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Sample records for appalachia variable definition

  1. Appalachia's Best-Kept Secret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the multiple roles of community colleges in Appalachia: providing education and training to local students who are economically or culturally place-bound, promoting economic development and entrepreneurship through training in advanced technology and business skills, and meeting local community needs for specific academic or vocational…

  2. An Exploration of Poverty in Central Appalachia: Questions of Culture, Industry, and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Robinson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By most government statistical definitions, Central Appalachia is one of the most impoverished regions in the United States. Many of the region’s residents are low-income, dependent on government benefits, have high rates of obesity and diabetes, and low rates of college educational obtainment. Central Appalachia is historically tied to the coal mining and railroad industries. Many scholars believe this historical bond created an internal colony of company-dependent residents who have been unable to transition successfully from those industry’s boom eras or escape the lingering effects of industry environmental, health and economic degradation. While coal mining stripped the land of Central Appalachia and often cheated its residents from access to economic well-being and opportunity by traditional American definitions, Central Appalachians have created a rich culture based on kinship, religion, fatalism and community pride. Today, significant questions arise regarding the impact of advanced communication technologies and the associated infiltration of a monolithic standard for American success; success defined by material gain idealized by middle-class suburban living. While advanced communication technologies are often praised for their capacity to advance education, employment and cross-cultural understanding, in regions such as Central Appalachia, they may undermine the foundation of culture the residents have built in order to survive decades of isolation and exploitation.

  3. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Brady

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings.

  4. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Neiswanger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women, recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA, assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA, timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood, quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural and Pittsburgh (primarily urban. These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  5. 78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual Reporting AGENCY: Office of Community Planning and Development, HUD. ACTION... Collection Title of Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative. OMB Approval...

  6. The Extremism of Two Variable Function Based on the Positive Definite Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Bao-xian; LI Xiu-li

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we give out a sufficientand solution of quadratic function's maximum with theory of quadratic form and give out the definition of the positivedefinite property of the following homogeneous polynomials of degree 2n two variables function, based on the definite of localmaximum of two variables function.

  7. An analysis of adult obesity and hypertension in appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath Bandara, Saman Janaranjana; Brown, Cheryl

    2013-02-22

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States, and the burden associated is high. Hypertension seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem. Studies show that hypertension is approximately twice as prevalent among the obese as in the non-obese population. This study has two main objectives. First, to examine the association between obesity and hypertension within the context of economic growth in Appalachia, and second to estimate the cost of hypertension linked to obesity in Appalachia. The study uses simultaneous equations and Logit analysis for estimations. Data are from Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Systems (BRFSS) surveys of 2001 and 2009. Results for simultaneous analysis show that hypertension decreases with decreasing obesity, increasing employment growth, and increasing income. Logit analysis highlights the importance of controlling obesity, income growth, employment growth, education, and exercises in mitigating hypertension in Appalachia. Ageing indicates a high potential of getting hypertension. Total economic cost of hypertension linked to obesity is $9.35 billion, significantly a high cost to Appalachia. Overall, results reveal the impacts of obesity on hypertension and some possible ways of mitigation. Thus, results suggest a comprehensive set of policies to Appalachia which sufficiently improve employment opportunities, educational facilities, and healthcare facilities with adequately addressed to obesity and hypertension.

  8. The forestry reclamation approach in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, P.N.; Burger, J.A.; Skousen, J.; Barton, C.D.

    2009-04-01

    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) was formed in 2005 to promote the planting of high-value hardwood trees on reclaimed coal mined lands and abandoned mine lands in Appalachia. In addition to planting more trees, ARRI's vision is to increase the survival rate of the planted trees and build a productive forest ecosystem that encourage natural succession of native forest plants by promoting the use of Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA). This article described the 5 steps of the FRA, which include (1) creating a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and comprised of topsoil, weathered sandstone, and/or the best available material, (2) loosely grading the topsoil or topsoil substitutes established in step one to create a non-compacted growth medium, (3) using ground covers that are compatible with growing trees, (4) planting two types of trees, an early succession species for wildlife and soil stability as well as commercially valuable crop trees, and (5) using proper tree planting techniques. The ARRI has been most successful in spreading the FRA by building partnerships with groups and individuals that share the common goal of science-base surface mine reforestation. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Aging in Rural Appalachia: Perspectives from Geriatric Social Service Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D. Pope

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses qualitative methodology to explore the experience of growing old in rural Appalachia. Given the growing population of older adults seeking and utilizing services, it is important to understand the challenges and specific needs related to aging. Within the context of rural Appalachia, these challenges and needs may be different than those in urban areas or areas outside of the region itself. From interviews with 14 geriatric service providers in rural southeast Ohio, the authors were able to identity three prevalent themes associated with aging in rural North Central Appalachia: scarcity of resources, valuing neighbors and family, and the prevalence of drug use. These findings suggest that preparation and ongoing training of rural geriatric social workers should include attention to topics such as substance abuse and strengthening social support networks that often exist in these regions.

  10. Cultural awareness: Enhancing clinical experiences in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Chaundel

    2013-01-01

    Students often work with clients from a cultural group different than their own. This is especially true for students completing clinical practica in Appalachia, where there is a culture unique to that geographic area. To prepare for this unique setting, common cultural scenarios experienced in the clinical setting must be addressed to help provide culturally appropriate patient care while developing required clinical competencies. Although applicable to most nursing students, the author discusses culturally specific approaches to clinical care of clients from Appalachia, specifically applied to nurse practitioner students, preceptors, and clinical faculty.

  11. Federal Public Investment Spending and Economic Development in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencken, F. Carson; Tolbert, Charles M., II

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examines the relationship between federal public investment spending and economic development in the special case of Appalachia. We propose that the effects of federal public investment spending on economic development operate indirectly through private capital accumulation. We use a spatial lag regression model to test our ideas for…

  12. Fuzzy random variables — I. definitions and theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Huibert

    1978-01-01

    Fuzziness is discussed in the context of multivalued logic, and a corresponding view of fuzzy sets is given. Fuzzy random variables are introduced as random variables whose values are not real but fuzzy numbers, and subsequently redefined as a particular kind of fuzzy set. Expectations of fuzzy rand

  13. 30 CFR 881.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 881.2 Section 881.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.2 Definitions. As used...

  14. An Analysis of Adult Obesity and Hypertension in Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, Janaranjana; Brown, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States, and the burden associated is high. Hypertension seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem. Studies show that hypertension is approximately twice as prevalent among the obese as in the non-obese population. This study has two main objectives. First, to examine the association between obesity and hypertension within the context of economic growth in Appalachia, and second to estimate the cost of hypertension linked to obes...

  15. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  16. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation. PMID:22427033

  17. Definition of a time variable with entropy of a perfect fluid in canonical quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brown-Kuchar mechanism is applied in the case of general relativity coupled with Schutz' model for a perfect fluid. Using the canonical formalism and manipulating the set of modified constraints one is able to recover the definition of a time-evolution operator, i.e. a physical Hamiltonian, expressed as a functional of gravitational variables and the entropy.

  18. Definition of a time variable with Entropy of a perfect fluid in Canonical Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Cianfrani, Francesco; Montani, Giovanni; Zonetti, Simone

    2008-01-01

    The Brown-Kuchar mechanism is applied in the case of General Relativity coupled with the Schutz model for a perfect fluid. Using the canonical formalism and manipulating the set of modified constraints one is able to recover the definition of a time evolution operator, i.e. a physical Hamiltonian, expressed as a functional of gravitational variables and the entropy.

  19. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  20. With Reference to Appalachia. A Collection of Mid-Twentieth-Century Facts and Viewpoints Selected on the Basis of Pertinence to Adult Education in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Ruth H., Comp.

    Data describing conditions, resources, deficiencies, problems, and potentialities in Appalachia are presented as the first step of an evaluative and program-improvement study for the Appalachian Adult Basic Education Demonstration Center. The rationale for this data collection is that an adult education program can be significant only as it…

  1. Beyond formal groups: neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lukacs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how watershed organizations in Appalachia have persisted in addressing water quality issues in areas with a history of coal mining. We identified two watershed groups that have taken responsibility for restoring local creeks that were previously highly degraded and sporadically managed. These watershed groups represent cases of self-organized commons governance in resource-rich, economically poor Appalachian communities. We describe the extent and characteristics of links between watershed group volunteers and watershed residents who are not group members. Through surveys, participant observation, and key-informant consultation, we found that neighbors – group members as well as non-group-members – supported the group's function through informal neighboring acts. Past research has shown that local commons governance institutions benefit from being nested in supportive external structures. We found that the persistence and success of community watershed organizations depends on the informal participation of local residents, affirming the necessity of looking beyond formal, organized groups to understand the resources, expertise, and information needed to address complex water pollution at the watershed level. Our findings augment the concept of nestedness in commons governance to include that of a formal organization acting as a neighbor that exchanges informal neighboring acts with local residents. In this way, we extend the concept of neighboring to include interactions between individuals and a group operating in the same geographic area.

  2. Book Learning: Exploring the Meaning of Formal Education in Central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 the school dropout rate in Central Appalachia was at 27% and the drug problem was epidemic. An investigation centered on a sample of Central Appalachian residents who had been discharged from the local outpatient clinic for opiate dependency revealed insights into their educational experiences and an understanding of drug dependency and…

  3. Inter- and Intra-Observer Variability in Prostate Definition With Tissue Harmonic and Brightness Mode Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the relative utility of tissue harmonic (H) and brightness (B) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate by studying interobserver and intraobserver variation in prostate delineation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage disease were randomly selected. TRUS images of prostates were acquired using B and H modes. The prostates on all images were contoured by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and five equally trained observers. The observers were blinded to information regarding patient and imaging mode. The volumes of prostate glands and areas of midgland slices were calculated. Volumes contoured were compared among the observers and between observer group and RO. Contours on one patient were repeated five times by four observers to evaluate the intraobserver variability. Results: A one-sample Student t-test showed the volumes outlined by five observers are in agreement (p > 0.05) with the RO. Paired Student t-test showed prostate volumes (p = 0.008) and midgland areas (p = 0.006) with H mode were significantly smaller than that with B mode. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant interobserver variability (p < 0.001) in prostate volumes and areas. Inter- and intraobserver consistency was quantified as the standard deviation of mean volumes and areas, and concordance indices. It was found that for small glands (≤35 cc) H mode provided greater interobserver consistency; however, for large glands (≥35 cc), B mode provided more consistent estimates. Conclusions: H mode provided superior inter- and intraobserver agreement in prostate volume definition for small to medium prostates. In large glands, H mode does not exhibit any additional advantage. Although harmonic imaging has not proven advantageous for all cases, its utilization seems to be judicious for small prostates.

  4. Inter- and Intra-Observer Variability in Prostate Definition With Tissue Harmonic and Brightness Mode Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Kaur, E-mail: Gurpreet.Sandhu2@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Meyer, Tyler [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Pavamani, Simon [Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India); Khan, Rao [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the relative utility of tissue harmonic (H) and brightness (B) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate by studying interobserver and intraobserver variation in prostate delineation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage disease were randomly selected. TRUS images of prostates were acquired using B and H modes. The prostates on all images were contoured by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and five equally trained observers. The observers were blinded to information regarding patient and imaging mode. The volumes of prostate glands and areas of midgland slices were calculated. Volumes contoured were compared among the observers and between observer group and RO. Contours on one patient were repeated five times by four observers to evaluate the intraobserver variability. Results: A one-sample Student t-test showed the volumes outlined by five observers are in agreement (p > 0.05) with the RO. Paired Student t-test showed prostate volumes (p = 0.008) and midgland areas (p = 0.006) with H mode were significantly smaller than that with B mode. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant interobserver variability (p < 0.001) in prostate volumes and areas. Inter- and intraobserver consistency was quantified as the standard deviation of mean volumes and areas, and concordance indices. It was found that for small glands ({<=}35 cc) H mode provided greater interobserver consistency; however, for large glands ({>=}35 cc), B mode provided more consistent estimates. Conclusions: H mode provided superior inter- and intraobserver agreement in prostate volume definition for small to medium prostates. In large glands, H mode does not exhibit any additional advantage. Although harmonic imaging has not proven advantageous for all cases, its utilization seems to be judicious for small prostates.

  5. Combined mineralogical and EXAFS characterization of polluted sediments for the definition of technological variables and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatti, M. F.; Elmi, C.; Laurora, A.; Malferrari, D.; Medici, L.

    2009-04-01

    An extremely severe aspect, both from environmental and economic viewpoint, is the management of polluted sediments removed from drainage and irrigation canals. Canals, in order to retain their functionality over the time, need to have their beds, periodically cleaned from sediments there accumulating. The management of removed sediments is extremely demanding, also from an economical perspective, if these latter needs to be treated as dangerous waste materials, as stated in numerous international standards. Furthermore the disposal of such a large amount of material may introduce a significant environmental impact as well. An appealing alternative is the recovery or reuse of these materials, for example in brick and tile industry, after obviously the application of appropriate techniques and protocols that could render these latter no longer a threat for human health. The assessment of the effective potential danger for human health and ecosystem of sediments before and after treatment obviously requires both a careful chemical and mineralogical characterization and, even if not always considered in the international standards, the definition of the coordination shell of heavy metals dangerous for human health, as a function of their oxidation state and coordination (e.g. Cr and Pb), and introducing technological constraints or affecting the features of the end products. Fe is a good representative for this second category, as the features of the end product, such as color, strongly depend not only from Fe concentration but also from its oxidation state, speciation and coordination. This work will first of all provide mineralogical characterization of sediments from various sampling points of irrigation and drainage canals of Po river region in the north-eastern of Italy. Samples were investigated with various approaches including X-ray powder diffraction under non-ambient conditions, thermal analysis and EXAFS spectroscopy. Obtained results, and in particular

  6. Last Settler’s Syndrome and Land Use Change in Southern Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristan Cockerill; Jana D. Groothuis; Peter A. Groothuis

    2011-01-01

    In many rural areas land use patterns are shifting from agriculture or woodland to residential development. This is especially true in areas possessing significant natural amenities like the sweeping vistas, white-water rivers, and blue-ridged mountains of Southern Appalachia. As in-migration increases, decisions about land use can become heated as the “newcomers” square off with long-time residents. Understanding how various groups value both the land (as productive resource) and the landsca...

  7. A COUNTY-LEVEL ASSESSMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN APPALACHIA USING SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Mojica, Maribel N.; Gebremedhin, Tesfa G.; Schaeffer, Peter V.

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is now recognized as a strategy to achieve economic growth in many regions. The goal of this paper is to increase the understanding of entrepreneurship's contributions to economic growth and its potential as a development strategy for a region, such as Appalachia, characterized by poverty and underdevelopment. Using data on Appalachian counties, a system of simultaneous equations is empirically estimated to measure the effects of entrepreneurship on economic growth and develo...

  8. A County-Level Assessment of Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Appalachia Using Simultaneous Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel Mojica; Tesfa Gebremedhin; Peter Schaeffer

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence of the contribution of entrepreneurship to economic development in Appalachia. Using data on Appalachian counties, a system of simultaneous equations is empirically estimated to measure the effects of entrepreneurship on economic growth and development. We present an expanded Carlino-Mills growth model using changes in population, employment, and per capita income to represent growth. The goal of the investigation is to increase the understanding of entrepreneursh...

  9. Nourishing Roots and Inspiring Wings: Building a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Southern Appalachia

    OpenAIRE

    Druggish, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Richard S. Druggish This qualitative study focused on the need for culturally responsive teaching within the southern Appalachian cultural setting. The specific components of this approach to teaching were based on research findings, theoretical claims from proponents of culturally responsive teaching (e.g. Gloria Ladson-Billings and Geneva Gay), and experiences and personal narratives of educators working with students in southern Appalachia. T...

  10. Down deep in the holler: chasing seeds and stories in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veteto, James R

    2013-09-27

    This essay, which is the third in the series "Recollections, Reflections, and Revelations: Ethnobiologists and their First Time in the Field", is a personal reflection by the researcher on his experience and involvement in kinship and friendship networks while conducting agrobiodiversity research in southern Appalachia, USA. Vignettes are given from moving moments spent with Native spiritual leaders, backcountry mountain people, and local co-collaborators in the research process. The author demonstrates how lasting field friendships have helped lead to groundbreaking ethnoecological research.

  11. Self-dual variables, positive semi-definite action, and discrete transformations in 4-d quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Soo, C P

    1995-01-01

    A positive semi-definite Euclidean action for arbitrary four-topologies can be constructed by adding appropriate Yang-Mills and topological terms to the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of gravity with (anti)self-dual variables. Moreover, the (anti)self-dual sector of the new theory corresponds precisely to {\\it all} Einstein manifolds in four dimensions. The Lorentzian signature action, and its analytic continuations are also considered. A self-contained discussion is given on the effects of discrete transformations C, P and T on the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action and other proposed actions which utilize self- or anti-self-dual variables as fundamental variables in the description of four-dimensional gravity.

  12. Self-dual variables, positive semi-definite action, and discrete transformations in four-dimensional quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Soo, Chopin

    1995-01-01

    A positive semi-definite Euclidean action for arbitrary four-topologies can be constructed by adding appropriate Yang-Mills and topological terms to the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of gravity with (anti)self-dual variables. Moreover, on-shell, the (anti)self-dual sector of the new theory corresponds precisely to all Einstein manifolds in four dimensions. The Lorentzian signature action, and its analytic continuations are also considered. A self-contained discussion is given on the effects o...

  13. From the trunk of a Volkswagen beetle: a mobile nursing clinic in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Audrey; Thatcher, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Access to health care has been a factor for patients living in isolated mountain regions. The Frontier Nursing service was a pioneer in reaching those patients living in the most remote regions of Appalachia. Geography, demographics, and culture present obstacles for rural residents and health care providers. This article identifies and describes the roles nurses and nurse practitioners played in caring for Appalachian families through a roving Health Wagon in the 1980s and 1990s in Southwest Virginia. Family nurse practitioner Sister Bernadette Kenny was instrumental in bringing care on wheels to rural residents living in the Appalachian mountainous region of southwest Virginia. PMID:24892864

  14. The historical effects of coal mining on the hydrology of Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, C. M.; Wreschnig, A. J.; Bain, D. J.; Hermans, C. M.; McCormack, S. M.; Urbanova, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Appalachian Mountains, a region known for its rich coal deposits, is also the headwaters to most important river systems draining to the Atlantic Ocean. Coal mined from the Appalachian’s was fundamental to the industrialization of the United States during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Deforestation and waste disposal associated with deep mining were common throughout the region. Anecdotal evidence suggests that historic coal mining had a significant influence on the region’s hydrology. There is a growing body of literature examining the effects of contemporary mining activity on hydrologic systems, but few studies have quantified historic impacts. This study examines the extent of coal mining activity in Appalachia during the first era of increased coal production (1865 - 1929). Areas within the region most affected by mining activity were identified using dates of published mine maps and coal production data for the region. Intensively mined areas were paired with relatively unaffected stream basins to address the influence of mining on hydrology, and particularly legacy effects. This study will inform future studies exploring common mine-related environmental issues in Appalachia such as acid mine drainage and subsidence.

  15. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  16. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  17. [Definition and variables of complexity of nursing care: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, Chiara; Cocchieri, Antonello; D'Agostino, Fabio; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria; Zega, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Complexity of nursing care represents an important indicator in the planning and management of nursing resources and healthcare management. However, the term is not clearly defined in the literature. The aim of this article is to outline the main concepts associated with complexity of nursing care, trying to shed light on the different variables that constitute it. We conducted a review of the literature and selected 12 articles. The terms associated with the concept of complexity of nursing care include nursing intensity, nursing work, nursing workload, patient acuity and severity of illness. The literature review indicates that complexity of nursing care appears to be one of the variables of care intensity, the latter being defined as a commitment of care delivered to the patient. It is associated with the concepts of nursing work, nursing workload, patient acuity and severity of illness. Understanding and clarifying the concept of complexity of care is fundamental in order to measure and evaluate the real demand for nursing care by individual patients. PMID:27510292

  18. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF) and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  19. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    Full Text Available Yellow fever (YF is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  20. [Definition and variables of complexity of nursing care: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, Chiara; Cocchieri, Antonello; D'Agostino, Fabio; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria; Zega, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Complexity of nursing care represents an important indicator in the planning and management of nursing resources and healthcare management. However, the term is not clearly defined in the literature. The aim of this article is to outline the main concepts associated with complexity of nursing care, trying to shed light on the different variables that constitute it. We conducted a review of the literature and selected 12 articles. The terms associated with the concept of complexity of nursing care include nursing intensity, nursing work, nursing workload, patient acuity and severity of illness. The literature review indicates that complexity of nursing care appears to be one of the variables of care intensity, the latter being defined as a commitment of care delivered to the patient. It is associated with the concepts of nursing work, nursing workload, patient acuity and severity of illness. Understanding and clarifying the concept of complexity of care is fundamental in order to measure and evaluate the real demand for nursing care by individual patients.

  1. Marginal share of renewable energy sources of variable electricity generation: A contribution to the concept definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development is a keystone within the efforts toward enabling longer duration of the world fossil energy resources. The past development and the technologies applied, cause huge emissions of СО2 that must be significantly reduced. Increased usage of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-e contributes essentially to the reduction of CO2, but on the other hand, under current conditions of feed-in priority reduces also the market for the electricity from fossil fuelled power plants (FFPP. The other possibility for reduction of CO2 emissions is to apply carbon capture and storage technologies as a part of overall FFPP technologies. A hypothesis presented in this paper is that there is a marginal share of RES variable electricity in overall annual electricity supply after which further increase of RES-e participation produces higher average electricity generated cost, than in the case of CO2 emission reduction by applying CCS technologies. The presented work confirms this hypothesis. Value of the marginal share depends to the price of RES-e feed-in. With the price span from 13.5 to 7.5€c/kWh, the marginal share is under 50%.

  2. College students as facilitators in reducing adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia: Team Up for Healthy Living

    OpenAIRE

    Slawson, Deborah Leachman; Dalton, William T.; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Southerland, Jodi; Wang, Liang; Littleton, Mary Ann; Mozen, Diana; Relyea, George; Schetzina, Karen; Lowe, Elizabeth F.; Stoots, James M.; Wu, Tiejian

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of obese adolescents in Southern Appalachia is among the highest in the nation. Through funding from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities – National Institutes of Health, the Team Up for Healthy Living project was a cluster-randomized trial targeting obesity prevention in adolescents through a cross-peer intervention. The specific aims of the project were to: 1) develop a peer-based health education program focusing on establishing positive peer norm...

  3. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Pyle Donald N; Lovett Gretchen D; Griffith Brian N; Miller Wayne C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. M...

