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Sample records for appalachia variable definition

  1. Appalachia's Best-Kept Secret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the multiple roles of community colleges in Appalachia: providing education and training to local students who are economically or culturally place-bound, promoting economic development and entrepreneurship through training in advanced technology and business skills, and meeting local community needs for specific academic or vocational…

  2. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Brady

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings.

  3. An Exploration of Poverty in Central Appalachia: Questions of Culture, Industry, and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Robinson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By most government statistical definitions, Central Appalachia is one of the most impoverished regions in the United States. Many of the region’s residents are low-income, dependent on government benefits, have high rates of obesity and diabetes, and low rates of college educational obtainment. Central Appalachia is historically tied to the coal mining and railroad industries. Many scholars believe this historical bond created an internal colony of company-dependent residents who have been unable to transition successfully from those industry’s boom eras or escape the lingering effects of industry environmental, health and economic degradation. While coal mining stripped the land of Central Appalachia and often cheated its residents from access to economic well-being and opportunity by traditional American definitions, Central Appalachians have created a rich culture based on kinship, religion, fatalism and community pride. Today, significant questions arise regarding the impact of advanced communication technologies and the associated infiltration of a monolithic standard for American success; success defined by material gain idealized by middle-class suburban living. While advanced communication technologies are often praised for their capacity to advance education, employment and cross-cultural understanding, in regions such as Central Appalachia, they may undermine the foundation of culture the residents have built in order to survive decades of isolation and exploitation.

  4. Age at diagnosis of diabetes in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Richard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is a region of the United States noted for the poverty and poor health outcomes of its residents. Residents of the poorest Appalachian counties have a high prevalence of diabetes and risk factors (obesity, low income, low education, etc. for type 2 diabetes. However, diabetes prevalence exceeds what these risk factors alone explain. Based on this, the history of poor health outcomes in Appalachia, and personally observed high rates of childhood obesity and lack of concern about prediabetes, we speculated that people in Appalachia with diagnosed diabetes might tend to be diagnosed younger than their non-Appalachian counterparts. Methods We used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2006-2008. We compared age at diagnosis among counties by Appalachian Regional Commission-defined level of economic development. To account for risk differences, we constructed a model for average age at diagnosis of diabetes, adjusting for county economic development, obesity, income, sedentary lifestyle, and other covariates. Findings After adjustment for risk factors for diabetes, people in distressed or at-risk counties (the least economically developed had their diabetes diagnosed two to three years younger than comparable people in non-Appalachian counties. No significant differences between non-Appalachian counties and Appalachian counties at higher levels of economic development remained after adjusting. Conclusions People in distressed and at-risk counties have poor access to care, and are unlikely to develop diabetes at the same age as their non-Appalachian counterparts but be diagnosed sooner. Therefore, people in distressed and at-risk counties are likely developing diabetes at younger ages. We recommend that steps to reduce health disparities between the poorest Appalachian counties and non-Appalachian counties be considered.

  5. 78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual Reporting AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION... Collection Title of Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative. OMB Approval...

  6. Aging in Rural Appalachia: Perspectives from Geriatric Social Service Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D. Pope

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses qualitative methodology to explore the experience of growing old in rural Appalachia. Given the growing population of older adults seeking and utilizing services, it is important to understand the challenges and specific needs related to aging. Within the context of rural Appalachia, these challenges and needs may be different than those in urban areas or areas outside of the region itself. From interviews with 14 geriatric service providers in rural southeast Ohio, the authors were able to identity three prevalent themes associated with aging in rural North Central Appalachia: scarcity of resources, valuing neighbors and family, and the prevalence of drug use. These findings suggest that preparation and ongoing training of rural geriatric social workers should include attention to topics such as substance abuse and strengthening social support networks that often exist in these regions.

  7. The forestry reclamation approach in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, P.N.; Burger, J.A.; Skousen, J.; Barton, C.D.

    2009-04-01

    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) was formed in 2005 to promote the planting of high-value hardwood trees on reclaimed coal mined lands and abandoned mine lands in Appalachia. In addition to planting more trees, ARRI's vision is to increase the survival rate of the planted trees and build a productive forest ecosystem that encourage natural succession of native forest plants by promoting the use of Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA). This article described the 5 steps of the FRA, which include (1) creating a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and comprised of topsoil, weathered sandstone, and/or the best available material, (2) loosely grading the topsoil or topsoil substitutes established in step one to create a non-compacted growth medium, (3) using ground covers that are compatible with growing trees, (4) planting two types of trees, an early succession species for wildlife and soil stability as well as commercially valuable crop trees, and (5) using proper tree planting techniques. The ARRI has been most successful in spreading the FRA by building partnerships with groups and individuals that share the common goal of science-base surface mine reforestation. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  8. Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

  9. Education and Development in Rural Appalachia: An Environmental Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, James R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines education and development in Appalachia using environmental education as the theoretical basis. Despite over 50 years of public attention to the educational and developmental disparities in the Central Appalachian region, these disparities still exist. Thus, the investigation into a new paradigm seems appropriate (Eller, 2008).…

  10. Enumerating maximal definite quadratic forms of bounded class number over Z in n >= 3 variables

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give an algorithm for enumerating all primitive (positive) definite maximal Z-valued quadratic forms Q in n >= 3 variables with bounded class number h(Q) = 3 variables. Using this we determine that there are exactly 115 primitive positive definite maximal Z-valued quadratic forms in n >= 3 variables of class number one, and produce a list of them. In a future paper we will complete this chain of ideas by extending these algorithms to allow the enumeration of all primitive maximal totally definite O_F-valued quadratic lattices of rank n >= 3, where O_F is the ring of integers of any totally real number field F.

  11. Local implementation of cancer control activities in rural Appalachia, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Bruce; Mabe, Karen Harrell; Dorgan, Kelly A; Hutson, Sadie P

    2009-01-01

    Underserved communities with high cancer rates often are not involved in implementing state cancer control activities locally. An East Tennessee State University research team formed 2 Appalachian Community Cancer Research Review Work Groups, 1 in northeast Tennessee and 1 in southwest Virginia. During 4 sessions, the research team presented regional cancer data to the work groups. Work group participants explored research from a lay perspective and identified possible reasons for cancer disparities in central Appalachia. The fifth session was a community dissemination activity in which work group participants engaged in cancer education and action by presenting the research to their local communities in unique ways. During a sixth session, both work groups discussed these interventions and further attempted to answer the question, "What makes the experience of cancer unique in Appalachia?" This article describes the key steps of this community-based participatory research process. PMID:19080040

  12. An Analysis of Adult Obesity and Hypertension in Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, Janaranjana; Brown, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States, and the burden associated is high. Hypertension seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem. Studies show that hypertension is approximately twice as prevalent among the obese as in the non-obese population. This study has two main objectives. First, to examine the association between obesity and hypertension within the context of economic growth in Appalachia, and second to estimate the cost of hypertension linked to obes...

  13. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  14. Definition of a time variable with entropy of a perfect fluid in canonical quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brown-Kuchar mechanism is applied in the case of general relativity coupled with Schutz' model for a perfect fluid. Using the canonical formalism and manipulating the set of modified constraints one is able to recover the definition of a time-evolution operator, i.e. a physical Hamiltonian, expressed as a functional of gravitational variables and the entropy.

  15. Definition of a time variable with Entropy of a perfect fluid in Canonical Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni; Zonetti, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The Brown-Kuchar mechanism is applied in the case of General Relativity coupled with the Schutz model for a perfect fluid. Using the canonical formalism and manipulating the set of modified constraints one is able to recover the definition of a time evolution operator, i.e. a physical Hamiltonian, expressed as a functional of gravitational variables and the entropy.

  16. On the Efficiency Definition for Reconciliation in Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sarah J.; Lance, Andrew M.; Ong, Lawrence; Ralph, Timothy; Symul, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The maximum operation range of continuous variable quantum key distribution systems is constrained by the efficiency of the forward error correction post processing step. In this paper, we show that the current definition of this forward error correction efficiency can exceed unity when employing fixed-rate error correction codes operating at high word error rates. For efficiencies greater than unity, we show that it is possible achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking chan...

  17. Merging Symbols, Space and Identity in Appalachia: An Examination of the Ramp

    OpenAIRE

    Rivers, Bridgette Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the ramp, a traditional Appalachian food, has invaded elite culinary circles outside its native culinary region of Appalachia. Ramps (Allium tricoccum) are wild leeks traditionally foraged for in the spring, and are known for their pungent smell. This unique vegetable is traditionally celebrated in Appalachia through dinners and festivals that have been widely attended by members of the community and recently, outsiders. Similarly, outside the region, the ramp has bee...

  18. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  19. Critical discussion of evaluation parameters for inter-observer variability in target definition for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter-observer studies represent a valid method for the evaluation of target definition uncertainties and contouring guidelines. However, data from the literature do not yet give clear guidelines for reporting contouring variability. Thus, the purpose of this work was to compare and discuss various methods to determine variability on the basis of clinical cases and a literature review. In this study, 7 prostate and 8 lung cases were contoured on CT images by 8 experienced observers. Analysis of variability included descriptive statistics, calculation of overlap measures, and statistical measures of agreement. Cross tables with ratios and correlations were established for overlap parameters. It was shown that the minimal set of parameters to be reported should include at least one of three volume overlap measures (i.e., generalized conformity index, Jaccard coefficient, or conformation number). High correlation between these parameters and scatter of the results was observed. A combination of descriptive statistics, overlap measure, and statistical measure of agreement or reliability analysis is required to fully report the interrater variability in delineation. (orig.)

  20. Inter- and Intra-Observer Variability in Prostate Definition With Tissue Harmonic and Brightness Mode Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the relative utility of tissue harmonic (H) and brightness (B) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate by studying interobserver and intraobserver variation in prostate delineation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage disease were randomly selected. TRUS images of prostates were acquired using B and H modes. The prostates on all images were contoured by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and five equally trained observers. The observers were blinded to information regarding patient and imaging mode. The volumes of prostate glands and areas of midgland slices were calculated. Volumes contoured were compared among the observers and between observer group and RO. Contours on one patient were repeated five times by four observers to evaluate the intraobserver variability. Results: A one-sample Student t-test showed the volumes outlined by five observers are in agreement (p > 0.05) with the RO. Paired Student t-test showed prostate volumes (p = 0.008) and midgland areas (p = 0.006) with H mode were significantly smaller than that with B mode. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant interobserver variability (p < 0.001) in prostate volumes and areas. Inter- and intraobserver consistency was quantified as the standard deviation of mean volumes and areas, and concordance indices. It was found that for small glands (≤35 cc) H mode provided greater interobserver consistency; however, for large glands (≥35 cc), B mode provided more consistent estimates. Conclusions: H mode provided superior inter- and intraobserver agreement in prostate volume definition for small to medium prostates. In large glands, H mode does not exhibit any additional advantage. Although harmonic imaging has not proven advantageous for all cases, its utilization seems to be judicious for small prostates.

  1. Definition of gross tumor volume in lung cancer: inter-observer variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To determine the inter-observer variation in gross tumor volume (GTV) definition in lung cancer, and its clinical relevance. Material and methods: Five clinicians involved in lung cancer were asked to define GTV on the planning CT scan of eight patients. Resulting GTVs were compared on the base of geometric volume, dimensions and extensions. Judgement of invasion of lymph node (LN) regions was evaluated using the ATS/LCSG classification of LN. Clinical relevance of the variation was studied through 3D-dosimetry of standard conformal plans: volume of critical organs (heart, lungs, esophagus, spinal cord) irradiated at toxic doses, 95% isodose volumes of GTVs, normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) and tumor control probabilities (TCP) were compared for evaluation of observer variability. Results: Before evaluation of observer variability, critical review of planning CT scan led to up- (two cases) and downstaging (one case) of patients as compared to the respective diagnostic scans. The defined GTVs showed an inter-observer variation with a ratio up to more than 7 between maximum and minimum geometric content. The dimensions of the primary tumor had inter-observer ranges of 4.2 (transversal), 7.9 (cranio-caudal) and 5.4 (antero-posterior) cm. Extreme extensions of the GTVs (left, right, cranial, caudal, anterior and posterior) varied with ranges of 2.8-7.3 cm due to inter-observer variation. After common review, only 63% of involved lymph node regions were delineated by the clinicians (i.e. 37% are false negative). Twenty-two percent of drawn in lymph node regions were accepted to be false positive after review. In the conformal plans, inter-observer ranges of irradiated normal tissue volume were on average 12%, with a maximum of 66%. The probability (in the population of all conformal plans) of irradiating at least 95% of the GTV with at least 95% of the nominal treatment dose decreased from 96 to 88% when swapping the matched GTV

  2. The Northern Appalachia Cancer Network: Changing Cancer Research, Changing People's Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengerich, Eugene J.; Kluhsman, Brenda C.; Bencivenga, Marcyann M.; Lesko, Samuel M.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Aumiller, Betsy B.; Anderson, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    The Northern Appalachia Cancer Network (NACN) is a community-academic partnership to develop, implement, and evaluate evidence-based interventions intended to reduce the burden of cancer in Appalachian Pennsylvania and New York. The NACN began in 1992 as a loose network of community coalitions intended to implement local programs for cancer…

  3. Hyperbolic variables on surfaces with non-definite quadratic forms (extension of Beltrami equation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss showed the link between the definite quadratic differential forms and the complex functions. Beltrami, following Gauss' idea, linked the complex functions to elliptic partial differential equations. In this report it was shown how the use of hyperbolic numbers and hyperbolic functions allows to extend the same results to non definite quadratic differential forms. Using this kind of approach, one can tackle the hyperbolic partial differential equations by a different point of view

  4. Culturally tailored cancer communication, education, and research: the highways and back roads of Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly A; Hutson, Sadie P; Gerding, Gail; Duvall, Katie L

    2009-04-01

    We seek to start a dialogue about the challenges cancer control researchers and specialists may face in attempting to understand the Appalachians' experience with cancer. Through examples drawn from our own research among Appalachian communities, we discuss the hazards of defining a culture in order to develop culturally tailored cancer control interventions and programs. We also acknowledge that cancer control work in Appalachia requires "cultural mapping," highlighting cultural beliefs, norms, and realities that may be linked to cancer mortality and morbidity. Although cancer control specialists and researchers have to rely on cultural maps, they must also remain critical of such maps. Subsequently, we describe a mapping approach around the metaphor of "signposts," directional indicators that point to broad cultural attributes but do not reduce the culture to a narrow set of traits. The interplay of these signposts ultimately helps cancer educators, communicators, and researchers better understand authentic Appalachia. PMID:19289011

  5. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Michael P. Strager; Strager, Jacquelyn M.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Dunscomb, Judy K.; Kreps, Brad J.; Maxwell, Aaron E.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predict...

  6. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PASTURE-RAISED BEEF SYSTEMS IN APPALACHIA

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jason R.; D'Souza, Gerard E.; Sperow, Mark; Rayburn, Edward B.

    2004-01-01

    Cow-calf operations are important enterprises for family farmers in Appalachia and provide significant opportunity for supplemental income. This analysis constitutes a thorough economic assessment of pasture-raised beef production, an alternative to traditional production that could benefit the region's producers in terms of profitability and mitigated risk. Stochastic budgeting was utilized for profitability and risk comparison between traditional and pasture-raised operations and accounted ...

  7. A COUNTY-LEVEL ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN APPALACHIA USING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mojica, Maribel N.; Gebremedhin, Tesfa G.; Schaeffer, Peter V.

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is now recognized as a strategy to achieve economic growth in many regions. The goal of this paper is to increase the understanding of entrepreneurship's contributions to economic growth and its potential as a development strategy for a region, such as Appalachia, characterized by poverty and underdevelopment. Using data on Appalachian counties, a system of simultaneous equations is empirically estimated to measure the effects of entrepreneurship on economic growth and develo...

  8. A County-Level Assessment of Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Appalachia Using Simultaneous Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel Mojica; Tesfa Gebremedhin; Peter Schaeffer

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence of the contribution of entrepreneurship to economic development in Appalachia. Using data on Appalachian counties, a system of simultaneous equations is empirically estimated to measure the effects of entrepreneurship on economic growth and development. We present an expanded Carlino-Mills growth model using changes in population, employment, and per capita income to represent growth. The goal of the investigation is to increase the understanding of entrepreneursh...

  9. Last Settler’s Syndrome and Land Use Change in Southern Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristan Cockerill; Jana D. Groothuis; Peter A. Groothuis

    2011-01-01

    In many rural areas land use patterns are shifting from agriculture or woodland to residential development. This is especially true in areas possessing significant natural amenities like the sweeping vistas, white-water rivers, and blue-ridged mountains of Southern Appalachia. As in-migration increases, decisions about land use can become heated as the “newcomers” square off with long-time residents. Understanding how various groups value both the land (as productive resource) and the landsca...

  10. Acceptance Of The HPV Vaccine Among Women, Parents, Community Leaders, and Healthcare Providers In Ohio Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Mira L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T.; Post, Douglas M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2009-01-01

    To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18–26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conser...

  11. Nourishing Roots and Inspiring Wings: Building a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Southern Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Druggish, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Richard S. Druggish This qualitative study focused on the need for culturally responsive teaching within the southern Appalachian cultural setting. The specific components of this approach to teaching were based on research findings, theoretical claims from proponents of culturally responsive teaching (e.g. Gloria Ladson-Billings and Geneva Gay), and experiences and personal narratives of educators working with students in southern Appalachia. T...

  12. Self-dual variables, positive semi-definite action, and discrete transformations in four-dimensional quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Chopin

    1995-01-01

    A positive semi-definite Euclidean action for arbitrary four-topologies can be constructed by adding appropriate Yang-Mills and topological terms to the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of gravity with (anti)self-dual variables. Moreover, on-shell, the (anti)self-dual sector of the new theory corresponds precisely to all Einstein manifolds in four dimensions. The Lorentzian signature action, and its analytic continuations are also considered. A self-contained discussion is given on the effects o...

  13. [Definition and variables of complexity of nursing care: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, Chiara; Cocchieri, Antonello; D'Agostino, Fabio; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria; Zega, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Complexity of nursing care represents an important indicator in the planning and management of nursing resources and healthcare management. However, the term is not clearly defined in the literature. The aim of this article is to outline the main concepts associated with complexity of nursing care, trying to shed light on the different variables that constitute it. We conducted a review of the literature and selected 12 articles. The terms associated with the concept of complexity of nursing care include nursing intensity, nursing work, nursing workload, patient acuity and severity of illness. The literature review indicates that complexity of nursing care appears to be one of the variables of care intensity, the latter being defined as a commitment of care delivered to the patient. It is associated with the concepts of nursing work, nursing workload, patient acuity and severity of illness. Understanding and clarifying the concept of complexity of care is fundamental in order to measure and evaluate the real demand for nursing care by individual patients. PMID:27510292

  14. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  15. Marginal share of renewable energy sources of variable electricity generation: A contribution to the concept definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development is a keystone within the efforts toward enabling longer duration of the world fossil energy resources. The past development and the technologies applied, cause huge emissions of СО2 that must be significantly reduced. Increased usage of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-e contributes essentially to the reduction of CO2, but on the other hand, under current conditions of feed-in priority reduces also the market for the electricity from fossil fuelled power plants (FFPP. The other possibility for reduction of CO2 emissions is to apply carbon capture and storage technologies as a part of overall FFPP technologies. A hypothesis presented in this paper is that there is a marginal share of RES variable electricity in overall annual electricity supply after which further increase of RES-e participation produces higher average electricity generated cost, than in the case of CO2 emission reduction by applying CCS technologies. The presented work confirms this hypothesis. Value of the marginal share depends to the price of RES-e feed-in. With the price span from 13.5 to 7.5€c/kWh, the marginal share is under 50%.

  16. College students as facilitators in reducing adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia: Team Up for Healthy Living

    OpenAIRE

    Slawson, Deborah Leachman; Dalton, William T.; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Southerland, Jodi; Wang, Liang; Littleton, Mary Ann; Mozen, Diana; Relyea, George; Schetzina, Karen; Lowe, Elizabeth F.; Stoots, James M.; Wu, Tiejian

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of obese adolescents in Southern Appalachia is among the highest in the nation. Through funding from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities – National Institutes of Health, the Team Up for Healthy Living project was a cluster-randomized trial targeting obesity prevention in adolescents through a cross-peer intervention. The specific aims of the project were to: 1) develop a peer-based health education program focusing on establishing positive peer norm...

  17. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Pyle Donald N; Lovett Gretchen D; Griffith Brian N; Miller Wayne C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. M...

