WorldWideScience

Sample records for appalachia variable definition

  1. Amenities and Rural Appalachia Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Deller, Steven C.; Lledo, Victor

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of economic growth in rural Appalachia are examined with a focus on natural and built amenities. While the literature is clear that rural areas endowed with scenic beauty, lakes, forests, and wildlife, among other natural amenities, and coupled with built amenities such as golf courses, are experiencing robust economic growth. It is not clear if these patterns extend to rural Appalachia. In this applied research study we use data for rural U.S. counties. We estimate an augmented Carl...

  2. An Exploration of Poverty in Central Appalachia: Questions of Culture, Industry, and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Robinson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By most government statistical definitions, Central Appalachia is one of the most impoverished regions in the United States. Many of the region’s residents are low-income, dependent on government benefits, have high rates of obesity and diabetes, and low rates of college educational obtainment. Central Appalachia is historically tied to the coal mining and railroad industries. Many scholars believe this historical bond created an internal colony of company-dependent residents who have been unable to transition successfully from those industry’s boom eras or escape the lingering effects of industry environmental, health and economic degradation. While coal mining stripped the land of Central Appalachia and often cheated its residents from access to economic well-being and opportunity by traditional American definitions, Central Appalachians have created a rich culture based on kinship, religion, fatalism and community pride. Today, significant questions arise regarding the impact of advanced communication technologies and the associated infiltration of a monolithic standard for American success; success defined by material gain idealized by middle-class suburban living. While advanced communication technologies are often praised for their capacity to advance education, employment and cross-cultural understanding, in regions such as Central Appalachia, they may undermine the foundation of culture the residents have built in order to survive decades of isolation and exploitation.

  3. Lung cancer mortality is elevated in coal-mining areas of Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; O' Donnell, K.; Horn, K. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Previous research has documented increased lung cancer incidence and mortality in Appalachia. The current study tests whether residence in coal-mining areas of Appalachia is a contributing factor. We conducted a national county-level analysis to identify contributions of smoking rates, socioeconomic variables, coal-mining intensity and other variables to age-adjusted lung cancer mortality. Results demonstrate that lung cancer mortality for the years 2000-2004 is higher in areas of heavy Appalachian coal mining after adjustments for smoking, poverty, education, age, sex, race and other covariates. Higher mortality may be the result of exposure to environmental contaminates associated with the coal-mining industry, although smoking and poverty are also contributing factors. The knowledge of the geographic areas within Appalachia where lung cancer mortality is higher can be used to target programmatic and policy interventions. The set of socioeconomic and health inequalities characteristic of coal-mining areas of Appalachia highlights the need to develop more diverse, alternative local economies.

  4. Dengue disease outbreak definitions are implicitly variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. Brady

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases rarely exhibit simple dynamics. Outbreaks (defined as excess cases beyond response capabilities have the potential to cause a disproportionately high burden due to overwhelming health care systems. The recommendations of international policy guidelines and research agendas are based on a perceived standardised definition of an outbreak characterised by a prolonged, high-caseload, extra-seasonal surge. In this analysis we apply multiple candidate outbreak definitions to reported dengue case data from Brazil to test this assumption. The methods identify highly heterogeneous outbreak characteristics in terms of frequency, duration and case burden. All definitions identify outbreaks with characteristics that vary over time and space. Further, definitions differ in their timeliness of outbreak onset, and thus may be more or less suitable for early intervention. This raises concerns about the application of current outbreak guidelines for early warning/identification systems. It is clear that quantitatively defining the characteristics of an outbreak is an essential prerequisite for effective reactive response. More work is needed so that definitions of disease outbreaks can take into account the baseline capacities of treatment, surveillance and control. This is essential if outbreak guidelines are to be effective and generalisable across a range of epidemiologically different settings.

  5. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Neiswanger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women, recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA, assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA, timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood, quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural and Pittsburgh (primarily urban. These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  6. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation.