  4. Correlates of HPV vaccination among adolescent females from Appalachia and reasons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Paskett, Electra D

    2013-06-28

    Limited research has examined HPV vaccination in Appalachia, a region with cervical cancer disparities. We analyzed 2008-2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen data for adolescent females ages 13-17 from Appalachia (n=1951) to identify correlates of HPV vaccination and reasons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate. HPV vaccine initiation was 40.8%, completion was 27.7%, and follow-through was 67.8%. Vaccination outcomes tended to be higher among females who were older, had visited their healthcare provider in the last year, or whose parents reported receiving a provider recommendation to vaccinate. Only 41.0% of parents with unvaccinated daughters intended to vaccinate in the next year. The most common reasons for not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not necessary (21.5%) and lack of knowledge (18.5%). Efforts to reduce missed opportunities for vaccination at healthcare visits and address reasons why parents are not vaccinating may help increase HPV vaccination in Appalachia.

  5. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment

  6. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers.

  7. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  8. Anatomy and osteohistology of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon from the uppermost Santonian (Cretaceous) of southern Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Ebersole, Jun A.

    2016-01-01

    The cranial and postcranial anatomy of the basal hadrosaurid dinosaur Eotrachodon orientalis, from the uppermost Santonian of southern Appalachia (southeastern U.S.A.), is described in detail. This animal is the only known pre-Campanian non-lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, and the most complete hadrosauroid known from Appalachia. E. orientalis possesses a mosaic of plesiomorphic and derived characters in the context of Hadrosauroidea. Characters shared with basal hadrosauroids include a short and sloping maxillary ectopterygoid shelf, caudally prominent maxillary jugal process, one functional tooth per alveolus on the maxillary occlusal plane, a jugal rostral process with a shallow caudodorsal margin and medioventrally facing articular facet, a vertical dentary coronoid process with a poorly expanded apex, and tooth crowns with accessory ridges. Derived characters shared with other hadrosaurids include a circumnarial depression compartmented into three fossae (as in brachylophosaurins and Edmontosaurus), a thin everted premaxillary oral margin (as in Gryposaurus, Prosaurolophus, and Saurolophus), and a maxilla with a deep and rostrocaudally extensive rostrodorsal region with a steeply sloping premaxillary margin (as in Gryposaurus). Eotrachodon orientalis differs primarily from the other hadrosauroid from the Mooreville Chalk of Alabama, Lophorhothon atopus, in having a slender and crestless nasal whose caudodorsal margin is not invaded by the circumnarial depression. Hadrosaurus foulkii, the only other known hadrosaurid from Appalachia, is distinct from E. orientalis in having dentary teeth lacking accessory ridges and a dorsally curved shaft of the ischium. A histological section of the tibia of the E. orientalis holotype (MSC 7949) suggests that this individual was actively growing at the time of death and, thus, had the potential to become a larger animal later in development. PMID:27114863

  9. Community as classroom: teaching and learning public health in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, James; Behringer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Traditional models for public health professional education tend to be didactic, with brief, discrete practica appended. National reports of both practitioners and academicians have called for more competency-driven, interdisciplinary-focused, community-based, service-oriented, and experientially-guided learning for students across the curriculum. East Tennessee State University began its own curricular revisioning in health professions education nearly 2 decades ago with a grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, emphasizing competencies development through community-based learning in community-academic partnerships. This article describes 3 examples that grew from that initiative. In the first example, students in multiple classes delivered a longitudinal community-based employee wellness intervention for a rural county school district. BS public health students conducted needs assessments and prepared health education materials; MPH students conducted health assessments and worked with school wellness councils to deliver client-centered interventions; DrPH students supervised the project and provided feedback to the schools using participatory methods. In the second example, MPH students in a social-behavioral foundations course used experiential learning to investigate the region's elevated cancer mortality ranking. Following meetings with multiple community groups, students employed theoretical constructs to frame regional beliefs about cancer and presented findings to community leaders. One outcome was a 5-year community-based participatory research study of cancer in rural Appalachia. In the third example, MPH students in a health-consulting course assessed local African Americans' awareness of the university's health and education programs and perceptions of their community health issues. Students learned consultation methods by assisting at multiple regional African American community meetings to discover issues and interest that resulted in the

  10. Self-rated health in rural Appalachia: health perceptions are incongruent with health status and health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyle Donald N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is characterized by poor health behaviors, poor health status, and health disparities. Recent interventions have not demonstrated much success in improving health status or reducing health disparities in the Appalachian region. Since one's perception of personal health precedes his or her health behaviors, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the self-rated health of Appalachian adults in relation to objective health status and current health behaviors. Methods Appalachian adults (n = 1,576 were surveyed regarding health behaviors - soda consumer (drink ≥ 355 ml/d, or non-consumer (drink 30 min > 1 d/wk and sedentary (exercise Results Respondents reported being healthy, while being sedentary (65%, hypertensive (76%, overweight (73%, or hyperlipidemic (79%. Between 57% and 66% of the respondents who considered themselves healthy had at least two disease conditions or poor health behaviors. Jaccard Binary Similarity coefficients and odds ratios showed the probability of reporting being healthy when having a disease condition or poor health behavior was high. Conclusions The association between self-rated health and poor health indicators in Appalachian adults is distorted. The public health challenge is to formulate messages and programs about health and health needs which take into account the current distortion about health in Appalachia and the cultural context in which this distortion was shaped.

  11. Environmental variables and definitive host distribution: a habitat suitability modelling for endohelminth parasites in the marine realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Marine nematodes of the genus Anisakis are common parasites of a wide range of aquatic organisms. Public interest is primarily based on their importance as zoonotic agents of the human Anisakiasis, a severe infection of the gastro-intestinal tract as result of consuming live larvae in insufficiently cooked fish dishes. The diverse nature of external impacts unequally influencing larval and adult stages of marine endohelminth parasites requires the consideration of both abiotic and biotic factors. Whereas abiotic factors are generally more relevant for early life stages and might also be linked to intermediate hosts, definitive hosts are indispensable for a parasite’s reproduction. In order to better understand the uneven occurrence of parasites in fish species, we here use the maximum entropy approach (Maxent) to model the habitat suitability for nine Anisakis species accounting for abiotic parameters as well as biotic data (definitive hosts). The modelled habitat suitability reflects the observed distribution quite well for all Anisakis species, however, in some cases, habitat suitability exceeded the known geographical distribution, suggesting a wider distribution than presently recorded. We suggest that integrative modelling combining abiotic and biotic parameters is a valid approach for habitat suitability assessments of Anisakis, and potentially other marine parasite species.

  12. Conformal radiotherapy for lung cancer: interobservers' variability in the definition of gross tumor volume between radiologists and radiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogaroli Ricardo C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conformal external radiotherapy aims to improve tumor control by boosting tumor dose, reducing morbidity and sparing healthy tissues. To meet this objective careful visualization of the tumor and adjacent areas is required. However, one of the major issues to be solved in this context is the volumetric definition of the targets. This study proposes to compare the gross volume of lung tumors as delineated by specialized radiologists and radiotherapists of a cancer center. Methods Chest CT scans of a total of 23 patients all with non-small cell lung cancer, not submitted to surgery, eligible and referred to conformal radiotherapy on the Hospital A. C. Camargo (São Paulo, Brazil, during the year 2004 were analyzed. All cases were delineated by 2 radiologists and 2 radiotherapists. Only the gross tumor volume and the enlarged lymph nodes were delineated. As such, four gross tumor volumes were achieved for each one of the 23 patients. Results There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 measurements (among the radiotherapists, radiologists and intra-class and there was randomness in the distribution of data within the constructed confidence interval. Conclusion There were no significant differences in the definition of gross tumor volume between radiologists and radiotherapists.

  13. Environmental variables and definitive host distribution: a habitat suitability modelling for endohelminth parasites in the marine realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Marine nematodes of the genus Anisakis are common parasites of a wide range of aquatic organisms. Public interest is primarily based on their importance as zoonotic agents of the human Anisakiasis, a severe infection of the gastro-intestinal tract as result of consuming live larvae in insufficiently cooked fish dishes. The diverse nature of external impacts unequally influencing larval and adult stages of marine endohelminth parasites requires the consideration of both abiotic and biotic factors. Whereas abiotic factors are generally more relevant for early life stages and might also be linked to intermediate hosts, definitive hosts are indispensable for a parasite’s reproduction. In order to better understand the uneven occurrence of parasites in fish species, we here use the maximum entropy approach (Maxent) to model the habitat suitability for nine Anisakis species accounting for abiotic parameters as well as biotic data (definitive hosts). The modelled habitat suitability reflects the observed distribution quite well for all Anisakis species, however, in some cases, habitat suitability exceeded the known geographical distribution, suggesting a wider distribution than presently recorded. We suggest that integrative modelling combining abiotic and biotic parameters is a valid approach for habitat suitability assessments of Anisakis, and potentially other marine parasite species. PMID:27507328

  14. Conformal radiotherapy for lung cancer: interobservers' variability in the definition of gross tumor volume between radiologists and radiotherapists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformal external radiotherapy aims to improve tumor control by boosting tumor dose, reducing morbidity and sparing healthy tissues. To meet this objective careful visualization of the tumor and adjacent areas is required. However, one of the major issues to be solved in this context is the volumetric definition of the targets. This study proposes to compare the gross volume of lung tumors as delineated by specialized radiologists and radiotherapists of a cancer center. Chest CT scans of a total of 23 patients all with non-small cell lung cancer, not submitted to surgery, eligible and referred to conformal radiotherapy on the Hospital A. C. Camargo (São Paulo, Brazil), during the year 2004 were analyzed. All cases were delineated by 2 radiologists and 2 radiotherapists. Only the gross tumor volume and the enlarged lymph nodes were delineated. As such, four gross tumor volumes were achieved for each one of the 23 patients. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 measurements (among the radiotherapists, radiologists and intra-class) and there was randomness in the distribution of data within the constructed confidence interval. There were no significant differences in the definition of gross tumor volume between radiologists and radiotherapists

  15. New indices for quantification of the power spectrum of heart rate variability time series without the need of any frequency band definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new family of indices for the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability time series that do not need any frequency band definition. After proper detrending of the time series, a cumulated power spectrum is obtained and frequencies that contain a certain percentage of the power below them are identified, so median frequency, bandwidth and a measure of the power spectrum asymmetry are proposed to complement or improve the classical spectral indices as the ratio of the powers of LF and HF bands (LF/HF). In normal conditions the median frequency provides similar information as the classical indices, while the bandwidth and asymmetry can be complementary measures of the physiological state of the tested subject. The proposed indices seem to be a good choice for tracking changes in the power spectrum in exercise stress, and they can guide in the determination of frequency band limits in other animal species

  16. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  17. Definition of key variables for the induction of optimal NY-ESO-1-specific T cells in HLA transgene mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Alexandre; Genolet, Raphaël; Legler, Daniel F; Luther, Sanjiv A; Luescher, Immanuel F

    2010-09-15

    An attractive treatment of cancer consists in inducing tumor-eradicating CD8(+) CTL specific for tumor-associated Ags, such as NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a strongly immunogenic cancer germ line gene-encoded tumor-associated Ag, widely expressed on diverse tumors. To establish optimal priming of ESO-specific CTL and to define critical vaccine variables and mechanisms, we used HLA-A2/DR1 H-2(-/-) transgenic mice and sequential immunization with immunodominant DR1- and A2-restricted ESO peptides. Immunization of mice first with the DR1-restricted ESO(123-137) peptide and subsequently with mature dendritic cells (DCs) presenting this and the A2-restriced ESO(157-165) epitope generated abundant, circulating, high-avidity primary and memory CD8(+) T cells that efficiently killed A2/ESO(157-165)(+) tumor cells. This prime boost regimen was superior to other vaccine regimes and required strong Th1 cell responses, copresentation of MHC class I and MHC class II peptides by the same DC, and resulted in upregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1, and thus egress of freshly primed CD8(+) T cells from the draining lymph nodes into circulation. This well-defined system allowed detailed mechanistic analysis, which revealed that 1) the Th1 cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-2 played key roles in CTL priming, namely by upregulating on naive CD8(+) T cells the chemokine receptor CCR5; 2) the inflammatory chemokines CCL4 (MIP-1beta) and CCL3 (MIP-1alpha) chemoattracted primed CD4(+) T cells to mature DCs and activated, naive CD8(+) T cells to DC-CD4 conjugates, respectively; and 3) blockade of these chemokines or their common receptor CCR5 ablated priming of CD8(+) T cells and upregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1. These findings provide new opportunities for improving T cell cancer vaccines.

  18. A quantitative correlational investigation of the definition of key decision variables used for the determination of wind energy systems' feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen M.

    Several factors are critical in determining if a wind farm has a high probability of success. These factors include wind energy potential or wind class, sales price, cost of the wind energy generated, market for selling the wind, capacity factor or efficiency of the turbines, capital investment cost, debt and financing, and governmental factors such as taxes and incentives. This research studied the critical factors of thirty-three land based wind farms in the United States with over 20 mega-watts (MW) of capacity that have become operational since 1999. The goal was to develop a simple yet effective decision model using the critical factors to predict an internal rate of return (IRR) and the impact of having a tax credit to supplement the revenue stream. The study found that there are five critical factors that are significantly correlated with the internal rate of return (IRR) of a wind farm project. The critical factors are wind potential or wind class, cost of the wind energy generated, capacity factor or efficiency of the wind turbines, cost of capital investment, and the existence of a federal production tax credit (PTC). The decision model was built using actual wind farm data and industry standards whereby a score from zero to one hundred was coded for each of values except for the production tax credit. Since all the projects qualified for the production tax credit prior to their start up, it was no longer a variable. However, without the presence of this tax credit, the data imply that the projects would not be profitable within the first ten to fifteen years of operation. The scores for each of the categories were totaled and regressed against a calculated internal rate of return. There was ninety-seven percent correlation which was supported by simulation analysis. While this model is not intended to supplant rigorous accounting and financial study, it will help quickly determine if a site has potential and save many hours of analytical work.

  19. A new species of Rhyacophila pictet (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) from Great Smoky Mountains National Park, with illustrations of females of R. Appalachia morse and ross and R. mycta ross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, D.A.; Parker, C.R.; Stocks, I.C.

    2004-01-01

    Rhyacophila celadon Etnier, Stocks, and Parker, n. sp., a large species of the R. nigrita species group, is described from areas in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, based on males, females, and larvae. The male is virtually identical to that of R. nigrita, but differs consistently from that species in aspects of the genitalia. The female and larva differ remarkably from those of R. nigrita. Females of Rhyacophila appalachia and R. mycta are illustrated.

  20. Dosimetric impact of inter-observer variability for 3D conformal radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy: the rectal tumor target definition case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the dosimetric effect induced by inter-observer variability in target definition for 3D-conformal RT (3DCRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy by RapidArc (RA) techniques for rectal cancer treatment. Ten patients with rectal cancer subjected to neo-adjuvant RT were randomly selected from the internal database. Four radiation oncologists independently contoured the clinical target volume (CTV) in blind mode. Planning target volume (PTV) was defined as CTV + 7 mm in the three directions. Afterwards, shared guidelines between radiation oncologists were introduced to give general criteria for the contouring of rectal target and the four radiation oncologists defined new CTV following the guidelines. For each patient, six intersections (I) and unions (U) volumes were calculated coupling the contours of the various oncologists. This was repeated for the contours drawn after the guidelines. Agreement Index (AI = I/U) was calculated pre and post guidelines. Two RT plans (one with 3DCRT technique using 3–4 fields and one with RA using a single modulated arc) were optimized on each radiation oncologist’s PTV. For each plan the PTV volume receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose (PTV V95%) was calculated for both target and non-target PTVs. The inter-operator AI pre-guidelines was 0.57 and was increased up to 0.69 post-guidelines. The maximum volume difference between the various CTV couples, drawn for each patient, passed from 380 ± 147 cm3 to 137 ± 83 cm3 after the introduction of guidelines. The mean percentage for the non-target PTV V95% was 93.7 ± 9.2% before and 96.6 ± 4.9%after the introduction of guidelines for the 3DCRT, for RA the increase was more relevant, passing from 86.5 ± 13.8% (pre) to 94.5 ± 7.5% (post). The OARs were maximally spared with VMAT technique while the variability between pre and post guidelines was not relevant in both techniques. The contouring inter-observer variability has dosimetric effects in the PTV coverage

  1. 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI for GTV-definition of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions in patients with Prostate Cancer – an interobserver variability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the interobserver variability of gross tumor volume (GTV) - delineation of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions (DIPL) in patients with prostate cancer using published MRI criteria for multiparametric MRI at 3 Tesla by 6 different observers. 90 GTV-datasets based on 15 multiparametric MRI sequences (T2w, diffusion weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) of 5 patients with prostate cancer were generated for GTV-delineation of DIPL by 6 observers. The reference GTV-dataset was contoured by a radiologist with expertise in diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using MRI. Subsequent GTV-delineation was performed by 5 radiation oncologists who received teaching of MRI-features of primary prostate cancer before starting contouring session. GTV-datasets were contoured using Oncentra Masterplan® and iplan® Net. For purposes of comparison GTV-datasets were imported to the Artiview® platform (Aquilab®), GTV-values and the similarity indices or Kappa indices (KI) were calculated with the postulation that a KI > 0.7 indicates excellent, a KI > 0.6 to < 0.7 substantial and KI > 0.5 to < 0.6 moderate agreement. Additionally all observers rated difficulties of contouring for each MRI-sequence using a 3 point rating scale (1 = easy to delineate, 2 = minor difficulties, 3 = major difficulties). GTV contouring using T2w (KI-T2w = 0.61) and DCE images (KI-DCE = 0.63) resulted in substantial agreement. GTV contouring using DWI images resulted in moderate agreement (KI-DWI = 0.51). KI-T2w and KI-DCE was significantly higher than KI-DWI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003). Degree of difficulty in contouring GTV was significantly lower using T2w and DCE compared to DWI-sequences (both p < 0.0001). Analysis of delineation differences revealed inadequate comparison of functional (DWI, DCE) to anatomical sequences (T2w) and lack of awareness of non-specific imaging findings as a source of erroneous delineation. Using T2w and DCE sequences at 3 Tesla for GTV-definition of DIPL in

  2. Study on Ratio Definition Method and Control Variable Method in High school Physics%对高中物理比值定义法和控制变量法的再思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石尧

    2015-01-01

    In the view of “Gontrol Variable Method”that abused in the high school physics at pre—sent, with the help of the analysis of “Ratio Definition Method” and “Gontrol Variable Method”in teach—ing program, the article made a comparative study about “Ratio Definition Method”and“Gontrol Variable Method” in three aspects: form of comparison, the cognition path and thinking methods, so as to clarify their applicable scope and education values, and thus provide a reference for steady progress of scientific method education.%针对高中物理教学中控制变量法滥用的现状,通过比值定义法和控制变量法在比较形式、认知路径及思维方法三个方面的对比研究的基础上,厘清它们的适用范围与教育价值,为科学方法教育的稳步推进提供参考。

  3. Process Domains in Synthetic Landscapes: Slope-Area Relationships in the Mountaintop Mining Region of Central Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Ross, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes and the governing geomorphic processes that shape them have been described in a conceptual framework of process domains. At a coarse scale, process domains are segregated between hillslope, colluvial, and alluvial processes, which can be distinguished by governing erosional processes and partitioned by local slope-drainage area relationships. In landscapes that have experienced dramatic topographic alteration such as the mountaintop coal-mining (MTM) region of central Appalachia, the resulting modified environment may be considered a synthetic landscape. Such a landscape has process domains that are decoupled from prior landscape evolution trajectories. In particular, landslide and debris flow processes, which are a predominant geomorphic agent in these steep mountain systems and a primary sediment delivery mechanism to the downstream fluvial network, may be eliminated from this landscape and detectable through changes in slope-area relationships. We evaluate differences in slope-area relationships using 10-m DEMs between two time periods, pre-mined and post-mined. At five study site located within the MTM region in the central Appalachian Mountains, US, we compare slope-area changes to adjacent unmined landscapes over the same time periods. Distinct differences exist in the character of slope-area relationships between unmined and MTM sites and local slopes are systematically and considerably reduced in all process zones of mined sites. In particular, there is an expansion of the unchanneled valley zone through either an individual or simultaneous upslope shift into the hillslope region and downslope shift into the debris flow region. In addition, local slopes are markedly reduced (33% to 44%) in the post-mined period relative to the pre-mined period at all sites and are generally below the threshold required to trigger landslides and debris flows. The consequence of altered erosion processes in this upper portion of the catchment, particularly the

  4. Evaluation of Variable Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma Definitions and Association of Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Findings With Cavity Rupture Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Taishi; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Ling; Baaj, Shamsa; Kovarnik, Tomas; Porcaro, Katie; Kaminski, John; Hawn, Stephen; Agrawal, Anoop; Makki, Nader; Downe, Richard; Wahle, Andreas; Sonka, Milan; Lopez, John J

    2016-07-15

    The accepted definition of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (IVUS-VH) thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is only a modest predictor of plaque rupture (PR). We sought to determine the relation between IVUS-VH findings and culprit lesions with PR using computational analysis. A total of 80 culprit lesions from 80 patients with stable angina (n = 37), unstable angina (n = 20), and myocardial infarction (n = 23) were divided into those with (n = 15) and without PR (n = 65). By use of automated computational analysis, the standard IVUS-VH TCFA criterion and 124 additional criteria were compared. The standard TCFA definition demonstrated modest ability to discriminate lesions with and without PR (sensitivity 87%, specificity 37%, PPV 0.24, and NPV 0.92). Of 124 additional IVUS-VH TCFA definitions, only 2 improved the discriminative ability even modestly. However, a positive correlation was demonstrated between cavity size and necrotic core percentage (r = 0.78, p VH criteria were only modestly associated with PR, without significant improvement by varying IVUS-VH TCFA features, but IVUS-VH features of ruptured plaques were strongly correlated with cavity size.

