was 2.8329.465 gm2 influenced by climate change, 9.89713.435 gm2influenced by mining activities, and 11.13212.839 gm2 influenced by combined effect of coal mining and mining land

  6. Fine and Coarse-Scale Patterns of Vegetation Diversity on Reclaimed Surface Mine-land Over a 40-Year Chronosequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Stefanie L.; Limb, Ryan F.; Daigh, Aaron L.; Volk, Jay M.; Wick, Abbey F.

    2017-03-01

    Rangelands are described as heterogeneous, due to patterning in species assemblages and productivity that arise from species dispersal and interactions with environmental gradients and disturbances across multiple scales. The objectives of rangeland reclamation are typically vegetation establishment, plant community productivity, and soil stability. However, while fine-scale diversity is often promoted through species-rich seed mixes, landscape heterogeneity and coarse-scale diversity are largely overlooked. Our objectives were to evaluate fine and coarse-scale vegetation patterns across a 40-year reclamation chronosequence on reclaimed surface coalmine lands. We hypothesized that both α-diversity and β-diversity would increase and community patch size and species dissimilarity to reference sites would decrease on independent sites over 40 years. Plant communities were surveyed on 19 post-coalmine reclaimed sites and four intact native reference sites in central North Dakota mixed-grass prairie. Our results showed no differences in α or β-diversity and plant community patch size over the 40-year chronosequence. However, both α-diversity and β-diversity on reclaimed sites was similar to reference sites. Native species establishment was limited due to the presence of non-native species such as Kentucky bluegrass ( Poa pratensis) on both the reclaimed and reference sites. Species composition was different between reclaimed and reference sites and community dissimilarity increased on reclaimed sites over the 40-year chronosequence. Plant communities resulting from reclamation followed non-equilibrium succession, even with consistent seeds mixes established across all reclaimed years. This suggests post-reclamation management strategies influence species composition outcomes and land management strategies applied uniformly may not increase landscape-level diversity.

  7. Study on Land Reclamation Feasibility of Changpu Pingshun Quarry Mining Area in Xunwu County%寻乌县菖蒲平顺采石场矿区土地复垦可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹自力; 李德胜; 肖丹; 杜素娇

    2012-01-01

    采用现场调查和文献研究相结合的方法,分析了寻乌具葛蒲平顺采石场矿区土地复垦的可行性及适宜的开发利用方向.结果显示,寻乌县葛蒲平顺采石场矿区待复垦土地面积为2.50 hm2,均适宜被开发为林业用地,适宜性均为2级.%Using field survey and literature research, the feasibility of land reclamation in Changpu Pingshun quarry mining area in Xunwu county was studied. The results showed that the area of land to be reclaimed in Changpu Pingshun quarry mine was 2.50 hm2, which was suited to be developed as forest ; and the suitability was grade 2.

  8. 矿区废弃地复垦为农用地潜力评价方法的比较%Comparison for evaluate methods of potentiality for agricultural land reclamation from waste land in mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱铭杰; 吴静; 袁春; 王巍

    2014-01-01

    Waste land reclamation potential in mine areas is an important basis for a Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Plan. The size of potential value calls for the evaluation, so the selection of evaluation methods has a direct impact on the result of the evaluation. In general, the steps of reclamation evaluation are choosing the evaluation objects, screening evaluation indices, grading the evaluation indices, weighted the indices, and evaluating the potential. In the current study, most research uses just one method to evaluate the reclamation potential, or improve the method during the process of reclamation evaluation, like improving the method for obtaining weight, and taking this as the final evaluation result may introduce a kind of randomness. Based on the Shuozhou city in Pinglu area in Shanxi Province, this article will use the Index method, the Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and the Artificial neural network model to evaluate the reclamation potential, and discuss the similarities, differences, and the lead reasons among the results provided by these three methods. Then, the Analytic Hierarchy Process is used to combine the results from each method, and the comprehensive evaluation result is obtained based on that. The result indicates that under the same index system and weight, because of the different evaluation methods and the different dimensionless methods used during these processes, each potential level is different among the numbers of figure spot, area, and spatial location under the same potential level. Under the theory that both the Index method and Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method are affected by the indicator system and weight, the difference is that before using the Index method, the experimentalist should standardize parameter values, which will be solved during the Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation process. The similarity is that both methods will provide weighted sums of the indicator system to obtain the final value, which

  9. 77 FR 39733 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... receiving support from the Appalachian Trail Park Office (ATPO) to protect trail resources and provide for the public enjoyment and visitor experience of the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (Trail). To... Information Collection; Comment Request: Appalachian Trail Management Partner Survey AGENCY: National...

  10. Environmental variables in a holistic evaluation of land contaminated by historic mine wastes: a study of multi-element mine wastes in West Devon, England using arsenic as an element of potential concern to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E I

    2000-04-17

    Unusual and unexpected concentrations of a number of elements were identified in samples of house dust, that indicated the presence of mine wastes in an area where they were not expected. In pursuing this matter, several other very unusual observations and practices, involving highly contaminated mine wastes, were also identified. Here, using an available, but not a custom-made database, the matter is pursued. In England and Wales, the usual framework within which hazards are assessed, starts with an identification of those levels of exposure to elements which are considered to be safe and acceptable. At the other extreme, levels that are considered to be hazardous are identified together with procedures for dealing with them for different situations; for example, the manner in which contaminated land is to be used. The level at which an identification of sites and their use rests with the Local Authority, such as District Councils. Although new legislation is pending; at present for the non-occupationally exposed population there are no firm values to define which levels are acceptable and those that are not acceptable. One of the elements in the samples is arsenic and, because of its well-known toxicity, this element is selected to be of prime concern. However, simultaneous exposure to the general public is from a number of other elements, such as copper, lead, zinc, antimony, molybdenum, tin, selenium and mercury which are present in the mine wastes. The collective impairment to human health, if it should occur, is far too complex to evaluate, hence a need to focus attention upon arsenic which by any standard is present in some samples at very high concentrations, for example > 1000 mg/kg. Irrespective of any changes in permitted levels of exposure to the general public in the study area, together with those that are occupationally exposed, it is the past exposure that will give rise to the present patterns of morbidity and mortality. Because of a latent period

  11. Analysis of the Land Use Dynamic Change in Metal Mine District Based on Remote Sensing Images%基于遥感影像的金属矿区土地利用动态变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓美容; 蔡跃辉; 龚雨

    2014-01-01

    The ore district of Shui Kou Shan in Changning City is one of the most famous metal mines in China .There is more than hundreds histories of mining .With the mining ,there are great changes in the construction of land use for this mining area .Based on the data of remote sensing images obtained in 1990 ,1999 ,2013 ,we chose Songbei town which is the major region distribution of ore district for Shui Kou Shan as the objet of study ,use the supervised classification and decision classification methods to study the information of land use in this area in three different periods .The values of kappa coefficient are 86.04% ,83.50% ,85.67% for the three different peri-ods ,respectively .The results indicate that there are obvious changes for land use in this ore district in recent 20 years ,the areas of wood-land and cultivated land decrease significantly ,the area of cultivated decreased is 374.76 hectares;the areas of meadowland ,especially the land of mining and constructive land increase more quickly ,and the growths for land of mining and constructive land are 73.34 % and 50.40 % ,respectively ;while the area of water is broad balanceable .%常宁市水口山矿区是我国著名的金属矿山,已有上百年的开采历史。随着矿产开采的持续,矿区土地利用结构发生了很大变化。以水口山矿区主要分布区域松柏镇为研究单元,以1990年、1999年、2013年的三景遥感影像为数据源,利用面向对象的监督分类法、决策树分类法等对三个时期的矿区土地利用情况进行提取,得到分类精度kappa系数分别为86.04%,83.50%,85.67%。研究结果表明:矿区二十年来土地利用变化明显,林地、耕地显著减少,耕地面积减少374.76 hm2;草地、建设用地、矿产用地增加较多;特别是矿产用地和建设用地显著增加,增幅分别达到73.34%和50.40%;水域面积总体保持平衡。

  12. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  13. Mineral Classification of Land Surface Using Multispectral LWIR and Hyperspectral SWIR Remote-Sensing Data. A Case Study over the Sokolov Lignite Open-Pit Mines, the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Notesco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing techniques offer an efficient alternative for mapping mining environments and assessing the impacts of mining activities. Airborne multispectral data in the thermal region and hyperspectral data in the optical region, acquired with the Airborne Hyperspectral Scanner (AHS sensor over the Sokolov lignite open-pit mines in the Czech Republic, were analyzed. The emissivity spectrum was calculated for each vegetation-free land pixel in the longwave infrared (LWIR-region image using the surface-emitted radiation, and the reflectance spectrum was derived from the visible, near-infrared and shortwave-infrared (VNIR–SWIR-region image using the solar radiation reflected from the surface, after applying atmospheric correction. The combination of calculated emissivity, with the ability to detect quartz, and SWIR reflectance spectra, detecting phyllosilicates and kaolinite in particular, enabled estimating the content of the dominant minerals in the exposed surface. The difference between the emissivity values at λ = 9.68 µm and 8.77 µm was found to be a useful index for estimating the relative amount of quartz in each land pixel in the LWIR image. The absorption depth at around 2.2 µm in the reflectance spectra was used to estimate the relative amount of kaolinite in each land pixel in the SWIR image. The resulting maps of the spatial distribution of quartz and kaolinite were found to be in accordance with the geological nature and origin of the exposed surfaces and demonstrated the benefit of using data from both thermal and optical spectral regions to map the abundance of the major minerals around the mines.

  14. Changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function downstream from mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley fill coal mining has altered the physicochemical landscape of the Central Appalachian region in the U.S. Increased specific conductance and levels of component ions downstream from valley fill sites are toxic to aquatic life and can negatively impa...

  15. Mine land valorization through energy maize production enhanced by the application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Pereira, Sofia I A; Marques, Ana P G C; Rangel, António O S S; Castro, Paula M L

    2016-04-01

    The use of heavy metals (HM) contaminated soils to grow energy crops can diminish the negative impact of HM in the environment improving land restoration. The effect of two PGPR (B1--Chryseobacterium humi ECP37(T) and B2--Pseudomonas reactans EDP28) and an AMF (F--Rhizophagus irregularis) on growth, Cd and Zn accumulation, and nutritional status of energy maize plants grown in a soil collected from an area adjacent to a Portuguese mine was assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Both bacterial strains, especially when co-inoculated with the AMF, acted as plant growth-promoting inoculants, increasing root and shoot biomass as well as shoot elongation. Cadmium was not detected in the maize tissues and a decrease in Zn accumulation was observed for all microbial treatments in aboveground and belowground tissues--with inoculation of maize with AMF and strain B2 leading to maximum reductions in Zn shoot and root accumulation of up to 48 and 43%, respectively. Although microbial single inoculation generally did not increase N and P levels in maize plants, co-inoculation of the PGPR and the AMF improved substantially P accumulation in roots. The DGGE analysis of the bacterial rhizosphere community showed that the samples inoculated with the AMF clustered apart of those without the AMF and the Shannon-Wiener Index (H') increased over the course of the experiment when both inoculants were present. This work shows the benefits of combined inoculation of AMF and PGPR for the growth energy maize in metal contaminated soils and their potential for the application in phytomanagement strategies.

  16. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  17. 西南部矿区污染耕地损毁程度等级研究%Evaluation on the Degree for Polluted Cultivated Land of mining area in Southwest of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敬; 廖晓虹; 张川; 余建新

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the method system that Evaluation on the Degree for damaged Cultivated Land of mining area. It provides theoretical basis to land reclamation work. Methods employed include Delphi, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy mathematics. Constructing the method that evaluation on the degree for polluted cultivated land of mining area in Southwest of China. The results indicate: construct-ed the southwest mine pressure of cultivated land damage degree evaluation index system (including of soil pH value, soil heavy metal, land polluted rate, quality of irrigation water, soil organic matter, soil microorganism quantity); and established the evalua-tion model. As an example of metal mine in yunnan province, The degree for polluted land is appraised. In the end, the comprehensive evaluation of polluted cultivated land shows that the degree was destructed from relatively serious to very serious , and the grade was destructed from three to four. The method system can provide some practical directions for land reclamation plan -general, reclamation measures and choosing reclamation forward of cultivated land in mining area.%  为了探索对矿区耕地损毁程度等级的评价方法体系,为其土地复垦工作提供一定的理论依据。采用Delphi法、层次分析法和模糊数学综合评价法,研究矿区污染耕地损毁程度等级评价方法。构建了污染耕地损毁程度评价指标(包括土壤重金属含量、土壤pH值、田面污染率、灌溉水质、土壤有机质和土壤微生物数量变化度6个指标)及权重系数,并建立了评价模型。并以云南省某金属矿为例,进行矿区污染耕地损毁程度等级评价,结果表明矿区耕地污染损毁程度为中度~重度,即污染耕地的损毁程度偏重,其损毁程度等级偏高,耕地污染损毁等级达到Ⅲ~Ⅳ级。本文可为矿区土地复垦方案编制、受损耕地的复垦措施及复

  18. Calculate land damage degree in the coal mining subsidence area by Python,ArcGIS script language%用 ArcGIS 的 Python 脚本计算采煤沉陷区土地损毁程度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宝才; 王文龙; 梁文俊

    2016-01-01

    For calculating land damage degree in the coal mining subsidence area,the Python that attached to ArcGIS,a script language compilation software,were used to predict the land damage degree area of every land use type.Land damaged degree result characterized as the SHP file format can be outputted directly and then the predicted figures of land damaged can be obtained,through the way that the subsidence contour,additional tilting contour and horizontal deformation contour files with DWG format and the land use file with SHP format were inputted altogether in the Py-thon software.The satisfactory result was obtained from SanYuanJiXiang Coal Mine.Therefore,the software can be applied directly to calculate land damaged degree in other coal mining subsidence area.It is promoted easily and conven-ient for the application of basic technician.%为计算井工煤矿采煤沉陷区土地损毁程度,利用 ArcGIS 的 Python 脚本语言编制软件,实现通过输入相同坐标系的下沉等值线、附加倾斜等值线及水平变形等值线3个 DWG 格式文件和土地利用现状 SHP 格式文件,直接输出土地损毁程度的 SHP 格式文件,从而获得沉陷区土地损毁程度预测图。通过对三元吉祥煤矿的实例分析,该软件亦可直接用于其他井工煤矿开采沉陷区土地损毁程度计算,且方便基层技术人员使用和推广。

  19. Benefit evaluation of land reclamation in mining subsidence area with higher level of underground water%高潜水位矿区塌陷土地复垦效益估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟林; 乔磊; 李建民

    2014-01-01

    The benefit of land reclamation in mining subsidence area with higher level of underground water is an important basis for investment decisions .Based on Qidong Mine reclamation project ,this study learns reclamation benefit evaluation literature ,thus establishes appropriate indicators system for land reclamation in mining subsidence area with higher level of underground water .System Dynamics (SD Act) , net cash flow ,income approach ,value of ecosystem services and other methods are used to estimate the value associated benefits .In this paper ,Qidong Mine reclamation project as an example to evaluate the effectiveness of land reclamation ,including economic ,ecological and social benefits .It proves to be feasible to evaluate quantitatively the overall efficiency if appropriate evaluation methods are used .And it also has important practical significance and application value for promoting land reclamation work when the benefits of all stakeholders are clearly in the project of land reclamation .%高潜水位矿区塌陷土地复垦效益是投资决策的重要依据之一,本文在祁东煤矿复垦项目调查的基础上,借鉴复垦效益评价文献,建立适宜高潜水位矿区塌陷土地复垦效益评价的指标体系,运用系统动力学(S D法),净现金流法,收益还原法和生态系统服务价值法等方法估算相关效益值,并以祁东煤矿复垦项目为例,对土地复垦效益进行评价,包括经济效益、生态效益和社会效益的评价,表明采用适宜的评价方法进行定量化研究其综合效益的可行性,明确塌陷土地复垦各利益相关方的效益值,对于土地复垦工作的推进具有重要的现实意义和应用价值。

  20. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  1. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  2. GAP SIZE AND SUCCESSIONAL PROCESSES IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used clearcut logging in establishing four replicated sizes of canopy openings (0.016, 0.08, 0.4, and 2.0 ha) in a southern Appalachian hardwood forest in 1981 to examine the long-term effects of disturbance size on plant community structure, biomass accumulation, aboveground ...

  3. An Integrated Approach to Recruiting and Retaining Appalachian Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Gary; Hensel, Robin; Curtis, Reagan; Taylor, Lydotta M.; Cilento, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining Appalachian engineering students is difficult for a variety of ecological and cultural reasons. At West Virginia University an NSF STEP grant has allowed the development of specific interventions to evolve from an ecological model we describe here. The interventions include web-based, realistic engineering design exercises…

  4. Bituminous coal production in the Appalachian basin: past, present, and future: Chapter D.3 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Although small quantities of coal first were produced from the Appalachian basin in the early 1700s, the first production statistics of significance were gathered during the census of 1830 (Eavenson, 1942). Since then, about 35 billion short tons of bituminous coal have been produced from the Appalachian basin from an original potential coal reserve (PCR(o)) estimated to range from about 60 to 90 billion short tons. The term “reserve” refers to economically producible coal, and a “potential coal reserve” (PCR(n)) is an estimate of the amount of coal economically recoverable in a region (State, coal field) over a defined time period (n = number of years) and under a range of economic, societal, and technological conditions. Thus, the current cumulative production plus the PCR(n) equals an estimated cumulative production (ECP(n)). The maps in this report (oversized figures 1, 2, 3, and 4) were produced from a digital database of historical and current coal production records by county. Sources of the original data include various State geological surveys, the U.S. Geological Survey, the former U.S. Bureau of Mines, and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration. This report is part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Coal Resource Assessment Project.

  5. CARBON SEQUESTRATION SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2003-07-24

    Over 160 acres of tree seedlings were planted during the last quarter. This quarter marked the beginning of the installation of new instrumentation and the inspection and calibration of previously installed recording devices. Sampling systems were initiated to quantify initial seedling success as well as height measurements. Nursery seedlings have been inoculated to produce mycorrhizal treated stock for 2004 spring plantings to determine the effects on carbon sequestration. All planting areas in western Kentucky have been sampled with the recording cone penetrometer and the nuclear density gauge to measure soil density.

  6. 基于BJ -1小卫星遥感数据的矿区土地覆盖变化检测%Land Cover Change Detection in Coal Mining Area Using BJ -1 Small Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 杜培军; 唐伟成; 柳思聪

    2011-01-01

    为了评价利用北京一号小卫星(BJ-I)遥感数据监测煤矿区土地利用/地表覆盖变化的效果,针对其数据特点,选择基于图像信息运算和图像信息变换的直接变化检洲法以及分类后比较法,对徐州东矿区2007~2008年土地利用/地表覆盖变化情况进行检测,以对比、评价各种方法在土地利用/地表覆盖变化检测中的应用效果和BJ -1数据的适用性:结果显示,变化矢量分析法的检测精度最高,其后依次为图像比值法、图像差值法和多波段主成分分析法.通过变化检测,确定徐州市东矿区土地利用/地表覆盖变化较为集中的几个区域,包括东矿区北部的青山泉矿、韩桥矿、董庄矿和南部的大黄山矿等地区.%In order to evaluate the performance of monitoring land cover change in mining areas by BJ - 1 small satellite remote sensing data, the authors made an experimental and comparative study of several change detection methods, with the east coal mining district of Xuzhou City in Jiangsu Province as the study area. Direct change detection methods based on image information operation and image information transformation as well as the post -classification comparison method were adopted in the experiment. The results show that the change vector analysis can attain the highest accuracy, followed by the method of image ratio method, image differencing and multi - band principal component analysis. Through the change detection process, several areas with great land cover change were detected, such as Qingshanquan, Hanqiao and Dongzhuang mining areas in northern east mining district and Dahuangshan mining area in southern east mining district.

  7. Evaluation of the land reclamation project at the As Pontes Mine (NW Spain) in relation to the suitability of the soil for plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monterroso, C.; Macias, F.; Bueno, A.G.; Caballero, C.V. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1998-09-01

    The reclamation and monitoring methodologies implemented at the mining waste dump at the As Pontes Lignite Mine in Galicia (NW Spain) are briefly described. In addition the factors affecting achievement of reclamation objectives and an evaluation of the factors limiting plant growth on the constructed soils are outlined. The most serious limitations were found in the oldest mine soils constructed from sulphide-bearing spoils. The youngest soils were constructed using sulphide-free spoils as topsoil substitutes and had fewer limitations for plant development.

  8. Character analysis of mining disturbance and reclamation trajectory in surface coal-mine area by time-series NDVI%基于时序NDVI的露天煤矿区土地损毁与复垦过程特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; Zipper Carl E.; 李松; Donovan Patricia F.; Wynne Randolph H.; Oliphant Adam J.; 夏清

    2015-01-01

    露天煤矿区是人类活动强扰动地区之一。该文以阿巴拉契亚煤田区韦恩县为研究区域,应用遥感时序分析法分析了像元尺度的土地损毁和复垦过程特征。得出结论:1984-2010年间,韦兹县露天开采扰动区域占采矿权范围的45.80%,其中植被恢复区域占开采范围的66.45%,开采时间越早,植被恢复像元比例越高;开采造成的地表无植被覆盖期时长中位数为6 a,均值为7 a;已充分复垦的区域,NDVI值恢复至采前水平的加权平均时长为12 a。基于像元变化轨迹的研究,除揭示土地损毁-复垦过程特征外,能较好地反映空间异质性,可以为土地复垦管理和相关政策决策提供科学依据。%Open-pit coal mines are among the most drastic anthropogenic land disturbances. Using Wise County in the USA’s Appalachian coal field as the study area, this paper evaluates the mine land disturbance and reclamation process over a 27-year period by conducting time-series analysis of multispectral remote-sensing data at the pixel scale. Twenty TM/ETM images obtained by the Landsat satellites, with 30 m spatial resolution, are treated as a multiple-year chronosequence. Polygonal vector files defining mining permitted areas and 6 high-resolution aerial images are used as auxiliary data;and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is used as a vegetative cover indicator. The methodology and study process include 3 steps. First, training data are prepared and multispectral image data are preprocessed. Data preprocessing includes band stacking, extracting the study area as image subsets, masking of cloud, cloud shadow and water, and computing NDVI based on each study-area pixel in each image. After the training data are generated, they are used to identify the NDVI thresholds for separating bare-ground from vegetated pixels, and ever-mined pixels from those un-mined. These separations are performed by visually

  9. Predictors of occurrence of the aquatic macrophyte Podostemum ceratophyllum in a southern Appalachian River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentina, Jane E.; Freeman, Mary C.; Freeman, Byron J.

    2010-01-01

    The aquatic macrophyte Podostemum ceratophyllum (Hornleaf Riverweed) commonly provides habitat for invertebrates and fishes in flowing-water portions of Piedmont and Appalachian streams in the eastern US. We quantified variation in percent cover by P. ceratophyllum in a 39-km reach of the Conasauga River, TN and GA, to test the hypothesis that cover decreased with increasing non-forest land use. We estimated percent P. ceratophyllum cover in quadrats (0.09 m2) placed at random coordinates within 20 randomly selected shoals. We then used hierarchical logistic regression, in an information-theoretic framework, to evaluate relative support for models incorporating alternative combinations of microhabitat and shoal-level variables to predict the occurrence of high (≥50%)P. ceratophyllum cover. As expected, bed sediment size and measures of light availability (location in the center of the channel, canopy cover) were included in best-supported models and had similar estimated-effect sizes across models. Podostemum ceratophyllum cover declined with increasing watershed size (included in 8 of 13 models in the confidence set of models); however, this decrease in cover was not well predicted by variation in land use. Focused monitoring of temporal and spatial trends in status of P. ceratophyllum are important due to its biotic importance in fast-flowing waters and its potential sensitivity to landscape-level changes, such as declines in forested land cover and homogenization of benthic habitats.

  10. Regional assessment of cadmium pollution in agricultural lands and the potential health risk related to intensive mining activities:A case study in Chenzhou City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Limei; LIAO Xiaoyong; CHEN Tongbin; YAN Xiulan; XIE Hua; WU Bin; WANG Lixia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of cadmium (Cd) contamination in agricultural soil and its potential risk for people.Soils,rice,and vegetables from Chenzhou City,Southern China were sampled and analyzed.In the surface soils.the 95% confidence interval for the mean concentration of Cd varied between 2.72 and 4.83 mg/kg (P<0.05) in the survey, with a geometric mean concentration of 1.45 mg/kg.Based on the GIS map,two hot spot areas of Cd in agricultural soils with high Cd concentrations were identified to be located around the Shizhuyuan,Jinshiling,and Yaogangxian mines,and the Baoshan and Huangshaping mines,in the center of the city.About 60% of the total investigated area, where the agricultural soil Cd concentration iS above 1 mg/kg, is distributed in a central belt across the region.The critical distances, at which the soil Cd concentration were increased by the mining activities, from the mines of the soils were 23 km for the Baoshan mine,46 km for the Huangshaping mine,and 63 km for the Shizhuyuan mine,respectively.These are distances calculated from models.The Cd concentrations in rice samples ranged from 0.01 to 4.43 mg/kg and the mean dietary Cd intake from rice for an adult was 191 μg/d.Results of risk indexes showed that soil Cd concentrations possessed risks to local residents whose intake of Cd from rice and vegetables grown in soils in the vicinity of the mine was 596 μg/d.

