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Sample records for appalachian black warrior

  1. Structural controls on fractured coal reservoirs in the southern Appalachian Black Warrior foreland basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshong, R.H., Jr.; Pashin, J.C.; McIntyre, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Coal is a nearly impermeable rock type for which the production of fluids requires the presence of open fractures. Basin-wide controls on the fractured coal reservoirs of the Black Warrior foreland basin are demonstrated by the variability of maximum production rates from coalbed methane wells. Reservoir behavior depends on distance from the thrust front. Far from the thrust front, normal faults are barriers to fluid migration and compartmentalize the reservoirs. Close to the thrust front, rates are enhanced along some normal faults, and a new trend is developed. The two trends have the geometry of conjugate strike-slip faults with the same ??1 direction as the Appalachian fold-thrust belt and are inferred to be the result of late pure-shear deformation of the foreland. Face cleat causes significant permeability anisotropy in some shallow coal seams but does not produce a map-scale production trend. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carboniferous sediment dispersal in the Appalachian-Ouachita juncture: Provenance of selected late Mississippian sandstones in the Black Warrior Basin, Mississippi, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiangyang; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Alsleben, Helge

    2016-08-01

    The Black Warrior Basin is one of several Carboniferous foreland basins along the Appalachian-Ouachita fold-thrust belt in the southeastern United States. Sediment dispersal within the Black Warrior Basin has been a long-debated topic because of a complex tectonic history and the potential interaction between the Appalachian and Ouachita orogenic belts, as well as far field sediment sources. Three dispersal patterns have been proposed, including dispersal routes from the craton, dispersal via the Appalachian foreland, and dispersal from the arc side of the Ouachita suture, but sediment dispersal in the Black Warrior Basin remains inconclusive. In this study, sandstone modal analysis and U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology are used to document the provenance and potential dispersal patterns for selected Mississippian sandstone units in the Black Warrior Basin, Missouri, USA. Results show that the majority of the Lewis, Evans, Sanders, and Carter sandstones are sublitharenite to mature quartzarenite and fall within the Cratonic Interior field on Q-F-L diagrams. U-Pb detrital zircon analyses of the Lewis, Sanders, and Carter sandstones show that there are four distinctive age clusters, including a prominent Paleozoic age cluster (~ 350-500 Ma), a broad Grenville age cluster (~ 900-1350 Ma), and two minor age clusters of the Granite-Rhyolite (~ 1360-1600 Ma) and the Yavapai-Mazatzal (~ 1600-1800 Ma) provinces. All Mississippian sandstones have similar age distributions except for the Lewis sandstone, which lacks zircon grains from the Superior province (>~2500 Ma). Based on the compositional maturity, similarity of age distributions, and changes of relative abundance among different age groups, we conclude that the Late Mississippian sandstone units analyzed during this study were derived from the Laurussian craton and the northern part of the Appalachian foreland through a major axial drainage that occupied the Mississippi Valley Graben.

  3. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-04-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  4. Reservoir heterogeneity in carboniferous sandstone of the Black Warrior basin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.; Irvin, G.D.; Moore, H.E.

    1994-06-01

    Although oil production in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama is declining, additional oil may be produced through improved recovery strategies, such as waterflooding, chemical injection, strategic well placement, and infill drilling. High-quality characterization of reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin is necessary to utilize advanced technology to recover additional oil and to avoid premature abandonment of fields. This report documents controls on the distribution and producibility of oil from heterogeneous Carboniferous reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report summarizes the structural and depositional evolution of the Black Warrior basin and establishes the geochemical characteristics of hydrocarbon source rocks and oil in the basin. This second part characterizes facies heterogeneity and petrologic and petrophysical properties of Carter and Millerella sandstone reservoirs. This is followed by a summary of oil production in the Black Warrior basin and an evaluation of seven improved-recovery projects in Alabama. In the final part, controls on the producibility of oil from sandstone reservoirs are discussed in terms of a scale-dependent heterogeneity classification.

  5. Blacks in Appalachian America: Reflections on Biracial Education and Unionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William H.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews the coming of Blacks to Appalachia and the general character of their social and cultural development in the region. Focuses on the retreat from biracial education and biracial unionism in the early 1900s and how these failures affected the present status of Appalachian Blacks as some of America's poorest people. (CMG)

  6. Reservoir heterogeneity in Carter Sandstone, North Blowhorn Creek oil unit and vicinity, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, R.L.; Pashin, J.C.

    1992-05-01

    This report presents accomplishments made in completing Task 3 of this project which involves development of criteria for recognizing reservoir heterogeneity in the Black Warrior basin. The report focuses on characterization of the Upper Mississippian Carter sandstone reservoir in North Blowhorn Creek and adjacent oil units in Lamar County, Alabama. This oil unit has produced more than 60 percent of total oil extracted from the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The Carter sandstone in North Blowhorn Creek oil unit is typical of the most productive Carter oil reservoirs in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama. The first part of the report synthesizes data derived from geophysical well logs and cores from North Blowhorn Creek oil unit to develop a depositional model for the Carter sandstone reservoir. The second part of the report describes the detrital and diagenetic character of Carter sandstone utilizing data from petrographic and scanning electron microscopes and the electron microprobe. The third part synthesizes porosity and pore-throat-size-distribution data determined by high-pressure mercury porosimetry and commercial core analyses with results of the sedimentologic and petrographic studies. The final section of the report discusses reservoir heterogeneity within the context of the five-fold classification of Moore and Kugler (1990).

  7. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in

  8. Water Management Strategies for Improved Coalbed Methane Production in the Black Warrior Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashin, Jack; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Merkel, David

    2013-10-31

    The modern coalbed methane industry was born in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and has to date produced more than 2.6 trillion cubic feet of gas and 1.6 billion barrels of water. The coalbed gas industry in this area is dependent on instream disposal of co-produced water, which ranges from nearly potable sodium-bicarbonate water to hypersaline sodium-chloride water. This study employed diverse analytical methods to characterize water chemistry in light of the regional geologic framework and to evaluate the full range of water management options for the Black Warrior coalbed methane industry. Results reveal strong interrelationships among regional geology, water chemistry, and gas chemistry. Coalbed methane is produced from multiple coal seams in Pennsylvanian-age strata of the Pottsville Coal Interval, in which water chemistry is influenced by a structurally controlled meteoric recharge area along the southeastern margin of the basin. The most important constituents of concern in the produced water include chlorides, ammonia compounds, and organic substances. Regional mapping and statistical analysis indicate that the concentrations of most ionic compounds, metallic substances, and nonmetallic substances correlate with total dissolved solids and chlorides. Gas is effectively produced at pipeline quality, and the only significant impurity is N{sub 2}. Geochemical analysis indicates that the gas is of mixed thermogenic-biogenic origin. Stable isotopic analysis of produced gas and calcite vein fills indicates that widespread late-stage microbial methanogenesis occurred primarily along a CO{sub 2} reduction metabolic pathway. Organic compounds in the produced water appear to have helped sustain microbial communities. Ammonia and ammonium levels increase with total dissolved solids content and appear to have played a role in late-stage microbial methanogenesis and the generation of N{sub 2}. Gas production tends to decline exponentially, whereas water production

  9. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashin, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrodynamics of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin: Key to understanding reservoir performance and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Black Warrior Basin of the southeastern United States hosts one of the world's most prolific and long-lived coalbed methane plays, and the wealth of experience in this basin provides insight into the relationships among basin hydrology, production performance, and environmental issues. Along the southeast margin of the basin, meteoric recharge of reservoir coal beds exposed in an upturned fold limb exerts a strong control on water chemistry, reservoir pressure, and production performance. Fresh-water plumes containing Na-HCO3 waters with low TDS content extend from the structurally upturned basin margin into the interior of the basin. Northwest of the plumes, coal beds contain Na-Cl waters with moderate to high-TDS content. Carbon isotope data from produced gas and mineral cements suggest that the fresh-water plumes have been the site of significant bacterial activity and that the coalbed methane reservoirs contain a mixture of thermogenic and late-stage biogenic gases. Water produced from the fresh-water plumes may be disposed safely at the surface, whereas underground injection has been used locally to dispose of highly saline water. Wells in areas that had normal hydrostatic reservoir pressure prior to development tend to produce large volumes of water and may take up to 4 a to reach peak gas production. In contrast, wells drilled in naturally underpressured areas distal to the fresh-water plumes typically produce little water and achieve peak gas rates during the first year of production. Environmental debate has focused largely on issues associated with hydrologic communication between deep reservoir coal beds and shallow aquifers. In the coalbed methane fields of the Black Warrior Basin, a broad range of geologic evidence suggests that flow is effectively confined within coal and that the thick intervals of marine shale separating coal zones limit cross-formational flow

  11. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  12. Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Performance Report: Institute on the Folklore and Traditions of Mexican-American, Black, and Appalachian People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo-Freeman, Inez

    Two of the major objectives of the six week institute were "to provide teacher training in the folklore and traditions of the Mexican American, Black and Appalachian people to teachers who are either members of these cultures, or who work with students of these cultures; and to present teachers with subject matter, curriculum and background…

  13. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; James Drahovzal; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Chris Laughery; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-04-01

    Private- and public-sector stakeholders formed the new ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' and began a two-year research effort that will lead to a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration throughout the Appalachian basin. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 gas exploration companies and 6 research team members, including the state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks are being conducted by basin-wide research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. More than 3400 miles of Appalachian basin digital seismic data have been quality checked. In addition, inquiries have been made regarding the availability of additional seismic data from government and industry partners in the consortium. Interpretations of the seismic data have begun. Error checking is being performed by mapping the time to various prominent reflecting horizons, and analyzing for any anomalies. A regional geological velocity model is being created to make time-to-depth conversions. Members of the stratigraphy task team compiled a generalized, basin-wide correlation chart, began the process of scanning geophysical logs and laid out lines for 16 regional cross sections. Two preliminary cross sections were constructed, a database of all available Trenton-Black River cores was created, and a basin-wide map showing these core locations was produced. Two cores were examined, described and photographed in detail, and were correlated to the network of geophysical logs. Members of the petrology team began the process of determining the original distribution of porous and permeable facies within a sequence stratigraphic framework. A detailed sedimentologic and petrographic study of the Union Furnace road cut in central Pennsylvania was completed. This effort will facilitate the calibration

  14. Adsorption kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their equimolar mixture on coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Naney, M.T.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cole, D.R.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150????m, 1-2??mm, and 5-10??mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40????C and 35????C over a pressure range of 1.4-6.9??MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150????m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Wordsmiths & Warriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mattisson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wordsmiths & Warriors relates a real journey of thousands of miles undertaken by David and Hilary Crystal. The result is a fascinating combination of English-language history and travelogue (the study gives detailed instructions on how to find each place mentioned. David is responsible for the descriptions, and Hilary, for the full-colour photographs. The book comprises a guide for those wishing to follow in their footsteps; at the same time, it reflects the chronology of the language. The Crystals visit places associated with such well-known writers as Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Wordsworth; dictionary compilers such as Johnson and Murray; and a number of well-known and lesser-known dialect writers, elocutionists, and grammarians. Warrior wordsmiths such as King Alfred are also mentioned.Wordsmiths & Warriors emphasises the centrality of the Anglo-Saxon, medieval and early modern periods in the development of the English language as it is known today. A progressive view of language change and transition is generally avoided in the study in favor of a more personal selection of texts. The scope of the book is wide, incorporating small villages as well as major cities, ancient texts and more modern ones. Fifty-seven chapters take us to places as far apart as St Albans, Peterborough, West Malvern, Grasmere, Bath, Pegwell Bay, Lindisfarne, Cerne Abbas, Bourne, Canterbury, and Oxford. Wordsmiths & Warriors gives its readers an appetite to know more as fascinating details about the relationship between places and literary works emerge. The most important names are included: Chaucer (Southwark and Canterbury; Shakespeare (Stratford-upon-Avon and Park Street, London – the location of the original Globe Theatre, Dryden, Burns, Wordsworth, Hardy, George Bernard Shaw, and Dylan Thomas. The Bible is discussed in detail in relation to a number of geographical locations, including Lutterworth, Leicestershire, where Wycliffe translated the Bible in the 14th

  16. Coalbed-methane production in the Appalachian basin: Chapter G.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.; Polyak, Désirée E.

    2014-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) occurs in coal beds of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (Carboniferous) age in the northern, central, and southern Appalachian basin coal regions, which extend almost continuously from Pennsylvania southward to Alabama. Most commercial CBM production in the Appalachian basin is from three structural subbasins: (1) the Dunkard basin in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and northern West Virginia; (2) the Pocahontas basin in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; and (3) part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. The cumulative CBM production in the Dunkard basin through 2005 was 17 billion cubic feet (BCF), the production in the Pocahontas basin through 2006 was 754 BCF, and the production in the part of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama through 2007 was 2.008 TCF. CBM development may be regarded as mature in Alabama, where annual production from 1998 through 2007 was relatively constant and ranged from 112 to 121 BCF. An opportunity still exists for additional growth in the Pocahontas basin. In 2005, annual CBM production in the Pocahontas basin in Virginia and West Virginia was 85 BCF. In addition, opportunities are emerging for producing the large, diffuse CBM resources in the Dunkard basin as additional wells are drilled and technology improves.

  17. Geographic information system (GIS)-based maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields: Chapter C.2 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Kinney, Scott A.; Suitt, Stephen E.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more recent maps of Appalachian basin oil and gas fields (and the adjoining Black Warrior basin) is the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compilation by Mast and others (1998) (see Trippi and others, this volume, chap. I.1). This map is part of a larger oil and gas field map for the conterminous United States that was derived by Mast and others (1998) from the Well History Control System (WHCS) database of Petroleum Information, Inc. (now IHS Energy Group). Rather than constructing the map from the approximately 500,000 proprietary wells in the Appalachian and Black Warrior part of the WHCS database, Mast and others (1998) subdivided the region into a grid of 1-mi2 (square mile) cells and allocated an appropriate type of hydrocarbon production (oil production, gas production, oil and gas production, or explored but no production) to each cell. Each 1-mi2 cell contains from 0 to 5 or more exploratory and (or) development wells. For example, if the wells in the 1-mi2 cell consisted of three oil wells, one gas well, and one dry well, then the cell would be characterized on the map as an area of oil and gas production. The map by Mast and others (1998) accurately shows the distribution and types of hydrocarbon accumulation in the Appalachian and Black Warrior basins, but it does not show the names of individual fields. To determine the locality and name of individual oil and gas fields, one must refer to State oil and gas maps (for example, Harper and others, 1982), which are generally published at scales of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 (see References Cited), and (or) published journal articles.

  18. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  19. SEO Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Jerkovic, John

    2010-01-01

    How can you make it easier for people to find your website? And how can you convert casual visitors into active users? SEO Warrior shows you how it's done through a collection of tried and true techniques, hacks, and best practices. Learn the nuts and bolts of search engine optimization (SEO) theory, the importance of keyword strategy, and how to avoid and remedy search engine traps. You'll also learn about search engine marketing (SEM) practices, such as Google AdWords, and how you can use social networking to increase your visibility. Ideal for web developers, savvy marketers, webmasters,

  20. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Katharine Lee Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Hohn; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; James A. Drahovzal; Christopher D. Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; Taury Smith; Ron Riley; Mark Baranoski

    2005-04-01

    The Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Research Consortium has made significant progress toward their goal of producing a geologic play book for the Trenton-Black River gas play. The final product will include a resource assessment model of Trenton-Black River reservoirs; possible fairways within which to concentrate further studies and seismic programs; and a model for the origin of Trenton-Black River hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 15 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. In addition, three surfaces for the area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. A 16-layer velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Considerable progress was made in fault trend delineation and seismic-stratigraphic correlation within the project area. Isopach maps and a network of gamma-ray cross sections supplemented with core descriptions allowed researchers to more clearly define the architecture of the basin during Middle and Late Ordovician time, the control of basin architecture on carbonate and shale deposition and eventually, the location of reservoirs in Trenton Limestone and Black River Group carbonates. The basin architecture itself may be structurally controlled, and this fault-related structural control along platform margins influenced the formation of hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in original limestone facies deposited in high energy environments. This resulted in productive trends along the northwest margin of the Trenton platform in Ohio. The continuation of this platform margin into New York should provide further areas with good exploration potential. The focus of the petrographic study shifted from cataloging a broad spectrum of carbonate rocks that occur in the

  1. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Chris Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; James Drahovzal; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; John Bocan; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-10-01

    The ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' has reached the mid-point in a two-year research effort to produce a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 exploration and production companies and 6 research team members, including four state geological surveys, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks and one administrative and technology transfer task are being conducted basin-wide by research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined at least once. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 10 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York and Pennsylvania. In addition, three surfaces in that area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. In the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia portion of the study area, a velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Fifteen formation tops have been identified on seismic in that area. Preliminary conclusions based on the available seismic data do not support the extension of the Rome Trough into New York state. Members of the stratigraphy task team measured, described and photographed numerous cores from throughout the basin, and tied these data back to their network of geophysical log cross sections. Geophysical logs were scanned in raster files for use in detailed well examination and construction of cross sections. Logs on these cross sections that are only in raster format are being converted to vector format for final cross section displays. The petrology team measured and sampled one classic outcrop in Pennsylvania and ten cores in four states. More than 600 thin sections were prepared from samples in those four states. A seven-step procedure is being used to

  2. Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Peter; Pashin, Jack; Carlson, Eric; Goodliffe, Andrew; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Thompson, Mason

    2012-08-31

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. iv While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable

  3. Origin of minerals in joint and cleat systems of the Pottsville Formation, Black Warrior basin, Alabama: Implications for coalbed methane generation and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, J.K.; Pashin, J.C.; Hatch, J.R.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Coalbed methane is produced from naturally fractured strata in the lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation in the eastern part of the Black Warrior basin, Alabama. Major fracture systems include orthogonal fractures, which consist of systematic joints in siliciclastic strata and face cleats in coal that strike northeast throughout the basin. Calcite and minor amounts of pyrite commonly fill joints in sandstone and shale and, less commonly, cleats in coal. Joint-fill calcite postdates most pyrite and is a weakly ferroan, coarse-crystalline variety that formed during a period of uplift and erosion late in the burial history. Pyrite forms fine to coarse euhedral crystals that line joint walls or are complexly intergrown with calcite. Stable-isotope data reveal large variations in the carbon isotope composition of joint- and cleat-fill calcite (-10.3 to + 24.3??? Peedee belemnite [PDB]) but only a relatively narrow range in the oxygen-isotope composition of this calcite (-16.2 to -4.1 ??? PDB). Negative carbon values can be attributed to 13C-depleted CO2 derived from the oxidation of organic matter, and moderately to highly positive carbon values can be attributed to bacterial methanogenesis. Assuming crystallization temperatures of 20-50??C, most joint- and cleat-fill calcite precipitated from fluids with ??18O ratios ranging from about -11 to +2 ??? standard mean ocean water (SMOW). Uplift and unroofing since the Mesozoic led to meteoric recharge of Pottsville strata and development of freshwater plumes that were fed by meteoric recharge along the structurally upturned, southeastern margin of the basin. Influxes of fresh water into the basin via faults and coalbeds facilitated late-stage bacterial methanogenesis, which accounts for the high gas content in coal and the carbonate cementation of joints and cleats. Diagenetic and epigenetic minerals can affect the transmissivity and storage capacity of joints and cleats, and they appear to contribute significantly to

  4. Creating a Geologic Play Book for Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Taury Smith; Ron Riley; Mark Baranoski; David Harris; John Hickman; John Bocan; Michael Hohn

    2005-09-30

    Preliminary isopach and facies maps, combined with a literature review, were used to develop a sequence of basin geometry, architecture and facies development during Cambrian and Ordovician time. The main architectural features--basins, sub basins and platforms--were identified and mapped as their positions shifted with time. This is significant because a better understanding of the control of basin geometry and architecture on the distribution of key facies and on subsequent reservoir development in Ordovician carbonates within the Trenton and Black River is essential for future exploration planning. Good exploration potential is thought to exist along the entire platform margin, where clean grainstones were deposited in skeletal shoals from Indiana thorough Ohio and Ontario into Pennsylvania. The best reservoir facies for the development of hydrothermal dolomites appears to be these clean carbonates. This conclusion is supported by observations taken in existing fields in Indiana, Ontario, Ohio and New York. In contrast, Trenton-Black River production in Kentucky and West Virginia has been from fractured, but non-dolomitized, limestone reservoirs. Facies maps indicate that these limestones were deposited under conditions that led to a higher argillaceous content than the cleaner limestones deposited in higher-energy environments along platform margins. However, even in the broad area of argillaceous limestones, clean limestone buildups have been observed in eastern outcrops and, if present and dolomitized in the subsurface, may provide additional exploration targets. Structure and isopach maps developed as part of the structural and seismic study supported the basin architecture and geometry conclusions, and from them some structural control on the location of architectural features may be inferred. This portion of the study eventually will lead to a determination of the timing relative to fracturing, dolomitization and hydrocarbon charging of reservoirs in the

  5. Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors Mercy Hospital Miami, FL March 17, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation, live from Mercy Hospital in Miami, Florida. During the program, it’s ...

  6. Warehouse Warriors Take on Industrial Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Andrew; Rogers, Michael

    2003-01-01

    "Warehouse Warriors" is a cable channel program related to mastering household technologies. Student teams from Central Michigan University and Purdue University raced against time and each other to design and build a winning home-improvement project. (JOW)

  7. Serving Wounded Warriors in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    An influx of veterans is returning to the classroom; as many as a third are returning as wounded warriors with disabilities, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury which affect classroom success. Research indicates that although many colleges and universities strive to support veterans by assisting with the GI Bill and…

  8. "Jade Warrior" sai Hispaanias kolm preemiat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Eesti osalusega Soome-Hiina kung fu film "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" võitis 1. Ibiza ja Formentera filmifestivalil kolm Falco d'Ori auhinda (AJ Annila - parim debüüt-lavastaja, Jukka Uusitalo - filmikunstniku töö eest, Henri Blomberg - operaatritöö eest)

  9. Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talking a little bit about the kind of knee injuries that weekend warriors tend to have, and the ... symptom for those having either knee arthritis or knee injuries is obviously pain, and that’s obviously what drives ...

  10. Knee Pain and the Weekend Warriors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their experience, both in the prevention, in the management, and the care they’re after of the weekend warrior. Those ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. 17

  11. Eesti filmi "Jade Warrior" esilinastus Torontos / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2006-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendav fantaasiafilm "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" (Soome, Hiina ja Eesti ühistöö) esilinastus eile Toronto filmifestivalil. Andmed filmi tootmise ja levitamise kohta

  12. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern

  13. Cancer Mortality in Rural Appalachian Kentucky. Appalachian Data Bank Report #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Thomas C.; And Others

    This report compares cancer mortality rates in rural Appalachian Kentucky with rates for rural non-Appalachian Kentucky and the U.S. white population. Rural Appalachian Kentucky differs from the rest of rural Kentucky in having a younger, poorer, less educated population with greater employment in mining as opposed to agriculture, and with less…

  14. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  15. "Jade Warrior" kupatab Soome sampo Hiina / Kätlin Kaldmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldmaa, Kätlin, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendav fantaasiafilm "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior" (Soome, Hiina, Hollandi ja Eesti ühistöö) : stsenarist Iiro Küttner : režissöör Antti-Jussi Annila : võitluskunstide koreograaf Yu Yan Kai : osades Tommi Eronen, Zhang Jingchu, Markku Peltola. Lisatud Ave Randviiru, Elle Kulli ja Antti-Jussi Annila "Esimesed muljed"

  16. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis of terracotta warriors and horses of Qin's Mausoleum in pit No.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terracotta warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum is famous in the world, but their original place of raw material is still a riddle up to now. 42 samples of pottery warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum in pit No.3, 20 samples of clay nearby Museum of the terracotta warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum are selected and prepared for analysis. The contents of 32 microelement are measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA), the eight elements are chosen as the fingerprint elements to complete scatter analysis. The results show that the raw material of terracotta warriors and horses in pit No.3 are closed to loam soil layer nearby Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum, but little far from loess layers. Thus the Lishan may be considered as original place of the raw materials of the terracotta warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum, the kiln sites may be also neighborhood of Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum

  17. Nisqually - Early Invasive Detection and Rapid Response by Refuge Weed Warriors

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nisqually NWR initiated a Refuge Weed Warrior program in 2003 to aid the Refuge in controlling nonnative invasive plant species. Volunteers are trained to identify,...

  18. The International Appalachian Trail: the ancient Appalachians as ambassador of the geosciences to modern societies

    OpenAIRE

    Marvinney, R.G.; Anderson, W. A.; Barron, H.F.; Hernandez, R. (Roberto)

    2014-01-01

    Throughout human history, the geological foundation of our landscape has determined the location of settlements, trade routes, and human migratory paths, inextricably linking our culture to geology. The International Appalachian Trail (IAT) addresses our common geoheritage by establishing a long-distance walking trail that extends beyond borders to all geographic regions once connected by the “Appalachian Mountain” range, formed more than 300 million years ago on the super-continent Pangaea....

  19. Appalachian versus non-Appalachian US traffic fatalities, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Motao; Zhao, Songzhu; Gurka, Kelly K.; Kandati, Sahiti; Coben, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Though myriad health disparities exist in Appalachia, limited research has examined traffic fatalities in the region. This study compared traffic-fatality rates in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian US. Methods Fatality Analysis Reporting System and Census data from 2008-2010 were used to calculate traffic-fatality rates. Poisson models were used to estimate unadjusted (RR) and adjusted rate ratios (aRR), controlling for age, sex, and county-specific population density levels. Results: The Appalachian traffic-fatality rate was 45% (95% CI: 1.42, 1.47) higher than the non-Appalachian rate. Though only 29% of fatalities occur in rural counties in non-Appalachia versus 48% in Appalachia, rates in rural counties were similar (RR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.00). However, the rate for urban, Appalachian counties was 42% (95% CI: 1.38, 1.45) higher than among urban, non-Appalachian counties. Appalachian rates were higher for passenger-vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and all-terrain-vehicle riders, regardless of rurality, as well as for passenger-vehicle passengers overall and for urban counties. Conversely, Appalachia experienced lower rates among pedestrians and bicyclists, regardless of rurality. Conclusions Disparities in traffic fatality rates exist in Appalachia. Though elevated rates are partially explained by the proportion of residents living in rural settings, overall rates in urban Appalachia were consistently higher than in urban non-Appalachia. PMID:23619016

  20. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  1. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  2. Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) is an important TPS identified in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Appalachian basin province (Milici and others, 2003). The TPS is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the primary source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. Upper Cambrian through Upper Silurian petroleum-bearing strata that constitute the Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS thicken eastward from about 2,700 ft at the western margin of the Appalachian basin to about 12,000 ft at the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin. The Utica-Lower Paleozoic TPS covers approximately 170,000 mi2 of the Appalachian basin from northeastern Tennessee to southeastern New York and from central Ohio to eastern West Virginia. The boundary of the TPS is defined by the following geologic features: (1) the northern boundary (from central Ontario to northeastern New York) extends along the outcrop limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone; (2) the northeastern boundary (from southeastern New York, through southeastern Pennsylvania-western Maryland-easternmost West Virginia, to northern Virginia) extends along the eastern limit of the Utica Shale-Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (3) the southeastern boundary (from west-central and southwestern Virginia to eastern Tennessee) extends along the eastern limit of the Trenton Limestone in the thrust-faulted eastern margin of the Appalachian basin; (4) the southwestern boundary (from eastern Tennessee, through eastern Kentucky, to southwestern Ohio) extends along the approximate facies change from the Trenton Limestone with thin black shale interbeds (on the east) to the equivalent Lexington Limestone without black shale interbeds (on the west); (5) the northern part of the boundary in southwestern Ohio

  3. Conservation and monitoring of a persecuted African lion population by Maasai warriors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Hazzah, Leela; Frank, Laurence G

    2016-06-01

    Although Africa has many threatened species and biological hot spots, there are few citizen science schemes, particularly in rural communities, and there has been limited evaluation of existing programs. We engaged traditional Maasai warriors (pastoralist men aged 15 to 35) in community-based conservation and demographic monitoring of a persecuted African lion (Panthera leo) population. Through direct engagement, we investigated whether a citizen science approach employing local warriors, who had no formal education, could produce reliable data on the demographics, predation, and movements of a species with which their communities have been in conflict for generations. Warriors were given benefits such as literacy training and skill enhancement and engaged in the monitoring of the lions. The trained warriors reported on lion sign across an area nearly 4000 km(2) . Scientists worked together with the warriors to verify their reports and gather observations on the lion population. Using the verified reports and collected observations, we examined our scientific knowledge relative to the lion population preceding and during the citizen science program. Our observations showed that data quality and quantity improved with the involvement and training of the participants. Furthermore, because they engaged in conservation and gained personal benefits, the participants came to appreciate a species that was traditionally their foe. We believe engaging other local communities in biodiversity conservation and monitoring may be an effective conservation approach in rural Africa. PMID:27111059

  4. ENGLISH FOLK BALLADS COLLECTED BY CECIL JAMES SHARP IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS: GENESIS, TRANSFORMATION AND UKRAINIAN PARALLELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Karbashevska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research, presented at the Conference sectional meeting, is to trace peculiarities of transformation of British folk medieval ballads, which were brought to the Southern Appalachians in the east of the USA by British immigrants at the end of the XVIIIth – beginning of the XIXth century and retained by their descendants, through analyzing certain texts on the levels of motifs, dramatis personae, composition, style and artistic means, as well as to outline relevant Ukrainian parallels. The analysis of such ballads, plot types and epic songs was carried out: 1 British № 10: “The Twa Sisters” (21 variants; American “The Two Sisters”(5 variants and Ukrainian plot type I – C-5: “the elder sister drowns the younger one because of envy and jealousy” (8 variants; 2 British № 26: The Three Ravens” (2, “The Twa Corbies” (2; American “The Three Ravens” (1, “The Two Crows”(1 and Ukrainian epic songs with the motif of lonely death of a Cossack warrior on the steppe (4. In our study British traditional ballads are classified according to the grouping worked out by the American scholar Francis Child (305 numbers, Ukrainian folk ballads – the plot-thematic catalogue developed by the Ukrainian folklorist Оleksiy Dey (here 288 plots are divided into 3 spheres, cycles and plot types. The investigation and comparison of the above indicated texts witness such main tendencies: 1 the American counterparts, collected in the Appalachian Mountains, preserve the historic-national memory and cultural heritage of the British immigrant bearers on the level of leading motifs, dramatis personae, composition peculiarities, traditional medieval images, epithets, similes, commonplaces; 2 some motifs, characters, images, artistic means, archaic and dialectal English of the Child ballads are reduced or substituted in the Appalachian texts; 3 realism of American ballad transformations, which overshadows fantasy and

  5. 7 CFR 1005.2 - Appalachian marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appalachian marketing area. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA...

  6. Asceticism and the Pursuit of Death by Warriors and Monks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Jeremiah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong connection between martial arts and religious practices in Japan. Martial art practitioners, in an effort to utilize inner energy (ki and to eliminate fear, often turn to ascetic discipline. Mountain ascetics called yamabushi are known for their extreme, life-threatening training methods. Some of them, after ten years of mental and physical preparation, buried themselves alive, aspiring to become living Buddhas. This is the relatively unknown practice of self-mummification: a tradition that originated with Kukai, the founder of Shingon Buddhism. Approximately twenty individuals in Japan have successfully mummified themselves by means of ascetic discipline and special diets. The frame of mind developed while preparing for their deaths is the same mind-set that warriors strive to attain. Single-minded determination, the complete absence of fear, and the nonexistence of self are demonstrated in the actions of these individuals. These are the same qualities that are found in any master of the martial arts.

  7. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Leenders

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and Leb

  8. Warrior Mothers as Heroines and Other Healing Imagery in the Finnish National Epic of "Kalevala."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Sirkku M. Sky

    2001-01-01

    Examines mother imagery from the Finnish mythological epic "Kalevala," and describes how they offer healing imagery for understanding and acceptance of one's own mother and subsequently one's self. Offers background to the "Kalevala" itself, its language and to warriors, shamans, and sages in general. Examines seven mother metaphors found in the…

  9. American Indian Females and Stereotypes: Warriors, Leaders, Healers, Feminists; Not Drudges, Princesses, Prostitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajimodiere, Denise K.

    2013-01-01

    This article is written by a Native female author. It delves into the historical stereotypes of Native females as drudges, princesses, and prostitutes perpetrated by media, movies, and literature. The author reviews research on the traditional and modern roles of Native females, including roles as warriors, leaders, and healers. Current literature…

  10. Nisqually - Early Detection Rapid Response, Monitoring and Mapping of High Priority Invasive Species with Nisqually NWRC Weed Warriors

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will continue a successful program of early detection and rapid response, monitoring and mapping of invasive species on Nisqually NWRC by Weed Warrior...

  11. Knowledge and Perceptions of Diabetes in an Appalachian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Rye, MS; Shannon L. Smith, MA; Irene Tessaro, MA, MSN, DrPH

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Qualitative research on knowledge and perceptions of diabetes is limited in the Appalachian region, where social, economic, and behavioral risk factors put many individuals at high risk for diabetes. The aim of this study was to gain a culturally informed understanding of diabetes in the Appalachian region by 1) determining cultural knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of diabetes among those who live in the region; 2) identifying concerns and barriers to care for those with diabet...

  12. Warrior Burials and the Elevation of a Military Elite in LHIIIC Achaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senn, Heidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The collapse of Mycenaean civilization around 1200 B.C.E. left in its wake not only displaced and vulnerable settlements, but also a kind of ‘structural vacuum’ which forced populations to re-establish settlement patterns without the strict guidance of what had been a highly stratified and hierarchical authority under the Mycenaean palace centers. In a remote north-western region of ancient Hellas, the evidence of the so-called ‘warrior graves’ suggests that Achaian communities sought a decidedly military solution to the problems of re-organization and definition which confronted the reeling post-palatial population. In this article I will argue that the Achaian warriors, entombed so respectfully with the tools of their trade, were representative of a newly elevated military elite. *

  13. The Land Warrior Soldier System: a case study for the acquisition of soldier systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clifton, Nile L.; Douglas W. Copeland

    2008-01-01

    This project provides an analysis of the Army's acquisition of the Land Warrior (LW) Soldier System. Its objectives are to document the history of the LW and provide an overview of the program to establish the components of both its development and deployment and its associated business and management characteristics. The product is a document that provides an analysis of the actions taken and the obstacles encountered and how the materiel developers, warfighters, user representatives and...

  14. Evolution and the psychology of intergroup conflict: the male warrior hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, M. M.; Navarrete, C.D.; Vugt, van, M.