  5. Evaluation of Variable Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma Definitions and Association of Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Findings With Cavity Rupture Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Taishi; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Ling; Baaj, Shamsa; Kovarnik, Tomas; Porcaro, Katie; Kaminski, John; Hawn, Stephen; Agrawal, Anoop; Makki, Nader; Downe, Richard; Wahle, Andreas; Sonka, Milan; Lopez, John J

    2016-07-15

    The accepted definition of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (IVUS-VH) thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is only a modest predictor of plaque rupture (PR). We sought to determine the relation between IVUS-VH findings and culprit lesions with PR using computational analysis. A total of 80 culprit lesions from 80 patients with stable angina (n = 37), unstable angina (n = 20), and myocardial infarction (n = 23) were divided into those with (n = 15) and without PR (n = 65). By use of automated computational analysis, the standard IVUS-VH TCFA criterion and 124 additional criteria were compared. The standard TCFA definition demonstrated modest ability to discriminate lesions with and without PR (sensitivity 87%, specificity 37%, PPV 0.24, and NPV 0.92). Of 124 additional IVUS-VH TCFA definitions, only 2 improved the discriminative ability even modestly. However, a positive correlation was demonstrated between cavity size and necrotic core percentage (r = 0.78, p <0.01) and a negative correlation with percentage of fibrous tissue (r = -0.81, p <0.01). In conclusion, IVUS-VH criteria were only modestly associated with PR, without significant improvement by varying IVUS-VH TCFA features, but IVUS-VH features of ruptured plaques were strongly correlated with cavity size. PMID:27289292

  6. 关于多元函数极限与连续性定义的探讨%INVESTIGATION OF DEFINITIONS OF LIMIT AND CONTINUITY OF FUNCTION OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金承日; 王雪臣; 史磊

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of limit,continuity and discontinuity of function of several variables are the most basic concepts in the mathematical analysis.However,until now there is no uniform definition of these concepts among the popular text books.In this paper,we discuss the above concepts,and put forward the reasonable definitions,and particularly put forward the reasonable definition of discontinuity for binary function.%多元函数的极限、连续以及间断,是数学分析中最基本的概念。然而,到目前为止国内流行的教材中对这些概念还没有统一的定义。为此,本文探讨了以上几个概念,并提出了合理的定义,特别是给出了二元函数间断点的合理定义。

  7. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  8. Multiproxy assessment of Holocene relative sea-level changes in the western Mediterranean: sea-level variability and improvements in the definition of the isostatic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Spada, Giorgio; Fontana, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    After the review of 918 radiocarbon dated Relative Sea-Level (RSL) data-points we present here the first quality-controlled database constraining the Holocene sea-level histories of the western Mediterranean Sea (Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta and Tunisia). We reviewed and standardized the geological RSL data-points using a new multi-proxy methodology based on: (1) modern taxa assemblages in Mediterranean lagoons and marshes; (2) beachrock characteristics (cement fabric and chemistry, sedimentary structures); and (3) the modern distribution of Mediterranean fixed biological indicators. These RSL data-points were coupled with the large number of archaeological RSL indicators available for the western Mediterranean. We assessed the spatial variability of RSL histories for 22 regions and compared these with the ICE-5G VM2 GIA model. In the western Mediterranean, RSL rose continuously for the whole Holocene with a sudden slowdown at ~7.5 ka BP and a further deceleration during the last ~4.0 ka BP, after which time observed RSL changes are mainly related to variability in isostatic adjustment. The sole exception is southern Tunisia, where data show evidence of a mid-Holocene high-stand compatible with the isostatic impacts of the melting history of the remote Antarctic ice sheet. Our results indicate that late-Holocene sea-level rise was significantly slower than the current one. First estimates of GIA contribution indicate that, at least in the northwestern sector, it accounts at least for the 25-30% of the ongoing sea-level rise recorded by Mediterranean tidal gauges. Such contribution is less constrained at lower latitudes due to the lower quality of the late Holocene index points. Future applications of spatio-temporal statistical techniques are required to better quantify the gradient of the isostatic contribution and to provide improved context for the assessment of 20th century acceleration of Mediterranean sea-level rise.

  9. Bringing Definitions into High Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2010-01-01

    Why do definitions play such a central role in mathematics? It may seem obvious that precision about the terms one uses is necessary in order to use those terms reasonably (while reasoning). Definitions are chosen so as to be definite about the terms one uses, but also to make both the statement of, and the reasoning to justify, theorems as…

  10. Periodic functions with variable period

    OpenAIRE

    Pryjmak, M. V

    2010-01-01

    The examples of rhythmical signals with variable period are considered. The definition of periodic function with the variable period is given as a model of such signals. The examples of such functions are given and their variable periods are written in the explicit form. The system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is considered and its orthogonality is proved. The generalized system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is also suggested; some conditions of it...

  11. Drivers, "Slow" Variables, "Fast" Variables, Shocks, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Crépin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Different uses of the terms "drivers," "variables," and "shocks" cause confusion in the literature and in discussions on the dynamics of ecosystems and social–ecological systems. Three main sources of confusion are unclear definition of the system, unclear definition of the role of people, and confusion between variables and drivers. As a contribution to resolving some of the confusion, we offer one interpretation of how the terms might be used.

  12. Seeing science everywhere: A case study of the perceptions of three fifth grade science teachers' complementary use of the arts in the science classroom in an economically distressed county in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeen, Angela A.

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions three fifth grade science teachers held about using the arts to complement science teaching in an economically distressed county in rural Appalachia and the perceived roles the arts and sciences play in the lives of those living in rural Appalachia. Each case was studied using participant-observer observations, personal journals, archival data, and interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, unique themes emerged for each of the three cases. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set for each individual case. A cross-case analysis was then employed to generate the common broad themes among the cases. The findings suggest that Time was perceived as the greatest deterrent to complementing science with aspects of the arts with greater frequency, even when the approach was perceived by the teacher as successful for a greater number of students, especially students who had previously been perceived as having difficulty in the science classroom. The findings also revealed that the more experienced the teacher was in using aspects of the arts to complement hands-on, inquiry science teaching, the more efficacious the teacher's perception was of her own teaching, regardless of overall teaching experience. The approach was perceived as an avenue in building relationships with students and colleagues, thus perceived as ensuring a greater frequency of success for both students and teacher in science classes. It was also perceived as a tool for self-reflection and/or self-critique by the teacher. Finally, the findings further suggested the roles of the arts and sciences in the lives of those living in rural Appalachia were perceived in two distinct ways by participants, depending on the education levels attained by the populations. Findings revealed the arts and sciences were perceived as hobbies or as the continuation of cultural

  13. A General Definition of Trust

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kieron

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a general definition of trust as a trustor’s belief in the trustworthiness of a trustee. The definition is analysed to uncover the variables in the relationship, including restrictions on the accredited representation of the trustee’s intentions, capacities and motivations, and on the contextual limits to the trustor’s belief. The essential problem of trust is outlined, linking trust and trustworthiness, and mistrust and untrustworthiness are also characterised. Mechanisms fo...

  14. Neuroretinitis -- definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007624.htm Neuroretinitis - definition To use the sharing features on this page, ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  15. On the definition of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose

  16. Calculi of meta-variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko SATO; Takafumi SAKURAI; Yukiyoshi KAMEYAMA; Atsushi IGARASH

    2008-01-01

    The notion of meta-variable plays a fun-damental role when we define formal systems such as logical and computational calculi. Yet it has been usually understood only informally as is seen in most textbooks of logic. Based on our observations of the usages of meta-variables in textbooks, we propose two formal systems that have the notion of meta-variable. In both calculi, each variable is given a level (non-negative integer), which classifies variables into object variables (level 0), meta-variables (level 1), metameta-variables (level 2) and so on. Then, simple arity systems are. used to exclude meaningless terms like a meta-level function operating on the metameta-level. A main difference of the two calculi lies in the definitions of substitution. The first calculus uses textual substitution, which can often be found in definitions of quantified formulae: when a term is substituted for a meta-variable, free object-level variables in the term may be captured. The second cal-culus is based on the observation that predicates can be regarded as meta-level functions on object-level terms, hence uses capture-avoiding substitution. We show that both calculi enjoy a number of properties including Church-Rosser and Strong Normalization, which are indispensable when we use them as frameworks to define logical systems.

  17. N-variable rational approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Desirable properties'' of a two-variable generalization of Pade approximants are laid down. The ''Chisholm approximants'' are defined and are shown to obey nearly all of these properties; the alternative ways of completing a unique definition are discussed, and the ''prong structure'' of the defining equations is elucidated. Several generalizations and variants of Chisholm approximants are described: N-variable diagonal, 2-variable simple off-diagonal, N-variable simple and general off-diagonal, and rotationally covariant 2-variable approximants. All of the 2-variable approximants are capable of representing singularities of functions of two variables, and of analytically continuing beyond the polycylinder of convergence of the double series. 8 figures

  18. Appalachia: The Right to Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentel, Victor M.

    In this paper, presented at the sixteenth annual International Reading Association convention, the author argues that the destitution of the Appalachian region of West Virginia and Kentucky can be partially blamed on inadequate educational funding. As a result of inadequate taxing of commercial and industrial properties, adequate schools have not…

  19. Hyperbolic variables on surfaces with non-definite quadratic forms (extension of Beltrami equation); Le variabili iperboliche sulle superfici a metrica non definita (estensione dell'equazione di Beltrami)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoni, F.; Cannata, R.; Nichelatti, E.; Zampetti, P. [ENEA, Divisione Sistemi Energetici per la Mobilita' e l' Habitat, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Gauss showed the link between the definite quadratic differential forms and the complex functions. Beltrami, following Gauss' idea, linked the complex functions to elliptic partial differential equations. In this report it was shown how the use of hyperbolic numbers and hyperbolic functions allows to extend the same results to non definite quadratic differential forms. Using this kind of approach, one can tackle the hyperbolic partial differential equations by a different point of view. [Italian] In un famoso lavoro per la rappresentazione conforme di due superfici, Gauss scompose le forme differenziali quadratiche in due fattori complessi coniugati. In questo modo ridusse la soluzione del problema a quella di una forma differnziale lineare. Beltrami, partendo dalla stessa decomposizione, collego' le f.d.q. alle equazioni differenziali a derivate parziali di tipo ellittico aprendo cosi' nuove strade per la loro soluzione. Dalla relativita' ristretta hanno pero' assunto importanza fisica anche le forme differenziali quadratiche non definite. Viene qui mostrato come con i numeri ipercomplessi iperbolici si possono seguire i procedimenti di Gauss e Beltrami e collegare queste forme alle equazioni differenziali a derivate parziali di tipo iperbolico. Questo pero' permettere di vedere sotto nuovi aspetti questo tipo di equazioni.

  20. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  1. RANDOM VARIABLE WITH FUZZY PROBABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕恩琳; 钟佑明

    2003-01-01

    Mathematic description about the second kind fuzzy random variable namely the random variable with crisp event-fuzzy probability was studied. Based on the interval probability and using the fuzzy resolution theorem, the feasible condition about a probability fuzzy number set was given, go a step further the definition arid characters of random variable with fuzzy probability ( RVFP ) and the fuzzy distribution function and fuzzy probability distribution sequence of the RVFP were put forward. The fuzzy probability resolution theorem with the closing operation of fuzzy probability was given and proved. The definition and characters of mathematical expectation and variance of the RVFP were studied also. All mathematic description about the RVFP has the closing operation for fuzzy probability, as a result, the foundation of perfecting fuzzy probability operation method is laid.

  2. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  3. Negative temperatures and the definition of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The concept of negative temperature has recently received renewed interest in the context of debates about the correct definition of the thermodynamic entropy in statistical mechanics. Several researchers have identified the thermodynamic entropy exclusively with the "volume entropy" suggested by Gibbs, and have further concluded that by this definition, negative temperatures violate the principles of thermodynamics. We disagree with these conclusions. We demonstrate that volume entropy is inconsistent with the postulates of thermodynamics for systems with non-monotonic energy densities, while a definition of entropy based on the probability distributions of macroscopic variables does satisfy the postulates of thermodynamics. Our results confirm that negative temperature is a valid extension of thermodynamics.

  4. On the definition of absorbed dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before.

  5. Variable and constant--On the dynamic definition of ideological and political education of college students%变与不变--关于大学生思想政治教育动态界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建清

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the basic principle of philosophical discussion on the definition of the scope of the ideological and political education of col ege students. Clarify the ideological and political education of"change"and"not to change"issue. It clarifies educators how to grasp the ideological and political education in the principles of"change"and"not to change".%本文运用哲学的基本原理,论述关于大学生思想政治教育范畴的界定问题。厘清思想政治教育领域的“变”与“不变”问题。阐明了教育者如何把握思想政治教育过程中的“变”和“不变”的原则。

  6. Variable Order and Distributed Order Fractional Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical processes appear to exhibit fractional order behavior that may vary with time or space. The continuum of order in the fractional calculus allows the order of the fractional operator to be considered as a variable. This paper develops the concept of variable and distributed order fractional operators. Definitions based on the Riemann-Liouville definitions are introduced and behavior of the operators is studied. Several time domain definitions that assign different arguments to the order q in the Riemann-Liouville definition are introduced. For each of these definitions various characteristics are determined. These include: time invariance of the operator, operator initialization, physical realization, linearity, operational transforms. and memory characteristics of the defining kernels. A measure (m2) for memory retentiveness of the order history is introduced. A generalized linear argument for the order q allows the concept of "tailored" variable order fractional operators whose a, memory may be chosen for a particular application. Memory retentiveness (m2) and order dynamic behavior are investigated and applications are shown. The concept of distributed order operators where the order of the time based operator depends on an additional independent (spatial) variable is also forwarded. Several definitions and their Laplace transforms are developed, analysis methods with these operators are demonstrated, and examples shown. Finally operators of multivariable and distributed order are defined in their various applications are outlined.

  7. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P Definition for ARDS addresses a number of the limitations of the AECC definition. The approach of combining consensus discussions with empirical evaluation may serve as a model to create more accurate, evidence-based, critical illness syndrome definitions and to better inform clinical care, research, and health services planning.

  8. Mutually Unbiased Bases for Continuous Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Stefan; Wilkinson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of mutually unbiased bases is studied for N pairs of continuous variables. To find mutually unbiased bases reduces, for specific states related to the Heisenberg-Weyl group, to a problem of symplectic geometry. Given a single pair of continuous variables, three mutually unbiased bases are identified while five such bases are exhibited for two pairs of continuous variables. For N = 2, the golden ratio occurs in the definition of these mutually unbiased bases suggesting the relevanc...

  9. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  10. A Generalized Definition of the Polychoric Correlation Coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    The polychoric correlation coefficient is a measure of association for ordinal variables which rests upon an assumption of an underlying joint continuous distribution. More specifically, in Karl Pearson’s original definition an underlying joint normal distribution is assumed. In this article, the definition of the polychoric correlation coefficient is generalized so that it allows for other distributional assumptions than the joint normal distribution. The generalized definition is analogous ...

  11. Toward More Precise Definition and Evaluation of Televised Educational Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa Fran; Morrison, Gary R.

    1978-01-01

    An operational definition of public television programming and its implications for development and production agencies is sorely needed. This article explores some of the components of such a definition and examines the differences in several types of educational programming in terms of specific design and evaluation variables of the program.…

  12. Brand book: problem definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Балюн, Оксана Олександрівна

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the different definition and structure «brandbook» classification definitions of the term. The study found that the term brandbook is no universally accepted definition as in scientific circles and in the circle of professionals and practitioners brendolohiv. It was suggested classification definitions of the term, which consists of two approaches. The first — a simplified, «visual» brandbook that defines a document using a visual identity elements in different advertisin...

  13. Climate variability and change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Australia's climate should not be definite barrier to the population reaching 30 million by 2050, it is recognised that our climate has limited the development of the nation over the past 200 years. Indeed in 1911, based on a comparison of the climate and development between the US and Australia. Griffith Taylor predicted that Australia's population would be 19 million at the end of the 20th century, which is a pretty good 90-year forecast. The climate constraint is not only due to much of the country being semi-arid with an annual rainfall below 400 millimetres, but also due to the large year-to-year variability of rainfall across the country

  14. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  15. Variables Psicológicas Moduladoras de la Autodefinición del Perfil en Procesos de Acoso Escolar: El papel del género y el curriculum escolar Psychological Modulating Variables in the Profile Self-definition in School Bullying Process: the gender and the school curriculum role

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús García; Mª del Carmen Orellana

    2008-01-01

    En este artículo se estudia el efecto de las interacciones entre el género y el tipo de currículum escolar (adaptado-no adaptado a las necesidades del estudiante) y una serie de variables que describen la conducta violenta escolar. Se aplicó una batería de cuestionarios que incluía pruebas de conducta pro y antisocial, impulsividad y empatía. La muestra estaba formada por 295 estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria (44% varones). Para comprobar los efectos de las interacciones se aplicar...

  16. Variables Psicológicas Moduladoras de la Autodefinición del Perfil en Procesos de Acoso Escolar: El papel del género y el curriculum escolar Psychological Modulating Variables in the Profile Self-definition in School Bullying Process: the gender and the school curriculum role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se estudia el efecto de las interacciones entre el género y el tipo de currículum escolar (adaptado-no adaptado a las necesidades del estudiante y una serie de variables que describen la conducta violenta escolar. Se aplicó una batería de cuestionarios que incluía pruebas de conducta pro y antisocial, impulsividad y empatía. La muestra estaba formada por 295 estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria (44% varones. Para comprobar los efectos de las interacciones se aplicaron una serie de Manovas intersujetos. Los resultados revelan que el currículo no tiene efectos significativos en ninguna variable dependiente, por lo que no parece ser un factor modulador de la violencia escolar. Sí lo son la tipología de la violencia, el papel adoptado ante el acoso y la opinión sobre las víctimas y las peleas. El género aparece como un factor relevante en la tipología de la violencia y la opinión sobre víctimas y peleas. Las chicas resultan ser más empáticas y prosociales, mientras que los varones son más impulsivos y se sienten más aislados.

    Palabras clave: Acoso escolar, conducta antisocial, conducta prosocial, currículum académico, diferencias de género.

    Interactions between gender, adapted vs. non-adapted curricula, and a number of scholar violence-related factors are studied. Gender and curricula were considered independent variables. Some instruments were applied, including questionnaires of impulsivity, empathy, pro-social behaviour and anti-social behaviour, all them considered as dependent variables. Sample was composed by 295 students of secondary compulsory education (high-school, 44% male. The interactions between factors were analysed using inter-subject Manova statistics. Results show that curricula are not a relevant factor to understand violence. Typology of violence developed by subjects, role in bullying process, opinion about victims and opinion about fighting are relevant factors for

  17. Borderline Cases and Definiteness

    OpenAIRE

    Vecsey, Zoltán

    2012-01-01

    Borderline cases of vague predicates are often characterized with the help of a definiteness operator. Although such operators can certainly contribute to the solution of the problem of vagueness, they may also generate unexpected consequences. Either borderlineness is identified implicitly with a well-defined range of cases, or borderline cases are seen as being definitely borderline. In this paper I argue that we can avoid these consequences by providing an asymmetric definition of borderli...

  18. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  19. Definition of Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Tavinor

    2008-01-01

    Can videogames be defined? The new field of games studies has generated three somewhat competing models of videogaming that characterize games as new forms of gaming, narratives, and interactive fictions. When treated as necessary and sufficient condition definitions, however, each of the three approaches fails to pick out all and only videogames. In this paper I argue that looking more closely at the formal qualities of definition helps to set out the range of definitional options open to th...

  20. Moment Estimation Inequalities Based on gλ Random Variable on Sugeno Measure Space

    OpenAIRE

    Jingfeng Tian; Zhiming Zhang; Dazeng Tian

    2010-01-01

    The definitions and properties of moment of gλ random variable are provided on Sugeno measure space. Then some important moment estimation inequalities based on gλ random variable are presented and proven.

  1. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  2. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  3. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  4. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...

  5. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  6. Comparing Sudden Stratospheric Warming Definitions in Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Froila M.; Barriopedro, David; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Calvo, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are the main source of variability in the northern hemisphere polar stratosphere during winter. They are characterized by a dramatic warming of the polar stratosphere and weakening of the polar vortex circulation. SSWs can have an impact on surface weather, which makes them a potential tool for seasonal prediction. However, there is no consensus on the definition of SSWs, and multiple methods exist in the literature, yielding discrepancies on the detected events. In this presentation we compare the SSWs signatures of eight representative definitions for the 1958-2009 period and using three different reanalysis data (ERA, NCEP and JRA). The monthly distribution of SSWs is indistinguishable across definitions, with a common peak in January. However, the multi-decadal variability is method-dependent, with only three definitions displaying minimum frequencies in the 1990s. Comparison of several SSW benchmarks reveals negligible differences among methods due to the large case-to-case variability of events within a given definition. In the troposphere, the most robust signals across definitions before and after events are dominated by major SSWs, which are detected by most methods. Interestingly, minor SSWs represent the largest source of discrepancy in the surface signals of SSWs across definitions. Therefore, our results indicate that only major SSWs should be considered in future studies if robust tropospheric signals of SSWs want to be obtained regardless of the chosen method.

  7. Definition of intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shobhit; Siddiqui, Khurram A

    2011-01-01

    Defining intractable epilepsy is essential not only to identify up to 40% of patients refractory to pharmacological management, but also to facilitate selection and comparison of such patients for research purposes. The ideal definition still eludes us. Multiple factors including number of antiepileptic drug (AED) failures, seizure frequency and duration of unresponsiveness, etiology, and epilepsy syndromes are considered in formulating the definition of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Most definitions used in the literature agree on the number of AED failures, which seem to be 2 or 3, however, the seizure frequency and time factor are varied. The International League Against Epilepsy proposed a definition of drug-resistant epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of 2 tolerated and appropriately chosen and used AED schedules. This for now, could provide an operational definition for clinical and research settings. However, with emergence of new data and novel treatments the criteria for intractability may change.

  8. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  9. On Conditionally Positive Definite Dot Product Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A.MENEGATTO; C.P.OLIVEIRA; Ana P.PERON

    2008-01-01

    Let m and n be fixed,positive integers and a space composed of real polynomials in m variables.The authors study functions f:R→ R which map Gram matrices,based upon n points of Rm,into matrices,which are nonnegative definite with respect to .Among other things,the authors discuss continuity,differentiability,convexity,and convexity in the sense of Jensen,of such functions.

  10. High Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikka

    OpenAIRE

    Tupiini, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia High Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikan ominaisuuksia ja eroavaisuuksia Standard Definition -videoneuvottelutekniikkaan. Työ suoritettiin pääosin tutkien teoreettisia lähteitä. Työn aihe on saatu Eptek ry:ltä. Tutkimustieto kerättiin pääosin verkkolähteistä ja käytännön kaistanleveysmittaukset suoritettiin Seinäjoen keskussairaalan tietoliikenneverkon läpi käyttäen neljää eri videoneuvottelulaitteistoa. High Definition -formaatit tuottavat huomat...

  11. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  12. The Use of Race-Related Variables in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Thad Q.; Lee, D. John; Trahan, Emily; Kaufman, Aimee; Pritchett, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a detailed analysis of all race-related articles published in prominent counseling journals between 1995 and 2004. Findings indicate that 75% of articles did not define race variables and in the absence of an operational definition, authors tended to conceptualize race as an inherent biological variable. (Contains 3 tables.)

  13. Study on the Relation of Definite Integral and Indefinite Integral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-fa

    2014-01-01

    Relation of definite integral and indefinite integral was discussed and an impor-tant result was gotten. If f (x) is bounded and has primary function, the formal definite integral R sx f˜(t)dt is the indefinite integral of f (x), where x is a self-variable, s is a param-eter, f˜(x) is a function defined in (−∞, +∞), which comes from f (x) by restriction and extension. In other words, the indefinite integral is a special form of definite integral, its lower integral limit and upper integral limit are all indefinite.

  14. Definition of an acronym

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung O.Cheng

    2011-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: Ⅰ read with great interest the recent article on the ENLEAT trial.1 However, Ⅰ was greatly puzzled by the definition of the trial acronym ENLEAT.The definition given in the title of the article, namely, "No-reflow protection and long-term efficacy for acute myocardial infarction with Tongxinluo: a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial (ENLEAT trial)" did not correspond with the acronym, no matter how hard Ⅰ tried to pick out the various alphabets to match the acronym.2Finally, Ⅰ wrote to Dr.Zhang, the senior author of the article, for an explanation of the acronym.