  11. 新街台格庙矿区开发初期土地利用动态遥感监测%Land use dynamic remote sensing monitoring at the initial stage of exploitation of the Xinjie Taigemiao mining area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the land use change at the initial stage of exploitation of the Xinjie Taigemiao mining area,the author selected SPOT5 images of 2007,ALOS images of 2011,WorldView images of 2012 and QuickBird images of 2013 to extract change information. Then the land use changes and conversions were made clear through analyzing,and their change rules and driving force were obtained. According to the results obtained, the cultivated land showed rapid increase from 2007 to 2013. In this period, the driving force came from the residents ’ expectation of the land compensation; in addition, such factors as the settlement area, the water area, the greenhouse and aquatic operations were also directly responsible for the driving force. The forest land and the land for transportation area increased mainly concentratedly in the period of 2007-2011,with the former land attributed to afforestation project, and the latter to the Xinen Railway and the Langa Highway. The land for mining and industry continued to increase because of industrial construction and natural gas exploitation, and it is still maintaining a growing trend now. As the only net decrease of land use types,the grazing land that occupied a large area of the grazing land was being driven by the interests of the inevitable choice. In addition,the wasteland change represented the intermediate process of the conversion of the grazing land into other land use types.%基于2007年SPOT5数据、2011年ALOS数据、2012年WorldView数据和2013年QuickBird数据,提取新街台格庙矿区开发初期的土地利用变化信息;通过对变化信息的分析,掌握矿区内土地利用变化和转化情况,进而分析其变化规律及驱动力。研究结果表明:耕地在2007—2013年间呈现高速增加的趋势,其驱动力来自于居民对矿区开发中征地补偿的预期,居民点、水域和设施农用地的增加也是该驱动力的直接体现;林地和交通用地

  12. 麻阳铜矿废弃地土壤重金属污染现状及修复研究%Study on Present Situation and Remediation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Abandoned Copper Mine Lands in Mayang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶漪; 刘浩; 梁娟

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the current situation of heavy metal pollution in old and new tailings ,waste rock piles , copper - outcropping ores ,artificial restoration areas of tailings and waste rock piles of Mayang copper mine .The pH value ,soil organic matter content and vegetation composition of each land were also investigated . Results showed that : most of abandoned copper mine lands had different degrees of copper pollution .New tailings and copper - outcropping ores reached heavy pollution , old tailings moderate pollution ,waste rock piles light pollution ,while the artificial restoration areas of tailings and waste rock piles had no pollution .The pH value of all the abandoned copper mine lands was greater than 8 ,and the soil fertility of each land was poor with the organic content from 0.12% to 0.86% .But the fertility of artificial restoration area was significantly higher than that of tailings and waste rock piles .Contrastive analysis of vegetation composition in old tailings and artificial restoration areas of old tailings indicated that there were several plants in the former land ,while the latter land distributed 44 kinds of plants which mainly belonged to Compositae , Polygonaceae , Gramineae , Legume and Rosaceae , etc . There was no metal pollution in artificial restoration areas and soil fertility was improved ,which indicated that phytoremediation was an effective way for soil remediation in abandoned copper mine lands .%本研究分析了麻阳铜矿旧尾砂库、新尾砂库、废石场、矿脉地表露头区、尾砂库人工修复区以及废石场人工修复区等6个地类的土壤重金属污染现状,以及各地类土壤 pH 值、有机质含量以及植被组成情况.结果表明:麻阳铜矿废弃大部分地类均存在不同程度的 Cu 污染,新尾砂库和矿脉地表露头区达到重度污染,旧尾砂库达到中度污染,废石场达到轻度污染,而尾砂库人工修复区和废石场人工修复区基本

  13. Pertumbuhan Semai Gmelina dengan Berbagai Dosis Pupuk Kompos pada Media Tanah Bekas Tambang Emas (Growth of Gmelina Seedling with Various Compost Fertilizer in Ex-Gold Mining Land Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Wasis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities could have negative impacts on the environment if the tailings produced were not processedproperly. Non-economic tailing is a composite of various minerals (heavy metal with sandy texture. Environmentalimpacts that might occur as a result of poor processing of tailings is a disruption of natural ecosystems asindicated by a decline in quality and productivity of the environment as a result of changes in soil morphologyand physical properties, chemical, and biological properties. One vegetative technique that could be applied torehabilitate degraded land is re-vegetation with the application of fertilizer. Compost could improve the physicalproperties, chemical, and biological properties of soil. Compost was also an agent of bioremediation so thattoxic heavy metals elements in growing medium could be eliminated or reduced. The experimental design usedin this study was Completely Randomized Design with compost applications consisting of 4 levels of treatmentwith each level of treatment consisting of 3 replications, each replication consisted of one gmelina seedling.Research showed that the application of compost would significantly affect the growth of gmelina’s height, butnot significantly affected the diameter growth. Single-dose effect of 30 g of compost would significantly affect theseedling’s height. The combination of planting and fertilizing glemina using compost could be recommended inan effort to reclaim land of ex-gold mining.Keywords: tailing, bioremediation agent, compost fertilizer, gmelina, growth of seedling

  14. The lithosphere of the Appalachian orogen and Atlantic passive margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, K. M.; MacDougall, J. G.; Hawman, R. B.; Parker, E. H.; Wagner, L. S.

    2012-12-01

    The lithosphere of the Appalachian orogen and Atlantic passive margin has recorded repeated episodes of continental collision and break-up. Improved resolution of crust and mantle structure in this region holds promise for better understanding of orogenesis, rifting and passive margin development. At a broad scale, tomographic models manifest a decrease in lithospheric thickness from the central U.S. craton into the Appalachian orogen. Migration of Sp scattered waves indicates that a significant drop in shear-wave velocity typically occurs at depths of 80-120 km in the eastern U.S., and where these phases fall within the transition from high velocity lid to lower velocity mantle obtained from tomography, they are interpretable as the seismological lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Beneath the Appalachians and coastal plain, Sp-derived lithospheric thicknesses are larger than those found in the tectonically active western U.S. where values range from 40-90 km. The vertical shear velocity gradients required to produce the observed Sp phases are sharp (drops of 4-10% over governed solely by temperature, but they may be explained by small amounts of partial melt or enhanced volatile content in the asthenosphere. While an asthenospheric low velocity zone appears to be ubiquitous beneath the continent, minimum velocities (and likely viscosities) within the eastern U.S. asthenosphere are not as low as those in the western U.S. At smaller scales, Sp imaging hints at lithospheric thickness variations that are correlated with tectonic features (e.g. orogenic boundaries, failed rifts) but resolution will be vastly improved with analysis of data from USArray Transportable and Flexible Arrays. The goal of the Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment (SESAME) is to better understand lithospheric structures produced by accretion and rifting processes, with a particular focus on the Laurentia-Gondwana suture proposed in southern Georgia, adjacent regions of

  15. Land use classification in coal mining area using remote sensing images based on multiple classifier combination%基于多分类器集成的煤矿区土地利用遥感分类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍杰; 李光丽; 张伟; 曹文

    2011-01-01

    针对不同分类器在遥感影像分类中的应用效果,将模式识别领域的研究热点——多分类器集成,引入煤矿区土地利用遥感分类.分别以国外Landsat ETM+和国产中巴地球资源卫星(CBERS)影像为数据源,按照煤矿区土地利用分类的特点和需求,构建由支持向量机、径向基神经网络、最大似然分类器、最小距离(马氏距离)分类器、J48决策树等组成的分类器集合,基于Double Fault,WCEC,Kappa等差异性测量指标选择成员分类器,利用Bagging,Boosting、加权投票法、分类器动态选择法、分层组合分类器等分类器集成方法实现组合成员分类器输出,获得集成不同分类器优势的分类结果.试验表明:多分类器集成能够有效地提高土地利用分类精度,在煤矿区土地动态监测和生态环境分析领域具有广泛应用前景.%According to the effectiveness of various remote sensing classifiers to land use classification in coal mining area, multiple classifier combination is introduced to land use classification in coal mining area by remote sensing images. Using Landsat ETM+ and CBERS remotely sensed images as data sources, five member classifiers, including support vector machine, RBF neural network, maximum likelihood classifier, minimum distance classifier and J84 decision tree, are used to classify land use at first and form the classifier pool, and then the member classifiers are selected based on classifier diversity measurement. Boosting, Bagging, weighted voting, classifier dynamic selection and hierarchical combination classifiers are used to integrate the outputs of member classifiers to obtain final results. The experiment results indicate that the multiple classifier combination can improve the accuracy of remote sensing classification for land use in coal mining areas as a promising strategy.

  16. 硅砂矿土地复垦方案的费用效益分析%Analysis on Cost-Benefit of Land Reclamation Scheme in Silica Sand Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲玲; 刘志斌

    2011-01-01

    针对近年来土地复垦难的问题,在编制了万隆硅砂矿的土地复垦方案的基础上,运用经济学原理对彰武县万隆硅砂矿土地复垦方案的经济价值进行了详细的分析,依照土地复垦方向的不同,分别计算了各复垦单元的直接经济效益和间接经济效益,并利用复垦项目的效益费用比和静态投资回收期,评价了土地复垦规划方案的合理性。结果表明:万隆硅砂矿土地复垦方案的投资回收期为2.13a,即在土地复垦后第二年末即可收回全部成本并有部分结余。土地复垦方案的效益费用比为2.5,远远大于1,说明该矿土地复垦方案是合理的。万隆硅砂矿土地复垦方案的环境效益、生态效益和社会效益巨大,其长远经济效益是不可估量的。%On the base of compiling the land reclamation scheme of Wanlong Silica Sand Mine,the economic value of the land reclamation scheme of Wanlong Silica Sand Mine in Zhangwu County was specifically analyzed according to principles of economics with regard to the problems of land reclamation in recent years.Direct and indirect economic benefits were calculated separately according to the differences of land reclamation direction,and the rationality of the land reclamation scheme was assessed by ratio of costs to benefit and static investment recovery period.The results show that the static investment recovery period of the scheme is 2.13 years,which means that the complete cost would be withdrawn and there would be some surpluses at the end of the second year after land reclamation,that the ratio of cost to benefit is about 2.5,far greater than 1,which suggests that the land reclamation scheme is reasonable,and that the environmental benefits,ecological benefits and social benefits of the Wanlong Silica Sand Mine land reclamation scheme are tremendous and it has immeasurable long-term economic benefits.

  17. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  18. Effects of land use and surficial geology on flow and water quality of streams in the coal-mining region of southwestern Indiana, October 1979 through September 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, William G.; Renn, Danny E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    1985-01-01

    An assessment of streams in the coal-mining region of southwestern Indiana was done from October 1979 through September 1980 during stable stream flows to provide baseline hydrologic and water-quality information and to document the effect of several natural and human-induced factors on water quality in the region.

  19. 应用层次分析法确定土地复垦适宜性评价指标权重--以登封市某铝土矿矿山土地复垦为例%application research of ahP in the Weights of land suitability evaluation index-a case study on a Bauxite Mine-land reclamation in dengfeng city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯乃琦; 刘超; 朱立杰

    2014-01-01

    Mining led to the destruction of land resources, and harm to human production and lives. on the basis of the theory of analytic hierarchy process(ahP), this paper selects nine index to make quantitative evaluation on the weights of the land reclamation suitability evaluation index of a Bauxite Mine-land reclamation in dengfeng city, providing a basis for future work.%矿山开采导致土地资源破坏,给人类生产生活带来危害。文中选用了9个土地复垦适宜性评价指标,应用层次分析法对登封市某铝土矿矿山土地复垦适宜性评价指标进行了定量评价,为今后解决类似问题提出了办法。

  20. Water quality of streams draining abandoned and reclaimed mined lands in the Kantishna Hills area, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, 2008–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Ourso, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    The Kantishna Hills are an area of low elevation mountains in the northwest part of Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Streams draining the Kantishna Hills are clearwater streams that support several species of fish and are derived from rain, snowmelt, and subsurface aquifers. However, the water quality of many of these streams has been degraded by mining. Past mining practices generated acid mine drainage and excessive sediment loads that affected water quality and aquatic habitat. Because recovery through natural processes is limited owing to a short growing season, several reclamation projects have been implemented on several streams in the Kantishna Hills region. To assess the current water quality of streams in the Kantishna Hills area and to determine if reclamation efforts have improved water quality, a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service was undertaken during 2008-11. High levels of turbidity, an indicator of high concentrations of suspended sediment, were documented in water-quality data collected in the mid-1980s when mining was active. Mining ceased in 1985 and water-quality data collected during this study indicate that levels of turbidity have declined significantly. Turbidity levels generally were less than 2 Formazin Nephelometric Units and suspended sediment concentrations generally were less than 1 milligram per liter during the current study. Daily turbidity data at Rock Creek, an unmined stream, and at Caribou Creek, a mined stream, documented nearly identical patterns of turbidity in 2009, indicating that reclamation as well as natural revegetation in mined streams has improved water quality. Specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved solids and major ions were highest from streams that had been mined. Most of these streams flow into Moose Creek, which functions as an integrator stream, and dilutes the specific conductance and ion concentrations. Calcium and magnesium are the

  1. Analysis of Land-cover Changes in Lu'an Mining Area based on MODIS Data%基于MODIS数据的潞安矿区土地覆被变化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许传阳; 李华超

    2012-01-01

    煤矿区生态系统土地覆被变化是指示煤炭开采活动以及影响生态与环境的重要指标之一.基于EOS/MODIS卫星遥感数据,运用ArcGIS9.3统计与分析模块对2001~2008年间潞安矿区生态系统土地覆被变化进行了分析.结果表明:(1)在主要土地覆被类型转换中,以灌丛向稀树草地、稀树草地向农用地、地表水域向无植被区域转换为主.(2)2001~2003年间的灌丛约有150~200 km2转化为2004~2008年间的稀树草地,稀树草地约有100~150 km2转化为农用地,地表水域约有10 km2转化为无植被区域.(3)煤炭开采、农用地开垦等人类活动以及降水量减少、气温升高为特征的气候变化是研究区土地植被类型变化的两个主要原因.%The land梒over change in coal mine areas is one of important indicators which can indicate the influence degree of coal mining activities on ecology environment. Based on EOS/MODIS satellite remote sensing data and using statistics analysis module of ArcGIS9.3, the land-cover changes in Lu'an mining area from 2001 to 2008 were analyzed. The results showed that among main land-cover type transformations, it mainly transformed from shrubs to savanna, from savanna to farmland, and from surface water area to non-vegetated area. About 150~200 km2 of shrubs, which grew from 2001 to 2003, transformed to savanna during 2004-2008, about 100-150 km2 of savanna transformed to farmland, and about 10 km2 of surface water area transformed to non梫egetated area. The land梒over changes are mainly resulted from two reasons: one is human activities, including coal mining and reclamation of farmland, the other is climate changes, including decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature.

  2. Difference Does Not Mean Deficient: The Cultural and Higher Education Experiences of Appalachian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Andrea D.

    2013-01-01

    The link between women in poverty and higher education is important because it reflects inequities in access and resources that exist in the Mid-Atlantic Appalachian region. Two main questions guided the research of women in poverty in regard to postsecondary access and attainment. First, what are the experiences of Mid-Atlantic Appalachian-born…

  3. The Role of Language in Interactions with Others on Campus for Rural Appalachian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Dialects of English spoken in rural, Southern Appalachia are heavily stigmatized in mainstream American culture, and speakers of Appalachian dialects are often subject to prejudice and stereotypes which can be detrimental in educational settings. We explored the experiences of rural, Southern Appalachian college students and the role speaking a…

  4. 78 FR 57373 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application To Increase Water Withdraw and Construct Water Withdraw Facilty Pursuant to License Article 202 and Soliciting Comments, Motions... Filed: July 31, 2013. d. Applicant: Appalachian Power Company (licensee). e. Name of Project:...

  5. Appalachian Adult Literacy Programs Survey (ALPS). Final Report. Volume I--Narrative; Volume 2--Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borei, Sven H. E.; Shively, Joe E.

    The Appalachia Educational Laboratory (AEL) contracted with the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) to seek information on the presence, operation, and impact of adult learning programs within the 13-state Appalachian Region. Literacy was defined on a program operation base, possible programs were listed, and program descriptions were obtained…

  6. Final Report: Appalachian Consortium. Evaluation of a Dissemination and Diffusion Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbery Systems Analysis, Ltd., Flushing, NY.

    The Appalachian Consortium was evaluated as an organization for the dissemination of educational information regarding programs for the early identification of preschool handicapped children. Chapter I provides a historical overview and discusses the Consortium's independence from the Appalachian Educational Laboratory. The chapter also indicates…

  7. REMOTE LAND MINE(FIELD) DETECTION. An Overview of Techniques (DETECTIE VAN LANDMIJNEN EN MIJNENVELDEN OP AFSTAND. Een Overzicht van de technieken),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    D10, H9] "Technieken van en ontwikkelingen in landmijnen en mijnenvelden, een literatuurlijst", A.H.P. Reuser , September 1992, 80 pages. * Literature...een literatuurlijst", A.H.P. Reuser , September 1992, 80 pages. * Literature list of material available at the library of the Dutch army related to...with mine detection. [D10], [A15, B4, H9] "Technieken van en ontwikkelingen in landmijnen en mijnenvelden, een literatuurlijst", A.H.P. Reuser

  8. Hydrolytic activity and metabolism of sediment and epilithon in streams draining mountaintop removal coal mining, West Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal and valley filling (MTR/VF) is a method of coal mining used in the Central Appalachians. Regulations require that potential impacts to stream functions must be considered when determining the compensatory mitigation necessary for replacing aquatic resources un...

  9. Remote sensing for environmental site screening and watershed evaluation in Utah Mine lands - East Tintic mountains, Oquirrh mountains, and Tushar mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McDougal, Robert R.; Gent, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Imaging spectroscopy-a powerful remote-sensing tool for mapping subtle variations in the composition of minerals, vegetation, and man-made materials on the Earth's surface-was applied in support of environmental assessments and watershed evaluations in several mining districts in the State of Utah. Three areas were studied through the use of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data: (1) the Tintic mining district in the East Tintic Mountains southwest of Provo, (2) the Camp Floyd mining district (including the Mercur mine) and the Stockton (or Rush Valley) mining district in the Oquirrh Mountains south of the Great Salt Lake, and (3) the Tushar Mountains and Antelope Range near Marysvale. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for initial site screening and the planning of AVIRIS surveys. The AVIRIS data were analyzed to create spectrally defined maps of surface minerals with special emphasis on locating and characterizing rocks and soils with acid-producing potential (APP) and acid-neutralizing potential (ANP). These maps were used by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for three primary purposes: (1) to identify unmined and anthropogenic sources of acid generation in the form of iron sulfide and (or) ferric iron sulfate-bearing minerals such as jarosite and copiapite; (2) to seek evidence for downstream or downwind movement of minerals associated with acid generation, mine waste, and (or) tailings from mines, mill sites, and zones of unmined hydrothermally altered rocks; and (3) to identify carbonate and other acid-buffering minerals that neutralize acidic, potentially metal bearing, solutions and thus mitigate potential environmental effects of acid generation. Calibrated AVIRIS surface-reflectance data were spectrally analyzed to identify and map selected surface materials. Two maps were produced from each flightline of AVIRIS data: a map of iron-bearing minerals and water having absorption features in the

  10. "easyMine" – realistic and systematic mine detection simulation tooltion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Böttger

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mine detection is to date mainly performed with metal detectors, although new methods for UXO detection are explored worldwide. The main problem for the mine detection to date is, that there exist some ideas of which sensor combinations could yield a high score, but until now there is no systematic analysis of mine detection methods together with realistic environmental conditions to conclude on a physically and technically optimized sensor combination. This gap will be removed by a project “easyMine" (Realistic and systematic Mine Detection Simulation Tool which will result in a simulation tool for optimizing land mine detection in a realistic mine field. The project idea for this software tool is presented, that will simulate the closed chain of mine detection, including the mine in its natural environment, the sensor, the evaluation and application of the measurements by an user. The tool will be modularly designed. Each chain link will be an independent, exchangeable sub- module and will describe a stand alone part of the whole mine detection procedure. The advantage of the tool will be the evaluation of very different kinds of sensor combinations in relation of their real potential for mine detection. Three detection methods (metal detector, GPR and imaging IR-radiometry will be explained to be introduced into the easyMine software tool in a first step. An actual example for land mine detection problem will be presented and approaches for solutions with easyMine will be shown.

  11. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  12. Land Subsidence Monitoring in Mining Area with the Application of GPS and D-InSAR%基于GPS与D-InSAR融合技术的矿区沉降监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 郑南山; 王刚

    2011-01-01

    采用GPS与D-InSAR融合技术进行地面形变监测具有重要的研究意义。本文在较系统地分析GPS与D-In-SAR的技术特点与互补性以及矿区开采沉陷特点的基础上,探讨了GPS与D-InSAR技术融合的理论和方法,特别是利用GPS与InSAR数据融合建立大气延迟改正模型的方法和改善InSAR相位解缠算法。最后分析了利用GPS与D-InSAR融合技术进行矿区沉陷监测的可行性。%Research on the integration of GPS and D-InSAR for land surface deformation monitoring is of significance.This paper firstly analyzes the characteristics of GPS and D-InSAR,and introduces the advantages with the application of GPS and Insar.After discussing the integration of GPS and D-InSAR,it emphases on the approach to mitigate atmospheric delay by GPS observation for improving phase unwrapping.Finally it suggests that it is feasible to monitor land subsidence in coal mining area with the integration of GPS and Insar.

  13. D-InSAR 技术在矿区地表沉降监测中的应用%Application of D-InSAR Technique to the Land Subsidence Monitoring in Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海涛; 李辉; 刘勇峰; 王云海

    2011-01-01

    利用欧空局ENVISAT ASAR雷达数据,获取了SAR影像的干涉条纹并结合SRTM DEM数据,分别采用了二路差分和三路差分对武安市下团城村铁矿区域地表沉降进行监测,获得了区域内的最大沉降值和沉降带分布情况,初步探索了无目标、无时域、大范围、高精度地对地表进行沉降监测的方法,得出了影响最终结果精度的主要因素.%The interference stripes of SAR image was obtained by using radar data of the European Space Agency ENVISAT ASAR. Through monitoring land subsidence in Xiatuancheng Iron Mine in Wu'an city by means of two-pass and three-pass differential interferometry, the maximum subsidence value and the distribution of subsidence zone were determined,with combination of the SRTM DEM data. And the technology of large scale and high accurate land snbsidence monitoring without target and time domain was preliminarily explored. Then the main factors of affecting the accuracy of final results were got.

  14. Bankfull Curves for the Temperate Rainforests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICKEY B. HENSON

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships, also called regional curves, relate bankfull stream channel dimensions and discharge to watershed drainage area. This paper describes results of bankfull curve relationships developed for the temperate rainforests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains primarily on Western North Carolina Mountain streams in the Southeastern United States. Gauge stations for small and larger catchments were selected with a range of 10 to 50 years of continuous or peak discharge measurements, no major impoundments, no significant change in land use over the past 10 years, and impervious cover ranges of <20%. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys were measured at each study reach to determine channel dimension, pattern, and profile information. Log-Pearson Type III distributions were used to analyze annual peak discharge data for nine small watersheds sites gauged by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and for eleven larger watersheds gauged by the United States Geological Survey (USGS. Power function relationships were developed using regression analyses for bankfull discharge, channel cross-sectional area, mean depth, and width as functions of watershed drainage area.

  15. Post-mining policies and practices in the Eastern USA coal region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeff Skousen; Carl E. Zipper

    2014-01-01

    Surface coal mines prior to 1950 in the USA were generally left without any reclamation. As government regulations advanced since then, mine operators were required to backfill the area and plant grasses or trees. After the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA) was passed in 1977 in the USA, mine operators were required to conduct pre-mining analyses of the site and to designate a land use that could be achieved after mining. Successful reclamation, as needed to satisfy today’s societal demands, requires engineering, design, and purposeful reconstruction of the full mining disturbance, not just its surface, and control of waters leaving the mine site. Effective reclamation on modern American coal mines is fully integrated with the mining operation. A suitable and effective post-mining land use that is sustainable for future generations is crucial to the long-term success and profitability of the mining business and to the future economic benefits of the landowner. Accepted post-mining land uses in the USA are:(1) prime farmland, (2) hay land and pasture, (3) biofuel crops, (4) forestry, (5) wildlife habitat, and (6) building site development. Policies and regulations for each post-mining land use were developed and practices to achieve successful and sustainable land uses were established. Post-mining conditions should provide ecosystem services and produce lands capable of supporting societal needs in the future.

  16. Investigations of microbial regeneration of abandoned mining land. Project 1: Leachate reduction in ore mining regions with high levels of heavy metal sulfides. Final report 2000; Untersuchungen zur mikrobiellen Sicherung von Bergbaualtlasten. Teilvorhaben 1: Laugungsreduzierung in Schwermetallsulfid-belasteten Erzbergbauregionen. Abschlussbericht 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sand, W.; Jozsa, P.G.; Schippers, A.

    2001-02-01

    The project was aimed at the development of an optimized catalogue of measures for regeneration and reclamation of polluted mining land. Reports were published in 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998. This report summarizes the work of 1999 and 2000. A catalogue of measures is proposed on the basis of the results. [German] Ziel des Projektes ist die Erarbeitung eines optimierten Massnahmenpaketes zur Sicherung und Sanierung von Bergbaualtlasten, die durch mikrobiologische Sauerwasserbildung und Schwermetallmobilisierung Boeden und Gewaesser kontaminieren. Die Problematik und der Stand der Kenntnisse sowie erste Ergebnisse der Bestandsaufnahmen wurden in den Jahresberichten 1995 und 1996 sowie im Fortsetzungsantrag ausfuehrlich dargestellt. Ueber die Versuchsergebnisse der Jahre 1997 und 1998 wurde bereits berichtet. Im Folgenden werden die in den Jahren 1999 und 2000 erzielten Ergebnisse zusammengefasst und eine Bewertung der Projektarbeit vorgenommen. Abschliessend wird ein Massnahmenkatalog vorgeschlagen, der bei der Planung und Durchfuehrung von Sanierungsaufgaben an Bergbaualtlasten den Anwendern die aus mikrobiologischer Sicht zu beruecksichtigenden Aspekte mit Loesungsmoeglichkeiten gebuendelt zur Verfuegung stellt. (orig.)