    2012-01-01

    The social science literature contains numerous examples of human tribalism and parochialism—the tendency to categorize individuals on the basis of their group membership, and treat ingroup members benevolently and outgroup members malevolently. We hypothesize that this tribal inclination is an adaptive response to the threat of coalitional aggression and intergroup conflict perpetrated by ‘warrior males’ in both ancestral and modern human environments. Here, we describe how male coalitional ...

  15. Cultural Conflict Mirrored by the Female Characters in the Woman Warrior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贻红

    2015-01-01

    By analyzing the contradiction between the first immigrant American Chinese women and their America-born children as well as the inner emotional dilemma within the second immigrant women,this paper attempts to explore the cultural conflict manifested by female characters in The Woman Warrior,demonstrating the American immigrant women’s depression,desperation and bitterness in their adaptation to a new circumstance.

  16. ‘Introducing the Sensational Black Panther!’ Fantastic Four #52–53, the Cold War, and Marvel’s Imagined Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses Fantastic Four #52–53 (July–August 1966), in which Black Panther, Marvel’s first black superhero, premiered. It argues that the character as he appeared in these issues is best read as an example of ‘white on black’ representation, or white images of blacks centered on white interests, filtered through Marvel’s then-prevalent Cold War focus. The article first looks at the Fantastic Four as Cold Warriors to contextualize Black Panther. It then goes on to look at how Waka...

  17. ‘Introducing the Sensational Black Panther!’ Fantastic Four #52–53, the Cold War, and Marvel’s Imagined Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Lund

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses 'Fantastic Four' #52–53 (July–August 1966), in which Black Panther, Marvel’s first black superhero, premiered. It argues that the character as he appeared in these issues is best read as an example of ‘white on black’ representation, or white images of blacks centered on white interests, filtered through Marvel’s then-prevalent Cold War focus. The article first looks at the Fantastic Four as Cold Warriors to contextualize Black Panther. It then goes on to look at how Wa...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Basin Province (065) Total Petroleum Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Total Petroleum System is used in the National Assessment Project and incorporates the Assessment Unit, which is the fundamental geologic unit used for the...

  19. 77 FR 15597 - Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing... the USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition. Entry into, transiting in or anchoring in this area is... from safety hazards associated with the USAT Triathlon and Race Rowing Competition. Basis and...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Province (065) Quarter-Mile Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cell maps for each oil and gas assessment unit were created by the USGS as a method for illustrating the degree of exploration, type of production, and distribution...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Province (065) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. Study seeks to boost Appalachian gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashland Exploration Inc. and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) are trying to find ways to increase gas recovery in the Appalachian basin. They are working together to investigate Mississippian Berea sandstone and Devonian shale in a program designed to achieve better understanding and improved performance of tight natural gas formations in the area. This paper reports that three wells on Ashland Exploration acreage in Pike County, Ky., are involved in the research program. Findings from the first two wells will be used to optimize evaluation and completion of the third well. The first two wells have been drilled. Drilling of the third well was under way at last report. Ashland Exploration has been involved with GRI's Devonian shale research since 1988. GRI's initial focus was on well stimulation because Devonian shale wells it reviewed had much lower recoveries than could be expected, based on estimated gas in place. Research during the past few years was designed to improve the execution and quality control of well stimulation

  3. Southern Appalachian assessment. Summary report, Report 1 of 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final report for the Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere Program is comprised of two documents: (1) a brief summary of programs and projects, and (2) a more extensive summary report included as an attachment. The purpose of the program is to promote a sustainable balance between the conservation of biological diversity, compatible economic uses, and cultural values across the Southern Appalachians. Program and project areas addressing regional issues include environmental monitoring and assessment, sustainable development/sustainable technologies, conservation biology, ecosystem management, environmental education and training, cultural and historical resources, and public information and education. The attached summary report is one of five that documents the results of the Southern Appalachian Assessment; it includes atmospheric, social/cultural/economic, terrestrial, and aquatic reports.

  4. Moessbauer study of fired Lishan clay and terra-cotta warriors and horses of Qin Dynasty (221 B.C.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sherds of terracotta warriors and horses and Lishan clay were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, XRF, NAA, thermal and chemical analyses. Lishan clay was testified as the original material of terracotta warriors and horses, the kilning of these warriors and horses was first carried out in an oxidizing atmosphere, and then changed to a predominantly reducing atmosphere. With refiring experiments, the temperatures of Q3 and Q4 samples were determined to be 830 ± 50 and 980 ± 50degC respectively. Transformations of Lishan clay were determined by firing in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The Moessbauer parameters of Lishan clay, which was taken after 2-24h firing, were changing up to 12h. (orig.)

  5. BlackBerry PlayBook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2011-01-01

    Use your BlackBerry PlayBook for work and for play—this book shows you how For all you business road warriors who don't go anywhere without your BlackBerrys, the road just got a little more comfortable. The BlackBerry PlayBook is a tablet is your go-to-gadget for working on the go. Learn how to take full advantage of this powerful newcomer to the tablet market with this full-color For Dummies guide. You'll discover how to use your PlayBook to connect to corporate systems, manage your finances, keep track of your travel and other schedules—even how to use the PlayBook as an e-reade

  6. Telecommunications and rural economies: Findings from the Appalachian region

    OpenAIRE

    Strover, Sharon; Oden, Michael; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2001-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between telecommunications infrastructure, economic conditions, and federal and state policies and initiatives. It presents a detailed look at the telecommunications environment of the Appalachian region, particularly focusing on broadband technologies. A strong, positive association exists between telecommunications infrastructure and economic status. The effects of federal and state universal service policies are examined, as well as some of the w...

  7. Teacher Retention in Appalachian Schools: Evidence from Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Joshua M.; Butler, J. S.; Fowles, Jacob; Streams, Megan E.; Toma, Eugenia F.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze teacher attrition from Appalachian school districts over nearly twenty years of data. We employ a unique panel of public K-12 teachers active in Kentucky between 1986 and 2005, and discern several patterns of interest to scholars and policymakers. Inter-district mobility is rare in Kentucky, and rarer still among…

  8. Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, Barbara G.

    2005-01-01

    How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

  9. Intention for Healthy Eating among Southern Appalachian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Snider, Jeromy Blake; Floyd, Michael R.; Florence, James E.; Stoots, James Michael; Makamey, Michael I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the intention for healthy eating and its correlates among southern Appalachian teens. Methods: Four hundred sixteen adolescents 14 to 16 years old were surveyed with self-administered questionnaires. Results: About 30% of the adolescents surveyed had definite intentions to eat healthfully during the next 2 weeks. The scales…

  10. Hydrologic effects of stress-relief fracturing in an Appalachian Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, Granville G.; Borchers, James W.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrologic study at Twin Falls State Park, Wyoming County, West Virginia, was made to determine how fracture systems affect the occurrence and movement of ground water in a typical valley of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. Twin Falls was selected because it is generally unaffected by factors that would complicate an analysis of the data. The study area was the Black Fork Valley at Twin Falls. The valley is about 3 miles long and 400 to 600 feet wide and is cut into massive sandstone units interbedded with thin coal and shale beds. The study was made to determine how aquifer characteristics were related to fracture systems in this valley, so that the relation could be applied to studies of other valleys. Two sites were selected for test drilling, pumping tests, and geophysical studies. One site is in the upper part of the valley, and the second is near the lower central part. At both sites, ground water occurs mainly in horizontal bedding-plane fractures under the valley floor and in nearly vertical and horizontal slump fractures along the valley wall. The aquifer is under confined conditions under the valley floor and unconfined conditions along the valley wall. The fractures pinch out under the valley walls, which form impermeable barriers. Tests of wells near the valley center indicated a change in storage coefficient as the cone of depression caused by pumping reached the confined-unconfined boundaries; the tests also indicated barrier-image effects when the cone reached the impermeable boundaries. Drawdown from pumping near the center of the valley affected water levels at both sites, indicating a hydraulic connection from the upper to the lower end of the valley. Stream gain-and-loss studies show that ground water discharges to the stream from horizontal fractures beneath Black Fork Falls, near the mouth of Black Fork. The fracture systems that constitute most of the transmissive part of the aquifer at Twin Falls are like those described as

  11. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater. PMID:21240722

  12. Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time%Three "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Series Appeared on the Market for the First Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Augu'st 28, "Warrior" Passenger Car Tire Market Conference was held by Double Coin Group (Anhui) Warrior Tires Co., Ltd. in Shanghai with a subject of " Wonderful Combination to Start the Fu- ture". Warrior tires came into the market, which changed the pattern of the Chinese medium and high-end passenger car tire market dominated by foreign brands, mark- ing the beginning of the national brand to stand on the international medium and high-end passenger car tire market.

  13. Beyond the Mohawk Warrior: Reinterpreting Benjamin West’s Evocations of American Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A. Sienkewicz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay offers a reinterpretation of the narratives in John Galt’s 'The Life and Studies of Benjamin West' (1816 that introduce the artist’s encounters with, or evocations of, American Indians. This study grapples, in particular, with the iconic status of the narrative in which the young artist, newly arrived in Rome from the British Colony of Pennsylvania, is said to have exclaimed ‘My God, how like it is to a young Mohawk warrior!’ when he first encountered the 'Apollo Belvidere'. It questions whether West actually did liken the 'Apollo Belvidere ' to a Mohawk warrior in 1760, and instead resituates the narrative within concerns of transatlantic audience and international politics in 1816. Rather than the naïve exclamation of a provincial visitor to a European metropolis, this article contends that West’s remark, at least as retold within Galt’s narrative, was the calculated reflection of a cosmopolitan intellectual on matters of intercultural and transatlantic concern.

  14. Scientific responsibility for the dissemination and interpretation of genetic research: lessons from the "warrior gene" controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, D; King, M

    2008-06-01

    This paper discusses the announcement by a team of researchers that they identified a genetic influence for a range of "antisocial" behaviours in the New Zealand Māori population (dubbed the "warrior gene"). The behaviours included criminality, violence, gambling and alcoholism. The reported link between genetics and behaviour met with much controversy. The scientists were described as hiding behind a veneer of supposedly "objective" western science, using it to perpetuate "racist and oppressive discourses". In this paper we examine what went wrong in the dissemination of the research. We chose as our framework the debate around the "internal/external" responsibilities of scientists. Using this discourse we argue that when the researchers ventured to explain their research in terms of social phenomena, they assumed a duty to ensure that their findings were placed "in context". By "in context", we argue that evidence of any genetic influence on behavioural characteristics should not be reported in isolation, but instead presented alongside other environmental, cultural and socio-economic influences that may also contribute to the studied behaviour. Rather than imposing a new obligation on scientists, we find this duty to contextualise results is in keeping with the spirit of codes of ethics already in place. Lessons from the "warrior gene" controversy may assist researchers elsewhere to identify potential areas of conflict before they jeopardise research relationships, or disseminate findings in a manner that fuels misleading and/or potentially discriminatory attitudes in society. PMID:18511629

  15. Acceptability of HPV Vaccine for Males and Preferences for Future Education Programs Among Appalachian Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Paul L.; Oldach, Benjamin R.; Randle, Katherine E.; Katz, Mira L.

    2013-01-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups an...

  16. Cancer Recurrence Worry, Risk Perception, and Informational-Coping Styles among Appalachian Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; DeSimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perc...

  17. Black to Black

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Michael Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Pop musicians performing in black stage costume take advantage of cultural traditions relating to matters black. Stylistically, black is a paradoxical color: although a symbol of melancholy, pessimism, and renunciation, black also expresses minimalist modernity and signifies exclusivity (as...... is hinted by Rudyard Kipling’s illustration of ‘The [Black] Cat That Walked by Himself’ in his classic children’s tale). It was well understood by uniformed Anarchists, Fascists and the SS that there is an assertive presence connected with the black-clad figure. The paradox of black’s abstract elegance......-styled references to, among other things, the culturally and ideologically effervescent interwar-period have made me curious as to what alternative possibilities – for instance ‘emancipation’ – a comparative analysis might disclose concerning the visual rhetoric of black. Thus, in conclusion, it is briefly...

  18. Psychology and photography: chimneys dreaming and chimneys warriors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Giani Gallino

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article covers two aspects related to Psychology and Art. The first aspect concerns the similarities found between photography and various Schools of experimental psychology. For instance, the scientists of Psychology of ethological theory, and Non-verbal communication (NVC, observe with particular methodologies the non-verbal messages that animals and humans transmit to their peers through expressions, posture, gestures. The same is done by photographers (those who use the “camera” with a good knowledge of the medium and a “photographic  eye” when they look around, careful to catch an expression, any unusual attitude, or a gesture of friendship. Another School of psychology, the Gestalpsychologie (Gestalt: form, figure, configuration, attributes a decisive value to the perception of space, the foreground and the background, the perspective and vanishing points, the contrast between black and white. All aspects that effectively interest psychologists just as much as photographers. Finally, the second aspect relates to the art of Antony Gaudì and makes some hypothesis about the personality and behavior of the great architect, with regard to the construction of two houses, "Casa Batllo" and "Casa Mila": particularly because of the configuration or Gestalt of the "chimneys" that dominate the two buildings. In this study, cooperate each other psychological analysis and the art of photography. The last enables us to study also the details of the work of Gaudì, as can be seen in the pictures of this essay.

  19. Cumulative impacts of mountaintop mining on an Appalachian watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, T. Ty; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Bier, Raven; Helton, A. M.; Merola, R. Brittany; Vengosh, Avner; Di Giulio, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    Mountaintop mining is the dominant form of coal mining and the largest driver of land cover change in the central Appalachians. The waste rock from these surface mines is disposed of in the adjacent river valleys, leading to a burial of headwater streams and dramatic increases in salinity and trace metal concentrations immediately downstream. In this synoptic study we document the cumulative impact of more than 100 mining discharge outlets and approximately 28 km2 of active and reclaimed surf...

  20. Pollution effects on stone benches of the Eagle Warriors Precinct at the Major Temple, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Major Temple archaeological site excavations in Downtown Mexico City, the precinct of one of the most important Mexica military caste, the Eagle Warriors, was discovered. The ceremonial enclosure is composed of three rooms surrounded by paintings on 11 stone benches placed against the walls. Nowadays, these paintings and the stones present the effects of different deterioration processes produced by the underground water level, high humidity, and the presence of soil, water, and air pollutants. Ion beam analysis of samples from the benches and wall paintings was performed using PIXE and RBS techniques. Using enrichment factors of elements relative to iron concentrations, possible contamination by sulfur and chlorine salts was found, as well as airborne zinc scavenged by rain

  1. The Role of Language in Interactions with Others on Campus for Rural Appalachian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Dialects of English spoken in rural, Southern Appalachia are heavily stigmatized in mainstream American culture, and speakers of Appalachian dialects are often subject to prejudice and stereotypes which can be detrimental in educational settings. We explored the experiences of rural, Southern Appalachian college students and the role speaking a…

  2. Anthropogenic influences on macro-level mammal occupancy in the Appalachian Trail corridor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L Erb

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT, a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United States. Utilizing camera traps and a large volunteer network of citizen scientists, we were able to sample 447 sites along a 1024 km section of the AT to assess the effects of available habitat, hunting, recreation, and roads on eight mammal species. Occupancy modeling revealed the importance of available forest to all species except opossums (Didelphis virginiana and coyotes (Canis latrans. Hunting on adjoining lands was the second strongest predictor of occupancy for three mammal species, negatively influencing black bears (Ursus americanus and bobcats (Lynx rufus, while positively influencing raccoons (Procyon lotor. Modeling also indicated an avoidance of high trail use areas by bears and proclivity towards high use areas by red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Roads had the lowest predictive power on species occupancy within the corridor and were only significant for deer. The occupancy models stress the importance of compounding direct and indirect anthropogenic influences operating at the regional level. Scientists and managers should consider these human impacts and their potential combined influence on wildlife persistence when assessing optimal habitat or considering management actions.

  3. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  4. Re-Examining Extreme Violence: Historical Reconstruction and Ethnic Consciousness in Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-rong Wu

    2014-01-01

    This article hinges on the ideological divide of extreme violence represented in 'Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale' with an aim to explore the cultural and political dimensions of the Wushe Incident. The first part of the article accounts for the historical setting of the film and the trope of beheading in the traditional Seediq culture. The second part discusses how Wei Te-sheng’s film sheds a new light on localized spectacles of decapitation and further tackles varied forms of violence ...

  5. Black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A black ring is a five-dimensional black hole with an event horizon of topology S1 x S2. We provide an introduction to the description of black rings in general relativity and string theory. Novel aspects of the presentation include a new approach to constructing black ring coordinates and a critical review of black ring microscopics. (topical review)

  6. Knowledge and Perceptions of Diabetes in an Appalachian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Rye, MS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Qualitative research on knowledge and perceptions of diabetes is limited in the Appalachian region, where social, economic, and behavioral risk factors put many individuals at high risk for diabetes. The aim of this study was to gain a culturally informed understanding of diabetes in the Appalachian region by 1 determining cultural knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of diabetes among those who live in the region; 2 identifying concerns and barriers to care for those with diabetes; and 3 determining the barriers and facilitators to developing interventions for the prevention and early detection of diabetes in Appalachia. Methods Thirteen focus groups were conducted in 16 counties in West Virginia in 1999. Seven of the groups were composed of persons with diabetes (n = 61, and six were composed of community members without diabetes (n = 40. Participants included 73 women and 28 men (n = 101. Results Findings show that among this population there is lack of knowledge about diabetes before and after diagnosis and little perception that a risk of diabetes exists (unless there is a family history of diabetes. Social interactions are negatively affected by having diabetes, and cultural and economic barriers to early detection and care create obstacles to the early detection of diabetes and education of those diagnosed. Conclusion Public health education and community-level interventions for primary prevention of diabetes in addition to behavior change to improve the management of diabetes are needed to reduce the health disparities related to diabetes in West Virginia.

  7. Determining the source and genetic fingerprint of natural gases using noble gas geochemistry: a northern Appalachian Basin case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Darrah, Thomas H.; Poreda, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Silurian and Devonian natural gas reservoirs present within New York state represent an example of unconventional gas accumulations within the northern Appalachian Basin. These unconventional energy resources, previously thought to be noneconomically viable, have come into play following advances in drilling (i.e., horizontal drilling) and extraction (i.e., hydraulic fracturing) capabilities. Therefore, efforts to understand these and other domestic and global natural gas reserves have recently increased. The suspicion of fugitive mass migration issues within current Appalachian production fields has catalyzed the need to develop a greater understanding of the genetic grouping (source) and migrational history of natural gases in this area. We introduce new noble gas data in the context of published hydrocarbon carbon (C1,C2+) (13C) data to explore the genesis of thermogenic gases in the Appalachian Basin. This study includes natural gases from two distinct genetic groups: group 1, Upper Devonian (Marcellus shale and Canadaway Group) gases generated in situ, characterized by early mature (13C[C1  C2][13C113C2]: –9), isotopically light methane, with low (4He) (average, 1  103 cc/cc) elevated 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar (where the asterisk denotes excess radiogenic or nucleogenic production beyond the atmospheric ratio), and a variable, atmospherically (air-saturated–water) derived noble gas component; and group 2, a migratory natural gas that emanated from Lower Ordovician source rocks (i.e., most likely, Middle Ordovician Trenton or Black River group) that is currently hosted primarily in Lower Silurian sands (i.e., Medina or Clinton group) characterized by isotopically heavy, mature methane (13C[C1 – C2] [13C113C2]: 3), with high (4He) (average, 1.85  103 cc/cc) 4He/40Ar and 21Ne/40Ar near crustal production levels and elevated crustal noble gas content (enriched 4He,21Ne, 40Ar). Because the release of each crustal noble gas (i.e., He, Ne, Ar

  8. Weed Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, Sandy

    2007-01-01

    In these activities, middle school and high school students examine the threat of nonnative plant species to Hawaiian ecosystems. Students explore different viewpoints on alien plants and consider how beliefs and attitudes may affect others' decisions concerning nonnative plant species. Students also identify invasive plant characteristics and…

  9. Ice warriors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2004-02-01

    Sitting under a glacier, SNSK's productive Svea North longwall mine is like no other. Situated on the Norwegian archipelago of Spitzbergen this is one of the Europe's two top producing coal mines and produced 2.7 mt of coal in 2003. A long tunnel has recently been built under the glacier with a conveyor system, to overcome problems of hauling coal along the ice road. The building of this tunnel is described in the article. The longwall mining operation and equipment used is described. 4 figs.

  10. Black Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hraba, Joseph; Siegman, Jack

    1974-01-01

    Black militancy is treated as an instance of class consciousness with criteria and scales developed to measure black consciousness and "self-placement" into black consciousness. These dimensions are then investigated with respect to the social and symbolic participation in the ideology of the black movement on the part of a sample of black…

  11. 75 FR 34477 - Potomac-Appalachian Transmission Highline (PATH) Environmental Impact Statement, Harpers Ferry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... National Scenic Trail, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National... National Historical Park (NHP), Appalachian National Scenic Trail (NST), Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, and Monongahela National Forest,...

  12. A Bard’s eye view: Narrative mediation in Xena: Warrior Princess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Tigges

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present an analytical survey of various aspects of narrative mediation in the action-fantasy TV-series Xena: Warrior Princess, by discussing a number of structural, verbal as well as visual devices that justify the qualification of Xena as “art television”. What is particularly unique to this series is the manner in which Xena’s heroic exploits have reached the modern viewer, namely by means of the “scrolls” produced by Xena’s sidekick and bardic companion Gabrielle. Consecutive sections discuss and illustrate the role of Gabrielle as storyteller and narrative mediator, the function and presentation of her “scrolls”, the use of intertextual or remediating as well as regendering narration of familiar narratives from myth and history, and some of the narrative problems Gabrielle is made to encounter, such as writer’s block, writerly self-doubt and the power of the word taking over from “reality”.

  13. An analysis of timber trespass and theft issues in the Southern Appalachian region

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Shawn A., 1978-

    2003-01-01

    Timber theft is a crime within the forest industry which has not received a large amount of attention within research literature. As a result, there are no recent estimates available of the extent of the problem. The southern Appalachian region has conditions which seem to be conducive to timber theft, but convictions for timber theft in the area are infrequent. In order to address these issues, a study was undertaken in a 20 county region of the southern Appalachians to interview law enfo...

  14. Field Indicators for the Prediction of Appalachian Soil and Bedrock Geochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Daniel Keith

    2016-01-01

    Surface mining for coal in the Central Appalachians contributes total dissolved solids (TDS) to headwater streams, especially below larger mines and associated valley fills. My objective was to characterize the geochemical properties of a range of surface soils and associated geologic strata from the Central Appalachian coalfields and to relate those properties to simple field indicators, such as color or rock type. I hypothesized that these indicators can accurately predict certain geochemi...

  15. On the Women Image in The Woman Warrior-Based on the Theory of Lacan’s Symbolic Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUI Hua

    2016-01-01

    According to the theory of Lacan’s symbolic order, gender identity is determined by the culture that people live in. The culture is the chief determinant of women’s gender and their destiny. The Woman Warrior is the autobiographical novel of Maxine Hong Kingston, in which there are different women images who live in different cultures. The this paper focuses on ana-lyzing the tragic fate of“no name woman”who lives in traditional Chinese patriarchy culture and the hard experience of“I”who struggles between Chinese patriarchy culture and American feminism culture.

  16. Re-Examining Extreme Violence: Historical Reconstruction and Ethnic Consciousness in Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chia-rong

    2014-01-01

    This article hinges on the ideological divide of extreme violence represented in Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale with an aim to explore the cultural and political dimensions of the Wushe Incident. The first part of the article accounts for the historical setting of the film and the trope of beheading in the traditional Seediq culture. The second part discusses how Wei Te-sheng’s film sheds a new light on localized spectacles of decapitation and further tackles varied forms of violence ca...

  17. Chemical and isotopic tracers of the contribution of microbial gas in Devonian organic-rich shales and reservoir sandstones, northern Appalachian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the geochemistry and origin of natural gas and formation waters in Devonian age organic-rich shales and reservoir sandstones across the northern Appalachian Basin margin (western New York, eastern Ohio, northwestern Pennsylvania, and eastern Kentucky) were investigated. Additional samples were collected from Mississippian Berea Sandstone, Silurian Medina Sandstone and Ordovician Trenton/Black River Group oil and gas wells for comparison. Dissolved gases in shallow groundwaters in Devonian organic-rich shales along Lake Erie contain detectable CH4 (0.01-50.55 mol%) with low δ13C-CH4 values (-74.68 to -57.86 per mille) and no higher chain hydrocarbons, characteristics typical of microbial gas. Nevertheless, these groundwaters have only moderate alkalinity (1.14-8.72 meq/kg) and relatively low δ13C values of dissolved inorganic C (DIC) (-24.8 to -0.6 per mille), suggesting that microbial methanogenesis is limited. The majority of natural gases in Devonian organic-rich shales and sandstones at depth (>168 m) in the northern Appalachian Basin have a low CH4 to ethane and propane ratios (3-35 mol%; C1/C2 + C3) and high δ13C and δD values of CH4 (-53.35 to -40.24 per mille, and -315.0 to -174.6 per mille, respectively), which increase in depth, reservoir age and thermal maturity; the molecular and isotopic signature of these gases show that CH4 was generated via thermogenic processes. Despite this, the geochemistry of co-produced brines shows evidence for microbial activity. High δ13C values of DIC (>+10 per mille), slightly elevated alkalinity (up to 12.01 meq/kg) and low SO4 values (13C-DIC values (4 concentrations (up to 12.31 mmole/L) in many brine samples point to SO4 reduction, which likely limits microbial CH4 generation in the Appalachian Basin. Together the formation water and gas results suggest that the vast majority of CH4 in the Devonian organic-rich shales and sandstones across the northern Appalachian Basin margin is thermogenic in

  18. Evaluation of the potential effects of coalbed-methane well produced waters on aquatic life in the Black Warrior Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of coalbed methane well produced and treated waters on the biota of receiving streams designated and permitted for discharge. The study involved two primary parts. The first involved bioassays on selected invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. It was determined that there were apparent negative impacts on the more sensitive laboratory organisms only at chloride concentrations far in excess of levels observed in the receiving waters during the course of the study. The combined results, coupled with apparently variable tolerance of cultured organisms to chloride within individual tests, suggest that an unknown toxic factor exists in certain streams and that further testing is necessary to determine the identity of this factor. Results of tests on the other organisms yielded LC50's well above the regulatory limits. The second part of the study involved the sampling of receiving waters and there appeared to be no significant effect on the stream organisms or communities studied during the period of these investigations. This includes discharge at sites containing significantly more chloride in the effluent than 230 mg/L. Dilution was generally sufficient and significant in reducing instream concentrations to well below the regulatory limit 100 feet downstream of the points of discharge (POD's), although significantly raised chloride concentrations were found below POD's in streams experiencing drastically reduced flow volumes during the latter part of the summer. There is no compelling evidence that the produced water discharge had any major effects on the benthic macro-invertebrates and fish communities in the streams studied

  19. Proceedings of the Naval Postgraduate School and Office of Naval Research conference on Military Education for the 21st Century Warrior.

    OpenAIRE

    Palatas, Michael D.; Honegger, Barbara; Jones, Shelly A.; Daniel, Judy A.; Anderson, Craig

    1998-01-01

    Naval Postgraduate School, Office of Naval Research. Professional Military Education for the 21st Century Warrior. Conference Proceedings. 15 - 16 January 1998, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. Reported by Shelly A Jones and Judy A. Daniel. Compiled by Barbara Honegger. Cover design by LT Craig Anderson. Edite by CDR Michael D. Palatas.

  20. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  1. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss. In foods, ...

  2. MORPHOLOGY AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF DUSTFALL PARTICLES INSIDE EMPEROR QIN'S TERRA-COTTA WARRIORS AND HORSES MUSEUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tafeng Hu; Xuxiang Li; Jungang Dong; Bo Rong; Zhenxing Shen; Junji Gao; Shun-Cheng Lee; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson

    2006-01-01

    Indoor dustfall samples were collected in Pit 1 and Pit 2 of Emperor Qin's Terra-cotta Warriors and Horses Museum in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China. The morphological and elemental analysis for long-term (>10 years) and short-term (~0.5 year) dustfall particles and lacquer pieces on the faces of partly assembled warriors were performed with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM/EDX). The results showed that the majority of dustfall samples appeared to be composed of mineral dust particles, fly ash, and biological particles with different elemental compositions. Most of the mineral particles had irregular shapes with smooth edges. Small fioccules of calcium sulfate were more frequently observed in long-term dustfall samples than in short-term samples, implying a progressive chemical reaction between continuous dustfall particles and atmospheric sulfur dioxide. Crystals of calcium sulfate were also found near pits on both inner and outer surfaces of lacquer pieces, revealing an acid chemical reaction between sulfur dioxide and lacquer material as the cause of the formation of erosion pits and cracks on surface of lacquer pieces.

  3. Assessment of hydrologic conditions in potential coal-lease tracts in the Warrior coal field, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Celso; Newton, John F.; Bingham, Roy H.

    1982-01-01

    Assessing the hydrology of potential Federal coal-lease tracts, because of their dissemination and limited data, requires some predictive capability. Four tracts assessed were located in the outcrop of three coal groups and of other relatively impermeable rocks in the Pottsville Formation. Physical settings of the tracts and most other areas in the Warrior coal field are similar. This results in similar ground-water and surface-water characteristics, in similar impacts resulting from surface coal mining, and in maximizing the transfer-ability of data. Assessments of the tracts reflected the small storage of water in underlying rocks and corresponding low yields to wells and to the base flow of streams. Ground water and surface water in undisturbed areas are generally of good quality. Some subbasins in the tracts have already been impacted by mining. Estimates of streamflow characteristics and the availability and quality of ground water in the tracts were made using available methodology , or assessments based on local and regional data. Estimates of the degree mineralization of surface-water were made using methodology developed from other coal hydrology work. Climatic, physiographic, hydrologic, and land-use data were analyzed by regressions to derive relations for assessing water quality in streams draining mined and unmined areas. In this approach, an equation was derived to estimate specific conductance. Additional equations, based on relations between specific conductance and other constituents, allow estimates of mine drainage indicators such as hardness, dissolved solids, and sulfate. Hydrologic assessments of the tracts, based on limited verification data, proved to be reasonably accurate. (USGS)

  4. Variation and Trends of Landscape Dynamics, Land Surface Phenology and Net Primary Production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-12-15

    The gradients of the Appalachian Mountains in elevations and latitudes provide a unique regional perspective of landscape variations in the eastern United States and a section of the southeastern Canada. This study reveals patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) and AVHRR Global Production Efficiency Model (GloPEM) datasets. We analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS) and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compared the results out of the Appalachian Mountains regions in different spatial contexts including the North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations we analyzed data and compared the results between 30°N-40°N and 40°N-50°N latitudes. The result revealed significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was -0.0018 (R2=0.55, P<0.0001) NDVI unit decrease per year during 25 years between 1982 and 2006. The LOS had prolonged 0.3 day yr-1 during 25 years over the Appalachian Mountains regions. The NPP increased by 2.68 gC m-2yr-2 in Appalachian Mountains regions from 1981 to 2000. The comparison with the North America reveals the effects of topography and ecosystem compositions of the Appalachian Mountains. The comparison with the Appalachian Trail corridor area provides a regional mega-transect view of the measured variables.

  5. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  6. 23 CFR Appendix C to Subpart B of... - Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional Required Contract Provisions, Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction Contracts C Appendix C to..., Appalachian Development Highway System and Local Access Roads Contracts Other Than Construction...

  7. Red spruce dynamics in an old southern Appalachian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busing, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    By the late 1980s the composition and structure of forest stands in the southern Appalachian spruce-fir zone were altered by insect infestations to Fraser fir. The response of red spruce, the sole remaining coniferous forest dominant, to this disturbance was followed over twenty years (1983-2003) in an old spruce-fir forest at Mt. Collins, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Although diameter growth of canopy red spruce (>30 cm dbh) at six plot sites was considerable (mean 10-yr increment 2.1 cm; 1993-2003), red spruce mortality increased sharply (mean 4% yr-1; 1993-2003). Wind-related mortality of canopy red spruce was substantial after the loss of Fraser fir from the canopy circa 1985 (>70% of the dead spruce had broken or uprooted boles; 1983-2003). Wind damage to red spruce was observed at most plot sites, but it was most pronounced on exposed topographic positions, where canopy gap expansion was extensive. The elevated mortality of red spruce at Mt. Collins was not associated with reduced diameter growth. Altered canopy structure has left large red spruce vulnerable to high winds. With the loss of canopy fir and the subsequent increase in mortality of canopy spruce, total live basal area has declined to about half of its pre-disturbance level.

  8. Digital assessment of northern and central Appalachian basin coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Tewalt, S.J.; Braff, L.J.; Wallack, R.N. [US Geological Survey National Center, Reston, VA (US)

    1999-10-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coalbeds and zones that are projected to provide the bulk of the nation's resources for the next few decades. The Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coals are the first two beds in the northern and central Appalachian basin region to undergo fully digital coal assessments. The bed-specific assessments are being carried out in partnership with the state geologic surveys of West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland. Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical data-bases have been developed for both of the beds. The extent of the bed with mined areas, structure contour, isopach, and overburden thickness maps for the Pittsburgh coal bed have been realised as USGS open-file reports. The articles includes several detailed maps showing the export of the Pittsburgh coalbed, ash yield, sulphur contents and calorific value of the coal by county, structure contours, overburden thickness and isopac lines. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Peers, stereotypes and health communication through the cultural lens of adolescent Appalachian mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Elizabeth; Miller, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how young Appalachian mothers retrospectively construct sexual and reproductive health communication events. Sixteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with mothers between the ages of 18 and 22 from the South Central Appalachian region of the USA. Findings indicate that within this population, peer influence, stereotypes medical encounters and formal health education are experienced within a culture that exhibits tension between normalising and disparaging adolescent sexuality. Theoretical and applied implications acknowledge the role of Appalachian cultural values, including egalitarianism, traditional gender roles and fatalism, in understanding the social construction of young people's sexuality in this region. Practical implications for sexual education and the nature of communication in the healthcare setting can be applied to current education curricula and medical communication practices. We suggest that future programmes may be more effective if they are adapted to the specific culture within which they are taught. PMID:26305911

  10. Black Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Khristin Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. 