  18. Variability in the definition and reporting of adverse events in suicide prevention trials: an examination of the issues and a proposed solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo, Maria A; Feldman, Sarah; Silverman, Emily; Currier, Dianne; Brown, Gregory K; Chen, Donna; Chiapella, Page; Fischbach, Ruth; Gould, Madelyn; Stanley, Barbara; Strauss, David; Zelazny, Jamie; Pearson, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Adverse events (AEs) and serious adverse events (SAEs) are important outcomes of any intervention study yet are under-researched. Vague and variable definitions and substantial underreporting make comparisons of risk between studies difficult and evaluation of the safety of a particular intervention almost impossible. These realities may deter researchers from studying at-risk populations. Suicidal behavior is an adverse event in any study, and potentially a very serious one. Thus the issues of reporting and definition are particularly salient for researchers who work with populations at risk for suicidal behavior, especially when the suicidal behavior is the outcome of interest. We conducted a qualitative study with experienced suicide researchers and intervention experts to delineate the issues related to reporting serious adverse events faced by investigators conducting trials in suicide prevention. Participants from multiple sites were interviewed by phone, interviews transcribed and coded for definition and reporting issues and suggested solutions. A narrative synthesis was prepared and validated by all participants. Participants highlighted the difficulties in defining AEs and SAEs and stressed the importance and complexity of ensuring the AE was related to the study and reported properly, and were in agreement about the consequences of AEs to both institutions and individuals. Participants identified the need for the development of clear and consistent AE definitions and reporting requirements. Clear and consistently applied definitions of adverse and serious adverse events and reporting requirements would enhance the comparability of intervention studies in suicidal populations. PMID:21293998

  19. Assessing the variability of outcome for patients treated with localized prostate irradiation using different definitions of biochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Biochemical control using serial posttreatment serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels is being increasingly used to assess treatment efficacy for localized prostate cancer. However, no standardized definition of biochemical control has been established. We reviewed our experience treating patients with localized prostate cancer and applied three different commonly used definitions of biochemical control to determine if differences in therapeutic outcome would be observed. Methods and Materials: Between January 1987 and December 1991, 480 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. The median dose to the prostate was 66.6 Gy (range 58-70.4) using a four-field or arc technique. Pretreatment and posttreatment serum PSA levels were recorded. Over 86% (414 of 480) of patients had a pretreatment PSA level available. Three different definitions of biochemical control were used: (a) PSA nadir 20), and 5-year actuarial rates of biochemical control were calculated using the three biochemical control and one clinical local control definitions. For Group 1, 5-year actuarial rates of biochemical control were 84%, 90%, and 96% for Definitions 1-3 and clinical local control, respectively. For Group 2, 5-year actuarial control rates were 45%, 54%, 74%, and 92% for the four definitions, respectively. For Group 3, 5-year actuarial control rates were 26%, 31%, 63%, and 100% for the four definitions, respectively. For Group 4, 5-year actuarial control rates were 24%, 24%, 50%, and 100% for the four definitions, respectively. Finally, for Group 5, 5-year actuarial control rates were 5%, 14%, 15%, and 89% for the four definitions, respectively. Depending on the definition used, statistically significant differences overall in outcome rates were observed. Differences between all four definitions for all pairwise comparisons ranged from 5 to 53% (p < 0

  20. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment

  1. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kim, Tae K. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shyn, Paul [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Cheng, Jason C. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Feng, Mary U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital/McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Crane, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment

  2. Qualitative Assessment of Local Distribution of Screen for Life Mass Media Materials in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin C. Vanderpool, MPH, CHES

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign is a multimedia campaign that informs men and women aged 50 and older about the importance of colorectal cancer screening. The Appalachia Cancer Network undertook a qualitative research study to help determine whether Screen for Life materials are being used and distributed by organizations serving Appalachian residents and to help assess key informants’ perceived acceptability of the materials. Methods Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 state and local informants in three Appalachian states to assess the diversity of community organizations that received the materials, the level of material use, and receptivity to Screen for Life. Results Regional cancer control programs were more active in promoting Screen for Life at local levels than state health departments. Although state health departments are the primary route for distributing Screen for Life materials, they did not report the breadth of activities noted by regional cancer control programs. Several local interview respondents were unfamiliar with Screen for Life, and respondents who were familiar with Screen for Life used the materials in a general, unplanned way. Although some respondents were unfamiliar with the campaign materials, they were interested in Screen for Life. No formal evaluations on the effectiveness of the materials were reported. Conclusion More guidance on how to implement the Screen for Life campaign as a targeted health communication media campaign would be helpful.

  3. Lost Mountain: a year in the vanishing wilderness; radical strip mining and the devastation of Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, E.

    2007-02-15

    The mountains of Appalachia are home to one of the great forests of the world - they predate the Ice Age and scientists refer to them as the 'rainforests' of North America for their remarkable density and species diversity. These mountains also hold the mother lode of American coal, and the coal mining industry has long been the economic backbone for families in a region hard-pressed for other job opportunities. But recently, a new type of mining has been introduced -'radical strip mining', aka 'mountaintop removal'- in which a team employing no more than ten men and some heavy machinery literally blast off the top of a mountain, dump it in the valley below, and scoop out the coal. Erik Reece chronicles the year he spent witnessing the systematic decimation of a single mountain, aptly named 'Lost Mountain'. A native Kentuckian and the son of a coal worker, Reece makes it clear that strip mining is neither a local concern nor a radical contention, but a mainstream crisis that encompasses every hot-button issue - from corporate hubris and government neglect, to class conflict and poisoned groundwater, to irrevocable species extinction and landscape destruction. Published excerpts of Lost Mountain are already driving headlines and legislative action in Kentucky.

  4. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Ebersole, Jun A.

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development. PMID:27114863

  5. Community as classroom: teaching and learning public health in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, James; Behringer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Traditional models for public health professional education tend to be didactic, with brief, discrete practica appended. National reports of both practitioners and academicians have called for more competency-driven, interdisciplinary-focused, community-based, service-oriented, and experientially-guided learning for students across the curriculum. East Tennessee State University began its own curricular revisioning in health professions education nearly 2 decades ago with a grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, emphasizing competencies development through community-based learning in community-academic partnerships. This article describes 3 examples that grew from that initiative. In the first example, students in multiple classes delivered a longitudinal community-based employee wellness intervention for a rural county school district. BS public health students conducted needs assessments and prepared health education materials; MPH students conducted health assessments and worked with school wellness councils to deliver client-centered interventions; DrPH students supervised the project and provided feedback to the schools using participatory methods. In the second example, MPH students in a social-behavioral foundations course used experiential learning to investigate the region's elevated cancer mortality ranking. Following meetings with multiple community groups, students employed theoretical constructs to frame regional beliefs about cancer and presented findings to community leaders. One outcome was a 5-year community-based participatory research study of cancer in rural Appalachia. In the third example, MPH students in a health-consulting course assessed local African Americans' awareness of the university's health and education programs and perceptions of their community health issues. Students learned consultation methods by assisting at multiple regional African American community meetings to discover issues and interest that resulted in the

  6. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyle Donald N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.

  7. Environmental variables and definitive host distribution: a habitat suitability modelling for endohelminth parasites in the marine realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Marine nematodes of the genus Anisakis are common parasites of a wide range of aquatic organisms. Public interest is primarily based on their importance as zoonotic agents of the human Anisakiasis, a severe infection of the gastro-intestinal tract as result of consuming live larvae in insufficiently cooked fish dishes. The diverse nature of external impacts unequally influencing larval and adult stages of marine endohelminth parasites requires the consideration of both abiotic and biotic factors. Whereas abiotic factors are generally more relevant for early life stages and might also be linked to intermediate hosts, definitive hosts are indispensable for a parasite’s reproduction. In order to better understand the uneven occurrence of parasites in fish species, we here use the maximum entropy approach (Maxent) to model the habitat suitability for nine Anisakis species accounting for abiotic parameters as well as biotic data (definitive hosts). The modelled habitat suitability reflects the observed distribution quite well for all Anisakis species, however, in some cases, habitat suitability exceeded the known geographical distribution, suggesting a wider distribution than presently recorded. We suggest that integrative modelling combining abiotic and biotic parameters is a valid approach for habitat suitability assessments of Anisakis, and potentially other marine parasite species. PMID:27507328

  8. Environmental variables and definitive host distribution: a habitat suitability modelling for endohelminth parasites in the marine realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Marine nematodes of the genus Anisakis are common parasites of a wide range of aquatic organisms. Public interest is primarily based on their importance as zoonotic agents of the human Anisakiasis, a severe infection of the gastro-intestinal tract as result of consuming live larvae in insufficiently cooked fish dishes. The diverse nature of external impacts unequally influencing larval and adult stages of marine endohelminth parasites requires the consideration of both abiotic and biotic factors. Whereas abiotic factors are generally more relevant for early life stages and might also be linked to intermediate hosts, definitive hosts are indispensable for a parasite’s reproduction. In order to better understand the uneven occurrence of parasites in fish species, we here use the maximum entropy approach (Maxent) to model the habitat suitability for nine Anisakis species accounting for abiotic parameters as well as biotic data (definitive hosts). The modelled habitat suitability reflects the observed distribution quite well for all Anisakis species, however, in some cases, habitat suitability exceeded the known geographical distribution, suggesting a wider distribution than presently recorded. We suggest that integrative modelling combining abiotic and biotic parameters is a valid approach for habitat suitability assessments of Anisakis, and potentially other marine parasite species.

  9. Conformal radiotherapy for lung cancer: interobservers' variability in the definition of gross tumor volume between radiologists and radiotherapists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal external radiotherapy aims to improve tumor control by boosting tumor dose, reducing morbidity and sparing healthy tissues. To meet this objective careful visualization of the tumor and adjacent areas is required. However, one of the major issues to be solved in this context is the volumetric definition of the targets. This study proposes to compare the gross volume of lung tumors as delineated by specialized radiologists and radiotherapists of a cancer center. Chest CT scans of a total of 23 patients all with non-small cell lung cancer, not submitted to surgery, eligible and referred to conformal radiotherapy on the Hospital A. C. Camargo (São Paulo, Brazil), during the year 2004 were analyzed. All cases were delineated by 2 radiologists and 2 radiotherapists. Only the gross tumor volume and the enlarged lymph nodes were delineated. As such, four gross tumor volumes were achieved for each one of the 23 patients. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 measurements (among the radiotherapists, radiologists and intra-class) and there was randomness in the distribution of data within the constructed confidence interval. There were no significant differences in the definition of gross tumor volume between radiologists and radiotherapists

  10. Coregistration of Prechemotherapy PET-CT for Planning Pediatric Hodgkin's Disease Radiotherapy Significantly Diminishes Interobserver Variability of Clinical Target Volume Definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the interobserver variability in clinical target volume (CTV) definitions when using registered 18F-labeled deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET-CT) versus side-by-side image sets in pediatric Hodgkin's disease (HD). Methods and Materials: Prechemotherapy FDG-PET-CT scans performed in the treatment position were acquired from 20 children (median age, 14 years old) with HD (stages 2A to 4B) and registered with postchemotherapy planning CT scans. The patients had a median age of 14 years and stages of disease ranging between 2A and 4B. Image sets were coregistered using a semiautomatic coregistration system. The biological target volume was defined on all the coregistered images as a guide to defining the initial site of involvement and to avoid false-positive or negative results. Five radiation oncologists independently defined the CTV for all 20 patients: once using separate FDG-PET-CT images as a guide (not registered) to define CTVa and once using the registered FDG-PET-CT data to define CTVb. The total volumes were compared, as well as their coefficients of variation (COV). To assess the interobserver variability, the percentages of intersection between contours drawn by all observers for each patient were calculated for CTVa and for CTVb. Results: The registration of a prechemotherapy FDG-PET-CT scan caused a change in the CTV for all patients. Comparing CTVa with CTVb showed that the mean CTVb increased in 14 patients (range, 0.61%-101.96%) and decreased in 6 patients (range, 2.97%-37.26%). The COV for CTVb significantly decreased for each patient; the mean COVs for CTVa and CTVb were 45% (21%-65%) and 32% (13%-57%), respectively (p = 0.0004). The percentage of intersection among all CTVbs for the five observers increased significantly by 89.77% (1.99%-256.41%) compared to that of CTVa (p = 0.0001). Conclusions: High observer variability can occur during CT-based definition of CTVs for children diagnosed with HD. Registration

  11. New indices for quantification of the power spectrum of heart rate variability time series without the need of any frequency band definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new family of indices for the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability time series that do not need any frequency band definition. After proper detrending of the time series, a cumulated power spectrum is obtained and frequencies that contain a certain percentage of the power below them are identified, so median frequency, bandwidth and a measure of the power spectrum asymmetry are proposed to complement or improve the classical spectral indices as the ratio of the powers of LF and HF bands (LF/HF). In normal conditions the median frequency provides similar information as the classical indices, while the bandwidth and asymmetry can be complementary measures of the physiological state of the tested subject. The proposed indices seem to be a good choice for tracking changes in the power spectrum in exercise stress, and they can guide in the determination of frequency band limits in other animal species

  12. College students as facilitators in reducing adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia: Team Up for Healthy Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawson, Deborah Leachman; Dalton, William T; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Southerland, Jodi; Wang, Liang; Littleton, Mary Ann; Mozen, Diana; Relyea, George; Schetzina, Karen; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Stoots, James M; Wu, Tiejian

    2015-07-01

    The proportion of obese adolescents in Southern Appalachia is among the highest in the nation. Through funding from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities--National Institutes of Health, the Team Up for Healthy Living project was a cluster-randomized trial targeting obesity prevention in adolescents through a cross-peer intervention. The specific aims of the project were to: 1) develop a peer-based health education program focusing on establishing positive peer norms towards healthy eating and physical activity (PA) among high school students, 2) test program efficacy, and 3) explore mechanisms underlying the program. The study was guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, which presupposes that human behavior is primarily driven by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and social support. To deliver the intervention, undergraduate students from the disciplines of public health, nutrition, and kinesiology were hired as peer facilitators. Ten area high schools were invited to participate, were matched on demographics and then randomized to intervention or control. The primary outcomes of the study included body mass status, dietary behaviors, PA, and sedentary behaviors which were assessed at baseline and at three and twelve months post baseline. Intervention schools received Team Up for Healthy Living curriculum, which consists of eight 40-minute sessions. The curriculum focused on improving nutrition awareness, PA, leadership and communication. Control schools received their regularly scheduled Lifetime Wellness curriculum. The long-term goal of the study was to establish an effective academia-community partnership program to address adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia. PMID:25937506

  13. Critical moment definition and estimation, for finite size observation of log-exponential-power law random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Angeletti, Florian; Abry, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    This contribution aims at studying the behaviour of the classical sample moment estimator, $S(n,q)= \\sum_{k=1}^n X_k^{q}/n $, as a function of the number of available samples $n$, in the case where the random variables $X$ are positive, have finite moments at all orders and are naturally of the form $X= \\exp Y$ with the tail of $Y$ behaving like $e^{-y^\\rho}$. This class of laws encompasses and generalizes the classical example of the log-normal law. This form is motivated by a number of applications stemming from modern statistical physics or multifractal analysis. Borrowing heuristic and analytical results from the analysis of the Random Energy Model in statistical physics, a critical moment $q_c(n)$ is defined as the largest statistical order $q$ up to which the sample mean estimator $S(n,q)$ correctly accounts for the ensemble average $\\E X^q$, for a given $n$. A practical estimator for the critical moment $q_c(n)$ is then proposed. Its statistical performance are studied analytically and illustrated nume...

  14. A quantitative correlational investigation of the definition of key decision variables used for the determination of wind energy systems' feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen M.

    Several factors are critical in determining if a wind farm has a high probability of success. These factors include wind energy potential or wind class, sales price, cost of the wind energy generated, market for selling the wind, capacity factor or efficiency of the turbines, capital investment cost, debt and financing, and governmental factors such as taxes and incentives. This research studied the critical factors of thirty-three land based wind farms in the United States with over 20 mega-watts (MW) of capacity that have become operational since 1999. The goal was to develop a simple yet effective decision model using the critical factors to predict an internal rate of return (IRR) and the impact of having a tax credit to supplement the revenue stream. The study found that there are five critical factors that are significantly correlated with the internal rate of return (IRR) of a wind farm project. The critical factors are wind potential or wind class, cost of the wind energy generated, capacity factor or efficiency of the wind turbines, cost of capital investment, and the existence of a federal production tax credit (PTC). The decision model was built using actual wind farm data and industry standards whereby a score from zero to one hundred was coded for each of values except for the production tax credit. Since all the projects qualified for the production tax credit prior to their start up, it was no longer a variable. However, without the presence of this tax credit, the data imply that the projects would not be profitable within the first ten to fifteen years of operation. The scores for each of the categories were totaled and regressed against a calculated internal rate of return. There was ninety-seven percent correlation which was supported by simulation analysis. While this model is not intended to supplant rigorous accounting and financial study, it will help quickly determine if a site has potential and save many hours of analytical work.

  15. Dosimetric impact of inter-observer variability for 3D conformal radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy: the rectal tumor target definition case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the dosimetric effect induced by inter-observer variability in target definition for 3D-conformal RT (3DCRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy by RapidArc (RA) techniques for rectal cancer treatment. Ten patients with rectal cancer subjected to neo-adjuvant RT were randomly selected from the internal database. Four radiation oncologists independently contoured the clinical target volume (CTV) in blind mode. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as CTV + 7 mm in the three directions. Afterwards, shared guidelines between radiation oncologists were introduced to give general criteria for the contouring of rectal target and the four radiation oncologists defined new CTV following the guidelines. For each patient, six intersections (I) and unions (U) volumes were calculated coupling the contours of the various oncologists. This was repeated for the contours drawn after the guidelines. Agreement Index (AI = I/U) was calculated pre and post guidelines. Two RT plans (one with 3DCRT technique using 3–4 fields and one with RA using a single modulated arc) were optimized on each radiation oncologist’s PTV. For each plan the PTV volume receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95%) was calculated for both target and non-target PTVs. The inter-operator AI pre-guidelines was 0.57 and was increased up to 0.69 post-guidelines. The maximum volume difference between the various CTV couples, drawn for each patient, passed from 380 ± 147 cm3 to 137 ± 83 cm3 after the introduction of guidelines. The mean percentage for the non-target PTV V95% was 93.7 ± 9.2% before and 96.6 ± 4.9%after the introduction of guidelines for the 3DCRT, for RA the increase was more relevant, passing from 86.5 ± 13.8% (pre) to 94.5 ± 7.5% (post). The OARs were maximally spared with VMAT technique while the variability between pre and post guidelines was not relevant in both techniques. The contouring inter-observer variability has dosimetric effects in the PTV coverage

  16. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:22185292

  17. 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI for GTV-definition of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions in patients with Prostate Cancer – an interobserver variability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the interobserver variability of gross tumor volume (GTV) - delineation of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions (DIPL) in patients with prostate cancer using published MRI criteria for multiparametric MRI at 3 Tesla by 6 different observers. 90 GTV-datasets based on 15 multiparametric MRI sequences (T2w, diffusion weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) of 5 patients with prostate cancer were generated for GTV-delineation of DIPL by 6 observers. The reference GTV-dataset was contoured by a radiologist with expertise in diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using MRI. Subsequent GTV-delineation was performed by 5 radiation oncologists who received teaching of MRI-features of primary prostate cancer before starting contouring session. GTV-datasets were contoured using Oncentra Masterplan® and iplan® Net. For purposes of comparison GTV-datasets were imported to the Artiview® platform (Aquilab®), GTV-values and the similarity indices or Kappa indices (KI) were calculated with the postulation that a KI > 0.7 indicates excellent, a KI > 0.6 to < 0.7 substantial and KI > 0.5 to < 0.6 moderate agreement. Additionally all observers rated difficulties of contouring for each MRI-sequence using a 3 point rating scale (1 = easy to delineate, 2 = minor difficulties, 3 = major difficulties). GTV contouring using T2w (KI-T2w = 0.61) and DCE images (KI-DCE = 0.63) resulted in substantial agreement. GTV contouring using DWI images resulted in moderate agreement (KI-DWI = 0.51). KI-T2w and KI-DCE was significantly higher than KI-DWI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003). Degree of difficulty in contouring GTV was significantly lower using T2w and DCE compared to DWI-sequences (both p < 0.0001). Analysis of delineation differences revealed inadequate comparison of functional (DWI, DCE) to anatomical sequences (T2w) and lack of awareness of non-specific imaging findings as a source of erroneous delineation. Using T2w and DCE sequences at 3 Tesla for GTV-definition of DIPL in

  18. 对高中物理比值定义法和控制变量法的再思考%Study on Ratio Definition Method and Control Variable Method in High school Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石尧

    2015-01-01

    In the view of “Gontrol Variable Method”that abused in the high school physics at pre—sent, with the help of the analysis of “Ratio Definition Method” and “Gontrol Variable Method”in teach—ing program, the article made a comparative study about “Ratio Definition Method”and“Gontrol Variable Method” in three aspects: form of comparison, the cognition path and thinking methods, so as to clarify their applicable scope and education values, and thus provide a reference for steady progress of scientific method education.%针对高中物理教学中控制变量法滥用的现状,通过比值定义法和控制变量法在比较形式、认知路径及思维方法三个方面的对比研究的基础上,厘清它们的适用范围与教育价值,为科学方法教育的稳步推进提供参考。

  19. Evaluation of Variable Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma Definitions and Association of Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Findings With Cavity Rupture Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Taishi; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Ling; Baaj, Shamsa; Kovarnik, Tomas; Porcaro, Katie; Kaminski, John; Hawn, Stephen; Agrawal, Anoop; Makki, Nader; Downe, Richard; Wahle, Andreas; Sonka, Milan; Lopez, John J

    2016-07-15

    The accepted definition of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (IVUS-VH) thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is only a modest predictor of plaque rupture (PR). We sought to determine the relation between IVUS-VH findings and culprit lesions with PR using computational analysis. A total of 80 culprit lesions from 80 patients with stable angina (n = 37), unstable angina (n = 20), and myocardial infarction (n = 23) were divided into those with (n = 15) and without PR (n = 65). By use of automated computational analysis, the standard IVUS-VH TCFA criterion and 124 additional criteria were compared. The standard TCFA definition demonstrated modest ability to discriminate lesions with and without PR (sensitivity 87%, specificity 37%, PPV 0.24, and NPV 0.92). Of 124 additional IVUS-VH TCFA definitions, only 2 improved the discriminative ability even modestly. However, a positive correlation was demonstrated between cavity size and necrotic core percentage (r = 0.78, p <0.01) and a negative correlation with percentage of fibrous tissue (r = -0.81, p <0.01). In conclusion, IVUS-VH criteria were only modestly associated with PR, without significant improvement by varying IVUS-VH TCFA features, but IVUS-VH features of ruptured plaques were strongly correlated with cavity size. PMID:27289292

  20. Process Domains in Synthetic Landscapes: Slope-Area Relationships in the Mountaintop Mining Region of Central Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Ross, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes and the governing geomorphic processes that shape them have been described in a conceptual framework of process domains. At a coarse scale, process domains are segregated between hillslope, colluvial, and alluvial processes, which can be distinguished by governing erosional processes and partitioned by local slope-drainage area relationships. In landscapes that have experienced dramatic topographic alteration such as the mountaintop coal-mining (MTM) region of central Appalachia, the resulting modified environment may be considered a synthetic landscape. Such a landscape has process domains that are decoupled from prior landscape evolution trajectories. In particular, landslide and debris flow processes, which are a predominant geomorphic agent in these steep mountain systems and a primary sediment delivery mechanism to the downstream fluvial network, may be eliminated from this landscape and detectable through changes in slope-area relationships. We evaluate differences in slope-area relationships using 10-m DEMs between two time periods, pre-mined and post-mined. At five study site located within the MTM region in the central Appalachian Mountains, US, we compare slope-area changes to adjacent unmined landscapes over the same time periods. Distinct differences exist in the character of slope-area relationships between unmined and MTM sites and local slopes are systematically and considerably reduced in all process zones of mined sites. In particular, there is an expansion of the unchanneled valley zone through either an individual or simultaneous upslope shift into the hillslope region and downslope shift into the debris flow region. In addition, local slopes are markedly reduced (33% to 44%) in the post-mined period relative to the pre-mined period at all sites and are generally below the threshold required to trigger landslides and debris flows. The consequence of altered erosion processes in this upper portion of the catchment, particularly the

  1. Variability in software engineering paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Huysegoms, Tom; Snoeck, Monique

    2012-01-01

    The concept of variability is not new in software engineering, but current research mostly remains vague about the overall variability concept when it comes to giving a clear overview of the dimensions of variability. In this paper we evaluate the core variability concept by proposing an overview of the set of definitions concerning variability related concepts and by setting up dimensions of variability. These dimensions represent different possible views on variability for all types of ...