  7. On Definition of Geograghic Variable Scaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yexun; LI Zhanyuan; HUANG Hu

    2006-01-01

    According to the description effect range, the method of scaling system in cartography is with the precision of four grades: nominal scaling, ordinal scaling, interval scaling and ratio scaling. The authors have researched their innate character and inherent relations. The essence of evaluation partialordering set (A, ≤) is the mapping of evaluation object (X, ≤) under fixed condition. The collection and classification of xi∈X corresponds how to express Aj∈A, i.e.,xi∈Xf(xi)=Aj∈A, Aj is the image of xi under mapping f. The function relation between evaluation partial-ordering set (A, ≤) and evaluation object (X, ≤) is decided by the space character and the way of collection and classification. The different space character and way of collection and classification will produce the different express method and evaluation result, accordingly the authors give out the mathematical definitions for nominal scaling, ordinal scaling, interval scaling and ratio scaling respectively. These results have been proved through the examples.

  8. Age at diagnosis of diabetes in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Richard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appalachia is a region of the United States noted for the poverty and poor health outcomes of its residents. Residents of the poorest Appalachian counties have a high prevalence of diabetes and risk factors (obesity, low income, low education, etc. for type 2 diabetes. However, diabetes prevalence exceeds what these risk factors alone explain. Based on this, the history of poor health outcomes in Appalachia, and personally observed high rates of childhood obesity and lack of concern about prediabetes, we speculated that people in Appalachia with diagnosed diabetes might tend to be diagnosed younger than their non-Appalachian counterparts. Methods We used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2006-2008. We compared age at diagnosis among counties by Appalachian Regional Commission-defined level of economic development. To account for risk differences, we constructed a model for average age at diagnosis of diabetes, adjusting for county economic development, obesity, income, sedentary lifestyle, and other covariates. Findings After adjustment for risk factors for diabetes, people in distressed or at-risk counties (the least economically developed had their diabetes diagnosed two to three years younger than comparable people in non-Appalachian counties. No significant differences between non-Appalachian counties and Appalachian counties at higher levels of economic development remained after adjusting. Conclusions People in distressed and at-risk counties have poor access to care, and are unlikely to develop diabetes at the same age as their non-Appalachian counterparts but be diagnosed sooner. Therefore, people in distressed and at-risk counties are likely developing diabetes at younger ages. We recommend that steps to reduce health disparities between the poorest Appalachian counties and non-Appalachian counties be considered.

  9. Cancer Screening Practices among Amish and Non-Amish Adults Living in Ohio Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Paskett, Electra D.; Harley, Amy; Reiter, Paul L.; Lemeshow, Stanley; Westman, Judith A.; Clinton, Steven K.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Amish, a unique community living in Ohio Appalachia, have lower cancer incidence rates than non-Amish living in Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to examine cancer screening rates among Amish compared to non-Amish adults living in Ohio Appalachia and a national sample of adults of the same race and ethnicity in an effort…

  10. An analysis of adult obesity and hypertension in appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath Bandara, Saman Janaranjana; Brown, Cheryl

    2013-02-22

    Obesity is a major health problem in the United States, and the burden associated is high. Hypertension seems to be the most common obesity-related health problem. Studies show that hypertension is approximately twice as prevalent among the obese as in the non-obese population. This study has two main objectives. First, to examine the association between obesity and hypertension within the context of economic growth in Appalachia, and second to estimate the cost of hypertension linked to obesity in Appalachia. The study uses simultaneous equations and Logit analysis for estimations. Data are from Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance Systems (BRFSS) surveys of 2001 and 2009. Results for simultaneous analysis show that hypertension decreases with decreasing obesity, increasing employment growth, and increasing income. Logit analysis highlights the importance of controlling obesity, income growth, employment growth, education, and exercises in mitigating hypertension in Appalachia. Ageing indicates a high potential of getting hypertension. Total economic cost of hypertension linked to obesity is $9.35 billion, significantly a high cost to Appalachia. Overall, results reveal the impacts of obesity on hypertension and some possible ways of mitigation. Thus, results suggest a comprehensive set of policies to Appalachia which sufficiently improve employment opportunities, educational facilities, and healthcare facilities with adequately addressed to obesity and hypertension.

  11. Aging in Rural Appalachia: Perspectives from Geriatric Social Service Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie D. Pope

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses qualitative methodology to explore the experience of growing old in rural Appalachia. Given the growing population of older adults seeking and utilizing services, it is important to understand the challenges and specific needs related to aging. Within the context of rural Appalachia, these challenges and needs may be different than those in urban areas or areas outside of the region itself. From interviews with 14 geriatric service providers in rural southeast Ohio, the authors were able to identity three prevalent themes associated with aging in rural North Central Appalachia: scarcity of resources, valuing neighbors and family, and the prevalence of drug use. These findings suggest that preparation and ongoing training of rural geriatric social workers should include attention to topics such as substance abuse and strengthening social support networks that often exist in these regions.