  15. Definition of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sunik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This definition can be applied to information of every kind, level and complexity. Information is considered as the feature manifesting itself in the relations between certain real world
    entities. The real world has to be seen in terms of objects, actions, relations and properties.. The defintion is used as the basis of the Theory of Meaningful Information [1] that explains the nature and functionality of information and enables the production of relevant definitions regarding language and knowledge, which remain operative also in the case of non-human languages and
    knowledge systems.

  16. Coherent communication with continuous quantum variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through successive compositions of coherent teleportation and superdense coding

  17. Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Wilde, Mark M.; Krovi, Hari; Brun, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical and quantum communication. It produces coherent versions of teleportation and superdense coding. We extend the cobit channel to continuous variables by providing a definition of the coherent nat (conat) channel. We construct several coherent protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel with finite squeezing. Finally, we show that the quality of squeezing diminishes through su...

  18. Divide and Multiply: Baptist Diversity in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Howard

    1996-01-01

    Baptists' propensity for splitting apart arises from the faith's avowed love of theological argument. Gives an overview of Baptist denominations, and identifies the main issues that divide them: atonement, predestination, the nature and origins of good and evil, worship practices, church governance, gender issues, and other social and cultural…

  19. Some regularities in intraspecific variability of wheat radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are presented on radiosensitivity of some soft wheat varieties grown in Yakutia. The reproducing of seeds of Yakutyanka 224 and Skorospelka varieties, improved in some regions of the Urals and Yakutiya, permitted us to estimate the influence of climatic conditions on the formation in plants of the resistance level against stresses. Each variety was shown to have immanently not only only the definite level of resistance, but also the definite amplitude of radiation response variability

  20. Center of buoyancy definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center of buoyancy of an arbitrary shaped body is defined in analogy to the center of gravity. The definitions of the buoyant force and center of buoyancy in terms of integrals over the area of the body are converted to volume integrals and shown to have simple intuitive interpretations

  1. MOOCs Definition & Categories

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández López, Arantxa; Gil, Eva Patricia; Peña López, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Infographics about MOOCs Definition and Categories, by Learning Technologies Office. Infografía sobre definición y categorías de MOOC, por Tecnología educativa. Infografia sobre definició i categories de MOOC, per Tecnologia educativa.

  2. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  3. Definition of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Forward, 2015

    2015-01-01

    President Obama signed into law the Every Student Succeeds Act, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, on December 10, 2015. "Learning Forward's focus in this new law is its improved definition of professional learning," said Stephanie Hirsh, executive director of Learning Forward. "We've long advocated…

  4. Definition af primitiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    tidspunkt, kan der spares meget tid senere, hvor det er besværligt at definerer primitiverne helt om.I denne rapport er de primitiver, der skal bruges til Sydkrafts net gennemgået. Der er taget stilling til hver enkelt tilstand for de forskellige primitiver. Dette er gjort for at få en definition, som er...

  5. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  6. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations in the...

  7. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  8. Revising definitions of sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Drewry, Anne M; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional definition of sepsis requires the presence of at least two systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria in addition to a suspected or proven infection. A recent large retrospective study, however, suggests that the requirement for two SIRS criteria excludes one in eight patients with severe sepsis.

  9. On the Definition of Gauge Field Operators in Lattice Gauge-Fixed Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo; Petrarca, S; Taglienti, B; Testa, M

    1998-01-01

    We address the problem of defining the gauge four-potential on the lattice, in terms of the natural link variables. Different regularized definitions are shown, through non perturbative numerical computation, to converge towards the same continuum renormalized limit.

  10. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  11. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  12. The functional definition of geodesics

    OpenAIRE

    Klapka, L.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a functional definition of geodesics is introduced which allows to generalize the notion of a geodesic from smooth to topological manifolds. It is shown that in the smooth case the new definition coincides with the classical definition of geodesics of a linear connection. If the smoothness is not required, it is shown by an example that the new definition includes geodesics of non-linear, homogeneous connections. Moreover, an example of generalized geodesics which does not arise...

  13. A New Definition of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Alan; Korb, Kevin B.

    Creative artifacts can be generated by employing A-Life software, but programmers must first consider, explicitly or implicitly, what would count as creative. Most apply standard definitions that incorporate notions of novelty, value and appropriateness. Here we re-assess this approach. Some basic facts about creativity suggest criteria that guide us to a new definition of creativity. We briefly defend our definition against some plausible objections and explore the ways in which this new definition differs and improves upon the alternatives.

  14. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  15. [The research protocol IV: study variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The variables in a research study are all that is measured, the information collected, or the data that is collected in order to answer the research questions, which are specified in the objectives. Their selection is essential to the research protocol. This article aims to point out the elements to be considered in the section of the variables. To avoid ambiguity, it is necessary to select only those that will help achieve the study objectives. It should subsequently be defined how they will be measured to ensure that the findings can be replicated; it is therefore desirable to include conceptual and operational definitions. From the methodological point of view, the classification of variables helps us understand how the relationship between them is conceptualized. Depending on the study design, the independent, dependent, universal, and confounding variables should be noted. Another indispensable element for planning statistical analyses is the scale of variable measurement. Therefore, one must specify whether the variables correspond to one of the following four: qualitative nominal, qualitative ordinal, quantitative range, or quantitative ratio. Finally, we should detail the measurement units of each variable. PMID:27560918

  16. The definition of sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, and to define the most accurate criteria for sarcopenia. Currently used diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia can be divided into criteria based on (1) l...

  17. Painful Hip Prosthesis: Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrata, P.; Carta, S.; Fortina, M.; Scipio, D.; Riva, A.; Di Giacinto, S.

    2010-01-01

    Pain is the main reason inducing patients to undergo surgery and persistence of pain after the operation is a major concern, both for the patient and the surgeon. Up to 10% of patients report pain five years after hip arthroplasty. An analysis of the literature reveals numerous causes of pain localised to the replacement hip. In assessing a painful hip it is fundamental to arrive at a definite diagnosis before starting any treatment. Intrinsic causes can be identified, such as unrecognised as...

  18. Information systems definition architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calapristi, A.J.

    1996-06-20

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Systems Definition architecture evaluated information Management (IM) processes in several key organizations. The intent of the study is to identify improvements in TWRS IM processes that will enable better support to the TWRS mission, and accommodate changes in TWRS business environment. The ultimate goals of the study are to reduce IM costs, Manage the configuration of TWRS IM elements, and improve IM-related process performance.

  19. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  20. Maven The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Company, Sonatype

    2009-01-01

    Written by Maven creator Jason Van Zyl and his team at Sonatype, Maven: The Definitive Guide clearly explains how this popular tool can bring order to your software development projects. The first part of the book demonstrates Maven's capabilities through the development of several sample applications from ideation to deployment, and the second part offers a complete reference guide. Concise and to the point, this is the only guide you need to manage your project.

  1. Prebiotics: why definitions matter

    OpenAIRE

    Hutkins, Robert W.; Krumbeck, Janina A.; Bindels, Laure B.; Cani, Patrice D.; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C.; Mills, David A.; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative...

  2. NUKEM adjusts price definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is the October-November 1994 market report, providing trading volume and prices in the Uranium market. During this period, there were five deals in the spot concentrates market, five deals in the medium and long-term market, one deal in the conversion market, and two deals in the enrichment market. Restricted prices strengthened while unrestricted prices held steady. Price re-definitions were also announced

  3. Boolean Variables in Economic Models Solved by Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixandroiu D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the use of logical variables in economic models solved by linear programming. Focus is given to the presentation of the way logical constraints are obtained and of the definition rules based on predicate logic. Emphasis is also put on the possibility to use logical variables in constructing a linear objective function on intervals. Such functions are encountered when costs or unitary receipts are different on disjunct intervals of production volumes achieved or sold. Other uses of Boolean variables are connected to constraint systems with conditions and the case of a variable which takes values from a finite set of integers.

  4. CT number definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of CT number plots has been found lacking in several medical applications. This is of concern since the ability to compare and evaluate results on a reproducible and standard basis is essential to long term development. Apart from the technical limitations arising from the CT scanner and the data treatment, there are fundamental issues with the definition of the Hounsfield number, namely the absence of a standard photon energy and the need to specify the attenuation mechanism for standard measurements. This paper presents calculations to demonstrate the shortcomings of the present definition with a brief discussion. The remedy is straightforward, but probably of long duration as it would require an international agreement. - Highlights: ► The dependence of the CT number definition on photon energy is examined. ► Graphical examples of the CT number variation with photon energy are given. ► The influence of absorption edges and scattering on CT numbers is discussed. ► A proposal is made for an international standard devoted to CT number evaluation.

  5. Generalized Instrumental Variable Models

    OpenAIRE

    Chesher, Andrew; Rosen, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The ability to allow for flexible forms of unobserved heterogeneity is an essential ingredient in modern microeconometrics. In this paper we extend the application of instrumental variable (IV) methods to a wide class of problems in which multiple values of unobservable variables can be associated with particular combinations of observed endogenous and exogenous variables. In our Generalized Instrumental Variable (GIV) models, in contrast to traditional IV models, the mapping from unobserved ...

  6. Variability as an Operant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holth, Per

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments on operant variability by Neuringer and colleagues (e.g., Neuringer, 1986, 2002; Page & Neuringer, 1985) have been repeatedly cited as showing that behavioral variability can be reinforced by making reinforcement contingent on it. They showed that the degree of variability in pigeons' eight-peck sequences, as measured by U…

  7. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  8. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  9. Definition of distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, power systems in many countries are restructured and deregulated and it is expected the small scale generators or Distributed Generations (DG), such as Micro turbines, PV, fuel cells, wind turbines and so on will play important role in power system. So it is necessary to be well defined and described. Generally, DGs are defined as electric power generators that are connected to distribution networks or on the customer side of networks. This paper presents a definition of DGs with considering some important aspects, and after that introduces some different type of DGs

  10. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  11. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  12. Squid The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, Duane

    2009-01-01

    Squid is the most popular Web caching software in use today, and it works on a variety of platforms including Linux, FreeBSD, and Windows. Written by Duane Wessels, the creator of Squid, Squid: The Definitive Guide will help you configure and tune Squid for your particular situation. Newcomers to Squid will learn how to download, compile, and install code. Seasoned users of Squid will be interested in the later chapters, which tackle advanced topics such as high-performance storage options, rewriting requests, HTTP server acceleration, monitoring, debugging, and troubleshooting Squid.

  13. Phenotype definition in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Melodie R

    2006-05-01

    Phenotype definition consists of the use of epidemiologic, biological, molecular, or computational methods to systematically select features of a disorder that might result from distinct genetic influences. By carefully defining the target phenotype, or dividing the sample by phenotypic characteristics, we can hope to narrow the range of genes that influence risk for the trait in the study population, thereby increasing the likelihood of finding them. In this article, fundamental issues that arise in phenotyping in epilepsy and other disorders are reviewed, and factors complicating genotype-phenotype correlation are discussed. Methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation are addressed, focusing on epidemiologic studies. With this foundation in place, the epilepsy subtypes and clinical features that appear to have a genetic basis are described, and the epidemiologic studies that have provided evidence for the heritability of these phenotypic characteristics, supporting their use in future genetic investigations, are reviewed. Finally, several molecular approaches to phenotype definition are discussed, in which the molecular defect, rather than the clinical phenotype, is used as a starting point.

  14. Rain radar instrument definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  15. Problem of hidden variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Emilio

    1992-10-01

    The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics is formalized as follows. A general or contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables theory is defined as a mapping f: Q×M → C (f: Q→C) where Q is the set of projection operators in the appropriate (quantum) Hilbert space, M is the set of maximal Boolean subalgebras of Q and C is a (classical) Boolean algebra. It is shown that contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables always exist (do not exist).

  16. Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; Y. Liu; Y. Li; Q. F. Zhang; J. Tao; O. Kurtanidze

    2011-03-01

    Variability is one of the characteristics of blazars. The rapid variability is superposed on the long term variation. In this work, the variability on different time scales, such as intra-day (IDV), short-term (STV) and long-term (LTV) variations are presented for some sources. We also presented our own observations of some selected objects, for which the historical data were compiled for periodicity analysis using several methods. The parameters of the binary black hole system OJ 287 are determined.

  17. [Definition of shock types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles. PMID:11753724

  18. Grouping Synonyms by Definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Ingrid; Jacquey, Evelyne; Venant, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for grouping the synonyms of a lemma according to its dictionary senses. The senses are defined by a large machine readable dictionary for French, the TLFi (Tr\\'esor de la langue fran\\c{c}aise informatis\\'e) and the synonyms are given by 5 synonym dictionaries (also for French). To evaluate the proposed method, we manually constructed a gold standard where for each (word, definition) pair and given the set of synonyms defined for that word by the 5 synonym dictionaries, 4 lexicographers specified the set of synonyms they judge adequate. While inter-annotator agreement ranges on that task from 67% to at best 88% depending on the annotator pair and on the synonym dictionary being considered, the automatic procedure we propose scores a precision of 67% and a recall of 71%. The proposed method is compared with related work namely, word sense disambiguation, synonym lexicon acquisition and WordNet construction.

  19. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset....... 0.90 ± 0.03 (age + IDAA1c) at 12 months (p power of the IDAA1c measure is kept but due to the higher Boost stimulation in the Danish cohort, the specificity of the formula is lower with the chosen limits for SCP (300 pmol/L) and IDAA1c ≤9...

  20. Sociocultural definitions of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1990-10-01

    Public constituencies frequently are criticized by technical experts as being irrational in response to low-probability risks. This presentation argued that most people are concerned with a variety of risk attributes other than probability and that is rather irrational to exclude these from the definition and analysis of technological risk. Risk communication, which is at the heart of the right-to-know concept, is described as the creation of shared meaning rather than the mere transmission of information. A case study of utilities, public utility commissions, and public interest groups illustrates how the diversity of institutional cultures in modern society leads to problems for the creation of shared meanings in establishing trust, distributing liability, and obtaining consent to risk. This holistic approach to risk analysis is most appropriate under conditions of high uncertainty and/or decision stakes. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. New definition of wormhole throat

    OpenAIRE

    Tomikawa, Yoshimune; Izumi, Keisuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We present a new definition of the wormhole throat including the flare-out condition and the traversability for general dynamical spacetimes in terms of null geodesic congruences. We will examine our definition for some examples and see advantages compared to the others.

  2. What is Optimum Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldberg, David

    2015-10-01

    Guastello (2015a) opened the call for articles for this issue with Goldberger (1991) and colleagues' findings of chaotic variability in healthy heart rate, noting, 'the principle of healthy variability has extended to other biomedical and psychological phenomena.' He suggests a dialectical underpinning for optimal variability involving 'a combination of the minimum entropy or free energy principle that pushes in a downward direction, and Ashby's Law of Requisite Variety that pushes in an upward direction.' Each of the papers in this issue addresses optimal variability across a variety of health-related areas. The present article surveys these seven papers in relation to five conceptual questions about optimal variability: (a) Is variability a positive or a negative, and how are positive things related to health? (b) How shall we define and measure variability? (c) What constitutes an optimum, and how do we locate one? (d) What is the relationship between optimum variability and health? Finally, it touches on (e) What are underlying principles and phenomena behind healthy variability, and can they inform our vocabulary for health? The paper concludes by discussing practical approaches to dealing with optimization. PMID:26375940

  3. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  4. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  5. A. Variable descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Hohmann, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The appendix lists all variables, or component variables in the case of the institutional variables w and s, together with sources. Detailed descriptions, the wording of which is taken, if possible, directly from the original sources, are also given. Economic variables – dependent name:external_debt_cris source: Reinhart, Camen M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff, From Financial Crash to Debt Crisis, NBER Working Paper 15795, March 2010. Forthcoming in American Economic Review http://terpconnect.umd.edu...

  6. Self reference in word definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Levary, David; Moses, Elisha; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2011-01-01

    Dictionaries are inherently circular in nature. A given word is linked to a set of alternative words (the definition) which in turn point to further descendants. Iterating through definitions in this way, one typically finds that definitions loop back upon themselves. The graph formed by such definitional relations is our object of study. By eliminating those links which are not in loops, we arrive at a core subgraph of highly connected nodes. We observe that definitional loops are conveniently classified by length, with longer loops usually emerging from semantic misinterpretation. By breaking the long loops in the graph of the dictionary, we arrive at a set of disconnected clusters. We find that the words in these clusters constitute semantic units, and moreover tend to have been introduced into the English language at similar times, suggesting a possible mechanism for language evolution.

  7. Definition of the characteristic impedance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云生; Abbas Sayed OMAR

    1996-01-01

    Currently available definitions of the characteristic impedance are ambiguous andior inaccurate.A general definition,based on the description of discontinuities between adjacent waveguides,is given.This definition is accurate and independent of the structure concerned.So it can be applied to the design of passive components in any type of transmission lines.Using this definition,a given structure can be uniquely characterized,but the absolute value of the characteristic impedance has no sense any more.As an example,the design of a microstrip impedance transformer using this new definition is presented.Numerical results using the mode-matching method prove the accuracy of the theory.

  8. Microinertia and internal variables

    CERN Document Server

    Berezovski, A

    2015-01-01

    The origin of microinertia of micromorphic theories is investigated from the point of view of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In the framework of dual internal variables microinertia stems from a thermodynamic equation of state related to the internal variable with the properties of mechanical momentum.

  9. Collective variables and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This course is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We put stress on the relevant entropy associated to a set of collective variables, on the meaning of the projection method in Liouville space and its use to establish equations of motion for these variables, and on the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory

  10. Variable Synthetic Capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    Feedback amplifier circuit synthesizes electronically variable capacitance. Variable Synthetic Capacitor is amplifier circuit with follower/feedback configuration. Effective input capacitance depends on input set current. If synthetic capacitor is connected across resonant element of oscillator, oscillator frequency controlled via input set current. Circuit especially suitable for fine frequency adjustments of piezoelectric-crystal or inductor/capacitor resonant oscillators.

  11. 16 CFR 316.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(a)(2), 15 U.S.C. 7704(a)(3)(A)(i), 15 U.S.C. 7704(a)(5)(A), and 16 CFR 316.4. (n) The definition of...). (g) The definition of the term “Internet” is the same as the definition of that term in the CAN-SPAM... Definitions. (a) The definition of the term “affirmative consent” is the same as the definition of that...

  12. HIV lipodystrophy case definition using artificial neural network modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Law, Matthew;

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A case definition of HIV lipodystrophy has recently been developed from a combination of clinical, metabolic and imaging/body composition variables using logistic regression methods. We aimed to evaluate whether artificial neural networks could improve the diagnostic accuracy. METHODS......: The database of the case-control Lipodystrophy Case Definition Study was split into 504 subjects (265 with and 239 without lipodystrophy) used for training and 284 independent subjects (152 with and 132 without lipodystrophy) used for validation. Back-propagation neural networks with one or two middle layers...... were trained and validated. Results were compared against logistic regression models using the same information. RESULTS: Neural networks using clinical variables only (41 items) achieved consistently superior performance than logistic regression in terms of specificity, overall accuracy and area under...

  13. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward simulation

  14. Model Based Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  15. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Bonanno, George A; Masten, Ann S; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  16. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Southwick

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1 how do we define resilience, (2 what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3 how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4 what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture.

  17. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  18. Matricially free random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Lenczewski, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    We show that the operatorial framework developed by Voiculescu for free random variables can be extended to arrays of random variables whose multiplication imitates matricial multiplication. The associated notion of independence, called matricial freeness, can be viewed as a generalization of both freeness and monotone independence. At the same time, the sums of matricially free random variables, called random pseudomatrices, are closely related to Gaussian random matrices. The main results presented in this paper concern the standard and tracial central limit theorems for random pseudomatrices and the corresponding limit distributions which can be viewed as matricial generalizations of semicirle laws.

  19. Analisis en varias variables

    OpenAIRE

    Stallbohm H., Volker A.

    2006-01-01

    El presente texto ofrece un desarrollo sistemático del cálculo diferencial e integral de funciones en varias variables; es decir funciones con dominio〖 R〗^n (n>2) y contra dominio R^m (m>1). Una diferencia entre el análisis en una variable real y el análisis en varias variables resulta del hecho de que la topología de los subconjuntos en 〖 R〗^n es significativamente más compleja que la topología de la recta. Así los conjuntos convexos en R se clasifican fácilmente mientras que una...

  20. Toward a Literature-Driven Definition of Big Data in Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Emilie Baro; Samuel Degoul; Régis Beuscart; Emmanuel Chazard

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to provide a definition of big data in healthcare. Methods. A systematic search of PubMed literature published until May 9, 2014, was conducted. We noted the number of statistical individuals (n) and the number of variables (p) for all papers describing a dataset. These papers were classified into fields of study. Characteristics attributed to big data by authors were also considered. Based on this analysis, a definition of big data was proposed. Results. ...

  1. The Definition of Everyday Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Melchionne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to recent controversy in the aesthetics of everyday life with a succinct definition designed to clarify the domain of study. The article is intentionally designed for brevity and accessibility in order to facilitate usage.

  2. Towards a standard jet definition

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoriev, D. Yu.; Jankowski, E.; Tkachov, F. V.

    2003-01-01

    In a simulated measurement of the $W$-boson mass, evaluation of Fisher's information shows the optimal jet definition to be physically equivalent to the $k_\\mathrm{T}$ algorithm while being much faster at large multiplicities.

  3. Definitions and Types of Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Definitions and Types of Pain Defining Pain Pain is a perception that signals the individual that tissue damage has ... in the body that are involved in the perception of pain are called "nociception." Basic and clinical research during ...

  4. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  5. Gauge theories in anti-selfdual variables

    CERN Document Server

    Bochicchio, M

    2013-01-01

    Some years ago the Nicolai map, viewed as a change of variables from the gauge connection in a fixed gauge to the anti-selfdual part of the curvature, has been extended by the first named author to pure YM from its original definition in N=1 SUSY YM. We study here the perturbative 1PI effective action in the anti-selfdual variables of any gauge theory, in particular pure YM, QCD and N=1 SUSY YM. We prove that the one-loop 1PI effective action of a gauge theory mapped to the anti-selfdual variables in any gauge is identical to the one of the original theory. This is due to the conspiracy between the Jacobian of the change to the anti-selfdual variables and an extra functional determinant that arises from the non-linearity of the coupling of the anti-selfdual curvature to an external source in the Legendre transform that defines the 1PI effective action. Hence we establish the one-loop perturbative equivalence of the mapped and original theories on the basis of the identity of the one-loop 1PI effective actions...

  6. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  7. Variable star data online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Roger; Wilson, Andy; Poyner, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Roger Pickard, Andy Wilson and Gary Poyner describe the online database of the British Astronomical Association Variable Star Section, a treasure trove of observations stretching back nearly 125 years.

  8. Variable curvature phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a variable curvature dosimetry phantom is briefly described. The phantom was developed to test the accuracy of the dose modification algorithms used to estimate dose distributions inside patient contours. 1 fig

  9. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-01-01

    While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making act...

  10. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  11. VARIABLE-THROW CAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsil, E.C.; Robinson, E.Y.