  2. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  3. An evaluation of the variability of tumor-shape definition derived by experienced observers from CT images of supraglottic carcinomas (ACRIN protocol 6658)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accurate target definition is considered essential for sophisticated, image-guided radiation therapy; however, relatively little information has been reported that measures our ability to identify the precise shape of targets accurately. We decided to assess the manner in which eight 'experts' interpreted the size and shape of tumors based on 'real-life' contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scans. Methods and Materials: Four neuroradiologists and four radiation oncologists (the authors) with considerable experience and presumed expertise in treating head-and-neck tumors independently contoured, slice-by-slice, his/her interpretation of the precise gross tumor volume (GTV) on each of 20 sets of CT scans taken from 20 patients who previously were enrolled in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 91-11. Results: The average proportion of overlap (i.e., the degree of agreement) was 0.532 (95% confidence interval 0.457 to 0.606). There was a slight tendency for the proportion of overlap to increase with increasing average GTV. Conclusions: Our work suggests that estimation of tumor shape currently is imprecise, even for experienced physicians. In consequence, there appears to be a practical limit to the current trend of smaller fields and tighter margins

  4. Multiproxy assessment of Holocene relative sea-level changes in the western Mediterranean: sea-level variability and improvements in the definition of the isostatic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Spada, Giorgio; Fontana, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    After the review of 918 radiocarbon dated Relative Sea-Level (RSL) data-points we present here the first quality-controlled database constraining the Holocene sea-level histories of the western Mediterranean Sea (Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta and Tunisia). We reviewed and standardized the geological RSL data-points using a new multi-proxy methodology based on: (1) modern taxa assemblages in Mediterranean lagoons and marshes; (2) beachrock characteristics (cement fabric and chemistry, sedimentary structures); and (3) the modern distribution of Mediterranean fixed biological indicators. These RSL data-points were coupled with the large number of archaeological RSL indicators available for the western Mediterranean. We assessed the spatial variability of RSL histories for 22 regions and compared these with the ICE-5G VM2 GIA model. In the western Mediterranean, RSL rose continuously for the whole Holocene with a sudden slowdown at ~7.5 ka BP and a further deceleration during the last ~4.0 ka BP, after which time observed RSL changes are mainly related to variability in isostatic adjustment. The sole exception is southern Tunisia, where data show evidence of a mid-Holocene high-stand compatible with the isostatic impacts of the melting history of the remote Antarctic ice sheet. Our results indicate that late-Holocene sea-level rise was significantly slower than the current one. First estimates of GIA contribution indicate that, at least in the northwestern sector, it accounts at least for the 25-30% of the ongoing sea-level rise recorded by Mediterranean tidal gauges. Such contribution is less constrained at lower latitudes due to the lower quality of the late Holocene index points. Future applications of spatio-temporal statistical techniques are required to better quantify the gradient of the isostatic contribution and to provide improved context for the assessment of 20th century acceleration of Mediterranean sea-level rise.

  5. Bringing Definitions into High Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2010-01-01

    Why do definitions play such a central role in mathematics? It may seem obvious that precision about the terms one uses is necessary in order to use those terms reasonably (while reasoning). Definitions are chosen so as to be definite about the terms one uses, but also to make both the statement of, and the reasoning to justify, theorems as…

  6. Periodic functions with variable period

    OpenAIRE

    Pryjmak, M. V

    2010-01-01

    The examples of rhythmical signals with variable period are considered. The definition of periodic function with the variable period is given as a model of such signals. The examples of such functions are given and their variable periods are written in the explicit form. The system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is considered and its orthogonality is proved. The generalized system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is also suggested; some conditions of it...

  7. Seeing science everywhere: A case study of the perceptions of three fifth grade science teachers' complementary use of the arts in the science classroom in an economically distressed county in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeen, Angela A.

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions three fifth grade science teachers held about using the arts to complement science teaching in an economically distressed county in rural Appalachia and the perceived roles the arts and sciences play in the lives of those living in rural Appalachia. Each case was studied using participant-observer observations, personal journals, archival data, and interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, unique themes emerged for each of the three cases. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set for each individual case. A cross-case analysis was then employed to generate the common broad themes among the cases. The findings suggest that Time was perceived as the greatest deterrent to complementing science with aspects of the arts with greater frequency, even when the approach was perceived by the teacher as successful for a greater number of students, especially students who had previously been perceived as having difficulty in the science classroom. The findings also revealed that the more experienced the teacher was in using aspects of the arts to complement hands-on, inquiry science teaching, the more efficacious the teacher's perception was of her own teaching, regardless of overall teaching experience. The approach was perceived as an avenue in building relationships with students and colleagues, thus perceived as ensuring a greater frequency of success for both students and teacher in science classes. It was also perceived as a tool for self-reflection and/or self-critique by the teacher. Finally, the findings further suggested the roles of the arts and sciences in the lives of those living in rural Appalachia were perceived in two distinct ways by participants, depending on the education levels attained by the populations. Findings revealed the arts and sciences were perceived as hobbies or as the continuation of cultural

  8. Neuroretinitis -- definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007624.htm Neuroretinitis - definition To use the sharing features on this page, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. Work Function Definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix provides a brief definition of each of the 43 work functions for the 67 NPP units from North America and Western Europe that were the basis for the data in Appendix II. This information is provided to help the reader understand this data or to compare a given situation or plan to these functions. It is NOT intended to endorse this particular identification of workforce functions, as there is considerable variability in NPP workforce functions and organization worldwide based upon factors such as technology, national norms and culture, labour rules and laws, and industry practices

  10. On the definition of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose

  11. Calculi of meta-variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko SATO; Takafumi SAKURAI; Yukiyoshi KAMEYAMA; Atsushi IGARASH

    2008-01-01

    The notion of meta-variable plays a fun-damental role when we define formal systems such as logical and computational calculi. Yet it has been usually understood only informally as is seen in most textbooks of logic. Based on our observations of the usages of meta-variables in textbooks, we propose two formal systems that have the notion of meta-variable. In both calculi, each variable is given a level (non-negative integer), which classifies variables into object variables (level 0), meta-variables (level 1), metameta-variables (level 2) and so on. Then, simple arity systems are. used to exclude meaningless terms like a meta-level function operating on the metameta-level. A main difference of the two calculi lies in the definitions of substitution. The first calculus uses textual substitution, which can often be found in definitions of quantified formulae: when a term is substituted for a meta-variable, free object-level variables in the term may be captured. The second cal-culus is based on the observation that predicates can be regarded as meta-level functions on object-level terms, hence uses capture-avoiding substitution. We show that both calculi enjoy a number of properties including Church-Rosser and Strong Normalization, which are indispensable when we use them as frameworks to define logical systems.

  12. N-variable rational approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Desirable properties'' of a two-variable generalization of Pade approximants are laid down. The ''Chisholm approximants'' are defined and are shown to obey nearly all of these properties; the alternative ways of completing a unique definition are discussed, and the ''prong structure'' of the defining equations is elucidated. Several generalizations and variants of Chisholm approximants are described: N-variable diagonal, 2-variable simple off-diagonal, N-variable simple and general off-diagonal, and rotationally covariant 2-variable approximants. All of the 2-variable approximants are capable of representing singularities of functions of two variables, and of analytically continuing beyond the polycylinder of convergence of the double series. 8 figures

  13. The geometry of proper quaternion random variables

    OpenAIRE

    Bihan, Nicolas le

    2015-01-01

    Properness of a quaternion random variable is related to the symmetries of its probability density function in $4D$ space. Thus, properness should be defined with respect to the most general isometries in $4D$, i.e. rotations from $SO(4)$. Based on this, we propose a new definition of properness, namely the $(\\alpha,\\beta)$-properness, for quaternion random variables using invariance property under the action of the rotation group $SO(4)$. This new definition generalizes previously introduced...

  14. Hyperbolic variables on surfaces with non-definite quadratic forms (extension of Beltrami equation); Le variabili iperboliche sulle superfici a metrica non definita (estensione dell'equazione di Beltrami)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoni, F.; Cannata, R.; Nichelatti, E.; Zampetti, P. [ENEA, Divisione Sistemi Energetici per la Mobilita' e l' Habitat, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Gauss showed the link between the definite quadratic differential forms and the complex functions. Beltrami, following Gauss' idea, linked the complex functions to elliptic partial differential equations. In this report it was shown how the use of hyperbolic numbers and hyperbolic functions allows to extend the same results to non definite quadratic differential forms. Using this kind of approach, one can tackle the hyperbolic partial differential equations by a different point of view. [Italian] In un famoso lavoro per la rappresentazione conforme di due superfici, Gauss scompose le forme differenziali quadratiche in due fattori complessi coniugati. In questo modo ridusse la soluzione del problema a quella di una forma differnziale lineare. Beltrami, partendo dalla stessa decomposizione, collego' le f.d.q. alle equazioni differenziali a derivate parziali di tipo ellittico aprendo cosi' nuove strade per la loro soluzione. Dalla relativita' ristretta hanno pero' assunto importanza fisica anche le forme differenziali quadratiche non definite. Viene qui mostrato come con i numeri ipercomplessi iperbolici si possono seguire i procedimenti di Gauss e Beltrami e collegare queste forme alle equazioni differenziali a derivate parziali di tipo iperbolico. Questo pero' permettere di vedere sotto nuovi aspetti questo tipo di equazioni.

  15. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  16. RANDOM VARIABLE WITH FUZZY PROBABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕恩琳; 钟佑明

    2003-01-01

    Mathematic description about the second kind fuzzy random variable namely the random variable with crisp event-fuzzy probability was studied. Based on the interval probability and using the fuzzy resolution theorem, the feasible condition about a probability fuzzy number set was given, go a step further the definition arid characters of random variable with fuzzy probability ( RVFP ) and the fuzzy distribution function and fuzzy probability distribution sequence of the RVFP were put forward. The fuzzy probability resolution theorem with the closing operation of fuzzy probability was given and proved. The definition and characters of mathematical expectation and variance of the RVFP were studied also. All mathematic description about the RVFP has the closing operation for fuzzy probability, as a result, the foundation of perfecting fuzzy probability operation method is laid.

  17. Negative temperatures and the definition of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The concept of negative temperature has recently received renewed interest in the context of debates about the correct definition of the thermodynamic entropy in statistical mechanics. Several researchers have identified the thermodynamic entropy exclusively with the "volume entropy" suggested by Gibbs, and have further concluded that by this definition, negative temperatures violate the principles of thermodynamics. We disagree with these conclusions. We demonstrate that volume entropy is inconsistent with the postulates of thermodynamics for systems with non-monotonic energy densities, while a definition of entropy based on the probability distributions of macroscopic variables does satisfy the postulates of thermodynamics. Our results confirm that negative temperature is a valid extension of thermodynamics.

  18. On the definition of absorbed dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  19. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  20. Mutually Unbiased Bases for Continuous Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Stefan; Wilkinson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of mutually unbiased bases is studied for N pairs of continuous variables. To find mutually unbiased bases reduces, for specific states related to the Heisenberg-Weyl group, to a problem of symplectic geometry. Given a single pair of continuous variables, three mutually unbiased bases are identified while five such bases are exhibited for two pairs of continuous variables. For N = 2, the golden ratio occurs in the definition of these mutually unbiased bases suggesting the relevanc...

  1. A Generalized Definition of the Polychoric Correlation Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    The polychoric correlation coefficient is a measure of association for ordinal variables which rests upon an assumption of an underlying joint continuous distribution. More specifically, in Karl Pearson’s original definition an underlying joint normal distribution is assumed. In this article, the definition of the polychoric correlation coefficient is generalized so that it allows for other distributional assumptions than the joint normal distribution. The generalized definition is analogous ...

  2. Brand book: problem definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Балюн, Оксана Олександрівна

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the different definition and structure «brandbook» classification definitions of the term. The study found that the term brandbook is no universally accepted definition as in scientific circles and in the circle of professionals and practitioners brendolohiv. It was suggested classification definitions of the term, which consists of two approaches. The first — a simplified, «visual» brandbook that defines a document using a visual identity elements in different advertisin...

  3. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  4. Community genetics. Its definition 2010

    OpenAIRE

    ten Kate, Leo P.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Anand, Sonia; Bittles, Alan; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Christianson, Arnold; Cornel, Martina C.; Hamamy, Hanan; Kääriäinen, Helena; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Marais, David; Penchaszadeh, Victor B.; Rahman, Proton; Schmidtke, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a definition of the medical field of community genetics. It starts with a brief historical overview, defines the requirements for an adequate definition, presents the definition, and discusses the constituent parts of the definition.

  5. Climate variability and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Australia's climate should not be definite barrier to the population reaching 30 million by 2050, it is recognised that our climate has limited the development of the nation over the past 200 years. Indeed in 1911, based on a comparison of the climate and development between the US and Australia. Griffith Taylor predicted that Australia's population would be 19 million at the end of the 20th century, which is a pretty good 90-year forecast. The climate constraint is not only due to much of the country being semi-arid with an annual rainfall below 400 millimetres, but also due to the large year-to-year variability of rainfall across the country

  6. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  7. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  8. Definition of Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Tavinor

    2008-01-01

    Can videogames be defined? The new field of games studies has generated three somewhat competing models of videogaming that characterize games as new forms of gaming, narratives, and interactive fictions. When treated as necessary and sufficient condition definitions, however, each of the three approaches fails to pick out all and only videogames. In this paper I argue that looking more closely at the formal qualities of definition helps to set out the range of definitional options open to th...

  9. Borderline Cases and Definiteness

    OpenAIRE

    Vecsey, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    Borderline cases of vague predicates are often characterized with the help of a definiteness operator. Although such operators can certainly contribute to the solution of the problem of vagueness, they may also generate unexpected consequences. Either borderlineness is identified implicitly with a well-defined range of cases, or borderline cases are seen as being definitely borderline. In this paper I argue that we can avoid these consequences by providing an asymmetric definition of borderli...

  10. Variables Psicológicas Moduladoras de la Autodefinición del Perfil en Procesos de Acoso Escolar: El papel del género y el curriculum escolar Psychological Modulating Variables in the Profile Self-definition in School Bullying Process: the gender and the school curriculum role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se estudia el efecto de las interacciones entre el género y el tipo de currículum escolar (adaptado-no adaptado a las necesidades del estudiante y una serie de variables que describen la conducta violenta escolar. Se aplicó una batería de cuestionarios que incluía pruebas de conducta pro y antisocial, impulsividad y empatía. La muestra estaba formada por 295 estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria (44% varones. Para comprobar los efectos de las interacciones se aplicaron una serie de Manovas intersujetos. Los resultados revelan que el currículo no tiene efectos significativos en ninguna variable dependiente, por lo que no parece ser un factor modulador de la violencia escolar. Sí lo son la tipología de la violencia, el papel adoptado ante el acoso y la opinión sobre las víctimas y las peleas. El género aparece como un factor relevante en la tipología de la violencia y la opinión sobre víctimas y peleas. Las chicas resultan ser más empáticas y prosociales, mientras que los varones son más impulsivos y se sienten más aislados.

    Palabras clave: Acoso escolar, conducta antisocial, conducta prosocial, currículum académico, diferencias de género.

    Interactions between gender, adapted vs. non-adapted curricula, and a number of scholar violence-related factors are studied. Gender and curricula were considered independent variables. Some instruments were applied, including questionnaires of impulsivity, empathy, pro-social behaviour and anti-social behaviour, all them considered as dependent variables. Sample was composed by 295 students of secondary compulsory education (high-school, 44% male. The interactions between factors were analysed using inter-subject Manova statistics. Results show that curricula are not a relevant factor to understand violence. Typology of violence developed by subjects, role in bullying process, opinion about victims and opinion about fighting are relevant factors for

  11. Variables Psicológicas Moduladoras de la Autodefinición del Perfil en Procesos de Acoso Escolar: El papel del género y el curriculum escolar Psychological Modulating Variables in the Profile Self-definition in School Bullying Process: the gender and the school curriculum role

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús García; Mª del Carmen Orellana

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se estudia el efecto de las interacciones entre el género y el tipo de currículum escolar (adaptado-no adaptado a las necesidades del estudiante) y una serie de variables que describen la conducta violenta escolar. Se aplicó una batería de cuestionarios que incluía pruebas de conducta pro y antisocial, impulsividad y empatía. La muestra estaba formada por 295 estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria (44% varones). Para comprobar los efectos de las interacciones se aplicar...

  12. Formal Definition of AI

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2012-01-01

    A definition of Artificial Intelligence was proposed in [1] but this definition was not absolutely formal at least because the word "Human" was used. In this paper we will formalize the definition from [1]. The biggest problem in this definition was that the level of intelligence of AI is compared to the intelligence of a human being. In order to change this we will introduce some parameters to which AI will depend. One of this parameters will be the level of intelligence and we will define o...

  13. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  14. Do Psychological Variables Affect Early Surgical Recovery?

    OpenAIRE

    Mavros, Michael N.; Athanasiou, Stavros; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.; Polyzos, Konstantinos A.; Peppas, George; Falagas, Matthew E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. Methods We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. Results We identified 1...

  15. Moment Estimation Inequalities Based on gλ Random Variable on Sugeno Measure Space

    OpenAIRE

    Jingfeng Tian; Zhiming Zhang; Dazeng Tian

    2010-01-01

    The definitions and properties of moment of gλ random variable are provided on Sugeno measure space. Then some important moment estimation inequalities based on gλ random variable are presented and proven.

  16. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  17. Pupils' Definitions of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Suzanne; Hennessy, Eilis

    2002-01-01

    Although there has been a growing interest in research on bullying in the last decade the majority of studies have used definitions of bullying and victimisation derived from researchers' perceptions of the problem. The aim of the present study was to examine pupils' definitions of bullying in school. The participants were 166 pupils in the top…

  18. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We...

  19. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  20. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...... non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process.......At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  1. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice.......There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  2. On Conditionally Positive Definite Dot Product Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A.MENEGATTO; C.P.OLIVEIRA; Ana P.PERON

    2008-01-01

    Let m and n be fixed,positive integers and a space composed of real polynomials in m variables.The authors study functions f:R→ R which map Gram matrices,based upon n points of Rm,into matrices,which are nonnegative definite with respect to .Among other things,the authors discuss continuity,differentiability,convexity,and convexity in the sense of Jensen,of such functions.

  3. High Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikka

    OpenAIRE

    Tupiini, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia High Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikan ominaisuuksia ja eroavaisuuksia Standard Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikkaan. Työ suoritettiin pääosin tutkien teoreettisia lähteitä. Työn aihe on saatu Eptek ry:ltä. Tutkimustieto kerättiin pääosin verkkolähteistä ja käytännön kaistanleveysmittaukset suoritettiin Seinäjoen keskussairaalan tietoliikenneverkon läpi käyttäen neljää eri videoneuvottelulaitteistoa. High Definition -formaatit tuottavat huomat...

  4. Genomic definition of species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  5. A Newtonian Hidden Variable Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Galvan, B

    2004-01-01

    A new hidden variable theory is proposed, according to which particles follows definite trajectories, as in Bohmian Mechanics or Nelson's stochastic mechanics; in the new theory, however, the trajectories are classical, i.e. Newtonian. This result is obtained by developing the following concepts: (i) the essential elements of a hidden variable theory are a set of trajectories and a measure defined on it; the Newtonian HCT will be defined by giving these two elements. (ii) The universal wave function has a tree structure, whose branches are generated by the measurement processes and are spatially disjoined. (iii) The branches have a classical structure, i.e. classical paths go along them; this property derives from the fact that the paths close to the classical ones give the main contribution to the Feynman propagator. (iv) Classical trajectories can give rise to quantum phenomena, like for instance the interference phenomena of the two-slit experiment, by violating the so called Independence Assumption, which...

  6. The Use of Race-Related Variables in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Thad Q.; Lee, D. John; Trahan, Emily; Kaufman, Aimee; Pritchett, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a detailed analysis of all race-related articles published in prominent counseling journals between 1995 and 2004. Findings indicate that 75% of articles did not define race variables and in the absence of an operational definition, authors tended to conceptualize race as an inherent biological variable. (Contains 3 tables.)

  7. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  8. Study on the Relation of Definite Integral and Indefinite Integral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-fa

    2014-01-01

    Relation of definite integral and indefinite integral was discussed and an impor-tant result was gotten. If f (x) is bounded and has primary function, the formal definite integral R sx f˜(t)dt is the indefinite integral of f (x), where x is a self-variable, s is a param-eter, f˜(x) is a function defined in (−∞, +∞), which comes from f (x) by restriction and extension. In other words, the indefinite integral is a special form of definite integral, its lower integral limit and upper integral limit are all indefinite.

  9. Validation: the eluding definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'validation' is featured prominently in the literature on radioactive high-level waste (HLW) disposal. There exists, however, no unique definition of 'validation' although it is generally understood to be related to model testing using experiments. This paper reviews the several definitions of 'validation' and proposes their categorization into three main classes. The first class links validation to the goal of predicting the physical world as faithfully as possible. This view has been criticized as being unattainable and, in any event, unsuitable for setting goals for the safety analyses. Other definitions (Class 2) are strictly operational, and associate validation only to situations where the models can be tested against observational data. In this view, the decision to retain a predictive model for use in safety assessments does not belong to the remit of 'validation'. The third class of definitions focuses, instead, 'validation' on the quality of the decision-making process, which shifts the debate from validation in the observational sense to 'reasonable assurance' and 'confidence building'. In this third view, one cannot determine when a model or a suite of models are actually 'validated'. The lack of consensus on the meaning of 'validation' is linked to its short history as a technical term. The first technical definition dates from the mid-fifties. The term was adopted thereafter in the computer field and elevated to its present status by the computer revolution of the seventies and early eighties. The term has made its appearance in some HLW safety standards only in the late eighties and it is virtually unmentioned in the low-level waste standards for disposal safety. The continued informal use of the term 'validation' in the field of HLW disposal can become cause for endless speculations. The paper proposes either abandoning the use of this term or agreeing to a common definition. (author) 36 refs

  10. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations in...... theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...