  12. Cultural awareness: Enhancing clinical experiences in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Chaundel

    2013-01-01

    Students often work with clients from a cultural group different than their own. This is especially true for students completing clinical practica in Appalachia, where there is a culture unique to that geographic area. To prepare for this unique setting, common cultural scenarios experienced in the clinical setting must be addressed to help provide culturally appropriate patient care while developing required clinical competencies. Although applicable to most nursing students, the author discusses culturally specific approaches to clinical care of clients from Appalachia, specifically applied to nurse practitioner students, preceptors, and clinical faculty.

  13. The Extremism of Two Variable Function Based on the Positive Definite Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Bao-xian; LI Xiu-li

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we give out a sufficientand solution of quadratic function's maximum with theory of quadratic form and give out the definition of the positivedefinite property of the following homogeneous polynomials of degree 2n two variables function, based on the definite of localmaximum of two variables function.

  14. Birthin' Babies: The History of Midwifery in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Patricia; Parker, Vicky K.; Zajdel, Ruth Hopkins

    This paper examines the history of midwifery in Appalachia. Throughout history, women in labor have been supported by other women. Midwives learned as apprentices, gaining skills and knowledge from older women. Eventually, formalized training for midwives was developed in Europe, but no professional training existed in the United States until…

  15. 30 CFR 881.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 881.2 Section 881.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.2 Definitions. As used...

  16. Factors influencing smokeless tobacco use in rural Ohio Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Liu, Sherry T; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Kwan, Mei-Po; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-12-01

    The burden of smokeless tobacco (ST) use disproportionally impacts males in rural Ohio Appalachia. The purpose of this study was to describe the cultural factors contributing to this disparity and to articulate the way in which culture, through interpersonal factors (i.e. social norms and social networks) and community factors (i.e. marketing and availability), impacts ST initiation and use of ST among boys and men in Ohio Appalachia. Fifteen focus groups and 23 individual qualitative interviews were conducted with adult (n = 63) and adolescent (n = 53) residents in Ohio Appalachian counties to ascertain factors associated with ST use and the impact of ST marketing. Transcriptions were independently coded according to questions and themes. ST use appears to be a rite of passage in the development of masculine identity in Ohio Appalachian culture. Interpersonal factors had the greatest influence on initiation and continued use of ST. Ohio Appalachian boys either emulated current ST users or were actively encouraged to use ST through male family and peer networks. Users perceived their acceptance into the male social network as predicated on ST use. Community factors, including ST advertisement and access to ST, reinforced and normalized underlying cultural values. In addition to policy aimed at reducing tobacco marketing and access, interventions designed to reduce ST use in Ohio Appalachia should incorporate efforts to (1) shift the perception of cultural norms regarding ST use and (2) address male social networks as vehicles in ST initiation.

  17. Fuzzy random variables — I. definitions and theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, Huibert

    1978-01-01

    Fuzziness is discussed in the context of multivalued logic, and a corresponding view of fuzzy sets is given. Fuzzy random variables are introduced as random variables whose values are not real but fuzzy numbers, and subsequently redefined as a particular kind of fuzzy set. Expectations of fuzzy rand

  18. Defining autism: variability in state education agency definitions of and evaluations for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Malinda L; Cullinan, Douglas; Southern, Louise B

    2014-01-01

    In light of the steady rise in the prevalence of students with autism, this study examined the definition of autism published by state education agencies (SEAs), as well as SEA-indicated evaluation procedures for determining student qualification for autism. We compared components of each SEA definition to aspects of autism from two authoritative sources: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA-2004). We also compared SEA-indicated evaluation procedures across SEAs to evaluation procedures noted in IDEA-2004. Results indicated that many more SEA definitions incorporate IDEA-2004 features than DSM-IV-TR features. However, despite similar foundations, SEA definitions of autism displayed considerable variability. Evaluation procedures were found to vary even more across SEAs. Moreover, within any particular SEA there often was little concordance between the definition (what autism is) and evaluation procedures (how autism is recognized). Recommendations for state and federal policy changes are discussed.