    1963-07-16

    A variable-throw cam comprising inner and outer eccentric sleeves which are adjustably locked together is described. The cam throw is varied by unlocking the inner and outer sleeves, rotating the outer sleeve relative to the inner one until the desired throw is obtained, and locking the sleeves together again. The cam is useful in applications wherein a continuously-variable throw is required, e.g., ram-and-die pressing operations, cyclic fatigue testing of materials, etc. (AEC)

  12. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  13. Variable frequency photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

  14. Green definition under review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact on the renewable sector of new criteria under which electricity producers and marketers will qualify to use Canada's EcoLogo were discussed. The official definition of green power in Canada is under review and will be changed by mid-July, 1999. The review is conducted by TerraChoice and is sponsored by the Canadian Electricity Association. The issue under review is whether green power should be zero-emissions renewable energy. Currently, there are 5 or 6 classes of green power including wind, solar, and run-of-river hydro. Any enterprise falling within these classes qualifies automatically, even though they may not pass. The new criteria should judge installations on a case-by-case basis. The greatest impact on the Canadian renewable sector is likely to be the possible expansion of guidelines to allow new less-than-zero emission competitors into the green power markets. New contenders being considered include flare gas generation and natural gas cogeneration with district heating. Currently, only five power producers are certified under the EcoLogo. Three in Ontario utilize run-of-the-river hydro and landfill gas generation and two in Alberta utilize wind and wood waste. Many people, including many renewable industry insiders, believe that green power must be zero-emissions renewable technology or EcoLogo certification won't be meaningful. The purpose of redefinition should be quality, not quantity. If the quality is good enough, quantitative goals will be achieved. In the absence of quality in the product, people are not going to buy. 2 figs

  15. 50 CFR 300.151 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shareholder of any entity described in this definition, any agent designated as such by any person described in this definition, and any affiliate of any person described in this definition. Processing means... is defined differently in § 300.2 or the Magnuson Act, the definition in this section shall...

  16. 18 CFR 270.101 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General definitions..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURES GOVERNING DETERMINATIONS FOR TAX CREDIT PURPOSES DETERMINATION PROCEDURES General Definitions § 270.101 General definitions. (a) NGPA definitions. Terms defined in the Natural...

  17. 39 CFR 775.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....4 Definitions. (a) The definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 1508 apply to this part 775. (b) In addition to the terms defined in 40 CFR part 1508, the following definitions apply to this part: Approving... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 775.4 Section 775.4 Postal...

  18. 24 CFR 891.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definition. Rehabilitation may also include renovation, alteration, or remodeling for the conversion or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 891.105 Section 891... § 891.105 Definitions. The following definitions apply, as appropriate, throughout this part....

  19. 45 CFR 2525.20 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 2525.20 Section 2525.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NATIONAL SERVICE TRUST: PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 2525.20 Definitions. In addition to the definitions...

  20. 48 CFR 202.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Service Acquisition and Contracting Branch Defense Threat Reduction Agency Acquisition Management Office... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 202.101... OF DEFENSE GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 202.101 Definitions....

  1. Is the Standard Definition of Poleward Heat Transport Appropriate in Climate Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minyi; Czaja, Arnaud; Graversen, Rune; Tailleux, Remi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a problem with the standard definition of poleward heat transport is highlighted. This, we argue, arises because of the dependence of the standard definition on an arbitrary reference state for moist static energy. This dependence may result in large uncertainty in the estimates of ocean-atmosphere coupling, the signature in heat transport of the atmospheric storm track and annular modes of variability. A new definition is proposed to address the problem, which removes unrealistically large fluctuations (4PW) found when using the standard definition. A practical way to implement the new formulation is also discussed. The new heat transport definition is shown to lead to better correlations with climate indices compared to the traditional definition. In particular a clear relationship between the AO, El Niño and heat transport emerges in our analysis. In addition, it also produces different time sequence of event with large/weak poleward heat transport. It is hoped that the new heat transport definition may shed light on studies exploring the link between energy transport and climate variability.

  2. 42 CFR 440.2 - Specific definitions; definitions of services for FFP purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FFP purposes. 440.2 Section 440.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT... Definitions § 440.2 Specific definitions; definitions of services for FFP purposes. (a) Specific definitions...) Definitions of services for FFP purposes. Except as limited in part 441, FFP is available in...

  3. Motion planning for variable inertia mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Elie A.; Choset, Howie; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we generate gaits for mixed systems, that is, dynamic systems that are subject to a set of nonholonomic constraints. What is unique about mixed systems is that when we express their dynamics in body coordinates, the motion of these systems can be attributed to two decoupled terms: the geometric and dynamic phase shifts. In our prior work, we analyzed systems whose dynamic phase shift was null by definition. Purely mechanical and principally kinematic systems are two classes of mechanical systems that have this property. We generated gaits for these two classes of systems by intuitively evaluating their geometric phase shift and relating it to a volume integral under well-defined height functions. One of the contributions of this paper is to present a similar intuitive approach for computing the dynamic phase shift. We achieve this, by introducing a new scaled momentum variable that not only simplifies the momentum evolution equation but also allows us to introduce a new set of well-defined gamma functions which enable us to intuitively evaluate the dynamic phase shift. More specifically, by analyzing these novel gamma functions in a similar way to how we analyzed height functions, and by analyzing the sign-definiteness of the scaled momentum variable, we are able to ensure that the dynamic phase shift is non-zero solely along the desired fiber direction. Finally, we also introduce a novel mechanical system, the variable inertia snakeboard, which is a generalization of the original snakeboard that was previously studied in the literature. Not only does this general system help us identify regions of the base space where we can not define a certain type of gaits, but also it helps us verify the generality and applicability of our gait generation approach.

  4. Georeactor Variability and Integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    As a deep-Earth energy source, the planetocentric nuclear-fission georeactor concept is on a more secure scientific footing than the previous idea related to the assumed growth of the inner core. Unlike previously considered deep-Earth energy sources, which are essentially constant on a human time-scale, variability in nuclear fission reactors can arise from changes in composition and/or position of fuel, moderators, and neutron absorbers. Tantalizing circumstantial evidence invites inquiry into the possibility of short-term planetocentric nuclear fission reactor variability. This brief communication emphasizes the importance of scientific integrity and highlights the possibility of variable georeactor power output so that these might be borne in mind in future investigations, especially those related to the Earth's heat flux.

  5. Validation and Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    as inter-subject variability. This need is simultaneously social and epistemic: social as systems biologists attempt to engage with the interests and concerns of clinicians and others in applied medical research; epistemic as they attempt to develop new strategies to cope with variability in the validation...... and experimentally inclined modellers on one hand, and attempts to forge new collaborations with medical scientists on the other. Apart from the scientific interest of the population of models approach for tackling variability, the trial also offers a good illustration of the epistemology of experiment......-facing modelling. I claim that it shows the extent to which experiment-facing modelling and validation require the establishment of criteria for comparing models and experiments that enable them to be linked together. These 'grounds of comparability' are the broad framework in which validation experiments...

  6. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  7. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1), and

  8. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  9. Defining the local part of a hidden variable model: a comment

    CERN Document Server

    Colbeck, Roger

    2009-01-01

    In [Physical Review Letters 101, 050403 (2008)], we showed that quantum theory cannot be explained by a hidden variable model with a non-trivial local part. The purpose of this comment is to clarify the definition of local part, which seems to have caused some confusion in the recent literature. Our definition is based on Bell's and demands that local hidden variables are physical in the sense that, if discovered, they would not contradict any physical law. The recent supposed "counterexamples" that have appeared are, in fact, not counterexamples to our theorem, because they use a different definition of a local part which is not physical in the above sense. Here we explain our our definition before briefly responding to the criticisms.

  10. Problems of variance reduction in the simulation of random variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of the uniform linear generator is given and some of the mostly used tests to evaluate the uniformity and the independence of the obtained determinations are listed. The problem of calculating, through simulation, some moment W of a random variable function is taken into account. The Monte Carlo method enables the moment W to be estimated and the estimator variance to be obtained. Some techniques for the construction of other estimators of W with a reduced variance are introduced

  11. Household Ownership of Variable Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jeffrey R.; James M. Poterba

    2006-01-01

    Variable annuities have been one of the most rapidly growing financial products of the last two decades. Between 1996 and 2004, nominal sales of variable annuities in the U.S. more than doubled, from $51 billion to $130 billion. Variable annuities now account for approximately nearly two thirds of annuity sales. The investment returns associated with variable annuities resemble those from mutual funds, and variable annuity buyers can select among a range of asset allocation options. Variable ...

  12. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  13. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der

    2004-01-01

    In component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the face of compone

  14. Variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  15. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  16. Variable thrust cartridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  17. Spatial Variability of Rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.E.; Pedersen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    As a part of a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) calibration exercise 15 km south of Århus, Denmark, the variability in accumulated rainfall within a single radar pixel (500 by 500 m) was measured using nine high-resolution rain gauges. The measured values indicate up to a 100% variation between...

  18. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  19. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  20. Monsoon definition discrepancies in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, M. A.; Chu, P.-S.

    2012-04-01

    This study applies different definitions of what previous authors have called the monsoon over Bangladesh. The aim is to identify the definitions that most resemble the perceptions of the local rural communities and how they define the monsoon. Considering how the local communities define the monsoon is extremely important since these populations are most vulnerable to future changes in climate and more specifically monsoon rainfall. It has been pointed out previously that the monsoon research community had not reached a consensus on a unified definition of the monsoon rainy season. This problem seems to be profound in Bangladesh where results from the application of different definitions show very large discrepancies. Since these discrepancies exist, confusing terms such as monsoon, summer rainy season, and monsoon rainy season can have large implications for impact studies and interpretations of future climate projections. The results in this paper show that these terms need to be explicitly and carefully defined with regards to Bangladesh. Wind-, rain- and OLR-based definitions are applied to several different datasets to show how large these discrepancies can be over Bangladesh. Differences in onset dates are found to be around 8-9 pentads (40-45 days) in some regions of the country. The largest differences are seen in the north-east region, where rain-based definitions give much earlier onsets than wind- or OLR-based definitions. The results show that mesoscale phenomena could be influencing the climate in the north-east part of Bangladesh and causing much earlier summer rainfall. According to the results from a previous social study, the local communities in fact consider this early rainfall as the monsoon onset. By identifying the definition that best resembles the local community perceptions through out Bangladesh, then future information can be constructed, so that it is more easily understood by and applicable to the millions of people climate change will

  1. ITER concept definition. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the two volumes describing the concept definition of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor deals with the ITER concept in technical depth, and covers all areas of design of the ITER tokamak. Included are an assessment of the current database for design, scoping studies, rationale for concepts selection, performance flexibility, the ITER concept, the operations and experimental/testing program, ITER parameters and design phase schedule, and research and development specific to ITER. This latter includes a definition of specific research and development tasks, a division of tasks among members, specific milestones, required results, and schedules. Figs and tabs

  2. A Riemannian definition of quasiregular mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Liimatainen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we give a new natural coordinate invariant definition of quasiconformal and quasiregular mappings on Riemannian manifolds. The new definition is given in terms of coordinate invariant trace and determinant. The definition can also be seen arising naturally from the inner product space structure the tangent spaces of Riemannian manifolds have. In case of Euclidean spaces, the definition is equivalent to the standard analytic definition of quasiregular mappings. We demon- strate how to use the new definition by finding an invariant conformal structure for quasiconformal groups on Riemannian manifolds.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in clinically-definite multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis were examined by magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5-T instrument. Magnetic resonance imaging detected an abnormality in 90% of patients. In four patients, no lesions were demonstrated. The number, size and site of the lesions by magnetic resonance imaging were compared with the patients' clinical status and other variables. The Kurtzke disability status scale score increased in patients with corpus callosum atrophy, brainstem and basal ganglia lesions, and correlated with the total number of lesions. No correlation was shown between the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and disease duration, age, sex or pattern-reversal visual-evoked potentials. The variety of magnetic resonance images that could be obtained in patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis is highlighted. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  4. Steps Towards Operationalising an Evolutionary Archaeological Definition of Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix

    2011-01-01

    with individual actions. Chaîne opèratoire research, combined with the formal and quantitative identification of variability in individual material culture behaviour allows those traits critical in the social transmission of cultural information to be identified. Once such traits are identified, quantitative...... of culture and that it improves upon traditional, typologically defined techno-complexes. In conclusion, the benefits and limits of such an evolutionary and quantitative definition of culture are discussed.......This paper examines the definition of archaeological cultures/techno-complexes from an evolutionary perspective, in which culture is defined as a system of social information transmission. A formal methodology is presented through which the concept of a culture can be operationalised, at least...

  5. Coherent Communication with Continuous Quantum Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Wilde, M M; Krovi, H; Brun, Todd A.; Krovi, Hari; Wilde, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    The coherent bit (cobit) channel is a resource intermediate between classical communication and quantum communication. The cobit channel produces coherent versions of the teleportation and superdense coding protocols. We extend the cobit channel to the continuous variables of quantum optics. We provide a general definition of the ``coherent nat'' (conat) channel when only finite-squeezing resources are available. Coherent teleportation provides sufficient conditions and coherent superdense coding provides necessary conditions for a channel to be a finite-squeezing approximation to an ideal conat channel. We illustrate several protocols that use both a position-quadrature and a momentum-quadrature conat channel. Finally, we address the reversibility of coherent teleportation and coherent superdense coding with only finite-squeezing resources.

  6. Bipartite entanglement in continuous variable cluster states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, Hugo; Browne, Daniel E, E-mail: cqthvc@nus.edu.s, E-mail: d.browne@ucl.ac.u [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2010-11-15

    A study of the entanglement properties of Gaussian cluster states, proposed as a universal resource for continuous variable (CV) quantum computing is presented in this paper. The central aim is to compare mathematically idealized cluster states defined using quadrature eigenstates, which have infinite squeezing and cannot exist in nature, with Gaussian approximations that are experimentally accessible. Adopting widely used definitions, we first review the key concepts, by analysing a process of teleportation along a CV quantum wire in the language of matrix product states. Next we consider the bipartite entanglement properties of the wire, providing analytic results. We proceed to grid cluster states, which are universal for the qubit case. To extend our analysis of the bipartite entanglement, we adopt the entropic-entanglement width, a specialized entanglement measure introduced recently by Van den Nest et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 150504), adapting their definition to the CV context. Finally, we consider the effects of photonic loss, extending our arguments to mixed states. Cumulatively our results point to key differences in the properties of idealized and Gaussian cluster states. Even modest loss rates are found to strongly limit the amount of entanglement. We discuss the implications for the potential of CV analogues for measurement-based quantum computation.

  7. Variable Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; /Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; /NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; /SLAC

    2007-05-23

    A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments.

  8. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  9. 7 CFR 1470. 3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., criteria, and standards for planning and applying conservation practices and conservation management... advisory body as described in 7 CFR part 610. Management measure means one or more specific actions that is... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1470. 3 Section 1470. 3...

  10. A New Definition of Graviton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; PourImani, Hamed

    2008-01-01

    To date, there is no way to explain the process that describes how particles as photon absorb gravitons. According to the results of our years-long research we can definitely say that the best way for explain this process is using color charge concept from photon properties. This model might...

  11. A New Definition of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either the removal of positive reinforcement or the presentation of an aversive stimulus (Skinner, 1953) that results in a decrease in the frequency and/or intensity of the response (Azrin & Holtz, 1966). By definition, punishment seeks to stop unacceptable, unwanted, and bothersome…

  12. Two definitions of superfluid density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We point out that two different definitions of the superfluid density - through statistical response to static gauge phase and through dynamic response to altering gauge phase - yield, generally speaking, different quantities in d<3. The physics leading to this difference is associated with the equilibrium statistics of supercurrent states. Some experimentally observable consequences of this fact are discussed

  13. Classicalization of Quantum Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Koide, T

    2014-01-01

    A systematic procedure to extract classical degrees of freedom in quantum mechanics is formulated using the stochastic variational method. With this classicalization, a hybrid model constructed from quantum and classical variables (quantum-classical hybrids) is derived systematically. In this procedure, conservation laws such as energy are maintained, and Eherefest`s theorem is still satisfied with modification. The criterion for the applicability of quantum-classical hybrids is also investigated.

  14. Climate Variability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Climate Variability Program briefly describes research activities of Principal Investigators who are funded by NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Research Division. The report is focused on the year 2001. Utilization of satellite observations is a singularity of research on climate science and technology at JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Research at JPL has two foci: generate new knowledge and develop new technology.

  15. Variable percentage sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jr., William H.

    1976-01-01

    A remotely operable sampler is provided for obtaining variable percentage samples of nuclear fuel particles and the like for analyses. The sampler has a rotating cup for a sample collection chamber designed so that the effective size of the sample inlet opening to the cup varies with rotational speed. Samples of a desired size are withdrawn from a flowing stream of particles without a deterrent to the flow of remaining particles.

  16. Variable laser attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprng one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength.

  17. Variable depth core sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Peter M.; Reger, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  18. Variability of calcium absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variability in calcium absorption was estimated in three groups of normal subjects in whom Ca absorption was measured by standard isotopic-tracer methods at interstudy intervals ranging from 1 to 4 mo. Fifty absorption tests were performed in 22 subjects. Each was done in the morning after an overnight fast with an identical standard breakfast containing a Ca load of approximately 250 mg. Individual fractional absorption values were normalized to permit pooling of the data. The coefficient of variation (CVs) for absorption for the three groups ranged from 10.57 to 12.79% with the size of the CV increasing with interstudy duration. One other published study presenting replicate absorption values was analyzed in a similar fashion and was found to have a CV of absorption of 9.78%. From these data we estimate that when the standard double-isotope method is used to measure Ca absorption there is approximately 10% variability around any given absorption value within an individual human subject and that roughly two-thirds of this represents real biological variability in absorption

  19. 49 CFR 611.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements are completed, project management plans and fleet management plans are further developed, and... means the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century. ... TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS § 611.5 Definitions. The definitions established by Titles...

  20. Measurement Decision Risk - The Importance of Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The idea behind this presentation is how the difference in definitions can change the application. 1. Look at history, concepts, and definitions. 2. Link the test uncertainty ratio (TUR) to measurement decision risk.

  1. 16 CFR 1610.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.31 Definitions. In addition to the definitions... method prescribed in the procedures provided under section 4(a) of the Act (16 CFR Part 1609). (f)...

  2. A New Definition of Hypercomplex Analyticity

    OpenAIRE

    De Leo StefanoDip. di Fisica, INFN, Lecce; Rotelli PietroDip. di Fisica, INFN, Lecce

    2014-01-01

    Complex analyticity is generalized to hypercomplex functions, quaternion or octonion, in such a manner that it includes the standard complex definition and does not reduce analytic functions to a trivial class. A brief comparison with other definitions is presented.

  3. 16 CFR 1510.2 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... scope of this definition are: dolls, stuffed animals, crib exercisers, crib mobiles, pull toys, shoe... RATTLES § 1510.2 Definition. For the purposes of this part 1510, a rattle is an infant's toy, intended...

  4. 40 CFR 142.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... piping and plumbing caused by water quality are excluded from this definition. Municipality means a city... connection, as used in the definition of public water system, does not include a connection to a system...

  5. 23 CFR 970.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) means the forum for cooperative transportation decision-making for the metropolitan planning area... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Definitions § 970.104 Definitions. Alternative transportation systems means modes of... transportation demand management, congestion management, and intelligent transportation systems. These...

  6. 40 CFR 93.152 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... modeling analysis.”; adding the following definitions in alphabetical order: “Confidential business... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 93.152 Section 93.152... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.152 Definitions. Terms used but not...

  7. 75 FR 47458 - TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB26 TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition AGENCY: Office of... diseases to adopt the definition of a rare disease as promulgated by the National Institutes of Health, Office of Rare Diseases. The rule modification will result in the definition used by the TRICARE...

  8. Definitions of Insanity in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, John F.; Weinstein, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The legal concept of insanity has had many definitions throughout the years, and the precise definition used is critical in determining the status of a person in the legal system. Past research has demonstrated that different professions working in the legal system cannot agree on the definition of insanity (Weinstein & Geiger, 2003). However,…

  9. 47 CFR 69.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pricing Flexibility § 69.703 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart: (a) Channel terminations. (1) A... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 69.703 Section 69.703... Statistical Area (MSA). This term shall have the definition provided in § 22.909(a) of this chapter....

  10. 44 CFR 9.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 9.4 Section 9.4... GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.4 Definitions. The following definitions... Management Agency (FEMA). Agency Assistance means grants for projects or planning activities, loans, and...

  11. 7 CFR 1466.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... costs for: planning, design, materials, equipment, installation, labor, maintenance, management, or... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1466.3 Section 1466.3 Agriculture... § 1466.3 Definitions. The following definitions will apply to this Part and all documents issued...

  12. 7 CFR 1468.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... standards for planning and applying conservation treatments and conservation management systems. The guide... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1468.3 Section 1468.3 Agriculture... Definitions. The following definitions apply to this part and all documents issued in accordance with...

  13. 23 CFR 660.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are included in the FS's planning and land management processes. Statewide transportation plan means... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 660.103 Section 660.103 Highways FEDERAL... (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.103 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in 23 U.S.C....

  14. 50 CFR 22.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as determined by the continuing absence of any adult, egg, or dependent young at the nest for at... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 22.3 Section 22.3 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Introduction § 22.3 Definitions. In addition to the definitions contained in...

  15. 18 CFR 801.1 - Standard definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard definitions... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.1 Standard definitions. (a) Many terms that will be used in official Commission... clarity of the meaning the Commission applies to frequently used terms standard definitions will...

  16. On the Definition of Economic Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Makdissi

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the definition of economic efficiency. The standard definition used in economic literature is the Pareto Optimum which is based in the space of individual utilities. This paper proposes new definitions based on alternative spaces. The paper also introduces a dominance criterion for efficiency over a set of social evaluation spaces.

  17. 48 CFR 514.270-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual price for each item does not have to be the lowest bid received. (See also the definition of a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 514.270-1... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 514.270-1 Definition. Aggregate award...

  18. 45 CFR 305.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 305.1 Section 305.1 Public Welfare..., STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.1 Definitions. The definitions found in § 301.1 of this... Consumer Price Index or CPI means the last Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers published by...

  19. 34 CFR 200.81 - Program definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program definitions. 200.81 Section 200.81 Education... Program § 200.81 Program definitions. The following definitions apply to programs and projects operated under subpart C of this part: (a) Agricultural work means the production or initial processing of...

  20. 48 CFR 9905.506-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.506-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms which are prominent in this Standard. Other terms defined elsewhere in this... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions....

  1. 48 CFR 9905.501-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.501-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms which are prominent in this Standard. Other terms defined elsewhere in this... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions....

  2. 48 CFR 9905.505-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.505-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of terms which are prominent in this Standard. Other terms defined elsewhere in this... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions....

  3. 5 CFR 1.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.3 Section 1.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.3 Definitions. As used in the rules in this subchapter: (a) Competitive service shall have the...

  4. 22 CFR 171.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 171.31 Section 171.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Privacy Act Provisions § 171.31 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following definitions...