  11. Prebiotics: why definitions matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term. PMID:26431716

  12. Definition of an acronym

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung O.Cheng

    2011-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: Ⅰ read with great interest the recent article on the ENLEAT trial.1 However, Ⅰ was greatly puzzled by the definition of the trial acronym ENLEAT.The definition given in the title of the article, namely, "No-reflow protection and long-term efficacy for acute myocardial infarction with Tongxinluo: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial (ENLEAT trial)" did not correspond with the acronym, no matter how hard Ⅰ tried to pick out the various alphabets to match the acronym.2Finally, Ⅰ wrote to Dr.Zhang, the senior author of the article, for an explanation of the acronym.

  13. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  14. Center of buoyancy definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center of buoyancy of an arbitrary shaped body is defined in analogy to the center of gravity. The definitions of the buoyant force and center of buoyancy in terms of integrals over the area of the body are converted to volume integrals and shown to have simple intuitive interpretations

  15. Definition af primitiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    tidspunkt, kan der spares meget tid senere, hvor det er besværligt at definerer primitiverne helt om.I denne rapport er de primitiver, der skal bruges til Sydkrafts net gennemgået. Der er taget stilling til hver enkelt tilstand for de forskellige primitiver. Dette er gjort for at få en definition, som er...

  16. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  17. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset of...

  18. Revising definitions of sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Drewry, Anne M; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional definition of sepsis requires the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria in addition to a suspected or proven infection. A recent large retrospective study, however, suggests that the requirement for two SIRS criteria excludes one in eight patients with severe sepsis.

  19. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil, Eva Patricia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  20. Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding

  1. Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through su...

  2. Gauge theories in anti-selfdual variables

    OpenAIRE

    Bochicchio, M.; Pilloni, A.

    2013-01-01

    Some years ago the Nicolai map, viewed as a change of variables from the gauge connection in a fixed gauge to the anti-selfdual part of the curvature, has been extended by the first named author to pure YM from its original definition in N=1 SUSY YM. We study here the perturbative 1PI effective action in the anti-selfdual variables of any gauge theory, in particular pure YM, QCD and N=1 SUSY YM. We prove that the one-loop 1PI effective action of a gauge theory mapped to the anti-selfdual vari...

  3. On the Definition of Gauge Field Operators in Lattice Gauge-Fixed Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo; Petrarca, S; Taglienti, B; Testa, M

    1998-01-01

    We address the problem of defining the gauge four-potential on the lattice, in terms of the natural link variables. Different regularized definitions are shown, through non perturbative numerical computation, to converge towards the same continuum renormalized limit.

  4. On the definition of gauge field operators in lattice gauge-fixed theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the problem of defining the gluon field on the lattice in terms of the natural link variables. Different regularized definitions are shown, through non perturbative numerical computation, to converge towards the same continuum renormalized limit

  5. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  6. The selection and application of variable order differential operators

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Lynnette E. S.

    2009-01-01

    This work demonstrates the practicality of using variable order (VO) derivative operators for modeling the dynamics of complex systems. First we review the various candidate VO integral and derivative operator definitions proposed in the literature. We select a definition that is appropriate for physical modeling based on the following criteria: the VO operator must be able to return all intermediate values between 0 and 1 that correspond to the argument of the order of differe...

  7. Some regularities in intraspecific variability of wheat radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are presented on radiosensitivity of some soft wheat varieties grown in Yakutia. The reproducing of seeds of Yakutyanka 224 and Skorospelka varieties, improved in some regions of the Urals and Yakutiya, permitted us to estimate the influence of climatic conditions on the formation in plants of the resistance level against stresses. Each variety was shown to have immanently not only only the definite level of resistance, but also the definite amplitude of radiation response variability

  8. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  9. State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

  10. Divide and Multiply: Baptist Diversity in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Howard

    1996-01-01

    Baptists' propensity for splitting apart arises from the faith's avowed love of theological argument. Gives an overview of Baptist denominations, and identifies the main issues that divide them: atonement, predestination, the nature and origins of good and evil, worship practices, church governance, gender issues, and other social and cultural…

  11. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  12. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  13. Information systems definition architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calapristi, A.J.

    1996-06-20

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Systems Definition architecture evaluated information Management (IM) processes in several key organizations. The intent of the study is to identify improvements in TWRS IM processes that will enable better support to the TWRS mission, and accommodate changes in TWRS business environment. The ultimate goals of the study are to reduce IM costs, Manage the configuration of TWRS IM elements, and improve IM-related process performance.

  14. Painful Hip Prosthesis: Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrata, P.; Carta, S.; Fortina, M.; Scipio, D.; Riva, A.; Di Giacinto, S.

    2010-01-01

    Pain is the main reason inducing patients to undergo surgery and persistence of pain after the operation is a major concern, both for the patient and the surgeon. Up to 10% of patients report pain five years after hip arthroplasty. An analysis of the literature reveals numerous causes of pain localised to the replacement hip. In assessing a painful hip it is fundamental to arrive at a definite diagnosis before starting any treatment. Intrinsic causes can be identified, such as unrecognised as...

  15. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  16. Prebiotics: why definitions matter

    OpenAIRE

    Hutkins, Robert W.; Krumbeck, Janina A.; Bindels, Laure B.; Cani, Patrice D.; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C.; Mills, David A.; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative...

  17. NUKEM adjusts price definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is the October-November 1994 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. During this period, there were five deals in the spot concentrates market, five deals in the medium and long-term market, one deal in the conversion market, and two deals in the enrichment market. Restricted prices strengthened while unrestricted prices held steady. Price re-definitions were also announced

  18. The definition of sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, and to define the most accurate criteria for sarcopenia. Currently used diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia can be divided into criteria based on (1) l...

  19. CT number definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of CT number plots has been found lacking in several medical applications. This is of concern since the ability to compare and evaluate results on a reproducible and standard basis is essential to long term development. Apart from the technical limitations arising from the CT scanner and the data treatment, there are fundamental issues with the definition of the Hounsfield number, namely the absence of a standard photon energy and the need to specify the attenuation mechanism for standard measurements. This paper presents calculations to demonstrate the shortcomings of the present definition with a brief discussion. The remedy is straightforward, but probably of long duration as it would require an international agreement. - Highlights: ► The dependence of the CT number definition on photon energy is examined. ► Graphical examples of the CT number variation with photon energy are given. ► The influence of absorption edges and scattering on CT numbers is discussed. ► A proposal is made for an international standard devoted to CT number evaluation.

  20. The variable exponent BV-Sobolev capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Hakkarainen, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study basic properties of the mixed BV-Sobolev capacity with variable exponent p. We give an alternative way to define mixed type BV-Sobolev-space which was originally introduced by Harjulehto, H\\"ast\\"o, and Latvala. Our definition is based on relaxing the p-energy functional with respect to the Lebesgue space topology. We prove that this procedure produces a Banach space that coincides with the space defined by Harjulehto et al. for bounded domain and log-H\\"older continuous exponent p. Then we show that this induces a type of variable exponent BV-capacity and that this is a Choquet capacity with many usual properties. Finally, we prove that this capacity has the same null sets as the variable exponent Sobolev capacity when p is log-H\\"older continuous.

  1. Squid The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, Duane

    2009-01-01

    Squid is the most popular Web caching software in use today, and it works on a variety of platforms including Linux, FreeBSD, and Windows. Written by Duane Wessels, the creator of Squid, Squid: The Definitive Guide will help you configure and tune Squid for your particular situation. Newcomers to Squid will learn how to download, compile, and install code. Seasoned users of Squid will be interested in the later chapters, which tackle advanced topics such as high-performance storage options, rewriting requests, HTTP server acceleration, monitoring, debugging, and troubleshooting Squid.

  2. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  3. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  4. Evolutionary Algorithm Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M.A. AL-Salami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Most resent evolutionary algorithms work under weak theoretical basis and thus, they are computationally expensive. Approach: This study discussed the use of new evolutionary algorithm for automatic programming, based on theoretical definitions of program behaviors. Evolutionary process adapted fixed and self-organized input-output specification of the problem, to evolve good finite state machine that efficiently satisfies these specifications. Results: The proposed algorithm enhanced evolutionary process by simultaneously solving multi-parts from the same problem. Conclusion: The probability that the algorithm will converge to the optimal solution was highly enhanced when decomposing the main problem into multi-part.

  5. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently defined as a common preventable and treatable disease that is characterized by persistent airflow limitation that is usually progressive and associated with an enhanced chronic inflammatory response in the airways and the lung to noxious...... particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association with...

  6. Definition of distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, power systems in many countries are restructured and deregulated and it is expected the small scale generators or Distributed Generations (DG), such as Micro turbines, PV, fuel cells, wind turbines and so on will play important role in power system. So it is necessary to be well defined and described. Generally, DGs are defined as electric power generators that are connected to distribution networks or on the customer side of networks. This paper presents a definition of DGs with considering some important aspects, and after that introduces some different type of DGs

  7. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  8. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  9. Grouping Synonyms by Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Ingrid; Gardent, Claire; Jacquey, Evelyne; Venant, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for grouping the synonyms of a lemma according to its dictionary senses. The senses are defined by a large machine readable dictionary for French, the TLFi (Tr\\'esor de la langue fran\\c{c}aise informatis\\'e) and the synonyms are given by 5 synonym dictionaries (also for French). To evaluate the proposed method, we manually constructed a gold standard where for each (word, definition) pair and given the set of synonyms defined for that word by the 5 synonym dictionaries, 4 ...

  10. Generalized Instrumental Variable Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chesher, Andrew; Rosen, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The ability to allow for flexible forms of unobserved heterogeneity is an essential ingredient in modern microeconometrics. In this paper we extend the application of instrumental variable (IV) methods to a wide class of problems in which multiple values of unobservable variables can be associated with particular combinations of observed endogenous and exogenous variables. In our Generalized Instrumental Variable (GIV) models, in contrast to traditional IV models, the mapping from unobserved ...

  11. Definition of IGRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two definitions of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) are cited: 'Frequent imaging in the treatment room during a course of radiotherapy to guide the treatment process' and 'Any use of planar imaging, volumetric imaging or volumetric cine imaging, marker localization, marker tracking, patient surface imaging or patient surface tracking to improve the precision of radiation-therapy delivery'. Also cited are the sentences 'IGRT refers broadly to treatment delivery using modern imaging methods, such as CT, MRI, PET and Ultrasound, in target and non-target structures and in RT definition, design and delivery...' and 'IGRT includes, but is not limited to, 3DCRT, IMRT: stereotactic radiosurgery, stereotactic RT, and brachytherapy...'. Purposes include: Precise patient positioning; Automatic localization of bony structures or implanted fiducial markers; Imaging and positioning of soft tissue tumors and critical structures; Margin reduction and healthy organ sparing; and Delivering the desired dose distribution. On the negative side are the following factors: Physics staffing at treatment delivery Longer treatment times: 1 min. arm deployment, setup for scan, 1 min. gantry rotation - volume image acquisition, 30 sec. reconstruction (depends on resolution), 30 sec. load CT and CB into registration; Registration: from few sec. to few min.; Feasible if the number of treatments is low. The history of IGRT is mentioned, instrumentation is described using ample photographs, and many applications are shown. (P.A.)

  12. Rain radar instrument definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  13. Natural climate variability in a coupled model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-century simulations with a simplified coupled ocean-atmosphere model are described. These simulations reveal an impressive range of variability on decadal and longer time scales, in addition to the dominant interannual el Nino/Southern Oscillation signal that the model originally was designed to simulate. Based on a very large sample of century-long simulations, it is nonetheless possible to identify distinct model parameter sensitivities that are described here in terms of selected indices. Preliminary experiments motivated by general circulation model results for increasing greenhouse gases suggest a definite sensitivity to model global warming. While these results are not definitive, they strongly suggest that coupled air-sea dynamics figure prominently in global change and must be included in models for reliable predictions

  14. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  15. Sociocultural definitions of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1990-10-01

    Public constituencies frequently are criticized by technical experts as being irrational in response to low-probability risks. This presentation argued that most people are concerned with a variety of risk attributes other than probability and that is rather irrational to exclude these from the definition and analysis of technological risk. Risk communication, which is at the heart of the right-to-know concept, is described as the creation of shared meaning rather than the mere transmission of information. A case study of utilities, public utility commissions, and public interest groups illustrates how the diversity of institutional cultures in modern society leads to problems for the creation of shared meanings in establishing trust, distributing liability, and obtaining consent to risk. This holistic approach to risk analysis is most appropriate under conditions of high uncertainty and/or decision stakes. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. New definition of wormhole throat

    OpenAIRE

    Tomikawa, Yoshimune; Izumi, Keisuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We present a new definition of the wormhole throat including the flare-out condition and the traversability for general dynamical spacetimes in terms of null geodesic congruences. We will examine our definition for some examples and see advantages compared to the others.

  17. An Operational Definition of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Guershon; Koichu, Boris

    2010-01-01

    An operational definition offered in this paper posits learning as a multi-dimensional and multi-phase phenomenon occurring when individuals attempt to solve what they view as a problem. To model someone's learning accordingly to the definition, it suffices to characterize a particular sequence of that person's disequilibrium-equilibrium phases in…

  18. A WORKABLE DEFINITION OF SUCCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most desirable definition of success from the point of view of environmental stewardship is to treat the entire plume to MCLs. Technically, has proven impossible to attain at many sites. A less desirable definition of success is to contain the source of contamination and tr...

  19. Self reference in word definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Levary, David; Moses, Elisha; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2011-01-01

    Dictionaries are inherently circular in nature. A given word is linked to a set of alternative words (the definition) which in turn point to further descendants. Iterating through definitions in this way, one typically finds that definitions loop back upon themselves. The graph formed by such definitional relations is our object of study. By eliminating those links which are not in loops, we arrive at a core subgraph of highly connected nodes. We observe that definitional loops are conveniently classified by length, with longer loops usually emerging from semantic misinterpretation. By breaking the long loops in the graph of the dictionary, we arrive at a set of disconnected clusters. We find that the words in these clusters constitute semantic units, and moreover tend to have been introduced into the English language at similar times, suggesting a possible mechanism for language evolution.

  20. On the definition of 'chaos'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new definition of a chaotic invariant set is given for a continuous semiflow in a metric space. It generalizes the well-known definition due to Devaney and allows one to take into account a special feature occurring in the non-compact infinite-dimensional case: so-called turbulent chaos. The paper consists of two sections. The first contains several well-known facts from chaotic dynamics, together with new definitions and results. The second presents a concrete example demonstrating that our definition of chaos is meaningful. Namely, an infinite-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations is investigated having an attractor that is chaotic in the sense of the new definition but not in the sense of Devaney or Knudsen. Bibliography: 65 titles.

  1. 48 CFR 2402.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 2402.101 Definitions. Accounting Office means the Office of Accounting Operations within the Office of the Chief Financial Officer and includes that...

  2. The variable exponent BV-Sobolev capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkarainen, Heikki; Nuortio, Matti

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study basic properties of the mixed BV-Sobolev capacity with variable exponent p. We give an alternative way to define mixed type BV-Sobolev-space which was originally introduced by Harjulehto, H\\"ast\\"o, and Latvala. Our definition is based on relaxing the p-energy functional with respect to the Lebesgue space topology. We prove that this procedure produces a Banach space that coincides with the space defined by Harjulehto et al. for bounded domain and log-H\\"older continu...

  3. Problem of hidden variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Emilio

    1992-10-01

    The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics is formalized as follows. A general or contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables theory is defined as a mapping f: Q×M → C (f: Q→C) where Q is the set of projection operators in the appropriate (quantum) Hilbert space, M is the set of maximal Boolean subalgebras of Q and C is a (classical) Boolean algebra. It is shown that contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables always exist (do not exist).

  4. Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; Y. Liu; Y. Li; Q. F. Zhang; J. Tao; O. Kurtanidze

    2011-03-01

    Variability is one of the characteristics of blazars. The rapid variability is superposed on the long term variation. In this work, the variability on different time scales, such as intra-day (IDV), short-term (STV) and long-term (LTV) variations are presented for some sources. We also presented our own observations of some selected objects, for which the historical data were compiled for periodicity analysis using several methods. The parameters of the binary black hole system OJ 287 are determined.

  5. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  6. A. Variable descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Hohmann, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The appendix lists all variables, or component variables in the case of the institutional variables w and s, together with sources. Detailed descriptions, the wording of which is taken, if possible, directly from the original sources, are also given. Economic variables – dependent name:external_debt_cris source: Reinhart, Camen M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff, From Financial Crash to Debt Crisis, NBER Working Paper 15795, March 2010. Forthcoming in American Economic Review http://terpconnect.umd.edu...

  7. 16 CFR 316.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(a)(2), 15 U.S.C. 7704(a)(3)(A)(i), 15 U.S.C. 7704(a)(5)(A), and 16 CFR 316.4. (n) The definition of...). (g) The definition of the term “Internet” is the same as the definition of that term in the CAN-SPAM... Definitions. (a) The definition of the term “affirmative consent” is the same as the definition of that...

  8. Definition and Classification of Generic Drugs Across the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Andia, Tatiana; Barbosa, Tatiana; Watanabe, Jonathan H

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to systematically identify and compare how generic medications, as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), World Health Organization (WHO), and European Medicines Agency (EMA), are classified and defined by regulatory agencies around the world. We focused on emerging markets and selected the most populated countries in each of the WHO regions: Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific. A structured review of published literature was performed through December 2013. Direct information from regulatory agencies and Ministries of Health for each country was extracted. Additionally, key informant interviews were performed for validation. Of the 21 countries selected, approximately half provided an official country-level definition for generic pharmaceuticals. The others did not have any definition or referred to the WHO. Only two-thirds of the countries had specific requirements for generic pharmaceuticals, often associated with clinical interchangeability. Most countries with requirements mention bioequivalence, but few required bioavailability studies explicitly. Over 30% of the countries had other terms associated with generics in their definitions and processes. In countries with generic drug policies, there is reference to patent and/or data protection during the drug registration process. Several countries do not mention good manufacturing practices as part of the evaluation process. Countries in Africa and Eastern Mediterranean regions appear to have a less developed regulatory framework. In summary, there is significant variability in the definition and classification of generic drugs in emerging markets. Standardization of the definitions is necessary to make international comparisons viable. PMID:26091708

  9. Syncope: Definition, Epidemiology, and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Jean-Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Major progress has been made during the last 2 decades on the different aspects of syncope. Most of the progress is the consequence of the acceptance of a clear definition of what is and what is not syncope. However, although this definition is widely accepted by physicians who are "specialists" in syncope, it still remains unknown or challenged by many other physicians. This lack of awareness leads to multiple useless, costly, and painful examinations. The next step is therefore to disseminate the knowledge of this definition and the strategy for diagnosis of syncope. PMID:26115819

  10. Model Based Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  11. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic i...

  12. Microinertia and internal variables

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, A

    2015-01-01

    The origin of microinertia of micromorphic theories is investigated from the point of view of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In the framework of dual internal variables microinertia stems from a thermodynamic equation of state related to the internal variable with the properties of mechanical momentum.

  13. Collective variables and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This course is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We put stress on the relevant entropy associated to a set of collective variables, on the meaning of the projection method in Liouville space and its use to establish equations of motion for these variables, and on the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory

  14. Variable Synthetic Capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback amplifier circuit synthesizes electronically variable capacitance. Variable Synthetic Capacitor is amplifier circuit with follower/feedback configuration. Effective input capacitance depends on input set current. If synthetic capacitor is connected across resonant element of oscillator, oscillator frequency controlled via input set current. Circuit especially suitable for fine frequency adjustments of piezoelectric-crystal or inductor/capacitor resonant oscillators.

  15. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Southwick

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1 how do we define resilience, (2 what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3 how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4 what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture.

  16. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Bonanno, George A; Masten, Ann S; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  17. Definitions and Types of Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Definitions and Types of Pain Defining Pain Pain is a perception that signals the individual that tissue damage has ... in the body that are involved in the perception of pain are called "nociception." Basic and clinical research during ...

  18. Towards a standard jet definition

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoriev, D. Yu.; Jankowski, E.; Tkachov, F. V.

    2003-01-01

    In a simulated measurement of the $W$-boson mass, evaluation of Fisher's information shows the optimal jet definition to be physically equivalent to the $k_\\mathrm{T}$ algorithm while being much faster at large multiplicities.

  19. The Definition of Everyday Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Melchionne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to recent controversy in the aesthetics of everyday life with a succinct definition designed to clarify the domain of study. The article is intentionally designed for brevity and accessibility in order to facilitate usage.

  20. Market Definition: Use and Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown; Dennis Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Market definition is a crude though sometimes useful tool for identifying market power. The ambiguity in what analysts mean by market power (price above marginal cost, or excess profits) cannot be resolved by market share.

  1. New insights on premature ejaculation: a review of definition, classification, prevalence and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    C Serefoglu, Ege; Theodore R Saitz

    2012-01-01

    There are ongoing debates about the definition, classification and prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE). The first evidence-based definition of PE was limited to heterosexual men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. Unfortunately, many patients with the complaint of PE do not meet these criteria. However, these men can be diagnosed as one of the PE subtypes, namely acquired PE, natural variable PE or premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction. Nevertheless, the validity of thes...

  2. Toward a Literature-Driven Definition of Big Data in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie Baro; Samuel Degoul; Régis Beuscart; Emmanuel Chazard

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to provide a definition of big data in healthcare. Methods. A systematic search of PubMed literature published until May 9, 2014, was conducted. We noted the number of statistical individuals (n) and the number of variables (p) for all papers describing a dataset. These papers were classified into fields of study. Characteristics attributed to big data by authors were also considered. Based on this analysis, a definition of big data was proposed. Results. ...

  3. The Evolution of Definitions for Nursing Informatics: A Critical Analysis and Revised Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Staggers, Nancy; Thompson, Cheryl Bagley

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that nursing informatics is entering its third decade as a specialty within nursing, many definitions still exist to describe the field. This paper offers a rationale for a definition for nursing informatics and a critical analysis of past definitions. An organizing framework of technology-oriented, conceptual, and role-oriented definitions is used to critique these definitions. Subsequently, a revised definition is proposed. This evolutionary definition integrates critical c...

  4. Computational thinking: the developing definition

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Cynthia; Woollard, John

    2013-01-01

    Since Jeanette Wing’s use of the term computational thinking in 2006, various discussions have arisen seeking a robust definition of the phrase. With little consensus having been found in the intervening years, there are even suggestions that a definition is not important. Perhaps focus should be on how computational thinking is taught and how its acquisition might be observed. However, in order to facilitate consistent curriculum design and appropriate assessment, it is argued that a defi...