  17. Knowledge and Perceptions of Diabetes in an Appalachian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rye, MS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Qualitative research on knowledge and perceptions of diabetes is limited in the Appalachian region, where social, economic, and behavioral risk factors put many individuals at high risk for diabetes. The aim of this study was to gain a culturally informed understanding of diabetes in the Appalachian region by 1 determining cultural knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of diabetes among those who live in the region; 2 identifying concerns and barriers to care for those with diabetes; and 3 determining the barriers and facilitators to developing interventions for the prevention and early detection of diabetes in Appalachia. Methods Thirteen focus groups were conducted in 16 counties in West Virginia in 1999. Seven of the groups were composed of persons with diabetes (n = 61, and six were composed of community members without diabetes (n = 40. Participants included 73 women and 28 men (n = 101. Results Findings show that among this population there is lack of knowledge about diabetes before and after diagnosis and little perception that a risk of diabetes exists (unless there is a family history of diabetes. Social interactions are negatively affected by having diabetes, and cultural and economic barriers to early detection and care create obstacles to the early detection of diabetes and education of those diagnosed. Conclusion Public health education and community-level interventions for primary prevention of diabetes in addition to behavior change to improve the management of diabetes are needed to reduce the health disparities related to diabetes in West Virginia.

  18. Lessons in collaboration and effective field research from the Appalachian Headwaters Research Experience for Undergraduates Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. L.; Fox, J.; Wilder, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2009, the authors launched year one of a three-year National Science Foundation-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates entitled "Carbon Storage and Headwater Health in the Appalachian Headwaters." Eight undergraduates selected from a nationally competitive field of more than 60 applicants participated in the ten-week field- and laboratory-based program along with three middle- and high-school teachers. Each student developed and completed an independent research project related to coal mining’s impact on soil organic carbon and sediment transport processes. Specifically, they used isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signature of soils and sediments in the Appalachian headwater landscapes and first order streams of Kentucky's southeastern coalfields. Among the program's innovative features was its fundamentally collaborative nature--which was represented in several ways. First, the background of the three program leaders was very different: an environmental planner with an academic background in land use planning and administration (Jones); a civil engineer trained in biogeochemistry and watershed modeling (Fox); and an environmental educator experienced in both formal and nonformal educator training and certification (Wilder). The program was also a collaboration between a Carnegie 1 research-oriented institution and an undergraduate/ teaching -focused regional comprehensive university. Finally, the participants themselves represented a diversity of disciplines and institutional backgrounds--including biology, geology, chemistry, environmental science and civil engineering. The Research Experience for Teachers component was another innovative program element. The teachers participated in all field and laboratory research activities during the first six weeks, then developed a unit of study for their own classrooms to be implemented during the current school year. In addition to the six

  19. Inverting the impacts: Mining, conservation and sustainability claims near the Rio Tinto/QMM ilmenite mine in Southeast Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seagle, C.W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper traces a genealogy of land access and legitimization strategies culminating in the current convergence of mining and conservation in Southeast Madagascar, contributing to recent debates analyzing the commonalities and interdependencies between seemingly discrete types of land acquisitions

  20. Review of the Federal Mining Law. [German Federal Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Mining Law is a codification of mining law in the Federal Republic of Germany. It contains 178 paragraphs covering all aspects of prospecting and mining of mineral raw materials and related activities. The new law is to replace the former regional mining laws as well as most of the former Federal and regional regulations. All in all, 104 laws and regulations are repealed in sections 174 and 175. Basic principles of the former mining laws have been adhered to, e.g. mineral reserves do not come under the proprietory rights of the land owner, preventive monitoring of operations by means of operation plans, cession of territory under mining law, and the regulations concerning mining and land ownership. However, there are new details in the Federal Mining Law, in particular with regard to concessions and mining damage; this is reflected in a more complicated legal language.

  1. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  2. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  3. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  4. 引黄河泥沙充填复垦采煤沉陷地技术的试验研究%Technique for filling reclamation of mining subsidence land with Yellow River sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振琪; 王培俊; 邵芳

    2015-01-01

    为探寻适合中国东部高潜水位平原矿区的土地复垦新技术,该文选取济宁市北部试验场为研究对象,介绍了引黄河泥沙充填复垦采煤沉陷地的新技术,包括技术工艺流程、复垦后地貌景观、复垦土壤剖面状况、复垦土壤理化性状以及复垦农田生产力。结果表明:1)短距离引黄河泥沙充填复垦技术在济宁市北部试验场得到了成功应用,土地复垦率为100%,耕地面积恢复率达95%,证明了引黄河泥沙充填复垦技术的可行性;2)黄河泥沙充填复垦土壤剖面的保水保肥性能存在一定的不足,复垦农田的表层(0~20 cm)、中层(>20~50 cm)和底层(>50~80 cm)土壤的含水量、全氮、速效钾、有机质含量以及表层(0~20 cm)土壤的有效磷含量均小于对照农田相应层的含量,且复垦农田土壤全氮和有机质较为缺乏,限制了农作物的生长;3)实地测产发现充填复垦农田的产量只有对照农田的一半左右,说明需要对充填复垦工艺进行革新和复垦土壤进行改良。论文在分析引黄充填技术可行性的基础上,提出了未来需要革新的4个方面:复垦土壤剖面重构的革新、水沙快速分离的充填排水工艺革新、动水条件下高效取沙设备的优选与革新以及远距离管道输沙技术参数优选。引黄河泥沙充填复垦技术对滨黄河流域的河南、山东等省很多矿区的采煤沉陷地都具有推广应用价值。%Mining subsidence is one of the most prominent environmental problems in the plain area with high groundwater level in Eastern China. The recovery percentage of cultivated land with non-filling reclamation techniques, such as "Digging deep to fill shallow", "Directly reconditioning" and "Drainage" is too low, while filling reclamation technique is an effective way to solve the problem. However, the filling reclamation material, such as coal gangue and

  5. Effects of stop-level habitat change on cerulean warbler detections along breeding bird survey routes in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhone, P.M.; Wood, P.B.; Dawson, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of habitat change on Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) populations at stops along Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) routes in the central Appalachians. We used aerial photographs to compare early (1967/1971), middle (1982/1985), and late (2000/2003) periods and compared 1992 and 2001 National Land Cover Data (NLCD). Mean Cerulean Warbler detections per stop decreased at 68 BBS stops between the early (0.05) and middle (0.01) time periods and their distribution became more restricted (15 vs. 3% of stops), but the amount of deciduous/mixed forest increased. Mean detections at 240 stops decreased from the middle (0.09) to the late (0.06) time periods, but the deciduous/mixed forest land cover and fragmentation metrics did not change. The amounts of deciduous/mixed forest, core forest area, and edge density in the NLCD analysis decreased from 1992 to 2001, whereas the amount of non-forest land cover increased. The number of Cerulean Warbler detections did not change (1992 ?=? 0.08, 2001 ?=? 0.10; P ?=? 0.11). The lack of concordance between Cerulean Warbler detections and broad habitat features suggests that smaller, microhabitat features may be most important in affecting Cerulean Warbler breeding habitat suitability. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  6. Mining the ocean floor: Managing geological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wambeke, T.; Alvarez Grima, M.; Fenton, G.A.; Benndorf, J.; Vervoort, A.

    2013-01-01

    As land resources decrease, commodity prices increase, and technology evolves, deep sea mining is becoming a viable alternative to meet the increasing demand for minerals. Successful deep sea mining operations are built on sound identification of the resource, proper selection of equipment, a though

  7. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  8. Ecological Reclamation Effect of Arbuscualr Mycorrhizal Inoculum on Subsided Land in the Area of Shendong Coal Mine%接种菌根对神东矿区采煤沉陷地的生态修复效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳辉; 毕银丽; ZHAKYPBEK Y.; 蒋明明; 高斐

    2012-01-01

    Currently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi technology becomes one of the hotspots in the research on land microbial remediation for mining subsidence. Taking amorpha fruiticosa planting in the mining subsidence of Shendong mining area as a study object, AMF vaccinated on amorpha fruiticosa after 16 months, 25 months, and 28 months, respectively are used to analyze its effect on the growth of plant and on rhizosphere soil physical properties. And then the correlation between hyphae density and effective phosphorus of rhizosphere is analyzed. By using regression analysis, it is indicated that in different monitoring time, for example, hyphae density and effective phosphorus in September had better linear fitting than that in June, which is closely associated with development time of mycorrhizal. With the time passing by, the correlation of vaccination between hyphae density and effective phosphorus content is gradually decreased; however, the positive correlation of un-vaccinated is gradually emerged. The results of mycorrhizal bioremediation on mining subsidence in Shendong mining area prove that vaccination not only could effectively promote growth and development of amorpha fruiticosa in macroscopic, but also could improve the growth matrix conditions in microscopic.%丛枝菌根真菌技术对采煤沉陷区进行土地微生物修复是目前研究的热点之一.本文以神东采煤沉陷区种植的紫穗槐接种丛枝菌根真菌为研究对象,经16、25和28个月监测和对接种菌丝密度与土壤有效磷含量的相关性分析,表明接种对植物生长和根际土壤理化性状产生的一定影响.回归分析方法表明,接种菌菌丝密度与有效磷含量随着时间的推移逐渐降低,而对照逐渐呈现正相关性;不同的监测时间相关性不同,如9月的菌丝密度与有效磷含量的相关性优于6月的,这与菌根发育时间密切相关.神东矿区采煤沉陷地紫穗槐试验结果证明,接种菌根真菌能够

  9. 30 CFR 879.11 - Land eligible for acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Land eligible for acquisition. 879.11 Section... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.11 Land eligible for acquisition. (a) We may acquire land adversely affected by past coal...

  10. Annual and fourth quarter report for 1977--1978. [Appalachian area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

    1978-10-01

    Studies of shales in the Appalachian area are reported (mainly in the form of abstracts of reports or manuscripts). They discuss the geology, lithology, stratigraphy, radioactivity, organic matter, the isotopic abundance of carbon and sulfur isotopes, etc. of shales in this area with maps. One report discusses Devonian paliocurrents in the central and northern Appalachian basin. Another discusses sedimentology of the Brallier Formation. The stratigraphy of upper Devonian shales along the southern shore of Lake Erie was also studied. (LTN)

  11. The atlas of major Appalachian gas plays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This project will evaluate the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of filling abandoned underground mine voids with alkaline, advanced coal combustion wastes. Both pneumatic and hydraulic injection methods will be investigated. Success will be measured in terms of technical feasibility of the approach (i.e. % void filling), cost, environmental benefits (acid mine drainage and subsidence control) and environmental impacts (noxious ion release). Phase 1 is concerned with the development of the grout and a series of predictive models. Phase 1 will also redesign a pneumatic ejector, that was developed to stow limestone, to efficiently stow FBC ash. Phase 2 is a small scale field test at Anker Energy`s Fairfax mine. An inactive panel will be used to evaluate flow, strength, and pressure requirements for hydraulic (grout) injection. The Phase 2 pneumatic injection activities will take place at an Anker Energy mine in Preston County, West Virginia. Air flow requirements, pressure requirements, stowing rate (tons per hour), and stowing efficiency (distance blown) will be determined. Phase 3 is to take 26 months and will be a full scale test at Anker`s eleven acre Long Ridge mine site. The mine will be filled using both pneumatic and hydraulic injection methods. It is expected that the FBC ash will replace what is now an acid mine pool with an alkaline solid so that the ground water will tend to flow around rather than through the previously mined areas. The project will demonstrate whether FBC ash can be successfully disposed of in underground mines.

  12. Feasibility Study of Biopower in East Helena, Montana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former American Smelting and Refining Company (Asarco) smelter in East Helena, Montana, was selected for a feasibility study under the initiative. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on the wood products industry in the area. Biopower was selected as the technology based on Montana's renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requiring utilities to purchase renewable power.

  13. 矿区废弃地重金属的植物修复技术研究进展%Progress of Phytoremediation Technology of Heavy Metal in Mining Waste Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丹丹; 吴晓芙; 陈永华; 刘庆; 郝君

    2012-01-01

    文章从矿区废弃地重金属污染土壤的现状及其对环境的影响入手,综述了植物修复技术用于矿区重金属污染修复与治理的机理、超富集植物筛选研究进展,提出实际应用中超富集植物的筛选原则:植物体内重金属的临界含量高低、植株的生物量大小、叶绿素含量的高低及根系转运能力的大小。指出了植物修复在投资、建设、运行管理及其环境效应方面的优势性与耐受植物种类及修复速率等方面存在的局限性。最后,展望了植物修复在矿区废弃地重金属污染修复中的研究与应用前景。%This article discusses the current situation of heavy metal polluted soil in mining waste land and its impacts on the environment.It also summarizes the mechanism that makes phytoremediation technology an effective way to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils and presents the present level of screening hyperaccumulators.The screening principles of hyperaccumulators in practical application are put forward,first,content of heavy metal in the plant;second,biomass of the plant;third,chlorophyll content and also the transfer ability of the root.The advantage of hyperaccumulator in repairing heavy metal polluted soils and their superiorities in investigation,construction and operations management were studied,although it has some limitations in tolerant plants and repairing velocity.Finally,this paper forecasts the application prospect of phytoremediation in repairing the heavy metal polluted mining waste land.

  14. A Presence-Only Model of Suitable Roosting Habitat for the Endangered Indiana Bat in the Southern Appalachians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina R Hammond

    Full Text Available We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, M. sodalis roosts are scattered across a heavily forested landscape, which makes protecting individual roosts impractical during large-scale management activities. We created a predictive spatial model of summer roosting habitat to identify important predictors using the presence-only modeling program MaxEnt and an information theoretic approach for model comparison. Two of 26 candidate models together accounted for >0.93 of AICc weights. Elevation and forest type were top predictors of presence; aspect north/south and distance-to-ridge were also important. The final average best model indicated that 5% of the study area was suitable habitat and 0.5% was optimal. This model matched our field observations that, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, optimal roosting habitat for M. sodalis is near the ridge top in south-facing mixed pine-hardwood forests at elevations from 260-575 m. Our findings, coupled with data from other studies, suggest M. sodalis is flexible in roost habitat selection across different ecoregions with varying topography and land use patterns. We caution that, while mature pine-hardwood forests are important now, specific areas of suitable and optimal habitat will change over time. Combining the information theoretic approach with presence-only models makes it possible to develop landscape-scale habitat suitability maps for forest bats.

  15. Fire effects on wildlife in Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A.; Ford, William; Lashley, Marcus A.; Moorman, Christopher; Stambaugh, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Fire is being prescribed and used increasingly to promote ecosystem restoration (e.g., oak woodlands and savannas) and to manage wildlife habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions, USA. However, questions persist as to how fire affects hardwood forest communities and associated wildlife, and how fire should be used to achieve management goals. We provide an up-to-date review of fire effects on various wildlife species and their habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachians. Documented direct effects (i.e., mortality) on wildlife are rare. Indirect effects (i.e., changes in habitat quality) are influenced greatly by light availability, fire frequency, and fire intensity. Unless fire intensity is great enough to kill a portion of the overstory, burning in closed-canopy forests has provided little benefit for most wildlife species in the region because it doesn’t result in enough sunlight penetration to elicit understory response. Canopy reduction through silvicultural treatment has enabled managers to use fire more effectively. Fire intensity must be kept low in hardwoods to limit damage to many species of overstory trees. However, wounding or killing trees with fire benefits many wildlife species by allowing increased sunlight to stimulate understory response, snag and subsequent cavity creation, and additions of large coarse woody debris. In general, a fire-return interval of 2 yr to 7 yr benefits a wide variety of wildlife species by providing a diverse structure in the understory; increasing browse, forage, and soft mast; and creating snags and cavities. Historically, dormant-season fire was most prevalent in these regions, and it still is when most prescribed fire is implemented in hardwood systems as burn-days are relatively few in the growing season of May through August because of shading from leaf cover and high fuel moisture. Late growing-season burning increases the window for burning, and better control on woody composition is

  16. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L

    2016-08-26

    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  17. Mercury bioaccumulation in Southern Appalachian birds, assessed through feather concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rebecca Hylton; Xie, Lingtian; Buchwalter, David B.; Franzreb, Kathleen E.; Simons, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wildlife has rarely been studied in the Southern Appalachians despite high deposition rates in the region. From 2006 to 2008 we sampled feathers from 458 birds representing 32 species in the Southern Appalachians for total mercury and stable isotope δ 15N. Mercury concentrations (mean ± SE) averaged 0.46 ± 0.02 μg g−1 (range 0.01–3.74 μg g−1). Twelve of 32 species had individuals (7 % of all birds sampled) with mercury concentrations higher than 1 μg g−1. Mercury concentrations were 17 % higher in juveniles compared to adults (n = 454). In adults, invertivores has higher mercury levels compared to omnivores. Mercury was highest at low-elevation sites near water, however mercury was detected in all birds, including those in the high elevations (1,000–2,000 m). Relative trophic position, calculated from δ 15N, ranged from 2.13 to 4.87 across all birds. We fitted linear mixed-effects models to the data separately for juveniles and year-round resident adults. In adults, mercury concentrations were 2.4 times higher in invertivores compared to omnivores. Trophic position was the main effect explaining mercury levels in juveniles, with an estimated 0.18 ± 0.08 μg g−1 increase in feather mercury for each one unit rise in trophic position. Our research demonstrates that mercury is biomagnifying in birds within this terrestrial mountainous system, and further research is warranted for animals foraging at higher trophic levels, particularly those associated with aquatic environments downslope from montane areas receiving high mercury deposition.

  18. Coalbed methane resources of the Appalachian Basin, eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Hatch, Joseph R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the technically recoverable, undiscovered coalbed-gas resources in the Appalachian basin and Black Warrior basin Assessment Provinces as about 15.5 trillion cubic feet. Although these resources are almost equally divided between the two areas, most of the production occurs within relatively small areas within these Provinces, where local geological and geochemical attributes have resulted in the generation and retention of large amounts of methane within the coal beds and have enhanced the producibility of the gas from the coal. In the Appalachian basin, coalbed methane (CBM) tests are commonly commercial where the cumulative coal thickness completed in wells is greater than three meters (10 ft), the depth of burial of the coal beds is greater than 100 m (350 ft), and the coal is in the thermogenic gas window. In addition to the ubiquitous cleating within the coal beds, commercial production may be enhanced by secondary fracture porosity related to supplemental fracture systems within the coal beds. In order to release the methane from microporus coal matrix, most wells are dewatered prior to commercial production of gas. Two Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were defined by the USGS during the assessment: the Pottsville Coal-bed gas TPS in Alabama, and the Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas TPS in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, and Alabama. These were divided into seven assessment units, of which three had sufficient data to be assessed. Production rates are higher in most horizontal wells drilled into relatively thick coal beds, than in vertical wells; recovery per unit area is greater, and potential adverse environmental impact is decreased.

  19. Naval Station Newport Wind Resource Assessment. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites, and The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, R.; Fields, J.; Roberts, J. O.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy (RE) on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate RE options at Naval Station (NAVSTA) Newport in Newport, Rhode Island where multiple contaminated areas pose a threat to human health and the environment. Designated a superfund site on the National Priorities List in 1989, the base is committed to working toward reducing the its dependency on fossil fuels, decreasing its carbon footprint, and implementing RE projects where feasible. The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) partnered with NREL in February 2009 to investigate the potential for wind energy generation at a number of Naval and Marine bases on the East Coast. NAVSTA Newport was one of several bases chosen for a detailed, site-specific wind resource investigation. NAVSTA Newport, in conjunction with NREL and NFESC, has been actively engaged in assessing the wind resource through several ongoing efforts. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and a survey of potential wind turbine options based upon the site-specific wind resource.

  20. 76 FR 70162 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for a Possible Land Use Plan Amendment To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... public land laws, including the mining laws, except the sale provisions of the FLPMA. The segregative... fisheries, land and realty, hydrology, soils, sociology and economics. Native American Tribal...

  1. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  2. Mines and human casualties: a robotics approach toward mine clearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Masoud; Manthena, Dinesh; Ghaffari, Alireza; Hall, Ernest L.

    2004-10-01

    An estimated 100 million landmines which have been planted in more than 60 countries kill or maim thousands of civilians every year. Millions of people live in the vast dangerous areas and are not able to access to basic human services because of landmines" threats. This problem has affected many third world countries and poor nations which are not able to afford high cost solutions. This paper tries to present some experiences with the land mine victims and solutions for the mine clearing. It studies current situation of this crisis as well as state of the art robotics technology for the mine clearing. It also introduces a survey robot which is suitable for the mine clearing applications. The results show that in addition to technical aspects, this problem has many socio-economic issues. The significance of this study is to persuade robotics researchers toward this topic and to peruse the technical and humanitarian facets of this issue.

  3. Optimal plan of construction organization for land reclamation proj ect with multi-seam mining subsidence basing upon network planning technology%基于网络计划的采煤塌陷地复垦施工组织优化设计∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋杨睿; 王金满

    2016-01-01

    China has large amounts of underground coal mines and most of them have multi-seam mining subsidence that could cause the surface subsidence repeatedly and need many times of land reclamation.Therefore,it was very important to design a high effective and reasonable construction organization plan for coal mining subsidence which caused by multi-seam mining. The authors took Shanxi coal mine as an example,conducted reclamation stage division basing upon land subsidence forecast results and used an advanced network planning technology to de-sign an optimal plan of construction organization for land reclamation proj ect with multi-seam mining subsidence.The results showed that it was feasible to use the network planning technolo-gy to design the optimal plan of construction organization for land reclamation proj ect with multi-seam mining subsidence.By drawing the network planning,it could greatly improve the efficiency of the construction organization design,so that land reclamation proj ect with multi-seam mining subsidence is clear and easy to understand,at the meanwhile,the network planning could be con-tinuous optimized and improved combining with the mining sequence,technologies and effects of land reclamation.%我国井工矿众多,且多为多煤层开采,会引起地表多次塌陷,需对采煤塌陷地进行多次复垦。因此,针对多煤层开采引起的采煤塌陷编制高效合理的复垦工程施工组织设计就显得格外重要。以山西省井工煤矿为例,根据塌陷土地预测结果进行复垦阶段划分,并采用先进的网络计划技术,对多次采煤塌陷土地进行了施工组织优化设计。通过研究发现应用网络计划技术进行多煤层开采塌陷土地复垦工程施工组织优化设计是可行的。通过绘制网络计划图,可以极大地提高施工组织设计的效率,使多次塌陷土地多次复垦工作主次分明,清晰易懂。同时,网络图可以结合采矿时序、工

  4. Landscape coordination changes in Jinggezhuang mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Mei-chen; Zhou, Jin-hua; Chen, Qiu-ji [China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing (China). School of Land Science and Technology

    2008-10-15

    Indexes of all types of landscape in Jinggezhuang mining area in different periods were calculated using FRAGSTATS 3.3 software. The landscape pattern information indicates that the landscape in the mining area has changed greatly. The former landscape dominated by cultivation has become mining-occupied land with waste piles; the rural settlement land changes most of all the landscape types; the information entropy of landscape pattern is in a rising trend; each type of landscape shows its own change regularity: (1) farmland is divided and integrated by other types of landscape; (2) vegetable plots are dispersed; (3) forest land is the main landscape resulting from ecological reconstruction; (4) the gulch declines and its natural boundary becomes artificial; (5) the area of mining seeper increases and its quantity declines and the shape tends to be regular;(6) the quantity of fish ponds increases; (7) the villages move continuously and the uniformity of rural settlement land declines; (8) the connectivity of road corridors increases. The analyses indicate that mining and urbanization have great influences on the landscape pattern in the mining area on the urban-rural fringe. Land reclamation and ecological reconstruction improve the landscape. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of Mining-oriented Urban Land Use Sustainability Based on Triangle Model%基于三角模型的矿业城市土地利用可持续性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 雷国平; 崔明哲; 王伟娜; 姜磊; 张健; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    According to the characteristics of mining oriented urban land use and the nature of triangle model, the status and trends of urban land sustainable use of Fuxin was analyzed and evaluated. 19 evaluation indices reflecting the natural, economic and social elected to were selected build evaluation index system by combi- ning with the rationality of non-resource enviromnent, economic feasibility and non-social acceptability, and the analytic hierarchy process was used to calculate weight, three composite index values were obtained by the weighted average method. Finally, triangle model was used to analyze the status and trends of urban land sustainable use of Fuxin. The results showed that status of land sustainable use shifted from relatively non- sustainability to relatively common sustainability, the trends shifted from relatively weak sustainability to very strong sustainability, and ecological performance changed from weak to good condition from 2001 to 2009, in urban area of Fuxin. Itls feasible to apply the triangle model in evaluation of urban land sustainable use Fuxin need to focus on resolving the adjustment of industrial structure, environmental protection and population control in terms of the development in the future.%根据矿业城市土地利用特点和三角模型性质,对阜新市城市土地可持续利用状态与趋势进行分析评价。结合非资源环境合理性、经济可行性以及非社会可接受性3个指数,选取反映阜新市自然、经济和社会等方面的19项评价指标,构建评价指标体系,运用层次分析法计算权重,然后采用加权平均法求得3个综合指数值,最后利用三角模型对阜新市市区土地可持续利用状态与趋势进行分析。结果表明:2001~2009年阜新市市区土地可持续利用状态由相对不可持续上升为相对一般可持续,土地可持续利用趋势由相对弱可持续转变为相对很强可持续;生态表现

  6. Soil Carbon Dynamics in Residential Lawns Converted from Appalachian Mixed Oak Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad D. Campbell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of unmanaged forest land to homesites dominated by managed turfgrass lawns continues to increase and has large potential impacts on biogeochemical cycling. The conversion process from forest into mowed turfgrass involves a major disturbance to soil properties and shift in ecological conditions, which could affect soil physical, chemical and biological properties, including carbon sequestration. We conducted a study on 64 residential properties, ranging from 5 to 52 years since development, to compare soil carbon content, bulk density, temperature, and moisture, between lawns and the surrounding forests from which they were converted. Homeowners were surveyed on lawn management practices and environmental attitudes, and the relationships between these and soil properties were investigated. Soil bulk density was significantly higher in the upper 10 cm of lawns compared to adjacent forest (35% higher at 0–5 cm and 15.6% higher at 5–10 cm. Total soil C content to 30 cm of lawn (6.5 kg C m−2 and forest (7.1 kg C m−2 marginally differed (p = 0.08, and lawns contained significantly greater C (0.010 g C cm−3 than forests (0.007 g C cm−3 at the 20–30 cm soil depth (p = 0.0137. In the lawns, there was a positive relationship between time since development and surface (0–5 cm C concentration (p = 0.04, but a negative relationship at 20–30 cm (p = 0.03. Surface soils also exhibited a positive correlation between fertilization frequency and C (p = 0.0005 content. Lawn management intensity (fertilizer and pesticide use increased with environmental commitment. Homeowners with a higher environmental commitment had lawns with greater soil carbon levels. Our results indicate that converting unmanaged Appalachian hardwood forest into managed, turfgrass-dominated residential landscapes may affect C depth distribution, but results in little change in total soil carbon sequestration in the upper 30 cm.