  19. Underdeveloping Appalachia: Toward an environmental sociology of extractive economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, William Ryan

    This dissertation uses mixed methods to examine the role of the coal industry in the reproduction of Central Appalachia as an internal periphery within the United States and the economic, ecological, and human inequalities this entails. It also analyzes the related political economy and power structure of coal in a national context. Particularly important for analysis of the region's underdevelopment are the class relations involved in unequal ecological exchange and the establishment of successive "modes of extraction." I employ a historical comparative analysis of Appalachia to evaluate Bunker's thesis that resource dependent peripheries often become locked into a "mode of extraction" (with aspects parallel to Marxist concepts of mode of production) triggering economic and ecological path dependencies leading to underdevelopment. This historical comparative analysis establishes the background for a closer examination of the political economy of the modern US coal industry. After sketching the changes in the structure of monopoly and competition in the coal industry I employ network analysis of the directorate interlocks of the top twenty coal firms in the US within the larger energy policy-planning network to examine their connections with key institutions of the policy formation network of think tanks and business groups. My findings show the importance of the capacities of fossil fuel fractions of the capitalist class in formulating energy policy around issues such as the 2009 climate legislation. As a contribution to the growing literature applying the concept of metabolism as link between contemporary and classical theory, I examine the conflict at Coal River Mountain from the vantage points of ecology, political economy, and human development in dialectical rotation. Utilizing Marx's method of successive abstractions, the mountain is presented as a nexus of metabolic rifts in the human relationship to the earth's natural systems and an impediment to genuine

  20. Defining Autism: Variability in State Education Agency Definitions of and Evaluations for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinda L. Pennington

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of the steady rise in the prevalence of students with autism, this study examined the definition of autism published by state education agencies (SEAs, as well as SEA-indicated evaluation procedures for determining student qualification for autism. We compared components of each SEA definition to aspects of autism from two authoritative sources: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA-2004. We also compared SEA-indicated evaluation procedures across SEAs to evaluation procedures noted in IDEA-2004. Results indicated that many more SEA definitions incorporate IDEA-2004 features than DSM-IV-TR features. However, despite similar foundations, SEA definitions of autism displayed considerable variability. Evaluation procedures were found to vary even more across SEAs. Moreover, within any particular SEA there often was little concordance between the definition (what autism is and evaluation procedures (how autism is recognized. Recommendations for state and federal policy changes are discussed.

  1. With Reference to Appalachia. A Collection of Mid-Twentieth-Century Facts and Viewpoints Selected on the Basis of Pertinence to Adult Education in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Ruth H., Comp.

    Data describing conditions, resources, deficiencies, problems, and potentialities in Appalachia are presented as the first step of an evaluative and program-improvement study for the Appalachian Adult Basic Education Demonstration Center. The rationale for this data collection is that an adult education program can be significant only as it…

  2. Intra-individual variability in Alzheimer's disease and cognitive aging: definitions, context, and effect sizes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle E Tractenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: To explore different definitions of intra-individual variability (IIV to summarize performance on commonly utilized cognitive tests (Mini Mental State Exam; Clock Drawing Test; compare them and their potential to differentiate clinically-defined populations; and to examine their utility in predicting clinical change in individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI. METHODS: Sample statistics were computed from ADNI cohorts with no cognitive diagnosis, a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and a diagnosis of possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (AD. Nine different definitions of IIV were computed for each sample, and standardized effect sizes (Cohen's d were computed for each of these definitions in 500 simulated replicates using scores on the Mini Mental State Exam and Clock Drawing Test. IIV was computed based on test items separately ('within test' IIV and the two tests together ('across test' IIV. The best performing definition was then used to compute IIV for a third test, the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive, and the simulations and effect sizes were again computed. All effect size estimates based on simulated data were compared to those computed based on the total scores in the observed data. Association between total score and IIV summaries of the tests and the Clinician's Dementia Rating were estimated to test the utility of IIV in predicting clinically meaningful changes in the cohorts over 12- and 24-month intervals. RESULTS: ES estimates differed substantially depending on the definition of IIV and the test(s on which IIV was based. IIV (coefficient of variation summaries of MMSE and Clock-Drawing performed similarly to their total scores, the ADAS total performed better than its IIV summary. CONCLUSION: IIV can be computed within (items or across (totals items on commonly-utilized cognitive tests, and may provide a useful additional summary measure of