  5. Computational thinking: the developing definition

    OpenAIRE

    Selby, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Since Jeanette Wing’s use of the term computational thinking in 2006, various discussions have arisen seeking a robust definition of the phrase. With no consensus having been found in the intervening years, there are even suggestions that a definition is not important. Perhaps focus should be on how computational thinking is taught and how its acquisition might be observed. However, in order to facilitate consistent curriculum design and appropriate assessment, it is argued that a definiti...

  6. Translation Definitions in Different Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Jixing LONG

    2013-01-01

    In the field of translation studies, owing to the factors such as the interests of scholar, cultural and historical reasons, scholars usually choose a definition of translation as the research orientation in a certain period of time. That is, as a scholastic community, they study under the same paradigm. Since the definition of translation not only describes and interprets the basic properties of translation, but also determines its connotation and extension, it is the core and basic part of ...

  7. Nutraceutical-definition and introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Ekta K.

    2003-01-01

    Dr Stephen DeFelice coined the term “Nutraceutical” from “Nutrition” and “Pharmaceutical” in 1989. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. An attempt to redefine nutraceuticals and functional foods is made in this article. The proposed definitions can help distinguish between functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of nutraceuticals are also briefly discussed.

  8. Program definition and assessment overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-03-01

    The implementation of a program level assessment of thermal energy storage technology thrusts for the near and far term to assure overall coherent energy storage program is considered. The identification and definition of potential thermal energy storage applications, definition of technology requirements, and appropriate market sectors are discussed along with the necessary coordination, planning, and preparation associated with program reviews, workshops, multi-year plans and annual operating plans for the major laboratory tasks.

  9. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-01-01

    While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making act...

  10. Green definition under review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on the renewable sector of new criteria under which electricity producers and marketers will qualify to use Canada's EcoLogo were discussed. The official definition of green power in Canada is under review and will be changed by mid-July, 1999. The review is conducted by TerraChoice and is sponsored by the Canadian Electricity Association. The issue under review is whether green power should be zero-emissions renewable energy. Currently, there are 5 or 6 classes of green power including wind, solar, and run-of-river hydro. Any enterprise falling within these classes qualifies automatically, even though they may not pass. The new criteria should judge installations on a case-by-case basis. The greatest impact on the Canadian renewable sector is likely to be the possible expansion of guidelines to allow new less-than-zero emission competitors into the green power markets. New contenders being considered include flare gas generation and natural gas cogeneration with district heating. Currently, only five power producers are certified under the EcoLogo. Three in Ontario utilize run-of-the-river hydro and landfill gas generation and two in Alberta utilize wind and wood waste. Many people, including many renewable industry insiders, believe that green power must be zero-emissions renewable technology or EcoLogo certification won't be meaningful. The purpose of redefinition should be quality, not quantity. If the quality is good enough, quantitative goals will be achieved. In the absence of quality in the product, people are not going to buy. 2 figs

  11. Hotspots Definition Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Dutch research programme Climate changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) many scientific projects are carried out. They often take a multidisciplinary approach to the climate issue. However, more attention needed to be given to embedding the programme into practice. Therefore, the board decided to start a hotspot programme. A hotspot was defined as a pilot project in a sector, place or region in which spatial planning and climate change play an important role in the physical shape and land use of the area and where conflicts of interest are found between these and other factors. The hotspot programme started with a definition study. This report is the result of this study. The goal of the study was to identify, describe and evaluate possible hotspots. In two workshops with policy-makers from national and regional governments, consultancy firms and nature conservation organizations, a large number of potential hotspots were identified. Fifteen were selected after the workshops took place and described in detail. The selection was done using a set of conditional criteria, criteria that all had to be met. Two potential hotspots were withdrawn after the selection. Since the Board of the CcSP programme expressed its interest in financing six to seven hotspots, a prioritization was made, using prioritizing criteria. Also the potential hotspots were assessed looking at regional distribution, thematic coverage and target groups. After this assessment and an analysis of the hotspots taking some other factors into account (eg. some hotspots were very similar or one could easily be incorporated in another one) five hotspots were selected: Kampen, Biesbosch-Haringvliet, Zuidplaspolder, Delta Waters and Tilburg. Options to fill the last two places were: Grounds for Change, Noordoostpolder, Oude Vaart Valley and Arnhem/Nijmegen (KAN). For these remaining potential hotspots draft terms of reference were drawn as basis for a project proposals. These terms of reference are added to

  12. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  13. Matricially free random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Lenczewski, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    We show that the operatorial framework developed by Voiculescu for free random variables can be extended to arrays of random variables whose multiplication imitates matricial multiplication. The associated notion of independence, called matricial freeness, can be viewed as a generalization of both freeness and monotone independence. At the same time, the sums of matricially free random variables, called random pseudomatrices, are closely related to Gaussian random matrices. The main results presented in this paper concern the standard and tracial central limit theorems for random pseudomatrices and the corresponding limit distributions which can be viewed as matricial generalizations of semicirle laws.

  14. Analisis en varias variables

    OpenAIRE

    Stallbohm H., Volker A.

    2006-01-01

    El presente texto ofrece un desarrollo sistemático del cálculo diferencial e integral de funciones en varias variables; es decir funciones con dominio〖 R〗^n (n>2) y contra dominio R^m (m>1). Una diferencia entre el análisis en una variable real y el análisis en varias variables resulta del hecho de que la topología de los subconjuntos en 〖 R〗^n es significativamente más compleja que la topología de la recta. Así los conjuntos convexos en R se clasifican fácilmente mientras que una...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.412-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.412-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 9904.412-30... meanings ascribed to them in those definitions unless paragraph (b) of this subsection requires...

  16. Operational Definitions and Learning Disabilities: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    1991-01-01

    The National Joint Committee for Learning Disabilities' definition of learning disabilities is presented, followed by a discussion of parameters to be considered in operationalizing the definition. Major definitional issues are then explored, including using testable and meaningful constructs, linking definitions to neuropsychological evidence,…

  17. 39 CFR 775.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4 Definitions. (a) The definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 1508 apply to this part 775. (b) In addition to the terms defined in 40 CFR part 1508, the following definitions apply to this part: Approving... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 775.4 Section 775.4 Postal...

  18. 50 CFR 300.151 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shareholder of any entity described in this definition, any agent designated as such by any person described in this definition, and any affiliate of any person described in this definition. Processing means... is defined differently in § 300.2 or the Magnuson Act, the definition in this section shall...

  19. Is the Standard Definition of Poleward Heat Transport Appropriate in Climate Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minyi; Czaja, Arnaud; Graversen, Rune; Tailleux, Remi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a problem with the standard definition of poleward heat transport is highlighted. This, we argue, arises because of the dependence of the standard definition on an arbitrary reference state for moist static energy. This dependence may result in large uncertainty in the estimates of ocean-atmosphere coupling, the signature in heat transport of the atmospheric storm track and annular modes of variability. A new definition is proposed to address the problem, which removes unrealistically large fluctuations (4PW) found when using the standard definition. A practical way to implement the new formulation is also discussed. The new heat transport definition is shown to lead to better correlations with climate indices compared to the traditional definition. In particular a clear relationship between the AO, El Niño and heat transport emerges in our analysis. In addition, it also produces different time sequence of event with large/weak poleward heat transport. It is hoped that the new heat transport definition may shed light on studies exploring the link between energy transport and climate variability.

  20. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  1. Validation and Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    and experimentally inclined modellers on one hand, and attempts to forge new collaborations with medical scientists on the other. Apart from the scientific interest of the population of models approach for tackling variability, the trial also offers a good illustration of the epistemology of experiment......Systems biology is currently making a bid to show that it is able to make an important contribution to personalised or precision medicine. In order to do so, systems biologists need to find a way of tackling the pervasive variability of biological systems that is manifested in the medical domain...... as inter-subject variability. This need is simultaneously social and epistemic: social as systems biologists attempt to engage with the interests and concerns of clinicians and others in applied medical research; epistemic as they attempt to develop new strategies to cope with variability in the validation...

  2. Variable curvature phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a variable curvature dosimetry phantom is briefly described. The phantom was developed to test the accuracy of the dose modification algorithms used to estimate dose distributions inside patient contours. 1 fig

  3. Variable star data online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Roger; Wilson, Andy; Poyner, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Roger Pickard, Andy Wilson and Gary Poyner describe the online database of the British Astronomical Association Variable Star Section, a treasure trove of observations stretching back nearly 125 years.

  4. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  5. Variable frequency photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

  6. Denominators of cluster variables

    OpenAIRE

    Buan, Aslak Bakke; Marsh, Robert J.; Reiten, Idun

    2007-01-01

    Associated to any acyclic cluster algebra is a corresponding triangulated category known as the cluster category. It is known that there is a one-to-one correspondence between cluster variables in the cluster algebra and exceptional indecomposable objects in the cluster category inducing a correspondence between clusters and cluster-tilting objects. Fix a cluster-tilting object T and a corresponding initial cluster. By the Laurent phenomenon, every cluster variable can be written as a Laurent...

  7. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  8. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  9. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  10. Georeactor Variability and Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    As a deep-Earth energy source, the planetocentric nuclear-fission georeactor concept is on a more secure scientific footing than the previous idea related to the assumed growth of the inner core. Unlike previously considered deep-Earth energy sources, which are essentially constant on a human time-scale, variability in nuclear fission reactors can arise from changes in composition and/or position of fuel, moderators, and neutron absorbers. Tantalizing circumstantial evidence invites inquiry into the possibility of short-term planetocentric nuclear fission reactor variability. This brief communication emphasizes the importance of scientific integrity and highlights the possibility of variable georeactor power output so that these might be borne in mind in future investigations, especially those related to the Earth's heat flux.

  11. Defining the local part of a hidden variable model: a comment

    CERN Document Server

    Colbeck, Roger

    2009-01-01

    In [Physical Review Letters 101, 050403 (2008)], we showed that quantum theory cannot be explained by a hidden variable model with a non-trivial local part. The purpose of this comment is to clarify the definition of local part, which seems to have caused some confusion in the recent literature. Our definition is based on Bell's and demands that local hidden variables are physical in the sense that, if discovered, they would not contradict any physical law. The recent supposed "counterexamples" that have appeared are, in fact, not counterexamples to our theorem, because they use a different definition of a local part which is not physical in the above sense. Here we explain our our definition before briefly responding to the criticisms.

  12. Vulvodynia. Definition, diagnosis and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Lundvall, Lene; Kristensen, Ellids;

    2008-01-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic painful disorder with an estimated prevalence of 9-12%. A rising incidence of the condition constitutes a growing problem. This has lead to an increased focus on etiology and treatment, while the definition also requires attention. Previous assumptions stating that the...... problem is solely a psychological disorder have been abandoned, because inflammatory mechanisms and genetic factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis as well as psychosexual contributors. This article describes the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on patho...

  13. Monsoon definition discrepancies in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, M. A.; Chu, P.-S.

    2012-04-01

    This study applies different definitions of what previous authors have called the monsoon over Bangladesh. The aim is to identify the definitions that most resemble the perceptions of the local rural communities and how they define the monsoon. Considering how the local communities define the monsoon is extremely important since these populations are most vulnerable to future changes in climate and more specifically monsoon rainfall. It has been pointed out previously that the monsoon research community had not reached a consensus on a unified definition of the monsoon rainy season. This problem seems to be profound in Bangladesh where results from the application of different definitions show very large discrepancies. Since these discrepancies exist, confusing terms such as monsoon, summer rainy season, and monsoon rainy season can have large implications for impact studies and interpretations of future climate projections. The results in this paper show that these terms need to be explicitly and carefully defined with regards to Bangladesh. Wind-, rain- and OLR-based definitions are applied to several different datasets to show how large these discrepancies can be over Bangladesh. Differences in onset dates are found to be around 8-9 pentads (40-45 days) in some regions of the country. The largest differences are seen in the north-east region, where rain-based definitions give much earlier onsets than wind- or OLR-based definitions. The results show that mesoscale phenomena could be influencing the climate in the north-east part of Bangladesh and causing much earlier summer rainfall. According to the results from a previous social study, the local communities in fact consider this early rainfall as the monsoon onset. By identifying the definition that best resembles the local community perceptions through out Bangladesh, then future information can be constructed, so that it is more easily understood by and applicable to the millions of people climate change will

  14. ITER concept definition. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the two volumes describing the concept definition of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor deals with the ITER concept in technical depth, and covers all areas of design of the ITER tokamak. Included are an assessment of the current database for design, scoping studies, rationale for concepts selection, performance flexibility, the ITER concept, the operations and experimental/testing program, ITER parameters and design phase schedule, and research and development specific to ITER. This latter includes a definition of specific research and development tasks, a division of tasks among members, specific milestones, required results, and schedules. Figs and tabs

  15. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  16. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  17. Hidden Variables and the Large-Scale Structure of Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Antony

    2005-01-01

    We discuss how to embed quantum nonlocality in an approximately classical spacetime background, a question which must be answered irrespective of any underlying microscopic theory of spacetime. We argue that, in deterministic hidden-variables theories, the choice of spacetime kinematics should be dictated by the properties of generic non-equilibrium states, which allow nonlocal signalling. Such signalling provides an operational definition of absolute simultaneity, which may naturally be asso...

  18. Problems of variance reduction in the simulation of random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of the uniform linear generator is given and some of the mostly used tests to evaluate the uniformity and the independence of the obtained determinations are listed. The problem of calculating, through simulation, some moment W of a random variable function is taken into account. The Monte Carlo method enables the moment W to be estimated and the estimator variance to be obtained. Some techniques for the construction of other estimators of W with a reduced variance are introduced

  19. A Riemannian definition of quasiregular mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Liimatainen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give a new natural coordinate invariant definition of quasiconformal and quasiregular mappings on Riemannian manifolds. The new definition is given in terms of coordinate invariant trace and determinant. The definition can also be seen arising naturally from the inner product space structure the tangent spaces of Riemannian manifolds have. In case of Euclidean spaces, the definition is equivalent to the standard analytic definition of quasiregular mappings. We demon- strate how to use the new definition by finding an invariant conformal structure for quasiconformal groups on Riemannian manifolds.

  20. Household Ownership of Variable Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jeffrey R.; James M. Poterba

    2006-01-01

    Variable annuities have been one of the most rapidly growing financial products of the last two decades. Between 1996 and 2004, nominal sales of variable annuities in the U.S. more than doubled, from $51 billion to $130 billion. Variable annuities now account for approximately nearly two thirds of annuity sales. The investment returns associated with variable annuities resemble those from mutual funds, and variable annuity buyers can select among a range of asset allocation options. Variable ...

  1. A regional landslide warning system based on spatially variable rainfall thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Segoni S.; Rossi G; Rosi A.; Catani F.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall is widely recognized as one of the major causes for landsliding. When studying the conditions of triggering of mass movements at regional scale, a process-based approach is seldom possible because of the complexity in the spatial organization of the involved independent variables (e.g. soil properties). Therefore, empirical methods based on the definition of triggering thresholds are usually employed for the definition of warning systems or for landslide hazard assessments. Such thre...

  2. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  3. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  4. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  5. Variable thrust cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  6. Integration i flere variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    -integralerne. Undervejs introduceres \\texttt{Integrator8}. Det er en pakke med Maple procedurer, som er udviklet specielt med henblik på eksempelbaseret visuel læring af de indledende integrationsbegreber og deres mangfoldige anvendelser. Vi giver eksempler på, hvordan integration i flere variable anvendes til beregning...

  7. Spatial Variability of Rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.E.; Pedersen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    As a part of a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) calibration exercise 15 km south of Århus, Denmark, the variability in accumulated rainfall within a single radar pixel (500 by 500 m) was measured using nine high-resolution rain gauges. The measured values indicate up to a 100% variation between...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in clinically-definite multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis were examined by magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5-T instrument. Magnetic resonance imaging detected an abnormality in 90% of patients. In four patients, no lesions were demonstrated. The number, size and site of the lesions by magnetic resonance imaging were compared with the patients' clinical status and other variables. The Kurtzke disability status scale score increased in patients with corpus callosum atrophy, brainstem and basal ganglia lesions, and correlated with the total number of lesions. No correlation was shown between the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and disease duration, age, sex or pattern-reversal visual-evoked potentials. The variety of magnetic resonance images that could be obtained in patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis is highlighted. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  9. Two definitions of superfluid density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out that two different definitions of the superfluid density - through statistical response to static gauge phase and through dynamic response to altering gauge phase - yield, generally speaking, different quantities in d<3. The physics leading to this difference is associated with the equilibrium statistics of supercurrent states. Some experimentally observable consequences of this fact are discussed

  10. The Online Learning Definitions Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Association for K-12 Online Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) is to ensure all students have access to a world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of success. "The Online Learning Definitions Project" is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other…

  11. A New Definition of Graviton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; PourImani, Hamed

    2008-01-01

    To date, there is no way to explain the process that describes how particles as photon absorb gravitons. According to the results of our years-long research we can definitely say that the best way for explain this process is using color charge concept from photon properties. This model might be...

  12. A New Definition of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either the removal of positive reinforcement or the presentation of an aversive stimulus (Skinner, 1953) that results in a decrease in the frequency and/or intensity of the response (Azrin & Holtz, 1966). By definition, punishment seeks to stop unacceptable, unwanted, and bothersome…

  13. Definition of sectoral energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter of the publication on Energy Resources Development series No. 33 definition of sectoral energy demand has been given. Energy demand is far from being an homogeneous and universal concept. Sectoral energy demand implies an analysis of the energy demand at the level of sectors. 1 fig

  14. Putting Weather back into the Definition of Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.; Stainforth, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    For most of the previous century, it was generally clear that "climate" is far more than the "average weather", or even the average weather dressed up with a few supplementary statistics quantifying its variability. Yet towards the end of that century H H Lamb noted that there had been instances where "Climate was sometimes wrongly defined in the past as just 'average weather'." The importance of a clear, agreed definition of climate is stressed, and the slide away from defining climate as the distribution of weather, however measured, is documented. A rather obvious alternative definition from the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems is noted and criticized. Not only is it the weather that defines climate: it is changes in weather that change climate by altering vegetation and land surface, ice and snow and cloudiness, etc. A clear definition of climate can ease discussions between scientists and statisticians, and avoid needless confusion in discussions beyond (and within) science. An ideal definition would be physically relevant, mathematically coherent and observationally tractable, even if it is impossible to optimize all three properties simultaneously. Further, the definition of climate should allow general utility in decision support and policy making, and ease multi-disciplinary engagement, by avoiding assumptions that presuppose (for example) its application in practice. Defining climate change in relation to changes in averages does, of course, reduce the relevance of climate change to policy makers, as the changes in averages need not reflect impacts on individuals. Definitions of climate analogous to the (invariant) natural measure of a dynamical system (and distributions of trajectories of initial conditions drawn from this distribution) are proposed and criticized; then contrasted with a definition proposed by Lamb himself. Challenges that terrestrial climate change pose to the vocabulary of the modern theory of nonlinear dynamical systems are noted

  15. 21 CFR 1311.02 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... hardware, software, data, etc. FIPS 140-2, as incorporated by reference in § 1311.08, means a Federal... follows: § 1311.02 Definitions. Any term contained in this part shall have the definition set forth...

  16. 40 CFR 142.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... piping and plumbing caused by water quality are excluded from this definition. Municipality means a city... connection, as used in the definition of public water system, does not include a connection to a system...

  17. 40 CFR 86.091-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.091-2 Definitions. The definitions of § 86.090-2 remain...

  18. 40 CFR 86.1202-85 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1202-85 Definitions. Applicable definitions in §§ 86.077-2,...

  19. 40 CFR 86.092-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.092-2 Definitions. The definitions of § 86.091-2 remain...

  20. A New Definition of Hypercomplex Analyticity

    OpenAIRE

    De Leo StefanoDip. di Fisica, INFN, Lecce; Rotelli PietroDip. di Fisica, INFN, Lecce

    2014-01-01

    Complex analyticity is generalized to hypercomplex functions, quaternion or octonion, in such a manner that it includes the standard complex definition and does not reduce analytic functions to a trivial class. A brief comparison with other definitions is presented.

  1. 9 CFR 206.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.1 Definitions. The definitions... marketing meats or meat food products from swine in an unmanufactured form acting as a wholesale...

  2. Measurement Decision Risk - The Importance of Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The idea behind this presentation is how the difference in definitions can change the application. 1. Look at history, concepts, and definitions. 2. Link the test uncertainty ratio (TUR) to measurement decision risk.

  3. Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wilde, M M; Krovi, H; Brun, Todd A.; Krovi, Hari; Wilde, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical communication and quantum communication. The cobit channel produces coherent versions of the teleportation and superdense coding protocols. We extend the cobit channel to the continuous variables of quantum optics. We provide a general definition of the ``coherent nat'' (conat) channel when only finite-squeezing resources are available. Coherent teleportation provides sufficient conditions and coherent superdense coding provides necessary conditions for a channel to be a finite-squeezing approximation to an ideal conat channel. We illustrate several protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel. Finally, we address the reversibility of coherent teleportation and coherent superdense coding with only finite-squeezing resources.

  4. Bipartite entanglement in continuous variable cluster states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, Hugo; Browne, Daniel E, E-mail: cqthvc@nus.edu.s, E-mail: d.browne@ucl.ac.u [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-11-15

    A study of the entanglement properties of Gaussian cluster states, proposed as a universal resource for continuous variable (CV) quantum computing is presented in this paper. The central aim is to compare mathematically idealized cluster states defined using quadrature eigenstates, which have infinite squeezing and cannot exist in nature, with Gaussian approximations that are experimentally accessible. Adopting widely used definitions, we first review the key concepts, by analysing a process of teleportation along a CV quantum wire in the language of matrix product states. Next we consider the bipartite entanglement properties of the wire, providing analytic results. We proceed to grid cluster states, which are universal for the qubit case. To extend our analysis of the bipartite entanglement, we adopt the entropic-entanglement width, a specialized entanglement measure introduced recently by Van den Nest et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 150504), adapting their definition to the CV context. Finally, we consider the effects of photonic loss, extending our arguments to mixed states. Cumulatively our results point to key differences in the properties of idealized and Gaussian cluster states. Even modest loss rates are found to strongly limit the amount of entanglement. We discuss the implications for the potential of CV analogues for measurement-based quantum computation.

  5. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; /Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; /NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC

    2007-05-23

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.