  11. Relative importance of physical and economic factors in Appalachian coalbed gas assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    In the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, only 20% of the assessed technically recoverable Appalachian Province coalbed gas resources were economic. Physical and economic variables are examined to explain the disparity between economic and technically recoverable coalbed gas. The Anticline and Syncline plays of the Northern Appalachian Basin, which account for 77% of the assessed technically recoverable coalbed gas, are not economic. Analysis shows marginal reductions in costs or rate of return will not turn these plays into commercial successes. Physical parameters that determine ultimate well recoverability and the rate of gas recovery are primary reasons the Northern Appalachian Basin plays are non-commercial. If the application of new well stimulation technology could offset slow gas desorption rates, Appalachian Province economic gas could increase to more then 70% of the technically recoverable gas. Similarly, if operators are able to develop strategies to selectively drill plays by avoiding dry holes and non-commercial occurrences, the economic fraction of technically recoverable gas could increase to over half.In the 1995 National Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey, only 20% of the assessed technically recoverable Appalachian Province coalbed gas resources were economic. Physical and economic variables are examined to explain the disparity between economic and technically recoverable coalbed gas. The Anticline and Syncline plays of the Northern Appalachian Basin, which account for 77% of the assessed technically recoverable coalbed gas, are not economic. Analysis shows marginal reductions in costs or rate of return will not turn these plays into commercial successes. Physical parameters that determine ultimate well recoverability and the rate of gas recovery are primary reasons the Northern Appalachian Basin plays are non-commercial. If the application of new well

  12. Where’s BattleTech in MechWarrior Online? A Case Study in Game Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    MechWarrior Online (MWO) is a free-to-play combat simulation based on BattleTech, a tactical board game launched by FASA Corporation in 1984. MWO is only the latest of a long series of digital games based on the board game, yet both its commercial model and its dedicated online play set it apart...... from its predecessors. As with all online games, there is a lively discussion among players on both official and unofficial forums about the game, especially about the balancing of units. The most heavily contested issue is the upcoming first major expansion to the game, the Clan invasion. While this...... issues and created the most convincing interpretation of BattleTech rules to date. This is mostly due to PGI’s considerate interpolation of spatial and temporal measurements from BattleTech’s coarse granularity. The board game is played on a surface with hex squares of one inch in diameter, operating at...

  13. Are black holes totally black?

    CERN Document Server

    Grib, A A

    2014-01-01

    Geodesic completeness needs existence near the horizon of the black hole of "white hole" geodesics coming from the region inside of the horizon. Here we give the classification of all such geodesics with the energies $E/m \\le 1$ for the Schwarzschild and Kerr's black hole. The collisions of particles moving along the "white hole" geodesics with those moving along "black hole" geodesics are considered. Formulas for the increase of the energy of collision in the centre of mass frame are obtained and the possibility of observation of high energy particles arriving from the black hole to the Earth is discussed.

  14. Research at Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, D. B.

    2003-12-01

    Astronomical research at Appalachian State University centers around the interests of the three observational astronomers on the faculty, and primarily involves observational work at our Dark Sky Observatory (DSO). ASU is a member of the 16-campus University of North Carolina system, and is a comprehensive university with about 13,000 students. Besides the usual constraint found in such a setting (teaching loads of 9-12 hours/semester), we face the challenges of maintaining a significant observatory facility in an era of shrinking state budgets. The DSO facility is 20 miles from campus, adding additional problems. This scenario differs from those of the other panelists, who are at private institutions and/or use shared facilities. The character of students at ASU also adds constraints--many have to hold part-time jobs that limit their participation in the very research that could contribute significantly to their success. Particularly, their need to leave for the summer for gainful employment at the very time that faculty have the most time for research is a loss for all concerned. In spite of these challenges, we have a long record of maintaining research programs in eclipsing binary star photometry, stellar spectroscopy and QSO/AGN monitoring. Undergraduate students are involved in all aspects of the work, from becoming competent at solo observing to publication of the results and presentation of papers and posters at meetings. Graduate students in our Masters in Applied Physics program (emphasis on instrumentation), have constructed instruments and control systems for the observatory. Most of what we have achieved would have been impossible without the support of the National Science Foundation. We have been fortunate to acquire funds under the Division of Undergraduate Education's ILI program and the Research at Undergraduate Institutions program. Among other things, this support provided our main telescope, CCD cameras, and some student stipends.

  15. Appalachian Basin Low-Permeability Sandstone Reservoir Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Boswell; Susan Pool; Skip Pratt; David Matchen

    1993-04-30

    A preliminary assessment of Appalachian basin natural gas reservoirs designated as 'tight sands' by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) suggests that greater than 90% of the 'tight sand' resource occurs within two groups of genetically-related units; (1) the Lower Silurian Medina interval, and (2) the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Acadian clastic wedge. These intervals were targeted for detailed study with the goal of producing geologic reservoir characterization data sets compatible with the Tight Gas Analysis System (TGAS: ICF Resources, Inc.) reservoir simulator. The first phase of the study, completed in September, 1991, addressed the Medina reservoirs. The second phase, concerned with the Acadian clastic wedge, was completed in October, 1992. This report is a combined and updated version of the reports submitted in association with those efforts. The Medina interval consists of numerous interfingering fluvial/deltaic sandstones that produce oil and natural gas along an arcuate belt that stretches from eastern Kentucky to western New York. Geophysical well logs from 433 wells were examined in order to determine the geologic characteristics of six separate reservoir-bearing intervals. The Acadian clastic wedge is a thick, highly-lenticular package of interfingering fluvial-deltaic sandstones, siltstones, and shales. Geologic analyses of more than 800 wells resulted in a geologic/engineering characterization of seven separate stratigraphic intervals. For both study areas, well log and other data were analyzed to determine regional reservoir distribution, reservoir thickness, lithology, porosity, water saturation, pressure and temperature. These data were mapped, evaluated, and compiled into various TGAS data sets that reflect estimates of original gas-in-place, remaining reserves, and 'tight' reserves. The maps and data produced represent the first basin-wide geologic characterization for either interval. This report

  16. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  17. Neutron activation analysis on source of raw material of terracotta warriors and horses in No.2 pit of Qin Shihuang's mausoleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    32 trace element contents in each sample are measured by neutron activation analysis for the selected that 19 samples of terracotta warriors and horses from No.2 pit of Emperor Qin shihuang's Mausoleum, 20 samples clay nearby Qin's Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. The trend cluster analysis diagram is obtained after sorting the data. The results show that the samples from the No.2 pit of Emperor Qin Shihuang's Mausoleum have a close relationship with the clay samples from the neighborhood of the Mausoleum. Consequently, the source of raw materials of the terracotta warriors and horses may come from some places nearby the Mausoleum, the kiln sites may be also neighborhood of the Mausoleum. There is also a preliminary study on the relationship between the sealing earth of the Mausoleum, rammed earth and backfill of the No.2 pit and the clay from the nearby place

  18. The Mathematics Self-Efficacy of Rural Central Appalachian Undergraduate Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation study was a two-part investigation with a sample of undergraduate students from three community and technical colleges and one university in the state of Kentucky. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that contribute to the mathematics self-efficacy of rural Central Appalachian undergraduate females. Two…

  19. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood—hereafter “dogwood” populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1 quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian ecoregion, (2 quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3 identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian ecoregion. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (<.05 were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  20. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  1. Biscuits, Sausage, Gravy, Milk, and Orange Juice: School Breakfast Environment in 4 Rural Appalachian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Andrea; Haughton, Betsy; Jahns, Lisa; Fitzhugh, Eugene; Jones, Sonya J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the school breakfast environment in rural Appalachian schools to inform school environment intervention and policy change. Methods: A total of 4 rural schools with fourth- and fifth-grade students in East Tennessee were assessed. A cross-sectional descriptive examination of the school food…

  2. Finding Their Voice: Country Music Television and Appalachian Community Colleges Empower Communities to Overcome Economic Hardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how out-of-work miners are engaged in the Empowering Education Initiative, a unique alliance between Country Music Television (CMT) and community colleges in Appalachia. The initiative, which includes a website and a series of country music concerts, is changing the conversation in the Appalachian region, giving hope to…

  3. Using Food as a Tool to Teach Science to 3rd Grade Students in Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W.; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-01-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007 to 2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3rd-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these…

  4. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third graders residing in 3 rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved…

  5. Perceptions of Healthful Eating and Influences on the Food Choices of Appalachian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…

  6. 77 FR 52711 - Appalachian Power; Notice of Temporary Variance of License and Soliciting Comments, Motions To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Appalachian Power; Notice of Temporary Variance of License and...: Temporary Variance of License. b. Project No: 739-033. c. Date Filed: August 7, 2012. d. Applicant... filed. k. Description of Application: The licensee requests a temporary variance to allow for a...

  7. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  8. Documentation of Significant Losses in Cornus florida L. Populations throughout the Appalachian Ecoregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last three decades the fungus Discula destructiva Redlin has severely impacted Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood hereafter dogwood) populations throughout its range. This study estimates historical and current dogwood populations (number of trees) across the Appalachian ecoregion. Objectives were to (1) quantify current dogwood populations in the Appalachian eco region, (2) quantify change over time in dogwood populations, and (3) identify trends in dogwood population shifts. Data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database were compiled from 41 FIA units in 13 states for county-level estimates of the total number of all live dogwood trees on timberland within the Appalachian eco region. Analysis of covariance, comparing historical and current county-level dogwood population estimates with average change in forest density as the covariate, was used to identify significant changes within FIA units. Losses ranging from 25 to 100 percent of the sample population (ρ<.05) were observed in 33 of the 41 (80 percent) sampled FIA units. These results indicate that an important component of the eastern deciduous forest has experienced serious losses throughout the Appalachians and support localized empirical results and landscape-scale anecdotal evidence.

  9. FOLIAR INJURY SYMPTOMS AND PIGMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN RED SPRUCE SAPLINGS IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The frequency and percent surface area covered by necrotic flecking on red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) needles from sapling-sized trees were examined on nine research sites on three mountains in the southern Appalachians. oliar pigment analysis was conducted on trees from two of ...

  10. A Survey of Appalachian Middle & High School Teacher Perceptions of Controversial Current Events Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Kimberlee A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of a sample of Appalachian middle and high school social studies teachers regarding the teaching of controversial current events. Specifically, the survey ascertained the teachers' familiarity with school district administrative policies regarding the teaching of controversial current events, their perceptions…

  11. COMMUNITY CHOICES AND HOUSING DECISIONS: A SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN HIGHLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seong-Hoon; Newman, David H.; Wear, David N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines land development using an integrated approach that combines residential decisions about choices of community in the Southern Appalachian region with the application of the GIS (Geographical Information System). The empirical model infers a distinctive heterogeneity in the characteristics of community choices. The results also indicate that socioeconomic motives strongly affect urban housing decisions while environmental amenities affect those of rural housing.

  12. Information Seeking and Intentions to Have Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancers in Rural and Appalachian Kentuckians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Andrews, James E; Case, Donald O.; Allard, Suzanne L.; Johnson, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Context: Research is limited regarding the potential of genetic testing for cancer risk in rural Appalachia. Purpose: This study examined perceptions of genetic testing in a population sample of Kentuckians, with a focus on Appalachian and rural differences. The goals were to examine cultural and psychosocial factors that may predict intentions to…

  13. Black market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way for states and subnational groups to acquire material, knowledge and equipment necessary to build a nuclear weapon or device are illegal transactions. These were singular in the past and did not cause the development of a nuclear black market. But all necessary components of a functioning black market exist. Therefore the further spread and extension of the use of nuclear power would enhance the threat of a nuclear black market, if the trade and use of specific nuclear material is not abandoned worldwide. (orig.)

  14. Black tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... product containing black tea extract plus green tea extract, asparagus, guarana, kidney bean, and mate along with a combination of kidney bean pods, garcinia, and chromium yeast for 12 weeks does not reduce body weight ...

  15. Effects of climate and exurban development on nest predation and predator presence in the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Heather A; Pearson, Scott M; Turner, Monica G

    2012-08-01

    In the eastern United States, land-use and climate change have likely contributed to declines in the abundance of Neotropical migrant birds that occupy forest interiors, but the mechanisms are not well understood. We conducted a nest-predation experiment in southern Appalachian Mountain forests (North Carolina, U.S.A.) during the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons to determine the effects of exurban development and temperature on predator presence and the average number of days until eggs in an artificial nest were disturbed by predators. We baited artificial nests with quail (Excalfactoria chinensi) eggs and monitored them for 18 days. We used clay eggs, track plates, and motion-triggered cameras to detect and identify nest predators. The average number of days a nest was undisturbed decreased as mean temperature increased and, to a lesser extent, as the density of buildings increased. Nests on the ground were more often depredated than those in trees, likely due to increased predation by opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and other carnivores. Raccoons (Procyon lotor), opossums, corvids (Corvus brachyrhynchos and Cyanocitta cristata), chipmunks (Tamias striatus), black bears (Ursus americanus), and domestic cats (Felis catus) were the most commonly detected predators. Presence of these predators did not vary as a function of mean temperature. Domestic cats and corvids were detected more frequently in plots with high rather than low densities of buildings. Forest-interior specialists and Neotropical migrants often nest in cool, high-elevation areas with low housing density. These bird species, especially those that nest on the ground, may be most vulnerable to increased nest predation if temperature and exurban development increase at higher elevations as anticipated. PMID:22624665

  16. Variation and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology and net primary production of the Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhou, Yuyu; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    The gradients of elevations and latitudes in the Appalachian Mountains provide a unique regional perspective on landscape variations in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. We reveal patterns and trends of landscape dynamics, land surface phenology, and ecosystem production along the Appalachian Mountains using time series data from Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Global Production Efficiency Model datasets. We analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), length of growing season (LOS), and net primary production (NPP) of selected ecoregions along the Appalachian Mountains regions. We compare the results in different spatial contexts, including North America and the Appalachian Trail corridor area. To reveal latitudinal variations, we analyze data and compare the results between the 30°-to-40°N and the 40°-to-50°N latitudes. The result reveal significant decreases in annual peak NDVI in the Appalachian Mountains regions. The trend for the Appalachian Mountains regions was a -0.0018 (R2=0.55, Punit decrease per year during 25 years from 1982 to 2006. The LOS was prolonged by 0.3 days per year-1 during the 25-year percent. The NPP increased by 2.68 g Cm-2 yr-2 from 1981 to 2000.

  17. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2003-05-31

    This report summarizes the first-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). First-year results include: (1) meeting specific milestones (determination of thrust movement vectors, fracture analysis, and communicating results at professional meetings and through publication). All milestones were met. Movement vectors for Valley and Ridge thrusts were confirmed to be west-directed and derived from pushing by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, and fan about the Tennessee salient. Fracture systems developed during Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic to Holocene compressional and extensional tectonic events, and are more intense near faults. Presentations of first-year results were made at the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association meeting (invited) in June, 2003, at a workshop in August 2003 on geophysical logs in Ordovician rocks, and at the Eastern Section AAPG meeting in September 2003. Papers on thrust tectonics and a major prospect discovered during the first year are in press in an AAPG Memoir and published in the July 28, 2003, issue of the Oil and Gas Journal. (2) collaboration with industry and USGS partners. Several Middle Ordovician black shale samples were sent to USGS for organic carbon analysis. Mississippian and Middle Ordovician rock samples were collected by John Repetski (USGS) and

  18. Sedimentology of gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (1976-1981) of the US DOE has generated a large amount of information on Devonian shale, especially in the western and central parts of the Appalachian Basin (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1980). This report summarizes this information, emphasizing the sedimentology of the shales and how it is related to gas, oil, and uranium. This information is reported in a series of statements each followed by a brief summary of supporting evidence or discussion and, where interpretations differ from our own, we include them. We believe this format is the most efficient way to learn about the gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin and have organized our statements as follows: paleogeography and basin analysis; lithology and internal stratigraphy; paleontology; mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry; and gas, oil, and uranium.

  19. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-02-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coals beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Coal resources of selected coal beds and zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Ruppert; Susan Tewalt; Linda Bragg

    2002-02-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is completing a National Coal Resource Assessment of five coal-producing regions of the United States, including the Appalachian Basin. The USGS, in cooperation with the State geological surveys of Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, has completed a digital coal resource assessment of five of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions -- the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal zones, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. Of the 93 billion short tons of original coal in these units, about 66 billion short tons remain. 2 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it. PMID:26634573

  2. Anthropogenic Influences on Macro-Level Mammal Occupancy in the Appalachian Trail Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Erb, Peter L.; McShea, William J.; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic effects on wildlife are typically assessed at the local level, but it is often difficult to extrapolate to larger spatial extents. Macro-level occupancy studies are one way to assess impacts of multiple disturbance factors that might vary over different geographic extents. Here we assess anthropogenic effects on occupancy and distribution for several mammal species within the Appalachian Trail (AT), a forest corridor that extends across a broad section of the eastern United Stat...

  3. Unexpected Rarity of the Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Appalachian Plethodon Salamanders: 1957–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Muletz, Carly; Nicholas M Caruso; Fleischer, Robert C; Roy W McDiarmid; Lips, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) into the eastern US was followed by Plethodon population declines. We expected to detect elevated prevalence of Bd prior to population declines as observed for Central Amer...

  4. Vegetation Responses to Seven Silvicultural Treatments in the Southern Appalachians One-Year After Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Sharon M.

    2001-01-01

    The vegetation responses to seven silvicultural treatments one growing season after harvesting were examined on seven sites in the southern Appalachian mountains of Virginia and West Virginia. Treatments included: 1) control, 2) understory control by herbicide, 3) group selection, 4) high-leave shelterwood, 5) low-leave shelterwood, 6) leave tree, and 7) clearcut. The effects of harvesting were compared between treatments and between pre-harvest and post-harvest samplings. Species richness...

  5. Effects of alternative silvicultural practices on oak regeneration in the southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Lorber, Jean Herault

    2003-01-01

    EFFECTS OF ALTERNATIVE SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES ON OAK REGENERATION IN THE SOUTHERN APPALACHIANS Jean H. Lorber Abstract The regeneration in oak-dominated stands following five silvicultural treatments was examined on four sites in the mountains of Virginia and West Virginia. Treatments included: silvicultural clearcut, leave-tree, commercial clearcut, shelterwood, and group selection. The effects of harvesting were compared among sites and among treatments. Oak regene...

  6. Effects of Alternative Silvicultural Treatments on Regeneration in the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Atwood, Chad Judson

    2008-01-01

    Harvesting practices in the southern Appalachians have moved away from clearcutting in favor of variable retention harvesting systems. A study was initiated in 1995-8 to investigate the effects of retaining varying numbers of residual trees on regeneration in seven silvicultural treatments. A second study specifically focused on stump sprouting in only three of those treatments. The treatments for first study included: a clearcut, commercial harvest, leave-tree, shelterwood, group selection, ...

  7. Appalachian Surface Mine Reforestation Techniques: Effects of Grading, Cultural Treatments and Species Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Fields-Johnson, Christopher Warren

    2011-01-01

    Surface mining for coal in the Appalachian region has removed over 0.6 million Ha of mixed mesophytic forest. Successful reforestation would be beneficial, but questions remain concerning application of reclamation and reforestation methods on operational scales. Four experiments were performed testing these methods on newly reclaimed and previously reclaimed, but unused, former mines. On newly reclaimed sites, loose grading during reclamation reduced erosion and increased plant community div...

  8. Dede Korkut Hikâyelerinde Savaşçı Eğitimi Warrior Training In Dede Korkut Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfü Kerem BAŞAR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When it is considered that Dede Korkut Stories are the fundamental element of Turkish literature because of including the informations on Turkish traditions, beliefs and life style; it can be said that the Book of Dede Korkut Stories is the unique source of Turkish Literature besides being the crossing point compositon from legend to folk narratives. It is because the life style of the Oguz Turks, told in the narratives, depends on the continuous struggle and movement, these struggles and movements take place on the plot of the these twelve stories. Oguz Turks struggled against not only nature but also enemy. So, being strong and a warrior are the factors in maintenance of their life style. The tough weather conditions, the continuous struggle againstother tribes around and dealing with hunting have primary effects onestablishing a warrior and fighter identity. Based on these struggles,Dede Korkut Stories have lots of scenes in which the future expectedwarrior hero is raised. It is because nomadic tribes, like Oguz Turks,based on powerful men, male child has great importance. It is why thechildren especially male ones had a special training on saving theirfamily members when they are refugee or when they have hard times instruggling against the other tribes. They have also trained on huntingand dealing with wild animals. In this study it is tried to define themessages of the stories related to the warrior training and the processof establishing a warrior character of Dede Korkut Stories`heroes. Dede Korkut Hikâyeleri, Türk edebiyatının temel taşlarından biri olması ve eski Türk gelenekleri, inanışları, hayat tarzı ile ilgili bilgiler sunması ve destandan halk hikâyesine geçiş döneminin en önemli eseri olması açısından eşsiz bir kaynaktır. Bu eserde yer alan on iki hikâyenin olay örgüsünde genel olarak birtakım mücadeleler yer almaktadır. Çünkü hikâyelerde anlatılan göçebe Oğuz Türklerinin hayat tarz

  9. Fischer Black

    OpenAIRE

    Robert C. Merton; Myron S. Scholes

    2013-01-01

    ReprintThis article was originally published by Wiley for the American Finance Association (Merton RC, Scholes MS. 1995. Fischer Black. J. Finance 50(5):1359–70). It is reprinted with permission from John Wiley and Sons © 1995. Reference formatting was updated to facilitate linking.

  10. A critical analysis of the higher Pennsylvanian megafloras of the Appalachian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.H.; Lyons, P.C. [Jardin Botanico de Cordoba, Cordoba (Spain)

    1997-01-01

    Published records of Stephanian megafloras in eastern North America are critically reviewed and the results of personal investigations in the Appalachian region are reported. The analysis despite incomplete megafloral records, allows the conclusion that the succession in the Appalachian area hides a large stratigraphic gap, at the base of the Upper Pennsylvanian Series. This gap is in the same position and of similar magnitude to that below the Rotliegend of northwestern Europe. Analysis of the floral records in the Southern Anthracite field shows evidence of a similar gap. Megafloral data from the Narragansett basin are analysed, but are found insufficient for determining if there is a stratigraphic gap. Published data from the Maritime Provinces of Canada are used to suggest that the same pre-Rotliegend gap exists in this area. Recognition of this important regional unconformity in eastern North America, which is similar to that in the British Isles and throughout northwestern Europe, strengthens the view that the Appalachian region and the paralic coal belt of northwestern Europe constitute a single, major palaeogeographic area.

  11. Southern Appalachian hillslope erosion rates measured by soil and detrital radiocarbon in hollows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T.C.; Scharer, K.M.; Wooten, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of sediment generation and transport on hillslopes provides important constraints on the rate of sediment output from orogenic systems. Hillslope sediment fluxes are recorded by organic material found in the deposits infilling unchanneled convergent topographic features called hollows. This study describes the first hollow infilling rates measured in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Infilling rates (and bedrock erosion rates) were calculated from the vertical distribution of radiocarbon ages at two sites in the Coweeta drainage basin, western North Carolina. At each site we dated paired charcoal and silt soil organic matter samples from five different horizons. Paired radiocarbon samples were used to bracket the age of the soil material in order to capture the range of complex soil forming processes and deposition within the hollows. These dates constrain hillslope erosion rates of between 0.051 and 0.111mmyr-1. These rates are up to 4 times higher than spatially-averaged rates for the Southern Appalachian Mountains making creep processes one of the most efficient erosional mechanisms in this mountain range. Our hillslope erosion rates are consistent with those of forested mountain ranges in the western United States, suggesting that the mechanisms (dominantly tree throw) driving creep erosion in both the western United States and the Southern Appalachian Mountains are equally effective. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…

  13. Application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the Appalachians. Progress report no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is concerned with the application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the U.S. It reviews analyses presented in previous reports which suggest that the basement of the Central and Eastern U.S. consists of large crustal blocks separated by major zones of tectonic weakness. The curvature of the Appalachian Fold Belt appears to be related to the east-west boundaries caused by subsiding and uplifting at these zones. A plot of epigenetic uranium occurrences reveals that they tend to cluster along the greater curvatures of the Appalachian orogeny. These findings have led to a systematic study of the regularities in the distribution of ore deposits in the Appalachians presented in this report. They include a description of geologic and geographic base maps, preparation of maps showing distribution of individual minerals, and regularities in the distribution of uranium in the Appalachians. Comments on the segmentation of the Appalachian orogeny by transverse lineaments are presented. The report contains seventeen maps of the eastern half of the U.S. showing specific mineral deposits in relation to geologic formations

  14. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milici, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The Carboniferous Coal-bed Gas Total Petroleum System, which lies within the central and southern Appalachian basin, consists of the following five assessment units (AUs): (1) the Pocahontas Basin AU in southern West Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southwestern Virginia; (2) the Central Appalachian Shelf AU in Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia; (3) the East Dunkard (Folded) AU in western Pennsylvania and northern West Virginia; (4) the West Dunkard (Unfolded) AU in Ohio and adjacent parts of Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and (5) the Appalachian Anthracite and Semi-Anthracite AU in Pennsylvania and Virginia. Only two of these assessment units were assessed quantitatively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the National Oil and Gas Assessment in 2002. The USGS estimated the Pocahontas Basin AU and the East Dunkard (Folded) AU to contain a mean of about 3.6 and 4.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas, respectively.

  15. Introduction to selected references on fossil fuels of the central and southern Appalachian basin: Chapter H.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Lentz, Erika E.; Tewalt, Susan J.; Román Colón, Yomayra A.

    2014-01-01

    The Appalachian basin contains abundant coal and petroleum resources that have been studied and extracted for at least 150 years. In this volume, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists describe the geologic framework and geochemical character of the fossil-fuel resources of the central and southern Appalachian basin. Separate subchapters (some previously published) contain geologic cross sections; seismic profiles; burial history models; assessments of Carboniferous coalbed methane and Devonian shale gas; distribution information for oil, gas, and coal fields; data on the geochemistry of natural gas and oil; and the fossil-fuel production history of the basin. Although each chapter and subchapter includes references cited, many historical or other important references on Appalachian basin and global fossil-fuel science were omitted because they were not directly applicable to the chapters.

  16. Lithospheric deformation in the Canadian Appalachians: evidence from shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Amy; Bastow, Ian D.; Watson, Emma; Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Levin, Vadim; Menke, William; Lane, Victoria; Hawthorn, David; Boyce, Alistair; Liddell, Mitchell V.; Petrescu, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Plate-scale deformation is expected to impart seismic anisotropic fabrics on the lithosphere. Determination of the fast shear wave orientation (φ) and the delay time between the fast and slow split shear waves (δt) via SKS splitting can help place spatial and temporal constraints on lithospheric deformation. The Canadian Appalachians experienced multiple episodes of deformation during the Phanerozoic: accretionary collisions during the Palaeozoic prior to the collision between Laurentia and Gondwana, and rifting related to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic. However, the extent to which extensional events have overprinted older orogenic trends is uncertain. We address this issue through measurements of seismic anisotropy beneath the Canadian Appalachians, computing shear wave splitting parameters (φ, δt) for new and existing seismic stations in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Average δt values of 1.2 s, relatively short length scale (≥100 km) splitting parameter variations, and a lack of correlation with absolute plate motion direction and mantle flow models, demonstrate that fossil lithospheric anisotropic fabrics dominate our results. Most fast directions parallel Appalachian orogenic trends observed at the surface, while δt values point towards coherent deformation of the crust and mantle lithosphere. Mesozoic rifting had minimal impact on our study area, except locally within the Bay of Fundy and in southern Nova Scotia, where fast directions are subparallel to the opening direction of Mesozoic rifting; associated δt values of >1 s require an anisotropic layer that spans both the crust and mantle, meaning the formation of the Bay of Fundy was not merely a thin-skinned tectonic event.

  17. Lithium in fluids from Paleozoic-aged reservoirs, Appalachian Plateau region, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Li in produced waters from western PA and eastern OH shows systematic patterns. • Li content in Appalachian Plateau Silurian–Devonian fluids is up to 40 mmol/kg. • Li concentrations increase from west to east and with increasing depth. • Areas of anomalously high Li overlie NW-trending salients of vitrinite reflectance. • Li may indicate paleo-flowpaths of fluid expulsed from the Appalachian Basin. - Abstract: This study presents the spatial distribution of a compilation of lithium (Li) and selected other dissolved species concentrations in saline fluids from oil and gas wells in western Pennsylvanian and eastern Ohio that are producing from Silurian- to Devonian-age formations. Lithium concentrations in the data set range from about 40 to 40,000 μmol kg−1 indicating water–rock reactions that added Li to the saline fluids. Chloride (Cl) concentrations range from about 160 to 5300 mmol kg−1, likely the result of different burial fluids (seawater or evaporated seawater), variable dilution with meteoric water and variable interaction with marine evaporites. The Li/Cl in these fluids is not constant, potentially indicating multiple sources of Li in addition to multiple origins of Cl. Lithium and the Li/Cl ratio generally decrease from east to west across the study area in four or five bands of similar Li or Li/Cl. Lithium and Li/Cl are not correlated with petroleum-production formation and are only generally correlated with depth. A few of the fluid samples have anomalously high Li and Li/Cl. These anomalous samples coincide in location with northwesterly trending salients of high vitrinite reflectance, suggesting that Li in this segment of the Appalachian Plateau Province may provide insight into paleoflow pathways in the region, indicating where hot, chemically evolved, saline fluids might have been driven to the northwest, upwards and out of the basin, during tectonism

  18. Lithospheric deformation in the Canadian Appalachians: evidence from shear wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Amy; Bastow, Ian D.; Watson, Emma; Darbyshire, Fiona A.; Levin, Vadim; Menke, William; Lane, Victoria; Hawthorn, David; Boyce, Alistair; Liddell, Mitchell V.; Petrescu, Laura

    2016-06-01

    SUMMARYPlate-scale deformation is expected to impart seismic anisotropic fabrics on the lithosphere. Determination of the fast shear wave orientation (φ) and the delay-time between the fast and slow split shear waves (δt) via SKS splitting can help place spatial and temporal constraints on lithospheric deformation. The Canadian Appalachians experienced multiple episodes of deformation during the Phanerozoic: accretionary collisions during the Paleozoic prior to the collision between Laurentia and Gondwana, and rifting related to the Mesozoic opening of the North Atlantic. However, the extent to which extensional events have overprinted older orogenic trends is uncertain. We address this issue through measurements of seismic anisotropy beneath the Canadian Appalachians, computing shear wave splitting parameters (φ, δt) for new and existing seismic stations in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Average δt values of 1.2 s, relatively short length-scale (≥100 km) splitting parameter variations, and a lack of correlation with absolute plate motion direction and mantle flow models, demonstrate that fossil lithospheric anisotropic fabrics dominate our results. Most fast directions parallel Appalachian orogenic trends observed at the surface, while δt values point towards coherent deformation of the crust and mantle lithosphere. Mesozoic rifting had minimal impact on our study area, except locally within the Bay of Fundy and in southern Nova Scotia, where fast directions are sub-parallel to the opening direction of Mesozoic rifting; associated δt values of > 1 s require an anisotropic layer that spans both the crust and mantle, meaning the formation of the Bay of Fundy was not merely a thin-skinned tectonic event.

  19. Nature, origin, and production characteristics of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation, central Appalachian basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R.; Zagorski, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Low-permeability sandstones of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation cover about 45,000 mi2 (117,000 km2) of the Appalachian basin and may contain as much as 30 tcf of recoverable gas resources. Major reservoirs consist of the "Clinton" sandstone and Medina Group sandstones. The stratigraphically equivalent Tuscarora Sandstone increases the area of the Lower Silurian regional accumulation (LSRA) by another 30,000 mi2 (78,000 km2). Approximately 8.7 tcf of gas and 400 million bbl of oil have been produced from the Clinton/Medina reservoirs since 1880. The eastern predominantly gas-bearing part of the LSRA is a basin-center gas accumulation, whereas the western part is a conventional oil and gas accumulation with hybrid features of a basin-center accumulation. The basin-center accumulations have pervasive gas saturation, water near irreducible saturation, and generally low fluid pressures. In contrast, the hybrid-conventional accumulations have less-pervasive oil and gas saturation, higher mobile-water saturation, and both normal and abnormally low fluid pressures. High mobile-water saturation in the hybrid-conventional reservoirs form the updip trap for the basin-center gas creating a broad transition zone, tens of miles wide, that has characteristics of both end-member accumulation types. Although the Tuscarora Sandstone part of the basin-center gas accumulation is pervasively saturated with gas, most of its constituent sandstone beds have low porosity and permeability. Commercial gas fields in the Tuscarora Sandstone are trapped in naturally fractured, faulted anticlines. The origin of the LSRA includes (1) generation of oil and gas from Ordovician black shales, (2) vertical migration through an overlying 1000-ft (305-m)-thick Ordovician shale; (3) abnormally high fluid pressure created by oil-to-gas transformation; (4) updip displacement of mobile pore water by overpressured gas; (5) entrapment of pervasive gas in the basin center; (6) postorogenic

  20. Appalachian Rivers II Conference: Technology for Monitoring, Assessing, and Restoring Streams, Rivers, and Watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    1999-07-29

    On July 28-29, 1999, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) and the WMAC Foundation co-sponsored the Appalachian Rivers II Conference in Morgantown, West Virginia. This meeting brought together over 100 manufacturers, researchers, academicians, government agency representatives, watershed stewards, and administrators to examine technologies related to watershed assessment, monitoring, and restoration. Sessions included presentations and panel discussions concerning watershed analysis and modeling, decision-making considerations, and emerging technologies. The final session examined remediation and mitigation technologies to expedite the preservation of watershed ecosystems.

  1. Geochemical and hydrologic data for wells and springs in thermal-spring areas of the Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobba, W.A. Jr.; Chemerys, J.C.; Fisher, D.W.; Pearson, F.J. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    Current interest in geothermal potential of thermal-spring areas in the Appalachians makes all data on thermal springs and wells in these areas valuable. Presented here without interpretive comment are maps showing selected springs and wells and tables of physical and chemical data pertaining to these wells and springs. The chemical tables show compositions of gases (oxygen, nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, and helium), isotope contents (tritium, carbon (13), and oxygen (18)), trace and minor element chemical data, and the usual complete chemical data.

  2. Tree Fall Gap Characteristics within an Appalachian Hardwood Forest in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Himes, Jamie M.; Heitzman, Eric; James S Rentch

    2009-01-01

    We examined the attributes of canopy gaps on the 3,100 ha West Virginia University Research Forest (WVURF) near Morgantown, WV. The WVURF is a 70-80 year-old, second-growth, Appalachian hardwood forest. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe specific gap characteristics (size, age, and fraction) of the forest as a whole, and 2) to assess whether gap characteristics varied by slope position (cove, mid, ridge), aspect (NE, NW, SE, SW), and forest cover type (cove hardwood, mesic oa...