  7. Aggregate and Mineral Resources, Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System (MAS) data set. Most of the information is from the Minerals Industry System Location (MILS) table., Published in 1993, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aggregate and Mineral Resources dataset as of 1993. It is described as 'Mines - This data set is derived from the Bureau of Mines Minerals Availability System...

  8. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  9. 23 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development... Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 633—Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System... basis of race, creed, color, or national origin, because of habit, local custom, or otherwise. He...

  10. Electrical conductivity structure of southeastern North America: Implications for lithospheric architecture and Appalachian topographic rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Benjamin S.; Egbert, Gary D.

    2017-03-01

    We present the first three-dimensional view of the lithospheric electrical conductivity structure beneath southeastern North America. By inverting EarthScope long-period magnetotelluric (MT) data, we obtain an electrical conductivity image that provides new insights into both the architecture of the Appalachian Orogen and the cryptic post-rifting geodynamic history of the southeastern United States. Our inverse solutions reveal several elongate electrically conductive features that we interpret as major terrane sutures within the Appalachian Orogen. Most significantly, we resolve a highly electrically resistive layer that extends to mantle depths beneath the modern Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. As high resistivity values in mantle minerals require cold mantle temperatures, the MT data indicate that the sub-Piedmont thermal lithosphere must extend to greater than 200 km depth. This firm bound conflicts with conclusions from seismic results. The boundary between the anomalously thick, resistive sub-Piedmont lithosphere and the relatively thin, moderately conductive sub-Appalachian lithosphere corresponds within resolution to the modern Appalachian topographic escarpment. This newly recognized contrast in lithospheric properties likely has important implications for Appalachian topographic rejuvenation.

  11. Land use and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeck, K.E.; Ballou, S.W.; South, D.W.; Davis, M.J.; Chiu, S.Y.; Baker, J.E.; Dauzvardis, P.A.; Garvey, D.B.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-07-01

    This report provides estimates of the amount of land required by past and future energy development in the United States and examines major federal legislation that regulates the impact of energy facilities on land use. An example of one land use issue associated with energy development - the potential conflict between surface mining and agriculture - is illustrated by describing the actual and projected changes in land use caused by coal mining in western Indiana. Energy activities addressed in the report include extraction of coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, oil shale, and geothermal steam; uranium processing; preparation of synfuels from coal; oil refineries; fossil-fuel, nuclear, and hydro-electric power plants; biomass energy farms; and disposal of solid wastes generated during combustion of fossil fuels. Approximately 1.1 to 3.3 x 10/sup 6/ acres were devoted to these activities in the United States in 1975. As much as 1.8 to 2.0 x 10/sup 6/ additional acres could be required by 1990 for new, nonbiomass energy development. The production of grain for fuel ethanol could require an additional 16.9 to 55.7 x 10/sup 6/ acres by 1990. Federal laws that directly or indirectly regulate the land-use impacts of energy facilities include the National Environmental Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and Coastal Zone Management Act. The major provisions of these acts, other relevant federal regulations, and similar state and local regulatons are described in this report. Federal legislation relating to air quality, water quality, and the management of public lands has the greatest potential to influence the location and timing of future energy development in the United States.

  12. IYA Outreach Plans for Appalachian State University's Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Daniel B.; Pollock, J. T.; Saken, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Appalachian State University will provide a variety of observing opportunities for the public during the International Year of Astronomy. These will be focused at both the campus GoTo Telescope Facility used by Introductory Astronomy students and the research facilities at our Dark Sky Observatory. The campus facility is composed of a rooftop deck with a roll-off roof housing fifteen Celestron C11 telescopes. During astronomy lab class meetings these telescopes are used either in situ or remotely by computer control from the adjacent classroom. For the IYA we will host the public for regular observing sessions at these telescopes. The research facility features a 32-inch DFM Engineering telescope with its dome attached to the Cline Visitor Center. The Visitor Center is still under construction and we anticipate its completion for a spring opening during IYA. The CVC will provide areas for educational outreach displays and a view of the telescope control room. Visitors will view celestial objects directly at the eyepiece. We are grateful for the support of the National Science Foundation, through grant number DUE-0536287, which provided instrumentation for the GoTO facility, and to J. Donald Cline for support of the Visitor Center.

  13. 7 CFR 632.13 - Eligible lands and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible lands and water. 632.13 Section 632.13... lands and water. Lands and water eligible for reclamation are those that were mined for coal or were... lands and water are not eligible if: (a) There is continuing reclamation responsibility on the part of...

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of a Hydroelectric Installation at the Jeddo Mine Drainage Tunnel. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Jeddo Tunnel discharge site for a feasibility study of renewable energy potential. The purpose of this report is to assess technical and economic viability of the site for hydroelectric and geothermal energy production. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  15. Environmental Rehabilitation of Closed Mines. A Chase Study on Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article attempts to analyze methods that can be used to restore a former coal mining site to a condition that is well integrated into its surroundings and that recovers the abandoned and contaminated land and renders its value to the community. The key concept that guides the present paper is that the coal mining is just a temporary land use and that the cost of cleaning the mining site should be an operating expense that has to be included in the budget of a coal mine company starting with the first year of operation. The coal mining industry in Romania is presented as a case study to emphasize the effects that closed coal mines have on communities where they are located and, based on the methods that are successfully used to solve similar problems, recommendations are formulated to improve the environmental rehabilitation of the mining sites.

  16. Peers, stereotypes and health communication through the cultural lens of adolescent Appalachian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught.

  17. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  18. Measures to restore metallurgical mine wasteland using ecological restoration technologies: A case study at Longnan Rare Earth Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yunzhang; Gu, Ruizhi; Guo, Ruikai; Zhang, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Whereas mining activities produce the raw materials that are crucial to economic growth, such activities leave extensive scarring on the land, contributing to the waste of valuable land resources and upsetting the ecological environment. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate various ecological technologies to restore metallurgical mine wastelands. These technologies include measures such as soil amelioration, vegetation restoration, different vegetation planting patterns, and engineering technologies. The Longnan Rare Earth Mine in the Jiangxi Province of China is used as the case study. The ecological restoration process provides a favourable reference for the restoration of a metallurgical mine wasteland.

  19. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... behavior. This generalization is often driven by the representation language and very crude assumptions about completeness. As a result, parts of the model are “overfitting” (allow only for what has actually been observed) while other parts may be “underfitting” (allowfor much more behavior without strong...

  20. Asteroid mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsch, Richard E.

    1992-01-01

    The earliest studies of asteroid mining proposed retrieving a main belt asteroid. Because of the very long travel times to the main asteroid belt, attention has shifted to the asteroids whose orbits bring them fairly close to the Earth. In these schemes, the asteroids would be bagged and then processed during the return trip, with the asteroid itself providing the reaction mass to propel the mission homeward. A mission to one of these near-Earth asteroids would be shorter, involve less weight, and require a somewhat lower change in velocity. Since these asteroids apparently contain a wide range of potentially useful materials, our study group considered only them. The topics covered include asteroid materials and properties, asteroid mission selection, manned versus automated missions, mining in zero gravity, and a conceptual mining method.

  1. Regional Studies Program. Biological aspects of surface coal mine reclamation, Black Mesa and San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, B.B.

    1977-08-01

    This report discusses case study data on surface mine reclamation accumulated at selected mines in the Southwest, specifically the Black Mesa Mine in Arizona and the Navajo Mine located south of Fruitland, New Mexico, in the San Juan Basin. Experimental results have made it apparent that reclamation of disturbed lands cannot begin and end with planting seed. The report therefore considers hydrologic, edaphic, and biotic factors, as well as land use and management, as important aspects of land reclamation. Recommendations are made to initiate, broaden, and intensify research studies in plant succession, productivity, species selection, and attendant soil characteristics, along with grazing practices and land use potential.

  2. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  3. Mining Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  4. Research at Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, D. B.

    2003-12-01

    Astronomical research at Appalachian State University centers around the interests of the three observational astronomers on the faculty, and primarily involves observational work at our Dark Sky Observatory (DSO). ASU is a member of the 16-campus University of North Carolina system, and is a comprehensive university with about 13,000 students. Besides the usual constraint found in such a setting (teaching loads of 9-12 hours/semester), we face the challenges of maintaining a significant observatory facility in an era of shrinking state budgets. The DSO facility is 20 miles from campus, adding additional problems. This scenario differs from those of the other panelists, who are at private institutions and/or use shared facilities. The character of students at ASU also adds constraints--many have to hold part-time jobs that limit their participation in the very research that could contribute significantly to their success. Particularly, their need to leave for the summer for gainful employment at the very time that faculty have the most time for research is a loss for all concerned. In spite of these challenges, we have a long record of maintaining research programs in eclipsing binary star photometry, stellar spectroscopy and QSO/AGN monitoring. Undergraduate students are involved in all aspects of the work, from becoming competent at solo observing to publication of the results and presentation of papers and posters at meetings. Graduate students in our Masters in Applied Physics program (emphasis on instrumentation), have constructed instruments and control systems for the observatory. Most of what we have achieved would have been impossible without the support of the National Science Foundation. We have been fortunate to acquire funds under the Division of Undergraduate Education's ILI program and the Research at Undergraduate Institutions program. Among other things, this support provided our main telescope, CCD cameras, and some student stipends.

  5. Appalachian Basin Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Boswell; Susan Pool; Skip Pratt; David Matchen

    1993-04-30

    A preliminary assessment of Appalachian basin natural gas reservoirs designated as 'tight sands' by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) suggests that greater than 90% of the 'tight sand' resource occurs within two groups of genetically-related units; (1) the Lower Silurian Medina interval, and (2) the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Acadian clastic wedge. These intervals were targeted for detailed study with the goal of producing geologic reservoir characterization data sets compatible with the Tight Gas Analysis System (TGAS: ICF Resources, Inc.) reservoir simulator. The first phase of the study, completed in September, 1991, addressed the Medina reservoirs. The second phase, concerned with the Acadian clastic wedge, was completed in October, 1992. This report is a combined and updated version of the reports submitted in association with those efforts. The Medina interval consists of numerous interfingering fluvial/deltaic sandstones that produce oil and natural gas along an arcuate belt that stretches from eastern Kentucky to western New York. Geophysical well logs from 433 wells were examined in order to determine the geologic characteristics of six separate reservoir-bearing intervals. The Acadian clastic wedge is a thick, highly-lenticular package of interfingering fluvial-deltaic sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Geologic analyses of more than 800 wells resulted in a geologic/engineering characterization of seven separate stratigraphic intervals. For both study areas, well log and other data were analyzed to determine regional reservoir distribution, reservoir thickness, lithology, porosity, water saturation, pressure and temperature. These data were mapped, evaluated, and compiled into various TGAS data sets that reflect estimates of original gas-in-place, remaining reserves, and 'tight' reserves. The maps and data produced represent the first basin-wide geologic characterization for either interval. This report

  6. Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: index maps of included studies: Chapter B.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Trippi, Michael H.; Kinney, Scott A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter B.1 of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Professional Paper 1708 provides index maps for many of the studies described in other chapters of the report. Scientists of the USGS and State geological surveys studied coal and petroleum resources in the central and southern Appalachian structural basins. In the southern Appalachian basin, studies focused on the coal-bearing parts of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The scientists used new and existing geologic data sets to create a common spatial geologic framework for the fossil-fuel-bearing strata of the central Appalachian basin and the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.

  7. Proceedings of the twenty-third annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium: mine decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The symposium covered a spectrum of reclamation issues relevant to mining in British Columbia. The proceedings contain the twenty-one technical papers presented and a report by the awards subcommittee concerning citations awarded. Papers are included on native species in reclamation, bat conservation, biological removal of selenium, wetland cells for removing heavy metals leachates, end land use plan for a copper mine, environmental projects at Fording Coal, reclamation at a nickel plate tailings facility, forestry for end use, contaminated site legislation, compliance, environmental management considerations, acid rock drainage prediction, granular cover system for tailings management, long-term management of tailings and tailings dams at decommissioned mining properties, mine subsidence risk management, reclaiming subsidence in abandoned mining areas, and reclamation of mine openings. Two papers are abstracted separately.

  8. Mountaintop Removal Mining and Catchment Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mountaintop mining and valley fill (MTM/VF coal extraction, practiced in the Central Appalachian region, represents a dramatic landscape-scale disturbance. MTM operations remove as much as 300 m of rock, soil, and vegetation from ridge tops to access deep coal seams and much of this material is placed in adjacent headwater streams altering landcover, drainage network, and topography. In spite of its scale, extent, and potential for continued use, the effects MTM/VF on catchment hydrology is poorly understood. Previous reviews focus on water quality and ecosystem health impacts, but little is known about how MTM/VF affects hydrology, particularly the movement and storage of water, hence the hydrologic processes that ultimately control flood generation, water chemistry, and biology. This paper aggregates the existing knowledge about the hydrologic impacts of MTM/VF to identify areas where further scientific investigation is needed. While contemporary surface mining generally increases peak and total runoff, the limited MTM/VF studies reveal significant variability in hydrologic response. Significant knowledge gaps relate to limited understanding of hydrologic processes in these systems. Until the hydrologic impact of this practice is better understood, efforts to reduce water quantity and quality problems and ecosystem degradation will be difficult to achieve.

  9. Land Mine Warfare - Applying the Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    Conflicto Malvinas Tom: I I. (Buen,s Aries, 7 July 1983): seccion IV and Anexo 70. 12. Department of Defense, ICS Publication I Dictionary of Military an...Trends No. 3. Washington. 26 August. 1943. 4: MANUSCRIPTS . I. Ejercitc Argentine. Conflicto Malvinas, Tomo I, II. F.uenos Ari4es 7 July 1933. 2

  10. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-02-25

    The October-December Quarter was dedicated to analyzing the first two years tree planting activities and evaluation of the results. This included the analyses of the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the data for future year determination of research levels. Additional detailed studies have been planned to further quantify total carbon storage accumulation on the research areas. At least 124 acres of new plantings will be established in 2005 to bring the total to 500 acres or more in the study area across the state of Kentucky. During the first 2 years of activities, 172,000 tree seedlings were planted on 257 acres in eastern Kentucky and 77,520 seedlings were planted on 119 acres in western Kentucky. The quantities of each species was discussed in the first Annual Report. A monitoring program was implemented to measure treatment effects on above and below ground C and nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes. A sampling strategy was devised that will allow for statistical comparisons of the various species within planting conditions and sites. Seedling heights and diameters are measured for initial status and re-measured on an annual basis. Leaves were harvested and leaf area measurements were performed. They were then dried and weighed and analyzed for C and N. Whole trees were removed to determine biomass levels and to evaluate C and N levels in all components of the trees. Clip plots were taken to determine herbaceous production and litter was collected in baskets and gathered each month to quantify C & N levels. Soil samples were collected to determine the chemical and mineralogical characterization of each area. The physical attributes of the soils are also being determined to provide information on the relative level of compaction. Hydrology and water quality monitoring is being conducted on all areas. Weather data is also being recorded that measures precipitation values, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction and solar radiation. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to carbon flux are continuing.

  11. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  12. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  13. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  14. 75 FR 34477 - Potomac-Appalachian Transmission Highline (PATH) Environmental Impact Statement, Harpers Ferry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Highline (PATH) Environmental Impact Statement, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, Appalachian... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for construction and right-of-way permits requested from Harpers Ferry... applications (Form 299) for those portions of the PATH project proposed to traverse Harpers Ferry...

  15. 77 FR 47621 - Appalachian Gateway Project; Notice of Availability of Draft General Conformity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... Conformity Analysis In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Clean Air Act and... prepared this draft General Conformity Determination (GCD) for the Appalachian Gateway Project (Project) to... the Project will achieve conformity in Pennsylvania with the use of Pennsylvania Department...

  16. A Progress Assessment of the School Health Education Project of Appalachian Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Education Service Agency of Appalachian Maryland, Cumberland.

    This document evaluates the effectiveness of a project on health education conducted in Appalachian Maryland. The emphasis of the project was on teaching children in the fifth grade about lung and respiratory system problems and their connection with smoking. This health education course was incorporated into their regular curriculum. Prior to…

  17. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  18. Results on the Slosson Drawing Coordination Test with Appalachian Sheltered Workshop Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George W., Jr.; Richmond, Bert O.

    Fifty-four clients (13- to 52-years-old) in an Appalachian sheltered workshop were administered the Slosson Drawing Coordination Test (SDCT) and the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Twenty-nine Ss were labeled possibly brain damaged by the SDCT, and 17 Ss by the M. Hutt scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt. Two psychologists using all available…

  19. Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI): Phase 1, Year 5 Annual Report, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative, Lexington, KY.

    The Appalachian Rural Systemic Initiative (ARSI) is a collaborative mathematics, science, and technology education reform effort among six states in central Appalachia--Kentucky, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The project aims to stimulate sustainable systemic improvements in these subjects for K-12 students in a…

  20. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood—hereafter “dogwood” populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1 quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian ecoregion, (2 quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3 identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian ecoregion. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (<.05 were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  1. A Qualitative Study of High Student Achievement in a Rural Appalachian Region: Perceptions of Selected Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Regina

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study was based on grounded theory and used purposive sampling for selecting participants. The sample for this study included 12 of the 16 superintendents in this region. This rural Appalachian region has historically outperformed the remainder of the southeastern state on reading and math achievement tests at the elementary and…

  2. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  3. Planning the Mine and Mining the Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, D. S.; Chen, N.

    2016-11-01

    Overview of best practices used in the terrestrial mining industry when developing a mine site towards production. The intent is to guide planners towards an effective and well constructed roadmap for the development of ISRU mining activities. A strawman scenario is presented as an illustration for lunar mining of water ice.

  4. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of

  5. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Locke

    Full Text Available Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes

  6. Selecting Proper Plant Species for Mine Reclamation Using Fuzzy AHP Approach (Case Study: Chadormaloo Iron Mine of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimabadi, Arash

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes an effective approach to select suitable plant species for reclamation of mined lands in Chadormaloo iron mine which is located in central part of Iran, near the city of Bafgh in Yazd province. After mine's total reserves are excavated, the mine requires to be permanently closed and reclaimed. Mine reclamation and post-mining land-use are the main issues in the phase of mine closure. In general, among various scenarios for mine reclamation process, i.e. planting, agriculture, forestry, residency, tourist attraction, etc., planting is the oldest and commonly-used technology for the reclamation of lands damaged by mining activities. Planting and vegetation play a major role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability and biological diversity to degraded areas, therefore the main goal of this research work is to choose proper and suitable plants compatible with the conditions of Chadormaloo mined area, providing consistent conditions for future use. To ensure the sustainability of the reclaimed landscape, the most suitable plant species adapted to the mine conditions are selected. Plant species selection is a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a fuzzy MCDM technique, namely Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is developed to assist chadormaloo iron mine managers and designers in the process of plant type selection for reclamation of the mine under fuzzy environment where the vagueness and uncertainty are taken into account with linguistic variables parameterized by triangular fuzzy numbers. The results achieved from using FAHP approach demonstrate that the most proper plant species are ranked as Artemisia sieberi, Salsola yazdiana, Halophytes types, and Zygophyllum, respectively for reclamation of Chadormaloo iron mine.

  7. Spatiotemporal Mining of Time-Series Remote Sensing Images Based on Sequential Pattern Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. C.; He, G. J.; Zhang, X. M.; Jiang, W.; Ling, S. G.

    2015-07-01

    With the continuous development of satellite techniques, it is now possible to acquire a regular series of images concerning a given geographical zone with both high accuracy and low cost. Research on how best to effectively process huge volumes of observational data obtained on different dates for a specific geographical zone, and to exploit the valuable information regarding land cover contained in these images has received increasing interest from the remote sensing community. In contrast to traditional land cover change measures using pair-wise comparisons that emphasize the compositional or configurational changes between dates, this research focuses on the analysis of the temporal sequence of land cover dynamics, which refers to the succession of land cover types for a given area over more than two observational periods. Using a time series of classified Landsat images, ranging from 2006 to 2011, a sequential pattern mining method was extended to this spatiotemporal context to extract sets of connected pixels sharing similar temporal evolutions. The resultant sequential patterns could be selected (or not) based on the range of support values. These selected patterns were used to explore the spatial compositions and temporal evolutions of land cover change within the study region. Experimental results showed that continuous patterns that represent consistent land cover over time appeared as quite homogeneous zones, which agreed with our domain knowledge. Discontinuous patterns that represent land cover change trajectories were dominated by the transition from vegetation to bare land, especially during 2009-2010. This approach quantified land cover changes in terms of the percentage area affected and mapped the spatial distribution of these changes. Sequential pattern mining has been used for string mining or itemset mining in transactions analysis. The expected novel significance of this study is the generalization of the application of the sequential pattern

  8. Yunnan Launches Four Year Mine Searching Action Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The Yunnan Provincial State Land Resource Bureau has organized the provincial Geological Investigation Bureau and relevant institutions to kick off the "Yunnan Province 2009-2010 Mine Search Action Plan"

  9. Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken / Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Annual report 1998. Economic and technical aspects, industrial safety and environmental protection, statistics, activities of the mining authorities; Oberbergamt fuer das Saarland und das Land Rheinland-Pfalz, Bergamt Saarbruecken / Bergamt Rheinland-Pfalz. Jahresbericht 1998. Bergwirtschaft, Bergtechnik, Arbeitsschutz, Umweltschutz, Statistiken, Taetigkeiten der Bergbehoerde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, R.; Hugo, K.H.; Kuhn, M.; Strauch, T. [comps.

    1999-07-01

    After outlining developmental trends in the various mining sectors as well as the structure and tasks of the State Mines Inspectorate, the annual report describes the activities in the fields of health and industrial safety, mining engineering and safety, and the environmental effects of mining activities, as well as special accidents and incidents. (HS) [German] Nach einem Ueberblick ueber die bergwirtschaftliche Entwicklung in den einzelnen Bergbauzweigen sowie ueber den Aufbau und die Zustaendigkeit der Bergbehoerde werden die Aktivitaeten in den Bereichen Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz, Bergtechnik und Sicherheit, Bergbau und Umwelt sowie bemerkenswerte Unfaelle und Vorkommnisse beschrieben. (HS)

  10. The environmental impact of mining and its countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Li Jin; Zhang Tong Tong; Yang Wen; Zhang Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exploration of mineral resources had been part of the major means to promote economic development in China, but the devastating effect of mining on the environment is inevitable. Based on the analysis of factors of the environmental disasters caused by the mining methods, this paper systematically analyzes the influences of open pit mining on land resource, ecological system, geological and ecological environment, especially analyzes the effects on the environment and ecological system. Meanw...

  11. Development of opencast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szebenyi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The role and works of the Central Institute for Mining Development and its legal predecessors, the Mining Research Institute and Mines Design Institute, in relation with opencast lignite mining in Hungary, are summarized. Investigations aimed at the determination of the heating technical properties of lignites are reviewed. Different lignite mines, their geological features, production possibilities and development conditions are outlined.

  12. Spatial and temporal relationships among watershed mining, water quality, and freshwater mussel status in an eastern USA river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, Carl E; Donovan, Patricia F; Jones, Jess W; Li, Jing; Price, Jennifer E; Stewart, Roger E

    2016-01-15

    The Powell River of southwestern Virginia and northeastern Tennessee, USA, drains a watershed with extensive coal surface mining, and it hosts exceptional biological richness, including at-risk species of freshwater mussels, downstream of mining-disturbed watershed areas. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of watershed mining disturbance; their relationship to water quality change in the section of the river that connects mining areas to mussel habitat; and relationships of mining-related water constituents to measures of recent and past mussel status. Freshwater mussels in the Powell River have experienced significant declines over the past 3.5 decades. Over that same period, surface coal mining has influenced the watershed. Water-monitoring data collected by state and federal agencies demonstrate that dissolved solids and associated constituents that are commonly influenced by Appalachian mining (specific conductance, pH, hardness and sulfates) have experienced increasing temporal trends from the 1960s through ~2008; but, of those constituents, only dissolved solids concentrations are available widely within the Powell River since ~2008. Dissolved solids concentrations have stabilized in recent years. Dissolved solids, specific conductance, pH, and sulfates also exhibited spatial patterns that are consistent with dilution of mining influence with increasing distance from mined areas. Freshwater mussel status indicators are correlated negatively with dissolved solids concentrations, spatially and temporally, but the direct causal mechanisms responsible for mussel declines remain unknown.