  6. Variable stiffness torsion springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Polites, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    In a torsion spring the spring action is a result of the relationships between the torque applied in twisting the spring, the angle through which the torsion spring twists, and the modulus of elasticity of the spring material in shear. Torsion springs employed industrially have been strips, rods, or bars, generally termed shafts, capabable of being flexed by twisting their axes. They rely on the variations in shearing forces to furnish an internal restoring torque. In the torsion springs herein the restoring torque is external and therefore independent of the shearing modulus of elasticity of the torsion spring shaft. Also provided herein is a variable stiffness torsion spring. This torsion spring can be so adjusted as to have a given spring constant. Such variable stiffness torsion springs are extremely useful in gimballed payloads such as sensors, telescopes, and electronic devices on such platforms as a space shuttle or a space station.

  7. 40 CFR 86.010-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... start hardware or strategies (e.g., integrated starter and generators.), the manufacturer may use an alternative definition for engine start (e.g., key-on) provided the alternative definition is based on... cycle that begins with engine start, meets the engine start definition for at least two seconds plus...

  8. 5 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.3 Definitions. As used in the rules in this subchapter: (a) Competitive service shall have the...

  9. 28 CFR 66.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may use its own definition of equipment provided that such definition would at least include all... grant award document. Local government means a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public... any form of assistance which is excluded from the definition of “grant” in this part. Subgrantee...

  10. 13 CFR 143.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... more per unit. A grantee may use its own definition of equipment provided that such definition would at..., municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public and Indian housing agency... excluded from the definition of grant in this part. Subgrantee means the government or other legal...

  11. 44 CFR 13.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... definition of equipment provided that such definition would at least include all equipment defined above... government means a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public... any form of assistance which is excluded from the definition of grant in this part. Subgrantee...

  12. 36 CFR 1207.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... more per unit. A grantee may use its own definition of equipment provided that such definition would at..., municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public and Indian housing agency... excluded from the definition of grant in this part. Subgrantee means the government or other legal...

  13. 21 CFR 1403.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may use its own definition of equipment provided that such definition would at least include all... grant award document. Local government means a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public... any form of assistance which is excluded from the definition of “grant” in this part. Subgrantee...

  14. 45 CFR 92.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... more per unit. A grantee may use its own definition of equipment provided that such definition would at..., municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public and Indian housing agency... excluded from the definition of grant in this part. Subgrantee means the government or other legal...

  15. 14 CFR 298.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carriers; and an infant who does not occupy a seat. (This definition is for 14 CFR part 298 traffic... definition is for 14 CFR part 298 traffic-reporting purposes and may differ from the definitions used in... promotional offers (for example two-for-one) or loyalty programs (for example, redemption of frequent...

  16. A Collection of Definitions of Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Legg, Shane

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a survey of a large number of informal definitions of ``intelligence'' that the authors have collected over the years. Naturally, compiling a complete list would be impossible as many definitions of intelligence are buried deep inside articles and books. Nevertheless, the 70-odd definitions presented here are, to the authors' knowledge, the largest and most well referenced collection there is.

  17. 18 CFR 801.1 - Standard definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard definitions... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.1 Standard definitions. (a) Many terms that will be used in official Commission... clarity of the meaning the Commission applies to frequently used terms standard definitions will...

  18. On the Definition of Economic Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Makdissi

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the definition of economic efficiency. The standard definition used in economic literature is the Pareto Optimum which is based in the space of individual utilities. This paper proposes new definitions based on alternative spaces. The paper also introduces a dominance criterion for efficiency over a set of social evaluation spaces.

  19. 5 CFR 831.1202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RETIREMENT Disability Retirement § 831.1202 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Accommodation means an... subject to civil service retirement deductions. The definition is the same as the definition of “basic pay... work in their usual employment. Disabled and disability mean unable or inability, because of disease...

  20. 12 CFR 564.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 564.2 Section 564.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.2 Definitions. (a... definition is the consummation of a sale as of a specified date and the passing of title from seller to...

  1. 40 CFR 26.1302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.1302 Section 26.1302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Requirements for Submission of Information on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1302 Definitions. The definitions in § 26.102 shall...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1702 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.1702 Section 26.1702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Ethical Standards for Assessing Whether To Rely on the Results of Human Research in EPA Actions § 26.1702 Definitions. The definitions in § 26.1102 and...

  3. 5 CFR 2636.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2636.102 Section 2636.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS LIMITATIONS ON OUTSIDE EARNED INCOME, EMPLOYMENT AND AFFILIATIONS FOR CERTAIN NONCAREER EMPLOYEES General Provisions § 2636.102 Definitions. The definitions listed below are...

  4. 40 CFR 425.02 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General definitions. 425.02 Section 425.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.02 General definitions. In addition to the definitions set...

  5. 28 CFR 527.41 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 527.41 Section 527.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER TRANSFERS Transfer of Offenders To or From Foreign Countries § 527.41 Definitions. For the purpose of this rule the following definitions...

  6. 12 CFR 616.600 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 616.600 Section 616.600 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.600 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following definitions apply: (a) Interests in leases means ownership interests in...

  7. 41 CFR 60-1.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definition, “submits an expression of interest in employment through the Internet or related electronic data... and cover letter to Contractor A meet this part of the definition of Internet Applicant for this... sent a paper resume and cover letter to the employer meet this part of the definition of...

  8. 77 FR 7517 - Definitions and Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ...'' in the definition section of the regulation and clarifying the Agency's policy as it relates to... the use of the Internet and other information technologies, to provide increased opportunities for... is amended by adding a new definition of Interest, to read as follows: Sec. 4279.2 Definitions...

  9. 77 FR 7546 - Definitions and Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... interest with prior Agency approval. By defining ``interest'' in the definition section of the regulation... Internet and other information technologies, to provide increased opportunities for citizen access to... new definition of Interest, to read as follows: Sec. 4279.2 Definitions and...

  10. Species selection on variability.

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, E. A.; Gould, S J

    1993-01-01

    Most analyses of species selection require emergent, as opposed to aggregate, characters at the species level. This "emergent character" approach tends to focus on the search for adaptations at the species level. Such an approach seems to banish the most potent evolutionary property of populations--variability itself--from arguments about species selection (for variation is an aggregate character). We wish, instead, to extend the legitimate domain of species selection to aggregate characters....

  11. Climate Variability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Climate Variability Program briefly describes research activities of Principal Investigators who are funded by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Research Division. The report is focused on the year 2001. Utilization of satellite observations is a singularity of research on climate science and technology at JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Research at JPL has two foci: generate new knowledge and develop new technology.

  12. Variable percentage sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jr., William H.

    1976-01-01

    A remotely operable sampler is provided for obtaining variable percentage samples of nuclear fuel particles and the like for analyses. The sampler has a rotating cup for a sample collection chamber designed so that the effective size of the sample inlet opening to the cup varies with rotational speed. Samples of a desired size are withdrawn from a flowing stream of particles without a deterrent to the flow of remaining particles.

  13. Variable laser attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  14. Variable depth core sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  15. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  16. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  17. A Corpus for Spoken EFL Lexicon:learner-based definition vs. dictionary-based definition

    OpenAIRE

    TOMITA, Kaoru; Nakayama, Kazuo; Anthony, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Reading a target language dictionary definition in a printed dictionary is one common way of learning a new word in foreign language. Digital dictionaries enable a learner not only to read the definition of a word but also to listen to its pronunciation, although digital dictionaries provide no definitions recorded in spoken sounds as yet. The definitions of words in dictionaries, however, may be too difficult for many learners to understand in speech. To modify the definitions so that the le...

  18. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making activities fall within the spectrum of social entrepreneurship. To become an important stream in the entrepreneurship literature, social entrepreneurship needs to be properly defined and it requires a theoretical framework that links it to the theory of entrepreneurship. This article builds on the literature to define social entrepreneurship, discusses the boundaries of socially-oriented entrepreneurial activities, and positions the social entrepreneur in the spectrum of entrepreneurship.

  19. TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mocanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is a concept that is still subject of many controversies. Nowadays, it is used both in theory and in practice to designate a variety of activities. The paper aims at shedding light on this enigmatic concept. First of all, the author offers an overview of the historical roots of “controlling”. Secondly, different definitions of the concept of “controlling” are contrasted. The author comments upon two types of definitions: concepts oriented towards the goal to obtain results (profit, turnover, low costs and concepts oriented towards the universal goals of the company (e.g. product-related, environmental, social goals. Last but not least, the paper identifies the different perspectives used when defining the concept, in order to provide the proper background for understanding “controlling”: the information-oriented perspective, the coordination-oriented perspective and the reflection-oriented perspective, and the rationality-oriented perspective.

  20. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  1. Cooling towers - terms and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of cooling tower construction and operation, the use of publications has shown that a systematic glossary has not yet been developed. Therefore a dictionary of the terms used in this field, together with their clear definitions, is urgently required. This work has been started by the V.I.K. (Association for the Industrial Power Economy) in Essen and completed by the VDI-Group 'Energy Engineering'. Because of the strong international links and the increasing overseas trade in this field also the corresponding terms in other languages, English, French and Spanish are included. As to make it possible to find the German terms and definitions when starting from a foreign language, alphabetical lists are included for the various languages giving the number of the corresponding German term. In such cases where the technical term used in the United States is not identical with the corresponding term used in the United Kingdom, both terms are included. (orig./HP)

  2. LINGUISTIC MANIPULATION: DEFINITION AND TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Savvichna Akopova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon basic aspects of the theory of speech acts that is defined as influence exercised upon  a human being or a group of people through speech and related non-verbal means by the speaker in order to achieve definite aims, i.e. to change the listener’s behavior, his mental set, intentions, perceptions, evaluations, etc. in the course of verbal interaction.

  3. Definition and effects of drought

    OpenAIRE

    Magyar, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The graduation thesis deals with different definitions and extent of drought around the World, in Europe and Slovenia. Extreme drought occurrences are being analysed according to their duration, cost or number of death causes. The research paper studies monthly temperatures and the amount of monthly precipitation of Ljubljana in 1851-2013 period, measuring drought based on Standard Precipitation Index. These data are foundation to further forecast and spotting the changes being ...

  4. "MARKET": A DEFINITION FOR TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Houck, James P.

    1984-01-01

    This short piece is an abstract, partial equilibrium approach to defining the term "market" in terms useful to students of agricultural economics. Neither the short, dictionary-style definitions, nor the longer, more discursive descriptions available are altogether satisfactory for teaching students what a market is--especially in terms consistent with the basic theoretical constructs that we insist they learn. This particular attempt uses familiar concepts of supply and demand but presents t...

  5. The definition of illegal migration

    OpenAIRE

    DZHANSARAYEVA RIMA YERENATOVNA; MALIKOVA SHOLPAN BALTABEKOVNA

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the definitions of illegal migration. In theory, there is no consensus on the concept of illegal immigration. In the scientific revolution applied the concept of “illegal migration”, “illegal immigration”, “migration of the crime” and “criminal migration”. Crime and illegal migration, although they have common features, are different concepts. For the concept of illegal immigration is characterized by violation of migration laws. For the concept of mandatory criminal migr...

  6. Contribution on family business definition

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, C

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous researches and an ample literature, there is not a unanimously and approved family business definition which identify family businesses from nonfamily businesses. Which are the aspects to describe exactly a family business? Which are the aspects that help to recognise family business from nonfamily business? Answering to these questions means to circumscribe the field of investigation, and obtain a comparable sample for international researches; to individualize the presence ...

  7. Definition of a Risk Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A precise definition of the risk concept is very difficult to arrive at , given the large number of varying levels of acceptability. Risk is defined from a mathematical viewpoint and an economic viewpoint. The perception of risk itself varies, as will the methods to evaluate risk. The Atomic Energy Control Board sets out directives for accident conditions, including the acceptable dose limits for the general population. 1 tab

  8. An operational definition of epigenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Shelley L.; Kouzarides, Tony; Shiekhattar, Ramin; Shilatifard, Ali

    2009-01-01

    A recent meeting (December 2008) regarding chromatin-based epigenetics was hosted by the Banbury Conference Center and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The intent was to discuss aspects of epigenetic control of genomic function, and to arrive at a consensus definition of “epigenetics” to be considered by the broader community. It was evident that multiple mechanistic steps lead to the stable heritance of the epigenetic phenotype. Below we provide our view and interpretation of the proceedings a...

  9. Spectral Variability of FSRQs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minfeng Gu; Y. L. Ai

    2011-03-01

    The optical variability of 29 flat spectrum radio quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 region are investigated by using DR7 released multi-epoch data. All FSRQs show variations with overall amplitude ranging from 0.24 mag to 3.46 mag in different sources. About half of FSRQs show a bluer-when-brighter trend, which is commonly observed for blazars. However, only one source shows a redder-when-brighter trend, which implies it is rare in FSRQs. In this source, the thermal emission may be responsible for the spectral behaviour.

  10. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  11. Variable leak gas source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  12. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K-satisfiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed. PMID:25679737

  13. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  14. Current Climate Variability & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and

  15. Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach. This technique is used commonly in the cervical spine to treat degenerative disc disease and HNP (herniated nucleus pulposus). This technique is also used in the lumbar spine to accomplish a fusion in many situations. anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF): ...

  16. Improving the consistency in cervical esophageal target volume definition by special training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy requires the precise definition of the target volume. Its potential benefits could be offset by the inconsistency in target definition by radiation oncologists. In a previous survey of radiation oncologists, a large degree of variation in target volume definition of cervical esophageal cancer was noted for the boost phase of radiotherapy. The present study evaluated whether special training could improve the consistency in target volume definitions. Methods and Materials: A pre-training survey was performed to establish baseline values. This was followed by a special one-on-one training session on treatment planning based on the RTOG 94-05 protocol to 12 radiation oncologists. Target volumes were redrawn immediately and at 1-2 months later. Post-training vs. pre-training target volumes were compared. Results: There was less variability in the longitudinal positions of the target volumes post-training compared to pre-training (p<0.05 in 5 of 6 comparisons). One case had more variability due to the lack of a visible gross tumor on CT scans. Transverse contours of target volumes did not show any significant difference pre- or post-training. Conclusion: For cervical esophageal cancer, this study suggests that special training on protocol guidelines may improve consistency in target volume definition. Explicit protocol directions are required for situations where the gross tumor is not easily visible on CT scans. This may be particularly important for multicenter clinical trials, to reduce the occurrences of protocol violations

  17. Geometrical Theory of Separation of Variables, a review of recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Rastelli, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The Separation of Variables theory for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is 'by definition' related to the use of special kinds of coordinates, for example Jacobi coordinates on the ellipsoid or St\\"ackel systems in the Euclidean space. However, it is possible and useful to develop this theory in a coordinate-independent way: this is the Geometrical Theory of Separation of Variables. It involves geometrical objects (like special submanifolds and foliations) as well as special vector and tensor fie...

  18. Range of natural variability: Applying the concept to forest management in central British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    C Wong; Iverson, K.

    2004-01-01

    The range of natural variability (RNV) is a concept relevant to maintaining biodiversity and resilience in managed forests. It is, however, a challenging concept both to describe and apply. Here, we refine the definition of RNV. We also discuss information and data sources required and the appropriate use of spatial and temporal scales. A new term, the apparent range of variability (ARV), is suggested to convey the dependency of estimates of the RNV on the temporal and spatial extent of avail...

  19. Sample estimation of distribution parameters if upper and lower bounds of random variable are known

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The point and interval distribution parameter estimators are obtained by direct numerical approximation of the definition integral with the use of upper and lower bounds of distributed random variable. Like in Bayesian estimation, the distribution parameters are treated as random variables, and their uncertainty is described as a distribution. The Monte Carlo procedure is involved to get the posteriori parameter distributions and the correspondent confidence interval limits.

  20. Mei Symmetry and Lie Symmetry of the Rotational Relativistic Variable Mass System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGJian-Hui

    2003-01-01

    The Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of a rotational relativistic variable mass system are studied. The definitions and criteria of the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the rotational relativistic variable mass system are given. The relation between the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry is found. The conserved quantities which the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry lead to are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  1. Rapid VHE variability in blazars

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe, Francesca; Rieger, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are known to show significant variability over a wide frequency range. We review observational results on the variability characteristics of blazars in the very high energy (VHE) domain, focusing on recent findings of rapid VHE variability and evidence for an underlying multiplicative driving process in PKS 2155-304. We explore a physical scenario where the variability is assumed to arise due to accretion disk fluctuations transmitted to the jet, and discuss its i...

  2. Modeling Shared Variables in VHDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Brage, Jens P.

    1994-01-01

    A set of concurrent processes communicating through shared variables is an often used model for hardware systems. This paper presents three modeling techniques for representing such shared variables in VHDL, depending on the acceptable constraints on accesses to the variables. Also a set of...... guidelines for handling atomic updates of multiple shared variables is given. 1 Introduction It is often desirable to partition a computational system into discrete functional units which cooperates to....

  3. The Performance of Variable Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. McNamara; Henry R. Oppenheimer

    1991-01-01

    Variable annuities have become increasingly important in retirement plans. This paper provides an examination of the investment performance of variable annuities for the period year-end 1973 to year-end 1988. Returns, risk, and selectivity measures are analyzed for the sample of annuities, for individual variable annuities, and for subsamples of annuities with similar portfolio size and turnover. While the investment returns of variable annuities were greater than inflation over the period, t...

  4. Essential biodiversity variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  5. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.;

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability of a...... discrete random variable....

  6. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  7. Impact analysis of flow variability in sizing kanbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Pergher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of variability flow, advocated by Factory Physics, in sizing Kanban production systems. The variability of flow presupposes that the variability of activities performed by a process is dissipated throughout the productive flow system, causing variations in the lead time, the work-in-process levels and the equipment availability, among others. To conduct the research, we created a didactic model of discrete event computer simulation. The proposed model aims to present the possible impacts caused by the variability flow in a production system regarding the sizing of the number of Kanbans cards, by using the results supplied by two different investigated scenarios. The main results of the research allow concluding that, by comparing the two scenarios developed in the model, the presence of variability in the production system caused an average increase of 32% in the number of Kanban cards (p=0,000. This implies that, in real productive systems, the study of Kanban sizing should consider the variability of individual operations, a fact often relegated as an assumption in the formulation from classical literature on the definition of the number of Kanbans, thus providing opportunities for the development of future research.

  8. Spatial variability and parametric uncertainty in performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of defining an appropriate treatment of distribution functions (which could represent spatial variability or parametric uncertainty) is examined based on a generic performance assessment model for a high-level waste repository. The generic model incorporated source term models available in GoldSim®, the TDRW code for contaminant transport in sparse fracture networks with a complex fracture-matrix interaction process, and a biosphere dose model known as BDOSETM. Using the GoldSim framework, several Monte Carlo sampling approaches and transport conceptualizations were evaluated to explore the effect of various treatments of spatial variability and parametric uncertainty on dose estimates. Results from a model employing a representative source and ensemble-averaged pathway properties were compared to results from a model allowing for stochastic variation of transport properties along streamline segments (i.e., explicit representation of spatial variability within a Monte Carlo realization). We concluded that the sampling approach and the definition of an ensemble representative do influence consequence estimates. In the examples analyzed in this paper, approaches considering limited variability of a transport resistance parameter along a streamline increased the frequency of fast pathways resulting in relatively high dose estimates, while those allowing for broad variability along streamlines increased the frequency of 'bottlenecks' reducing dose estimates. On this basis, simplified approaches with limited consideration of variability may suffice for intended uses of the performance assessment model, such as evaluation of site safety. (author)

  9. The Definitive Guide to SQLite

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Outside of the world of enterprise computing there is one database that enables a huge range of software and hardware to flex relational database capabilities, without the baggage and cost of traditional database management systems. That database is SQLite - an embeddable database with an amazingly small footprint, yet it can handle databases of enormous size. SQLite comes equipped with an array of powerful features available through a host of programming and development environments. It is supported by languages such as C, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, TCL, and more. The Definitive Guide to

  10. WACC: Definition, misconceptions and errors

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The WACC is just the rate at which the Free Cash Flows must be discounted to obtain the same result as in the valuation using Equity Cash Flows discounted at the required return to equity (Ke) The WACC is neither a cost nor a required return: it is a weighted average of a cost and a required return. To refer to the WACC as the "cost of capital" may be misleading because it is not a cost. The paper includes 7 errors due to not remembering the definition of WACC and shows the relationship betwe...

  11. The rebound effect. Microeconomic definitions, limitations and extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rebound effect results in part from an increased consumption of energy services following an improvement in the technical efficiency of delivering those services. This increased consumption offsets the energy savings that may otherwise be achieved. If the rebound effect is sufficiently large it may undermine the rationale for policy measures to encourage energy efficiency. The nature and magnitude of the rebound effect is the focus of long-running dispute with energy economics. This paper brings together previous theoretical work to provide a rigorous definition of the rebound effect, to clarify key conceptual issues and to highlight the potential consequences of various assumptions for empirical estimates of the effect. The focus is on the direct rebound effect for a single energy service - indirect and economy-wide rebound effects are not discussed. Beginning with Khazzoom's original definition of the rebound effect, we expose the limitations of three simplifying assumptions on which this definition is based. First, we argue that capital costs form an important part of the total cost of providing energy services and that empirical studies that estimate rebound effects from variations in energy prices are prone to bias. Second, we argue that energy efficiency should be treated as an endogenous variable and that empirical estimates of the rebound effect may need to apply a simultaneous equation model to capture the joint determination of key variables. Third, we explore the implications of the opportunity costs of time in the production of energy services and highlight the consequences for energy use of improved 'time efficiency', the influence of time costs on the rebound effect and the existence of a parallel rebound effect with respect to time. Each of these considerations serves to highlight the difficulties in obtaining reliable estimates of the rebound effect and the different factors that need to be controlled for. We discuss the implications of these

  12. Definitions of deafblindness and congenital deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Larsen, Flemming; Damen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    determining eligibility of the studies were encountered due to heterogeneity in definitions and inclusion criteria used in the articles. The present systematic review aims to provide both an overview of this terminological and methodological heterogeneity and suggestions for better future research practices....... A systematic review of definitions used in (N = 30) studies employing psychological assessment of people with CDB served as a sample of the scientific literature on DB and CDB. Absent or heterogeneous definitions and inclusion criteria regarding both DB and CDB are evident in the sample. Fifty...... percent of the studies reported no definition of DB and 76.7% reported no definition of CDB. Main discrepancies are: (1) medical/functional versus ability/functioning definitions regarding DB; and (2) different criteria for onset of DB in the case of defining CDB (e.g. age versus developmental level). The...