  3. A snow hydroclimatology of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, Daniel Y.

    Background. A significant vulnerability to snowmelt-related flooding in the Appalachians was demonstrated by massive events in March, 1936; January, 1996; and January, 1998. Yet, no quantitative estimate of this vulnerability has been published for these mountains. High elevations extending far southward confound the extrapolation of snow hydroclimatology from adjacent regions. Objectives. The principal objective was to develop a complete snow hydroclimatology of the central and southern Appalachians, considering the deposition, detention, and depletion phases of snow cover. A snowfall climatology addressed whether and how often sufficient snow falls to create a flood hazard, while a snow cover climatology addressed whether and how often snow is allowed to build to floodrisk proportions. A snowmelt hydroclimatology addressed whether and how often snowmelt contributes directly to large peakflows in a representative watershed. Approach. Monthly and daily temperature, precipitation, and snow data were obtained from approximately 1000 cooperative-network stations with >=10 seasons (Oct-May) of snow data. Mean, maximum, percentiles, and interseasonal and monthly variability were mapped. Time series were analyzed, and proportions of seasonal snowfall from significant events determined, at select stations. A spatially distributed, index snow cover model facilitated classification of Cheat River, WV, peakflows by generating process. Confidence intervals about fitted peakflow frequency curves were used to evaluate differences among processes. Results. Climates in which snow significantly affects floods have been discriminated in the literature by 150 cm mean seasonal snowfall, 30 days mean snow cover duration, or 50 cm mean seasonal maximum snow depth. In the Appalachian Mountains south to North Carolina, these criteria lie within 95% confidence intervals about the median or mean values of these parameters. At return periods of 10 and 20 years, these thresholds are usually

  4. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Keith A. Hobson; Norris, D. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C)...

  5. Radionic nonuniform black strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Takashi; Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    Nonuniform black strings in the two-brane system are investigated using the effective action approach. It is shown that the radion acts as a nontrivial hair of the black strings. From the brane point of view, the black string appears as the deformed dilatonic black hole which becomes a dilatonic black hole in the single brane limit and reduces to the Reissner-Nordström black hole in the close limit of two-branes. The stability of solutions is demonstrated using catastrophe theory. From the bulk point of view, the black strings are proved to be nonuniform. Nevertheless, the zeroth law of black hole thermodynamics still holds.

  6. Ecological associations and genetic divergence in Black-bellied Salamanders (Desmognathus quadramaculatus of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wooten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and subsequent description of cryptic biodiversity is often challenging, especially for groups that have undergone rapid lineage accumulation in the relatively recent past. Even without formal descriptions, understanding genetic diversity patterns as they relate to underlying ecological or historical processes can be important for conservation. The dusky salamanders of the genus Desmognathus, with 20 described species, comprise the second largest genus of plethodontid salamanders in the eastern United States. However, due to the presence of high genetic diversity and relatively few morphological synapomorphies, the number of species is likely to increase. For the three nominal species within the D. quadramaculatus species complex, including D. quadramaculatus, D. folkertsi, and D. marmoratus, we used a portion of the mitochondrial genome and nuclear markers in the form of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP to uncover spatial patterns of genetic diversity. Within D. quadramaculatus and D. marmoratus, we uncovered four well-supported lineages with the mitochondrial sequences; phylogeographic patterns were not congruent with the AFLP data. Both sets of markers identified a clear isolation by stream distance. Using multiple regressions, we found that historical river drainages and terrestrial ecoregions explained the phylogeographic patterning we observed for D. quadramaculatus.

  7. Search for unconventional methane resources beneath crystalline thrust sheets in the southern Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, K.; Costain, J.K.; Bodnar, R.J.; Coruh, C. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Henika, W.S.

    1994-03-01

    The crystalline rocks of the Virginia Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces are generally not thought to be likely targets for natural gas exploration. However, recent fluid inclusion studies have documented the presence of methane in post-Alleghanian quartz veins in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont. Methane is not a stable component of the COH fluid phase predicted to be in equilibrium with these rocks at the P-T conditions of metamorphism. This suggests that the methane is not generated locally but, rather, is derived from other sources. Sedimentary rocks equivalent to the productive hydrocarbon Devonian shale beds of the Appalachian Basin are present in surficial tectonic slices on the Reed Mountain and Coyner Mountain structures in the roanoke area, and Devonian shale source beds are thought to exist beneath the Pulaski and Blue Ridge thrust sheets to the southeast. These source beds are part of the hydrocarbon-bearing Lower Paleozoic shelf strata that are interpreted to be buried beneath the crystalline thrust sheets in the Southern Appalachians.

  8. Temporal patterns of nitrogen leakage from mid-Appalachian forested watersheds: Role of insect defoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Keith N.; Morgan, Raymond P.; Webb, James R.; Deviney, Frank A.; Galloway, James N.

    1998-08-01

    Fluxes of dissolved nitrogen (N) as nitrate from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region have important water quality ramifications for small acid-sensitive streams and for downstream receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay. Previous studies of N leakage have suggested that annual dissolved N fluxes from small watersheds can vary by several orders of magnitude and may be increasing as second-growth forests gradually become N saturated from the accrual of atmospheric N loadings. In this study, we examined the temporal (intra-annual and interannual) variability in dissolved nitrate fluxes from five small (area nitric acid contributing significantly to depressions in pH and acid-neutralizing capacity; annual nitrate fluxes were dominated by high-discharge periods. Interannually, the fluxes at each site varied by 1-2 orders of magnitude, but the patterns of N leakage displayed considerable synchrony with outbreaks of gypsy moth caterpillar defoliation that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s in this region. N leakage from forested watersheds apparently lagged the initial defoliation by several months to perhaps a year or more. Defoliation outbreaks by the gypsy moth caterpillar (or other herbivorous pests) thus provide an alternative explanation of N leakage from forest ecosystems. Poorly documented insect defoliations, rather than premature N saturation of intact forest ecosystems, need to be considered as a possible explanation of N leakage from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region and elsewhere.

  9. The environmental costs of mountaintop mining valley fill operations for aquatic ecosystems of the Central Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Emily S; Palmer, Margaret A

    2011-03-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are recognized as a biodiversity hot spot of global significance, particularly for endemic aquatic salamanders and mussels. The dominant driver of land-cover and land-use change in this region is surface mining, with an ever-increasing proportion occurring as mountaintop mining with valley fill operations (MTVF). In MTVF, seams of coal are exposed using explosives, and the resulting noncoal overburden is pushed into adjacent valleys to facilitate coal extraction. To date, MTVF throughout the Appalachians have converted 1.1 million hectares of forest to surface mines and buried more than 2,000 km of stream channel beneath mining overburden. The impacts of these lost forests and buried streams are propagated throughout the river networks of the region as the resulting sediment and chemical pollutants are transmitted downstream. There is, to date, no evidence to suggest that the extensive chemical and hydrologic alterations of streams by MTVF can be offset or reversed by currently required reclamation and mitigation practices. PMID:21449964

  10. Comparison of Archean and Phanerozoic granulites: Southern India and North American Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Kittleson, Roger C.

    1988-01-01

    Archean granulites at the southern end of the Dharwar craton of India and Phanerozoic granulites in the southern Appalachians of North America share an important characteristic: both show continuous transitions from amphibolite facies rocks to higher grade. This property is highly unusual for granulite terranes, which commonly are bounded by major shears or thrusts. These two terranes thus offer an ideal opportunity to compare petrogenetic models for deep crustal rocks formed in different time periods, which conventional wisdom suggests may have had different thermal profiles. The salient features of the Archean amphibolite-to-granulite transition in southern India have been recently summarized. The observed metamorphic progression reflects increasing temperature and pressure. Conditions for the Phanerozoic amphibolite-to-granulite transition in the southern Appalachians were documented. The following sequence of prograde reactions was observed: kyanite = sillimanite, muscovite = sillimanite + K-feldspar, partial melting of pelites, and hornblende = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. The mineral compositions of low-variance assemblages in mafic and intermediate rocks are almost identical for the two granulite facies assemblages. In light of their different fluid regimes and possible mechanisms for heat flow augmentation, it seems surprising that these Archean and Phanerozoic granulite terranes were apparently metamorphosed under such similar conditions of pressure and temperature. Comparison with other terrains containing continuous amphibolite-to-granulite facies transitions will be necessary before this problem can be addressed.

  11. Higher coronary heart disease and heart attack morbidity in Appalachian coal mining regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Zullig, K.J. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

    2009-11-15

    This study analyzes the U.S. 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey data (N = 235,783) to test whether self-reported cardiovascular disease rates are higher in Appalachian coal mining counties compared to other counties after control for other risks. Dependent variables include self-reported measures of ever (1) being diagnosed with cardiovascular disease (CVD) or with a specific form of CVD including (2) stroke, (3) heart attack, or (4) angina or coronary heart disease (CHD). Independent variables included coal mining, smoking, BMI, drinking, physician supply, diabetes co-morbidity, age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and others. SUDAAN Multilog models were estimated, and odds ratios tested for coal mining effects. After control for covariates, people in Appalachian coal mining areas reported significantly higher risk of CVD (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14-1.30), angina or CHO (OR = 1.29, 95% C1 = 1.19-1.39) and heart attack (OR = 1.19, 95% C1 = 1.10-1.30). Effects were present for both men and women. Cardiovascular diseases have been linked to both air and water contamination in ways consistent with toxicants found in coal and coal processing. Future research is indicated to assess air and water quality in coal mining communities in Appalachia, with corresponding environmental programs and standards established as indicated.

  12. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  13. Appalachian residents' perspectives on new U.S. cigarette warning labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Klein, Elizabeth G; Paskett, Electra D; Katz, Mira L

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration revealed new pictorial warning labels in June 2011 for cigarette packages, yet little is known about how these labels are perceived by U.S. residents. We examined the reactions to and attitudes about the new labels among residents of Appalachian Ohio, a region with a high smoking prevalence. We conducted focus groups with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants included healthcare providers (n = 30), community leaders (n = 26), parents (n = 28), and young adult men ages 18-26 (n = 18). Most participants supported the addition of the new labels to U.S. cigarette packages, though many were unaware of the labels prior to the focus groups. Participants did not think the labels would be effective in promoting smoking cessation among smokers in their communities, but they were more positive about the potential of the labels to reduce smoking initiation. Participants reported positive feedback about the more graphic labels, particularly those showing a man with a tracheal stoma or a person with severe oral disease. The labels that include a cartoon image of an ill infant and a man who quit smoking received the most negative feedback. Participants generally supported adding pictorial warning labels to U.S. cigarette packages, but only a few of labels received mostly positive feedback. Results offer early insight into how the new labels may be received if they are put into practice. PMID:22527659

  14. Examining Intimate Partner Violence and Health Factors Among Rural Appalachian Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa; Nash, Shondrah; Jackson, Afton

    2016-09-01

    Among pregnant women, intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized as a critical risk factor in adverse health outcomes for the mother and newborn alike. This pilot study examined IPV and health for rural Appalachian pregnant women, a particularly vulnerable high-risk and high-needs group. Participants were 77 rural, Appalachian pregnant women entering a hospital-based inpatient detoxification unit primarily for Opiate Dependence. Study participants gave informed consent to a face-to-face interview and secondary data abstraction from hospital medical records. IPV was measured via questions from the National Violence Against Women Survey, the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). The majority of the sample reported lifetime psychological (89.6%) and physical (64.9%) violence. A little over three fourths (75.3%) experienced IPV in the past year. Furthermore, over one third (39.0%) experienced stalking, physical, or sexual violence in the past year. Most participants (71.4%) experienced psychological abuse in the past year. IPV experiences, in conjunction with pervasive substance use, mental and physical health problems, and poverty present in rural Appalachia, culminate in a particularly high-risk and high-needs group of pregnant women. These women present unique opportunities and challenges for prevention, intervention, and treatment. PMID:25846757

  15. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain; Stuart Loewenstein; Edward DeRidder; Bruce Hart

    2007-03-31

    For two consecutive years, 2004 and 2005, the largest natural gas well (in terms of gas flow/day) drilled onshore USA targeted the Ordovician Trenton/Black River (T/BR) play in the Appalachian Basin of New York State (NYS). Yet, little data were available concerning the characteristics of the play, or how to recognize and track T/BR prospects across the region. Traditional exploration techniques for entry into a hot play were of limited use here, since existing deep well logs and public domain seismic were almost non-existent. To help mitigate this problem, this research project was conceived with two objectives: (1) to demonstrate that integrative traditional and innovative techniques could be used as a cost-effective reconnaissance exploration methodology in this, and other, areas where existing data in targeted fracture-play horizons are almost non-existent, and (2) determine critical characteristics of the T/BR fields. The research region between Seneca and Cayuga lakes (in the Finger Lakes of NYS) is on strike and east of the discovery fields, and the southern boundary of the field area is about 8 km north of more recently discovered T/BR fields. Phase I, completed in 2004, consisted of integrating detailed outcrop fracture analyses with detailed soil gas analyses, lineaments, stratigraphy, seismic reflection data, well log data, and aeromagnetics. In the Seneca Lake region, Landsat lineaments (EarthSat, 1997) were coincident with fracture intensification domains (FIDs) and minor faults observed in outcrop and inferred from stratigraphy. Soil gas anomalies corresponded to ENE-trending lineaments and FIDs. N- and ENE-trending lineaments were parallel to aeromagnetic anomalies, whereas E-trending lineaments crossed aeromagnetic trends. 2-D seismic reflection data confirmed that the E-trending lineaments and FIDs occur where shallow level Alleghanian salt-cored thrust-faulted anticlines occur. In contrast, the ENE-trending FIDs and lineaments occur where Iapetan

  16. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain; Stuart Loewenstein; Edward DeRidder; Bruce Hart

    2007-03-31

    For two consecutive years, 2004 and 2005, the largest natural gas well (in terms of gas flow/day) drilled onshore USA targeted the Ordovician Trenton/Black River (T/BR) play in the Appalachian Basin of New York State (NYS). Yet, little data were available concerning the characteristics of the play, or how to recognize and track T/BR prospects across the region. Traditional exploration techniques for entry into a hot play were of limited use here, since existing deep well logs and public domain seismic were almost non-existent. To help mitigate this problem, this research project was conceived with two objectives: (1) to demonstrate that integrative traditional and innovative techniques could be used as a cost-effective reconnaissance exploration methodology in this, and other, areas where existing data in targeted fracture-play horizons are almost non-existent, and (2) determine critical characteristics of the T/BR fields. The research region between Seneca and Cayuga lakes (in the Finger Lakes of NYS) is on strike and east of the discovery fields, and the southern boundary of the field area is about 8 km north of more recently discovered T/BR fields. Phase I, completed in 2004, consisted of integrating detailed outcrop fracture analyses with detailed soil gas analyses, lineaments, stratigraphy, seismic reflection data, well log data, and aeromagnetics. In the Seneca Lake region, Landsat lineaments (EarthSat, 1997) were coincident with fracture intensification domains (FIDs) and minor faults observed in outcrop and inferred from stratigraphy. Soil gas anomalies corresponded to ENE-trending lineaments and FIDs. N- and ENE-trending lineaments were parallel to aeromagnetic anomalies, whereas E-trending lineaments crossed aeromagnetic trends. 2-D seismic reflection data confirmed that the E-trending lineaments and FIDs occur where shallow level Alleghanian salt-cored thrust-faulted anticlines occur. In contrast, the ENE-trending FIDs and lineaments occur where Iapetan

  17. Black Silicon Solar Cells with Black Ribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of mask-less reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing and blackened interconnecting ribbons as a method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon made by mask-less reactive ion etching has total, average...... range 15.7-16.3%. The KOH-textured reference cell had an efficiency of 17.9%. The combination of black Si and black interconnecting ribbons may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted silicon solar cells....... reflectance below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon (Si) wafer. Black interconnecting ribbons were realized by oxidizing copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the visible wavelength range. Screen-printed Si solar cells were realized on 156x156 mm2 black Si substrates with resulting efficiencies in the...

  18. Feasibility Study of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Appalachian Communities: The McDowell CHOICES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily M.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.; Elliott, Eloise M.; Bulger, Sean M.; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Neal, William; Allar, Ishonté

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of childhood obesity has prompted calls for comprehensive approaches to school-based physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) development and related contextual issues within a rural Appalachian county using a Systems Approach. A…

  19. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole

  20. Black Entrepreneurship in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Shelley; Pryde, Paul

    The economic condition of black Americans is discussed, proceeding from the assumption that black economic progress does not depend on a renewed struggle for unobtained civil rights, but rather on the creative response of black Americans to economic opportunity and problems. In the long run, black economic development must rely on the…

  1. Reaching soldiers with untreated substance use disorder: lessons learned in the development of a marketing campaign for the Warrior Check-Up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Thomas O; Walker, Denise D; Kaysen, Debra L; Roffman, Roger A; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Neighbors, Clayton

    2013-07-01

    The Warrior Check-Up, a confidential telephone-delivered intervention, is designed to reach active-duty soldiers with untreated substance-use disorder at a large U.S. military base. This paper describes the development and successful implementation of the study's marketing strategies at the recruitment period's midpoint (2010-2012). Qualitative analyses of focus groups (n = 26) and survey responses (n = 278) describe the process of campaign design. Measures of demographics, media exposure, post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression gathered from callers (n = 172) are used in quantitative analysis assessing the campaign's success in reaching this population. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Department of Defense provided study funding. PMID:23869462

  2. Reaching Soldiers with Untreated Substance Use Disorder: Lessons Learned in the Development of a Marketing Campaign for the Warrior Check-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Thomas O.; Walker, Denise D.; Kaysen, Debra L.; Roffman, Roger A.; Mbilinyi, Lyungai; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    The Warrior Check-Up, a confidential telephone-delivered intervention, is designed to reach active-duty soldiers with untreated substance-use disorder at a large US military base. This paper describes the development and successful implementation of the study’s marketing strategies at the recruitment period’s midpoint (2010–2012). Qualitative analyses of focus groups (n = 26) and survey responses (n = 278) describe the process of campaign design. Measures of demographics, media exposure, post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression gathered from callers (n = 172) are used in quantitative analysis assessing the campaign’s success in reaching this population. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Department of Defense provided study funding. PMID:23869462

  3. Arsenic in groundwaters in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt: A review of patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen C.

    2008-07-01

    Naturally occurring arsenic in the bedrock of the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt was first recognized in the late 19th century. The knowledge of the behavior of arsenic in groundwater in this region has lagged behind nearly a century, with the popular press reporting on local studies in the early 1980s, and most peer-reviewed research articles on regional patterns conducted and written in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research reports have shown that within this high arsenic region, between 6% and 22% of households using private drinking water wells contain arsenic in excess of 10 µg/L, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level. In nearly all reports, arsenic in drinking water was derived from naturally occurring geologic sources, typically arsenopyrite, substituted sulfides such as arsenian pyrite, and nanoscale minerals such as westerveldite. In most studies, arsenic concentrations in groundwater were controlled by pH dependent adsorption to mineral surfaces, most commonly iron oxide minerals. In some cases, reductive dissolution of iron minerals has been shown to increase arsenic concentrations in groundwater, more commonly associated with anthropogenic activities such as landfills. Evidence of nitrate reduction promoting the presence of arsenic(V) and iron(III) minerals in anoxic environments has been shown to occur in surface waters, and in this manuscript we show this process perhaps applies to groundwater. The geologic explanation for the high arsenic region in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt is most likely the crustal recycling of arsenic as an incompatible element during tectonic activity. Accretion of multiple terranes, in particular Avalonia and the Central Maine Terrane of New England appear to be connected to the presence of high concentrations of arsenic. Continued tectonic activity and recycling of these older terranes may also be responsible for the high arsenic observed in the Triassic rift basins

  4. Mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates from a Soil-Water-Balance model of the Appalachian Plateaus, 1980 through 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program study of Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, mean-annual and mean-seasonal water-budget estimates for...

  5. Policy Analysis: Valuation of Ecosystem Services in the Southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, H Spencer; Burtraw, Dallas; Criscimagna, Susie Chung; Cosby, Bernard J; Evans, David A; Krupnick, Alan J; Siikamäki, Juha V

    2016-03-15

    This study estimates the economic value of an increase in ecosystem services attributable to the reduced acidification expected from more stringent air pollution policy. By integrating a detailed biogeochemical model that projects future ecological recovery with economic methods that measure preferences for specific ecological improvements, we estimate the economic value of ecological benefits from new air pollution policies in the Southern Appalachian ecosystem. Our results indicate that these policies generate aggregate benefits of about $3.7 billion, or about $16 per year per household in the region. The study provides currently missing information about the ecological benefits from air pollution policies that is needed to evaluate such policies comprehensively. More broadly, the study also illustrates how integrated biogeochemical and economic assessments of multidimensional ecosystems can evaluate the relative benefits of different policy options that vary by scale and across ecosystem attributes. PMID:26871484

  6. Social Constructions of Stigmatizing Discourse Around Type 2 Diabetes Diagnoses in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; Ashlock, Mary Z; Basta, Tania B

    2016-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a growing problem among Appalachian Kentucky residents. Several issues contribute to diabetes disparities in the region, including lack of access to health care and geographic isolation. Previous studies also indicate that social stigma may be associated with type 2 diabetes. We used 28 semistructured interviews to explore how stigma is socially constructed across health status (diagnosed/undiagnosed). Perceived severity of the disease is high, yet the etiology of diabetes is not well understood. Thus, onset is perceived to occur "out of the blue," and a positive diagnosis is perceived as having life-threatening consequences. Diagnosed participants, who had learned more about the disease's etiology, prevention, and management, expressed intrapersonal stigma. In interpersonal situations, the visible indicators of a diabetes diagnosis (i.e., physical weight, insulin injection), rather than diagnosis status, tended to evoke stigmatizing interactions. These findings form the foundation for our recommendations for prevention messages in the region. PMID:26605947

  7. Episodic response project-northern Appalachian plateau: Site description and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study areas and methods are described for research on acidic streamflow episodes in five forest stream/catchment systems in the northern Appalachian Plateau region of Pennsylvania. Research was conducted from October 1988 to April 1990 and involved both hydrochemical and biological studies. Hydrochemical monitoring included measurements of stream discharge; in situ stream pH, conductivity, and temperature; air temperature, precipitation amounts and intensity, snowpack water equivalents, and snowpack melt rates. Intensive stream sampling during selected events using computer-controlled automatic samplers was used to document episodic stream chemistry. Stream samples were analyzed for a complete suite of common cations and anions along with acid neutralizing content, DOC, total monomeric aluminum, and organic monomeric aluminum. Biological impacts of acidic streamflow episodes on native brook trout and sculpin were assessed using electrofishing, in-situ bioassays, radiotelemetry, and spawning surveys. A rigorous quality assurance/quality control program was established for all measurements during the study, especially for water chemistry

  8. Fragmentation of habitats used by neotropical migratory birds in Southern Appalachians and the neotropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, S.M.; Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recent declines in North American breeding populations have sparked great concern over the effects of habitat fragmentation. Neotropical migrant birds use and are influenced by two biomes during a single life span. Yet assessment of the relative importance of changes in tropical wintering areas versus temperate breeding areas is complicated by regional variation in rates and extent of habitat change. Landscape-level measurements of forest fragmentation derived from remotely-sensed data provide a means to compare the patterns of habitat modification on the wintering and breeding grounds of migrant birds. This study quantifies patterns of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains and tropical Amazon and relates these patterns to the resource needs of neotropical migrant birds. Study sites were selected from remotely-sensed images to represent a range of forest fragmentation (highly fragmented landscape to continuous forest).

  9. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study

  10. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  11. Evaluating historical climate and hydrologic trends in the Central Appalachian region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, B. A.; Zegre, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is surfacing as one of the most important environmental and social issues of the 21st century. Over the last 100 years, observations show increasing trends in global temperatures and intensity and frequency of precipitation events such as flooding, drought, and extreme storms. Global circulation models (GCM) show similar trends for historic and future climate indicators, albeit with geographic and topographic variability at regional and local scale. In order to assess the utility of GCM projections for hydrologic modeling, it is important to quantify how robust GCM outputs are compared to robust historical observations at finer spatial scales. Previous research in the United States has primarily focused on the Western and Northeastern regions due to dominance of snow melt for runoff and aquifer recharge but the impact of climate warming in the mountainous central Appalachian Region is poorly understood. In this research, we assess the performance of GCM-generated historical climate compared to historical observations primarily in the context of forcing data for macro-scale hydrologic modeling. Our results show significant spatial heterogeneity of modeled climate indices when compared to observational trends at the watershed scale. Observational data is showing considerable variability within maximum temperature and precipitation trends, with consistent increases in minimum temperature. The geographic, temperature, and complex topographic gradient throughout the central Appalachian region is likely the contributing factor in temperature and precipitation variability. Variable climate changes are leading to more severe and frequent climate events such as temperature extremes and storm events, which can have significant impacts on our drinking water supply, infrastructure, and health of all downstream communities.

  12. Mercury methylation trends pre and post refilling in a Northern Appalachian impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklof, K. J.; Drohan, P. J.; Boyer, E. W.; Iavorivska, L.; Harper, J.; Brown, M.; Fink, C.; Gogno, J.

    2014-12-01

    High rates of atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) in the northern Appalachian Mountain region of the eastern United States have led to an accumulation of anthropogenic Hg in soils and the aquatic food chain. Much concern is focused on methyl mercury (MeHg) in surface waters as it is the most bioavailable species. The bacterial transformation of organic Hg to MeHg has been suggested to increase when oxidized soils or sediments become reduced, such as during flooding. The refilling of a Northern Appalachian impoundment has been tracked in this study in order to examine a potential increase in methylation rate. The sediments in this 0.29 km2 constructed impoundment lay dry for 6 years before dam reconstruction allowed refilling. Since being drained, redox concentration and depletion colors have appeared in the formerly gley sediments suggesting intense oxidation/reduction events. Dry sediment (soil order Entisols) Hg concentrations were typically highest in the upper horizon of the sediments and coincided with the highest concentrations of organic carbon. The ratio of MeHg to total Hg (THg) in the soils/sediments was used as an indicator of methylation rate. The highest ratio of MeHg/THg before the refilling were found in the deepest part of the former lake, were the sediments still periodically held rainwater. The sediments will be sampled again in late summer 2014 to evaluate the change in methylation rate with lake refilling. A potential change in stream water MeHg concentration in the outflow versus inflow determines if the restored lake may act as a source of MeHg to downstream environments. Results from this sampling of post-refilling water and sediments will be evaluated during the fall.

  13. Spatial tools for managing hemlock woolly adelgid in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Frank Henry, Jr.

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) has recently spread into the southern Appalachians. This insect attacks both native hemlock species (Tsuga canadensis and T. caroliniana ), has no natural enemies, and can kill hemlocks within four years. Biological control displays promise for combating the pest, but counter-measures are impeded because adelgid and hemlock distribution patterns have been detailed poorly. We developed a spatial management system to better target control efforts, with two components: (1) a protocol for mapping hemlock stands, and (2) a technique to map areas at risk of imminent infestation. To construct a hemlock classifier, we used topographically normalized satellite images from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Employing a decision tree approach that supplemented image spectral data with several environmental variables, we generated rules distinguishing hemlock areas from other forest types. We then implemented these rules in a geographic information system and generated hemlock distribution maps. Assessment yielded an overall thematic accuracy of 90% for one study area, and 75% accuracy in capturing hemlocks in a second study area. To map areas at risk, we combined first-year infestation locations from Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Blue Ridge Parkway with points from uninfested hemlock stands, recording a suite of environmental variables for each point. We applied four different multivariate classification techniques to generate models from this sample predicting locations with high infestation risk, and used the resulting models to generate risk maps for the study region. All techniques performed well, accurately capturing 70--90% of training and validation samples, with the logistic regression model best balancing accuracy and regional applicability. Areas close to trails, roads, and streams appear to have the highest initial risk, perhaps due to bird- or human-mediated dispersal. Both components of our management

  14. A column evaluation of Appalachian coal mine spoils' temporal leaching behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appalachian surface coal mine overburden affects water quality as drainage percolates through spoil disposal fills. This study evaluated leaching potentials of 15 spoils from south-central Appalachia. Most bulk samples were non acid-forming, all were low in total-S, (≤0.34%), and initial saturated paste specific conductance (SC) ranged from 264 to 3560 μS cm−1. Samples were leached unsaturated (40 cycles) and leachates analyzed for pH, SC, and ion composition. Overall, leachates from unweathered spoils were higher in pH and SC than leachates from weathered spoils. Fine-textured spoils generally produced higher SCs than more coarsely textured spoils. Mean SC for all spoils decreased rapidly from an initial peak of 1468 μS cm−1 (±150) to 247 μS cm−1 (±23). Release patterns for most major ions reflected declining SC. Bicarbonate typically increased with successive leaches, replacing sulfate as the dominant anion. Column SC values were comparable to relevant published field data. - Highlights: • Leaching potentials of diverse coal mine spoils were evaluated by column study. • Column leachate was evaluated for pH, specific conductance, and ion composition. • Degree of weathering impacted leachate pH, specific conductance, and ion release. • Conductivity and most major ions decreased rapidly after first few leach events. • Column leachate was consistent with relevant literature-based stream data. - Temporal response and ionic composition of total dissolved solids from Appalachian coal mine spoils was evaluated by column leaching and related to weathering and rock type

  15. ENHANCING RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN BY IDENTIFYING TECHNICAL BARRIER AND PREFERRED PRACTICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald R. McDowell; Khashayar Aminian; Katharine L. Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Ed. Hohn; Douglas G. Patchen

    2003-09-01

    The Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) project, a two-year study sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), had three primary objectives: (1) the identification of problems, problematic issues, potential solutions and preferred practices related to oil production; (2) the creation of an Appalachian Regional Council to oversee and continue this investigation beyond the end of the project; and (3) the dissemination of investigative results to the widest possible audience, primarily by means of an interactive website. Investigation and identification of oil production problems and preferred management practices began with a Problem Identification Workshop in January of 2002. Three general issues were selected by participants for discussion: Data Management; Reservoir Engineering; and Drilling Practices. At the same meeting, the concept of the creation of an oversight organization to evaluate and disseminated preferred management practices (PMP's) after the end of the project was put forth and volunteers were solicited. In-depth interviews were arranged with oil producers to gain more insight into problems and potential solutions. Project members encountered considerable reticence on the part of interviewees when it came to revealing company-specific production problems or company-specific solutions. This was the case even though interviewees were assured that all responses would be held in confidence. Nevertheless, the following production issues were identified and ranked in order of decreasing importance: Water production including brine disposal; Management of production and business data; Oil field power costs; Paraffin accumulation; Production practices including cementing. An number of secondary issues were also noted: Problems associated with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Waterflooding; Reservoir characterization; Employee availability, training, and safety; and Sale and Purchase problems. One item was mentioned both in

  16. The Black Studies Boondoggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard A.

    1970-01-01

    Indicates tendencies dangerous to the basic purpose of Black Studies, and identifies four external challeges--imperialism, paternalism, nihilism, and materialism. An internal challenge is considered to be the use of European and Establishment constructs to analyze black reality. (DM)

  17. Appalachian Crafts

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Note on back: When their "men" are laid off at the Chenoah coal mine, the goin' gets hard. To keep bread and soup beans on their tables, the womenfolks turn to make corn husk dolls they peddle to shops along the highway who cater to the tourist trade.

  18. Dynamics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    This is a review of current theory of black-hole dynamics, concentrating on the framework in terms of trapping horizons. Summaries are given of the history, the classical theory of black holes, the defining ideas of dynamical black holes, the basic laws, conservation laws for energy and angular momentum, other physical quantities and the limit of local equilibrium. Some new material concerns how processes such as black-hole evaporation and coalescence might be described by a single trapping h...

  19. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  20. Black Hole Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Strominger, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ``infinite statist...

  1. Phantom Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, C. J.; Zhang, S. N.

    2006-01-01

    The exact solutions of electrically charged phantom black holes with the cosmological constant are constructed. They are labelled by the mass, the electrical charge, the cosmological constant and the coupling constant between the phantom and the Maxwell field. It is found that the phantom has important consequences on the properties of black holes. In particular, the extremal charged phantom black holes can never be achieved and so the third law of thermodynamics for black holes still holds. ...

  2. Appalachian basin bituminous coal: sulfur content and potential sulfur dioxide emissions of coal mined for electrical power generation: Chapter G.5 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Attanasi, E.D.; Milici, Robert C.; Freeman, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Data from 157 counties in the Appalachian basin of average sulfur content of coal mined for electrical power generation from 1983 through 2005 show a general decrease in the number of counties where coal mining has occurred and a decrease in the number of counties where higher sulfur coals (>2 percent sulfur) were mined. Calculated potential SO2 emissions (assuming no post-combustion SO2 removal) show a corresponding decrease over the same period of time.

  3. Black Nuns as Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Theresa A.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the contributions of Black Roman Catholic nuns to Black education in the United States since the early 1800s. Also shows that, despite declining membership, the three existing religious orders continue to be active in Black education and social change. (GC)

  4. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions (Black Strings and Black Rings)

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    The last three years have again seen new exciting developments in the area of higher dimensional black objects. For black objects with noncompact higher dimensions, the solution space was exlored further within the blackfold approach and with numerical schemes, yielding a large variety of new families of solutions, while limiting procedures created so-called super-entropic black holes. Concerning compact extra dimensions, the sequences of static nonuniform black strings in five and six dimensions were extended to impressively large values of the nonuniformity parameter with extreme numerical precision, showing that an oscillating pattern arises for the mass, the area or the temperature, while approaching the conjectured double-cone merger solution. Besides the presentation of interesting new types of higherdimensional solutions, also their physical properties were addressed in this session. While the main focus was on Einstein gravity, a significant number of talks also covered Lovelock theories.

  5. Hard Bigotry, Low Expectations and Soft Support: Educating American African Boys in the United States with the Warrior Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winbush, Raymond A.

    2013-01-01

    Educating American Africans boys has been a mixture of political rhetoric, educational pedagogy, and historical neglect. Although American African educators have produced several models for effectively educating Black boys, most of them are dismissed as too "radical" by White researchers who have little understanding or experience in…

  6. The effects of acid precipitation runoff episodes on reservoir and tapwater quality in an Appalachian Mountain water supply.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharpe, W E; DeWalle, D R

    1990-01-01

    The aluminum concentration and Ryznar Index increased and the pH decreased in a small Appalachian water supply reservoir following acid precipitation runoff episodes. Concomitant increases in tapwater aluminum and decreases in tapwater pH were also observed at two homes in the water distribution system. Lead concentrations in the tapwater of one home frequently exceeded recommended levels, although spatial and temporal variation in tapwater copper and lead concentrations was considerable. Sin...

  7. Terrain and Landcover Effects of the Southern Appalachian Mountains on the Low-Level Rotational Wind Fields of Supercell Thunderstorms

    OpenAIRE

    Prociv, Kathryn A

    2012-01-01

    That tornadoes cannot occur in mountains due to disruptive influences of the complex terrain is a common misperception. Multiple tornadoes occur each year in mountainous environments, including the Appalachian Mountains. Copious research examines the influences of complex terrain on large severe weather systems such as multicell convective systems and squall lines, but research is lacking investigating this same relationship for smaller-scale severe weather phenomena like supercells and tor...