  13. Coal Mining vis-â-vis Agriculture in India: A Question of Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining adversely affects the eco-system as a whole. It is important to conduct suitable assessment studies to learn the potential adverse impact of mining on agriculture. In the subsequent discussions an attempt has been made to clarify the coal mining activities and its residual impact on environment and agricultural activities.The leaseholds for the underground mines are procured from the land lords who grant mining authority the right for underground coal mining. The land for houses, dwellings and the associated activities are purchased piecemeal from different sources while large portion of the surface right remained under the control of farmers and landlords. Underground mining in these areas is conducted with full responsibility of the surface protection by the operators who normally maintain pillars as the natural support to the surface features. Increasing demand for open caste mining process requires huge land. These lands sometime are acquired at the cost of cultivable land. Coal mining has direct impact over agriculture in the study region and residual impacts of mining bring far reaching consequences. The present study is explanatory in nature based on empirical facts collected from various formal sources from Coal India office. The task is to bring out the issues related to coal mining activities and their impact on vegetation and agriculture in adjoining areas in Raniganj and Jharia coalfields in India through this study.

  14. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  15. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  16. Analysis and simulation of land cover and thermal environment in mining area based on remote sensing data and CA_Markov model%基于遥感和CA_Markov模型的煤矿区热环境与土地覆盖变化模拟评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培; 杜培军; 逄云峰

    2012-01-01

    针对遥感影像在定量描述土地覆盖和热环境分布方面的优越性,利用支持向量机(SVM)分类器对遥感影像进行分类,获取土地覆盖图,利用单窗算法反演获取地表温度。通过将元胞自动机和马尔科夫模型结合,构建CA_Markov模型对土地覆盖和热环境时空格局进行模拟与分析。采用定量景观指数和土地利用转移矩阵进一步挖掘了研究区空间信息,综合模拟与预测了土地覆盖和热环境时空变化特征。实验结果表明:利用遥感影像定量反演热环境特征时空分布与预测是可行的,CA_Markov模型能够有效地揭示和预测矿区土地覆盖变化和热环境演变趋势。%According to the merits of remotely sensed data in depicting regional land cover and thermal environment, multi-objective information processing was employed to remote sensing images to analyze and simulate land cover and thermal environment in mining areas. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify remote sensing images and derive regional land cover maps, mono-window algorithm was used to retrieve land surface temperature from thermal infrared images. And land cover change and thermal environmental trends were simulated by CA_Markov mod- el. Quality landscape indexes and land use and land cover transfer matrixes were selected to analysis and assess the dynamic changes trend of different land cover types as well. The results demonstrate that it is signification and suitable to retrieval thermal environmental, evaluate and analyze its distribution and trend using remote sensing methods. CA_ Markov model is able to predict land cover and thermal environmental trends with good performance.

  17. Mining review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  18. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  19. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  20. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  1. Wikipedia Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kotaro; Ito, Masahiro; Erdmann, Maike; Shirakawa, Masumi; Michishita, Tomoyuki; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    Wikipedia, a collaborative Wiki-based encyclopedia, has become a huge phenomenon among Internet users. It covers a huge number of concepts of various fields such as arts, geography, history, science, sports and games. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, Wikipedia's impressive characteristics are not limited to the scale, but also include the dense link structure, URL based word sense disambiguation, and brief anchor texts. Because of these characteristics, Wikipedia has become a promising corpus and a new frontier for research. In the past few years, a considerable number of researches have been conducted in various areas such as semantic relatedness measurement, bilingual dictionary construction, and ontology construction. Extracting machine understandable knowledge from Wikipedia to enhance the intelligence on computational systems is the main goal of "Wikipedia Mining," a project on CREP (Challenge for Realizing Early Profits) in JSAI. In this paper, we take a comprehensive, panoramic view of Wikipedia Mining research and the current status of our challenge. After that, we will discuss about the future vision of this challenge.

  2. Restoration of rare earth mine areas: organic amendments and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingyan; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Wen; Liu, Shenghong; Zhang, Limin; Zhong, Liyan; Luo, Ximei; Liang, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Overexploitation of rare earth mine has caused serious desertification and various environmental issues, and ecological restoration of a mining area is an important concern in China. In this study, experiments involving dry grass landfilling, chicken manure broadcasting, and plant cultivation were carried out to reclaim a rare earth mine area located in Heping County, Guangdong Province, China. The prime focus was to improve soil quality in terms of nutrients, microbial community, enzyme activity, and physicochemical properties so as to reclaim the land. After 2 years of restoration, an increase of organic matter (OM), available potassium (K), available phosphorus (P) levels, and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and a reduction of the available nitrogen (N) level and urease (URE) activity in soil were achieved compared to the original mined land. The nutrients and enzyme activities in soil with 5 years of restoration were close to or surpass those in the unexploited land as control. The bulk density, total porosity, water holding capacity, pH, and electrical conductivity (EC) of soil were improved, and the number of cultivable microorganisms and the bacterial diversity in soil were greatly increased with time during ecological restoration, especially for surface soil. Furthermore, the artificial vegetation stably grew at the restored mining sites. The results indicated that organic amendments and phytoremediation could ecologically restore the rare earth mining sites and the mined land could finally be planted as farmland.

  3. Geochemical position of Pb, Zn and Cd in soils near the Olkusz mine/smelter, South Poland: effects of land use, type of contamination and distance from pollution source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrastný, Vladislav; Vaněk, Aleš; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Procházka, Jan; Pechar, Libor; Drahota, Petr; Penížek, Vít; Komárek, Michael; Novák, Martin

    2012-04-01

    The soils adjacent to an area of historical mining, ore processing and smelting activities reflects the historical background and a mixing of recent contamination sources. The main anthropogenic sources of metals can be connected with historical and recent mine wastes, direct atmospheric deposition from mining and smelting processes and dust particles originating from open tailings ponds. Contaminated agriculture and forest soil samples with mining and smelting related pollutants were collected at different distances from the source of emission in the Pb-Zn-Ag mining area near Olkusz, Upper Silesia to (a) compare the chemical speciation of metals in agriculture and forest soils situated at the same distance from the point source of pollution (paired sampling design), (b) to evaluate the relationship between the distance from the polluter and the retention of the metals in the soil, (c) to describe mineralogy transformation of anthropogenic soil particles in the soils, and (d) to assess the effect of deposited fly ash vs. dumped mining/smelting waste on the mobility and bioavailability of metals in the soil. Forest soils are much more affected with smelting processes than agriculture soils. However, agriculture soils suffer from the downward metal migration more than the forest soils. The maximum concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were detected in a forest soil profile near the smelter and reached about 25 g kg(- 1), 20 g kg(- 1) and 200 mg kg(- 1) for Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The metal pollutants from smelting processes are less stable under slightly alkaline soil pH then acidic due to the metal carbonates precipitation. Metal mobility ranges in the studied forest soils are as follows: Pb > Zn ≈ Cd for relatively circum-neutral soil pH (near the smelter), Cd > Zn > Pb for acidic soils (further from the smelter). Under relatively comparable pH conditions, the main soil properties influencing metal migration are total organic carbon and cation exchange

  4. Enhancement of the TORIS data base of Appalachian basin oil fields. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-31

    The Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System, or TORIS, was developed by the Department of Energy in the early 1980s with a goal of accounting for 70% of the nation`s original oil in place (OOIP). More than 3,700 oil reservoirs were included in TORIS, but coverage in the Appalachian basin was poor. This TORIS enhancement project has two main objectives: to increase the coverage of oil fields in the Appalachian basin; and to evaluate data for reservoirs currently in TORIS, and to add, change or delete data as necessary. Both of these objectives have been accomplished. The geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia have identified 113 fields in the Appalachian basin to be included in TORIS that collectively contained 80% of the original oil in place in the basin. Furthermore, data in TORIS at the outset of the project was checked and additional data were added to the original 20 TORIS oil fields. This final report is organized into four main sections: reservoir selection; evaluation of data already in TORIS; industry assistance; and data base creation and validation. Throughout the report the terms pool and reservoir may be used in reference to a single zone of oil accumulation and production within a field. Thus, a field is composed of one or more pools at various stratigraphic levels. These pools or reservoirs also are referred to as pay sands that may be individually named sandstones within a formation or group.

  5. Southern Appalachian hillslope erosion rates measured by soil and detrital radiocarbon in hollows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T.C.; Scharer, K.M.; Wooten, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of sediment generation and transport on hillslopes provides important constraints on the rate of sediment output from orogenic systems. Hillslope sediment fluxes are recorded by organic material found in the deposits infilling unchanneled convergent topographic features called hollows. This study describes the first hollow infilling rates measured in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Infilling rates (and bedrock erosion rates) were calculated from the vertical distribution of radiocarbon ages at two sites in the Coweeta drainage basin, western North Carolina. At each site we dated paired charcoal and silt soil organic matter samples from five different horizons. Paired radiocarbon samples were used to bracket the age of the soil material in order to capture the range of complex soil forming processes and deposition within the hollows. These dates constrain hillslope erosion rates of between 0.051 and 0.111mmyr-1. These rates are up to 4 times higher than spatially-averaged rates for the Southern Appalachian Mountains making creep processes one of the most efficient erosional mechanisms in this mountain range. Our hillslope erosion rates are consistent with those of forested mountain ranges in the western United States, suggesting that the mechanisms (dominantly tree throw) driving creep erosion in both the western United States and the Southern Appalachian Mountains are equally effective. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. SMCRA bond release - the initial steps at San Juan mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, O.; Clark, D. [BHP San Juan Coal Company, Waterflow, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    San Juan Coal Company has submitted to the State of New Mexico's Mining and Minerals Division the final phase III bond release application for the approval and release of 241 acres of permitted lands at its San Juan Mine located in San Juan County, New Mexico. The SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act) and New Mexico Surface Coal Mining Regulations mandate a minimum 10-year liability period following final reclamation, during which no additional treatments other than approved postmining land uses and approved interseedings may be applied to an area for which bond release is sought. Site-specific revegetation success standards must be met for two of the last four years of liability, beginning no sooner than year eight of the bonding period. Successful reclamation of the site was demonstrated by exceeding cover, production, shrub density, and diversity standards while supporting the primary postmining land use of livestock grazing. 11 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  7. Land acquisition

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of lands acquired by Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1991 and 2009. Lists of acres and locations of land acquired are provided for...

  8. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  9. Mine rent and the new economic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadan, K. (Federalni Ministerstvo Paliv a Energetiky, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-09-01

    Reviews historical concept of ground rents with reference to works of Adam Smith and David Ricardo and to 19th century capitalism and Marxism-Leninism. Asks whether mine rents can exist under a socialist system and examines theoretical basis for mine rents, which includes socio-economic aspects, geological conditions, proximity to markets and environmental considerations. Compares mine rents with agricultural land rents and analyzes value of end product (coal) and effect of pricing method on it. Explains pricing system in Czechoslovakia, which involves 3 groupings: coking coal, coke and energy coal (including briquets), the price of each of which is set according to average costs and geological conditions. Surplus revenue (or positive mine rent) only arises therefore at mines where the production costs are lower than fixed trade prices. Discusses in general terms application of new economic system (perestroika) to concept of mine rent and assessment of mine profitability and concludes that method of pricing solid fuels will play a decisive role. 4 refs.

  10. National Underground Mines Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    08 019 726 LONG PARK 15 0502379 08 095 2904 GEO a1 MINE 0502383 08 085 2904 BESSIE 0 MINE 0502387 08 667 2904 PAYSTREAK 0502397 08 113 2904 BUENO MILL...35 061QUESTA MINE 2901267 35 055 43560 ’ RUDY NO, I S 2 2901364 35 031 MT, TAYLOR 2901375 35 061 0 MARQUEZ SHAFT 2901597 35 031 6534 MARIANO LAKE MINE

  11. Coalbed-methane production in the Appalachian basin: Chapter G.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions, which extend almost continuously from Pennsylvania southward to Alabama. Most commercial CBM production in the Appalachian basin is from three structural subbasins: (1) the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; (2) the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and (3) part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The cumulative CBM production in the Dunkard basin through 2005 was 17 billion cubic feet (BCF), the production in the Pocahontas basin through 2006 was 754 BCF, and the production in the part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama through 2007 was 2.008 TCF. CBM development may be regarded as mature in Alabama, where annual production from 1998 through 2007 was relatively constant and ranged from 112 to 121 BCF. An opportunity still exists for additional growth in the Pocahontas basin. In 2005, annual CBM production in the Pocahontas basin in Virginia and West Virginia was 85 BCF. In addition, opportunities are emerging for producing the large, diffuse CBM resources in the Dunkard basin as additional wells are drilled and technology improves.

  12. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2007-09-15

    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  13. Role of soil health in maintaining environmental sustainability of surface coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Peter M; Fox, James F; Campbell, J Elliott; Jones, Alice L; Rowe, Harold; Martin, Darren; Bryson, Sebastian

    2011-12-01

    Mountaintop coal mining (MCM) in the Southern Appalachian forest region greatly impacts both soil and aquatic ecosystems. Policy and practice currently in place emphasize water quality and soil stability but do not consider upland soil health. Here we report soil organic carbon (SOC) measurements and other soil quality indicators for reclaimed soils in the Southern Appalachian forest region to quantify the health of the soil ecosystem. The SOC sequestration rate of the MCM soils was 1.3 MgC ha(-1) yr(-1) and stocks ranged from 1.3 ± 0.9 to 20.9 ± 5.9 Mg ha(-1) and contained only 11% of the SOC of surrounding forest soils. Comparable reclaimed mining soils reported in the literature that are supportive of soil ecosystem health had SOC stocks 2.5-5 times greater than the MCM soils and sequestration rates were also 1.6-3 times greater. The high compaction associated with reclamation in this region greatly reduces both the vegetative rooting depth and infiltration of the soil and increases surface runoff, thus bypassing the ability of soil to naturally filter groundwater. In the context of environmental sustainability of MCM, it is proposed that the entire watershed ecosystem be assessed and that a revision of current policy be conducted to reflect the health of both water and soil.

  14. Mining and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisgyorgy, S.

    1986-01-01

    The realization of new mining projects should be preceded by detailed studies on the impact of mining activities on the environment. For defining the conditions of environmental protection and for making proper financial plans the preparation of an information system is needed. The possible social effects of the mining investments have to be estimated, first of all from the points of view of waste disposal, mining hydrology, subsidence due to underground mining etc.

  15. by Pinus virginiana in Mine Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenise M. Bauman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of planting sites on the establishment and ectomycorrhizal (ECM colonization of American chestnut (Castanea denetata (Marsh. Borkh. on an abandoned coal mine in an Appalachian region of the United States. Root morphotyping and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS region were used to identify the ECM species associated with the chestnut seedlings. Germination, survival, ECM root colonization, and growth were assessed in three habitats: forest edge, center (plots without vegetation, and pine plots (a 10-year-old planting of Pinus virginiana. Seedlings in pine plots had higher survival (38% than the other plot types (center 9% and forest edge 5%; P=0.007. Chestnuts found colonized by ECM within the pine plots were larger (P=0.02, contributed by a larger root system (P=0.03. Forest edge and pine plots had more ECM roots than seedlings in center plots (P=0.04. ITS fungal sequences and morphotypes found among chestnut and pine matched Scleroderma, Thelephora, and Pisolithus suggesting these two plant species shared ECM symbionts. Results indicated that the presence of P. virginiana had a greater facilitative effect on growth and survival of chestnut seedlings.

  16. Gambia Land Use Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This series of three-period land use land cover (LULC) datasets (1975, 2000, and 2013) aids in monitoring change in West Africa’s land resources (exception is...

  17. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Niemiller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  18. 30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 780.23 Section 780.23 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... before mining, expressed as average yield of food, fiber, forage, or wood products from such...

  19. 30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Land use information. 784.15 Section 784.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... before mining, expressed as average yield of food, fiber, forage, or wood products from such...

  20. Environmental consequences of the Retsof Salt Mine roof collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In 1994, the largest salt mine in North America, which had been in operation for more than 100 years, catastrophically flooded when the mine ceiling collapsed. In addition to causing the loss of the mine and the mineral resources it provided, this event formed sinkholes, caused widespread subsidence to land, caused structures to crack and subside, and changed stream flow and erosion patterns. Subsequent flooding of the mine drained overlying aquifers, changed the groundwater salinity distribution (rendering domestic wells unusable), and allowed locally present natural gas to enter dwellings through water wells. Investigations including exploratory drilling, hydrologic and water-quality monitoring, geologic and geophysical studies, and numerical simulation of groundwater flow, salinity, and subsidence have been effective tools in understanding the environmental consequences of the mine collapse and informing decisions about management of those consequences for the future. Salt mines are generally dry, but are susceptible to leaks and can become flooded if groundwater from overlying aquifers or surface water finds a way downward into the mined cavity through hundreds of feet of rock. With its potential to flood the entire mine cavity, groundwater is a constant source of concern for mine operators. The problem is compounded by the viscous nature of salt and the fact that salt mines commonly lie beneath water-bearing aquifers. Salt (for example halite or potash) deforms and “creeps” into the mined openings over time spans that range from years to centuries. This movement of salt can destabilize the overlying rock layers and lead to their eventual sagging and collapse, creating permeable pathways for leakage of water and depressions or openings at land surface, such as sinkholes. Salt is also highly soluble in water; therefore, whenever water begins to flow into a salt mine, the channels through which it flows increase in diameter as the surrounding salt dissolves

  1. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  2. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  3. Networking for conservation: social capital and perceptions of organizational success among land trust boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana B. Ruseva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important component in collaborative natural resource management and nonprofit governance, social capital is expected to be related to variations in the performance of land trusts. Land trusts are charitable organizations that work to conserve private land locally, regionally, or nationally. The purpose of this paper is to identify the level of structural and cognitive social capital among local land trusts, and how these two types of social capital relate to the perceived success of land trusts. The analysis integrates data for land trusts operating in the U.S. south-central Appalachian region, which includes western North Carolina, southwest Virginia, and east Tennessee. We use factor analysis to elicit different dimensions of cognitive social capital, including cooperation among board members, shared values, common norms, and communication effectiveness. Measures of structural social capital include the size and diversity of organizational networks of both land trusts and their board members. Finally, a hierarchical linear regression model is employed to estimate how cognitive and structural social capital measures, along with other organizational and individual-level attributes, relate to perceptions of land trust success, defined here as achievement of the land trusts' mission, conservation, and financial goals. Results show that the diversity of organizational partnerships, cooperation, and shared values among land trust board members are associated with higher levels of perceived success. Organizational capacity, land trust accreditation, volunteerism, and financial support are also important factors influencing perceptions of success among local, nonprofit land trusts.

  4. Paramont's Black Bear No. 4 mine does it right, again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanda, A.

    2007-07-15

    The Paramont Coal Company Virginia, LLC, a subsidiary of Alpha Natural Resources, recently won the '2007 overall award for excellence in mining and reclamation from the Virginia Division of Mined Land Reclamation and the Virginia Mining Association. Coal People Magazine recently visited Black Bear No. 4 mine where a settling pond was being removed and stream bed placed to drain the area, part of the 451-acre award winning reclamation project. The article recounts discussions with mining engineers about the company's operations with emphasis on the Black Bear No. 4 mine. Black Bear No. 1 mine won five state and national awards last year for conservation and land management practices. 8 photos.

  5. Distribution of arsenic, selenium, and other trace elements in high pyrite Appalachian coals: evidence for multiple episodes of pyrite formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Koenig, A.E.; Lowers, H.A.; Ruppert, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Pennsylvanian coals in the Appalachian Basin host pyrite that is locally enriched in potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Se, Hg, Pb, and Ni. A comparison of pyrite-rich coals from northwestern Alabama, eastern Kentucky, and West Virginia reveals differences in concentrations and mode of occurrence of trace elements in pyrite. Pyrite occurs as framboids, dendrites, or in massive crystalline form in cell lumens or crosscutting veins. Metal concentrations in pyrite vary over all scales, from microscopic to mine to regional, because trace elements are inhomogeneously distributed in the different morphological forms of pyrite, and in the multiple generations of sulfide mineral precipitates. Early diagenetic framboidal pyrite is usually depleted in As, Se, and Hg, and enriched in Pb and Ni, compared to other pyrite forms. In dendritic pyrite, maps of As distribution show a chemical gradient from As-rich centers to As-poor distal branches, whereas Se concentrations are highest at the distal edges of the branches. Massive crystalline pyrite that fills veins is composed of several generations of sulfide minerals. Pyrite in late-stage veins commonly exhibits As-rich growth zones, indicating a probable epigenetic hydrothermal origin. Selenium is concentrated at the distal edges of veins. A positive correlation of As and Se in pyrite veins from Kentucky coals, and of As and Hg in pyrite-filled veins from Alabama coals, suggests coprecipitation of these elements from the same fluid. In the Kentucky coal samples (n = 18), As and Se contents in pyrite-filled veins average 4200 ppm and 200 ppm, respectively. In Alabama coal samples, As in pyrite-filled veins averages 2700 ppm (n = 34), whereas As in pyrite-filled cellular structures averages 6470 ppm (n = 35). In these same Alabama samples, Se averages 80 ppm in pyrite-filled veins, but was below the detection limit in cell structures. In samples of West Virginia massive pyrite, As averages 1700 ppm, and Se averages 270

  6. Lung cancer mortality is elevated in coal-mining areas of Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; O' Donnell, K.; Horn, K. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Previous research has documented increased lung cancer incidence and mortality in Appalachia. The current study tests whether residence in coal-mining areas of Appalachia is a contributing factor. We conducted a national county-level analysis to identify contributions of smoking rates, socioeconomic variables, coal-mining intensity and other variables to age-adjusted lung cancer mortality. Results demonstrate that lung cancer mortality for the years 2000-2004 is higher in areas of heavy Appalachian coal mining after adjustments for smoking, poverty, education, age, sex, race and other covariates. Higher mortality may be the result of exposure to environmental contaminates associated with the coal-mining industry, although smoking and poverty are also contributing factors. The knowledge of the geographic areas within Appalachia where lung cancer mortality is higher can be used to target programmatic and policy interventions. The set of socioeconomic and health inequalities characteristic of coal-mining areas of Appalachia highlights the need to develop more diverse, alternative local economies.

  7. A case study of multi-seam coal mine entry stability analysis with strength reduction method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tulu Ihsan Berk; Esterhuizen Gabriel S.; Klemetti Ted; Murphy Michael M.; Sumner James; Sloan Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the advantage of using numerical models with the strength reduction method (SRM) to evaluate entry stability in complex multiple-seam conditions is demonstrated. A coal mine under vari-able topography from the Central Appalachian region is used as a case study. At this mine, unexpected roof conditions were encountered during development below previously mined panels. Stress mapping and observation of ground conditions were used to quantify the success of entry support systems in three room-and-pillar panels. Numerical model analyses were initially conducted to estimate the stresses induced by the multiple-seam mining at the locations of the affected entries. The SRM was used to quan-tify the stability factor of the supported roof of the entries at selected locations. The SRM-calculated sta-bility factors were compared with observations made during the site visits, and the results demonstrate that the SRM adequately identifies the unexpected roof conditions in this complex case. It is concluded that the SRM can be used to effectively evaluate the likely success of roof supports and the stability condition of entries in coal mines.

  8. The Geochemistry of Acid Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowes, D. W.; Ptacek, C. J.; Jambor, J. L.; Weisener, C. G.

    2003-12-01

    Mine wastes are the largest volume of materials handled in the world (ICOLD, 1996). The generation of acidic drainage and the release of water containing high concentrations of dissolved metals from these wastes is an environmental problem of international scale. Acidic drainage is caused by the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Although acid drainage is commonly associated with the extraction and processing of sulfide-bearing metalliferous ore deposits and sulfide-rich coal, acidic drainage can occur wherever sulfide minerals are excavated and exposed to atmospheric oxygen. Engineering projects, including road construction, airport development, and foundation excavation are examples of civil projects that have resulted in the generation of acidic drainage. On United States Forest Service Lands there are (2-5)×104 mines releasing acidic drainage (USDA, 1993). Kleinmann et al. (1991) estimated that more than 6,400 km of rivers and streams in the eastern United States have been adversely affected by mine-drainage water. About (0.8-1.6)×104 km of streams have been affected by metal mining in the western United States. The annual worldwide production of mine wastes exceeded 4.5 Gt in 1982 (ICOLD, 1996). Estimated costs for remediating mine wastes internationally total in the tens of billions of dollars ( Feasby et al.,1991).

  9. Resource requirements and economics of the coal-mining process: a comparative analysis of mines in selected countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astakhov, A.; Gruebler, A.

    1984-06-01

    This report examines the natural resource requirements and economics of the resource extraction process, taking coal-mining activities as an example. Coal was chosen for the study because it is receiving growing attention as the fossile energy resource with the largest potential to contribute to the world's long-term energy supply. The computerized description of the extraction process is stored in the Coal Mines Data Base (CMDB) which was developed within the framework of this study. The data base currently holds information on 70 mines located in different countries. The analytic approach used is the first of its kind to compare resource requirements and economics of coal mines under such a broad range of geological and socioeconomic conditions. A general model of the factors influencing resource inputs and impacts of the coal-mining process is presented. Then for each of the main mining methods (opencast, conventional underground, and hydraulic underground) the principal geological and technological factors influencing the resource requirements, economics, and environmental impacts, as well as the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each mining method, are discussed. For the three main mining methods the resource requirements (including manpower, energy, materials, and land) and the economics (including construction investments and operating costs) are then quantified and their cost structures (i.e. requirements for the different operations at a mine) are examined in detail using data from coal mines in the USA, the USSR, and other selected coal-producing countries (Australia, Austria, and France).