  13. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  14. Reproducing Kernel Functions: A general framework for Discrete Variable Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Mussa, Hamse

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction, the Discrete Variable Representation (DVR) basis set has become an invaluable representation of state vectors and Hermitian operators in non-relativistic quantum dynamics and spectroscopy calculations. On the other hand reproducing kernel (positive definite) functions have been widely employed for a long time to a wide variety of disciplines: detection and estimation problems in signal processing; data analysis in statistics; generating observational models in machine learning; solving inverse problems in geophysics and tomography in general; and in quantum mechanics. In this article it was demonstrated that, starting with the axiomatic definition of DVR provided by Littlejohn [1], it is possible to show that the space upon which the projection operator, defined in ref [1], projects is a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) whose associated reproducing kernel function can be used to generate DVR points and their corresponding DVR functions on any domain manifold (curved or not). It ...

  15. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...

  16. Algebraic definition of topological W gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors propose a definition of the topological W gravity using some properties of the principal three-dimensional subalgebra of a simple Lie algebra due to Kostant. In the authors' definition, structures of the two-dimensional topological gravity are naturally embedded in the extended theories. In accordance with the definition, the authors will present some explicit calculations for the W3 gravity

  17. Another Definition of Order—Sorted Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何自强

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the definition of order-sorted algebra is generalized by introducing transformation functions between subtypes and supertypes.According to our definition,a type needn't be a subset of its supertype and a record model may form an order-sorted algebra.A new definition of equation is given.It has also been proved that equational theories and describing single inheritance have the initial model.

  18. On the definition of homological critical value

    OpenAIRE

    Govc, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    We point out that there is a problem with the definition of homological critical value (as defined in the widely cited paper \\cite{stability} by Cohen-Steiner, Edelsbrunner and Harer). Under that definition, the critical value lemma of \\cite{stability} in fact fails. We provide several counterexamples and a definition (due to Bubenik and Scott \\cite{categorification}) we feel should be preferred and under which the critical value lemma does indeed hold. One of the counterexamples we have foun...

  19. From Slovene into English: Identifying Definiteness

    OpenAIRE

    Frančiška Lipovšek

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses some typical instances of the translator’s failure to recognize definite reference in Slovene, which, in turn, results in an inappropriate determiner selection in English. It is argued that errors of this kind are ascribable not solely to the fact that the Slovene determiner system lacks an overt non-selective determiner parallel to the definite article, but to the relatively scarce use of overt determiners in general. Since definiteness is typically signalled by an anapho...

  20. Discrete Total Variation: New Definition and Minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Condat, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new definition for the gradient field of a discrete image, defined on a twice finer grid. The differentiation process from the image to its gradient field is viewed as the inverse operation of linear integration, and the proposed mapping is nonlinear. Then, we define the total variation of an image as the l1 norm of its gradient field amplitude. This new definition of the total variation yields sharp edges and has better isotropy than the classical definition.

  1. A new definition of Bejan number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of Bejan number will be generated by replacing the thermal diffusivity with the mass diffusivity. For example, the Schmidt number is the mass transfer analog of the Prandtl number. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Sc = Pr = = 1, both current and new definitions of Bejan number are the same. This new definition is useful and needed for diffusion of mass (mass diffusion.

  2. On the mid-infrared variability of candidate eruptive variables (exors): A comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Lorenzetti, D., E-mail: simone.antoniucci@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: teresa.giannini@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: gianluca.licausi@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: dario.lorenzetti@oa-roma.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    Aiming to statistically study the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects, we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 μm Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 μm. From this comparison, we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class ≡ Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigated for similarities with known young eruptive variables, namely the EXors. In particular, we analyzed (1) the shape of the spectral energy distribution, (2) the IR excess over the stellar photosphere, (3) magnitude versus color variations, and (4) output parameters of model fitting. This first systematic search for EXors ends up with 11 bona fide candidates that can be considered as suitable targets for monitoring or future investigations.

  3. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical formulation for the variable thickness transient (VTT) model of an aquifer system is presented. The basic assumptions are described. Specific data requirements for the physical parameters are discussed. The boundary definitions and solution techniques of the numerical formulation of the system of equations are presented

  4. A Unified Symmetry of Mechanical Systems with Variable Mass in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; FANG Jian-Hui; ZHANG Peng-Yu; DING Ning

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry of the mechanical system with variable mass in phase space are given. The Noether conserved quantity, the generalized Hojman conserved quantity, and Mei conserved quantity deduced from the unified symmetry are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  5. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century. 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century

  7. ITER concept definition. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an agreement among the four parties representing the world's major fusion programs resulted in a program for conceptual design of the next logical step in the fusion program, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The definition phase, which ended in November, 1989, is summarized in two reports: a brief summary is contained in the ITER Definition Phase Report (IAEA/ITER/DS/2); the extended technical summary and technical details of ITER are contained in this two-volume report. The first volume of this report contains the Introduction and Summary, and the remainder will appear in Volume II. In the Conceptual Design Activities phase, ITER has been defined as being a tokamak device. The basic performance parameters of ITER are given in Volume I of this report. In addition, the rationale for selection of this concept, the performance flexibility, technical issues, operations, safety, reliability, cost, and research and development needed to proceed with the design are discussed. Figs and tabs

  8. On the definition of superclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally, we suggest that those superclusters that will survive the accelerating cosmic expansion and collapse in the future be called "superstes-clusters", where "superstes" means survivor in Latin, to distinguish them from traditional superclusters.

  9. Validation: an overview of definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term validation is featured prominently in the literature on radioactive high-level waste disposal and is generally understood to be related to model testing using experiments. In a first class, validation is linked to the goal of predicting the physical world as faithfully as possible but is unattainable and unsuitable for setting goals for the safety analyses. In a second class, validation is associated to split-sampling or to blind-tests predictions. In the third class of definition, validation focuses on the quality of the decision-making process. Most prominent in the present review is the observed lack of use of the term validation in the field of low-level radioactive waste disposal. The continued informal use of the term validation in the field of high level wastes disposals can become cause for misperceptions and endless speculations. The paper proposes either abandoning the use of this term or agreeing to a definition which would be common to all. (J.S.). 29 refs

  10. Mass modification experiment definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes an attempt to find an experiment that would test the Haisch, Rueda, and Puthoff (HRP) conjecture that the mass and inertia of a body are induced effects brought about by changes in the quantum-fluctuation energy of the vacuum. It was not possible, however, to identify a definitive experiment. But, it was possible to identify an experiment that might be able to prove or disprove that the inertial mass of a body can be altered by making changes in the vacuum surrounding the body. Other experiments, which do not involve mass modification, but which teach something about the vacuum, were also defined and included in a ranked list of experiments. This report also contains an annotated bibliography. An interesting point raised by this paper is this: We can estimate the 'vacuum energy density' to be 10108 J/cc, and the vacuum mass density to be 1094 g/cc, much higher numbers than those associated with nuclear energy. Although the field of 'electromagnetic fluctuation energy of the vacuum' is admittedly an esoteric, little-understood field, it does seem to have definite potential as an energy source. 47 refs

  11. Prebiotics: Definition and protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2016-02-01

    The increase in chronic metabolic and immunologic disorders in the modern society is linked to major changes in the dietary patterns. These chronic conditions are associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis where important groups of carbohydrate fermenting, short-chain fatty acids-producing bacteria are reduced. Dietary prebiotics are defined as a selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health. Application of prebiotics may then restore the gut microbiota diversity and activity. Unlike the previously accepted prebiotics definition, where a limited number of bacterial species are involved in the prebiotic activity, new data from community-wide microbiome analysis demonstrated a broader affect of the prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota. These new findings require a revision of the current definition. In addition, prebiotics may exert immunomodulatory effects through microbiota-independent mechanisms that will require future investigations involving germ-free animal disease models. PMID:27048894

  12. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs. PMID:27369168

  13. 7 CFR 28.901 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., partnership, corporation, association, trust, estate, or other legal entity, a State or political subdivision..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Definitions §...

  14. 40 CFR 415.311 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401...

  15. 32 CFR 293.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... granted authority to review the decision of the initial denial authority (IDA) (see IDA definition) that... regulation or supervision of financial institutions. (9) Geological and geophysical information and...

  16. 32 CFR 50.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definition of “Agent” in this section. Insurance carrier. An insurance company issuing insurance through an... subject to supervision by State insurance authorities. Suspension. Temporary termination of...

  17. 15 CFR 1160.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.2 Definitions. (a) Industrial Technology Partnerships (ITPs)....

  18. 7 CFR 1c.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. Activities which meet this definition constitute...) in order for obtaining the information to constitute research involving human subjects. (g) IRB...

  19. 40 CFR 407.71 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provided below, the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401... unpeeled, beets, bell peppers, cabbage, carrots, celery, chili pepper, horseradish, turnips,...

  20. 28 CFR 32.13 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... enforcement, fire suppression, rescue, hazardous material response, emergency medical services, prison... satisfies paragraph (1) of this definition). Execution of a life insurance policy means, with respect to...

  1. 15 CFR 1160.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Strategic Partnership Initiative § 1160.21 Definitions. (a) Strategic Partnerships. Strategic Partnerships are multi-industry teams...

  2. Interreligious Communication (Definition, Concepts, Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religion and monotheistic beliefs are the bases of the human societies and culture and communications are the most important manifestations of these bases. About the three elements of religion, culture and communications, which act as the distinctions of human beings from other beings, and the relationship among them, many discussions have been occurred. In this article, the definitions offered for religion, culture and communication and their relationship, using the literature governing the Intercultural Communication and Cross-cultural Communication as two subjects discussed in the field of Cultural Communication and International Communication, have been reviewed and tried through a novel method to promote the level of religion from a concept usually seen as something such as race, ethnic, identity and life style under the title of international communication and cultural communication to a much higher position and place it under the title of interreligious communication. Following creation of a new field of study, many of the scholars and thinkers who are concerned about that field get together and focus of its issues and try to offer definitions and divisions about the subject. Later, after accumulation of scientific materials about different issues in the field, the human knowledge in that subject starts to develop further and in a more organized way. In this regard, first, the preferred definitions of religion, culture, communication, and Interreligious Communication will be offered. Accordingly, every society includes a meaning structure which is called culture and communication would act as an interaction tool in this system whose task is coding and decoding. Religion is considered the origin of culture and the director of communication. Based on these primary definitions, the interreligious communication is defined as: the relationship between or among the monotheistic religions based on the common understanding of religious

  3. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with 13C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system

  4. Variables moderadoras del estres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Richaud de Minzi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la influenciadel estilo atribucional, la confianza interpersonal y el soporte social sobre la percepción de la amenaza. Se administraron la Escala de Estilo Atribucional; la Manheim Interview 01 Social Support, la Escala de Confianza Interpersonal; y el Inventario de Situaciones y Respuestas de Ansiedad, a 260 sujetos de ambos sexos, de 30 años de edad promedio, de nivel socioeconómico medio, residentes en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. El soporte social no demostró influencia significativa sobre la percepción de la amenaza. Con respecto a la influencia del estilo atribucional se puede decir que las personas indefensas perciben más amenaza, especialmente expresada como ansiedad cognitiva y, en menor grado, como ansiedad motora o conductual. La confianza interpersonal demostró ser una variable importante en la percepción de la amenaza. Los sujetos que presentaron alta desconfianza hacia las personas de su entorno perciben un mundo amenazante, que se manifiesta como ansiedad cognitiva, fisiológica y motora o conductual.

  5. Variable subsistence indemnity

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    At its meeting on 15 December 1999, the Finance Committee approved, with effect from 1st January 2000, adjustments to the Variable Subsistence Indemnity according to the rates published by the United Nations Organization given in document CERN/FC/4219. This decision maintained the reference method in force since 1983. The Management now proposes to adjust the CERN rates of indemnities, with effect from 1st January 2001, on the basis of the United Nations 2000 rates. The table contained in this document shows the rates for typical destinations, but they are only extracts from the complete UN table. Although a precise estimate of the cost effect for duty travel is difficult to achieve due to currency exchange values, it is probable that this will remain unchanged if calculated in Swiss francs. It may also be noted that, since 1 January this year, Article R IV 1.41 of the Staff Rules and Regulations has been changed in order to formalize the practice of the payment of a lower subsistence indemnity than the appro...

  6. Variable subsistence indemnity

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its meeting on 8 November 2000, the Finance Committee approved, with effect from 1st January 2001, adjustments to the Variable Subsistence Indemnity according to the rates published by the United Nations Organization given in document CERN/FC/4339. This decision maintained the reference method in force since 1983. The Management now proposes to adjust the CERN rates of indemnities, with effect from 1st January 2002, on the basis of the United Nations 2001 rates. Simply to give some examples extracted from the complete United Nations lists, the attached Annex shows the rates for a number of typical CERN duty travel destinations. For those countries concerned, the rates will be expressed in Euros from 2002. It is to be noted that the cost level for most destinations will not change significantly if calculated in Swiss Francs and, in any case, the Management will ensure that the total volume of costs for duty travel is contained within the limits of the 2002 budget. It is also to be noted that, since 1st Janu...

  7. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  8. ENERGY SAVING MODES DEFINITION OF TRAINS HANDLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kyslyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction calculations with the definition of energy-efficient trajectories provide search for rational energy consumption depending on the time course of the train. When selecting energy-efficient trajectory of the train and the development of regime charts conducting trains must take into account variables such as: the profile of the site, weight train, locomotive series, etc. When increasing the speed of the growth it occurs the resistance movement, which is proportional to the square of the speed, which leads to higher costs of fuel and energy resources. In contrast, the reduction of costs due to the decrease in speed leads to an increase in travel time of the train, which should be consistent with the timetable and other technical and economic parameters, depending on the speed. The article describes one way to reduce the cost of energy for traction. The aim of the article is to reduce energy consumption by identifying energy-saving control modes. It occurs with the locomotive optimization function of control actions on the running time of the train and the flow of energy in the management of the train from the end of the acceleration to go to the coasts. Methodology. The technique of choice of energy saving path of the train and power control and electric locomotives with electric transmission provides the calculation of multiple paths with variable input data and parameters of the composition of the train situation. The methodology takes into account the uniform mathematical methods of search and parametric optimization. For uniformity of motion needed to slow down the accelerating forces are balanced. Findings. On the basis of calculations of multiple advanced algorithms determine the trajectories of energy-saving trains, built multiparametric locomotive power control function, which can reduce energy consumption by 11 to 13% depending on the weight of the train and the train situation. Originality. The author obtained the energy

  9. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of 'whole grain'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J; Richardson, David P

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005-2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe - when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes. PMID:24505218

  10. Variable Cosmological Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymnikova, Irina

    2003-06-01

    In the spherically symmetric case the dominant energy condition, together with the requirement of regularity of a density and finiteness of the mass, defines the family of asymptotically flat globally regular solutions to the Einstein minimally coupled equations which includes the class of metrics asymptotically de Sitter as r --> 0 and asymptotically Schwarzschild as r --> ∞. A source term connects smoothly de Sitter vacuum in the origin with the Minkowski vacuum at infinity and corresponds to anisotropic vacuum defined macroscopically by the algebraic structure of its stress-energy tensor invariant under boosts in the radial direction. Dependently on parameters, geometry describes vacuum nonsingular black and white holes, and self-gravitating particle-like structures. ADM mass for this class is related to both de Sitter vacuum trapped inside an object and to breaking of space-time symmetry. This class of metrics is easily extended to the case of nonzero cosmological constant at infinity. The source term connects then smoothly two de Sitter vacua and corresponds to extension of the Einstein cosmological term Λgμν to an r-dependent cosmological term Λμν. In this approach a constant scalar Λ associated with a vacuum density Λ = 8πGρvac, becomes a tensor component Λtt associated explicitly with a density component of a perfect fluid tensor whose vacuum properties follow from its symmetry and whose variability follows from the Bianchi identities. In this review we outline and discuss Λμν geometry and its applications.

  11. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  12. Engineering test facility design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, R. W.; Seikel, G. R.

    1980-06-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is the major focus of the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Program to facilitate commercialization and to demonstrate the commercial operability of MHD/steam electric power. The ETF will be a fully integrated commercial prototype MHD power plant with a nominal output of 200 MW sub e. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations. The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.

  13. The Importance of Standard Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Morera-Ocon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dear Sir: Sanjay et al. [1] assessed compliance with the revised guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis published by the work group of the British Society of Gastroenterology in 2005 [2]. This article is valuable in reminding us of the standards of care in this disease but there are some points which may require comments and questions. First, a distinction between severe acute pancreatitis, defined by the presence of complications, and predicted severe acute pancreatitis as determined by multiple score systems should be encouraged. The recommendation of the guidelines for the definition of severity is that the Atlanta criteria should be used. Nevertheless, the authors use C-reactive protein level, Glasgow score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score to determine the severity and, based on these, 46% of their patients had severe pancreatitis and 54% had mild pancreatitis. Those results are far from those published regarding severity distribution in acute pancreatitis [2].

  14. 15 CFR 2012.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2012.2 Section 2012.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS FOR BEEF § 2012.2 Definitions. Unless...

  15. 23 CFR 655.602 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 655.602 Section 655.602 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRAFFIC OPERATIONS Traffic Control Devices on Federal-Aid and Other Streets and Highways § 655.602 Definitions. The...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.211 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mounting listed for type 6 straight sided cup wheels definition. Limitation: Minimum back thickness, E... mounting and use listed for type 1 wheels, the definition in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph and...) Gate or movable barrier device means a movable barrier arranged to enclose the point of...

  17. 40 CFR 98.228 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 98.228 Section 98.228 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Nitric Acid Production § 98.228 Definitions. All terms used in this subpart have...

  18. 49 CFR 830.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... civil unmanned aircraft system that takes place between the time that the system is activated with the... new definition of “Unmanned aircraft accident”, effective Oct. 25, 2010. For the convenience of the... of this part, the definition of “aircraft accident” includes “unmanned aircraft accident,” as...

  19. UNIFORM QUASINILPOTENCY: DEFINITIONS, CONDITIONS, EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Definition of uniform quasinilpotent family of the operators and definition of superuniform quasinilpotent family of the operators are introduced. Corresponding conditions for functional operators are formulated. Applications of these definititions and conditions in the theory of controllable Volterra functional-operator equations are discussed. Financial support of Russian Fundamental Researches Fund (project 07-01-00495), analytical aimed departmental program "Development of Scientific Pote...

  20. 36 CFR 1193.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 1193.3 Section 1193.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES General § 1193.3 Definitions. Terms used in this part shall have the specified meaning...

  1. 36 CFR 1150.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 1150.4 Section 1150.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS General Information § 1150.4 Definitions. A&TBCB means the Architectural and Transportation...

  2. 36 CFR 1121.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 1121.2 Section 1121.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1121.2 Definitions. For the purpose of these regulations— (a) The term individual means a citizen of the United...

  3. 7 CFR 1291.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1291.2 Section 1291.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...-FARM BILL § 1291.2 Definitions. (a) AMS means the Agricultural Marketing Service of the U.S....

  4. 22 CFR 225.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 225.102 Section 225.102 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.102 Definitions. (a... example, a medical record). Private information must be individually identifiable (i.e., the identity...

  5. 5 CFR 2424.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that otherwise may be negotiable. Examples of bargaining obligation disputes include disagreements... § 2424.2 Definitions. In this part, the following definitions apply: (a) Bargaining obligation dispute... disagrees with an agency contention that (without regard to any bargaining obligation dispute) a proposal...

  6. Power: towards a third generation definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zaaiman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Power is a well-established concept in the social sciences especially in the political sciences. Although it is widely used in scientific discourse, different definitions and perspectives prevail with regard to it. This article aims to explore the possibilities of taking the debate further towards a third generation definition of social power. Although first generation definitions (associated with Weber and Dahl and second generation definitions (associated with inter alia Giddens and Morriss are still widely used in the academic field, they do not reflect the depth of the continuous debate on the concept of power. Viewpoints, especially with regard to agency and freedom, are not reflected in current definitions. To this can also be added the important dynamic relationship between power and change. This article summarises the important aspects of power debates relevant for defining power and discusses possible ways in which this can be accommodated in a definition of power. The current debate on the relationship between power and change is also reinterpreted with regard to defining social power. The article concludes by proposing necessary aspects of a third generation definition of power and suggests such a definition.

  7. 7 CFR 760.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that are consumed by humans, or ornamental fish propagated and reared in an aquatic medium by a... Fish Program § 760.202 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart and to the... assistance for livestock or emergency loss assistance for farm-raised fish or honeybees. Aquatic...

  8. 37 CFR 383.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... programming distributor” as that term is defined in 47 CFR 76.1000(e); notwithstanding such definition, for... and not accounted for by Licensee's Providers to Licensee, for the provision of hardware for the... with the definition of “interactive service” in 17 U.S.C. 114(j)(7)) audio-only subscription...

  9. Old and New about Positive Definite Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 484, 1 November (2015), s. 496-503. ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : positive definite matrix * normalized positive definite matrix * sign pattern Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  10. 28 CFR 81.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 81.5 Section 81.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.5 Definitions. Local child protective services agency means that agency of the...

  11. Contesting Pornography: Terministic Catharsis and Definitional Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewski, Catherine Helen

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the debates over the MacKinnon-Dworkin Anti-Pornography Ordinance to explore one instance of definitional argument: the attempt to effect a redefinition. Argues that advocates for a definitional shift created the possibility for a "terministic catharsis" by simultaneously locating pornography in multiple locations on the pentad,…

  12. Extending Classical Logic with Inductive Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Denecker, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of non-monotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductive databases, and to show its application for knowledge representation by giving a typology of definitional knowledge.

  13. 5 CFR 179.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 179.302 Section 179.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.302 Definitions. Administrative offset, as defined in 31 U.S.C. 3701(a)(1),...

  14. 5 CFR 9.1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 9.1 Section 9.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES WORKFORCE INFORMATION (RULE IX) § 9.1 Definition. As used in this rule, 'Executive agency' means an Executive department, a Government...

  15. 5 CFR 185.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 185.102 Section 185.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.102 Definitions. For the purposes of this part— ALJ means an Administrative Law Judge in...

  16. [Dutch language area definition of chronic fatigue].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenromp, I.H.; Meeus, M.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue is a frequent but unspecific characteristic of many diseases. However, a clear definition of 'chronic fatigue' is still lacking. The Flemish-Dutch Research Group - Chronic Fatigue (VNO-CHROVER) has taken the opportunity to formulate such a definition that can be widely applied. This

  17. 24 CFR 81.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Familial status has the same definition as is set forth at 24 CFR 100.20. Family means one or more... GSE Security or a Book-entry GSE Security. Handicap has the same definition as is set forth at 24 CFR..., Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam;...