  8. Metagonimoides oregonensis (heterophyidae: digenea) infection in pleurocerid snails and desmognathus quadramaculatus salamander larvae in southern appalachian streams

    OpenAIRE

    Belden, L. K.; Peterman, W. E.; Smith, S A; Brooks, L R; Benfield, E. F.; Black, W. P.; Yang, Z M; Wojdak, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae) is a little-known digenetic trematode that uses raccoons and possibly mink as definitive hosts, and stream snails and amphibians as intermediate hosts. Some variation in the life cycle and adult morphology in western and eastern populations has been previously noted. In the southern Appalachians, Pleurocera snails and stream salamanders, e.g., Desmognathus spp., are used as intermediate hosts in the life cycle. We completed a series of studies in thi...

  9. The Appalachian Tri-State Node Experiences with the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C; Byrne, Mimmie; DeMarzo, Larry; Smith, Doris; Madl, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-sponsored Clinical Trial Network (CTN) recently celebrated 10 years of conducting “real world” research into the treatment of addiction. This article reviews the history and results of the most recent CTN studies and describes the experiences of one of the 13 participating research affiliates, the Appalachian Tri-State (ATS) Node. We discuss our “bidirectional” collaboration with multiple community treatment programs (CTPs) on research and dissemina...

  10. Improving Site Quality Estimates in the Upland Hardwood Forests of the Southern Appalachians with Environmental and Spatial Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Claudia Ann

    2010-01-01

    In the upland hardwood forests of the southern Appalachians, management tools are needed based on the characteristics of the site to quantify the site quality where no accurate maps of site quality exist. Three studies were conducted to achieve this objective. The first study tested if independent measures of forest productivity, based on vegetation and environment, in a six-county study area in the Blue Ridge Mountains in North Carolina would correlate with measures of forest productivity ob...

  11. Engaging Rural Appalachian High School Girls in College Science Laboratories to Foster STEM-Related Career Interest†

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Louise Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Setting students on a path to success in careers in science is a challenge in poor rural Appalachian public schools. Students face many socioeconomic obstacles. Their teachers are also limited by many factors including inadequate facilities, under-funding, geographical isolation of the schools, and state-testing constraints. Additionally, students and teachers lack the availability of outside science educational opportunities. In an effort to address this situation, 24 academically strong hig...

  12. The U.S. Geological Survey`s National Coal Resource Assessment: The Northern and Central Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Bragg, L.; Tewalt, S. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resource Surveys Program is currently conducting a five-year National Coal Resource Assessment project. Primary focus is on the quality and quantity of top-producing coal beds and coal zones in five of the nine major coal producing regions in the US. These regions include the (1) Northern and Central Appalachian Basin, (2) Gulf Coastal Plain, (3) Illinois Basin, (4) Colorado Plateau, and (5) Powder River Basin and Northern Great Plains.

  13. Nonstationary analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the existence of analogue nonstationary spherically symmetric black holes. The prime example is the acoustic model see Unruh (1981 Phys. Rev. Lett. 46 1351). We consider also a more general class of metrics that could be useful in other physical models of analogue black and white holes. We give examples of the appearance of black holes and of disappearance of white holes. We also discuss the relation between the apparent and the event horizons for the case of analogue black holes. In the end we study the inverse problem of determination of black or white holes by boundary measurements for the spherically symmetric nonstationary metrics. (paper)

  14. Black Hole Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  15. Application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the Appalachians. Semiannual progress report no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses the application of plate tectonics to the location of new mineral targets in the Appalachians. These results provide a new structural-geological framework for a metallogenic study by: recognizing a block structure of a broad territory extending westward from the Appalachian folded belt; finding a relationship between the curvature of the Appalachian folded belt and the boundaries of blocks of the Precambrian basement; and postulating the presence of three major lineaments, extending east-westerly along southern and northern boundaries of major basins and uplifts, which are supposed to reflect major fracture zones of the Precambrian basement. The spacing between the east-west lineaments was of the same order of magnitude as spacing between the transfer faults which displace the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge. This may represent relics of basement fractures of the plates that moved away from the rift zone. These findings have led to a study of the distribution and occurrence of deposits of the individual metals superimposed on the new structural base. The distribution of epigenetic uranium is presented in Part A. Part B includes two manuscripts describing work completed in remote sensing studies

  16. Black Flowers in Flatland

    CERN Document Server

    Alkac, Gokhan; Tekin, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotically flat black holes in $2+1$ dimensions are a rarity. We study the recently found black flower solutions (asymptotically flat black holes with deformed horizons), static black holes, rotating black holes and the dynamical black flowers (black holes with radiative gravitons ) of the purely quadratic version of new massive gravity. We show how they appear in this theory and we also show that they are also solutions to the infinite order extended version of the new massive gravity, that is the Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity with an amputated Einsteinian piece. The same metrics also solve the topologically extended versions of these theories, with modified conserved charges and the thermodynamical quantities, such as the Wald entropy. Besides these we find new conformally flat radiating type solutions to these extended gravity models. We also show that these metrics do not arise in Einstein's gravity coupled to physical perfect fluids.

  17. Real Warriors Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... processes of building resilience, facilitating recovery and supporting reintegration of returning service members, veterans and their families. >> Read More Popular Topics reintegration resources relationships coping with stress combat stress resilience ...

  18. Behavior: Warriors Shaking Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Sonja E

    2016-08-22

    A basic precondition of social life is that conflicts must be resolved when you need each other. A new study shows that men affiliate more after one-on-one conflicts than women. This reflects the deep evolutionary history of male bonding. PMID:27554654

  19. Subsurface geology of the upper Devonian-lower Mississippian black-shale sequence in eastern Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippi black-shale sequence is an important source of natural gas in eastern Kentucky and with technological advances may be an important source of synthetic oil and uranium on the flanks of the Cincinnati arch. To enhance the understanding and development of these resources in the black-shale sequence, eight isopach maps, eight structure-contour maps and nine isopach maps of highly radioactive black shale were constructed. Structural features including the Rome trough, Rockcastle River uplift, Pine Mountain thrust fault, Kentucky River and Paint Creek fault zones and unnamed basinal areas in Greenup, Pike, and Knott counties were identified on the maps. Faults bounding the Rome trough and other structures were active intermittently throughout Late Devonian time. Other structures show only post-Devonian activity, whereas some show both Devonian and post-Devonian activity. Comparison of structure-contour and isopach maps allow the differentiation of syn- and post-sedimentray structural activity relative to the black-shale sequence. A north-south trending hinge line separates a broad platform area from an area of rapid eastward thickening into the Appalachian basin. Units 7 through 1 progressively onlap the Cincinnati arch; units 4 through 1 cover the arch

  20. Restless Legs Syndrome in an Appalachian Primary Care Population: Prevalence, Demographic and Lifestyle Correlates, and Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E.; Flack, Kathryn L.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Kandati, Sahiti; Agarwal, Parul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common and distressing sensorimotor disorder of unknown etiology. While the epidemiology of RLS has been examined in several North American and European studies, research on RLS and RLS burden in poor, rural populations, including those residing in Appalachia, remains sparse. In this study, we investigated RLS prevalence in an Appalachian primary care population and examined the association of RLS to demographic factors, lifestyle characteristics, sleep quality, and mood disorders. Methods: Participants of this anonymous survey study were community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 18 years visiting one of 4 West Virginia primary care clinics. Data gathered included detailed information on sleep patterns, demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and health/medical history; the survey also included questions specific to RLS diagnosis and severity. Response rates were excellent, with 68% of eligible adults contacted returning completed surveys (N = 1,424/2,087). Pregnant women (N = 65) and those with missing data on key variables (N = 142) were excluded from the analyses. Results: Of the 1,217 participants included in the final analytic sample, 19.6% (18.2% with symptoms at least once/month) met the 4 IRLSSG diagnostic criteria in the absence of positional discomfort or leg cramps; 14.5% reported RLS symptoms at least once/week and 10.1% indicated symptoms ≥ 3×/week. Excluding respondents with diabetes, kidney disease, or anemia reduced these rates only slightly. Those with RLS were more likely to be older, female, lower income, unemployed, disabled, non-Hispanic white, and less likely to be college educated than those without RLS. Mood and sleep impairment were significantly elevated in those with RLS; after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle characteristics, health history, and other factors, those with RLS remained significantly more likely to indicate a history of depression (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95

  1. The Southern-Appalachians Precipitation Measurement and Hydrology Project - A Prototype for Middle Mountains Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, A. P.; Wilson, A. M.; Tao, J.; Miller, D.

    2012-12-01

    The hydrology of headwater catchments in mountainous regions is characterized by extreme precipitation-runoff response regimes and associated biogeophysical hazards amidst vast topographic, geomorphic, and ecological heterogeneity. A high density network of high elevation hydrometeorological stations spanning east-west ridges and valleys spanning the Blue Ridge physiographic region of the Appalachians was installed in the S0outehrn Appalachians. The observing system includes a high elevation flux-tower and paired systems of Microrain Radars (MRRs) and disdrometers aimed at mapping the space-time varying 4D structure of rainfall, and Intense Observing Periods including radisondes and thethersondes. The network builds upon low elevation infrastructure maintained by various federal and state agencies. The observations show that the vertical structure of orographic precipitation in the Great Smoky Mountains exhibits strong spatial gradients and large variability at the diurnal, monthly, seasonal and inter-annual time-scales reflecting changes in the prevailing orographic precipitation regimes in response to year-to-year changes in large-scale circulation and regional weather patterns. Isolated severe storms can bring as much as 15% of the warm season rainfall (JJAS) less than 3 hours, and 30% of annual rainfall for tropical storms. Westerly fronts and shallow convective systems can produce up to 50% of all warm season rainfall in less than a week (e.g. the SE floods of September, 2009). Yet, light rainfall (LR, intensity lower than 3 mm/hr) is the dominant rainfall regime, accounting for 70% to 80% of all precipitation in the winter and 40 to 60% in the summertime, and shows little inter-annual variability. LR is therefore the hydrometeorological lifeline of water resources and ecosystems in the region. Recent evidence shows this is the case elsewhere, where low level cloud systems interact with orographically forced clouds and fog such as the foothills and middle

  2. Active Stream Length Dynamics in Headwater Catchments Spanning Physiographic Provinces in the Appalachian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C.; McGuire, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most basic descriptions of streams is the presence of channelized flow. However, this seemingly simple query goes unanswered for the majority of headwater networks, as stream length expands and contracts with the wetness of catchments seasonally, interannually, and in response to storm events. Although streams are known to grow and shrink, a lack of information on longitudinal dynamics across different geographic regions precludes effective management. Understanding the temporal variation in temporary network length over a broad range of settings is critical for policy decisions that impact aquatic ecosystem health. This project characterizes changes in active stream length for forested headwater catchments spanning four physiographic provinces of the Appalachian Highlands: the New England at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire; Valley and Ridge at Poverty Creek and the North Fork of Big Stony Creek in Jefferson National Forest, Virginia; Blue Ridge at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina; and Appalachian Plateau at Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia. Multivariate statistical analysis confirms these provinces exhibit characteristic topographies reflecting differences in climate, geology, and environmental history and, thus, merit separate consideration. The active streams of three watersheds (<45 ha) in each study area were mapped six times to capture a variety of moderate flow conditions that can be expected most of the time (i.e., exceedance probabilities between 25 to 75%). The geomorphic channel and channel heads were additionally mapped to determine how active stream length variability relates to the development of the geomorphic network. We found that drainage density can vary up to four-fold with discharge. Stream contraction primarily proceeds by increasing disconnection and disintegration into pools, while the number of flow origins remains constant except at high and low extremes of discharge. This work demonstrates

  3. Lessons in collaboration and effective field research from the Appalachian Headwaters Research Experience for Undergraduates Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. L.; Fox, J.; Wilder, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2009, the authors launched year one of a three-year National Science Foundation-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates entitled "Carbon Storage and Headwater Health in the Appalachian Headwaters." Eight undergraduates selected from a nationally competitive field of more than 60 applicants participated in the ten-week field- and laboratory-based program along with three middle- and high-school teachers. Each student developed and completed an independent research project related to coal mining’s impact on soil organic carbon and sediment transport processes. Specifically, they used isotope ratio mass spectrometry to measure the carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signature of soils and sediments in the Appalachian headwater landscapes and first order streams of Kentucky's southeastern coalfields. Among the program's innovative features was its fundamentally collaborative nature--which was represented in several ways. First, the background of the three program leaders was very different: an environmental planner with an academic background in land use planning and administration (Jones); a civil engineer trained in biogeochemistry and watershed modeling (Fox); and an environmental educator experienced in both formal and nonformal educator training and certification (Wilder). The program was also a collaboration between a Carnegie 1 research-oriented institution and an undergraduate/ teaching -focused regional comprehensive university. Finally, the participants themselves represented a diversity of disciplines and institutional backgrounds--including biology, geology, chemistry, environmental science and civil engineering. The Research Experience for Teachers component was another innovative program element. The teachers participated in all field and laboratory research activities during the first six weeks, then developed a unit of study for their own classrooms to be implemented during the current school year. In addition to the six

  4. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  5. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  6. Cosmic Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Eun-Joo; Cavaglia, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Production of high-energy gravitational objects is a common feature of gravitational theories. The primordial universe is a natural setting for the creation of black holes and other nonperturbative gravitational entities. Cosmic black holes can be used to probe physical properties of the very early universe which would usually require the knowledge of the theory of quantum gravity. They may be the only tool to explore thermalisation of the early universe. Whereas the creation of cosmic black ...

  7. The New Black

    OpenAIRE

    Lettman-Hicks, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The New Black is a documentary that tells the story of how the African American community is grappling with the gay rights issue in light of the recent gay marriage movement and the fight over Civil Rights. The film documents activities, families and clergy on both sides of the campaign to legalize gay marriage and examines homophobia in the Black community's institutional pillar, the Black church, and reveals the Christian right wing's strategy of exploiting this phenomenon in order to pursu...

  8. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six. PMID:23368298

  9. Kerr black string flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We give a general illumination of a rotating black string falling into a rotating horizon in dimension D=5. It is a configuration of one smooth intersection between these two objects when the spacetime is axisymmetric and in the limit that the thickness of the black hole is much larger than the thickness of the black string. Following this configuration, we further extend them to the rotating and charged flows.

  10. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  11. Role of debris flows in long-term landscape denudation in the central Appalachians of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Louis Scott; Morgan, Benjamin A.; Kochel, R. Craig; Howard, Alan D.

    2003-04-01

    Four major storms that triggered debris flows in the Virginia West Virginia Appalachians provide new insights into the role of high-magnitude, low-frequency floods in long-term denudation and landscape evolution in mountainous terrain. Storm denudation in the Blue Ridge Mountain drainage basins is approximately an order of magnitude greater compared to basins located in the mountains of the Valley and Ridge province. This difference is probably the result of higher storm rainfall from the Blue Ridge storms. Radiocarbon dating of debris-flow deposits in the Blue Ridge indicates a debris-flow return interval of not more than 2 4 k.y. in mountainous river basins. This finding, combined with measurements of basin denudation, suggests that approximately half of the long-term denudation from mechanical load occurs episodically by debris-flow processes. Although floods of moderate magnitude are largely responsible for mobilizing sediment in low-gradient streams, our data suggest that high-magnitude, low-frequency events are the most significant component in delivering coarse-grained regolith from mountainous hollows and channels to the lowland floodplains.

  12. Patch occupancy of stream fauna across a land cover gradient in the southern Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, John R.; Peterson, James T.; Cecala, Kristen K.; Maerz, John C.; Jackson, C. Rhett; Gragson, Ted L.; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    We modeled patch occupancy to examine factors that best predicted the prevalence of four functionally important focal stream consumers (Tallaperla spp., Cambarus spp.,Pleurocera proxima, and Cottus bairdi) among 37 reaches within the Little Tennessee River basin of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA. We compared 34 models of patch occupancy to examine the association of catchment and reach scale factors that varied as a result of converting forest to agricultural or urban land use. Occupancy of our taxa was linked to parameters reflecting both catchment and reach extent characteristics. At the catchment level, forest cover or its conversion to agriculture was a major determinant of occupancy for all four taxa. Patch occupancies of Tallaperla, Cambarus, and C. bairdi were positively, and Pleurocera negatively, correlated with forest cover. Secondarily at the reach level, local availability of large woody debris was important forCambarus, availability of large cobble substrate was important for C. bairdi, and stream calcium concentration was important for P. proxima. Our results show the abundance of stream organisms was determined by the taxon-dependent interplay between catchment- and reach-level factors.

  13. Lithologic and environmental atlas of Berea Sandstone (Mississippian) in the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, P. E.; Maynard, J. B.; Jackson, D.; Dereamer, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Berea Sandstone occurs throughout much of the Appalachian Basin where it is an oil and gas reservoir and is quarried as a building stone. Because of its uniform porosity and permeability in the quarries at South Amherst, Ohio, it has been used by petroleum engineers in North America as a model reservoir sandstone. Currently, the Berea is locally classified as a light gas sand. Six outcrops and 22 cores of the Berea are described. These descriptions are accompanied by wireline logs of the Berea section in the core holes and gamma ray profiles of outcrops to help explorationists, reservoir geologists, and petroleum engineers better interpret the lithology and depositional environments represented by the many thousands of wireline logs in the Applachian Basin. The depositional environments likely to occur in the Berea are briefly described and the various sedimentary structures of the Berea are illustrated so that it can be seen in both outcrops and cores, carefully documents vertical profiles of grain size and sedimentary structures, and concludes with a summary of unresolved problems.

  14. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John F; Miller, Orson K; Horton, Jonathan L

    2005-03-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The seedlings captured a high diversity of mycorrhizal ITS-types and late-stage fungi were well represented. Total richness was 75 types, with 42 types having a frequency of only one. The first and second order jackknife estimates were 116 and 143 types, respectively. Among Basidiomycetes, tomentelloid/thelephoroid, russuloid, and cortinarioid groups were the richest. The ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum was ubiquitously present. Dominant fungi included a putative Tuber sp. (Ascomycetes), and Basidiomycetes including a putative Craterellus sp., and Laccaria cf. laccata. Diversity was lower at a drier high elevation oak forest site compared to a low elevation mesic cove--hardwood forest site. Fungal specificity for red oak vs. white oak seedlings was unresolved. The high degree of rarity in this system imposes limitations on the power of community analyses at finer scales. The high mycobiont diversity highlights the potential for seedlings to acquire carbon from mycelial networks and confirms the utility of using outplanted seedlings to estimate ectomycorrhizal diversity. PMID:15723674

  15. Unexpected rarity of the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Appalachian Plethodon Salamanders: 1957-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Muletz

    Full Text Available Widespread population declines in terrestrial Plethodon salamanders occurred by the 1980s throughout the Appalachian Mountains, the center of global salamander diversity, with no evident recovery. We tested the hypothesis that the historic introduction and spread of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd into the eastern US was followed by Plethodon population declines. We expected to detect elevated prevalence of Bd prior to population declines as observed for Central American plethodontids. We tested 1,498 Plethodon salamanders of 12 species (892 museum specimens, 606 wild individuals for the presence of Bd, and tested 94 of those for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bs and for ranavirus. Field samples were collected in 2011 from 48 field sites across a 767 km transect. Historic samples from museum specimens were collected at five sites with the greatest number and longest duration of collection (1957-987, four of which were sampled in the field in 2011. None of the museum specimens were positive for Bd, but four P. cinereus from field surveys were positive. The overall Bd prevalence from 1957-2011 for 12 Plethodon species sampled across a 757 km transect was 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.7%. All 94 samples were negative for Bs and ranavirus. We conclude that known amphibian pathogens are unlikely causes for declines in these Plethodon populations. Furthermore, these exceptionally low levels of Bd, in a region known to harbor Bd, may indicate that Plethodon specific traits limit Bd infection.

  16. Using food as a tool to teach science to 3 grade students in Appalachian Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffrin, Melani W; Hovland, Jana; Carraway-Stage, Virginia; McLeod, Sara; Duffrin, Christopher; Phillips, Sharon; Rivera, David; Saum, Diana; Johanson, George; Graham, Annette; Lee, Tammy; Bosse, Michael; Berryman, Darlene

    2010-04-01

    The Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource (FoodMASTER) Initiative is a compilation of programs aimed at using food as a tool to teach mathematics and science. In 2007-2008, a foods curriculum developed by professionals in nutrition and education was implemented in 10 3(rd)-grade classrooms in Appalachian Ohio; teachers in these classrooms implemented 45 hands-on foods activities that covered 10 food topics. Subjects included measurement; food safety; vegetables; fruits; milk and cheese; meat, poultry, and fish; eggs; fats; grains; and meal management. Students in four other classrooms served as the control group. Mainstream 3(rd)-grade students were targeted because of their receptiveness to the subject matter, science standards for upper elementary grades, and testing that the students would undergo in 4(th) grade. Teachers and students alike reported that the hands-on FoodMASTER curriculum experience was worthwhile and enjoyable. Our initial classroom observation indicated that the majority of students, girls and boys included, were very excited about the activities, became increasingly interested in the subject matter of food, and were able to conduct scientific observations. PMID:20975982

  17. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Final report, October 10, 1994--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium is a group comprised of representatives from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, that was formed to pursue research in areas related to the treatment and processing of fine coal. Each member performed research in their respective areas of expertise and the report contained herein encompasses the results that were obtained for the three major tasks that the Consortium undertook from October, 1994 through March, 1997. In the first task, conducted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute, novel methods (both mechanical and chemical) for dewatering fine coal were examined. In the second task, the Center for Applied Energy Research examined novel approaches for destabilization of [highly stable] flotation froths. And in the third task, West Virginia University developed physical and mathematical models for fine coal spirals. The Final Report is written in three distinctive chapters, each reflecting the individual member`s task report. Recommendations for further research in those areas investigated, as well as new lines of pursuit, are suggested.

  18. A column evaluation of Appalachian coal mine spoils' temporal leaching behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, Zenah W; Daniels, W Lee; Zipper, Carl E; Eick, Matt; Beck, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Appalachian surface coal mine overburden affects water quality as drainage percolates through spoil disposal fills. This study evaluated leaching potentials of 15 spoils from south-central Appalachia. Most bulk samples were non acid-forming, all were low in total-S, (≤0.34%), and initial saturated paste specific conductance (SC) ranged from 264 to 3560 μS cm(-1). Samples were leached unsaturated (40 cycles) and leachates analyzed for pH, SC, and ion composition. Overall, leachates from unweathered spoils were higher in pH and SC than leachates from weathered spoils. Fine-textured spoils generally produced higher SCs than more coarsely textured spoils. Mean SC for all spoils decreased rapidly from an initial peak of 1468 μS cm(-1) (±150) to 247 μS cm(-1) (±23). Release patterns for most major ions reflected declining SC. Bicarbonate typically increased with successive leaches, replacing sulfate as the dominant anion. Column SC values were comparable to relevant published field data. PMID:25912885

  19. Bankfull Curves for the Temperate Rainforests in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Western North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICKEY B. HENSON

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bankfull hydraulic geometry relationships, also called regional curves, relate bankfull stream channel dimensions and discharge to watershed drainage area. This paper describes results of bankfull curve relationships developed for the temperate rainforests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains primarily on Western North Carolina Mountain streams in the Southeastern United States. Gauge stations for small and larger catchments were selected with a range of 10 to 50 years of continuous or peak discharge measurements, no major impoundments, no significant change in land use over the past 10 years, and impervious cover ranges of <20%. Cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys were measured at each study reach to determine channel dimension, pattern, and profile information. Log-Pearson Type III distributions were used to analyze annual peak discharge data for nine small watersheds sites gauged by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and for eleven larger watersheds gauged by the United States Geological Survey (USGS. Power function relationships were developed using regression analyses for bankfull discharge, channel cross-sectional area, mean depth, and width as functions of watershed drainage area.

  20. A World-Ecological Perspective on Socio-Ecological Transformation in the Appalachian Coal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Marley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the exhaustion of socio-ecological relations in the coalfields of West Virginia. We use the term socio-ecological to signify "the interwoven character and the indispensable unity of social and natural life" (Araghi 2009: 115. In particular we use classic literatures on labor history in the coalfields of central Appalachia and contemporary studies of mountaintop removal to think about phases of socio-ecological relations of the coal industry. We argue for the interrelationality of the social and the ecological in place of conventional eco-M arxist approaches which treat these as relatively independent units. This enables us to situate nature as an active component of capitalist developmental processes. We argue that the exhaustion of socio-ecological relations in the coalfields of West Virginia is an outcome of material practices within the phase of extraction using mountaintop removal, historical changes in the conditions of production in the coalfields, and of new forms of competition from other regions and energy sources. We find that the relative exhaustion of central Appalachian coal is tempered by favorable international markets and a specialization in metallurgical coal.

  1. Variability of the radiative index of dryness in an Appalachian watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiative index of dryness, β (i.e., the ratio of seasonal sums of net radiation to those of the latent heat of precipitation) was used to characterize spatial and temporal variability of moisture conditions in a central Appalachian watershed during 35 growing seasons (1948–1982). The mean seasonal value of the index for the watershed and the whole study period was 1.2: year-to-year seasonal values fluctuated from 0.72 for the wet growing season of 1956 to 1.80 for the dry growing season of 1959. The highest values of the index were observed on south-west facing upper slopes at the northern boundary of the watershed, and the lowest values at the bottom of the watershed. The seasonal coefficient of variation of the index in the watershed was 36%. The highest monthly values of the index, reaching up to 2.94, were observed on the upper south-west facing slopes in June 1966. The correlation between β and corresponding basal area increment was poor. However, the average basal area increment during years with seasonal β > 1.5 was up to 29% less than the 35-year average. (author)

  2. Controls on Suspended Sediment Concentrations and Turbidity within a Reforested, Southern Appalachian Headwater Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry R. Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water quality data collected between 2007 and 2014 within the Allen Creek Watershed were used to: (1 determine the factors controlling the temporal variations in turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC within a representative, high-gradient headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians; and (2 assess the recovery of water quality following extensive logging operations during the early to mid-1900s. Regression analysis suggests that suspended sediment is primarily derived from upland areas and variations in concentration reflect rainfall intensity and total event precipitation. Overall, SSC and turbidity were low in stream waters in comparison to both reference values for stable streams and more developed basins in the region. Some floods were characterized by high SSC values, but limited turbidity and vice versa. Differences in measured SSC and turbidity between storms reflect different controls on the two parameters, and the apparent influence of natural organic matter on turbidity during rainfall events that are incapable of transporting sediment to the channel via overland flow. Low SSC and turbidity values are presumably related to the reforestation of hillslopes and riparian buffers following the cessation of logging operations. They also are due to a historical reduction in the sedimentological connectivity of hillslopes and tributaries with the axial channel that occurred during logging operations.

  3. Skeletal deformities in smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieui, from southern Appalachian reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Avyle, M.J.; Garvick, S.J.; Blazer, V.S.; Hamilton, S.J.; Brumbaugh, W.G.

    1989-09-01

    Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) populations in two of five reservoirs sampled in the southern Appalachian Mountains contained high percentages of individuals with lordosis, kyphosis, or scoliosis. Deformities of the vertebral column occurred in several year classes and varied with fish size; they were absent in small fish, present in 25-30% of the fish 241-300 mm long, and then decreased in occurrence with increased length. Because environmental contamination is often responsible for high occurrences of deformed fish, whole-body concentrations of contaminants, bone development characteristics, and blood plasma concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in normal and deformed fish were measured and compared the results with those for fish from reservoirs where no deformities were found. Vertebrae were significantly weaker and more elastic in deformed than in normal fish, but biochemical properties of vertebrae were similar among the groups tested. Concentrations of pesticides and metals were not elevated in deformed fish, and concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in blood plasma were similar in normal and deformed groups. Most environmental contaminants that have been shown to cause fish deformities could be discounted as causative agents on the basis of these results; however, the exact cause was not determined. Further attempts to diagnose the cause of the deformities were limited by the lack of background information on relationships among bone development processes, types of stresses that cause deformities, and types of bone tissue in fish.

  4. Petroleum resource assessment, Paleozoic successions of the St. Lawrence Platform and Appalachians of eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavoie, D.; Pinet, N.; Dietrich, J.; Hannigan, P; Castonguay, S.; Hamblin, A.P.; Giles, P.

    2009-07-01

    This paper provided an assessment of the petroleum resource found in the Paleozoic successions of the St. Lawrence Platform and the Appalachians of eastern Canada. The Cambrian-Permian successions in eastern Canada belong to 3 tectonostratigraphic domains, each with its own unique source rock, reservoir units, and trap types. All the basins contain producing or discovered hydrocarbon fields, but their ultimate oil and gas resource potential had not been evaluated recently. In the Palaeozoic strata, 15 conventional petroleum plays and 3 unconventional gas plays have been recognized, but a large number of the conventional and all the unconventional plays cannot be quantitatively assessed. For this reason, the total resource presented in the paper is a minimum potential, as evidence for hydrocarbon charge is compelling in most of the qualitatively assessed plays. The assessment results enhance the understanding of the energy resource endowment of Paleozoic basins in eastern Canada. The large gas potential of Carboniferous basins was found to be much higher than previously estimated. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Predicting release and aquatic effects of total dissolved solids from Appalachian USA coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. L. Daniels; C. E. Zipper; Z. W. Orndorff

    2014-01-01

    Appalachian USA coal mines have been implicated as major stressors to aquatic life in headwater streams via discharge of total dissolved solids (TDS). This paper summarizes column leaching studies of spoils (n [ 50) and refuse and TDS effects on local water quality and biotic response. The initial pH of most materials is near-neutral. Initial specific conductance (SC) values range from 500–1,000 to [3,000 ls/cm, but 2/3 of materials drop below 500 ls/cm after several pore volumes of leaching. Studies of mining-influenced streams have found altered aquatic life, relative to natural conditions with no mining influence, at SC ranging from*200 to*700 ls/cm with depressed aquatic life consistently associated with elevated TDS;mechanisms causing such effects are under investigation. We suggest that active mine operations should be modified to place high TDS producing materials in ways that reduce contact with percolating drainage waters.

  6. Digital resource modeling of the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions: Top producing coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Jenkins, J.; Tully, J. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The US Geological Survey is currently conducting a coal resource assessment of the coal beds and zones that are expected to provide the bulk of the Nation`s coal resources for the next few decades. In partnership with the state geologic surveys of Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Maryland, six coal beds will be digitally assessed in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal region. In ascending stratigraphic order, the beds which range from the Lower Pennsylvanian Pocahontas Formation to the Upper Pennsylvanian Monongahela Group are the Pocahontas No. 3, Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Lower Kittanning, Upper Freeport, and Pittsburgh coals. Comprehensive stratigraphic and geochemical databases have been developed for the coal beds. Maps that show the extent and mined areas of the beds, structure contour, isopach, and overburden thickness have been compiled for the Pittsburgh coal bed and are in preparation for the other coal beds. The resource model for the Pittsburgh coal bed indicates that of the original 33.6 billion short tons (30.5 billion tonnes) of Pittsburgh coal, approximately 15.9 billion short tons (14.4 billion tonnes) remain. The remaining coal is, however, higher in ash and sulfur, and generally thinner and under thicker overburden cover.

  7. Ten shades of black

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in $(3+1)$-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat $(2+1)$-dimensional spacetimes. In this essay we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine $(3+1)$-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the $(3+1)$-dimensional black holes effectively behave as p...

  8. Evidence for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138

  9. Black hole statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantum statistics of charged, extremal black holes is investigated beginning with the hypothesis that the quantum state is a functional on the space of closed three-geometries, with each black hole connected to an oppositely charged black hole through a spatial wormhole. From this starting point a simple argument is given that a collection of extremal black holes obeys neither Bose nor Fermi statistics. Rather, they obey an exotic variety of particle statistics known as ''infinite statistics'' which resembles that of distinguishable particles and is realized by a q deformation of the quantum commutation relations

  10. Antigravity and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdukovic, D

    2006-01-01

    We speculate about impact of antigravity (i.e. gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter) on the creation and emission of particles by a black hole. If antigravity is present a black hole made of matter may radiate particles as a black body, but this shouldn't be true for antiparticles. It may lead to radical change of radiation process predicted by Hawking and should be taken into account in preparation of the attempt to create and study mini black holes at CERN. Gravity, including antigravity is more than ever similar to electrodynamics and such similarity with a successfully quantized interaction may help in quantization of gravity.

  11. Deforming regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have deformed regular black holes which possess a general mass term described by a function which generalizes the Bardeen and Hayward mass terms. Using linear constraints in the energy-momentum tensor, the solutions are either regular or singular. That is, with this approach, it is possible to generate singular black holes from regular black holes and vice versa. Moreover, contrary to the Bardeen and Hayward regular solutions, the regular deformed metrics may violate the weak energy condition despite the presence of the spherical symmetry. Some comments on accretion of deformed black holes in cosmological scenarios are made.

  12. Black stain - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronay, Valerie; Attin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to summarise the fundamentals about black stain, its diagnosis and possible differential diagnoses as well as its microbiology and therapy. In addition, various studies investigating the relationship between black stain and dental caries are examined. Many studies report lower caries prevalence in children with black stain, but this finding could not be confirmed by all authors. Also, a negative relation between degree of staining and caries severity has been described. Reasons for these results are not yet clear but it was speculated that they are related to the specific oral microflora described in black stain-affected individuals. PMID:21594205

  13. "Black Capitalism": Toward Controlled Development of Black America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.

    1969-01-01

    Argues in favor of the connotation of the term "Black capitalism as the accumulation of capital resources by the Black people in a collective fashion for the benefit of the masses of Black people. (RJ)

  14. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for instance, the UK

  15. Rotating Brane World Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Modgil, Moninder Singh; Panda, Sukanta; Sengupta, Gautam

    2001-01-01

    A five dimensional rotating black string in a Randall-Sundrum brane world is considered. The black string intercepts the three brane in a four dimensional rotating black hole. The geodesic equations and the asymptotics in this background are discussed.

  16. “The Woman Warrior versus The Chinaman Pacific: Must a Chinese American Critic Choose between Feminism and Heroism?” Conflicts in Feminism. Ed. Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller. New York: Routledge, 1990. 234-251

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, KK

    1991-01-01

    The chapter examines the tension between white feminism and ethnic feminism as well as between men and women in Asian American literary circles. Specifically it addresses Frank Chin’s attack on Maxine Hong Kingston over her depiction of Chinese sexism in The Woman Warrior and my own position as a literary critic torn between cultural nationalism and feminism. Using the opening of Kingston’s “China Men” as my point of departure, I urge Asian American men who feel “emasculated” by white culture...

  17. Evolution of massive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Volonteri, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Supermassive black holes are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies. Accretion of gas and black hole mergers play a fundamental role in determining the two parameters defining a black hole: mass and spin. I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I'll discuss black hole formation processes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and how massive black hole evolve in a hierarchical Universe...

  18. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface ...

  19. Carbon black recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process and apparatus for recovering carbon black from hot smoke which comprises passing the smoke through a cyclone separation zone following cooling, then through aggregate filter beds and regeneration of filter beds with clean off-gas which is recycled to the carbon black reaction zone as quench

  20. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t - r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  1. Noncommutative Singular Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Mehdipour, S.