  5. 50 CFR 300.201 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 300.201 Section 300.201 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Definition of Illegal, Unreported, or Unregulated Fishing § 300.201 Definition. Illegal, unreported,...

  6. 47 CFR 6.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 6.3 Section 6.3 Telecommunication... EQUIPMENT AND CUSTOMER PREMISES EQUIPMENT BY PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES Definitions § 6.3 Definitions. (a... might induce seizures in people with photosensitive epilepsy. (vii) Availability of audio cutoff....

  7. 47 CFR 7.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 7.3 Section 7.3 Telecommunication... BY PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Definitions § 7.3 Definitions. (a) The term accessible shall mean that... might induce seizures in people with photosensitive epilepsy. (vii) Availability of audio cutoff....

  8. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary § 922.71 Definitions. In addition to those definitions found at 15 CFR 922.3, the following definitions apply to this subpart... into which altered genetic matter, or genetic matter from another species, has been transferred...

  9. 16 CFR 1404.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1404.3 Section 1404.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CELLULOSE INSULATION § 1404.3 Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15...

  10. 16 CFR 1110.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1110.3 Section 1110.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CERTIFICATES... stated, the definitions of section 3 of the CPSA and additional definitions in the Consumer...

  11. 16 CFR 1130.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions. In addition to the definitions given in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052), the following definitions apply: (a) Durable infant or toddler product means the following... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS...

  12. 48 CFR 2902.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Management and all other agencies not listed in this definition, the Director, Business Operations... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 2902.101 Section 2902.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF...

  13. 50 CFR 37.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., engineering or culture, as determined in accordance with 36 CFR 60.6. (f) Department means the Department of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 37.2 Section 37.2 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Provisions § 37.2 Definitions. The following definitions...

  14. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural...

  15. 14 CFR 298.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... carriers; and an infant who does not occupy a seat. (This definition is for 14 CFR part 298 traffic... definition is for 14 CFR part 298 traffic-reporting purposes and may differ from the definitions used in... promotional offers (for example two-for-one) or loyalty programs (for example, redemption of frequent...

  16. 28 CFR 66.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may use its own definition of equipment provided that such definition would at least include all... grant award document. Local government means a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public... any form of assistance which is excluded from the definition of “grant” in this part. Subgrantee...

  17. 44 CFR 13.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... definition of equipment provided that such definition would at least include all equipment defined above... government means a county, municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public... any form of assistance which is excluded from the definition of grant in this part. Subgrantee...

  18. 36 CFR 1207.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... more per unit. A grantee may use its own definition of equipment provided that such definition would at..., municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public and Indian housing agency... excluded from the definition of grant in this part. Subgrantee means the government or other legal...

  19. 45 CFR 92.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... more per unit. A grantee may use its own definition of equipment provided that such definition would at..., municipality, city, town, township, local public authority (including any public and Indian housing agency... excluded from the definition of grant in this part. Subgrantee means the government or other legal...

  20. 40 CFR 262.81 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 262.81 Section 262.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS... the OECD § 262.81 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. (a)...

  1. 38 CFR 21.35 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 21.35...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Definitions § 21.35 Definitions. (a) Employment handicap. This term means an impairment of a veteran's...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.1302 Section 26.1302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Requirements for Submission of Information on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1302 Definitions. The definitions in § 26.102 shall...

  3. 40 CFR 26.1702 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.1702 Section 26.1702 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Ethical Standards for Assessing Whether To Rely on the Results of Human Research in EPA Actions § 26.1702 Definitions. The definitions in § 26.1102 and...

  4. 5 CFR 2636.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2636.102 Section 2636.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS LIMITATIONS ON OUTSIDE EARNED INCOME, EMPLOYMENT AND AFFILIATIONS FOR CERTAIN NONCAREER EMPLOYEES General Provisions § 2636.102 Definitions. The definitions listed below are...

  5. 26 CFR 1.801-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Life Insurance Companies § 1.801-1 Definitions. (a) Life insurance company. The term life.... For the definition of an “insurance company”, see paragraph (b) of this section. In determining... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.801-1 Section 1.801-1...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Referendum Procedures § 1210.601 Definitions. Unless otherwise defined in this section, the definition of terms used in these procedures shall have the same meaning as the definitions in the Plan....

  7. 38 CFR 42.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following definitions apply: ALJ means an Administrative Law Judge in the Department of Veterans Affairs... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 42.2...

  8. 28 CFR 527.41 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 527.41 Section 527.41 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER TRANSFERS Transfer of Offenders To or From Foreign Countries § 527.41 Definitions. For the purpose of this rule the following definitions...

  9. 28 CFR 345.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Definitions § 345.11 Definitions. (a) Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI... than 90% of the normal FPI factory work week. (d) Unit Team—Bureau of Prisons staff responsible for the... CFR 541.15 before the UDC. (g) Pretrial inmate—The definition of pretrial inmate in 28 CFR...

  10. 40 CFR 425.02 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General definitions. 425.02 Section 425.02 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.02 General definitions. In addition to the definitions set...

  11. How normal is variable, or how variable is normal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touwen, B C

    1993-09-01

    Variability is an important property of the central nervous system, and it shows characteristic changes during infancy and childhood. The large amount of variations in the performance of sensomotor functions in infancy is called indiscriminate or primary variability. During toddling age the child develops the capacity to select adaptive variations, and then automatize them: secondary or adaptive variability. The latter is required for the development of motor skills during later preschool age and school age. The question 'How normal is variable or how variable is normal is a wrong question, as any form of variability must be interpreted according to its extent, type and age adequacy. PMID:8275868

  12. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  13. Variable leak gas source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  14. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  15. Spectral Variability of FSRQs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minfeng Gu; Y. L. Ai

    2011-03-01

    The optical variability of 29 flat spectrum radio quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 region are investigated by using DR7 released multi-epoch data. All FSRQs show variations with overall amplitude ranging from 0.24 mag to 3.46 mag in different sources. About half of FSRQs show a bluer-when-brighter trend, which is commonly observed for blazars. However, only one source shows a redder-when-brighter trend, which implies it is rare in FSRQs. In this source, the thermal emission may be responsible for the spectral behaviour.

  16. The intraclass correlation coefficient: distribution-free definition and test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commenges, D; Jacqmin, H

    1994-06-01

    A definition of the intraclass correlation coefficient is given on the basis of a general class of random effect model. The conventional intraclass correlation coefficient and the intracluster correlation coefficient for binary data are both particular cases of the generalized coefficient. We derive the score test for the hypothesis of null intraclass correlation in the exponential family. The statistic does not depend on the particular distribution in this family and is related to the pairwise correlation coefficient. The test can be adjusted for explanatory variables.

  17. A Corpus for Spoken EFL Lexicon:learner-based definition vs. dictionary-based definition

    OpenAIRE

    TOMITA, Kaoru; Nakayama, Kazuo; Anthony, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Reading a target language dictionary definition in a printed dictionary is one common way of learning a new word in foreign language. Digital dictionaries enable a learner not only to read the definition of a word but also to listen to its pronunciation, although digital dictionaries provide no definitions recorded in spoken sounds as yet. The definitions of words in dictionaries, however, may be too difficult for many learners to understand in speech. To modify the definitions so that the le...

  18. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  19. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  20. Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals.

  1. On the definition of superclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Gayoung; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally...

  2. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making activities fall within the spectrum of social entrepreneurship. To become an important stream in the entrepreneurship literature, social entrepreneurship needs to be properly defined and it requires a theoretical framework that links it to the theory of entrepreneurship. This article builds on the literature to define social entrepreneurship, discusses the boundaries of socially-oriented entrepreneurial activities, and positions the social entrepreneur in the spectrum of entrepreneurship.

  3. Current Climate Variability & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, J.; Criswell, B.; Elliott, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    Current Climate Variability & Change is the ninth among a suite of ten interconnected, sequential labs that address all 39 climate-literacy concepts in the U.S. Global Change Research Program's Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences. The labs are as follows: Solar Radiation & Seasons, Stratospheric Ozone, The Troposphere, The Carbon Cycle, Global Surface Temperature, Glacial-Interglacial Cycles, Temperature Changes over the Past Millennium, Climates & Ecosystems, Current Climate Variability & Change, and Future Climate Change. All are inquiry-based, on-line products designed in a way that enables students to construct their own knowledge of a topic. Questions representative of various levels of Webb's depth of knowledge are embedded in each lab. In addition to the embedded questions, each lab has three or four essential questions related to the driving questions for the lab suite. These essential questions are presented as statements at the beginning of the material to represent the lab objectives, and then are asked at the end as questions to function as a summative assessment. For example, the Current Climate Variability & Change is built around these essential questions: (1) What has happened to the global temperature at the Earth's surface, in the middle troposphere, and in the lower stratosphere over the past several decades?; (2) What is the most likely cause of the changes in global temperature over the past several decades and what evidence is there that this is the cause?; and (3) What have been some of the clearly defined effects of the change in global temperature on the atmosphere and other spheres of the Earth system? An introductory Prezi allows the instructor to assess students' prior knowledge in relation to these questions, while also providing 'hooks' to pique their interest related to the topic. The lab begins by presenting examples of and key differences between climate variability (e.g., Mt. Pinatubo eruption) and

  4. Vulvodynia. Definition, diagnosis and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Lundvall, Lene; Kristensen, Ellids;

    2008-01-01

    that the problem is solely a psychological disorder have been abandoned, because inflammatory mechanisms and genetic factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis as well as psychosexual contributors. This article describes the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on patho...... treatment for all patients. Research is being undertaken internationally to find more specific and unequivocal causes of the disorder, as well as to develop evidence-based methods of treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  5. Contribution on family business definition

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous researches and an ample literature, there is not a unanimously and approved family business definition which identify family businesses from nonfamily businesses. Which are the aspects to describe exactly a family business? Which are the aspects that help to recognise family business from nonfamily business? Answering to these questions means to circumscribe the field of investigation, and obtain a comparable sample for international researches; to individualize the presence ...

  6. Interreligious Communication (Definition, Concepts, Situation)

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Bashir; Ali Akbar Safi Esfahani; Vahid Safi Esfahani

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Religion and monotheistic beliefs are the bases of the human societies and culture and communications are the most important manifestations of these bases. About the three elements of religion, culture and communications, which act as the distinctions of human beings from other beings, and the relationship among them, many discussions have been occurred. In this article, the definitions offered for religion, culture and communication and their relationship, using the literature gover...

  7. The definition of illegal migration

    OpenAIRE

    DZHANSARAYEVA RIMA YERENATOVNA; MALIKOVA SHOLPAN BALTABEKOVNA

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the definitions of illegal migration. In theory, there is no consensus on the concept of illegal immigration. In the scientific revolution applied the concept of “illegal migration”, “illegal immigration”, “migration of the crime” and “criminal migration”. Crime and illegal migration, although they have common features, are different concepts. For the concept of illegal immigration is characterized by violation of migration laws. For the concept of mandatory criminal migr...

  8. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K -satisfiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed.

  9. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K-satisfiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed. PMID:25679737

  10. Process characterization and Design Space definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakemeyer, Christian; McKnight, Nathan; St John, Rick; Meier, Steven; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Kelley, Brian; Zettl, Frank; Puskeiler, Robert; Kleinjans, Annika; Lim, Fred; Wurth, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is a global regulatory initiative with the goal of enhancing pharmaceutical development through the proactive design of pharmaceutical manufacturing process and controls to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. The principles of pharmaceutical development relevant to QbD are described in the ICH guidance documents (ICHQ8-11). An integrated set of risk assessments and their related elements developed at Roche/Genentech were designed to provide an overview of product and process knowledge for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (MAb). This chapter describes the tools used for the characterization and validation of MAb manufacturing process under the QbD paradigm. This comprises risk assessments for the identification of potential Critical Process Parameters (pCPPs), statistically designed experimental studies as well as studies assessing the linkage of the unit operations. Outcome of the studies is the classification of process parameters according to their criticality and the definition of appropriate acceptable ranges of operation. The process and product knowledge gained in these studies can lead to the approval of a Design Space. Additionally, the information gained in these studies are used to define the 'impact' which the manufacturing process can have on the variability of the CQAs, which is used to define the testing and monitoring strategy.

  11. Two definitions of waiting well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Kate; Reynolds, Chandra A; Falkenstein, Angelica; Andrews, Sara E; Dooley, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Waiting for uncertain news is often distressing, at times even more distressing than facing bad news. The goal of this article was to investigate strategies for "waiting well" during these periods of uncertainty. Specifically, we propose 2 definitions of waiting well. First, people can wait in such a way as to ease their distress during the waiting period. Second, people could wait in such a way as to ease the pain of bad news or enhance the thrill of good news. We conducted a longitudinal study of law graduates (N = 230) awaiting their result on the California bar exam. Participants completed questionnaires prior to the exam, every 2 weeks during the 4-month waiting period, and shortly after learning whether they passed or failed. Cross-lagged models revealed that participants were quite unsuccessful at waiting well by our first definition. That is, their coping strategies were ineffective for reducing distress associated with uncertainty, apparently even backfiring in some cases. However, multiple regression analyses examining relationships between waiting experiences and responses to good and bad news found that many participants were successful at waiting well according to our second definition: Participants who suffered through a waiting period marked by anxiety, rumination, and pessimism responded more productively to bad news and more joyfully to good news, as compared with participants who suffered little during the wait. These findings substantiate the difficulty of enduring a stressful waiting period but suggest that this difficulty may pay off once the news arrives. PMID:26461244

  12. Gait Variability and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Socie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait variability, that is, fluctuations in movement during walking, is an indicator of walking function and has been associated with various adverse outcomes such as falls. In this paper, current research concerning gait variability in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS is discussed. It is well established that persons with MS have greater gait variability compared to age and gender matched controls without MS. The reasons for the increase in gait variability are not completely understood. Evidence indicates that disability level, assistive device use, attentional requirement, and fatigue are related to gait variability in persons with MS. Future research should address the time-evolving structure (i.e., temporal characteristics of gait variability, the clinical importance of gait variability, and underlying mechanisms that drive gait variability in individuals with MS.

  13. Essential biodiversity variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H.M.; Ferrier, S.; Walters, M.; Geller, G.N.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Scholes, R.J.; Bruford, M.W.; Brummitt, N.; Butchart, S.H.M.; Cardoso, A.C.; Coops, N.C.; Dulloo, E.; Faith, D.P.; Freyhof, J.; Gregory, R.D.; Heip, C.; Höft, R.; Hurtt, G.; Jetz, W.; Karp, D.S.; McGeoch, M.A.; Obura, D.; Onada, Y.; Pettorelli, N.; Reyers, B.; Sayre, R.; Scharlemann, J.P.W.; Stuart, S.N.; Turak, E.; Walpole, M.; Wegmann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing the rate of biodiversity loss and averting dangerous biodiversity change are international goals, reasserted by the Aichi Targets for 2020 by Parties to the United Nations (UN) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) after failure to meet the 2010 target (1, 2). However, there is no global, harmonized observation system for delivering regular, timely data on biodiversity change (3). With the first plenary meeting of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) soon under way, partners from the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON) (4) are developing—and seeking consensus around—Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) that could form the basis of monitoring programs worldwide.

  14. Variable speed controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Christa; Spiggle, Charles; Swift, Shannon; Vangeffen, Stephen; Younger, Frank

    1992-01-01

    This report details a new design for a variable speed controller which can be used to operate lunar machinery without the astronaut using his or her upper body. In order to demonstrate the design, a treadle for an industrial sewing machine was redesigned to be used by a standing operator. Since the invention of an electrically powered sewing machine, the operator has been seated. Today, companies are switching from sit down to stand up operation involving modular stations. The old treadle worked well with a sitting operator, but problems have been found when trying to use the same treadle with a standing operator. Emphasis is placed on the ease of use by the operator along with the ergonomics involved. Included with the design analysis are suggestions for possible uses for the speed controller in other applications.

  15. A novel definition of the multivariate coefficient of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Adelin; Zhang, Lixin

    2010-10-01

    The coefficient of variation CV (%) is widely used to measure the relative variation of a random variable to its mean or to assess and compare the performance of analytical techniques/equipments. A review is made of the existing multivariate extensions of the univariate CV where, instead of a random variable, a random vector is considered, and a novel definition is proposed. The multivariate CV obtained only requires the calculation of the mean vector, the covariance matrix and simple quadratic forms. No matrix inversion is needed which makes the new approach equally attractive in high dimensional as in very small sample size problems. As an illustration, the method is applied to electrophoresis data from external quality assessment in laboratory medicine, to phenotypic characteristics of pocket gophers and to a microarray data set.

  16. The Performance of Variable Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. McNamara; Henry R. Oppenheimer

    1991-01-01

    Variable annuities have become increasingly important in retirement plans. This paper provides an examination of the investment performance of variable annuities for the period year-end 1973 to year-end 1988. Returns, risk, and selectivity measures are analyzed for the sample of annuities, for individual variable annuities, and for subsamples of annuities with similar portfolio size and turnover. While the investment returns of variable annuities were greater than inflation over the period, t...

  17. Geometrical Theory of Separation of Variables, a review of recent developments

    OpenAIRE

    Rastelli, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    The Separation of Variables theory for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation is 'by definition' related to the use of special kinds of coordinates, for example Jacobi coordinates on the ellipsoid or St\\"ackel systems in the Euclidean space. However, it is possible and useful to develop this theory in a coordinate-independent way: this is the Geometrical Theory of Separation of Variables. It involves geometrical objects (like special submanifolds and foliations) as well as special vector and tensor fie...

  18. Mei Symmetry and Lie Symmetry of the Rotational Relativistic Variable Mass System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGJian-Hui

    2003-01-01

    The Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of a rotational relativistic variable mass system are studied. The definitions and criteria of the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the rotational relativistic variable mass system are given. The relation between the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry is found. The conserved quantities which the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry lead to are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  19. Range of natural variability: Applying the concept to forest management in central British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    C Wong; Iverson, K.

    2004-01-01

    The range of natural variability (RNV) is a concept relevant to maintaining biodiversity and resilience in managed forests. It is, however, a challenging concept both to describe and apply. Here, we refine the definition of RNV. We also discuss information and data sources required and the appropriate use of spatial and temporal scales. A new term, the apparent range of variability (ARV), is suggested to convey the dependency of estimates of the RNV on the temporal and spatial extent of avail...

  20. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  1. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.;

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  2. Spatial variability and parametric uncertainty in performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of defining an appropriate treatment of distribution functions (which could represent spatial variability or parametric uncertainty) is examined based on a generic performance assessment model for a high-level waste repository. The generic model incorporated source term models available in GoldSim®, the TDRW code for contaminant transport in sparse fracture networks with a complex fracture-matrix interaction process, and a biosphere dose model known as BDOSETM. Using the GoldSim framework, several Monte Carlo sampling approaches and transport conceptualizations were evaluated to explore the effect of various treatments of spatial variability and parametric uncertainty on dose estimates. Results from a model employing a representative source and ensemble-averaged pathway properties were compared to results from a model allowing for stochastic variation of transport properties along streamline segments (i.e., explicit representation of spatial variability within a Monte Carlo realization). We concluded that the sampling approach and the definition of an ensemble representative do influence consequence estimates. In the examples analyzed in this paper, approaches considering limited variability of a transport resistance parameter along a streamline increased the frequency of fast pathways resulting in relatively high dose estimates, while those allowing for broad variability along streamlines increased the frequency of 'bottlenecks' reducing dose estimates. On this basis, simplified approaches with limited consideration of variability may suffice for intended uses of the performance assessment model, such as evaluation of site safety. (author)

  3. Impact analysis of flow variability in sizing kanbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Pergher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of variability flow, advocated by Factory Physics, in sizing Kanban production systems. The variability of flow presupposes that the variability of activities performed by a process is dissipated throughout the productive flow system, causing variations in the lead time, the work-in-process levels and the equipment availability, among others. To conduct the research, we created a didactic model of discrete event computer simulation. The proposed model aims to present the possible impacts caused by the variability flow in a production system regarding the sizing of the number of Kanbans cards, by using the results supplied by two different investigated scenarios. The main results of the research allow concluding that, by comparing the two scenarios developed in the model, the presence of variability in the production system caused an average increase of 32% in the number of Kanban cards (p=0,000. This implies that, in real productive systems, the study of Kanban sizing should consider the variability of individual operations, a fact often relegated as an assumption in the formulation from classical literature on the definition of the number of Kanbans, thus providing opportunities for the development of future research.

  4. Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approach. This technique is used commonly in the cervical spine to treat degenerative disc disease and HNP (herniated nucleus pulposus). This technique is also used in the lumbar spine to accomplish a fusion in many situations. anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF): ...

  5. Reproducing Kernel Functions: A general framework for Discrete Variable Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Mussa, Hamse

    2014-01-01

    Since its introduction, the Discrete Variable Representation (DVR) basis set has become an invaluable representation of state vectors and Hermitian operators in non-relativistic quantum dynamics and spectroscopy calculations. On the other hand reproducing kernel (positive definite) functions have been widely employed for a long time to a wide variety of disciplines: detection and estimation problems in signal processing; data analysis in statistics; generating observational models in machine learning; solving inverse problems in geophysics and tomography in general; and in quantum mechanics. In this article it was demonstrated that, starting with the axiomatic definition of DVR provided by Littlejohn [1], it is possible to show that the space upon which the projection operator, defined in ref [1], projects is a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) whose associated reproducing kernel function can be used to generate DVR points and their corresponding DVR functions on any domain manifold (curved or not). It ...

  6. Modeling Shared Variables in VHDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Brage, Jens P.

    1994-01-01

    A set of concurrent processes communicating through shared variables is an often used model for hardware systems. This paper presents three modeling techniques for representing such shared variables in VHDL, depending on the acceptable constraints on accesses to the variables. Also a set of guide...... of guidelines for handling atomic updates of multiple shared variables is given. 1 Introduction It is often desirable to partition a computational system into discrete functional units which cooperates to.......A set of concurrent processes communicating through shared variables is an often used model for hardware systems. This paper presents three modeling techniques for representing such shared variables in VHDL, depending on the acceptable constraints on accesses to the variables. Also a set...

  7. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century. 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  8. Climate variability and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century

  9. On the mid-infrared variability of candidate eruptive variables (exors): A comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Lorenzetti, D., E-mail: simone.antoniucci@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: teresa.giannini@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: gianluca.licausi@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: dario.lorenzetti@oa-roma.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    Aiming to statistically study the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects, we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 μm Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 μm. From this comparison, we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class ≡ Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigated for similarities with known young eruptive variables, namely the EXors. In particular, we analyzed (1) the shape of the spectral energy distribution, (2) the IR excess over the stellar photosphere, (3) magnitude versus color variations, and (4) output parameters of model fitting. This first systematic search for EXors ends up with 11 bona fide candidates that can be considered as suitable targets for monitoring or future investigations.