  3. Beyond formal groups: neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lukacs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how watershed organizations in Appalachia have persisted in addressing water quality issues in areas with a history of coal mining. We identified two watershed groups that have taken responsibility for restoring local creeks that were previously highly degraded and sporadically managed. These watershed groups represent cases of self-organized commons governance in resource-rich, economically poor Appalachian communities. We describe the extent and characteristics of links between watershed group volunteers and watershed residents who are not group members. Through surveys, participant observation, and key-informant consultation, we found that neighbors – group members as well as non-group-members – supported the group's function through informal neighboring acts. Past research has shown that local commons governance institutions benefit from being nested in supportive external structures. We found that the persistence and success of community watershed organizations depends on the informal participation of local residents, affirming the necessity of looking beyond formal, organized groups to understand the resources, expertise, and information needed to address complex water pollution at the watershed level. Our findings augment the concept of nestedness in commons governance to include that of a formal organization acting as a neighbor that exchanges informal neighboring acts with local residents. In this way, we extend the concept of neighboring to include interactions between individuals and a group operating in the same geographic area.

  4. Book Learning: Exploring the Meaning of Formal Education in Central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 the school dropout rate in Central Appalachia was at 27% and the drug problem was epidemic. An investigation centered on a sample of Central Appalachian residents who had been discharged from the local outpatient clinic for opiate dependency revealed insights into their educational experiences and an understanding of drug dependency and…

  5. Inter- and Intra-Observer Variability in Prostate Definition With Tissue Harmonic and Brightness Mode Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, Gurpreet Kaur, E-mail: Gurpreet.Sandhu2@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dunscombe, Peter [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Meyer, Tyler [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Pavamani, Simon [Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Christian Medical College, Vellore (India); Khan, Rao [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the relative utility of tissue harmonic (H) and brightness (B) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images of the prostate by studying interobserver and intraobserver variation in prostate delineation. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with early-stage disease were randomly selected. TRUS images of prostates were acquired using B and H modes. The prostates on all images were contoured by an experienced radiation oncologist (RO) and five equally trained observers. The observers were blinded to information regarding patient and imaging mode. The volumes of prostate glands and areas of midgland slices were calculated. Volumes contoured were compared among the observers and between observer group and RO. Contours on one patient were repeated five times by four observers to evaluate the intraobserver variability. Results: A one-sample Student t-test showed the volumes outlined by five observers are in agreement (p > 0.05) with the RO. Paired Student t-test showed prostate volumes (p = 0.008) and midgland areas (p = 0.006) with H mode were significantly smaller than that with B mode. Two-factor analysis of variances showed significant interobserver variability (p < 0.001) in prostate volumes and areas. Inter- and intraobserver consistency was quantified as the standard deviation of mean volumes and areas, and concordance indices. It was found that for small glands ({<=}35 cc) H mode provided greater interobserver consistency; however, for large glands ({>=}35 cc), B mode provided more consistent estimates. Conclusions: H mode provided superior inter- and intraobserver agreement in prostate volume definition for small to medium prostates. In large glands, H mode does not exhibit any additional advantage. Although harmonic imaging has not proven advantageous for all cases, its utilization seems to be judicious for small prostates.

  6. Down deep in the holler: chasing seeds and stories in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veteto, James R

    2013-09-27

    This essay, which is the third in the series "Recollections, Reflections, and Revelations: Ethnobiologists and their First Time in the Field", is a personal reflection by the researcher on his experience and involvement in kinship and friendship networks while conducting agrobiodiversity research in southern Appalachia, USA. Vignettes are given from moving moments spent with Native spiritual leaders, backcountry mountain people, and local co-collaborators in the research process. The author demonstrates how lasting field friendships have helped lead to groundbreaking ethnoecological research.

  7. Combined mineralogical and EXAFS characterization of polluted sediments for the definition of technological variables and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigatti, M. F.; Elmi, C.; Laurora, A.; Malferrari, D.; Medici, L.