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.

  2. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  3. Black holes in inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.

    1997-08-01

    We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.

  4. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  5. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  6. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  7. Fluctuating Black Hole Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  8. Appalachian region oilfield reeservoir investigations, Glade, Clarendon, and Gartland Sands, Morrison Run Field, Mead Township, Warren County, Pa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whieldon, Jr., C.E.

    1966-09-01

    The Bureau of Mines is investigating the susceptibility of selected pressure-depleted Appalachian region oil reservoirs to more intensify recovery methods. This article is the 18th in a series and presents information on a 1,250 ft.-deep well in the Morrison Run Field, Lot 460, Mead Township, Warren County, Pa. A 3-1/2-in.-diameter diamond-rotary core was cut with water-base mud from the well. Core-analysis data and well logs are presented along with the geology and a brief oilfield history of the area.

  9. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, Robert D

    2005-11-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our

  10. Using Silviculture to Influence Carbon Sequestration in Southern Appalachian Spruce-Fir Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Moore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural modification of stand density is one strategy for increasing carbon (C sequestration. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator, the effects of even-aged, uneven-aged and no-action management scenarios on C sequestration in a southern Appalachian red spruce-Fraser fir forest were modeled. We explicitly considered C stored in standing forest stocks and the fate of forest products derived from harvesting. Over a 100-year simulation period the even-aged scenario (250 Mg C ha1 outperformed the no-action scenario (241 Mg C ha1 in total carbon (TC sequestered. The uneven-aged scenario approached 220 Mg C ha1, but did not outperform the no-action scenario within the simulation period. While the average annual change in C (AAC of the no-action scenario approached zero, or carbon neutral, during the simulation, both the even-aged and uneven-aged scenarios surpassed the no-action by year 30 and maintained positive AAC throughout the 100-year simulation. This study demonstrates that silvicultural treatment of forest stands can increase potential C storage, but that careful consideration of: (1 accounting method (i.e., TC versus AAC; (2 fate of harvested products and; (3 length of the planning horizon (e.g., 100 years will strongly influence the evaluation of C sequestration.

  11. Current perspectives on unconventional shale gas extraction in the Appalachian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David J; Stolz, John F

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian Basin is home to three major shales, the Upper Devonian, Marcellus, and Utica. Together, they contain significant quantities of tight oil, gas, and mixed hydrocarbons. The Marcellus alone is estimated to contain upwards of 500 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. The extraction of these deposits is facilitated by a combination of horizontal drilling and slick water stimulation (e.g., hydraulic fracturing) or "fracking." The process of fracking requires large volumes of water, proppant, and chemicals as well as a large well pad (3-7 acres) and an extensive network of gathering and transmission pipelines. Drilling can generate about 1,000 tons of drill cuttings depending on the depth of the formation and the length of the horizontal bore. The flowback and produced waters that return to the surface during production are high in total dissolved solids (TDS, 60,000-350,000 mg L(-1)) and contain halides (e.g., chloride, bromide, fluoride), strontium, barium, and often naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) as well as organics. The condensate tanks used to store these fluids can off gas a plethora of volatile organic compounds. The waste water, with its high TDS may be recycled, treated, or disposed of through deep well injection. Where allowed, open impoundments used for recycling are a source of air borne contamination as they are often aerated. The gas may be "dry" (mostly methane) or "wet," the latter containing a mixture of light hydrocarbons and liquids that need to be separated from the methane. Although the wells can produce significant quantities of natural gas, from 2-7 bcf, their initial decline rates are significant (50-75%) and may cease to be economic within a few years. This review presents an overview of unconventional gas extraction highlighting the environmental impacts and challenges. PMID:25734820

  12. School-Based Screening of the Dietary Intakes of Third-Graders in Rural Appalachian Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Jana A.; McLeod, Sara M.; Duffrin, Melani W.; Johanson, George; Berryman, Darlene E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children in Appalachia are experiencing high levels of obesity, in large measure because of inferior diets. This study screened the dietary intake of third-graders residing in three rural Appalachian counties in Ohio and determined whether the Food, Math, and Science Teaching Enhancement Resource Initiative (FoodMASTER) curriculum improved their dietary intake. METHODS Dietary intake was measured for 238 third-graders at the beginning of the 2007-2008 school year and for 224 third-graders at the end of that year. The FoodMASTER curriculum was delivered to 204 students (test group). Intake was measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire 2004. The final analysis included 138 students. RESUTS The FoodMASTER curriculum did not significantly affect the diets of the students in the test group, as no significant differences in intake of macronutrients, specific nutrients, or food groups were found between the test and control groups. Majorities of students did not meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intakes for fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin E. The students as a whole did not meet the MyPyramid recommendations for any food group, and nearly one-fifth of their calories came from sweets. Significant differences in percentages of kilocalories from protein and sweets and in servings of fats, oils, and sweets were seen between groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Energy-dense foods are replacing healthy foods in the diets of Ohio children living in rural Appalachia. The prevalence of poor dietary intake in Appalachia warrants further nutrition interventions involving programming for nutrition, such as future FoodMASTER curricula. PMID:21039552

  13. Soil Carbon Dynamics Along an Elevation Gradient in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-04-13

    The role of soil C dynamics in the exchange of CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is at the center of many science questions related to global climate change. The purpose of this report is to summarize measured trends in environmental factors and ecosystem processes that affect soil C balance along elevation gradients in the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina, USA. Three environmental factors that have potentially significant effects on soil C dynamics (temperature, precipitation, and soil N availability) vary in a predictable manner with altitude. Forest soil C stocks and calculated turnover times of labile soil C increase with elevation, and there is an apparent inverse relationship between soil C storage and mean annual temperature. Relationships between climate variables and soil C dynamics along elevation gradients must be interpreted with caution because litter chemistry, soil moisture, N availability, and temperature are confounded; all potentially interact in complex ways to regulate soil C storage through effects on decomposition. Some recommendations are presented for untangling these complexities. It is concluded that past studies along elevation gradients have contributed to a better but not complete understanding of environmental factors and processes that potentially affect soil C balance. Furthermore, there are advantages linked to the use of elevation gradients as an approach to climate change research when hypotheses are placed in a strong theoretical or mechanistic framework. Climate change research along elevation gradients can be both convenient and economical. More importantly, ecosystem processes and attributes affecting soil C dynamics along elevation gradients are usually the product of the long-term interactions between climate, vegetation, and soil type. Investigations along elevation gradients are a useful approach to the study of environmental change, and its effect

  14. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Niemiller

    Full Text Available Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species and 20% of stygobionts (eight species known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV. Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in

  15. Patterns of cave biodiversity and endemism in the Appalachians and Interior Plateau of Tennessee, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiller, Matthew L; Zigler, Kirk S

    2013-01-01

    Using species distribution data, we developed a georeferenced database of troglobionts (cave-obligate species) in Tennessee to examine spatial patterns of species richness and endemism, including >2000 records for 200 described species. Forty aquatic troglobionts (stygobionts) and 160 terrestrial troglobionts are known from caves in Tennessee, the latter having the greatest diversity of any state in the United States. Endemism was high, with 25% of terrestrial troglobionts (40 species) and 20% of stygobionts (eight species) known from just a single cave and nearly two-thirds of all troglobionts (130 species) known from five or fewer caves. Species richness and endemism were greatest in the Interior Plateau (IP) and Southwestern Appalachians (SWA) ecoregions, which were twice as diverse as the Ridge and Valley (RV). Troglobiont species assemblages were most similar between the IP and SWA, which shared 59 species, whereas the RV cave fauna was largely distinct. We identified a hotspot of cave biodiversity with a center along the escarpment of the Cumberland Plateau in south-central Tennessee defined by both species richness and endemism that is contiguous with a previously defined hotspot in northeastern Alabama. Nearly half (91 species) of Tennessee's troglobiont diversity occurs in this region where several cave systems contain ten or more troglobionts, including one with 23 species. In addition, we identified distinct troglobiont communities across the state. These communities corresponded to hydrological boundaries and likely reflect past or current connectivity between subterranean habitats within and barriers between hydrological basins. Although diverse, Tennessee's subterranean fauna remains poorly studied and many additional species await discovery and description. We identified several undersampled regions and outlined conservation and management priorities to improve our knowledge and aid in protection of the subterranean biodiversity in Tennessee. PMID

  16. Soil Carbon Dynamics in Residential Lawns Converted from Appalachian Mixed Oak Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad D. Campbell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of unmanaged forest land to homesites dominated by managed turfgrass lawns continues to increase and has large potential impacts on biogeochemical cycling. The conversion process from forest into mowed turfgrass involves a major disturbance to soil properties and shift in ecological conditions, which could affect soil physical, chemical and biological properties, including carbon sequestration. We conducted a study on 64 residential properties, ranging from 5 to 52 years since development, to compare soil carbon content, bulk density, temperature, and moisture, between lawns and the surrounding forests from which they were converted. Homeowners were surveyed on lawn management practices and environmental attitudes, and the relationships between these and soil properties were investigated. Soil bulk density was significantly higher in the upper 10 cm of lawns compared to adjacent forest (35% higher at 0–5 cm and 15.6% higher at 5–10 cm. Total soil C content to 30 cm of lawn (6.5 kg C m−2 and forest (7.1 kg C m−2 marginally differed (p = 0.08, and lawns contained significantly greater C (0.010 g C cm−3 than forests (0.007 g C cm−3 at the 20–30 cm soil depth (p = 0.0137. In the lawns, there was a positive relationship between time since development and surface (0–5 cm C concentration (p = 0.04, but a negative relationship at 20–30 cm (p = 0.03. Surface soils also exhibited a positive correlation between fertilization frequency and C (p = 0.0005 content. Lawn management intensity (fertilizer and pesticide use increased with environmental commitment. Homeowners with a higher environmental commitment had lawns with greater soil carbon levels. Our results indicate that converting unmanaged Appalachian hardwood forest into managed, turfgrass-dominated residential landscapes may affect C depth distribution, but results in little change in total soil carbon sequestration in the upper 30 cm.

  17. Quantifying Age-Related Hydraulic and Biochemical Constraints on Tree Photosynthesis in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missik, J.; Benson, M. C.; Oishi, A. C.; Novick, K. A.; Miniat, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest carbon accumulation generally declines with age, a trend largely attributed to reductions in gross primary production (GPP). However, for many species, uncertainty remains about the specific mechanisms limiting GPP. We examine both tree hydraulic and biochemical parameters affecting carbon uptake across a successional gradient in the southern Appalachian Mountains, utilizing a chronosequence approach with 5-, 10-, and 85-year old forest stands. We conducted measurements on four of the dominant species in the region: Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula lenta, Acer rubrum, and Quercus alba. To assess biochemical photosynthetic capacity, we estimated Vcmax and Jmax from over 140 gas exchange A/Ci curves. We determined that leaf gas exchange measurements performed on excised branches of A. saccharum, L. tulipifera, and Q. alba significantly underestimated assimilation by 35, 26, and 63% on average, respectively. Therefore, A/Ci measurements were performed on in situ canopy branches, using an 18 m boom lift to access the tallest trees. We examine how these photosynthetic parameters vary with age, height, and foliar nitrogen content among tree species and canopy positions. In order to investigate hydraulic factors driving stomatal behavior and therefore carbon uptake, we collected measurements of mid-day and pre-dawn leaf water potential (ψmd and ψpd) and xylem cavitation vulnerability. Preliminary results suggest that ψmd-ψpd decreases with along the chronosequence in anisohydric species, whereas ψmd-ψpd increases or remains stable with age/height in isohydric species. These data will be analyzed together with site- and species-specific hydraulic vulnerability data to assess whether the hydraulic safety margin changes with tree age/height, and explore how these patterns vary among species representing different xylem anatomies and a range of isohydric/anisohydric water management strategies. These results will provide improved estimates of common parameters in

  18. Assessing effects of stocked trout on nongame fish assemblages in southern Appalachian Mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries managers are faced with the challenge of balancing the management of recreational fisheries with that of conserving native species and preserving ecological integrity. The negative effects that nonnative trout species exert on native trout are well documented and include alteration of competitive interactions, habitat use, and production. However, the effects that nonnative trout may exert on nongame fish assemblages are poorly understood. Our objectives were to quantify the effects of trout stocking on native nongame fish assemblages intensively on one newly stocked river, the North Toe River, North Carolina, and extensively on other southern Appalachian Mountain streams that are annually stocked with trout. In the intensive study, we adopted a before-after, control-impact (BACI) experimental design to detect short-term effects on the nongame fish assemblage and found no significant differences in fish density, species richness, species diversity, or fish microhabitat use associated with trout stocking. We observed differences in fish microhabitat use between years, however, which suggests there is a response to environmental changes, such as the flow regime, which influence available habitat. In the extensive study, we sampled paired stocked and unstocked stream reaches to detect long-term effects from trout stocking; however, we detected no differences in nongame fish density, species richness, species diversity, or population size structure between paired sites. Our results revealed high inherent system variation caused by natural and anthropogenic factors that appear to overwhelm any acute or chronic effect of stocked trout. Furthermore, hatchery-reared trout may be poor competitors in a natural setting and exert a minimal or undetectable impact on native fish assemblages in these streams. These findings provide quantitative results necessary to assist agencies in strategic planning and decision making associated with trout fisheries, stream

  19. Black Youth Unemployment and the Black Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Linus A.

    This paper analyzes the results of a survey conducted to ascertain the attitudes of 400 employers, youth, and academic/community professionals in Los Angeles, Chicago and Washington, D.C., toward an approach to Black youth unemployment centered on the creation of jobs and training among minority businesses in selected metropolitan areas. Minority…

  20. The Black Family in American Economy: Black Capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeocha, Peter A.

    Black capitalism that is well planned and run is a source of enumerable benefits to the American society in general and to blacks in particular. It generates opportunities for blacks to perform in occupations which for many years were closed to them. For hundreds of years blacks have been despised and often looked down upon on account of the fact…

  1. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  2. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  3. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production

  4. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Chang-Young, Ee; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field using the Moyal product expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in the two noncommutative spatial directions. By numerical simulation we look for black hole solutions by increasing the non- commutativity parameter value starting from regular solutions with vanishing noncommutativity. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  5. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  6. Reflection from black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchiev, M Yu

    2003-01-01

    Black holes are presumed to have an ideal ability to absorb and keep matter. Whatever comes close to the event horizon, a boundary separating the inside region of a black hole from the outside world, inevitably goes in and remains inside forever. This work shows, however, that quantum corrections make possible a surprising process, reflection: a particle can bounce back from the event horizon. For low energy particles this process is efficient, black holes behave not as holes, but as mirrors, which changes our perception of their physical nature. Possible ways for observations of the reflection and its relation to the Hawking radiation process are outlined.

  7. Scalarized hairy black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn

  8. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  9. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  10. On Noncommutative Black Holes Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir; Ulhoa, S C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze noncommutative deformation of the Schwarzschild black holes and Kerr black holes. We will perform our analysis by relating the commutative and the noncommutative metrics using an Moyal product. We will also analyze the thermodynamics of these noncommutative black hole solutions. We will explicitly derive expression for the corrected entropy and temperature of these black hole solutions.

  11. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  12. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  13. The Thermodynamics of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Wald Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.

  14. Black Writers' Views of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Joyce

    1979-01-01

    Black literature of the 1960s reflected protest and an affirmation of Black power and Black consciousness. The 1970s have produced a counterwave in which Blacks, in order to achieve literary and financial recognition, have begun to focus less on race and social criticism and more on conservative and narcissistic themes. (Author/EB)

  15. Incorporating 3-D parent nuclide zonation for apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry: An example from the Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Matthew; McKeon, Ryan E.; Shuster, David L.

    2014-11-01

    ability to constrain km-scale exhumation with apatite 4He/3He thermochronometry is well established and the technique has been applied to a range of tectonic and geomorphic problems. However, multiple sources of uncertainty in specific crystal characteristics limit the applicability of the method, especially when geologic problems require identifying small perturbations in a cooling path. Here we present new 4He/3He thermochronometric data from the Appalachian Mountains, which indicate significant parent nuclide zonation in an apatite crystal. Using LA-ICPMS measurements of U and Th in the same crystal, we design a 3-D model of the crystal to explore the effects of intracrystal variability in radiation damage accumulation. We describe a numerical approach to solve the 3-D production-diffusion equation. Using our numerical model and a previously determined time temperature path for this part of the Appalachians, we find excellent agreement between predicted and observed 4He/3He spectra. Our results confirm this time-temperature path and highlight that for complex U and Th zonation patterns, 3-D numerical models are required to infer an accurate time-temperature history. In addition, our results provide independent and novel evidence for a radiation damage control on diffusivity. The ability to exploit intracrystal differences in 4He diffusivity [i.e., temperature sensitivity) greatly increases the potential to infer complex thermal histories.

  16. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Capo, Rosemary C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Stewart, Brian W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Hedin, Robert S. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weaver, Theodore J. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Edenborn, Harry M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  17. Influence of topography on the effects of longwall mining on shallow aquifers in the Appalachian coal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that networks of monitoring wells were established prior to mining at four longwall mine sites in the Appalachians to monitor the effect of mining on water levels, water quality and well yield. Two of the sites were located in stream valleys and the other two sites were located on hilltops. The depth to the mined seam ranged from 500-850 feet with the deeper cover being associated with the hilltop sites. Maximum declines in groundwater levels during and after mining were an order of magnitude less in the stream valley aquifers than in the hilltop aquifers. However, water levels in hilltop wells located outside the area immediately above the panel were unaffected. Water quality changes in wells as a result of longwall mining were negligible at all four sites. Increases in aquifer transmissivity and well yield were much more pronounced in the stream valley aquifers than in the hilltop aquifers. The significantly larger recharge area for the stream valley aquifers than that for the hilltop aquifers may partially account for the differing responses of these two classes of aquifers to longwall mining. These observations appear to be consistent with the stress-relief fracture model for Appalachian Plateau groundwater hydrology proposed by Wyrick and Borchers in 1981

  18. Topics in black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process

  19. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In four space-time dimensions black holes of Einstein-Maxwell theory satisfy a number of theorems. In more than four space-time dimensions, however, some of the properties of black holes can change. In particular, uniqueness of black holes no longer holds. In five and more dimensions black rings arise. Thus in a certain region of the phase diagram there are three black objects with the same global charges present. Here we discuss properties of higher-dimensional vacuum and charged black holes, which possess a spherical horizon topology, and of vacuum and charged black rings, which have a ringlike horizon topology

  20. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  1. “It's Just a Way of Fitting In:” Tobacco Use and the Lived Experience of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Keisa; Ricks, JaNelle M.; Howell, Britteny M.

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people are affected by multiple health disparities and risk factors, including tobacco use. Few studies to date have examined tobacco use specifically in rural LGB populations, and none has investigated the intersections of identity, rural LGB culture, and tobacco. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspective of Appalachian LGB people regarding tobacco use.

  2. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  3. Assessing Lost Ecosystem Service Benefits Due to Mining-Induced Stream Degradation in the Appalachian Region: Economic Approaches to Valuing Recreational Fishing Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sport fishing is a popular activity for Appalachian residents and visitors. The region’s coldwater streams support a strong regional outdoor tourism industry. We examined the influence of surface coal mining, in the context of other stressors, on freshwater sport fishing in...

  4. Characterization of major-ion chemistry and nutrients in headwater streams along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and within adjacent watersheds, Maine to Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argue, Denise M.; Pope, Jason P.; Dieffenbach, Fred

    2012-01-01

    An inventory of water-quality data on field parameters, major ions, and nutrients provided a summary of water quality in headwater (first- and second-order) streams within watersheds along the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (Appalachian Trail). Data from 1,817 sampling sites in 831 catchments were used for the water-quality summary. Catchment delineations from NHDPlus were used as the fundamental geographic units for this project. Criteria used to evaluate sampling sites for inclusion were based on selected physical attributes of the catchments adjacent to the Appalachian Trail, including stream elevation, percentage of developed land cover, and percentage of agricultural land cover. The headwater streams of the Appalachian Trail are generally dilute waters, with low pH, low acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), and low concentrations of nutrients. The median pH value was slightly acidic at 6.7; the median specific conductance value was 23.6 microsiemens per centimeter, and the median ANC value was 98.7 milliequivalents per liter (μeq/L). Median concentrations of cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) were each less than 1.5 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and median concentrations of anions (bicarbonate, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and nitrate) were less than 10 mg/L. Differences in water-quality constituent levels along the Appalachian Trail may be related to elevation, atmospheric deposition, geology, and land cover. Spatial variations were summarized by ecological sections (ecosections) developed by the U.S. Forest Service. Specific conductance, pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions (calcium, chloride, magnesium, sodium, and sulfate) were all negatively correlated with elevation. The highest elevation ecosections (White Mountains, Blue Ridge Mountains, and Allegheny Mountains) had the lowest pH, ANC, and concentrations of major ions. The lowest elevation ecosections (Lower New England and Hudson Valley) generally had the highest pH, ANC, and

  5. Introducing the Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  6. Black Widow Spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dling boxes, firewood, lumber, and rocks, etc. The black widow is commonly found in the following places: • Outdoors - woodpiles, rubble piles, under stones, in hol- low stumps, and in rodent burrows, privies, sheds ...

  7. Black Sea aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipboard, high volume air particulate samples were collected from the Black Sea atmosphere and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ion chromatography for about 40 elements and ions. Concentrations of elements in the eastern and western parts of the Black Sea are different at the 95% confidence level, with lower concentrations in the eastern Black Sea. Back-trajectories and concentrations of elements in trajectory groups show that Europe accounts for more than 70% of the anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere. The average sulfate concentration was 7 μg/m3, which is comparable with rural sulfate levels in western Europe. Fluxes of elements from the atmosphere to the Black Sea are in good agreement with the results of similar flux calculations for other regions

  8. Black Friday = Broget Branding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Black Friday er et godt eksempel på, hvordan ikke kun produktbrands og corporate brands rejser på tværs af landegrænser, men også traditioner som Halloween, Valentines Day og i dette tilfælde den ultimative tilbuds-fredag, som i USA går under navnet Black Friday. Men hvad er Black Friday i Danmark......? Essensen ved Black Friday er lave priser, og det er der ved første øjekast ikke mange brandingmuligheder forbundet ved, hvis man forstår branding som en måde at skabe ekstra værdi omkring sit produkt eller sin virksomhed. Som brand bliver man dog alligevel nødt til at forholde sig til konceptet, da det er...

  9. Black holes in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review we shall concentrate on the application of the concept of black hole to different areas in astrophysics. Models in which this idea is involved are connected with basically two areas in astrophysics: a) The death of massive stars due to gravitational collapse. This process would lead to the formation of black holes with stellar masses (10-20 M sun). The detection of these kind of - objects is in principle possible, by means of studying the so-called X-ray binary system. b) Active nuclei of galaxies, including quasars as an extreme case. In this case, the best model available to explain the generation of the enormous amounts of energy observed as well as several other properties, is accretion into a supermassive black hole (106-1010 M sun) in the center. The problem of the origin of such black holes is related to cosmology. (author)

  10. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  11. Quantum Black Holes as Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.

    1997-01-01

    In some respects the black hole plays the same role in gravitation that the atom played in the nascent quantum mechanics. This analogy suggests that black hole mass $M$ might have a discrete spectrum. I review the physical arguments for the expectation that black hole horizon area eigenvalues are uniformly spaced, or equivalently, that the spacing between stationary black hole mass levels behaves like 1/M. This sort of spectrum has also emerged in a variety of formal approaches to black hole ...

  12. Cosmological Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Stornaiolo, Cosimo

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model for the formation of the cosmological voids. We show that cosmological voids can form directly after the collapse of extremely large wavelength perturbations into low-density black holes or cosmological black holes (CBH). Consequently the voids are formed by the comoving expansion of the matter that surrounds the collapsed perturbation. It follows that the universe evolves, in first approximation, according to the Einstein-Straus cosmological model. We discuss...

  13. Quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No particle theory can be complete without gravity. Einstein's theory of gravity is of the Euler-Lagrange form, but standard quantization procedure fails. In quantum gravity the higher order interactions have a dimensionality different form the fundamental ones, because Newton's constant G has dimensions and the renormalization procedure fails. Another problem with quantum gravity is even more mysterious. Suppose that we had regularized the gravitational forces at the small distance end in the way that the weak intermediate vector boson regularized the fundamental 4-fermion interaction vertex of the weak interactions. Then what we discover is that the gravitational forces are unstable. Given sufficiently large amount of matter, it can collapse under its own weight. Classical general relativity tells us what will happen: a black hole is formed. But how is this formulated in quantum theory. S. Hawking observed that when a field theory is quantized in the background metric of a black hole, the black hole actually emits particles in a completely random thermal way. Apparently black holes are just another form of matter unstable against Hawking decay. Unfortunately this picture cannot be complete. The problem is that the quantum version of black holes has infinite phase space, and other symptoms of a run-away solution. Black holes are the heaviest and most compact forms of matter that can be imagined. A complete particle theory can have nothing but a spectrum of black-hole like objects at it high-energy end. This is why it is believed that a resolution of the black hole problem will in time disclose the complete small-distance structure of our world. 6 references

  14. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temp...

  15. Black hairy tongue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although ...

  16. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  17. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  18. Structural style of the Appalachian Plateau fold belt, north-central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Van S.

    2014-12-01

    New seismic and well data from hydrocarbon exploration and development activity associated with the Marcellus Formation shale gas play in north-central Pennsylvania provide insight to the structural style of the Appalachian Plateau fold belt in the region north and northwest of the Allegheny structural front in Potter, Tioga, Bradford, Sullivan, Lycoming, Clinton and Centre counties. The Plateau fold belt in this area developed over a detachment in Upper Silurian Salina Group evaporites during the Permian Alleghanian Orogeny in response to north-northwest directed shortening. At the Allegheny structural front, a deep detachment in Cambrian shales that underlies the Valley and Ridge province to the south-southeast, ramps up-section through Cambro-Ordovician carbonates and Lower-Middle Silurian clastics to a shallow detachment in Upper Silurian evaporites. At the northeastern plunge of the Nittany Anticline (south and east of Williamsport, PA), only a small amount of slip is interpreted to have been transmitted into the foreland on the shallow Upper Silurian detachment. Instead most slip was consumed in fault-propagation folds immediately north of the Allegheny structural front. The Plateau fold belt, developed above the Upper Silurian evaporites, can be divided into structural domains based on fold characteristics. Domain 1 folds have short wavelengths and low amplitudes. Domain 2 salt-cored anticlines have long wavelengths and large amplitudes. Domain 3 comprises large synclines, located between Domain 2 anticlines. Halite originally beneath Domain 3 synclines is interpreted to have been mobilized, or evacuated, into the cores of adjacent Domain 2 anticlines during folding. Seismic data indicate that the base of the salt detachment underlying Plateau folds is a non-planar, stepped surface. Possible scenarios for the development of the non-planar detachment include: 1) mobilization of halite from an evaporite sequence that contained an originally non

  19. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  20. Forest tree growth response to hydroclimate variability in the southern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katherine J; Miniat, Chelcy F; Pederson, Neil; Laseter, Stephanie H

    2015-12-01

    Climate change will affect tree species growth and distribution; however, under the same climatic conditions species may differ in their response according to site conditions. We evaluated the climate-driven patterns of growth for six dominant deciduous tree species in the southern Appalachians. We categorized species into two functional groups based on their stomatal regulation and xylem architecture: isohydric, diffuse porous and anisohydric, ring porous. We hypothesized that within the same climatic regime: (i) species-specific differences in growth will be conditional on topographically mediated soil moisture availability; (ii) in extreme drought years, functional groups will have markedly different growth responses; and (iii) multiple hydroclimate variables will have direct and indirect effects on growth for each functional group. We used standardized tree-ring chronologies to examine growth of diffuse-porous (Acer, Liriodendron, and Betula) and ring-porous (Quercus) species vs. on-site climatic data from 1935 to 2003. Quercus species growing on upslope sites had higher basal area increment (BAI) than Quercus species growing on mesic, cove sites; whereas, Acer and Liriodendron had lower BAI on upslope compared to cove sites. Diffuse-porous species were more sensitive to climate than ring porous, especially during extreme drought years. Across functional groups, radial growth was more sensitive to precipitation distribution, such as small storms and dry spell length (DSL), rather than the total amount of precipitation. Based on structural equation modeling, diffuse-porous species on upslope sites were the most sensitive to multiple hydroclimate variables (r(2)  = 0.46), while ring-porous species on upslope sites were the least sensitive (r(2)  = 0.32). Spring precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, and summer storms had direct effects on summer AET/P, and summer AET/P, growing season small storms and DSL partially explained growth. Decreasing numbers of

  1. Forage systems for cow-calf production in the Appalachian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglia, G; Swecker, W S; Fontenot, J P; Fiske, D; Fike, J H; Abaye, A O; Peterson, P R; Clapham, W; Hall, J B

    2008-08-01

    Small cow-calf operations are common in the Appalachian region. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire] is the dominant forage in these systems for direct grazing as well as for stockpiling. The present study was conducted from 2001 to 2005. A total of 108 Angus and Angus crossbred cows were allotted randomly to 6 forage systems and then to 3 replicates within each system. In brief, system 1 had a stocking rate of 0.91 ha/cow in a Middleburg 3-paddock (A, B, and C) system. System 2 was similar to system 1 except for a stocking rate of 0.71 ha/cow. A stocking rate of 0.71 ha/cow also was used in systems 3 through 6. All A paddocks had tall fescue, whereas B paddocks had tall fescue/white clover (Trifolium repens L.) except in system 6, which had tall fescue/lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don]. System 3 evaluated a 2-paddock (A and B) rotational grazing system, and system 4 evaluated a 3-paddock (A, B, and C) rotational grazing system, with paddock C containing orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Systems 5 and 6 differed from system 2 in the areas of paddocks B and C as well as in the forage mixtures used. In paddock C, system 5 had switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and system 6 had tall fescue and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). System 1 had the greatest average herbage availability from weaning until breeding (P 0.05) in percentage of ground cover were not detected among systems. There was no year x system interaction effect on the cow or calf performance variables evaluated and no treatment effect on cow performance variables. There was a treatment effect on calf performance variables. System 2 produced the greatest adjusted weaning weight, kilograms of calf weaned per hectare, and kilograms of calf per kilograms of cow at weaning (P < 0.05). Numerical ranking for total calf production per hectare from the greatest to least was system 2, 6, 3, 5, 4, and 1. Systems evaluated did not

  2. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  3. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain

    2004-07-08

    The primary goal was to enter Phase 2 by analyzing geophysical logs and sidewall cores from a verification well drilled into the Trenton/Black River section along lineaments. However, the well has not yet been drilled; Phase 2 has therefore not been accomplished. Secondary goals in Phase I were also completed for the last reporting period. Thus, no new data were collected for this reporting period, and only soil gas surveys were reanalyzed and re-displayed in the region of the Trenton/Black River wells. The soil gas profiles in the region of the Trenton/Black River wells show that individual large-magnitude soil gas anomalies (spikes) are rarely wider than 50 m. Even clusters of soil gas spikes are only on the order of 200-250 m wide. Thus, widely-spaced sampling will not necessarily represent the actual number and location of soil gas seeps. The narrowness of the anomalies suggests that the seeps result from single fractures or narrow fracture intensification domains (FIDs). Many of the lineaments from EarthSat (1997) and straight stream segments coincide (or are very close to) soil gas spikes, but we collected many more soil gas spikes than lineaments. Among some of the soil gas box surveys, a possible ENE-trend of spikes can be discerned. This ENE-striking trend is, however, about 10{sup o} away from a nearby Earthsat (1997) trend. These data continue to demonstrate that integration of aeromagnetic and remote sensing lineaments, surface structure, soil gas and seismic allows us to extrapolate Trenton-Black River trends away from confirmatory seismic lines.

  4. Temporal evolution of carbon budgets of the Appalachian forests in the U.S. from 1972 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Liu, S.; Loveland, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Estimating dynamic terrestrial ecosystem carbon (C) sources and sinks over large areas is difficult. The scaling of C sources and sinks from the field level to the regional level has been challenging due to the variations of climate, soil, vegetation, and disturbances. As part of an effort to estimate the spatial, temporal, and sectional dimensions of the United States C sources and sinks (the U.S. Carbon Trends Project), this study estimated the forest ecosystem C sequestration of the Appalachian region (186,000 km2) for the period of 1972-2000 using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) that has a strong capability of assimilating land use and land cover change (LUCC) data. On 82 sampling blocks in the Appalachian region, GEMS used sequential 60 m resolution land cover change maps to capture forest stand-replacing events and used forest inventory data to estimate non-stand-replacing changes. GEMS also used Monte Carlo approaches to deal with spatial scaling issues such as initialization of forest age and soil properties. Ensemble simulations were performed to incorporate the uncertainties of input data. Simulated results show that from 1972 to 2000 the net primary productivity (NPP), net ecosystem productivity (NEP), and net biome productivity (NBP) averaged 6.2 Mg C ha-1 y-1 (??1.1), 2.2 Mg C ha -1 y-1 (??0.6), and 1.8 Mg C ha-1 y -1 (??0.6), respectively. The inter-annual variability was driven mostly by climate. Detailed C budgets for the year 2000 were also calculated. Within a total 148,000 km2 forested area, average forest ecosystem C density was estimated to be 186 Mg C ha-1 (??20), of which 98 Mg C ha-1 (??12) was in biomass and 88 Mg C ha -1 (??13) was in litter and soil. The total simulated C stock of the Appalachian forests was estimated to be 2751 Tg C (??296), including 1454 Tg C (??178) in living biomass and 1297 Tg C (??192) in litter and soil. The total net C sequestration (i.e. NBP) of the forest ecosystem in 2000 was

  5. Assessment of Appalachian basin oil and gas resources: Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System: Chapter G.10 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The Utica-Lower Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) in the Appalachian Basin Province is named for the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, which is the source rock, and for multiple lower Paleozoic sandstone and carbonate units that are the important reservoirs. The total organic carbon (TOC) values for the Utica Shale are usually greater than 1 weight percent. TOC values ranging from 2 to 3 weight percent outline a broad, northeast-trending area that extends across western and southern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, northern West Virginia, and southeastern New York. The Utica Shale is characterized by type II kerogen, which is a variety of kerogen that is typically prone to oil generation. Conondont color-alteration index (CAI) isograds, which are based on samples from the Upper Ordovician Trenton Limestone (or Group), indicate that a pod of mature Utica Shale source rocks occupies most of the TPS.

  6. Virtual black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1996-03-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.