  18. 21 CFR 135.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 135.3 Section 135.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS General Provisions § 135.3 Definitions. For the purposes of this part,...

  19. 44 CFR 152.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... departments. See the definition of combination department in this section. Combination department is a fire...” with a State, local or tribal authority (city, county, parish, fire district, township, town, or other... definition of Active firefighter in this section. First-due response area is a geographical area in...

  20. 7 CFR 1410.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... enrolled. Where the land use for a year qualifies as a “conserving use” under this definition, then, the... excluded from this definition. An owner of land leased to a lessee shall also be excluded who should be... agencies, departments, districts, county or city governments, municipalities or any other State or...

  1. 28 CFR 90.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... term unit of local government means any city, county, township, town, borough, parish, village, or... domestic violence and/or sexual assault victims. Included in this definition are rape crisis centers... perpetrators of violence against women may not be supported with grant funds. (2) The definition...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4041-8 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...” includes any road (whether a Federal highway, State highway, city street, rural road, or otherwise) in the... definition, a vehicle consists of a chassis, or a chassis and a body if the vehicle has a body, but does not..., if applicable, unequivocally resolve an issue involving the definition of a highway vehicle...

  3. 44 CFR 151.03 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... definition does not include the following except where they cause fire or occur as a consequence of fire... vehicles. Not included in this definition are any costs associated with false alarms, regardless of cause... limited to, a State, city, town, borough, parish, county, fire district, fire protection district,...

  4. 29 CFR 697.1 - Industry definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Hotel. This industry shall include all activities in connection with the operation of hotels (whether... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industry definitions. 697.1 Section 697.1 Labor Regulations... AMERICAN SAMOA § 697.1 Industry definitions. (a) Government employees. This industry includes...

  5. 43 CFR 46.30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POLICY ACT OF 1969 General Information § 46.30 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following definitions supplement terms defined at 40 CFR parts 1500-1508. Adaptive management is a system of management... (in a record of decision for an environmental impact statement, in accordance with 40 CFR 1505.2)...

  6. 3 CFR 102.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the Office of Management and Budget, the Office of Policy Development, the National Security Council... record of such an impairment, or is regarded as having such an impairment. As used in this definition... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 102.103 Section 102.103...

  7. 40 CFR 203.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 203.1 Section 203.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.1 Definitions. (a) As used in this part, any term not defined herein shall have...

  8. 9 CFR 81.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 81.1 Definitions. Animal. Any farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose. Animal and Plant Health... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 81.1 Section 81.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  9. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught…

  10. 32 CFR 235.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SALE OR RENTAL OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL ON DOD PROPERTY § 235.3 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, the following definitions apply: Dominant theme. A theme of any material that is superior in... Exchanges, and ship stores. Sexually explicit material. Material, the dominant theme of which is...

  11. 7 CFR 400.52 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 400.52 Section 400.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.52 Definitions. In addition...

  12. 22 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 308.3 Section 308.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.3 Definitions. (a) Record means any... residence. (f) The term maintain includes the maintenance, collection, use or dissemination of any...

  13. 22 CFR 1507.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 1507.3 Section 1507.3 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION § 1507.3 Definitions. (a... permanent residence. (f) The term maintain includes the maintenance, collection, use or dissemination of...

  14. 10 CFR 766.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 766.3 Section 766.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES General § 766.3 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following terms shall be defined as follows: CPI-U means...

  15. 7 CFR 1942.304 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... function performed for the benefit of a private business enterprise and which is a problem solving activity... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Definitions. 1942.304 Section 1942.304 Agriculture... § 1942.304 Definitions. Project. For rural business enterprise grants, the result of the use of...

  16. 20 CFR 626.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definition of “State” contained in the Department of the Treasury regulations at 31 CFR 205.3 shall apply to... and problem solving; guides; and interactive communication technologies. Title, as used in this... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 626.5 Section 626.5...

  17. 40 CFR 423.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... value obtained using the amperometric method for total residual chlorine described in 40 CFR part 136... addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this part: (a... titration method for free available chlorine described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water...

  18. 12 CFR 930.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS DEFINITIONS APPLYING TO RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL REGULATIONS § 930.1 Definitions. As used in this... a Bank's capital plan that the Finance Board has determined to be available to absorb...

  19. 9 CFR 11.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 11.1 Section 11.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.1 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, unless the...

  20. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  1. 31 CFR 103.90 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definitions apply: (a) Money laundering means an activity criminalized by 18 U.S.C. 1956 or 1957, or an... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 103.90 Section 103.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING...

  2. Fusion Simulation Program Definition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have completed our contributions to the Fusion Simulation Program Definition Project. Our contributions were in the overall planning with concentration in the definition of the area of Software Integration and Support. We contributed to the planning of multiple meetings, and we contributed to multiple planning documents

  3. 14 CFR 1214.201 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 1214.201 Section 1214.201... the STS Program § 1214.201 Definition. For the purpose of this subpart, the term users means: (a) For... observer nations participating in Spacelab development, and Canada, when conducting experimental science...

  4. 50 CFR 300.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Science Center, means Director, Science and Research, Southeast Fisheries Science Center, NMFS, 75... this definition. Fishing vessel means any vessel, boat, ship, or other craft that is used for, equipped... definition. Person means any individual (whether or not a citizen or national of the United States),...

  5. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or...

  6. Mathematical Definitions of Operators for Cartographic Generalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper puts forword 11 cartographic generalization operator models and introduces their mathematical definitions,and thus a precise mathematical form and quantitative description has been given to these formerly limited qualitative concepts.The meaning of mathematical definition of operators for cartographic generalization and the application prospect in computer-aided cartography (CAC) is stated.

  7. 40 CFR 86.093-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.093-2 Definitions. The definitions of § 86.092-2 continue to...

  8. 12 CFR 980.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 980.1 Section 980.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.1 Definitions. As used in this part: New business activity means any business activity...

  9. A new definition of the fractional Laplacian

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W.

    2002-01-01

    It is noted that the standard definition of the fractional Laplacian leads to a hyper-singular convolution integral and is also obscure about how to implement the boundary conditions. This purpose of this note is to introduce a new definition of the fractional Laplacian to overcome these major drawbacks.

  10. Domain Definition: The Foundation of Competency Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Western Governors University (WGU) is a competency-based institution that uses an integrated and holistic approach to competence definition, teaching, and assessment. Building a competency-based degree program begins with competence definition activities that focus on what successful graduates need to be able to "do" and the related skills and…

  11. Terminological Definition in Vocabulary Building Process

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedeva Elena S

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the possibilities of using a terminological definition as a short text in the language for specific purposes teaching/learning. Representing an abundant supply of specialized vocabulary and general scientific speech patterns, a terminological definition should be taken into account as a full value language resource.

  12. 40 CFR 442.2 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the general definitions and abbreviations at 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions shall... grain, soybeans, soy meal, soda ash, lime, fertilizer, plastic pellets, flour, sugar, and similar... in Table IB at 40 CFR 136.3, are defined as follows: (1) BOD 5 means 5-day biochemical oxygen...

  13. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  14. 12 CFR 352.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 29 CFR 1630.2(g), which is made applicable to this part by § 352.6. (f) “Sections 504 and 508” mean... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 352.3 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term— (a... definition, “personal property” means only furniture, carpeting and similar features not considered to...

  15. 5 CFR 844.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DISABILITY RETIREMENT General Provisions § 844.102 Definitions. In this part... commuting area” in § 351.203 of this chapter. Disabled and disability means unable or inability, because of... disease. This is the same definition of “medical condition” that is found in § 339.104 of this...

  16. 12 CFR 211.42 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 211.42 Section 211.42 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.42 Definitions. For the purposes of...

  17. 12 CFR 591.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 591.2 Section 591.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PREEMPTION OF STATE DUE-ON-SALE LAWS... without the lender's prior written consent. For purposes of this definition, a sale or transfer means...

  18. 12 CFR 535.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 535.1 Section 535.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROHIBITED CONSUMER CREDIT PRACTICES (Eff... interest pursuant to state law. A person is a cosigner within the meaning of this definition whether or...

  19. 12 CFR 28.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 28.51 Section 28.51 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INTERNATIONAL BANKING ACTIVITIES International Lending Supervision § 28.51 Definitions. For the purposes of this subpart: (a) Banking...

  20. 40 CFR 35.672 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 35.672 Section 35.672... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.672 Definition. Tribe. Any Indian Tribe having a federally recognized governing...

  1. 12 CFR 536.20 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 536.20 Section 536.20 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE... association, or on behalf of a savings association. For purposes of this definition, activities on behalf of...

  2. 12 CFR 565.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 565.2 Section 565.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION § 565.2... assets as provided in the definition of tangible equity. (j) Total risk-based capital ratio means...

  3. 33 CFR 177.03 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to the requirements of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter C. (c) Coast Guard Boarding Officer means a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 177.03 Section 177... SAFETY CORRECTION OF ESPECIALLY HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS § 177.03 Definitions. As used in this part: (a)...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1902 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 76.1902 Section 76.1902 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1902 Definitions. (a) Commercial advertising messages...

  5. 30 CFR 7.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.302 Definitions. The following definitions apply in this subpart: Afterburning. The combustion of any flammable mixture that is... motor. Essential parts include the parts that constitute the flame-arresting path and those necessary...

  6. 40 CFR 471.02 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 471.02 General definitions. In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following..., oil, and other such compounds from a metal surface. Alkaline cleaning is usually followed by a...

  7. 47 CFR 64.3000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 64.3000 Section 64.3000 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Universal Emergency Telephone Number § 64.3000 Definitions. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR 352.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., to collect duties, and to enforce the various provisions of the Customs and Navigation laws in force... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 352.1 Section 352.1 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.1 Definitions. (a) This part may...

  9. 40 CFR 467.02 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this part: (a... coating and anodizing when performed as an integral part of the aluminum forming operations are considered... to regulation under the provisions of 40 CFR Part 433, Metal Finishing. (j) Extrusion is...

  10. 27 CFR 5.62 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition. 5.62 Section 5.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Definition. As used in §§ 5.61 through 5.66 of this part, the term “advertisement” includes any written...

  11. 27 CFR 7.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 7.51 Section 7.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions. As used in §§ 7.50 through 7.55 of this part, the term “advertisement” includes any written...

  12. 17 CFR 200.502 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition. 200.502 Section 200.502 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT... Information and Material § 200.502 Definition. As used in this part: Foreign government information...

  13. 32 CFR 197.3 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 197.3 Section 197.3 National Defense... RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) § 197.3 Definition. Historical researcher or researcher. A person desiring to conduct research in OSD files for historical information...

  14. 50 CFR 300.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....2, in the Act, or in the Convention, the definition in this section shall apply. Bigeye tuna means the species Thunnus obesus. Commercial passenger fishing vessel means any vessel licensed for... Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.21 Definitions. In addition to the terms defined in § 300.2, in the Act,...

  15. 5 CFR 2641.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2641.104 Section 2641.104... RESTRICTIONS General Provisions § 2641.104 Definitions. For purposes of this part: Agency means any department..., appointed in accordance with 5 CFR 2638.202(b), and any deputy ethics official described in 5 CFR...

  16. 5 CFR 2634.502 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2634.502 Section 2634.502 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Revocation of Trust Certificates and Trustee Approvals § 2634.502 Definitions. For...

  17. 5 CFR 2638.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2638.104 Section 2638.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS AND EXECUTIVE AGENCY ETHICS PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES General Provisions § 2638.104 Definitions. For the purposes of this part: Act means the Ethics...

  18. 5 CFR 2606.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2606.102 Section 2606.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT RULES General Provisions § 2606.102 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, the terms listed below are defined as follows: Access means providing a copy...

  19. 48 CFR 1803.104-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 1803.104-1 Section 1803.104-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 1803.104-1 Definitions. Agency ethics official means...

  20. 5 CFR 4101.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 4101.102 Section 4101.102 Administrative Personnel FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION § 4101.102 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a) Covered employee means: (1) Examiners; and (2)...

  1. 48 CFR 2903.104-3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 2903.104-3 Section 2903.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 2903.104-3 Definitions. Agency ethics official means the Solicitor or the...

  2. 5 CFR 2610.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2610.101 Section 2610.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 2610.101 Definitions. (a) Act means the Equal Access to Justice Act, 5 U.S.C. 504, as amended....

  3. 17 CFR 200.401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 200.401 Section 200.401 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Regulations Pertaining to Public Observation of Commission Meetings § 200.401 Definitions. As used in...

  4. 5 CFR 4001.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 4001.102 Section 4001.102 Administrative Personnel FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION § 4001.102 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a) Covered employee means:...

  5. 5 CFR 6801.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 6801.102 Section 6801.102 Administrative Personnel BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM § 6801.102 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a)...

  6. 28 CFR 77.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 77.2 Section 77.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) ETHICAL STANDARDS FOR ATTORNEYS FOR THE GOVERNMENT § 77.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the following terms shall have the following meanings, unless the context indicates otherwise: (a) The...

  7. 12 CFR 1710.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1710.2 Section 1710.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE General § 1710.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the...

  8. 48 CFR 9.501 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 9.501 Definition. Marketing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 9.501 Section... of an offer for a Government contract by that offeror. An independent contractor is not a...

  9. 21 CFR 1316.71 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Act (84 Stat. 1242; 21 U.S.C. 801) and/or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (84 Stat... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1316.71 Section 1316.71 Food and... PROCEDURES Seizure, Forfeiture, and Disposition of Property § 1316.71 Definitions. As used in this...

  10. 12 CFR 204.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Company; (2) The United States government or an agency thereof; or (3) The Export-Import Bank of the... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 204.2 Section 204.2 Banks and... DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) § 204.2 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the...

  11. 21 CFR 1316.02 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; 21 U.S.C. 801) and/or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (84 Stat. 1285; 21 U.S.C. 951... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1316.02 Section 1316.02 Food and... PROCEDURES Administrative Inspections § 1316.02 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following...

  12. 12 CFR 404.26 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 404.26 Section 404.26 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES INFORMATION DISCLOSURE Demands for Testimony of Current and Former Ex-Im Bank Personnel and for Production of Ex-Im Bank Records § 404.26 Definitions....

  13. 77 FR 36409 - ``Specially Designed'' Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... controlled on the USMIL under the AECA for purposes of import controls. A common definition of the term...)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA), all defense articles controlled for export or import are... Designed'' Definition AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  14. 21 CFR 1316.42 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. 801) and/or the Controlled Substances Import and Export Act (84 Stat. 1285; 21 U.S.C. 951). (b... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1316.42 Section 1316.42 Food and... PROCEDURES Administrative Hearings § 1316.42 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following terms...

  15. 40 CFR 720.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... import for commercial purposes a chemical substance solely for export from the United States under the... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 720.3 Section 720.3... PREMANUFACTURE NOTIFICATION General Provisions § 720.3 Definitions. (a)(1) For the purposes of this part,...

  16. 7 CFR 1945.6 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY Disaster Assistance-General § 1945.6 Definitions. The following definitions... at the time of the disaster and requesting EM loan assistance from FmHA or its successor agency...

  17. 7 CFR 1210.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... definition of terms used in these procedures shall have the same meaning as the definitions in the Plan. (a) Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, with power to redelegate, or...

  18. 7 CFR 1209.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... definition of terms used in these procedures shall have the same meaning as the definitions in the Order. (a) Administrator means the Administrator of the Agricultural Marketing Service, with power to redelegate, or...

  19. 76 FR 53376 - Definition of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (76 FR 44094). The purpose of these proposed revisions is to ensure... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 260, 261, and 270 RIN 2050-AG62 Definition of Solid Waste AGENCY: Environmental... definition of solid waste published in the Federal Register on July 22, 2011. EPA is proposing to...

  20. 30 CFR 879.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 879.5 Section 879.5 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.5 Definitions....

  1. 34 CFR 361.5 - Applicable definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paraplegia and quadriplegia), sickle cell anemia, specific learning disability, end-stage renal disease, or... Applicable definitions. (a) Definitions in EDGAR. The following terms used in this part are defined in 34 CFR... appropriate resource, from funds other than funds received under this part and 34 CFR part 363 after...

  2. 28 CFR 551.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 551.101 Section 551.101 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.101 Definitions. (a) Pretrial inmate. For purpose of this rule, “pretrial inmate” means a person who is legally detained...

  3. 28 CFR 571.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 571.51 Section 571.51 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Fines and Costs § 571.51 Definitions. (a) Fine—a monetary penalty associated with an offense imposed as part of a judgment and...

  4. 28 CFR 551.80 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 551.80 Section 551.80 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Inmate Manuscripts § 551.80 Definition. As used in this rule, manuscript means fiction,...

  5. 28 CFR 551.161 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 551.161 Section 551.161 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Smoking/No Smoking Areas § 551.161 Definitions. For purpose of this subpart, smoking is defined as carrying or inhaling a lighted cigar,...

  6. 28 CFR 548.11 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 548.11 Section 548.11 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.11 Definition. For purposes of...

  7. 28 CFR 540.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 540.2 Section 540.2 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY General § 540.2 Definitions. (a) General correspondence means incoming or outgoing correspondence other than special mail....

  8. 28 CFR 541.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 541.2 Section 541.2 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT INMATE DISCIPLINE AND SPECIAL HOUSING UNITS General § 541.2 Definitions. (a) Investigating Officer. The term Investigating Officer refers to an employee of...

  9. 28 CFR 8.1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 8.1 Section 8.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FBI FORFEITURE AUTHORITY FOR CERTAIN STATUTES § 8.1 Definition. For the.... 645, section 1, 62 Stat. 786 (codified at 18 U.S.C. 1762, commonly referred to as Prison-Made...

  10. 28 CFR 551.151 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 551.151 Section 551.151 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Victim and/or Witness Notification § 551.151 Definitions. (a) For purpose of this rule, victim is generally defined as someone who suffers direct...

  11. 28 CFR 549.61 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 549.61 Section 549.61 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.61 Definition. As defined in this rule, an inmate is on a hunger strike:...

  12. 28 CFR 301.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 301.102 Section 301.102 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ACCIDENT COMPENSATION General § 301.102 Definitions. (a) For purposes of this part, the term work-related injury shall...

  13. 28 CFR 524.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 524.21 Section 524.21 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES Youth Corrections Act (YCA) Programs § 524.21 Definitions. (a) YCA inmate: An inmate sentenced under provision of...

  14. 28 CFR 570.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 570.31 Section 570.31 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Furloughs § 570.31 Definitions. (a) A furlough is an authorized absence from an institution by an inmate who is not under escort of a...

  15. 7 CFR 3.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 3.3 Section 3.3 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT General § 3.3 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, except as... creditor agency as responsible for conducting a hearing or providing documentary review on the existence...

  16. 33 CFR 328.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 423.11(m) which also meet the criteria of this definition) are not waters of the United States... authority regarding Clean Water Act jurisdiction remains with EPA. Waste treatment systems, including... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 328.3 Section...

  17. "Burnout": definitions and health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemsterboer, J; Baum, B H

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the existing definitions and perceptions of the concept of "burnout" in the health professions. The authors suggest that the understanding of "burnout" is hindered by the lack of a single operational definition and a clear set of criteria. An example of social workers in a community mental health setting serves as an illustration. PMID:6515524

  18. 45 CFR 1608.2 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 1608.2 Section 1608.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PROHIBITED POLITICAL ACTIVITIES § 1608.2 Definition. Legal assistance activities, as used in this part, means any activity. (a) Carried out during an employee's...

  19. 7 CFR 1436.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... material such as feed grains or other agricultural commodities (including, but not limited to, soybeans and... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FARM STORAGE FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.3 Definitions. The following definitions will be applicable to the program authorized by this part and will...

  20. 40 CFR 205.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 205.51 Section 205.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.51 Definitions. (a) As used in this...

  1. 23 CFR 500.202 - TMS definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS definitions. 500.202 Section 500.202 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Traffic Monitoring System § 500.202 TMS definitions. Unless...

  2. 46 CFR 295.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (x) Related party, means: (1) a holding company, subsidiary, affiliate, or associate of a contractor... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 295.2 Section 295.2 Shipping MARITIME... SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Introduction § 295.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part: (a) Act, means...

  3. 20 CFR 404.203 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts General § 404.203 Definitions. (a) General definitions. As used in this subpart— Ad hoc increase in primary insurance amounts means an increase in primary insurance...

  4. 10 CFR 60.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... events described in paragraph (1)(i) of this definition are referred to as “Category 1” design basis events. The events described in paragraph (1)(ii) of this definition are referred to as “Category 2... Web site, http://www.nrc.gov is the Internet uniform resource locator name for the Internet address...

  5. 26 CFR 1.535-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition. 1.535-1 Section 1.535-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.535-1 Definition. (a)...

  6. 24 CFR 891.505 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... net earnings of the Borrower may inure to the benefit of any private shareholder, contributor, or...) The surviving member or members of any family described in paragraph (1) of this definition living in... (1) of this definition living in a unit assisted under subpart E of this part with the...

  7. 42 CFR 456.151 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 456.151 Section 456.151 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals § 456.151 Definitions. As...

  8. 77 FR 41670 - Definition of Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 772 Definition of Terms CFR Correction In Title 15 of the... in the definition of ``Peak power'', and 5. On page 652, add the term ``Port of export''. 0 The text...'' located at the end of Category 1 of Supplement No. 1 to Part 774 ``Commerce Control...

  9. 10 CFR 452.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 452.2 Section 452.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION PRODUCTION INCENTIVES FOR CELLULOSIC BIOFUELS § 452.2 Definitions. As used in..., Public Law 109-58 (August 8, 2005). Open window means the period during each reverse auction,...

  10. 29 CFR 519.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-TIME STUDENTS AT SUBMINIMUM WAGES Institutions of Higher Education § 519.12 Definitions. (a) Full-time... definition of a full-time student of the institution of higher education which employs him/her. A full-time... things restricts the employment in an institution of higher education to full-time students who are...

  11. 29 CFR 575.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 575.2 Section 575.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR... § 575.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.407-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.407-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.411-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.411-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.411-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  14. 48 CFR 430.070 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 430.070 Section 430.070 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION 430.070 Definitions. ACO, as used in this part and in...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.408-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.408-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.405-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.405-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.418-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.418-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.418-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.406-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.402-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.404-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 9904.404-30 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...