  10. Variable thickness transient ground-water flow model. Volume 1. Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical formulation for the variable thickness transient (VTT) model of an aquifer system is presented. The basic assumptions are described. Specific data requirements for the physical parameters are discussed. The boundary definitions and solution techniques of the numerical formulation of the system of equations are presented

  11. A Unified Symmetry of Mechanical Systems with Variable Mass in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; FANG Jian-Hui; ZHANG Peng-Yu; DING Ning

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry of the mechanical system with variable mass in phase space are given. The Noether conserved quantity, the generalized Hojman conserved quantity, and Mei conserved quantity deduced from the unified symmetry are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  12. Valuing travel time variability: Characteristics of the travel time distribution on an urban road

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Fukuda, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed empirical investigation of the distribution of travel times on an urban road for valuation of travel time variability. Our investigation is premised on the use of a theoretical model with a number of desirable properties. The definition of the value of travel time...

  13. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  14. Variables moderadoras del estres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Richaud de Minzi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la influenciadel estilo atribucional, la confianza interpersonal y el soporte social sobre la percepción de la amenaza. Se administraron la Escala de Estilo Atribucional; la Manheim Interview 01 Social Support, la Escala de Confianza Interpersonal; y el Inventario de Situaciones y Respuestas de Ansiedad, a 260 sujetos de ambos sexos, de 30 años de edad promedio, de nivel socioeconómico medio, residentes en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. El soporte social no demostró influencia significativa sobre la percepción de la amenaza. Con respecto a la influencia del estilo atribucional se puede decir que las personas indefensas perciben más amenaza, especialmente expresada como ansiedad cognitiva y, en menor grado, como ansiedad motora o conductual. La confianza interpersonal demostró ser una variable importante en la percepción de la amenaza. Los sujetos que presentaron alta desconfianza hacia las personas de su entorno perciben un mundo amenazante, que se manifiesta como ansiedad cognitiva, fisiológica y motora o conductual.

  15. Variable subsistence indemnity

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    At its meeting on 15 December 1999, the Finance Committee approved, with effect from 1st January 2000, adjustments to the Variable Subsistence Indemnity according to the rates published by the United Nations Organization given in document CERN/FC/4219. This decision maintained the reference method in force since 1983. The Management now proposes to adjust the CERN rates of indemnities, with effect from 1st January 2001, on the basis of the United Nations 2000 rates. The table contained in this document shows the rates for typical destinations, but they are only extracts from the complete UN table. Although a precise estimate of the cost effect for duty travel is difficult to achieve due to currency exchange values, it is probable that this will remain unchanged if calculated in Swiss francs. It may also be noted that, since 1 January this year, Article R IV 1.41 of the Staff Rules and Regulations has been changed in order to formalize the practice of the payment of a lower subsistence indemnity than the appro...

  16. Variable subsistence indemnity

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its meeting on 8 November 2000, the Finance Committee approved, with effect from 1st January 2001, adjustments to the Variable Subsistence Indemnity according to the rates published by the United Nations Organization given in document CERN/FC/4339. This decision maintained the reference method in force since 1983. The Management now proposes to adjust the CERN rates of indemnities, with effect from 1st January 2002, on the basis of the United Nations 2001 rates. Simply to give some examples extracted from the complete United Nations lists, the attached Annex shows the rates for a number of typical CERN duty travel destinations. For those countries concerned, the rates will be expressed in Euros from 2002. It is to be noted that the cost level for most destinations will not change significantly if calculated in Swiss Francs and, in any case, the Management will ensure that the total volume of costs for duty travel is contained within the limits of the 2002 budget. It is also to be noted that, since 1st Janu...

  17. Mastering IDEAScript the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    With approximately 44,000 users in the U.S. and Canada, as well as 42,000 in Europe, IDEA software has become a leading provider of data analysis software for use by auditors and accountants. Written to provide users with a quick access guide for optimal use of IDEAScript, Mastering IDEAScript: The Definitive Guide is IDEA's official guide to mastering IDEAScript, covering essential topics such as Introducing IDEAScript, Understanding the Basics of IDEAScript Editor, Designing Structured Applications, Understanding IDEA Databases and much more. For auditors, accountants and controllers.

  18. Absorbers: Definitions, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Belitskii

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Roughly speaking, the absorber is a set, which includes, after finite number of initial states, each trajectory of a transformation of space into itself. This paper deals with the exact definition of absorbers for linear operators, the study of the properties, the applications to “classical” dynamics and to solvability of operator equations. It is expected that the description of the structure of absorbers will add new insights to the recent discussion of nature and content of notion of attractiveness for nonlinear dynamics.

  19. Definition of Liquidation Property Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Lingaitis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interrelation of market and liquidation value of the appraisal subject. It was established that the approach of “break-even” sale of a subject at liquidation value, which is predominating in the literature sources, shows the results essentially different from the ratio of the prices of free and accelerated sales that can be observed on the market. The article offers an alternative approach to definition of market value coefficient, which considers switching to liquidation value. This approach is based on functional dependence of the coefficient on the ratio of limited and unlimited period of exposition.

  20. The Definitive Guide to SQLite

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Outside of the world of enterprise computing there is one database that enables a huge range of software and hardware to flex relational database capabilities, without the baggage and cost of traditional database management systems. That database is SQLite - an embeddable database with an amazingly small footprint, yet it can handle databases of enormous size. SQLite comes equipped with an array of powerful features available through a host of programming and development environments. It is supported by languages such as C, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, TCL, and more. The Definitive Guide to

  1. The rebound effect. Microeconomic definitions, limitations and extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rebound effect results in part from an increased consumption of energy services following an improvement in the technical efficiency of delivering those services. This increased consumption offsets the energy savings that may otherwise be achieved. If the rebound effect is sufficiently large it may undermine the rationale for policy measures to encourage energy efficiency. The nature and magnitude of the rebound effect is the focus of long-running dispute with energy economics. This paper brings together previous theoretical work to provide a rigorous definition of the rebound effect, to clarify key conceptual issues and to highlight the potential consequences of various assumptions for empirical estimates of the effect. The focus is on the direct rebound effect for a single energy service - indirect and economy-wide rebound effects are not discussed. Beginning with Khazzoom's original definition of the rebound effect, we expose the limitations of three simplifying assumptions on which this definition is based. First, we argue that capital costs form an important part of the total cost of providing energy services and that empirical studies that estimate rebound effects from variations in energy prices are prone to bias. Second, we argue that energy efficiency should be treated as an endogenous variable and that empirical estimates of the rebound effect may need to apply a simultaneous equation model to capture the joint determination of key variables. Third, we explore the implications of the opportunity costs of time in the production of energy services and highlight the consequences for energy use of improved 'time efficiency', the influence of time costs on the rebound effect and the existence of a parallel rebound effect with respect to time. Each of these considerations serves to highlight the difficulties in obtaining reliable estimates of the rebound effect and the different factors that need to be controlled for. We discuss the implications of these

  2. Definitions of deafblindness and congenital deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Larsen, Flemming; Damen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    determining eligibility of the studies were encountered due to heterogeneity in definitions and inclusion criteria used in the articles. The present systematic review aims to provide both an overview of this terminological and methodological heterogeneity and suggestions for better future research practices....... A systematic review of definitions used in (N = 30) studies employing psychological assessment of people with CDB served as a sample of the scientific literature on DB and CDB. Absent or heterogeneous definitions and inclusion criteria regarding both DB and CDB are evident in the sample. Fifty...... percent of the studies reported no definition of DB and 76.7% reported no definition of CDB. Main discrepancies are: (1) medical/functional versus ability/functioning definitions regarding DB; and (2) different criteria for onset of DB in the case of defining CDB (e.g. age versus developmental level). The...

  3. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  4. Algebraic definition of topological W gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors propose a definition of the topological W gravity using some properties of the principal three-dimensional subalgebra of a simple Lie algebra due to Kostant. In the authors' definition, structures of the two-dimensional topological gravity are naturally embedded in the extended theories. In accordance with the definition, the authors will present some explicit calculations for the W3 gravity

  5. A new definition of Bejan number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of Bejan number will be generated by replacing the thermal diffusivity with the mass diffusivity. For example, the Schmidt number is the mass transfer analog of the Prandtl number. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Sc = Pr = = 1, both current and new definitions of Bejan number are the same. This new definition is useful and needed for diffusion of mass (mass diffusion.

  6. On the definition of homological critical value

    OpenAIRE

    Govc, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    We point out that there is a problem with the definition of homological critical value (as defined in the widely cited paper \\cite{stability} by Cohen-Steiner, Edelsbrunner and Harer). Under that definition, the critical value lemma of \\cite{stability} in fact fails. We provide several counterexamples and a definition (due to Bubenik and Scott \\cite{categorification}) we feel should be preferred and under which the critical value lemma does indeed hold. One of the counterexamples we have foun...

  7. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an “absence of disease” model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...

  8. Another Definition of Order—Sorted Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何自强

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the definition of order-sorted algebra is generalized by introducing transformation functions between subtypes and supertypes.According to our definition,a type needn't be a subset of its supertype and a record model may form an order-sorted algebra.A new definition of equation is given.It has also been proved that equational theories and describing single inheritance have the initial model.

  9. Toward a definition of colonic inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Giuseppe de Roberto; Luca Sediari; Antonio Morelli

    2004-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a relatively frequent symptom; among its subtypes, the so called-colonic inertia represents a disease condition that is often considered for surgery. However, to date, there has been no agreement on definition of colonic inertia, and a literature review showed that this definition was given to numerous entities that differ from each other.In this paper these concepts are reviewed and a more stringent definition of colonic inertia is proposed.

  10. From Slovene into English: Identifying Definiteness

    OpenAIRE

    Frančiška Lipovšek

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses some typical instances of the translator’s failure to recognize definite reference in Slovene, which, in turn, results in an inappropriate determiner selection in English. It is argued that errors of this kind are ascribable not solely to the fact that the Slovene determiner system lacks an overt non-selective determiner parallel to the definite article, but to the relatively scarce use of overt determiners in general. Since definiteness is typically signalled by an anapho...

  11. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  12. 7 CFR 28.901 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., partnership, corporation, association, trust, estate, or other legal entity, a State or political subdivision..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Definitions §...

  13. 40 CFR 415.311 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401...

  14. 32 CFR 293.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... granted authority to review the decision of the initial denial authority (IDA) (see IDA definition) that... regulation or supervision of financial institutions. (9) Geological and geophysical information and...

  15. 40 CFR 407.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401...

  16. 40 CFR 407.31 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Citrus Products..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401...

  17. 40 CFR 407.21 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products..., the general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis set forth in 40 CFR part 401...

  18. 7 CFR 1c.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge. Activities which meet this definition constitute...) in order for obtaining the information to constitute research involving human subjects. (g) IRB...

  19. 19 CFR 152.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.102 Definitions. As...) Which economic resources and obligations should be recorded as assets and liabilities; (ii)...

  20. On the definition of superclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally, we suggest that those superclusters that will survive the accelerating cosmic expansion and collapse in the future be called "superstes-clusters", where "superstes" means survivor in Latin, to distinguish them from traditional superclusters.

  1. Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, several different definitions of MetS exist, causing substantial confusion as to whether they identify the same individuals or represent a surrogate of risk factors. Recently, a number of other factors besides those traditionally used to define MetS that are also linked to the syndrome have been identified. In this review, we critically consider existing definitions and evolving information, and conclude that there is still a need to develop uniform criteria to define MetS, so as to enable comparisons between different studies and to better identify patients at risk. As the application of the MetS model has not been fully validated in children and adolescents as yet, and because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence in this population, we suggest that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in this age group should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS.

  2. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  3. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs. PMID:27369168

  4. Interreligious Communication (Definition, Concepts, Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religion and monotheistic beliefs are the bases of the human societies and culture and communications are the most important manifestations of these bases. About the three elements of religion, culture and communications, which act as the distinctions of human beings from other beings, and the relationship among them, many discussions have been occurred. In this article, the definitions offered for religion, culture and communication and their relationship, using the literature governing the Intercultural Communication and Cross-cultural Communication as two subjects discussed in the field of Cultural Communication and International Communication, have been reviewed and tried through a novel method to promote the level of religion from a concept usually seen as something such as race, ethnic, identity and life style under the title of international communication and cultural communication to a much higher position and place it under the title of interreligious communication. Following creation of a new field of study, many of the scholars and thinkers who are concerned about that field get together and focus of its issues and try to offer definitions and divisions about the subject. Later, after accumulation of scientific materials about different issues in the field, the human knowledge in that subject starts to develop further and in a more organized way. In this regard, first, the preferred definitions of religion, culture, communication, and Interreligious Communication will be offered. Accordingly, every society includes a meaning structure which is called culture and communication would act as an interaction tool in this system whose task is coding and decoding. Religion is considered the origin of culture and the director of communication. Based on these primary definitions, the interreligious communication is defined as: the relationship between or among the monotheistic religions based on the common understanding of religious

  5. A spectro-interferometric perspective of l Carinae's modulated variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard I.; Mérand, Antoine; Kervella, Pierre; Breitfelder, Joanne; Eyer, Laurent; Gallenne, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Cepheid variable stars are important tools for stellar astrophysics and the extragalactic distance scale. Their variability is considered to be highly regular. Yet, four Cepheids were recently reported (Anderson 2014, A&A, 566, L10) to exhibit modulated radial velocity (RV) variability, i.e., the RV curves of some Cepheids change in shape and amplitude as a function of time. The long-period Cepheid l Carinae is one of these stars and carries high weight in the current calibration of the period-luminosity relation that renders Cepheids useful standard candles. No definitive explanation has been found so far for this modulated variability, which may be related to several effects, including pulsation-convection coupling and non-radial pulsations. Importantly, RV curve modulation can bias distances estimated via the Baade-Wesselink technique, which compares the angular and linear variability of Cepheid radii.We performed interferometric time-series observations of l Carinae using ESO's VLT Interferometer in order to investigate whether the observed RV curve modulation has a clear counterpart in the angular radius variability and to better understand the physics behind this modulation. To this end, we observed l Carinae with the PIONIER instrument at three different epochs near maximum, minimum, and maximum radius, and inferred angular diameters with unprecedented precision. Contemporaneously, we monitored l Carinae with the CORALIE spectrograph mounted to the 1.2m Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory Chile, securing several observations nearly every night over the course of three months, building an extremely precise radial velocity curve.Here, we present the current status of our analysis and report peculiar spectral line shape variability that appears to be mainly responsible for the modulated RV curves. We outline how this work aims at improving the accuracy of Baade Wesselink distances while also opening a new window into the analysis of Cepheid variability.

  6. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dynamic behavior of the variables that can play a major role in the performance improvement in a supply chain, a System Dynamics-based model is proposed. The model provides an effective framework for analyzing different variables affecting supply chain performance. Among different variables, a causal relationship among different variables has been identified. Variables emanating from performance measures such as gaps in customer satisfaction, cost minimization, lead-time reduction, service level improvement and quality improvement have been identified as goal-seeking loops. The proposed System Dynamics-based model analyzes the affect of dynamic behavior of variables for a period of 10 years on performance of case supply chain in auto business.

  7. [History and definition(s) of metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, M; Schaper, F; Ceriello, A

    2007-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome--a cluster of metabolic diseases and hypertension--is not a new disease. It has been present in the upper classes of all highly developed cultures suffering from over-nutrition and limited physical activity. In the medical literature, it can be found in Renaissance and Baroque times. We are presently experiencing a global tsunami of this syndrome as over-nutrition and lack of movement are typical for large groups of the population. The current definition of metabolic syndrome of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and the International Diabetes Federation incorporates the quartet central obesity, hypertension, increased blood sugar and dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL cholesterol). Thus, simple, collective diagnostics and therapy for this finely meshed group of diseases together with its risk factors is possible. PMID:17226009

  8. Population Synthesis for Mira Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Zhu; Chao-Zheng Zha

    2005-01-01

    By means of a population synthesis code, we investigate the Mira variables. Their birth rate (over 0.65yr-1) and their number (~ 130000) in the Galaxy are estimated. For all possible Mira variables, ranges of their initial masses,pulsating periods, mass losses and lifetimes are given. We check our model with the observed Mira variables near the Sun and our results prove to be valid.

  9. Variable Speed Rotor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...

  10. The HEALTHGRAIN definition of 'whole grain'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jan Willem; Poutanen, Kaisa; Seal, Chris J; Richardson, David P

    2014-01-01

    Most cereal products, like white bread, pasta, and biscuits, are based on flour after removal of bran and germ, the two parts of grain kernels containing most of the dietary fibre and other bioactive components. In the past decade, consumers have been rediscovering whole grain-based products and the number of wholegrain products has increased rapidly. In most countries in Europe and worldwide, however, no legally endorsed definition of wholegrain flour and products exists. Current definitions are often incomplete, lacking descriptions of the included grains and the permitted flour manufacturing processes. The consortium of the HEALTHGRAIN EU project (FP6-514008, 2005-2010) identified the need for developing a definition of whole grain with the following scope: 1) more comprehensive than current definitions in most EU countries; 2) one definition for Europe - when possible equal to definitions outside Europe; 3) reflecting current industrial practices for production of flours and consumer products; 4) useful in the context of nutritional guidelines and for labelling purposes. The definition was developed in a range of discussion meetings and consultations and was launched in 2010 at the end of the HEALTHGRAIN project. The grains included are specified: a wide range of cereal grains from the Poaceae family, and the pseudo-cereals amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, and wild rice. The definition also describes manufacturing processes allowed for producing wholegrain flours. This paper compares the HEALTHGRAIN definition with previous definitions, provides more comprehensive explanations than in the definition itself regarding the inclusion of specific grains, and sets out the permitted flour manufacturing processes. PMID:24505218

  11. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Psychometric Validity of Individual Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed. PMID:27153465

  12. Mixed-Variable Requirements Roadmaps and their Role in the Requirements Engineering of Adaptive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jureta, Ivan; Ernst, Neil A

    2011-01-01

    The requirements roadmap concept is introduced as a solution to the problem of the requirements engineering of adaptive systems. The concept requires a new general definition of the requirements problem which allows for quantitative (numeric) variables, together with qualitative (binary boolean) propositional variables, and distinguishes monitored from controlled variables for use in control loops. We study the consequences of these changes, and argue that the requirements roadmap concept bridges the gap between current general definitions of the requirements problem and its notion of solution, and the research into the relaxation of requirements, the evaluation of their partial satisfaction, and the monitoring and control of requirements, all topics of particular interest in the engineering of requirements for adaptive systems [Cheng et al. 2009]. From the theoretical perspective, we show clearly and formally the fundamental differences between more traditional conception of requirements engineering (e.g., Z...

  13. On the Definition of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and disciplinary approaches. This book is a first publication in the ‘On the definition of learning’ network. The network arose out of the aspiration to study the phenomenon of learning in depth and to understand its complex relationship to empirical investigation and teaching. Based on the assumption...... relationships that exist between conceptualizations of learning and the empirical phenomenon of learning and teaching. It discusses how conceptualizations of learning are put to work in educational contexts and how the normative aspects of learning in relation to discussions of what is considered worth learning......Since the turn of the century the phenomenon of learning has received increasingly more attention. Within the theoretical field, a variety of theories of learning have evolved. The field of research on learning has become very complex, with different foci, founders and proponents, schools...

  14. Engineering test facility design definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercaw, R. W.; Seikel, G. R.

    1980-06-01

    The Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is the major focus of the Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Program to facilitate commercialization and to demonstrate the commercial operability of MHD/steam electric power. The ETF will be a fully integrated commercial prototype MHD power plant with a nominal output of 200 MW sub e. Performance of this plant is expected to meet or surpass existing utility standards for fuel, maintenance, and operating costs; plant availability; load following; safety; and durability. It is expected to meet all applicable environmental regulations. The current design concept conforming to the general definition, the basis for its selection, and the process which will be followed in further defining and updating the conceptual design.

  15. [Definition and classification of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiki, Itsuki

    2014-05-01

    The concept or definition of epilepsy was mentioned as a chronic disease of the brain consisting of repetitions of EEG paroxysm and clinical seizures caused by excessive discharges of the cerebral neurons, in reference with Gastaut's opinion and the other statements. Further, we referred to diseases to be excluded from epilepsy such as isolated, occasional and subclinical seizures and so on. Next, new classifications of seizures and epilepsies were explained on the basis of revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies in Report of the ILAE Communication in Classification and Terminology, 2005-09, in comparison with the Classification of Epileptic Seizures in 1981 and the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes in 1989.

  16. [Concept and definition of insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Takaubu; Takemura, Fumi; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Shimizu, Tetsuo

    2009-08-01

    The definition of insomnia is surprisingly quite difficult. It is not possible to decide whether a person has insomnia just by the length of his sleep time. This is because there is a significant difference in how much sleep each person needs. Insomnia is a state in which the patient' s physical, psychological, and social activities are interfered with by a strong feeling of sleep deficiency upon waking in the morning. Insomnia is a symptom, not a name of a disease. In treatment of insomnia, it is not enough to just make the patient sleep by use of sleeping pills. It is essential to research what lies beneath the insomnia, identify the cause, and remove it. PMID:19768924

  17. The Importance of Standard Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Morera-Ocon

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dear Sir: Sanjay et al. [1] assessed compliance with the revised guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis published by the work group of the British Society of Gastroenterology in 2005 [2]. This article is valuable in reminding us of the standards of care in this disease but there are some points which may require comments and questions. First, a distinction between severe acute pancreatitis, defined by the presence of complications, and predicted severe acute pancreatitis as determined by multiple score systems should be encouraged. The recommendation of the guidelines for the definition of severity is that the Atlanta criteria should be used. Nevertheless, the authors use C-reactive protein level, Glasgow score and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II score to determine the severity and, based on these, 46% of their patients had severe pancreatitis and 54% had mild pancreatitis. Those results are far from those published regarding severity distribution in acute pancreatitis [2].

  18. 48 CFR 509.403 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.403 Definitions... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 509.403... counsel, or agent for service of process. In the case of a business, such notice may be sent to...

  19. 13 CFR 303.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 303.2 Section 303.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.2 Definitions. In addition to the...

  20. 48 CFR 3009.171-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Responsible Prospective Contractors 3009.171-2 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Business concern means a commercial... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions....

  1. 40 CFR 350.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... business advantages it derives from its right in the information. The definition is meant to encompass any... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 350.1 Section 350.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  2. 48 CFR 1509.170-4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Contractor Performance Evaluations 1509.170-4 Definitions. (a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 1509.170-4.... Performance categories include quality, cost control, timeliness of performance, business...

  3. 7 CFR 1206.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.201 Definitions. Organic Act means section 2103 of the Organic Foods... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1206.201 Section 1206.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  4. 32 CFR 319.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.4 Definitions. (a) All terms used in this part which are... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 319.4 Section 319.4 National... Intelligence Agency....

  5. 5 CFR 9.1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 9.1 Section 9.1... Definition. As used in this rule, 'Executive agency' means an Executive department, a Government corporation... Code, but does not include the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency,...

  6. 45 CFR 1176.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... established to allow job-sharing or comparable arrangements, but does not include employment on a temporary or... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1176.2 Section 1176.2 Public Welfare... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES PART-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT § 1176.2 Definitions. (a) Part-time...

  7. 42 CFR 59a.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.12 Section 59a.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.12 Definitions. Underfined terms have the same meaning...

  8. 9 CFR 11.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 11.1 Section 11.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.1 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, unless the...