  7. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  8. SECONDARY NATURAL GAS RECOVERY IN THE APPALACHIAN BASIN: APPLICATION OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES IN A FIELD DEMONSTRATION SITE, HENDERSON DOME, WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOB A. HARDAGE; ELOISE DOHERTY; STEPHEN E. LAUBACH; TUCKER F. HENTZ

    1998-08-14

    The principal objectives of this project were to test and evaluate technologies that would result in improved characterization of fractured natural-gas reservoirs in the Appalachian Basin. The Bureau of Economic Geology (Bureau) worked jointly with industry partner Atlas Resources, Inc. to design, execute, and evaluate several experimental tests toward this end. The experimental tests were of two types: (1) tests leading to a low-cost methodology whereby small-scale microfractures observed in matrix grains of sidewall cores can be used to deduce critical properties of large-scale fractures that control natural-gas production and (2) tests that verify methods whereby robust seismic shear (S) waves can be generated to detect and map fractured reservoir facies. The grain-scale microfracture approach to characterizing rock facies was developed in an ongoing Bureau research program that started before this Appalachian Basin study began. However, the method had not been tested in a wide variety of fracture systems, and the tectonic setting of rocks in the Appalachian Basin composed an ideal laboratory for perfecting the methodology. As a result of this Appalachian study, a low-cost commercial procedure now exists that will allow Appalachian operators to use scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of thin sections extracted from oriented sidewall cores to infer the spatial orientation, relative geologic timing, and population density of large-scale fracture systems in reservoir sandstones. These attributes are difficult to assess using conventional techniques. In the Henderson Dome area, large quartz-lined regional fractures having N20E strikes, and a subsidiary set of fractures having N70W strikes, are prevalent. An innovative method was also developed for obtaining the stratigraphic and geographic tops of sidewall cores. With currently deployed sidewall coring devices, no markings from which top orientation can be obtained are made on the sidewall core itself during

  9. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  10. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  11. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  12. On the Dialogic Narrative Technique of The Woman Warrior%《女勇士》的对话性叙事策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏兰; 罗峰

    2012-01-01

    美国华裔小说家汤亭亭的作品《女勇士》一经出版就引发了批评界的激烈争论,作家运用独到的叙事策略,使得文本产生出"对话"的独特艺术效果。本文依据前苏联符号学家巴赫金的"对话"理论,从文本体裁在传记与小说之间的"复调"、母与女"对话"的叙事策略以及赞同式"对话"的二元融合三个方面,努力表明,作者如何实施对话性叙事策略,为各种思想意识构建了一个充分对话的平台,表达了华裔女性作家在展示主体身份的文学创作中,与所在国主流文化进行平等对话的愿望,从而建构了多元互动的全新文化景观。%The novel The Woman Warrior written by the Chinese American woman writer Maxine Song Kingston, aroused heated discussion and even disputes upon being published. With the unique narrative technique, the novel embodies dialogie features. Based on the dialogic theory of Bakhtin, the semiotician of the former Soviet Union, this paper analyzes the polyphony between biography and fiction, the narrative technique in the dialogue between mother and daughter and the binary fusion between the two parties of the dialogue, which provides a platform for different consciousnesses to equally communicate with each other. It reflects the possibility for the American Chinese to have a dialogue with the American mainstream and build a harmonious multicuhural prospect between sexes and races.

  13. Tunneling Through Black Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2007-01-01

    Hawking radiation of black ring solutions to 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory is analyzed by use of the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling method. To get the correct tunneling amplitude and emission rate, we adopt and develop the Angheben-Nadalini-Vanzo-Zerbini covariant approach to cover the effects of rotation and electronic discharge all at once, and the effect of back reaction is also taken into account. This constitutes a unified approach to the tunneling problem. Provided the first law of thermodynamics for black rings holds, the emission rate is proportional to the exponential of the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Explicit calculation for black ring temperatures agrees exactly with the results obtained via the classical surface gravity method and the quasi-local formalism.

  14. Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation Th=(K/2π) connecting the black hole temperature (Th) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one

  15. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746

  16. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a cold, stable remnant

  17. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2013-12-01

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.

  18. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  19. Rotating Black Droplet

    CERN Document Server

    Fischetti, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We construct the gravitational dual, in the Unruh state, of the "jammed" phase of a CFT at strong coupling and infinite N on a fixed five-dimensional rotating Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. When the angular momenta are all zero, the solution corresponds to the five-dimensional generalization of the solution first studied by Figueras, Lucietti, and Wiseman. In the extremal limit, when the angular momenta of the Myers-Perry black hole are maximum, the Unruh, Boulware and Hartle-Hawking states degenerate. We give a detailed analysis of the corresponding holographic stress energy tensor for all values of the angular momenta, finding it to be regular at the horizon in all cases. We compare our results with existent literature on thermal states of free field theories on black hole backgrounds.

  20. Turbulent Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Lehner, Luis

    2014-01-01

    We show that rapidly-spinning black holes can display turbulent gravitational behavior which is mediated by a new type of parametric instability. This instability transfers energy from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies--- a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse energy cascade displayed by 2+1-dimensional turbulent fluids. Our finding reveals a path towards gravitational turbulence for perturbations of rapidly-spinning black holes, and provides the first evidence for gravitational turbulence in an asymptotically flat spacetime. Interestingly, this finding predicts observable gravitational wave signatures from such phenomena in black hole binaries with high spins and gives a gravitational description of turbulence relevant to the fluid-gravity duality.

  1. Turbulent Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability—which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold—akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies—a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2 +1 )-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  2. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ∞≅2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  3. Slowly balding black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-01

    The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  4. Black holes and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome ‘remnants’. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a ‘fuzzball’ structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: ► The information paradox is a serious problem. ► To solve it we need to find ‘hair’ on black holes. ► In string theory we find ‘hair’ by the fuzzball construction. ► Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  5. The Role of Debris Flows in Long-term Denudation and Landscape Evolution in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. S.

    2004-12-01

    Four major storms spanning a 46 year period from 1949 to 1995 that triggered debris flows in the Virginia-West Virginia Appalachians provided new insights into the role of high-magnitude, low-frequency storm events in long-term denudation and landscape evolution in mountainous terrain. Storm denudation measured in five Blue Ridge Mountain drainage basins (mean=3.7 cm) was approximately an order of magnitude greater compared to four basins located in the mountains of the Valley and Ridge province (mean=0.2cm). This difference is probably the result of higher storm rainfall from the Blue Ridge storms. Long-term (103 yrs) denudation rates were estimated using several lines of evidence, including 1) studies of the volume of sediment deposited in, or offshore of, the Atlantic Coastal Plain; 2) findings of parallel rates of continental uplift and denudation; and 3) historic sediment-load data. Using these estimates and subtracting the denudation attributed to chemical load, the mechanical denudation rate of the central Blue Ridge is approximated as 2.4 cm/k.y. Whereas debris flows recur at a frequency of approximately one event each three years somewhere in the unglaciated terrain of the Appalachians, the return interval is much greater when only individual mountainous basins are considered. Radiocarbon dating of debris-flow deposits in mountainous first- and second-order river basins of the Blue Ridge indicates a debris-flow return interval of not more than 2000 to 4000 yr. These data on debris flow frequency, combined with measurements of storm-induced upland basin denudation, suggests that approximately half of the long-term denudation from mechanical load occurs episodically by debris-flows. Although floods of moderate magnitude are largely responsible for mobilizing sediment in low-gradient streams, the data suggest that high-magnitude, low-frequency events are the most significant component in delivering coarse-grained colluvium from mountainous hollows and

  6. Development of a decision support system for monitoring, reporting and forecasting ecological conditions of the Appalachian Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeqiao; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Dieffenbach, Fred; Stolte, Kenneth; Holcomb, Glenn B.; Robinson, Matt; Reese, Casey C.; McNiff, Marcia; Duhaime, Roland; Tierney, Geri; Mitchell, Brian; August, Peter; Paton, Peter; LaBash, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a collaborative multi-agency effort to develop an Appalachian Trail (A.T.) MEGA-Transect Decision Support System (DSS) for monitoring, reporting and forecasting ecological conditions of the A.T. and the surrounding lands. The project is to improve decisionmaking on management of the A.T. by providing a coherent framework for data integration, status reporting and trend analysis. The A.T. MEGA-Transect DSS is to integrate NASA multi-platform sensor data and modeling through the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) and in situ measurements from A.T. MEGA-Transect partners to address identified natural resource priorities and improve resource management decisions.

  7. The northern and central Appalachian basin coal region -- The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal bed assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Freeman, P.; Tully, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal beds are two of six coal beds being assessed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region. The coal resource assessments were designed to provide up-to-date, concise data on the location, quantity, and quality of US coals for Federal agencies, the public, industry and academia. Assessment products are fully digital and include original and remaining resource estimates; maps depicting areal extent, mined areas, geologic structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness, ash yield, sulfur content, calorific value, and selected trace-element contents; and public domain geochemical and stratigraphic databases. The assessment methodology and a few results are presented.

  8. Exact solutions of higher dimensional black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    We review exact solutions of black holes in higher dimensions, focusing on asymptotically flat black hole solutions and Kaluza-Klein type black hole solutions. We also summarize some properties which such black hole solutions reveal.

  9. Black light photography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisin, M.A. [Koon-Hall-Adrian Metallurgical, Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Black light photography of fluorescent penetrant and wet fluorescent magnetic particle indications can yield spectacular and useful results. The technique provides a lasting record of a flaw`s severity and location, as well as its physical relation to other components and important features. The procedures are easily learned and do not require sophisticated apparatus. In fact, equipment costs can often be justified on the basis of a single application. Using the techniques described in this article, black light photography can be a cost-effective, informative NDT tool.

  10. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value. (paper)

  11. Noncommutative solitonic black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2012-05-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.

  12. Superfluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson

    2016-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  13. Virtual Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Hawking, Stephen W.

    1995-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of $S^2\\times S^2$ and $K3$ bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the $S^2\\times S^2$ bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is ...

  14. Dancing with black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Aarseth, Sverre J

    2007-01-01

    We describe efforts over the last six years to implement regularization methods suitable for studying one or more interacting black holes by direct N-body simulations. Three different methods have been adapted to large-N systems: (i) Time-Transformed Leapfrog, (ii) Wheel-Spoke, and (iii) Algorithmic Regularization. These methods have been tried out with some success on GRAPE-type computers. Special emphasis has also been devoted to including post-Newtonian terms, with application to moderately massive black holes in stellar clusters. Some examples of simulations leading to coalescence by gravitational radiation will be presented to illustrate the practical usefulness of such methods.

  15. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  16. Scattering from black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futterman, J.A.H.; Handler, F.A.; Matzner, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging.

  17. Scattering from black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the propagation of waves in the presence of black holes. While emphasizing intuitive physical thinking in their treatment of the techniques of analysis of scattering, the authors also include chapters on the rigorous mathematical development of the subject. Introducing the concepts of scattering by considering the simplest, scalar wave case of scattering by a spherical (Schwarzschild) black hole, the book then develops the formalism of spin weighted spheroidal harmonics and of plane wave representations for neutrino, electromagnetic, and gravitational scattering. Details and results of numerical computations are given. The techniques involved have important applications (references are given) in acoustical and radar imaging

  18. Acoustic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  19. Are Black Holes Springy?

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  20. Black-pigmented sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Martínez-Girón

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black-pigmented sputum, also called "melanoptysis," is a symptom that may be observed in certain pathologies such us coal workers′ pneumoconiosis (anthracosis. The cavitation and liquefaction of a fibrosed mass by an infectious process (tuberculosis, infections by anaerobes, etc. or by ischemic necrosis may cause expectoration of a blackish secretion. We report the case of a patient with labor precedents as a coal worker, from whom abundant black sputum was obtained in the course of an incidental expectoration. Cyto-histological findings are shown and a differential diagnosis is established.

  1. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  2. A Presence-Only Model of Suitable Roosting Habitat for the Endangered Indiana Bat in the Southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Stephen P.; Loeb, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, M. sodalis roosts are scattered across a heavily forested landscape, which makes protecting individual roosts impractical during large-scale management activities. We created a predictive spatial model of summer roosting habitat to identify important predictors using the presence-only modeling program MaxEnt and an information theoretic approach for model comparison. Two of 26 candidate models together accounted for >0.93 of AICc weights. Elevation and forest type were top predictors of presence; aspect north/south and distance-to-ridge were also important. The final average best model indicated that 5% of the study area was suitable habitat and 0.5% was optimal. This model matched our field observations that, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, optimal roosting habitat for M. sodalis is near the ridge top in south-facing mixed pine-hardwood forests at elevations from 260–575 m. Our findings, coupled with data from other studies, suggest M. sodalis is flexible in roost habitat selection across different ecoregions with varying topography and land use patterns. We caution that, while mature pine-hardwood forests are important now, specific areas of suitable and optimal habitat will change over time. Combining the information theoretic approach with presence-only models makes it possible to develop landscape-scale habitat suitability maps for forest bats. PMID:27115605

  3. A Presence-Only Model of Suitable Roosting Habitat for the Endangered Indiana Bat in the Southern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kristina R; O'Keefe, Joy M; Aldrich, Stephen P; Loeb, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, M. sodalis roosts are scattered across a heavily forested landscape, which makes protecting individual roosts impractical during large-scale management activities. We created a predictive spatial model of summer roosting habitat to identify important predictors using the presence-only modeling program MaxEnt and an information theoretic approach for model comparison. Two of 26 candidate models together accounted for >0.93 of AICc weights. Elevation and forest type were top predictors of presence; aspect north/south and distance-to-ridge were also important. The final average best model indicated that 5% of the study area was suitable habitat and 0.5% was optimal. This model matched our field observations that, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, optimal roosting habitat for M. sodalis is near the ridge top in south-facing mixed pine-hardwood forests at elevations from 260-575 m. Our findings, coupled with data from other studies, suggest M. sodalis is flexible in roost habitat selection across different ecoregions with varying topography and land use patterns. We caution that, while mature pine-hardwood forests are important now, specific areas of suitable and optimal habitat will change over time. Combining the information theoretic approach with presence-only models makes it possible to develop landscape-scale habitat suitability maps for forest bats. PMID:27115605

  4. A Presence-Only Model of Suitable Roosting Habitat for the Endangered Indiana Bat in the Southern Appalachians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina R Hammond

    Full Text Available We know little about how forest bats, which are cryptic and mobile, use roosts on a landscape scale. For widely distributed species like the endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis, identifying landscape-scale roost habitat associations will be important for managing the species in different regions where it occurs. For example, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, M. sodalis roosts are scattered across a heavily forested landscape, which makes protecting individual roosts impractical during large-scale management activities. We created a predictive spatial model of summer roosting habitat to identify important predictors using the presence-only modeling program MaxEnt and an information theoretic approach for model comparison. Two of 26 candidate models together accounted for >0.93 of AICc weights. Elevation and forest type were top predictors of presence; aspect north/south and distance-to-ridge were also important. The final average best model indicated that 5% of the study area was suitable habitat and 0.5% was optimal. This model matched our field observations that, in the southern Appalachian Mountains, optimal roosting habitat for M. sodalis is near the ridge top in south-facing mixed pine-hardwood forests at elevations from 260-575 m. Our findings, coupled with data from other studies, suggest M. sodalis is flexible in roost habitat selection across different ecoregions with varying topography and land use patterns. We caution that, while mature pine-hardwood forests are important now, specific areas of suitable and optimal habitat will change over time. Combining the information theoretic approach with presence-only models makes it possible to develop landscape-scale habitat suitability maps for forest bats.

  5. New insights on the final stages of the Appalachian orogeny in the southeast U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, E.; Fischer, K. M.; Wagner, L. S.; Hawman, R. B.; Rondenay, S.

    2015-12-01

    The processes of continental collision that built the Appalachian Mountains are at least partially preserved by the suture between Laurentia and the Gondwanan Suwannee terrane, left behind in the southeastern U.S. by Mesozoic rifting. High resolution imaging of this suture provides insight into collisional deformation, important both to local tectonic history and as case study of continental collision that helps us to understand ancient and active orogenies worldwide. We analyze Sp phases recorded by SESAME (Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment) and other nearby broadband stations. Sp receiver functions were common conversion point stacked using local crust and mantle velocity models. In the crust, we observe a south-dipping positive velocity gradient with depth (PVG) that extends from the surface to the mid-crust. Further north, we observe a positive/negative gradient pair. These phases exist in eastern and western Georgia, indicating along-strike continuity for at least 170 km. Modeling with synthetic waveforms shows they are not artefacts of shallow sediments. The dipping PVG is spatially correlated with COCORP reflectors that were previously interpreted as a steep suture intersecting the Moho. However, the dip and greater horizontal extent of the PVG leads to a different interpretation: the existence of a large-scale detachment with a down-dip continuity of >330 km. This structure implies significant shortening and underthrusting of deep Laurentian or peri-Gondwanan basement beneath Suwannee crust during the final stages of the collision on a scale comparable to India-Eurasia crustal detachments. In the mantle, we observe a sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity gradient in the northwest part of the study region only, consistent with disruption of lithosphere in the southeast by Mesozoic rifting. Ongoing work with wavefield migration (Bostock et al., 2001) should better resolve discontinuity dips and depths.

  6. Reflections on a Black Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2016-01-01

    A black mirror is an accelerated boundary that produces particles in an exact correspondence to an evaporating black hole. We investigate the spectral dynamics of the particle creation during the formation process.

  7. The black hole final state

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Gary T.; Maldacena, Juan

    2003-01-01

    We propose that in quantum gravity one needs to impose a final state boundary condition at black hole singularities. This resolves the apparent contradiction between string theory and semiclassical arguments over whether black hole evaporation is unitary.

  8. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  9. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points. PMID:26489355

  10. Bioturbation of forested shale soils by tree throw in the Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, E. A.; Downey, K.; Dere, A. L.; White, T.

    2011-12-01

    Tree throw, the upheaval of bedrock and soil in the root mass of a fallen tree, has been suggested as a major process in the overturn and downslope transport of soils in mountainous regions. The process typically leads to an excavated pit, often with exposed bedrock, and a large mass of rock and soil in the exposed root mass. Through time, the pit fills and soil and rock from the root mass move down slope as the tree and roots decay. Reported here is an effort to quantify the effects of tree throw along a climosequence of sites on shale in the Appalachian Mountains associated with the Susquehanna-Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO). The study includes the following field measurements for tree throws within a 120 meter diameter search area centered on soil pits on ridge tops on the Silurian Clinton Group shale: GPS location, tree girth, relative tree age, tree type, dimensions of pit, azimuth of fall, and slope and azimuth of maximum slope. Five sites were studied: central New York, central Pennsylvania (SSHO), west central Virginia, eastern Tennessee, and northern Alabama. A general north-to-south decreasing trend in total number of tree throws was observed excluding the Virginia site. In Virginia, the total number of tree throws was twice the number observed in New York, which we attribute to the higher elevation setting subjected to the steadiest winds as well as the shallowest soils. The relatively high number of throws in New York is likely tied to glacial till at the site - rooting depth appears to be limited by rock fragments, abundant clay and periodic soil saturation. Trees with the largest girths tend to excavate the largest tree throw pits, a relationship best defined in Alabama where the deepest pits were excavated by large trees that had fallen most recently. Most of the observed tree throws occurred on slopes ranging from 15-31 degrees except in Alabama where tree throws fall on a range of slopes with the highest number at 45 degrees. No

  11. Black Hole Evaporation. A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Benachenhou, Farid

    1994-01-01

    This thesis is a review of black hole evaporation with emphasis on recent results obtained for two dimensional black holes. First, the geometry of the most general stationary black hole in four dimensions is described and some classical quantities are defined. Then, a derivation of the spectrum of the radiation emitted during the evaporation is presented. In section four, a two dimensional model which has black hole solutions is introduced, the so-called CGHS model. These two dimensional blac...

  12. Towards noncommutative quantum black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole

  13. Towards Noncommutative Quantum Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Ramirez, C.; Sabido, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  14. Brane-World Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chamblin, A; Reall, H S

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.

  15. Brane-world black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamblin, A.; Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.

    2000-03-01

    Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.

  16. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  17. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  18. 《女勇士》中"我"的分裂人格的后殖民语境解读%An Interpretation of the Split Personality of "I" in "The Woman Warrior"under a Post-colonial Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾向阳

    2016-01-01

    在汤亭亭的《女勇士》中,女主人公"我"的分裂人格是华裔女性在性别和种族压迫社会中被边缘化的病态表现,是自我身份焦虑的隐喻,将其置于后殖民主义的语境下分析,能为解读华裔女性特殊生存状态提供广阔的文化视野.%"I" in "The Woman Warrior" by Maxine Hong Kingston, possesses a split personality which is used as a metaphor for the pathological identity anxiety of the Chinese American women under both patriarchy and racism. Interpreta-tion of this metaphor under a post-colonial context can bring us a wider cultural vision for the special living conditions of the Chi-nese American women.

  19. Blacks and the Women's Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiacono, Stephanie

    1989-01-01

    Although Black female leaders were influential in creating the modern women's movement, feminism has evolved differently for both Black and White women. Suggests that, although Black women have struggled largely against racial and economic inequalities, women of all colors and backgrounds should embrace their diversity and unite to oppose racism…

  20. The Strengths of Black Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert B.

    This report identifies and analyzes five strengths of black families: adaptability roles, strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, strong religious orientation, and achievement orientation. These five characteristics have been functional for the survival, advancement, and stability of black families. Most discussions of black families tend…

  1. Black carbon in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelburg, J.J.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Van Breugel, P.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of black carbon were determined for a number of marine sediments. A comparison of black carbon based on thermal oxidation and hot concentrated nitric acid pretreatments revealed that the latter significantly overestimates combustion derived carbon phases. Black carbon accounts for abo

  2. Warped products and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply the warped product space-time scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes

  3. Black Progress: Convergence or Cleavage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    The popular view of a permanent Black underclass falling farther behind an expanding Black middle class is disputed by empirical evidence that the underclass is experiencing upward mobility. The discrepancy stems from social scientists' overreliance on cross-sectional data rather than longitudinal data in analyzing economic change among Blacks.…

  4. Warped products and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, S T

    2005-01-01

    We apply the warped product spacetime scheme to the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om-anti-de Sitter black hole to investigate their interior solutions in terms of warped products. It is shown that there exist no discontinuities of the Ricci and Einstein curvatures across event horizons of these black holes.

  5. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  6. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  7. Black History Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  8. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  9. Gasification of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  10. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    OpenAIRE

    Neri, I.; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G.; Patrizi, A.

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane.

  11. Black hole magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.

  12. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  13. The Black Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Donald E.

    This study describes and assesses the basic problems of black males who enter educational administration as a career, showing the relationship between their cultural background and their aspirations in the field of administration of a large city school system. The role taken by the researcher is that of participant-observer. The collection of…

  14. An Examination of Selected Historical Rainfall-Induced Debris-Flow Events within the Central and Southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L. Scott; Morgan, Benjamin A.; Wooten, R.M.; Morrissey, M.

    2009-01-01

    Generally, every several years, heavy amounts of rainfall trigger a large number of debris flows within the central and southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States. These types of landslides damage buildings, disrupt infrastructure, and occasionally injure and kill people. One of the first large debris flows was described in Pennsylvania in August 1779. The most destructive event occurred during August 19-20, 1969, in Nelson County, Va. During a period of 8 hours, 710 to 800 milimeters of rain triggered more than 3,000 landslides, killing more than 150 people. As the population increases in this region, future storms will likely increase the risks of property damage and loss of life. We provide a general overview of debris flows in the Appalachians, using a compilation of 19 storm events for which rainfall, duration of the storm, and descriptions of the resulting landslides have been substantially documented.

  15. Observational Evidence for Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Narayan, Ramesh; McClintock, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomers have discovered two populations of black holes: (i) stellar-mass black holes with masses in the range 5 to 30 solar masses, millions of which are present in each galaxy in the universe, and (ii) supermassive black holes with masses in the range 10^6 to 10^{10} solar masses, one each in the nucleus of every galaxy. There is strong circumstantial evidence that all these objects are true black holes with event horizons. The measured masses of supermassive black hole are strongly corr...

  16. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  17. Statistical mechanics of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the statistical mechanics of a gas of neutral and charged black holes. The microcanonical ensemble is the only possible approach to this system, and the equilibrium configuration is the one for which most of the energy is carried by a single black hole. Schwarzschild black holes are found to obey the statistical bootstrap condition. In all cases, the microcanonical temperature is identical to the Hawking temperature of the most massive black hole in the gas. U(1) charges in general break the bootstrap property. The problems of black-hole decay and of quantum coherence are also addressed

  18. BlackBerry For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Kao, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Get the most juice out of your BlackBerry handheld!. Feature-rich and complex, the BlackBerry is the number one smartphone in the corporate world is among the most popular handhelds for business users. This new and updated edition includes all the latest and greatest information on new and current BlackBerry mobile devices. Covering a range of valuable how-to topics, this helpful guide explores the BlackBerry's most useful features, techniques for getting the most out of your BlackBerry, and practical information about power usage.: Covers all aspects of the number one smartphone in the corpor

  19. Diversity, Vertical Stratification and Co-Occurrence Patterns of the Mycetophilid Community among Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Rusty Rhea; Jerome Grant; Carla Coots; Paris Lambdin

    2012-01-01

    Over 400 species of insects have been found in association with eastern hemlock in the southern Appalachians. Eastern hemlock stands provide an ideal habitat for all life stages of mycetophilids. However, the diversity, distribution and co-occurrence patterns of these species throughout the tree canopy are unknown. This study was initiated to evaluate abundance, species richness and species composition within three designated strata in the canopy of eastern hemlock, assess species for vertica...

  20. Vertical Stratification and Co-Occurrence Patterns of the Psocoptera Community Associated with Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Mockford; Rusty Rhea; Paris Lambdin; Jerome Grant; Carla Coots

    2012-01-01

    Of the more than 300 species of Psocoptera described in North America, 44 species have been documented on eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière, in the southern Appalachians. However, the distribution and co-occurrence patterns of these species throughout the tree canopy are unknown. This study was initiated to evaluate specimen abundance, species richness and species composition among three designated strata in the canopy of eastern hemlock, assess species for vertical stratificati...

  1. Inverse association of colorectal cancer prevalence to serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in a large Appalachian population

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Kim E.; Wimsatt, Jeffrey H.; Frisbee, Stephanie; Ducatman, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are persistent environmental contaminants that affect metabolic regulation, inflammation, and other factors implicated in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the link between these compounds and CRC remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the association of CRC diagnosis to PFOA and PFOS blood levels in a large Appalachian population. Methods Participants were 47,...

  2. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Evans; Richard Odom; Lynn Resler; W. Mark Ford; Steve Prisley

    2014-01-01

    The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species co...

  3. U/Pb Zircon Ages of Plutons from the Central Appalachians and GIS-Based Assessment of Plutons with Comments on Their Regional Tectonic Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, John Robert

    2001-01-01

    The rocks of the Appalachian orogen are world-class examples of collisional and extensional tectonics, where multiple episodes of mountain building and rifting from the pre-Cambrian to the present are preserved in the geologic record. These orogenic events produced plutonic rocks, which can be used as probes of the thermal state of the source region. SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) U/Pb ages of zircons were obtained for ten plutons (Leatherwood, Rich Acres, Melrose, Buckingham, Diana ...

  4. Prisons of light : black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kitty

    What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.

  5. Point mass Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzjaee, Javad T

    2016-01-01

    Real black holes in the universe are located in the expanding accelerating background which are called the cosmological black holes. Hence, it is necessary to model these black holes in the cosmological background where the dark energy is the dominant energy. In this paper, we argue that most of the dynamical cosmological black holes can be modeled by point mass cosmological black holes. Considering the de Sitter background for the accelerating universe, we present the point mass cosmological background in the cosmological de Sitter space time. Our work also includes the point mass black holes which have charge and angular momentum. We study the mass, horizons, redshift structure and geodesics properties for these black holes.

  6. Regional contemporaneity of eustatic, subsidence, and tectonic events in the Middle-Upper Ordovician of the Appalachians and Ouachita orogens and the southern Oklahoma aulacogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, S.C.; Bergstroem, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    On-going graptolite and conodont studies in the Southern Appalachians, the Ouachitas, and the Arbuckle Mountains have revealed contemporaneity of important geological events of regional significance. Reassessment of previous graptolite biostratigraphy has resulted in a revised zonation that has solved some correlation problems and is tied to the Midcontinent and North Atlantic conodont zonations. These zonations are used to date significant geological events in geographically separate regions during two time intervals in the Middle-Upper Ordovician. The base of the graptolite shale succession (Athens) in the Southern Appalachians (Alabama-Tennessee) belongs to the G. teretiusculus Zone, or locally (Georgia) possibly a slightly older unit, and marks the initial shelf-basin development and uplift of source areas to the east reflecting a phase of the Taconic Orogeny. The bases of the Womble and Woods Hollow shales in the Ouachita Orogen represent about the same level. Slightly younger N. gracilis Zone strata tend to be transgressive throughout the world and appear to represent a global eustatic event. In the Arbuckle Mountains this event is reflected by the Tulip Creek Shale. A major subsidence event in the Oklahoma aulacogen, contemporaneous with the regression, produced a transgressive lithofacies sequence represented by the lower Viola Springs Formation in the Arbuckle Mountains. The regressive and subsidence events appear to have been coeval with the emplacement of the Taconic allochthon and Hamburg Klippe in the Northern Appalachians.

  7. Ecological associations and genetic divergence in Black-bellied Salamanders (Desmognathus quadramaculatus) of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Wooten; Leslie Rissler

    2011-01-01

    The discovery and subsequent description of cryptic biodiversity is often challenging, especially for groups that have undergone rapid lineage accumulation in the relatively recent past. Even without formal descriptions, understanding genetic diversity patterns as they relate to underlying ecological or historical processes can be important for conservation. The dusky salamanders of the genus Desmognathus, with 20 described species, comprise the second largest genus of plethodontid salamander...

  8. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  9. Caged black holes: Black holes in compactified spacetimes. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In backgrounds with compact dimensions there may exist several phases of black objects including a black hole and a black string. The phase transition between them raises questions and touches on fundamental issues such as topology change, uniqueness, and cosmic censorship. No analytic solution is known for the black hole, and moreover one can expect approximate solutions only for very small black holes, while phase transition physics happens when the black hole is large. Hence we turn to numerical solutions. Here some theoretical background to the numerical analysis is given, while the results will appear in a subsequent paper. The goals for a numerical analysis are set. The scalar charge and tension along the compact dimension are defined and used as improved order parameters which put both the black hole and the black string at finite values on the phase diagram. The predictions for small black holes are presented. The differential and the integrated forms of the first law are derived, and the latter (Smarr's formula) can be used to estimate the 'overall numerical error'. Field asymptotics and expressions for physical quantities in terms of the numerical values are supplied. The techniques include the 'method of equivalent charges', free energy, dimensional reduction, and analytic perturbation for small black holes

  10. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  11. Black Holes and Fourfolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Vercnocke, Bert

    2012-01-01

    We establish the relation between the structure governing supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric four- and five-dimensional black holes and multicenter solutions and Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of M-theory and type IIB string theory. We find that the known BPS and almost-BPS multicenter black hole solutions can be interpreted as GKP compactifications with (2,1) and (0,3) imaginary self-dual flux. We also show that the most general GKP compactification leads to new classes of BPS and non-BPS multicenter solutions. We explore how these solutions fit into N=2 truncations, and elucidate how supersymmetry becomes camouflaged. As a necessary tool in our exploration we show how the fields in the largest N=2 truncation fit inside the six-torus compactification of eleven-dimensional supergravity.

  12. Shape of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Clement, María E Gabach

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that celestial bodies tend to be spherical due to gravity and that rotation produces deviations from this sphericity. We discuss what is known and expected about the shape of black holes' horizons from their formation to their final, stationary state. We present some recent results showing that black hole rotation indeed manifests in the widening of their central regions, limits their global shapes and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotation speed. The results depend only on the horizon area and angular momentum. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the spacetime and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. We also discuss the the relation of this result with the Hoop conjecture.

  13. Black-hole astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.

  14. Noncommutative Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N

    2010-01-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  15. Noncommutative Solitonic Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone

    2011-01-01

    We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find t...

  16. Infinitely Coloured Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth(Consortium for Fundamental Physics, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    We formulate the field equations for $SU(\\infty)$ Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, and find spherically symmetric black-hole solutions. This model may be motivated by string theory considerations, given the enormous gauge symmetries which characterize string theory. The solutions simplify considerably in the presence of a negative cosmological constant, particularly for the limiting cases of a very large cosmological constant or very small gauge field. The situation of an arbitrarily small gauge f...

  17. Beyond the black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is about the life and work of Stephen Hawking. It traces the development of his theories about the universe and particularly black holes, in a biographical context. Hawking's lecture 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics' is presented as an appendix. In this, he discusses the possibility of achieving a complete, consistent and unified theory of the physical interactions which would describe all possible observations. (U.K.)

  18. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Casadio(INFN, Bologna); Andrea Giugno; Octavian Micu; Alessio Orlandi

    2015-01-01

    We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractiv...

  19. Black holes reconsidered

    CERN Document Server

    Helfer, Adam D

    2011-01-01

    I review elements of the foundations of black-hole theory with attention to problematic issues, and describe some techniques which either seem to help with the difficulties or at least investigate their scope. The definition of black holes via event horizons has been problematic because it depends on knowing the global structure of space-time; often attempts to avoid this (e.g. apparent horizons) require knowledge of the interior geometry. I suggest studying instead the holonomy relating the exterior neighborhood of the incipient horizon to the regime of distant observers; at least in the spherically symmetric case, this holonomy will develop certain universal features, in principle observable from signals emitted from infalling objects. I discuss the theory of quantum fields in curved space-time, and the difficulties with Hawking's prediction of black-hole radiation. I then show that the usual, very natural, theory of quantum fields in curved space-time runs into difficulties when applied to measurement prob...

  20. Slowly balding black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...

  1. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-06-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.

  2. Attractors in Black

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Marrani, A

    2008-01-01

    We review recent results in the study of attractor horizon geometries (with non-vanishing Bekenstein-Hawking entropy) of dyonic extremal d=4 black holes in supergravity. We focus on N=2, d=4 ungauged supergravity coupled to a number n_{V} of Abelian vector multiplets, outlining the fundamentals of the special Kaehler geometry of the vector multiplets' scalar manifold (of complex dimension n_{V}), and studying the 1/2-BPS attractors, as well as the non-BPS (non-supersymmetric) ones with non-vanishing central charge. For symmetric special Kaehler geometries, we present the complete classification of the orbits in the symplectic representation of the classical U-duality group (spanned by the black hole charge configuration supporting the attractors), as well as of the moduli spaces of non-BPS attractors (spanned by the scalars which are not stabilized at the black hole event horizon). Finally, we report on an analogous classification for N>2-extended, d=4 ungauged supergravities, in which also the 1/N-BPS attrac...