  10. Synthesis report about the after-mine mission; Rapport de synthese sur la mission apres-mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The French ministry of economy finances and industry has assigned the mission of evaluating the after-mine management system to the general inspection of finances and the general council of mines. The after-mine management system encompasses all procedures of coal, iron and potash mines closing down, land reclamation and environmental remedial action and site rehabilitation. This document makes first a status of the problems generated by the stoppage of mining activities: technical aspects, costs, institutional, organisational and juridical aspects, conservation of competences, international benchmarking elements and good practices implemented in foreign countries. Then, in a second part, this report presents the recommendations of the after-mine mission about the mastery of after-mine costs in agreement with the respect of the technical and social goals, with the development of the after-mine institutional system with the scheduled disappearance of Charbonnages de France and Mines de Potasses d'Alsace companies, and with the conservation of competences in the framework of the post-mine operational structure proposed by the mission. (J.S.)

  11. Lithospheric deformation in the Canadian Appalachians: evidence from shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Amy; Bastow, Ian D.; Watson, Emma; Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Levin, Vadim; Menke, William; Lane, Victoria; Hawthorn, David; Boyce, Alistair; Liddell, Mitchell V.; Petrescu, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Plate-scale deformation is expected to impart seismic anisotropic fabrics on the lithosphere. Determination of the fast shear wave orientation (φ) and the delay time between the fast and slow split shear waves (δt) via SKS splitting can help place spatial and temporal constraints on lithospheric deformation. The Canadian Appalachians experienced multiple episodes of deformation during the Phanerozoic: accretionary collisions during the Palaeozoic prior to the collision between Laurentia and Gondwana, and rifting related to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic. However, the extent to which extensional events have overprinted older orogenic trends is uncertain. We address this issue through measurements of seismic anisotropy beneath the Canadian Appalachians, computing shear wave splitting parameters (φ, δt) for new and existing seismic stations in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Average δt values of 1.2 s, relatively short length scale (≥100 km) splitting parameter variations, and a lack of correlation with absolute plate motion direction and mantle flow models, demonstrate that fossil lithospheric anisotropic fabrics dominate our results. Most fast directions parallel Appalachian orogenic trends observed at the surface, while δt values point towards coherent deformation of the crust and mantle lithosphere. Mesozoic rifting had minimal impact on our study area, except locally within the Bay of Fundy and in southern Nova Scotia, where fast directions are subparallel to the opening direction of Mesozoic rifting; associated δt values of >1 s require an anisotropic layer that spans both the crust and mantle, meaning the formation of the Bay of Fundy was not merely a thin-skinned tectonic event.

  12. Appalachian Blue Ridge cover sequence ranges at least into the Ordovician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, James F.; Ausich, William I.; Groszos, Mark S.; Thompson, Troy W.

    1993-03-01

    The first direct evidence that stratified rocks of the central core of the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge range in age into the Paleozoic comes from a pelmatozoan echinoderm column discovered within a unit directly above the Murphy Marble in North Carolina. Before this discovery most geologists had considered all stratified rocks of the Blue Ridge east of the frontal imbricate thrust blocks to be Late Proterozoic or Early Cambrian(?). The echinoderm fragment is in a lower amphibolite facies interbedded mica schist-impure marble zone that lies directly above the Murphy Marble. Rocks above the Murphy Marble are dominantly turbiditic metaclastic rocks with minor carbonate and metavolcanic rocks, interpreted as having formed within a successor basin unconformably above upper Precambrian rift facies and lower Paleozoic drift facies rocks of the Laurentian passive margin. An upper bound for the age of the successor basin in the Murphy belt has not been established; similar sequences in the Talladega belt to the southwest, and possibly the Foothills belt to the west, range at least into the Devonian. Most Appalachian tectonic models assert that during the Taconic orogeny a Middle Ordovician synorogenic clastic wedge, now located in the easternmost Tennessee foreland salient, was derived by erosion from the metamorphosed pre-Ordovician Blue Ridge basement and cover sequence to the east, which was uplifted as part of an advancing Taconic crystalline thrust wedge. The presence of Ordovician or younger rocks described here, which were deposited east of the proposed Taconic orogenic front, suggests the need to modify models for Taconic clastic wedge formation in the southern Appalachians. The results presented here also suggest that peak metamorphism in the region was post-Ordovician, and thus was probably not contemporaneous with the Taconic orogeny, as previously thought.

  13. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  14. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  15. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    sooner than a manager of lower type. Third, a non-operating gold mine is valued as being of the lowest type in the pool and all else equal, high-asymmetri mines are valued lower than low-asymmetri mines. In a qualitative sense these results are robust with respect to different assumptions (re cost......  Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  16. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  17. Spatial variations in T e in the southern Appalachians, eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, G. D.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-10-01

    Various studies in the oceans have shown that the flexural rigidity, or equivalently effective elastic thickness (Te), of the lithosphere is determined by the load and plate age. The results of studies in the continents have, however, been more controversial. Determinations of Te made using spectral studies and based on the Bouguer anomaly coherence technique and surface and subsurface loading suggest that North America has a high Te "core" (>100 km) which is flanked by lower values. In contrast, studies based on the free air admittance suggest that Te of North America is <25 km, and of the order of the seismogenic layer thickness. It has been proposed that this discrepancy results from the fact that estimates based only on Bouguer coherence may be biased upward due to topographical erosion which introduces "noise", especially at short wavelengths. In order to address this question further, we have used a maximum entropy based coherence method to determine the wavelength relationship between gravity and topography in the southern Appalachians, a region where the Bouguer coherence, free-air admittance, and forward modeling techniques have already been applied. Our studies reveal a variable Te structure with a mean Te of 51 km and values which have a range 20 to 100 km. The mapped Te fabric has a distinct NE-SW trend which appears to follow the tectonic elements of the southern Appalachians. In particular, the foreland is generally associated with higher Te values than the flanking orogenic belt. Correlations at smaller scales are difficult, however, to establish. The Te fabric does not reflect the complex terrains that make up highly deformed regions within the orogenic belt. Our spectrally determined Te estimates are in close agreement with ones based on forward modeling. They are a factor of 4 higher, however, than results previously based on free-air admittance. We attribute this to the fact that we have used the Bouguer coherence technique which accounts for

  18. High occupancy of stream salamanders despite high ranavirus prevalence in a southern appalachians watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Betsie B; Travis, Emilie R; Miller, Debra L; Hill, Robert L; McGuire, Jessica L; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    The interactive effects of environmental stressors and emerging infectious disease pose potential threats to stream salamander communities and their headwater stream ecosystems. To begin assessing these threats, we conducted occupancy surveys and pathogen screening of stream salamanders (Family Plethodontidae) in a protected southern Appalachians watershed in Georgia and North Carolina, USA. Of the 101 salamanders screened for both chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus, only two exhibited low-level chytrid infections. Prevalence of Ranavirus was much higher (30.4% among five species of Desmognathus). Despite the ubiquity of ranaviral infections, we found high probabilities of site occupancy (≥0.60) for all stream salamander species.

  19. The role of catastrophic geomorphic events in central Appalachian landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R.B.; Miller, A.J.; Smith, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Catastrophic geomorphic events are taken as those that are large, sudden, and rare on human timescales. In the nonglaciated, low-seismicity central Appalachians, these are dominantly floods and landslides. Evaluation of the role of catastrophic events in landscape evolution includes assessment of their contributions to denudation and formation of prominent landscape features, and how they vary through space and time. Tropical storm paths and topographic barriers at the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Front create significant climatic variability across the Appalachians. For moderate floods, the influence of basin geology is apparent in modifying severity of flooding, but for the most extreme events, flood discharges relate mainly to rainfall characteristics such as intensity, duration, storm size, and location. Landslide susceptibility relates more directly to geologic controls that determine what intensity and duration of rainfall will trigger slope instability. Large floods and landslides are not necessarily effective in producing prominent geomorphic features. Large historic floods in the Piedmont have been minimally effective in producing prominent and persistent geomorphic features. In contrast, smaller floods in the Valley and Ridge produced erosional and depositional features that probably will require thousands of years to efface. Scars and deposits of debris slide-avalanches triggered on sandstone ridges recover slowly and persist much longer than scars and deposits of smaller landslides triggered on finer-grained regolith, even though the smaller landslides may have eroded greater aggregate volume. The surficial stratigraphic record can be used to extend the spatial and temporal limits of our knowledge of catastrophic events. Many prominent alluvial and colluvial landforms in the central Appalachians are composed of sediments that were deposited by processes similar to those observed in historic catastrophic events. Available stratigraphic evidence shows two

  20. Men and their land. The mining sites of the Mokta French Company in Lozere; Des hommes et leur terre. Les sites miniers de la Compagnie Francaise de Mokta en Lozere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This booklet summarizes the history of the mining activity in the Lozere district (France) devoted to the extraction of uranium ores. This activity started in 1957 with the open cast exploitation of the Cellier deposit which lasted 35 years and produced 4200 t of uranium from 5800000 t of ore. The exploitation was performed by the French Company of Uranium Ores (CFMU). The uranium crisis started in 1962 and led to an increase of prospecting activities. The crisis ended with the first oil crack in 1973 and the uranium demand and prices grew up until 1979 when the Three Mile Island reactor accident occurred. The second crisis that followed led to the development of new recovery processes such as the heap lixiviation process. In 1980, the CFMU became the French Company of Mokta (CFM) and in 1986, the CFM became a 100% daughter company of the Cogema group. The exploitation of the Bondons mine ended in 1989 and the program of site rehabilitation started. The document focusses on the environmental aspects of this program, the reforestation, the drainage of surface waters and the control of water quality. (J.S.)

  1. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  2. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    works and for the rehabilitation of the land; in the case of underground mining and mine boreholes an operating history must also be submitted. For those projects that have a significant effect on the environment, an obligatory overall operations plan with mining law project approval procedure and integrated Environmental Risk Assessment (UVP) are necessary. The point at which this is required is stipulated in the UVP-mining decree, for example if the mining area of an open-cast pit is more than 25 ha. Alongside the UVP, the procedure is also equipped with public participation and through its "concentrating effect" replaces further licensing procedures according to other laws. The Mining Authority combines supervision and licensing, which are usually inseparable due to the operations plan procedure, as well as aspects of occupational safety and of the protection of the environment. In view of this administrative concentration these should not be fragmented. The "all-in-one" service meets the requirements of a modern public-oriented administration, has only a few points of contact, and can therefore work efficiently.

  3. Mining the hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ulrich

    1994-05-01

    Rapid technological progress over the past two decades has significantly lowered the cost of water desalination and has spurred an impressive growth of this industry. About half of the desalination capacity uses seawater, the other half uses continental brackish water. Most of the desalted water is consumed for domestic and municipal purposes. However, some of it, especially that derived from brackish water, is also competitive for irrigation of high-value crops, and for some industrial purposes, particularly in water-deficient regions. In addition to fresh water, at present only halite, magnesium, and bromine are commercially obtained from seawater. These commodities plus sodium carbonate (trona), sodium sulfate, I, Li, B, and potash are also produced from natural brines. Prior attempts to obtain potash, U, Au, and other mineral commodities from seawater failed because the market value of the recovered products was too low to cover the capital and operating costs of processing plants exclusively dedicated to recover them separately. The economics are more favorable if these and/or other elements or compounds are obtained as byproducts of seawater desalination, especially when combined with cogeneration of electricity. Under these circumstances the major capital and operating costs for pumping seawater and for disposing of the reject brine are absorbed mostly by the proceeds from freshwater production. The byproducts need only to pay for the additional recovery processes. One advantage of this strategy is to reduce the environmental impact of reject brine disposal. Another is to reduce the environmental, safety, and health impacts of land-based mining. Furthermore, obtaining nonmetallic mineral commodities from seawater at a number of localities scattered over the Earth can significantly reduce their transportation costs, which is a major proportion of their cost to nations lacking these resources. This is particularly pertinent for common salt (halite), potash

  4. American mines, methods and men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.C.A. (Thames Water Utilities (UK))

    1992-04-01

    The paper is based on the author's visits to a number of American mines, to see their mining machinery and to discuss with mine management their industrial relations problems. The paper gives a brief review of American mines, methods and men and is in the form of a diary. Mines visited are: Ohio Valley Coal Company; Big John Mine; Pittsburgh Research Center of the US Bureau of Mines; Martinka Mine; Robin Hood Complex No 9 Mine (Boone County, West Virginia), Green Briar Mine (Virginia); Martin County Coal (Kentucky); Wabash Mine (Keensburgh, Illinois); Galatia Mine (Harrisburgh, Illinois); and William Station Mine (Sturgis, Kentucky). Details given include mining methods productivity and staffing levels. The mining machinery is described in detail in a separate article. 5 figs.

  5. Data Mining for CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  6. Spatial analysis on impacts of mining activities leading to flood disaster in the Erai watershed, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katpatal, Y.B.; Patil, S.A. [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2010-05-15

    Decisions related to mine management, especially pertaining to dumped material, might lead to several environmental hazards including flood risks in mining areas. Excavation and mine dumps are dominant factors of land use/land cover change in the Erai River watershed of Chandrapur district in Maharashtra, India. Identification and quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this change in land use/land cover affects ecosystem components such as aesthetics, biodiversity and mitigation of floods in the Erai watershed. The present study utilizes satellite data of Landsat TM (1989), IRS LISS-3 (1999, 2007) and CARTOSAT (2007) to study the extent of surface mines and management of mine overburden (OB) dumps of Hindustan Lalpeth coal mines, Chandrapur, India. Image processing techniques in conjunction with GIS have been used to visualize the flood scenario, the reasons for floods and area under impact. The study indicates that the development of the mine OB dump within the river channel on both the sides has been responsible for the 2006 flood within the region. Further increase in OB dump heights may result in the risk of floods of greater potential during heavy rainfall in the future. The study presents a spatial analysis to assess the impacts of OB dumps in the recent flood in the area. The study also spatially represents the area under impact leading to a disastrous situation due to floods. The study also suggests the probable measures that must be adopted to avoid such situations in future in the mining areas.

  7. Spatial analysis on impacts of mining activities leading to flood disaster in the Erai watershed, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.B. Katpatal; S.A. Patil [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur (India). Civil Engineering Department

    2010-03-15

    Decisions related to mine management, especially pertaining to dumped material, might lead to several environmental hazards including flood risks in mining areas. Excavation and mine dumps are dominant factors of land use/land cover change in the Erai River watershed of Chandrapur district in Maharashtra, India. Identification and quantification of the extent of mining activities is important for assessing how this change in land use/land cover affects ecosystem components such as aesthetics, biodiversity and mitigation of floods in the Erai watershed. The present study utilizes satellite data of Landsat TM (1989), IRS LISS-3 (1999, 2007) and CARTOSAT (2007) to study the extent of surface mines and management of mine over burden (OB) dumps of Hindustan Lalpeth coal mines, Chandrapur, India. Image processing techniques in conjunction with GIS have been used to visualize the flood scenario, the reasons for floods and area under impact. The study indicates that the development of the mine OB dump within the river channel on both the sides has been responsible for the 2006 flood within the region. Further increase in OB dump heights may result in the risk of floods of greater potential during heavy rainfall in the future. The study presents a spatial analysis to assess the impacts of OB dumps in the recent flood in the area. The study also spatially represents the area under impact leading to a disastrous situation due to floods. The study also suggests the probable measures that must be adopted to avoid such situations in future in the mining areas.

  8. Study of application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture-related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry. [Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Russell, O. R.; Amato, R. V.; Leshendok, T.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The Mined Land Inventory map of Pike, Gibson, and Warrick Counties, Indiana, prepared from ERTS-1 imagery, was included in the 1973 Annual Report of the President's Council on Environmental Quality as an example of ERTS applications to mined lands. Increasing numbers of inquiries have been received from coal producing states and coal companies interested in the Indiana Program.

  9. China Limits the Mining Quantity of Tungsten and Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>Based on a notice issued by the Ministry of Land Resources, China’s tungsten mining quantity in 2006 will be controlled to 59,060 tons in concentrates form, which include 4,250 tons of recycled tungsten. And the rare earth mining quantity in 2006 will also be controlled to 86,620 tons (REO) including 8,320 tons of heavy rare earth and 78,200 tons of light rare earth.

  10. Dynamic Evaluation of Rationality of Land Use Structure in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinning XIE; Jianhua GUO; Kaiguo YUAN; Bin QUAN

    2015-01-01

    The rationality of land use structure was evaluated with dynamic TOPSIS method based on changing data of land use from 2008 to 2011 in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area. The results showed that during 2008- 2011,the rationality of land use structure was totally high,the dynamic value hi of Changsha,Zhuzhou,Xiangtan and the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area was 0. 7954,0. 7821,0. 8245 and0. 8186,respectively; the value Ci( tk) reflecting the rationality of land use structure at different time points was rapidly increased,and the gap between regions was not big and shrinking. According to the grey relational analysis,the change of different land use types had different effects on the rationality of land use structure: transportation land,the land for cities,towns and villages and the land for mining and industry are most highly correlated with the rationality of land use structure,while arable land,woodland,water area and water conservancy facility land have also an important impact on the rationality of land use structure; controlling the excessive growth of transportation land,the land for cities,towns and villages and the land for mining and industry,protecting arable land,forest land,water area and water conservancy facility land,and moderately increasing the garden plot,plays a decisive role in optimizing the land use structure in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan area.

  11. Evaluation of the Reclamation Suitability of Industrial and Mining Wasteland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gengjie; ZHANG; Zhongke; BAI

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the reclamation suitability of industrial and mining wasteland is the premise of reclamation. The wasteland was firstly categorized according to land use status and damage types. Then the evaluation process of reclamation suitability was introduced, which involves two steps, the first step was to exclude those unsuitable wasteland by the limits conditions, while the second step was to evaluate the suitability degree of those suitable wasteland. From the perspectives of soil fertility, soil pollution, farmland water conservancy and land damage, twelve evaluation factors, including soil depth, gravel content, bulk density, organic material content, pollution index, gradient, flatness, irrigation and drainage condition, source of borrowed earth, distance from the residential settlement, erosion modulus and damage extent, were selected to establish an index system for evaluating the abandoned industrial and mining land, aiming to provide references for the future reclamation of industrial and mining wasteland.

  12. Continued pollution from mining at Maarmorilik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the closure of the lead and zinc mine at Maarmorilik in the municipality of Uummannaq in North West Greenland pollution of surrounding fiords and land stretches with the metals continues, all though in a much lesser degree than earlier. This shows a new report by the Danish ...... National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), University of Aarhus. NERI is in charge of the ongoing environmental monitoring of the area. The Greenland Homerule finances the monitoring through its Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum......Almost 20 years after the closure of the lead and zinc mine at Maarmorilik in the municipality of Uummannaq in North West Greenland pollution of surrounding fiords and land stretches with the metals continues, all though in a much lesser degree than earlier. This shows a new report by the Danish...

  13. Mining text data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2012-01-01

    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  14. Loneliness, depression, social support, and quality of life in older chronically ill Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeke, Laurie A; Goins, R Turner; Moore, Julia; Campbell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to describe loneliness and to examine the relationships between loneliness, depression, social support, and QOL in chronically ill, older Appalachians. In-person interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 60 older, chronically ill, community-dwelling, and rural adults. Those with dementia or active grief were excluded. The UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1985), Geriatric Depression Scale (Shiekh & Yesavage, 1986), Katz ADL scale (Katz, Down, & Cash, 1970), MOS Social Support Scale (Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991), and a visual analog scale for Quality of Life (Spitzer et al., 1981) scale were used. Diagnoses were obtained through chart reviews. SPSS was used for data analyses. The majority of the 65% female sample (M age = 75 years) were married and impoverished. Participants' number of chronic illnesses averaged more than 3. Over 88% of participants reported at least 1 area of functional impairment. Loneliness was prevalent with UCLA loneliness scores indicating moderate to high loneliness, ranging from 39 to 62 (possible scores were 20-80). Higher loneliness scores correlated with depression, lower Qol, and lower social support, particularly lower emotional support. This study provides evidence that loneliness is a significant problem for older chronically ill Appalachian adults and that it may be related to low emotional support. Further, it provides evidence that this population may be significantly lonely and may not self-identify as lonely. Screening for loneliness and designing interventions that target the emotional aspects of loneliness could be important in this population.

  15. Central Appalachian basin natural gas database: distribution, composition, and origin of natural gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Colón, Yomayra A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled a database consisting of three worksheets of central Appalachian basin natural gas analyses and isotopic compositions from published and unpublished sources of 1,282 gas samples from Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The database includes field and reservoir names, well and State identification number, selected geologic reservoir properties, and the composition of natural gases (methane; ethane; propane; butane, iso-butane [i-butane]; normal butane [n-butane]; iso-pentane [i-pentane]; normal pentane [n-pentane]; cyclohexane, and hexanes). In the first worksheet, location and American Petroleum Institute (API) numbers from public or published sources are provided for 1,231 of the 1,282 gas samples. A second worksheet of 186 gas samples was compiled from published sources and augmented with public location information and contains carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen isotopic measurements of natural gas. The third worksheet is a key for all abbreviations in the database. The database can be used to better constrain the stratigraphic distribution, composition, and origin of natural gas in the central Appalachian basin.

  16. The nature of nature: Space, place, and identity on the Appalachian Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Vanessa Ann

    The purpose of this study was to examine nature experiences; how these experiences in nature impact place-making and in turn are impacted by place; why someone would choose to engage in an intense nature experience (in connection with significant life experiences); how people connect to nature and what their construction of nature is; and how knowledge is generated during an informal nature experience. A naturalistic inquiry methodology was selected to explore how Appalachian Trail thru-hikers experience and connect to nature, what prior nature experiences and formative influences led them to undertake a long-term outdoor experience, and the relationships between space, place, identity, and power. To address this purpose, I collected data from 18 Appalachian Trail thru-hikers via in-depth semi-structured interviews, observation field notes, and an autoethnographic research journal. The results of this research included a number of emergent findings. The emergent themes fell into the following categories: awareness of nature, identifying as a participant or observer in nature, power over nature, power of nature, social experiences, nature experiences, learning, significant life experiences, formative influences, reasoning, relationships with nature, bounding/bordering nature, conceptions of nature, place-making, and evolving identities. The results are presented in this dissertation in support of an argument for environmental education scholars and practitioners to attend to varying constructions of nature as a space, as well as how identity shapes experience and place-making.

  17. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rober Jacobi

    2006-05-31

    During this reporting period, Fortuna retrieved the first oriented horizontal core from the Trenton/Black River in the northern Appalachian Basin. The core came from central New York State, the ''hottest'' play in the Appalachian Basin. A complete well log suite was also collected in the horizontal hole, including an FMI log. After reassembling the core sections, and orienting the core, we analyzed the whole core before it was cut for full-diameter core analyses (e.g., permeability) and before the core was split, in order that we did not miss any features that may be lost during cutting. We recognized and mapped along the core 43 stylolites, 99 veins and several large partially filled vugs. Kinematic indicators suggest multiple phases of strike-slip motion. Master-abutting relationships at intersections (primarily determined from which feature ''cuts'' which other feature) show three stages of stylolite growth: sub horizontal, nearly vertical, and steeply dipping. These development stages reflect vertical loading, tectonic horizontal loading, and finally oblique loading. Hydrothermal dolomite veins cut and are cut by all three stages of the stylolites. A set of horizontal veins indicates vertical unloading. Analyses of the core will continue, as well as the well logs.

  18. Comparison of Archean and Phanerozoic granulites: Southern India and North American Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Kittleson, Roger C.

    1988-01-01

    Archean granulites at the southern end of the Dharwar craton of India and Phanerozoic granulites in the southern Appalachians of North America share an important characteristic: both show continuous transitions from amphibolite facies rocks to higher grade. This property is highly unusual for granulite terranes, which commonly are bounded by major shears or thrusts. These two terranes thus offer an ideal opportunity to compare petrogenetic models for deep crustal rocks formed in different time periods, which conventional wisdom suggests may have had different thermal profiles. The salient features of the Archean amphibolite-to-granulite transition in southern India have been recently summarized. The observed metamorphic progression reflects increasing temperature and pressure. Conditions for the Phanerozoic amphibolite-to-granulite transition in the southern Appalachians were documented. The following sequence of prograde reactions was observed: kyanite = sillimanite, muscovite = sillimanite + K-feldspar, partial melting of pelites, and hornblende = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. The mineral compositions of low-variance assemblages in mafic and intermediate rocks are almost identical for the two granulite facies assemblages. In light of their different fluid regimes and possible mechanisms for heat flow augmentation, it seems surprising that these Archean and Phanerozoic granulite terranes were apparently metamorphosed under such similar conditions of pressure and temperature. Comparison with other terrains containing continuous amphibolite-to-granulite facies transitions will be necessary before this problem can be addressed.

  19. Raccoon spatial requirements and multi-scale habitat selection within an intensively managed central Appalachian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Sheldon F.; Berl, Jacob L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2015-01-01

    We studied a raccoon (Procyon lotor) population within a managed central Appalachian hardwood forest in West Virginia to investigate the effects of intensive forest management on raccoon spatial requirements and habitat selection. Raccoon home-range (95% utilization distribution) and core-area (50% utilization distribution) size differed between sexes with males maintaining larger (2×) home ranges and core areas than females. Home-range and core-area size did not differ between seasons for either sex. We used compositional analysis to quantify raccoon selection of six different habitat types at multiple spatial scales. Raccoons selected riparian corridors (riparian management zones [RMZ]) and intact forests (> 70 y old) at the core-area spatial scale. RMZs likely were used by raccoons because they provided abundant denning resources (i.e., large-diameter trees) as well as access to water. Habitat composition associated with raccoon foraging locations indicated selection for intact forests, riparian areas, and regenerating harvest (stands managed forests in the central Appalachians.