  9. 45 CFR 400.141 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Services § 400.141 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart— Refugee social services means any service set... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 400.141 Section 400.141 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR...

  10. 45 CFR 95.505 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 95.505 Section 95.505 Public Welfare... Definitions. As used in this subpart: State agency costs include all costs incurred by or allocable to the... Refugee Resettlement. Public assistance programs means the programs cited in § 95.503. State means the...

  11. 45 CFR 402.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 402.2 Section 402.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND... § 402.2 Definitions. As used in this part— The Act means the Immigration Reform and Control Act of...

  12. 45 CFR 401.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 401.2 Section 401.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CUBAN/HAITIAN ENTRANT PROGRAM § 401.2 Definitions....

  13. 5 CFR 300.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 300.703 Section 300.703... Bar to Appointment of Persons Who Fail To Register Under Selective Service Law § 300.703 Definitions... citizen or an alien (including parolees and refugees and those who are lawfully admitted to the...

  14. 45 CFR 400.41 - Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification of Refugees § 400.41 Definitions For purposes of this subpart— Applicant for asylum means an... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions 400.41 Section 400.41 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  15. 43 CFR 32.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 32.2 Section 32.2 Public... CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.2 Definitions. The terms used in these regulations are defined as... the Pacific Islands and the Northern Marianas. (e) Refugee/parolee. An alien who is admitted into...

  16. 10 CFR 13.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 13.2 Section 13.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.2 Definitions. As used in this part: ALJ means an Administrative... be securely transferred over the Internet. Electronic acknowledgment means a...

  17. 40 CFR 130.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 130.2 Section 130.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.2 Definitions. (a) The Act. The Clean Water Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251...

  18. 28 CFR 26.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.21 Section 26.21 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems § 26.21 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term— Appropriate state official means...

  19. 45 CFR 671.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, signed by the United States in..., liquid, or solid, or mixture thereof, including biological material. Treaty means the Antarctic Treaty... § 671.3 Definitions. (a) Definitions. In this part: Act means the Antarctic Conservation Act of...

  20. 50 CFR 300.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 300.2 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in each act, agreement, convention, or treaty... designated by a member of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources as an inspector under Article XXIV of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources...

  1. 23 CFR 655.602 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 655.602 Section 655.602 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRAFFIC OPERATIONS Traffic Control Devices on Federal-Aid and Other Streets and Highways § 655.602 Definitions. The...

  2. 40 CFR 423.11 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment with chemical compounds, including, but not limited to, boiler tube cleaning. (d) The term metal... limited to, boiler tube cleaning, boiler fireside cleaning, and air preheater cleaning. (e) The term fly... addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this part:...

  3. UNIFORM QUASINILPOTENCY: DEFINITIONS, CONDITIONS, EXAMPLES OF APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Definition of uniform quasinilpotent family of the operators and definition of superuniform quasinilpotent family of the operators are introduced. Corresponding conditions for functional operators are formulated. Applications of these definititions and conditions in the theory of controllable Volterra functional-operator equations are discussed. Financial support of Russian Fundamental Researches Fund (project 07-01-00495), analytical aimed departmental program "Development of Scientific Pote...

  4. 33 CFR 174.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS General § 174.3 Definitions. As used in this part: Operator means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 174.3 Section 174.3... claims lawful possession of a vessel by virtue of legal title or equitable interest therein...

  5. 7 CFR 1424.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.3 Definitions. The definitions set... gallons back to commodity units as determined in the manner announced by CCC; (2) For biodiesel production... commodity programs for marketing loan gains and other matters. Producer is a legal entity...

  6. 50 CFR 680.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to derive, or does derive, either directly, or through a minority shareholder or partner, and in... § 680.2 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in the Magnuson-Stevens Act, in 50 CFR part 600, and... Development Program under subpart C of 50 CFR part 679. CDQ group means a CDQ group as that term is defined...

  7. 20 CFR 404.203 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts General § 404.203 Definitions. (a) General definitions. As used in this subpart— Ad hoc increase in primary insurance amounts means an increase in primary insurance...

  8. 5 CFR 2424.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that otherwise may be negotiable. Examples of bargaining obligation disputes include disagreements... § 2424.2 Definitions. In this part, the following definitions apply: (a) Bargaining obligation dispute... disagrees with an agency contention that (without regard to any bargaining obligation dispute) a proposal...

  9. Power: towards a third generation definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zaaiman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Power is a well-established concept in the social sciences especially in the political sciences. Although it is widely used in scientific discourse, different definitions and perspectives prevail with regard to it. This article aims to explore the possibilities of taking the debate further towards a third generation definition of social power. Although first generation definitions (associated with Weber and Dahl and second generation definitions (associated with inter alia Giddens and Morriss are still widely used in the academic field, they do not reflect the depth of the continuous debate on the concept of power. Viewpoints, especially with regard to agency and freedom, are not reflected in current definitions. To this can also be added the important dynamic relationship between power and change. This article summarises the important aspects of power debates relevant for defining power and discusses possible ways in which this can be accommodated in a definition of power. The current debate on the relationship between power and change is also reinterpreted with regard to defining social power. The article concludes by proposing necessary aspects of a third generation definition of power and suggests such a definition.

  10. 21 CFR 135.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 135.3 Section 135.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS General Provisions § 135.3 Definitions. For the purposes of this part,...

  11. 48 CFR 1516.303-71 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1516.303-71 Definition. Cost... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definition. 1516.303-71... contractor for all allowable costs necessary to accomplish the project under the contract. This...

  12. 16 CFR 1203.32 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203.32 Definitions. The following definitions shall apply to this subpart: (a) Foreign manufacturer means an entity that manufactured a bicycle helmet outside the... manufactured a helmet in the United States or imported a helmet manufactured outside the United States....

  13. 38 CFR 9.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the total amount of insurance covered by the policy and issues individual life insurance policies to... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.1 Definitions. The following definitions are in... the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance, located at 80 Livingston Avenue, Roseland,...

  14. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  15. 23 CFR 230.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE), all defined under 49 CFR part 23. This expanded definition is used only... businesses active in the highway program and contribute to the growth and eventual self-sufficiency of... for Minority, Disadvantaged, and Women Business Enterprises § 230.202 Definitions. (a)...

  16. 32 CFR 552.126 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Control of Firearms, Ammunition and Other Dangerous Weapons on Fort Gordon § 552.126 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, the following definitions... offensive or defensive weapon. Devices of this type include but are not limited to: (1) “Constant...

  17. 40 CFR 463.2 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... organic polymer (i.e., a thermoset polymer, a thermoplastic polymer, or a combination of a natural polymer and a thermoset or thermoplastic polymer) that is solid in its final form and that was shaped by...

  18. 36 CFR 294.11 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Petitions for Inventoried Roadless Area Management § 294.11 Definition. Inventoried roadless areas... subsequent update or revision of those maps through the land management planning process. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 294.11...

  19. 40 CFR 35.6015 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... management and planning tool outlining the specific community relations activities to be undertaken during... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 35.6015 Section 35.6015....6015 Definitions. (a) As used in this subpart, the following words and terms shall have the...

  20. 44 CFR 353.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 353.3 Section 353.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... LICENSEE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 353.3 Definitions. As used in this part,...

  1. 44 CFR 350.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 350.2 Section 350.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 350.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the following terms are defined: (a) Administrator means...

  2. 48 CFR 2009.570-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-2 Definitions... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 2009.570-2... exceeding $10,000. Technical consulting and management support services means internal assistance to...

  3. 25 CFR 900.113 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to providing planning services and construction management services (or a combination of such... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 900.113 Section 900.113 Indians BUREAU OF... Definitions. (a) Construction contract means a fixed-price or cost-reimbursement self-determination...

  4. 42 CFR 438.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 438.2 Section 438.2 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE General Provisions § 438.2 Definitions. As used in this part— Capitation... periodic screening, diagnostic, and treatment (EPSDT) services. (7) Family planning services. (8)...

  5. 44 CFR 201.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 201.2 Section 201.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.2 Definitions. Administrator means the head of...

  6. 8 CFR 204.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Intercountry Adoption of a Convention Adoptee § 204.301 Definitions. The definitions in 22 CFR 96.2 apply to... parent has willfully forsaken all parental rights, obligations, and claims to the child, as well as all... employee of the Central Authority (but not of an agency or entity authorized to perform a Central...

  7. 7 CFR 1430.602 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... declaration. Milk handler or cooperative means the marketing agency to, or through which, the producer commercially markets whole milk. Milk marketings means a marketing of milk for which there is a verifiable... Program II (DDAP-II) § 1430.602 Definitions. The definitions in 7 CFR part 718 shall apply to this...

  8. 21 CFR 1401.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1401.3 Section 1401.3 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.3 Definitions. For the purpose of this part: (a) All the terms defined in the Freedom of Information Act apply. (b)...

  9. 22 CFR 308.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 308.3 Section 308.3 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.3 Definitions. (a) Record means any... residence. (f) The term maintain includes the maintenance, collection, use or dissemination of any...

  10. 22 CFR 1507.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 1507.3 Section 1507.3 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION § 1507.3 Definitions. (a... permanent residence. (f) The term maintain includes the maintenance, collection, use or dissemination of...

  11. 5 CFR 1653.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... based in whole or in part upon the physical, sexual, or emotional abuse of a child, whether or not that... THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Child Abuse Court Orders § 1653.21 Definitions. (a) Definitions generally applicable to the Thrift Savings Plan are set forth at 5 CFR 1690.1. (b) As used in this subpart: Child...

  12. 9 CFR 362.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., association, firm, partnership, society, or joint stock company, or other organized business unit. (d) Poultry... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY POULTRY INSPECTION REGULATIONS § 362.1 Definitions. The definitions in § 381.1...

  13. 33 CFR 321.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transport interstate or foreign commerce. See 33 CFR part 329 for a more complete definition of this term... Act of 1899. (See 33 CFR part 322.) ... DAMS AND DIKES IN NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES § 321.2 Definitions. For the purpose of...

  14. Fusion Simulation Program Definition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have completed our contributions to the Fusion Simulation Program Definition Project. Our contributions were in the overall planning with concentration in the definition of the area of Software Integration and Support. We contributed to the planning of multiple meetings, and we contributed to multiple planning documents

  15. 42 CFR 476.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 476.1 Section 476.1 Public Health... IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW General Provisions § 476.1 Definitions. As... care facilities or association of facilities in the QIO area. Norm means a pattern of performance...

  16. 42 CFR 456.151 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 456.151 Section 456.151 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals § 456.151 Definitions. As used in this subpart: Medical care appraisal norms or norms means numerical or statistical measures...

  17. 42 CFR 456.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 456.51 Section 456.51 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals § 456.51 Definitions. As used in this... hospitals appear in subpart D. Medical care appraisal norms or norms means numerical or statistical...

  18. 48 CFR 22.103-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 22.103-1... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.103-1 Definition... does not exceed the norm for the area, as determined by local custom, tradition, or law; and (2)...

  19. 14 CFR 1214.201 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 1214.201 Section 1214.201... the STS Program § 1214.201 Definition. For the purpose of this subpart, the term users means: (a) For... observer nations participating in Spacelab development, and Canada, when conducting experimental science...

  20. 32 CFR 168a.3 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 168a.3 Section 168a.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING NATIONAL DEFENSE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS § 168a.3 Definition. Sponsoring Agency. A DoD Component or...

  1. 16 CFR 1610.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.2 Definitions. In addition to the definitions given in... the flame burns the ground (base) fabric of a raised surface textile fabric and provides a self... of a raised surface textile fabric undergo combustion. Base burns can be identified by an...

  2. A new definition of the fractional Laplacian

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, W.

    2002-01-01

    It is noted that the standard definition of the fractional Laplacian leads to a hyper-singular convolution integral and is also obscure about how to implement the boundary conditions. This purpose of this note is to introduce a new definition of the fractional Laplacian to overcome these major drawbacks.

  3. 48 CFR 1217.7000 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 1217.7000... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Fixed Price Contracts for Vessel Repair, Alteration or Conversion 1217.7000 Definition. Lay Days means the time allowed to the master of a vessel for loading...

  4. 7 CFR 1430.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1430.1 Section 1430.1 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Price Support Program for Milk § 1430.1 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart, unless the context indicates otherwise, the following...

  5. 33 CFR 177.03 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to the requirements of 46 CFR chapter I, subchapter C. (c) Coast Guard Boarding Officer means a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 177.03 Section 177... SAFETY CORRECTION OF ESPECIALLY HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS § 177.03 Definitions. As used in this part: (a)...

  6. 12 CFR 926.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 926.1 Section 926.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Governmental agency means...

  7. 12 CFR 956.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 956.1 Section 956.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Deposits in banks or...

  8. 25 CFR 286.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 286.1 Section 286.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES INDIAN BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM § 286.1 Definitions. As used in this part 286: Area Director means the Bureau of Indian Affairs official in charge...

  9. 12 CFR 211.42 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 211.42 Section 211.42 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.42 Definitions. For the purposes of...

  10. 12 CFR 591.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 591.2 Section 591.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PREEMPTION OF STATE DUE-ON-SALE LAWS... without the lender's prior written consent. For purposes of this definition, a sale or transfer means...

  11. 12 CFR 535.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 535.1 Section 535.1 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROHIBITED CONSUMER CREDIT PRACTICES (Eff... interest pursuant to state law. A person is a cosigner within the meaning of this definition whether or...

  12. 40 CFR 35.672 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 35.672 Section 35.672... ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.672 Definition. Tribe. Any Indian Tribe having a federally recognized governing...

  13. 12 CFR 565.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 565.2 Section 565.2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION § 565.2... assets as provided in the definition of tangible equity. (j) Total risk-based capital ratio means...

  14. 7 CFR 760.1102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Angora goats. Non-adult beef cattle means a bovine animal that weighed 500 pounds or more on the... bull. Non-adult dairy cattle means a bovine livestock, of a breed used for the purpose of providing... Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Adult beef bull means a male beef bovine...

  15. 40 CFR 429.11 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401, the following definitions apply to this... pollutants (NESHAP) for plywood and composite wood products (PCWP) facilities (40 CFR part 63, subpart DDDD... washout of thermal oxidizers or catalytic oxidizers, wastewater from biofilters, or wastewater from...

  16. 26 CFR 1.535-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition. 1.535-1 Section 1.535-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.535-1 Definition. (a)...

  17. 10 CFR 440.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... geothermal deposits, energy derived from biomass (or any other form of renewable energy which DOE... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 440.3 Section 440.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.3 Definitions. As...

  18. 34 CFR 675.41 - Special definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following definitions apply to this subpart: (a) Work-college: An eligible institution that— (1) Is a public... institution's educational philosophy and program; (2) Requires participation of all resident students for... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special definitions. 675.41 Section 675.41...

  19. Quality, Efficiency, and Accountability: Definitions and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2007-01-01

    This article presents working definitions of efficiency, accountability, and quality, offering a framework in which an individual institution can make idiosyncratic use of these definitions, suggests tools for managing educational processes with respect to these three attributes, and presents examples of how institutions have improved efficiency,…

  20. 40 CFR 205.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 205.51 Section 205.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.51 Definitions. (a) As used in this...

  1. 20 CFR 501.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 501.1 Section 501.1 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION APPEALS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RULES OF PROCEDURE § 501.1 Definitions. (a) FECA means the Federal Employees' Compensation Act, 5 U.S.C. 8101 et seq. and any...

  2. 40 CFR 82.104 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an item or category of items manufactured from raw or recycled materials, or other products, which is... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 82.104 Section 82.104... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.104 Definitions. (a) Class...

  3. 40 CFR 63.681 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... stream from the point-of-delivery through the point where the material has been recycled, reprocessed, or... definition of “used oil” in 40 CFR 279.1. Used solvent means a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons or a mixture... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 63.681 Section...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1020 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... emissions are predominantly recycled and/or consumed in the same manner as a material that fulfills the same... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 63.1020 Section 63.1020... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1020 Definitions. All terms used in this...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recycled and/or consumed in the same manner as a material that fulfills the same function in the process... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 63.1001 Section 63.1001... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1001 Definitions. All terms used in this part shall...

  6. 40 CFR 82.62 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... category of items manufactured from raw or recycled materials which is used to perform a function or task... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 82.62 Section 82.62... Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.62 Definitions. For purposes of this...

  7. Extending Classical Logic with Inductive Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Denecker, Marc

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to extend classical logic with a generalized notion of inductive definition supporting positive and negative induction, to investigate the properties of this logic, its relationships to other logics in the area of non-monotonic reasoning, logic programming and deductive databases, and to show its application for knowledge representation by giving a typology of definitional knowledge.

  8. 5 CFR 179.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 179.302 Section 179.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.302 Definitions. Administrative offset, as defined in 31 U.S.C. 3701(a)(1),...

  9. 5 CFR 185.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 185.102 Section 185.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.102 Definitions. For the purposes of this part— ALJ means an Administrative Law Judge in...

  10. 24 CFR 81.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Familial status has the same definition as is set forth at 24 CFR 100.20. Family means one or more... GSE Security or a Book-entry GSE Security. Handicap has the same definition as is set forth at 24 CFR..., Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam;...

  11. [Dutch language area definition of chronic fatigue].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenromp, I.H.; Meeus, M.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic fatigue is a frequent but unspecific characteristic of many diseases. However, a clear definition of 'chronic fatigue' is still lacking. The Flemish-Dutch Research Group - Chronic Fatigue (VNO-CHROVER) has taken the opportunity to formulate such a definition that can be widely applied. This

  12. 47 CFR 1.1621 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.1621 Section 1.1621 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1621 Definitions. (a) Medium of mass communications means: (1) A daily newspaper; (2) A cable...

  13. 45 CFR 1608.2 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 1608.2 Section 1608.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PROHIBITED POLITICAL ACTIVITIES § 1608.2 Definition. Legal assistance activities, as used in this part, means any activity. (a) Carried out during an employee's...

  14. 45 CFR 88.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organizations, and other quasi-public and private nonprofit organizations such as, but not limited to, community... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 88.2 Section 88.2 Public Welfare... SERVICES FUNDS DO NOT SUPPORT COERCIVE OR DISCRIMINATORY POLICIES OR PRACTICES § 88.2 Definitions. For...

  15. 43 CFR 46.30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POLICY ACT OF 1969 General Information § 46.30 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the following definitions supplement terms defined at 40 CFR parts 1500-1508. Adaptive management is a system of management... (in a record of decision for an environmental impact statement, in accordance with 40 CFR 1505.2)...

  16. 40 CFR 35.161 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 35.161 Section 35.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.161 Definition....

  17. 40 CFR 35.141 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 35.141 Section 35.141 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.141 Definitions. In...

  18. 10 CFR 431.172 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions for Commercial HVAC & Water Heating Products § 431.172 Definitions. The following definitions... forth in Section 340 of the Act. Basic model means, with respect to a commercial HVAC & WH product, all... consumption. Commercial HVAC & WH product means any small or large commercial package air-conditioning...

  19. 8 CFR 331.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 331.1 Section 331.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS ALIEN ENEMIES; NATURALIZATION UNDER SPECIFIED CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES § 331.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Alien enemy means any...

  20. 22 CFR 63.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 63.1 Section 63.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.1 Definitions. For the purpose...

  1. 22 CFR 92.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 92.1 Section 92.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Introduction § 92.1 Definitions. (a) In the United States the term notary or notary public means a public officer qualified...

  2. 22 CFR 61.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 61.2 Section 61.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.2 Definitions. Department—means the Department of State. Applicant— means: (1) The United...

  3. 45 CFR 225.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 225.1 Section 225.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR... VOLUNTEERS § 225.1 Definitions. (a) The classification of subprofessional staff as community service...

  4. 22 CFR 64.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 64.2 Section 64.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PARTICIPATION BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES IN CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 64.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this part: (a)...

  5. 34 CFR 675.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., purchasing, and public relations are never considered student services. Undergraduate student: A student... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 675.2 Section 675.2 Education Regulations..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.2 Definitions. (a)...

  6. 22 CFR 46.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 46.1 Section 46.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS CONTROL OF ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 46.1 Definitions... public ferry, passenger vessel sailing coastwise on a fixed schedule, excursion vessel, or...

  7. 22 CFR 171.20 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 171.20 Section 171.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Executive Order 12958 Provisions § 171.20 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following...

  8. 42 CFR 421.401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 421.401 Section 421.401 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medicare Administrative Contractors (MACs) § 421.401 Definitions. For... perform a particular Medicare administrative function in relation to: (1) A particular individual...

  9. Oxidation and Reduction: Too Many Definitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    2011-01-01

    IUPAC gives several different definitions of oxidation: loss of electrons, increase in oxidation state, loss of hydrogen, or gain of oxygen. Most introductory or general chemistry textbooks use all of these definitions at one time or another, which can lead to some confusion in the minds of first-year chemistry students. Some paradoxical…

  10. 46 CFR 295.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (x) Related party, means: (1) a holding company, subsidiary, affiliate, or associate of a contractor... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 295.2 Section 295.2 Shipping MARITIME... SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Introduction § 295.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part: (a) Act, means...

  11. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught…

  12. 5 CFR 1645.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD CALCULATION OF SHARE PRICES § 1645.1 Definitions. (a) Definitions generally applicable to the Thrift Savings Plan are set forth at 5 CFR 1690.1. (b... means the number of shares of an investment fund upon which the calculation of a share price is...

  13. 24 CFR 570.701 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Loan Guarantees § 570.701 Definitions... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 570.701 Section 570.701 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  14. 24 CFR 570.500 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Grant Administration § 570.500 Definitions... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 570.500 Section 570.500 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  15. 9 CFR 439.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “Correct chemical residue identification” definition. (e) Coefficient of variation (CV)—The standard... smallest concentration for which the average coefficient of variation (CV) for reproducibility (i.e...-FEDERAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORIES § 439.1 Definitions. (a) Accreditation—Determination by FSIS that...

  16. 31 CFR 103.90 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definitions apply: (a) Money laundering means an activity criminalized by 18 U.S.C. 1956 or 1957, or an... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 103.90 Section 103.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING...

  17. 30 CFR 7.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS TESTING BY APPLICANT OR THIRD PARTY Electric Motor Assemblies § 7.302 Definitions. The following definitions apply in this subpart: Afterburning. The combustion of any flammable mixture that is... motor. Essential parts include the parts that constitute the flame-arresting path and those necessary...

  18. 37 CFR 385.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paragraph (1) of the definition of “Service revenue,” such revenue shall, for the avoidance of doubt, (i... paragraph (1) of the definition of “Service revenue,” such revenue shall, for the avoidance of doubt... Accepted Accounting Principles, and including for the avoidance of doubt barter or...

  19. 32 CFR 235.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SALE OR RENTAL OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL ON DOD PROPERTY § 235.3 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, the following definitions apply: Dominant theme. A theme of any material that is superior in... Exchanges, and ship stores. Sexually explicit material. Material, the dominant theme of which is...

  20. 7 CFR 400.52 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 400.52 Section 400.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Actual Production History § 400.52 Definitions. In addition...