  3. Non-Abelian magnetic black strings versus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazharimousavi, S. Habib; Halilsoy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present d+1 -dimensional pure magnetic Yang-Mills (YM) black strings (or 1-branes) induced by the d -dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dilaton black holes. The Born-Infeld version of the YM field makes our starting point which goes to the standard YM field through a limiting procedure. The lifting from black holes to black strings (with less number of fields) is done by adding an extra, compact coordinate. This amounts to the change of horizon topology from S^{d-2} to a product structure. Our black string in 5 dimensions is a rather special one, with uniform Hawking temperature and non-asymptotically flat structure. As the YM charge becomes large the string gets thinner to tend into a breaking point and transform into a 4-dimensional black hole.

  4. Improving the Availability and Delivery of Critical Information for Tight Gas Resource Development in the Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mary Behling; Susan Pool; Douglas Patchen; John Harper

    2008-12-31

    To encourage, facilitate and accelerate the development of tight gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin, the geological surveys in Pennsylvania and West Virginia collected widely dispersed data on five gas plays and formatted these data into a large database that can be accessed by individual well or by play. The database and delivery system that were developed can be applied to any of the 30 gas plays that have been defined in the basin, but for this project, data compilation was restricted to the following: the Mississippian-Devonian Berea/Murrysville sandstone play and the Upper Devonian Venango, Bradford and Elk sandstone plays in Pennsylvania and West Virginia; and the 'Clinton'/Medina sandstone play in northwestern Pennsylvania. In addition, some data were collected on the Tuscarora Sandstone play in West Virginia, which is the lateral equivalent of the Medina Sandstone in Pennsylvania. Modern geophysical logs are the most common and cost-effective tools for evaluating reservoirs. Therefore, all of the well logs in the libraries of the two surveys from wells that had penetrated the key plays were scanned, generating nearly 75,000 scanned e-log files from more than 40,000 wells. A standard file-naming convention for scanned logs was developed, which includes the well API number, log curve type(s) scanned, and the availability of log analyses or half-scale logs. In addition to well logs, other types of documents were scanned, including core data (descriptions, analyses, porosity-permeability cross-plots), figures from relevant chapters of the Atlas of Major Appalachian Gas Plays, selected figures from survey publications, and information from unpublished reports and student theses and dissertations. Monthly and annual production data from 1979 to 2007 for West Virginia wells in these plays are available as well. The final database also includes digitized logs from more than 800 wells, sample descriptions from more than 550 wells, more than 600

  5. Coupled prediction of flood response and debris flow initiation during warm and cold season events in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows associated with rainstorms are a frequent and devastating hazard in the Southern Appalachians in the United States. Whereas warm season events are clearly associated with heavy rainfall intensity, the same cannot be said for the cold season events. Instead, there is a relationship between large (cumulative rainfall events independently of season, and thus hydrometeorological regime, and debris flows. This suggests that the dynamics of subsurface hydrologic processes play an important role as a trigger mechanism, specifically through soil moisture redistribution by interflow. The first objective of this study is to investigate this hypothesis. The second objective is to assess the physical basis for a regional coupled flood prediction and debris flow warning system. For this purpose, uncalibrated model simulations of well-documented debris flows in headwater catchments of the Southern Appalachians using a 3-D surface-groundwater hydrologic model coupled with slope stability models are examined in detail. Specifically, we focus on two vulnerable headwater catchments that experience frequent debris flows, the Big Creek and the Jonathan Creek in the Upper Pigeon River Basin, North Carolina, and three distinct weather systems: an extremely heavy summertime convective storm in 2011; a persistent winter storm lasting several days; and a severe winter storm in 2009. These events were selected due to the optimal availability of rainfall observations, availability of detailed field surveys of the landslides shortly after they occurred, which can be used to evaluate model predictions, and because they are representative of events that cause major economic losses in the region. The model results substantiate that interflow is a useful prognostic of conditions necessary for the initiation of slope instability, and should therefore be considered explicitly in landslide hazard assessments. Moreover, the relationships between slope stability and

  6. The Role of Airmass Types and Surface Energy Fluxes in Snow Cover Ablation in the Central Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Daniel J.; Graybeal, Daniel; Mote, Thomas; Grundstein, Andrew; Robinson, David

    2004-12-01

    A one-dimensional snowpack model, a unique airmass identification scheme, and surface weather observations are used to investigate large ablation events in the central Appalachian Mountains of North America. Data from cooperative observing stations are used to identify large ablation events within a 1° latitude × 1° longitude grid box that covers the majority of the Lycoming Creek basin in northern Pennsylvania. All 1-day ablation events greater than or equal to 7.6 cm (3 in.) are identified for the period of 1950 through 2001. Seventy-one events are identified, and these days are matched with a daily airmass type derived using the Spatial Synoptic Classification technique. Average meteorological characteristics on ablation days of each airmass type are calculated in an effort to understand the diverse meteorological influences that led to the large ablation events. A one-dimensional mass and energy balance snowpack model (“SNTHERM”) is used to calculate surface/atmosphere energy fluxes responsible for ablation under each airmass type. Results indicate that large ablation events take place under diverse airmass/synoptic conditions in the central Appalachians. Five airmass types account for the 71 large ablation events over the 52-yr period. Forty-three of the events occurred under “moist” airmass types and 28 under “dry” airmass conditions. Large ablation events under dry airmass types are driven primarily by daytime net radiation receipt, especially net solar radiation. These events tend to occur early and late in the snow cover season when solar radiation receipt is highest and are characterized by relatively clear skies, warm daytime temperatures, and low dewpoint temperatures. Moist airmass types are characterized by cloudy, windy conditions with higher dewpoint temperatures and often with liquid precipitation. During these events sensible heat flux is most often the dominant energy flux to the snowpack during ablation episodes. However, in many

  7. A New Late Glacial Site in the Central Appalachians of Virginia. Preliminary Findings From Paleobotany, Palynology, and Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, B. F.; Upchurch, G. R.; Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Valella, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Thick clay deposits in a recently identified paleo-lake bed in a central Appalachian karst system in Highland County, Virginia have yielded well-preserved pollen and macroflora that provide the opportunity to refine the understanding of Pleistocene climate, vegetation dynamics, and erosion in the region. A radiocarbon date of 22,000 14C yr B.P. on wood fragments near the top of the sequence establishes the age of the sediments. Pollen and plant macrofloras characteristic of modern boreal forests are present in sediments at this site. Pollen assemblages show a dominance of conifers, mostly Pinus banksiana and Picea, with Lycopodium as important ground cover. Leaf fossils sieved from the clay show a dominance of Picea needles and common dicot leaf fragments, suggesting that Pinus is either over-represented in the pollen flora or more distal to the paleo-lake. Macrofossil assemblages sieved from the clay contain a variety of non-leaf remains, including fruits, seeds, mosses, insects, feathers, and fungi. Test augering and geophysical results indicate that these clay deposits are at least 9m and perhaps as much as 15m thick. The amount and temporal distribution of sediment loads to the paleo-lake (a depositional environment) from the surrounding landscape (an erosional environment) will be modeled using analysis of sediment facies in and above (>12m) these clays, combined with sediment volume calculations and drainage basin analysis, and constrained by dates from the sediments themselves. Due to the rare occurrence of still-water depositional environments in the Appalachians, this site provides paleo-climate and sedimentological data that will refine regional models of landscape evolution and incision. This work also has implications for the development and modification of a significant karst system that surrounds and underlies the paleo-lake bed. The same karst system is responsible both for the formation of the paleo-lake (after the drain in a blind valley became

  8. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  9. Stimulated emission and black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of a black hole emitting m particles when n particles are incident on the black hole was first derived by Bekenstein and Meisels, and later, using a different method, by Panangaden and Wald. In another paper by Bekenstein, it was argued that black holes should have stimulated emission in all modes including the nonsuperradiant ones. In this paper, we use a model based on quantum field theory. We show that Bose-Einstein statistics enhances the probability for particles to scatter in the same direction. We also prove that a black hole is equivalent to a perfect blackbody surrounded by a mirror. In our model, the black hole does not exhibit stimulated emission in nonsuperradiant modes. We also compare the black hole to a gray body

  10. Black Hole's 1/N Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2013-01-01

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers.

  11. Black Hole Masses are Quantized

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We give a simple argument showing that in any sensible quantum field theory the masses of black holes cannot assume continuous values and must be quantized. Our proof solely relies on Poincare-invariance of the asymptotic background, and is insensitive to geometric characteristics of black holes or other peculiarities of the short distance physics. Therefore, our results are equally-applicable to any other localized objects on asymptotically Poincare-invariant space, such as classicalons. By adding a requirement that in large mass limit the quantization must approximately account for classical results, we derive an universal quantization rule applicable to all classicalons (including black holes) in arbitrary number of dimensions. In particular, this implies, that black holes cannot emit/absorb arbitrarily soft quanta. The effect has phenomenological model-independent implications for black holes and other classicalons that may be created at LHC. We predict, that contrary to naive intuition, the black holes a...

  12. Black hole's 1/N hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the standard view classically black holes carry no hair, whereas quantum hair is at best exponentially weak. We show that suppression of hair is an artifact of the semi-classical treatment and that in the quantum picture hair appears as an inverse mass-square effect. Such hair is predicted in the microscopic quantum description in which a black hole represents a self-sustained leaky Bose-condensate of N soft gravitons. In this picture the Hawking radiation is the quantum depletion of the condensate. Within this picture we show that quantum black hole physics is fully compatible with continuous global symmetries and that global hair appears with the strength B/N, where B is the global charge swallowed by the black hole. For large charge this hair has dramatic effect on black hole dynamics. Our findings can have interesting astrophysical consequences, such as existence of black holes with large detectable baryonic and leptonic numbers

  13. Small black holes on cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find the metric of small black holes on cylinders, i.e. neutral and static black holes with a small mass in d-dimensional Minkowski space times a circle. The metric is found using an ansatz for black holes on cylinders proposed in J. High Energy Phys. 05, 032 (2002). We use the new metric to compute corrections to the thermodynamics which is seen to deviate from that of the (d+1)-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. Moreover, we compute the leading correction to the relative binding energy which is found to be non-zero. We discuss the consequences of these results for the general understanding of black holes and we connect the results to the phase structure of black holes and strings on cylinders

  14. Information Storage in Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    The information loss paradox for Schwarzschild black holes is examined, using the ADS/CFT correspondence extended to the $M_6 (4,2)$ bulk. It is found that the only option compatible with the preservation of the quantum unitarity is when a regular remnant region of the black hole survives to the black hole evaporation process, where information can be stored and eventually retrieved.

  15. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  16. Brane-world black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk, I present and discuss a number of attempts to construct black hole solutions in models with Warped Extra Dimensions. Then, a contact is made with models with Large Extra Dimensions, where black-hole solutions are easily constructed - here the focus will be on the properties of microscopic black holes and the possibility of using phenomena associated with them, such as the emission of Hawking radiation, to discover fundamental properties of our spacetime.

  17. Black holes and the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  18. Statistical Hair on Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for certain BPS-saturated black holes in string theory has recently been derived by counting internal black hole microstates at weak coupling. We argue that the black hole microstate can be measured by interference experiments even in the strong coupling region where there is clearly an event horizon. Extracting information which is naively behind the event horizon is possible due to the existence of statistical quantum hair carried by the black hole. This quantum hair arises from the arbitrarily large number of discrete gauge symmetries present in string theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890

  20. Higher dimensional extremal black strings

    OpenAIRE

    H. W. Lee; Myung, Y. S.; Kim, Jin Young; Park, D. K.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the five and six-dimensional black strings within Einstein-Maxwell theory. The extremal black strings are endowed with the null Killing symmetry. We study the propagation of Einstein-Maxwell modes in the extremal black string background by using this symmetry. It turns out that one graviton is a propagating mode, while both the Maxwell $F$ and three-form $H$ fields are non-propagating modes. Further we discuss the stability and classical hair of the extremal black strings.

  1. How black holes saved relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  2. Black report up-date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1984, the Black Report published its results on the incidence of cancer and leukaemia in under 25-year olds in the village of Seascale and the surrounding area near the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Since then the pressure group core, as a result of their own independent research, has discovered ten additional cases of childhood cancer which should have been included in the Black Report and a Further two cases since the Black Report was written. This represents an additional 31% over the initial numbers considered and a review of the Black Report is sought. (UK)

  3. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Appels, Michael; Kubiznak, David

    2016-01-01

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of a charged accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon -- even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability and phase structure of these black holes.

  4. Group and Interaction Effects with "No Child Left Behind": Gender and Reading in a Poor, Appalachian District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Critics of “No Child Left Behind” judge that it oversimplifies the influence of social context and the place of socially ascribed traits, such as social class, race, and gender, in determining achievement. We hold that this is especially likely to be true with regard to gender-related group effects and gender-implicated interaction effects. We make our concerns concrete in a multilevel, repeated measures analysis of reading achievement in a poor, rural school district located in the southern coalfields of Appalachian West Virginia. Our results suggest that as the percentage of students who are male increases, school mean scores in reading achievement decline for three reasons: individual males do less well than females; the greater the percentage of males, the lower the scores for all students; added to that, the greater the percentage of males, the lower the scores for males specifically. Given the accountability measures and sanctions proposed by “No Child Left Behind,” having a large percentage of males in a school could be disastrous. We conclude that gender effects in reading achievement are complex, easily overlooked, and have no obvious remedy. As such, they lend credence to the view that “No Child Left Behind” oversimplifies the social context of schooling and underestimates the importance of social ascription.

  5. Surface mining and reclamation effects on flood response of watersheds in the central Appalachian Plateau region - article no. W04407

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, J.R.; Lookingbill, T.R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P.A.; Eshleman, K.N. [University of Maryland, Frostburg, MD (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km{sup 2} watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  6. Development of monitoring methods for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid induced tree mortality within a Southern Appalachian landscape with inhibited access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantola T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, HWA is an introduced invasive forest pest in eastern North America. Herbivory by this insect results in mortality to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L. Carr. and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.. These species occur in landscapes where extreme topographic variation is common. The vegetation communities within these landscapes feature high diversity of tree species, including several other conifer species. Traditional forest inventory procedures and insect pest detection methods within these limited-access landscapes are impractical. However, further information is needed to evaluate the impacts of HWA-induced hemlock mortality. Accordingly, our goal was to develop a semi-automatic method for mapping patches of coniferous tree species that include the living hemlock component and tree mortality by the HWA using aerial images and LiDAR (light detection and ranging to increase our understanding of the severity and pattern of hemlock decline. The study was conducted in the Linville River Gorge in the Southern Appalachians of western North Carolina, USA. The mapping task included a two-phase approach: decision-tree and support vector machine classifications. We found that about 2% of the forest canopy surface was covered by dead trees and 43% by coniferous tree species. A large portion of the forest canopy surface (over 55% was covered by deciduous tree species. The resulting maps provide a means for evaluating the impact of HWA herbivory, since this insect was the only significant coniferous mortality agent present within the study site.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Invasive Plants in Response to Mineral Toxicity of Reclaimed Coal-Mine Soil in the Appalachian Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Thangasamy; Malkaram, Sridhar A; Patel, Dharmesh; Taylor, Kaitlyn; Hass, Amir; Nimmakayala, Padma; Huber, David H; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-09-01

    Efficient postmining reclamation requires successful revegetation. By using RNA sequencing, we evaluated the growth response of two invasive plants, goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L.) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), grown in two Appalachian acid-mine soils (MS-I and -II, pH ∼ 4.6). Although deficient in macronutrients, both soils contained high levels of plant-available Al, Fe and Mn. Both plant types showed toxicity tolerance, but metal accumulation differed by plant and site. With MS-I, Al accumulation was greater for mugwort than goutweed (385 ± 47 vs 2151 ± 251 μg g-1). Al concentration was similar between mine sites, but its accumulation in mugwort was greater with MS-I than MS-II, with no difference in accumulation by site for goutweed. An in situ approach revealed deregulation of multiple factors such as transporters, transcription factors, and metal chelators for metal uptake or exclusion. The two plant systems showed common gene expression patterns for different pathways. Both plant systems appeared to have few common heavy-metal pathway regulators addressing mineral toxicity/deficiency in both mine sites, which implies adaptability of invasive plants for efficient growth at mine sites with toxic waste. Functional genomics can be used to screen for plant adaptability, especially for reclamation and phytoremediation of contaminated soils and waters. PMID:26269111

  8. OxyContin® as currency: OxyContin® use and increased social capital among rural Appalachian drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Adam B; Young, April M; Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Havens, Jennifer R

    2012-05-01

    Studies have shown that position within networks of social relations can have direct implications on the health behaviors of individuals. The present study examines connections between drug use and individual social capital within social networks of drug users (n = 503) from rural Appalachian Kentucky, U.S.A. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit individuals age 18 and older who had used one of the following drugs to get high: cocaine, crack, heroin, methamphetamine, or prescription opioids. Substance use was measured via self-report and social network analysis of participants' drug use network was used to compute effective size, a measure of social capital. Drug network ties were based on sociometric data on recent (past 6 month) drug co-usage. Multivariate multi-level ordinal regression was used to model the independent effect of socio-demographic and drug use characteristics on social capital. Adjusting for gender, income, and education, daily OxyContin(®) use was found to be significantly associated with greater social capital, and daily marijuana use was associated with less social capital. These results suggest that in regions with marked economic disparities such as rural Appalachia, OxyContin(®) may serve as a form of currency that is associated with increased social capital among drug users. Interventions focusing on increasing alternate pathways to acquiring social capital may be one way in which to alleviate the burden of drug use in this high-risk population. PMID:22465379

  9. Geochemical variations of rare earth elements in Marcellus shale flowback waters and multiple-source cores in the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, C.; Jain, J.; Hakala, A.; Schroeder, K.; Dzombak, D. A.; Karamalidis, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) - encompassing the naturally occurring lanthanides, yttrium, and scandium - are potential tracers for subsurface groundwater-brine flows and geochemical processes. Application of these elements as naturally occurring tracers during shale gas development is reliant on accurate quantitation of trace metals in hypersaline brines. We have modified and validated a liquid-liquid technique for extraction and pre-concentration of REE from saline produced waters from shale gas extraction wells with quantitative analysis by ICP-MS. This method was used to analyze time-series samples of Marcellus shale flowback and produced waters. Additionally, the total REE content of core samples of various strata throughout the Appalachian Basin were determined using HF/HNO3 digestion and ICP-MS analysis. A primary goal of the study is to elucidate systematic geochemical variations as a function of location or shale characteristics. Statistical testing will be performed to study temporal variability of inter-element relationships and explore associations between REE abundance and major solution chemistry. The results of these analyses and discussion of their significance will be presented.

  10. Effects of Landform on Site Index for Two Mesophytic Tree Species in the Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of soil and topographic variables on forest site index were determined for two meso phytic tree species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Stand variables included soil solum thickness, soil A-horizon thickness, elevation, aspect, slope gradient, and land form index. Land form index is a recently devised environmental variable that has been used to quantify the influence of topography surrounding a stand on productivity. Regression analysis indicated that among the variables only land form index had a significant (ρ<.05) relationship with site index and explained 46 percent of the variation for northern red oak and 56 percent for yellow-poplar. Plot data from this study were also used to validate a previously developed prediction equation for estimating yellow-poplar site index and results indicated that unbiased estimates would be within 2.5 m. Results from this study suggest that land form accounts for variation in site index of meso phytic species in mountainous terrain that is not explained by conventional stand variables associated with soil and topography.

  11. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-10-01

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.

  12. stu Black Holes Unveiled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Yeranyan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The general solutions of the radial attractor flow equations for extremal black holes, both for non-BPS with non-vanishing central charge Z and for Z = 0, are obtained for the so-called stu model, the minimal rank-3 N = 2 symmetric supergravity in d = 4 space-time dimensions. Comparisons with previous partial results, as well as the fake supergravity (first order formalism and an analysis of the marginal stability of corresponding D-brane configurations, are given.

  13. Noncommutative black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.

    2010-04-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  14. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.p, E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.p, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.p, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.p [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, {eta}. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  15. Noncommutative black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  16. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  17. Black luminescent silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezoldt, Joerg [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologie, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Kups, Thomas [FG Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Stubenrauch, Mike [FG Mikromechanische Systeme, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Fischer, Michael [FG Elektroniktechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Black silicon is a fascinating multipurpose modification of bulk silicon which can be fabricated in a selforganized structure formation process during dry etching of bare silicon wafer leading to the formation of a high density of silicon needles. The smallest dimension of the tips approaches values between 1 and 2 nm. The silicon nanostructure exhibits an extremely low diffuse reflectivity. The nanosized tips and their coating with fluorine doped nonstoichiometric silicon dioxide are responsible for cathodoluminescence in the blue-green and red regions of the visible spectra (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Holographic Black Hole Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Karch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation. We show that this relation can easily be understood from the point of view of the dual holographic field theory. It amounts to the simple statement that the extensive thermodynamic quantities of a large $N$ gauge theory only depend on the number of colors, $N$, via an overall factor of $N^2$.

  19. Black Holes, Black Swans, Black Magic: the Emerging Arts of Project Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Fluor Corporation executive to give Vecellio LectureBlacksburg, VA , September 16, 2013 Virginia Tech College of Engineering Bob Prieto, senior vice president, Fluor Corporation, will present the 2013 Vecellio Distinguished Lecture, titled “Black Holes, Black Swans, Black Magic: the Emerging Arts of Project Execution,” on Friday, Oct. 11 at 4 p.m. in Torgersen 2150. His talk will provide a whirlwind tour of some of the growing challenges in construction project execution and some of the emerg...

  20. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  1. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  2. Spacetime Duality of BTZ Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Jeongwon; Kim, Won T.; Park, Young-Jai

    1999-01-01

    We consider the duality of the quasilocal black hole thermodynamics, explicitly the quasilocal black hole thermodynamic first law, in BTZ black hole solution as a special one of the three-dimensional low energy effective string theory.

  3. Stability and critical phenomena of black holes and black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We revisit the general topic of thermodynamical stability and critical phenomena in black hole physics, analyzing in detail the phase diagram of the five dimensional rotating black hole and the black rings discovered by Emparan and Reall. First we address the issue of microcanonical stability of these spacetimes and its relation to thermodynamics by using the so-called Poincare (or 'turning point') method, which we review in detail. We are able to prove that one of the black ring branches is always locally unstable, showing that there is a change of stability at the point where the two black ring branches meet. Next we study divergence of fluctuations, the geometry of the thermodynamic state space (Ruppeiner geometry) and compute the appropriate critical exponents and verify the scaling laws familiar from renormalization group theory in statistical mechanics. We find that, at extremality, the behavior of the system is formally very similar to a second order phase transition

  4. Business Plan - Scholar Warriors (confidential)

    OpenAIRE

    Aujla, Kamaljit

    2013-01-01

    This is a business plan for a Martial arts academy which has been adapted to suit the needs of modern society and culture. The academy aims to increase customer value proposition by offering transport for children and teaching from a specially designed syllabus. In addition, childcare services will be offered in the form of an after school club, providing each child with transportation, a healthy meal and academic tuition. A competitive advantage will be achieved by combining these services, ...

  5. Theory "W": The Corporate Warrior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes power structure of corporations functioning under Theory W in which single leaders, in partnership with trusted followers, achieve corporate success. Basis of this industrial structure is attributed to social and developmental structures of prehistoric man and city states. Dimensions of W, X, Y, and Z theories are discussed. (MBR)

  6. Supersymmetric black holes in string theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaupt, T.

    2007-01-01

    We review recent developments concerning supersymmetric black holes in string theory. After a general introduction to the laws of black hole mechanics and to black hole entropy in string theory, we discuss black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, special geometry, the black hole attractor equations and the underlying variational principle. Special attention is payed to the crucial role of higher derivative corrections. Finally we discuss black hole partition functions and their relation to t...

  7. Thermal BEC black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a...

  8. Thermal corpuscular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, Roberto; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number $N$ of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy $\\omega>m$). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M=N\\,m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E>M$ at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction preci...

  9. Virtual Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1996-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S^2\\times S^2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S^2\\times S^2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix \\ that does not factorise into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the \\theta angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The pic...

  10. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsallis, Constantino [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Cirto, Leonardo J.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S{sub BG} of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L{sup 2} (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L{sup 3}. Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S{sub BG} is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L{sup d-1} if d>1, instead of being proportional to L{sup d} (d {>=} 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  11. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  12. Quantum black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Schoutens, K; Verlinde, Erik; Schoutens, Kareljan; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    1993-01-01

    We investigate a recently proposed model for a full quantum description of two-dimensional black hole evaporation, in which a reflecting boundary condition is imposed in the strong coupling region. It is shown that in this model each initial state is mapped to a well-defined asymptotic out-state, provided one performs a certain projection in the gravitational zero mode sector. We find that for an incoming localized energy pulse, the corresponding out-going state contains approximately thermal radiation, in accordance with semi-classical predictions. In addition, our model allows for certain acausal strong coupling effects near the singularity, that give rise to corrections to the Hawking spectrum and restore the coherence of the out-state. To an asymptotic observer these corrections appear to originate from behind the receding apparent horizon and start to influence the out-going state long before the black hole has emitted most of its mass. Finally, by putting the system in a finite box, we are able to deriv...

  13. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2014-08-21

    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment. PMID:25152586

  14. What, no black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipler has claimed that the inward flux of negative energy across the horizon which (according to the semi-classical approximation) accompanies the evaporation of a black hole would cause a solar mass black hole to evaporate in less than a second. It is shown that this claim is in error. (orig.)

  15. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, N; Breton, Nora; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.

  16. Black Component of Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Grobov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism of primordial black hole formation with specific mass spectrum is discussed. It is shown that these black holes could contribute to the energy density of dark matter. Our approach is elaborated in the framework of universal extra dimensions.

  17. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  18. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  19. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  20. Reconceptualizing Retirement for Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rose C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined subsample of nonworking older Black Americans (N=295) from the National Survey of Black Americans sample. Found four factors contributed significantly to respondents' unretired-retired status: indistinct line between lifetime and old age work patterns, view that occasional work is necessary, income from other than private pensions, and…

  1. Rejuvenating Chinese Nation and Remolding Its National Spirit---On An Ruoding’s "Doctrine of Warrior Soul"%复兴中华重铸黄魂--安若定的“大侠魂主义”述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡可涛

    2015-01-01

    安若定的“大侠魂主义”产生于救国救民的社会实践之中。它以“宇宙魂”为本体,以“真情主义”、“热肠主义”、“无畏主义”为主要内容,以“怒观主义”、“美观主义”为认识论,其具体运用涉及到社会人生的方方面面。“大侠魂主义”体现了爱国主义、世界主义和生命主义的思想特质。它代表了一部分中国人对待民族前途与命运的思考,是实现中国民族伟大复兴之途上具有里程碑意义的思想探索。%An Ruoding was a participant of the National Revolution (1924-1927)led by Sun Yat-sen and one of the founders of some patriotic cultural societies active in the national salvation and resistance against Japan movement in the 1930s and 1940s as well as the chairman of the Chinese Young Labor Party,one of progressive parties in the period of Kuo Min Tang (KMT)administration.His"doctrine of warrior soul"originates from his social practice of saving the country and the people.With "the soul of the universe" as its noumenon,"the authentic feeling doctrine","the doctrine of enthusiasm and warm-heartedness",and"the fearless heroism" as its major contents,"the doctrine of indignation" and "the aestheticism" as its epistemology,"the doctrine of warrior soul" covers all aspects of social life in its application. It ideologically embodies patriotism, cosmopolitanism and the life doctrine.It represents some Chinese people’s reflection on the future and the fate of the Chinese nation and has become an ideological milestone in the course of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

  2. Prisons of Light - Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kitty

    1998-05-01

    In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.

  3. Black Holes and Galaxy Metamorphosis

    CERN Document Server

    Holley-Bockelmann, K

    2001-01-01

    Supermassive black holes can be seen as an agent of galaxy transformation. In particular, a supermassive black hole can cause a triaxial galaxy to evolve toward axisymmetry by inducing chaos in centrophilic orbit families. This is one way in which a single supermassive black hole can induce large-scale changes in the structure of its host galaxy -- changes on scales far larger than the Schwarzschild radius ($O(10^{-5}) \\rm{pc}$) and the radius of influence of the black hole ($O(1)-O(100) \\rm{pc}$). We will discuss the transformative power of supermassive black holes in light of recent high resolution N-body realizations of cuspy triaxial galaxies.

  4. Black holes and the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive blac...

  5. Quantum strings and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2001-01-01

    The transition between (non supersymmetric) quantum string states and Schwarzschild black holes is discussed. This transition occurs when the string coupling $g^2$ (which determines Newton's constant) increases beyond a certain critical value $g_c^2$. We review a calculation showing that self-gravity causes a typical string state of mass $M$ to shrink, as the string coupling $g^2$ increases, down to a compact string state whose mass, size, entropy and luminosity match (for the critical value $g_c^2 \\sim (M \\sqrt{\\alpha'})^{-1}$) those of a Schwarzschild black hole. This confirms the idea (proposed by several authors) that the entropy of black holes can be accounted for by counting string states. The level spacing of the quantum states of Schwarzschild black holes is expected to be exponentially smaller than their radiative width. This makes it very difficult to conceive (even Gedanken) experiments probing the discreteness of the quantum energy levels of black holes.

  6. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  7. INNOVATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF FRACTURE-CONTROLLED SWEET SPOTS IN THE NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain

    2002-01-30

    faults in the Precambrian basement are located beneath regions where grabens in the Trenton are located. The trend and location of these faults based on aeromagnetics agrees with the location based on FIDs. These data indicate that integration of aeromagnetic and topographic lineaments, surface structure, soil gas with seismic and well logs allows us to extrapolate Trenton-Black River trends away from confirmatory seismic lines.

  8. Effects of Silvicultural Treatments and Soil Properties on the Establishment and Productivity of Trees Growing on Mine Soils in the Appalachian Coalfields

    OpenAIRE

    Casselman, Chad N.

    2005-01-01

    Coal has been and will continue to be an important energy source in the U.S. for the foreseeable future. Surface mining for coal is one of the methods employed to extract this resource from below the ground. The process of surface mining removes native topsoils and any native vegetation that was support by these native soils. In the Appalachian coal-producing region of the United States, the pre-mining landscape is predominantly forested. Prior to the Surface Mining and Reclamation Act of...

  9. Comment on ' Thin-skinned tectonics in the crystalline southern Appalachians: COCORP seismic- reflection profiling of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that in the report of Cook et al (Geology, 7, 563-567), there is no conclusive evidence, on the basis of seismic- reflection profiling of the crystalline southern Appalachians, that subhorizontal features revealed at depths of several kms. actually represent flat-lying sedimentary rocks. Offers an alternntive interpretation, suggesting that the features shown by the southeastern Blue Ridge - Piedmont COCORP line represent a flat-lying complex of thin but extensive granitic sheets and associated high rank schist and gneiss. -after Author

  10. O the Importance of Mesoscale Potential Vorticity Anomalies and Topographic Forcing during Cyclone Redevelopment across the Appalachians: a Gale Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Christopher

    The evolution of the structure of cyclones and cold fronts over the eastern United States is investigated observationally. Two primary goals of the research are to understand the mechanisms controlling cyclone and frontal evolution across the Appalachian mountains, and to document the presence and importance of mesoscale disturbances during cyclogenesis. The research was accomplished in two phases. First, a climatological survey of seven winter seasons of cyclones and fronts was performed. This study revealed that cold fronts are slowed and deformed by the Appalachians, with the cross-frontal pressure and thermal contrasts enhanced considerably across the mountains. In addition, cyclones generally curve northward and dissipate over the mountains while secondary development occurs further south over the lee region. Both upper-level "forcing" and low-level thermal structure are important in determining the exact location of redevelopment. Second, a detailed case study was conducted of a cyclone observed during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE). The primary cyclone dissipated over the northern Appalachians while a secondary lower tropospheric (800-900 mb) cyclone formed over eastern North Carolina. However, strong low-level static stability prevented this disturbance from penetrating to the surface. Instead, cyclogenesis occurred offshore when two mesoscale mid-tropospheric (500 mb) PV maxima, one of which represented an upper level frontal zone, moved over a series of quasi-stationary shallow cloud clusters over the Gulf Stream. Meanwhile, the primary surface cold front was blocked west of the Appalachians, but the mid-level (700-850 mb) front progressed unimpeded across the mountains. Later, a new surface front formed east of the mountains through diabatic processes. Both surface heating and evaporation played important roles in the frontal redevelopment. These results indicate that future mesoscale models will need to incorporate topography and

  11. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2004-05-31

    This report summarizes the second-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Second-year results include: All current milestones have been met and other components of the project have been functioning in parallel toward satisfaction of year-3 milestones. We also have been effecting the ultimate goal of the project in the dissemination of information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky have much greater extensibility than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that is generating considerable exploration interest. If this structure is productive, it will be one of the largest structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician

  12. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2015-04-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  13. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  14. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor)...

  15. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)

    2016-04-15

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e{sup 2} ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a{sub E}), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a{sub E}, it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a{sub E}. We find that the extremal value a{sub E} is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)

  16. The renaissance of black phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Wang, Han; Huang, Shengxi; Xia, Fengnian; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-04-14

    One hundred years after its first successful synthesis in the bulk form in 1914, black phosphorus (black P) was recently rediscovered from the perspective of a 2D layered material, attracting tremendous interest from condensed matter physicists, chemists, semiconductor device engineers, and material scientists. Similar to graphite and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), black P has a layered structure but with a unique puckered single-layer geometry. Because the direct electronic band gap of thin film black P can be varied from 0.3 eV to around 2 eV, depending on its film thickness, and because of its high carrier mobility and anisotropic in-plane properties, black P is promising for novel applications in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics different from graphene and TMDs. Black P as a nanomaterial has already attracted much attention from researchers within the past year. Here, we offer our opinions on this emerging material with the goal of motivating and inspiring fellow researchers in the 2D materials community and the broad readership of PNAS to discuss and contribute to this exciting new field. We also give our perspectives on future 2D and thin film black P research directions, aiming to assist researchers coming from a variety of disciplines who are desirous of working in this exciting research field. PMID:25820173

  17. Phase transition in black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis is devoted towards the study of various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in black holes defined in an Anti-de-Sitter (AdS) space. Based on the fundamental principles of thermodynamics and considering a grand canonical framework we examine various aspects of the phase transition phenomena occurring in AdS black holes. We analytically check that this phase transition between the smaller and larger mass black holes obey Ehrenfest relations defined at the critical point and hence confirm a second order phase transition. This include both the rotating and charged black holes in Einstein gravity. Apart from studying these issues, based on a canonical framework, we also investigate the critical behavior in charged AdS black holes. The scaling laws for these black holes are found to be compatible with the static scaling hypothesis. Finally, based on the usual framework of AdS/CFT duality, we investigate the phase transition phenomena occurring in charged hairy black holes defined...

  18. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  19. Acceleration of Black Hole Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2012-05-01

    An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.

  20. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)