  20. Mine Blast Loading: Experiments and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The experimental data were tabulated, and then used to develop a computer program for floor plate response from land mine explosions. One...large-caliber KE weapon (assuming no perforation). The accelerations at the pelvic area exceeded limits for total incapacitation, although the...pores in dry and partially saturated materials (the p-α model is also used to describe swelling behavior , when it exists); and 3) the CTH

  1. EFFECT OF SOWING DATE OF TRITICALE ON SEASONAL HERBAGE PRODUCTION IN THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN HIGHLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixed perennial, cool-season species are the dominant components of pastures in the central Appalachian Region of the United States. Forage production from such pastures is often limited during hot, dry summer months and cool, early and late season periods. We studied forage production and stand d...

  2. Data mining in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  3. Commercial Data Mining Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Segall, Richard S.

    This chapter discusses selected commercial software for data mining, supercomputing data mining, text mining, and web mining. The selected software are compared with their features and also applied to available data sets. The software for data mining are SAS Enterprise Miner, Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0, PASW (formerly SPSS Clementine), IBM Intelligent Miner, and BioDiscovery GeneSight. The software for supercomputing are Avizo by Visualization Science Group and JMP Genomics from SAS Institute. The software for text mining are SAS Text Miner and Megaputer PolyAnalyst 5.0. The software for web mining are Megaputer PolyAnalyst and SPSS Clementine . Background on related literature and software are presented. Screen shots of each of the selected software are presented, as are conclusions and future directions.

  4. Data mining in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  5. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  6. Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anthony

    1998-08-01

    Unless action is taken, the developing world will face recurrent problems of food security and conflict. This volume provides a summary and perspective of the field of land resources and suggests improvements needed to conserve resources for future generations. Coverage provides an authoritative review of the resources of soils, water, climate, forests and pastures on which agriculture depends. It assesses the interactions between land resources and wider aspects of development, including population and poverty. It provides a strong critique of current methods of assessing land degradation and placing an economic value on land. It should be read by all involved in rural development, including scientists, economists, geographers, sociologists, planners, and students of development studies.

  7. The challenges of reusing mining and mineral-processing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengfu; Miao, Xiexing; Lei, Shaogang; Chen, Shen-en; Wang, Wenfeng; Struthers, Sue

    2012-08-10

    Mining and mineral-processing wastes are one of the world's largest chronic waste concerns. Their reuse should be included in future sustainable development plans, but the potential impacts on a number of environmental processes are highly variable and must be thoroughly assessed. The chemical composition and geotechnical properties of the source rock determine which uses are most appropriate and whether reuse is economically feasible. If properly evaluated, mining waste can be reused to reextract minerals, provide additional fuel for power plants, supply construction materials, and repair surface and subsurface land structures altered by mining activities themselves.

  8. Coal mine spoil-water interaction: Ⅱ. Weathering concentrated metals in surface coal mine spoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党志; 万国江; 李德忍

    1996-01-01

    Concentrations of metals are lower in coal shales collected from recently exposed surface mine wastes than in shales collected from spoils exposed to surface weathering for 45 a. In this period, the character of the spoils changes dramatically as a result of the accelerated breakdown of the freshly exposed minestones. Since the metals are held as unstable sulfides, it is suggested that enrichment may be caused by absorption of metals by colloid of iron or formation of organic complex compound with organic carbon existing in the remnant structure of coal mine spoil. This process may contribute to the triggering of soil contamination thresholds on coal-lands already heavily loaded with metals.

  9. Environmental education and research at the Mining and Geological Faculty of the Technical University of Mining and Metallurgy in Ostrava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamarsky, V. (Vysoka Skola Banska, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia). Hornicko-Geologicka Fakulta)

    1992-04-01

    Discusses the program of the Faculty and its main research projects. The following courses are described: geotechnics and land reclamation after coal mining, complex waste processing, waste water preparation, ecological aspects of construction in mining areas. The following research projects are discussed: design of a dry coke quenching system for the Nova Hut coking plant, reducing sulfur content in brown coal used as a fuel by the power plants, monitoring ground water in the Ostrava-Karvina district, utilization of abandoned workings for waste storage in Ostrava-Karvina, effects of underground coal mining on ground subsidence and deformation, waste utilization in the coal industry.

  10. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  11. A concise method for mine soils analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, S.; Wildeman, T.; Robinson, R.; Herron, J.

    1999-07-01

    A large number of abandoned hard rock mines exist in Colorado and other mountain west states, many on public property. Public pressure and resulting policy changes have become a driving force in the reclamation of these sites. Two of the key reclamation issues for these sites in the occurrence of acid forming materials (AFMs) in mine soils, and acid mine drainage (AMD) issuing from mine audits. An AMD treatment system design project for the Forest Queen mine in Colorado's San Juan mountains raised the need for a simple, useable method for analysis of mine land soils, both for suitability as a construction material, and to determine the AFM content and potential for acid release. The authors have developed a simple, stepwise, go - no go test for the analysis of mine soils. Samples were collected from a variety of sites in the Silverton, CO area, and subjected to three tiers of tests including: paste pH, Eh, and 10% HCl fizz test; then total digestion in HNO{sub 3}/HCl, neutralization potential, exposure to meteoric water, and toxicity content leaching procedure (TCLP). All elemental analyses were performed with an inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Elimination of samples via the first two testing tiers left two remaining samples, which were subsequently subjected to column and sequential batch tests, with further elemental analysis by ICP. Based on these tests, one sample was chosen for suitability as a constructing material for the Forest Queen treatment system basins. Further simplification, and testing on two pairs of independent soil samples, has resulted in a final analytical method suitable for general use.

  12. Data mining, mining data : energy consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Most modern mining operations are accumulating large amounts of data on production and business processes. Data, however, provides value only if it can be translated into information that appropriate users can utilize. This paper emphasized that a new technological focus should emerge, notably how to concentrate data into information; analyze information sufficiently to become knowledge; and, act on that knowledge. Researchers at the Mining Information Systems and Operations Management (MISOM) laboratory at the University of Arizona have created a method to transform data into action. The data-to-action approach was exercised in the development of an energy consumption model (ECM), in partnership with a major US-based copper mining company, 2 software companies, and the MISOM laboratory. The approach begins by integrating several key data sources using data warehousing techniques, and increasing the existing level of integration and data cleaning. An online analytical processing (OLAP) cube was also created to investigate the data and identify a subset of several million records. Data mining algorithms were applied using the information that was isolated by the OLAP cube. The data mining results showed that traditional cost drivers of energy consumption are poor predictors. A comparison was made between traditional methods of predicting energy consumption and the prediction formed using data mining. Traditionally, in the mines for which data were available, monthly averages of tons and distance are used to predict diesel fuel consumption. However, this article showed that new information technology can be used to incorporate many more variables into the budgeting process, resulting in more accurate predictions. The ECM helped mine planners improve the prediction of energy use through more data integration, measure development, and workflow analysis. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Opencast mining and environmental restoration; Explotacion minera a cielo abierto y restauracion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    The great advance in recent years of earthmoving equipment has enabled the development in opencast mining of an exploitation technique which permits the extraction of coal directly from the upper surface, by means of large excavations. Simultaneously with the mining project, a land reclamation project is being worked out with two fundamental objectives: the establishment of means of protection during the mining; and the plan for reconstruction of the ground and landscape. 7 figs.

  14. Trophic priorities of millipedes (Diplopoda in process of rehabilitation of the territories disturbed by mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kulbachko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The food selectivity of millipedes (Diplopoda was studied in different variants of mine spoils and chernozem fillings applied as topsoil. It was found that the ordinary chernozem fillings determines the formation of food priorities increasingly in comparison with the mine spoil. There are shown statistically significant differences between millipeds food priorities depending on the proposed feed: litter leaves of trees (Acer platanoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Juniperus virginiana used in forest revegetation of mining lands.

  15. Mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates from a Soil-Water-Balance model of the Appalachian Plateaus, 1980 through 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program study of Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates for...

  16. Hydrogeologic framework bottom elevations and thicknesses of Permian, Upper Pennsylvanian, Lower Pennsylvanian, and Mississippian units in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Water Availability and Use Science Program study of Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, bottom elevations and thicknesses were...

  17. A REIA Study of Marble Mining Activities in District- Nagaur (Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and unscientific mining poses severe threat to life, public property and continuation of mining in the area. Incompatible land uses, huge waste dumps and large scale land transformation have resulted in land degradation, ponding, flooding, water contamination and health hazards in Makrana mining area. Segregation of dumps, compatible land use, research and development activity for use of marble slurry are suggested measures for reclamation and restoration of the degraded land. While for the purpose of development and economic upliftment of people, there is a need for establishment of industrial project, but these have to be environmentally friendly. Therefore it is essential to assess the impacts of mining on different environmental parameters, before starting the mining operations, so that abatement measures could be planned in advance for eco-friendly mining in the area. Environmental impact assessment (EIA is a systematic process that examines the environmental consequences of development action like mining, cement, transport, river valley. EIA systematically examines booth beneficial and adverse consequences of the proposed project and ensures that these impacts are taken into account during the project design.

  18. Arsenic in groundwaters in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt: a review of patterns and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen C

    2008-07-29

    Naturally occurring arsenic in the bedrock of the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt was first recognized in the late 19th century. The knowledge of the behavior of arsenic in groundwater in this region has lagged behind nearly a century, with the popular press reporting on local studies in the early 1980s, and most peer-reviewed research articles on regional patterns conducted and written in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research reports have shown that within this high arsenic region, between 6% and 22% of households using private drinking water wells contain arsenic in excess of 10 microg/L, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level. In nearly all reports, arsenic in drinking water was derived from naturally occurring geologic sources, typically arsenopyrite, substituted sulfides such as arsenian pyrite, and nanoscale minerals such as westerveldite. In most studies, arsenic concentrations in groundwater were controlled by pH dependent adsorption to mineral surfaces, most commonly iron oxide minerals. In some cases, reductive dissolution of iron minerals has been shown to increase arsenic concentrations in groundwater, more commonly associated with anthropogenic activities such as landfills. Evidence of nitrate reduction promoting the presence of arsenic(V) and iron(III) minerals in anoxic environments has been shown to occur in surface waters, and in this manuscript we show this process perhaps applies to groundwater. The geologic explanation for the high arsenic region in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt is most likely the crustal recycling of arsenic as an incompatible element during tectonic activity. Accretion of multiple terranes, in particular Avalonia and the Central Maine Terrane of New England appear to be connected to the presence of high concentrations of arsenic. Continued tectonic activity and recycling of these older terranes may also be responsible for the high arsenic observed in the Triassic rift

  19. Evidence for long-term climate change in Upper Devonian strata of the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Kertis, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The highest 1 to 200 m of the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Catskill and equivalent Hampshire formations exhibit a noticeable vertical or stratigraphic change in color and a shift in lithologic character. The lower part of the unit is characterized by typically red, channel-phase sandstones and overbank siltstone and mudstone containing thin calcareous paleosols. These lithologies give way to greenish gray sandstone containing abundant coaly plant fragments, coalified logs, and pyrite, interbedded with thick intervals of non-calcareous paleo-vertisols. The increase in the prominence of preserved terrestrial organic matter suggests that there was a corresponding increase in the abundance of plants in terrestrial ecosystems. The stratigraphic change in lithology within the upper part of the Catskill-Hampshire succession suggests the onset of environmental conditions that became increasingly wet in response to elevated humid climatic conditions during the final stages of Catskill alluvial plain deposition. The sedimentological signature suggesting increased climatic wetness within the uppermost Catskill and Hampshire formations is nearly contemporaneous with the initiation of Late Devonian Gondwanan glaciation in the paleo-high-latitudes. The Appalachian climate record indicates that this change began during the Fa2c and continued through the latest Famennian, reaching its peak during the Fa2d when glacial deposits are recorded in the paleo-mid-latitudes of the Appalachian basin. Evidence of this late Famennian increase in precipitation also is recorded in the adjacent marine environments. Equivalent-age marine units in Ohio and Kentucky record progressive increases in both total organic carbon and the percentage of terrestrially-derived organic carbon. This suggests that there was a late Famennian increase in terrestrial organic matter productivity, and that during the late Famennian, there were elevated levels of runoff produced by the interpreted increase in

  20. Academic detailing to increase colorectal cancer screening by primary care practices in Appalachian Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graybill Marie A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer death. Screening is a primary method to prevent CRC, yet screening remains low in the U.S. and particularly in Appalachian Pennsylvania, a largely rural area with high rates of poverty, limited health care access, and increased CRC incidence and mortality rates. Receiving a physician recommendation for CRC screening is a primary predictor for patient adherence with screening guidelines. One strategy to disseminate practice-oriented interventions is academic detailing (AD, a method that transfers knowledge or methods to physicians, nurses or office staff through the visit(s of a trained educator. The objective of this study was to determine acceptability and feasibility of AD among primary care practices in rural Appalachian Pennsylvania to increase CRC screening. Methods A multi-site, practice-based, intervention study with pre- and 6-month post-intervention review of randomly selected medical records, pre- and post-intervention surveys, as well as a post-intervention key informant interview was conducted. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients current with CRC screening recommendations and having received a CRC screening within the past year. Four practices received three separate AD visits to review four different learning modules. Results We reviewed 323 records pre-intervention and 301 post-intervention. The prevalence of being current with screening recommendation was 56% in the pre-intervention, and 60% in the post-intervention (p = 0. 29, while the prevalence of having been screened in the past year increased from 17% to 35% (p Conclusions AD appears to be acceptable and feasible for primary care providers in rural Appalachia. A ceiling effect for CRC screening may have been a factor in no change in overall screening rates. While the study was not designed to test the efficacy of AD

  1. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  2. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  3. A REVIEW ON TEXT MINING IN DATA MINING

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Data mining is the knowledge discovery in databases and the gaol is to extract patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data. The important term in data mining is text mining. Text mining extracts the quality information highly from text. Statistical pattern learning is used to high quality information. High –quality in text mining defines the combinations of relevance, novelty and interestingness. Tasks in text mining are text categorization, text clustering, entity extraction and sentim...

  4. Constraining Modern and Historic Mercury Emissions From Gold Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strode, S. A.; Jaeglé, L.; Selin, N. E.; Sunderland, E.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury emissions from both historic gold and silver mining and modern small-scale gold mining are highly uncertain. Historic mercury emissions can affect the modern atmosphere through reemission from land and ocean, and quantifying mercury emissions from historic gold and silver mining can help constrain modern mining sources. While estimates of mercury emissions during historic gold rushes exceed modern anthropogenic mercury emissions in North America, sediment records in many regions do not show a strong gold rush signal. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to determine the spatial footprint of mercury emissions from mining and compare model runs from gold rush periods to sediment and ice core records of historic mercury deposition. Based on records of gold and silver production, we include mercury emissions from North and South American mining of 1900 Mg/year in 1880, compared to modern global anthropogenic emissions of 3400 Mg/year. Including this large mining source in GEOS-Chem leads to an overestimate of the modeled 1880 to preindustrial enhancement ratio compared to the sediment core record. We conduct sensitivity studies to constrain the level of mercury emissions from modern and historic mining that is consistent with the deposition records for different regions.

  5. Monitoring of Land Subsidence in Coal Mining Area Based on D-InSAR Technology%基于 D-InSAR 技术的煤矿区地面沉降监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋继德; 邸志众

    2014-01-01

    概要叙述了差分合成孔径雷达(D-InSAR)的技术原理和数据处理方法,介绍了 D-InSAR 在地表形变监测中的应用技术和方法,针对研究区域的地表沉降特点选择常规 D-InSAR 和永久性散射体干涉测量(PSI)作为 InSAR 差分处理方式,分析并选取适合本项目研究的 InSAR 雷达数据,对兖州-济宁区域因煤矿开采产生的地表缓慢沉降和快速沉降进行数据分析并得出结论,达到了研究的目的。%This paper briefly described the principle and data processing methods of the Differential Interferometric SAR(D-InSAR)technology,and introduced the application techniques and methods of D-InSAR on monitoring of the ground surface deformation.According to the characteristics of the ground surface subsidence in study area,we choosed conventional D-InSAR and Permanent Scatterer Interferometry(PSI)as the InSAR differential treatment,and analyzed and selected the InSAR radar data that is suitable for the study.Finally,we have drawn some conclusions by analyzing data of both the slow and rapid ground surface subsidence caused by the coal mining in Yanzhou-Jining area,and have achieved the purpose of the research.

  6. Policy Analysis: Valuation of Ecosystem Services in the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, H Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Criscimagna, Susie Chung; Cosby, Bernard J; Evans, David A; Krupnick, Alan J; Siikamäki, Juha V

    2016-03-15

    This study estimates the economic value of an increase in ecosystem services attributable to the reduced acidification expected from more stringent air pollution policy. By integrating a detailed biogeochemical model that projects future ecological recovery with economic methods that measure preferences for specific ecological improvements, we estimate the economic value of ecological benefits from new air pollution policies in the Southern Appalachian ecosystem. Our results indicate that these policies generate aggregate benefits of about $3.7 billion, or about $16 per year per household in the region. The study provides currently missing information about the ecological benefits from air pollution policies that is needed to evaluate such policies comprehensively. More broadly, the study also illustrates how integrated biogeochemical and economic assessments of multidimensional ecosystems can evaluate the relative benefits of different policy options that vary by scale and across ecosystem attributes.

  7. Understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, S.M.

    1993-06-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are rich in biological diversity. These forests contain many species adapted to conditions ranging from mesic coves to xeric ridges. The major plant communities include wetlands and balds as well as hardwood and coniferous forests. To understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation, the sensitivity of ecosystems, communities, and species to fragmentation must be determined. Recognizing the natural patterns of heterogeneity in these forest and the importance of this heterogeneity to ecological processes will promote our understanding of fragmentation. The impact of a specific forest use (economic development, forest harvesting, recreation) depends on the type of habitat modification.and the spatial extent and pattern of this use. Information on ecological processes, maps of natural communities, and projections about activities that modify forests are needed in order to implement management strategies that will minimize forest fragmentation.

  8. Food security status of households in Appalachian Ohio with children in Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, David H; McClincy, Megan C; Holcomb, John P; Dean, Kelly L; Walker, Caitlyn E

    2004-02-01

    This study measured food security and hunger of households involved in Head Start in a rural Appalachian county and assessed factors that could affect food security and hunger. A convenience sample of households with children enrolled in the Head Start program in Athens County, Ohio, were sampled (n=710), with adults from 297 (42%) households responding. The survey instrument included the 18-question US Household Food Security Survey Module for measuring hunger and food insecurity. Of those responding, 152 households (51.2%) were food secure and 145 (48.8%) were food insecure. Ninety (30.3%) had experienced hunger in the previous 12 months, and 41 (13.8%) households were classified as food insecure with childhood hunger. Hunger was related to a variety of household characteristics and associated with several factors, including participation in food banks, dependence on family members and friends outside of the household for food, lacking reliable transportation, and not having a garden.

  9. Modelling streambank erosion potential using maximum entropy in a central Appalachian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, J.; Strager, M.; Riley, A.; Lin, L.; Anderson, J.

    2015-03-01

    We used maximum entropy to model streambank erosion potential (SEP) in a central Appalachian watershed to help prioritize sites for management. Model development included measuring erosion rates, application of a quantitative approach to locate Target Eroding Areas (TEAs), and creation of maps of boundary conditions. We successfully constructed a probability distribution of TEAs using the program Maxent. All model evaluation procedures indicated that the model was an excellent predictor, and that the major environmental variables controlling these processes were streambank slope, soil characteristics, bank position, and underlying geology. A classification scheme with low, moderate, and high levels of SEP derived from logistic model output was able to differentiate sites with low erosion potential from sites with moderate and high erosion potential. A major application of this type of modelling framework is to address uncertainty in stream restoration planning, ultimately helping to bridge the gap between restoration science and practice.

  10. Social Constructions of Stigmatizing Discourse Around Type 2 Diabetes Diagnoses in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; Ashlock, Mary Z; Basta, Tania B

    2016-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a growing problem among Appalachian Kentucky residents. Several issues contribute to diabetes disparities in the region, including lack of access to health care and geographic isolation. Previous studies also indicate that social stigma may be associated with type 2 diabetes. We used 28 semistructured interviews to explore how stigma is socially constructed across health status (diagnosed/undiagnosed). Perceived severity of the disease is high, yet the etiology of diabetes is not well understood. Thus, onset is perceived to occur "out of the blue," and a positive diagnosis is perceived as having life-threatening consequences. Diagnosed participants, who had learned more about the disease's etiology, prevention, and management, expressed intrapersonal stigma. In interpersonal situations, the visible indicators of a diabetes diagnosis (i.e., physical weight, insulin injection), rather than diagnosis status, tended to evoke stigmatizing interactions. These findings form the foundation for our recommendations for prevention messages in the region.

  11. Environmental problems in a coal mining area affected by coal fires --A case study in Ruqigou Coalfield, Ningxia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ruqigou Coalfield, being one of the most important coal mining areas in China, has suffered coal fire problems for more than one hundred years. Due to coal fires, about 4.513 million tons coal resources has been lost each year, and apart from a large volume of CO2 delivered into air, environmental problems such as land degradation, land pollution and air pollution are also produced. Air pollution, as one related to coal fires, is the most dangerous problems for local people and has already led to vegetation pollution in this area. Land degradation is mainly induced with occurrence of land subsidence, fissures with due to coal mining/coal fires, and debris slide/flow. With development of opencast coal mining, a large volume of waste was produced, which is the major source of land pollution. All these environmental problems are associated with coal mining or coal fires and their comprehensive effects are deterioration of environment.

  12. Geologic controls on thermal maturity patterns in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing rocks in the Appalachian basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Center, MS 956, Reston, Virginia 20192 (United States); Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40511 (United States); Levine, Jeffrey R. [Geological Consultant, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Grady, William C. [West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Thermal maturation patterns of Pennsylvanian strata in the Appalachian basin were determined by compiling and contouring published and unpublished vitrinite reflectance (VR) measurements. VR isograd values range from 0.6% in eastern Ohio and eastern Kentucky (western side of the East Kentucky coal field) to greater than 5.5% in eastern Pennsylvania (Southern Anthracite field, Schuylkill County), corresponding to ASTM coal rank classes of high volatile C bituminous to meta-anthracite. VR isograds show that thermal maturity of Pennsylvanian coals generally increases from west to east across the basin. The isograds patterns, which are indicative of maximum temperatures during burial, can be explained by variations in paleodepth of burial, paleogeothermal gradient, or a combination of both. However, there are at least four areas of unusually high-rank coal in the Appalachian basin that depart from the regional trends and are difficult to explain by depth of burial alone: 1) a west-northwestward salient centered in southwestern Pennsylvania; 2) an elliptically-shaped, northeast-trending area centered in southern West Virginia and western Virginia; 3) the eastern part of Black Warrior coal field, Alabama; and 4) the Pennsylvania Anthracite region, in eastern Pennsylvania. High-rank excursions in southwest Pennsylvania, the Black Warrior coal field, and the Pennsylvania Anthracite region are interpreted here to represent areas of higher paleo-heat flow related to syntectonic movement of hot fluids towards the foreland, associated with Alleghanian deformation. In addition to higher heat flow from fluids, the Pennsylvania Anthracite region also experienced greater depth of burial. The high-rank excursion in southwest Virginia was probably primarily controlled by overburden thickness, but may also have been influenced by higher geothermal gradients. (author)

  13. Spatial tools for managing hemlock woolly adelgid in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Frank Henry, Jr.

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) has recently spread into the southern Appalachians. This insect attacks both native hemlock species (Tsuga canadensis and T. caroliniana ), has no natural enemies, and can kill hemlocks within four years. Biological control displays promise for combating the pest, but counter-measures are impeded because adelgid and hemlock distribution patterns have been detailed poorly. We developed a spatial management system to better target control efforts, with two components: (1) a protocol for mapping hemlock stands, and (2) a technique to map areas at risk of imminent infestation. To construct a hemlock classifier, we used topographically normalized satellite images from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Employing a decision tree approach that supplemented image spectral data with several environmental variables, we generated rules distinguishing hemlock areas from other forest types. We then implemented these rules in a geographic information system and generated hemlock distribution maps. Assessment yielded an overall thematic accuracy of 90% for one study area, and 75% accuracy in capturing hemlocks in a second study area. To map areas at risk, we combined first-year infestation locations from Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Blue Ridge Parkway with points from uninfested hemlock stands, recording a suite of environmental variables for each point. We applied four different multivariate classification techniques to generate models from this sample predicting locations with high infestation risk, and used the resulting models to generate risk maps for the study region. All techniques performed well, accurately capturing 70--90% of training and validation samples, with the logistic regression model best balancing accuracy and regional applicability. Areas close to trails, roads, and streams appear to have the highest initial risk, perhaps due to bird- or human-mediated dispersal. Both components of our management

  14. Soil moisture gradients and controls on a southern Appalachian hillslope from drought through recharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Yeakley

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture gradients along hillslopes in humid watersheds, although indicated by vegetation gradients and by studies using models, have been difficult to confirm empirically. While soil properties and topographic features are the two general physio-graphic factors controlling soil moisture on hillslopes, studies have shown conflicting results regarding which factor is more important. The relative importance of topographic and soil property controls was examined in an upland forested watershed at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in the southern Appalachian mountains. Soil moisture was measured along a hillslope transect with a mesic-to-xeric forest vegetation gradient over a period spanning precipitation extremes. The hillslope was transect instrumented with a time domain reflectometry (TDR network at two depths. Soil moisture was measured during a severe autumn drought and subsequent winter precipitation recharge. In the upper soil depth (0-30 cm, moisture gradients persisted throughout the measurement period, and topography exerted dominant control. For the entire root zone (0-90 cm, soil moisture gradients were found only during drought. Control on soil moisture was due to both topography and storage before drought. During and after recharge, variations in soil texture and horizon distribution exerted dominant control on soil moisture content in the root zone (0-90 cm. These results indicate that topographic factors assert more control over hillslope soil moisture during drier periods as drainage progresses, while variations in soil water storage properties are more important during wetter periods. Hillslope soil moisture gradients in southern Appalachian watersheds appear to be restricted to upper soil layers, with deeper hillslope soil moisture gradients occurring only with sufficient drought.

  15. Spatio-temporal availability of soft mast in clearcuts in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Hogland, M. J.; Mitchell, M.S.; Powell, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Soft mast is an important resource for many wild populations in the Southern Appalachians, yet the way clear-cutting affects availability of soft mast though time is not fully understood. We tested a theoretical model of temporal availability of soft mast in clearcuts using empirical data on percent cover and berry production of Gaylussacia, Vaccinium, and Rubus spp. plants in 100 stands that were clearcut (0-122 years old) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. We modeled the relationship between soft mast availability and stand age, evaluated the effects of topography and forest type on soft mast, developed statistical models for predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of soft mast, and tested the hypothesis that percent cover of berry plants and berry production provided similar information about soft mast availability. We found temporal dynamics explained berry production better than it predicted percent plant cover, whereas topographic variables influenced percent plant cover more than they influenced berry production. Berry production and percent plant cover were highest in ???2-9-year-old stands. Percent plant cover was lowest in 10-69-year-old stands and intermediate in 70+-year-old stands. Three of our spatio-temporal models performed well during model testing and they were not biased by the training data, indicating the inferences about spatio-temporal availability of soft mast extended beyond our sample data. The methods we used to estimate the distribution of soft mast may be useful for modeling distributions of other resources. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proceedings of the 33. annual British Columbia mine reclamation symposium : selenium, reclamation of coal mines and general aspects of mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, W.; Gardner, W.; McLaren, G.; Bittman, K.; Fraser, C.; Wambolt, T.; Stewart, C.; Pomeroy, K.; Howe, D.; Howell, C. (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This annual conference fostered the exchange of information on mine reclamation and related issues affecting coal mining in British Columbia and oil sand mining in Alberta. The Technical and Research Committee on Reclamation (TRCR) was launched in the early 1970 to address the need for greater communication between industry and government regarding environmental protection and mine reclamation in order to minimize the environmental damages and impacts to wildlife posed by resource development. The Acid Mine Drainage Task Force was recently amalgamated with the TRCR to ensure that acid rock drainage issues are fully addressed. The conference was attended by members of the mining industry, consultants, students, all levels of government, non government organizations, and other interested parties from within British Columbia and around the world. The environmental impacts of mine development and land rehabilitation were discussed along with new remedial methods for soil conservation, water protection and carbon sequestration. The conference featured 22 presentations, of which 12 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. ENHANCING RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN BY IDENTIFYING TECHNICAL BARRIER AND PREFERRED PRACTICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. McDowell; Khashayar Aminian; Katharine L. Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Ed. Hohn; Douglas G. Patchen

    2003-09-01

    The Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) project, a two-year study sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), had three primary objectives: (1) the identification of problems, problematic issues, potential solutions and preferred practices related to oil production; (2) the creation of an Appalachian Regional Council to oversee and continue this investigation beyond the end of the project; and (3) the dissemination of investigative results to the widest possible audience, primarily by means of an interactive website. Investigation and identification of oil production problems and preferred management practices began with a Problem Identification Workshop in January of 2002. Three general issues were selected by participants for discussion: Data Management; Reservoir Engineering; and Drilling Practices. At the same meeting, the concept of the creation of an oversight organization to evaluate and disseminated preferred management practices (PMP's) after the end of the project was put forth and volunteers were solicited. In-depth interviews were arranged with oil producers to gain more insight into problems and potential solutions. Project members encountered considerable reticence on the part of interviewees when it came to revealing company-specific production problems or company-specific solutions. This was the case even though interviewees were assured that all responses would be held in confidence. Nevertheless, the following production issues were identified and ranked in order of decreasing importance: Water production including brine disposal; Management of production and business data; Oil field power costs; Paraffin accumulation; Production practices including cementing. An number of secondary issues were also noted: Problems associated with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Waterflooding; Reservoir characterization; Employee availability, training, and safety; and Sale and Purchase problems. One item was mentioned both in

  18. In search of a Silurian total petroleum system in the Appalachian basin of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia: Chapter G.11 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Lentz, Erika E.; Avary, K. Lee; Harper, John A.; Kappel, William M.; Rea, Ronald G.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas fields in Silurian carbonate and sandstone reservoirs in the Appalachian basin probably originated from one or more of the following source rocks: (1) Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, (2) Middle to Upper Devonian black shale, and (3) Lower to Upper Silurian shale and carbonate units. In this reconnaissance study, selected Silurian shale and carbonate rocks in the subsurface of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) content and Rock-Eval parameters to evaluate whether or not a Silurian total petroleum system exists in the Appalachian basin. A total of 308 samples were collected and analyzed for this investigation. Dark-gray to black shale and argillaceous carbonate intervals in the Salina Group (and equivalent units), Cabot Head Shale, Rochester Shale, Rose Hill Formation, Lockport Dolomite (or Group), and McKenzie Limestone (or Member) were prioritized for sampling and analysis.

  19. Mining resettlement and rural development in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, H N

    1992-07-01

    The Malaysian government has employed 3 kinds of resettlement schemes: 1) resettlement of farmers under modern agricultural and land development programs to grow cash crops; 2) resettlement of rural population in well-guarded locations to isolate them from communist insurgents; and 3) resettlement and compensation of population displaced thorough resource exploitation such as construction of dams and mining. The Kinta Valley resettlement is examined in the example of 3 villages where tin mining encroached on their agricultural land. 98 households were included in the sample from Batu Bertudung, Tekka, and Jelutung that had been settled in the 1940s. The villagers were eventually evacuated and sustained technological, pecuniary, and psychological losses. The economic loses involved property, land, and crops, and social losses comprised social networks, neighborhood, and stability. 81.7% of the villagers who were left landless successfully insisted on complete relocation of their villagers in new villages in claims to the respective tin mining companies through their newly formed village action committees in the mid-1960s. The compensation consisted of 1) group compensation by planned resettlement, 2) cash payment, and 3) replacement of the former plot with another piece of land. Social needs were not included in the calculation and the compensation received reflected roughly their economic worth at the time. The villagers of Tekka and Jelutung had their houses rebuilt which were comparable to their old homes using new materials and stronger foundations. Those from Batu Bertudung were resettled in another village, and were compensated in cash to rebuild their homes themselves. Basic amenities were insufficient: new wells had to be dug, the public standpipe was overused, and only dirt roads were constructed. The government provided most basic amenities 5-6 years later under the rural development program.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, M.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Vincent Mullins Landfill in Tucson, Arizona, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the EPA provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the study. NREL provided technical assistance for this project but did not assess environmental conditions at the site beyond those related to the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) system. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible PV installation and estimate the cost and performance of different PV configurations, as well as to recommend financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system. In addition to the Vincent Mullins site, four similar landfills in Tucson are included as part of this study.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  2. Application of ERTS-A imagery to fracture related mine safety hazards in the coal mining industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, C. E.; Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The most important result to date is the demonstration of the special value of repetitive ERTS-1 multiband coverage for detecting previously unknown fracture lineaments despite the presence of a deep glacial overburden. The Illinois Basin is largely covered with glacial drift and few rock outcrops are present. A contribution to the geological understanding of Illinois and Indiana has been made. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery has provided useful information to the State of Indiana concerning the surface mined lands. The contrast between healthy vegetation and bare ground as imaged by Band 7 is sharp and substantial detail can be obtained concerning the extent of disturbed lands, associated water bodies, large haul roads, and extent of mined lands revegetation. Preliminary results of analysis suggest a reasonable correlation between image-detected fractures and mine roof fall accidents for a few areas investigated. ERTS-1 applications to surface mining operations appear probable, but further investigations are required. The likelihood of applying ERTS-1 derived fracture data to improve coal mine safety in the entire Illinois Basin is suggested from studies conducted in Indiana.

  3. The Scotia Steel Plant and Tobin Road mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G. [Nova Scotia Lands Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada); Chandler, C. [SLR Consulting Canada Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described the progress that Nova Scotia Lands Inc. has achieved in several major environmental and site redevelopment areas, including the decommissioning of the Sydney Steel (Sysco) plant. The Province of Nova Scotia owns 2 areas of former industrial lands in Sydney Mines that were part of Sysco. As part of the reclamation effort, Nova Scotia Lands Inc., with consultant SLR Consulting investigated the environmental and safety conditions of the former industrial properties in Sydney Mines to determine land reclamation needs. Between 1901 and 1920, the Nova Scotia Steel and Coal Company operated the steel plant in Sydney Mines. Coke ovens, blast furnaces, and other buildings were spread over 100 acres. The site is now vacant except for large foundations and the community uses the space as a recreational area. A group of properties to the southwest housed many small-scale commercial coal mines from the late 1800s until the 1960s. The expression of these workings can be found across the site and are potentially causing subsidence and acid rock drainage (ARD). The first phase of Environmental Site Assessment reports have been completed for the 2 sites and further work is planned for 2010. figs.

  4. Detection of Buried Mines and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-20

    maintenance and performance of the animals. q. Biological Systems: Plants Using a transgenic plant bioindicator implanted in the annual weed Thale... bioindicator implanted in the annual weed Thale Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) that detects NO2 from buried land mines by changing color from green to red

  5. ARC: A camcopter based mine field detection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.; Sahli, H.; Schrottmayer, D.; Eisl, M.; Varas, F.J.; Bajic, M.; Uppsall, M.; Breejen, E. den

    2001-01-01

    The area affected with antipersonnel land mines in 56 infested countries is estimated to be 1 Mio km. This represents a serious threat to the human lives and a major obstacle for the development of the polluted region. The objective of ARC is to develop, demonstrate and promote a new system for perf

  6. Native title and the New Zealand mining experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, J.

    1994-05-01

    Discusses legislation affecting mining in New Zealand. All legislation for the management of land, air, water, mineral and energy resources is now embodied in the Resource Management Act and the Crown Minerals Act. This new legislation came into force in October 1991. The aim of the Resource Management Act is to promote the sustainable management of natural and physical resources. As minerals cannot be mined sustainably, legislation concerning minerals was placed in a separate Bill, the Crown Minerals Bill. This Bill ensures that the value of each mineral to the Crown is maximized. The paper discusses the application of mining legislation to Maori land. The establishment of a steel industry at Glenbrook, 45 km south of Auckland is described as a case study.

  7. Data mining for service

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all nontrivial and modern service related problems and systems involve data volumes and types that clearly fall into what is presently meant as "big data", that is, are huge, heterogeneous, complex, distributed, etc. Data mining is a series of processes which include collecting and accumulating data, modeling phenomena, and discovering new information, and it is one of the most important steps to scientific analysis of the processes of services.  Data mining application in services requires a thorough understanding of the characteristics of each service and knowledge of the compatibility of data mining technology within each particular service, rather than knowledge only in calculation speed and prediction accuracy. Varied examples of services provided in this book will help readers understand the relation between services and data mining technology. This book is intended to stimulate interest among researchers and practitioners in the relation between data mining technology and its application to ...

  8. Mining Deployment Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čech, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    The deployment problem, researched primarily in the military sector, is emerging in some other industries, mining included. The principal decision is how to deploy some activities in space and time to achieve desired outcome while complying with certain requirements or limits. Requirements and limits are on the side constraints, while minimizing costs or maximizing some benefits are on the side of objectives. A model with application to mining of polymetallic deposit is presented. To obtain quick and immediate decision solutions for a mining engineer with experimental possibilities is the main intention of a computer-based tool. The task is to determine strategic deployment of mining activities on a deposit, meeting planned output from the mine and at the same time complying with limited reserves and haulage capacities. Priorities and benefits can be formulated by the planner.

  9. Sustainable gold mining management waste policy in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Elena; Filipciuc, Constantina

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable mining practices and consistent implementation of the mining for the closure planning approach, within an improved legislative framework, create conditions for the development of creative, profitable, environmentally-sound and socially-responsible management and reuse of mine lands. According to the World Commission on Environment and Development definition, sustainable development is the type of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Romania has the largest gold reserves in Europe (760 million tons of gold-silver ores, of which 40 million tons in 68 gold deposits in the Apuseni Mountains. New mining projects draw particular attention regarding the environmental risks they cause. Rehabilitation is an ongoing consideration throughout the mine's lifecycle, both from a technical and a financial standpoint. The costs of land rehabilitation are classified as the mine's operating costs. According to Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability, the prevention and remedying of environmental damage should be implemented by applying the "polluter pays" principle, in line with the principle of sustainable development. Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive obliges operators to provide (and periodically adjust in size) a financial guarantee for waste facility maintenance and post-closure site restoration, including land rehabilitation. According to the Romanian Mining Law, the license holder has the following obligations related to land use and protection: to provide environmental agreements as one of the prerequisites for a building permit; to regularly update the mine closure plan; to set up and maintain the financial guarantee for environmental rehabilitation; and to execute and finalize the environmental rehabilitation of affected land in the mining site, according to the mine closure plan, including the post

  10. Mineral resources and land-use planning, the Watkins, Colorado case: a workshop synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J. R.; Agnew, A. B.; Hill, G.; Guernsey, J. L.

    1978-09-01

    The Reclamation and Land Use Planning Program is sponsored jointly through the U.S. Geological Survey's RALI Program and the U.S. Department of Energy's Land Reclamation Program to provide guidance materials and technical services to mining industry and public sector planners concerned with planning for effective land use in surface mine areas. The Program integrates reclamation planning with land use planning to assure maximum benefits to the public from both the reuse of mined areas and the efficient utilization of surface resources. Argonne's Land Reclamation program is a joint effort of the Laboratory's Energy and Environmental Systems Division and Environmental Impact Studies Division. The Program is conducting coordinated applied and basic research on the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation related to surface mining and is developing cost-effective techniques for reclaiming/rehabilitating mined land to productive end uses. The Program conducts integrated research and development projects focused on near- or long-term reclamation problems in major minerals resource areas throughout the U.S. and is responsible for coordinating, evaluating, and disseminating the results of coal mine reclamation studies conducted at other research institutions. This workshop addressed issues of critical importance relating to the potential development of lignite deposits in the vicinity of Denver, Colorado. This synopsis recaps the issues, discussions, and planning efforts of the workshop participants and the expert ''faculty'' who helped make the workshop a success.

  11. Living Lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Suna Møller

    2014-01-01

    , hunters attended to questions like safe-journeying on ice or the role of natural surroundings in children’s education, in ways revealing a relational perception of ‘nature’ and dissolving culture-nature dualisms. Hunters’ experiences in living the land afforded children a dwelling position from which...... of the social world pushes questions about education and life, disregarding being educated as human control of nature....

  12. Coupled prediction of flood response and debris flow initiation during warm and cold season events in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, J.; A. P. Barros

    2013-01-01

    Debris flows associated with rainstorms are a frequent and devastating hazard in the Southern Appalachians in the United States. Whereas warm season events are clearly associated with heavy rainfall intensity, the same cannot be said for the cold season events. Instead, there is a relationship between large (cumulative) rainfall events independently of season, and thus hydrometeorological regime, and debris flows. This suggests that the dynamics of subsurface hydrologic processes play an impo...

  13. Environmentalism and natural aggregate mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Langer, W.H.; Sachs, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sustaining a developed economy and expanding a developing one require the use of large volumes of natural aggregate. Almost all human activity (commercial, recreational, or leisure) is transacted in or on facilities constructed from natural aggregate. In our urban and suburban worlds, we are almost totally dependent on supplies of water collected behind dams and transported through aqueducts made from concrete. Natural aggregate is essential to the facilities that produce energy-hydroelectric dams and coal-fired powerplants. Ironically, the utility created for mankind by the use of natural aggregate is rarely compared favorably with the environmental impacts of mining it. Instead, the empty quarries and pits are seen as large negative environmental consequences. At the root of this disassociation is the philosophy of environmentalism, which flavors our perceptions of the excavation, processing, and distribution of natural aggregate. The two end-member ideas in this philosophy are ecocentrism and anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism takes the position that the natural world is a organism whose arteries are the rivers-their flow must not be altered. The soil is another vital organ and must not be covered with concrete and asphalt. The motto of the ecocentrist is "man must live more lightly on the land." The anthropocentrist wants clean water and air and an uncluttered landscape for human use. Mining is allowed and even encouraged, but dust and noise from quarry and pit operations must be minimized. The large volume of truck traffic is viewed as a real menace to human life and should be regulated and isolated. The environmental problems that the producers of natural aggregate (crushed stone and sand and gravel) face today are mostly difficult social and political concerns associated with the large holes dug in the ground and the large volume of heavy truck traffic associated with quarry and pit operations. These concerns have increased in recent years as society's demand for

  14. Radioecological challenges for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, mining became popular in the mid-1990's when the mining amendments to the law made the mining activities easier for foreign companies. Also the price of the minerals rose and mining in Finland became economically profitable. Expanding mining industry brought new challenges to radiation safety aspect since radioactive substances occur in nearly all minerals. In Finnish soil and bedrock the average crystal abundance of uranium and thorium are 2.8 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. It cannot be predicted beforehand how radionuclides behave in the mining processes which why they need to be taken into account in mining activities. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has given a national guide ST 12.1 based on the Finnish Radiation Act. The guide sets the limits for radiation doses to the public also from mining activities. In general, no measures to limit the radiation exposure are needed, if the dose from the operation liable to cause exposure to natural radiation is no greater than 0.1 mSv per year above the natural background radiation dose. If the exposure of the public may be higher than 0.1 mSv per year, the responsible party must provide STUK a plan describing the measures by which the radiation exposure is to be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. In that case the mining company responsible company has to make a radiological baseline study. The baseline study must focus on the environment that the mining activities may impact. The study describes the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the environment before any mining activities are started. The baseline study lasts usually for two to three years in natural circumstances. Based on the baseline study measurements, detailed information of the existing levels of radioactivity in the environment can be attained. Once the mining activities begin, it is important that the limits are set for the wastewater discharges to the environment and environmental surveillance in the vicinity of

  15. Prairie of mine(s) : cultural reclamation of the Estevan/Bienfait Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, S.

    2010-07-01

    A cultural reclamation project was launched in the Bienfait region of southern Saskatchewan where lignite mining has been ongoing since the 1800s. Evidence of 5 surface mines, 2 power stations and thousands of acres of spoil piles remain at the abandoned site. The region also comprises 140 abandoned underground mines and 4 mined-out townsites. The project introduced cultural reclamation into the role of landscape architecture, specifically in the planning and design of reclaimed mining lands. At the present time, the reclamation of post-extractive sites is limited to focusing almost exclusively on ecological factors, but failing to recognize the people and the industrial processes that actively transformed the landscape can disengage people from their past. The project concludes with a proposed master plan in addition to a few site-specific interventions that interrogate and explore the role of experiential, cultural, and historical elements in the reclamation of a site. In doing so, awareness is created about the ways in which various landscapes are manipulated every day in order for people to live in greater comfort.

  16. Sustainable waste management in the Indian mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, V P; Shekdar, A V

    2005-08-01

    One of the important sectors that contribute to the national economy is the mining sector. During the mining of minerals and ores, waste materials in the form of overburden are generated. As these are not useful to the mine owners, they may be inappropriately disposed of into the environment, posing serious threat to the environment in the form of land degradation, water and air pollution. The present paper discusses the existing status of waste generation, its characteristics and the disposal methods being adopted in India. Impacts associated with waste disposal practices together with preventive measures for waste disposal are also discussed. Finally, strategies for improvements in existing waste management and for incorporating the same in the overall development plan for the mines are suggested.

  17. An assessment of mine legacies and how to prevent them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    of AMD is felt well beyond the mining district and the costs of prevention and remediation were found to be significant. Apart from environmental legacies, the mine also left a number of socio-economic legacies including: limited access to non-polluted water that results in San Sebastian residents...... devoting a high proportion of their income in obtaining water, lost opportunities due to the cessation of mining, uncertain land tenure situation and increasing growth of ASGM activities that exacerbate already existing environmental pollution due to use of mercury. The study also found that the state......’s capacity to ensure compliance with the law is very weak and that in many important respects the country’s current legal framework does not meet world’s best practice when it comes to mine closure requirements. The findings are important because they demonstrate that the lack of closure planning can lead...

  18. Landscape transformation of surface-mined areas in North Bohemian coal basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorencova, H.; Kaspar, J. [MUS Coal Mining Company j.s.c., Most (Czech Republic)

    1999-07-01

    Northern Bohemia is the area worst affected by opencast brown coal mining but also the area with good reclamation of damaged land. MUS Coal Mining Company focuses reclaiming activity on restoration of forests, parks or water landscapes to agricultural use. This paper presents two case studies of post-mining activities. First, at the Most opencast mine after early closure, where a lake of 325 ha will be created. Secondly, reclamation of Velebudice overburden waste dump where the main reclamation objective was to establish a hippodrome (82 ha). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Song Jin

    2006-05-01

    Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

  20. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  2. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biomass Power Generation at the Former Farmland Industries Site in Lawrence, Kansas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomberlin, G.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    Under the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) provided funding to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support a feasibility study of biomass renewable energy generation at the former Farmland Industries site in Lawrence, Kansas. Feasibility assessment team members conducted a site assessment to gather information integral to this feasibility study. Information such as biomass resources, transmission availability, on-site uses for heat and power, community acceptance, and ground conditions were considered.

  3. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  4. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tower Road Site in Aurora, Colorado. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, O.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tower Road site in Aurora, Colorado, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Ft. Hood Military Base Outside Killeen, Texas. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, J.; Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative through the Region 6 contract, selected Ft. Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for possible photovoltaic (PV) system installations and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Brisbane Baylands Brownfield Site in Brisbane, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Brisbane Baylands site in Brisbane, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kerr McGee Site in Columbus, Mississippi. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kerr McGee site in Columbus, Mississippi, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  8. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Price Landfill Site in Pleasantville, New Jersey. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Price Landfill site in Pleasantville, New Jersey, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  9. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Rail Yard Company Site in Perry, Iowa. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail Yard Company site in Perry, Iowa, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site. This study did not assess environmental conditions at the site.

  10. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Peru Mill Industrial Park in the City of Deming, New Mexico. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Peru Mill Industrial Park site in the City of Deming, New Mexico, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  11. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Kolthoff Landfill in Cleveland, Ohio. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 5, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Kolthoff Landfill site in Cleveland, Ohio, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Fort Ord Army Base Site in Marina, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Fort Ord Army Base (FOAB) site in Marina, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  13. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant Brownfield Site in Lackawanna, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Bethlehem Steel Plant site in Lackawanna, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  14. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Sky Park Landfill Site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, J.; Mosey, G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Sky Park Landfill site in Eau Claire, Wisconsin, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  15. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the TechCity East Campus Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Site in Kingston, New York. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J. W.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the TechCity East Campus site in Kingston, New York, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  16. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Crazy Horse Landfill Site in Salinas, California. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltenberg, B.; Konz, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Crazy Horse Landfill site in Salinas, California, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, operation and maintenance requirements, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  17. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Tronox Facility in Savannah, Georgia. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, K.; Geiger, J.; Healey, V.; Mosey, G.

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Tronox Facility site in Savannah, Georgia, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  18. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olis, D.; Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Snohomish County Cathcart Landfill Site in Snohomish County, Washington, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  19. EMERGY-based environmental systems assessment of a multi-purpose temperate mixed-forest watershed of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, David Rogers; Swank, Wayne T

    2003-11-01

    Emergy (with an 'm') synthesis was used to assess the balance between nature and humanity and the equity among forest outcomes of a US Forest Service ecosystem management demonstration project on the Wine Spring Creek watershed, a high-elevation (1600 m), temperate forest located in the southern Appalachian mountains of North Carolina, USA. EM embraces a holistic perspective, accounting for the multiple temporal and spatial scales of forest processes and public interactions, to balance the ecological, economic, and social demands placed on land resources. Emergy synthesis is a modeling tool that allows the structure and function of forest ecosystems to be quantified in common units (solar emergy-joules, sej) for easy and meaningful comparison, determining 'system-value' for forcing factors, components, and processes based on the amount of resources required to develop and sustain them, whether they are money, material, energy, or information. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR), the units of solar emergy imported into the watershed via human control per unit of indigenous, natural solar emergy, was determined to be 0.42, indicating that the load on the natural environment was not ecologically damaging and that excess ecological capacity existed for increasing non-ecological activities (e.g. timbering, recreation) to achieve an ELR of 1.0 (perfect ecological-economic balance). Three forest outcomes selected to represent the three categories of desired sustainability (ecological, economic, and social) were evaluated in terms of their solar emergy flow to measure outcome equity. Direct economic contribution was an order of magnitude less (224 x 10(12)solar emergy-joules (sej) ha(-1)) than the ecological and social contributions, which were provided at annual rates of 3083 and 2102 x 10(12)sejha(-1), respectively. Emergy synthesis was demonstrated to holistically integrate and quantify the interconnections of a coupled nature-human system allowing the goals of

  20. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...