    2009-04-01

    An extremely severe aspect, both from environmental and economic viewpoint, is the management of polluted sediments removed from drainage and irrigation canals. Canals, in order to retain their functionality over the time, need to have their beds, periodically cleaned from sediments there accumulating. The management of removed sediments is extremely demanding, also from an economical perspective, if these latter needs to be treated as dangerous waste materials, as stated in numerous international standards. Furthermore the disposal of such a large amount of material may introduce a significant environmental impact as well. An appealing alternative is the recovery or reuse of these materials, for example in brick and tile industry, after obviously the application of appropriate techniques and protocols that could render these latter no longer a threat for human health. The assessment of the effective potential danger for human health and ecosystem of sediments before and after treatment obviously requires both a careful chemical and mineralogical characterization and, even if not always considered in the international standards, the definition of the coordination shell of heavy metals dangerous for human health, as a function of their oxidation state and coordination (e.g. Cr and Pb), and introducing technological constraints or affecting the features of the end products. Fe is a good representative for this second category, as the features of the end product, such as color, strongly depend not only from Fe concentration but also from its oxidation state, speciation and coordination. This work will first of all provide mineralogical characterization of sediments from various sampling points of irrigation and drainage canals of Po river region in the north-eastern of Italy. Samples were investigated with various approaches including X-ray powder diffraction under non-ambient conditions, thermal analysis and EXAFS spectroscopy. Obtained results, and in particular

  8. Defining Autism: Variability in State Education Agency Definitions of and Evaluations for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Malinda L.; Douglas Cullinan; Southern, Louise B.

    2014-01-01

    In light of the steady rise in the prevalence of students with autism, this study examined the definition of autism published by state education agencies (SEAs), as well as SEA-indicated evaluation procedures for determining student qualification for autism. We compared components of each SEA definition to aspects of autism from two authoritative sources: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA-2004). ...

  9. A point-process model of human heartbeat intervals: new definitions of heart rate and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Riccardo; Matten, Eric C; Alabi, Abdulrasheed A; Brown, Emery N

    2005-01-01

    Heart rate is a vital sign, whereas heart rate variability is an important quantitative measure of cardiovascular regulation by the autonomic nervous system. Although the design of algorithms to compute heart rate and assess heart rate variability is an active area of research, none of the approaches considers the natural point-process structure of human heartbeats, and none gives instantaneous estimates of heart rate variability. We model the stochastic structure of heartbeat intervals as a history-dependent inverse Gaussian process and derive from it an explicit probability density that gives new definitions of heart rate and heart rate variability: instantaneous R-R interval and heart rate standard deviations. We estimate the time-varying parameters of the inverse Gaussian model by local maximum likelihood and assess model goodness-of-fit by Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests based on the time-rescaling theorem. We illustrate our new definitions in an analysis of human heartbeat intervals from 10 healthy subjects undergoing a tilt-table experiment. Although several studies have identified deterministic, nonlinear dynamical features in human heartbeat intervals, our analysis shows that a highly accurate description of these series at rest and in extreme physiological conditions may be given by an elementary, physiologically based, stochastic model.

  10. Self-dual variables, positive semi-definite action, and discrete transformations in 4-d quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Soo, C P

    1995-01-01

    A positive semi-definite Euclidean action for arbitrary four-topologies can be constructed by adding appropriate Yang-Mills and topological terms to the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action of gravity with (anti)self-dual variables. Moreover, the (anti)self-dual sector of the new theory corresponds precisely to {\\it all} Einstein manifolds in four dimensions. The Lorentzian signature action, and its analytic continuations are also considered. A self-contained discussion is given on the effects of discrete transformations C, P and T on the Samuel-Jacobson-Smolin action and other proposed actions which utilize self- or anti-self-dual variables as fundamental variables in the description of four-dimensional gravity.

  11. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  12. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  13. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF) and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  14. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    Full Text Available Yellow fever (YF is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  15. [Definition and variables of complexity of nursing care: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, Chiara; Cocchieri, Antonello; D'Agostino, Fabio; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria; Zega, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Complexity of nursing care represents an important indicator in the planning and management of nursing resources and healthcare management. However, the term is not clearly defined in the literature. The aim of this article is to outline the main concepts associated with complexity of nursing care, trying to shed light on the different variables that constitute it. We conducted a review of the literature and selected 12 articles. The terms associated with the concept of complexity of nursing care include nursing intensity, nursing work, nursing workload, patient acuity and severity of illness. The literature review indicates that complexity of nursing care appears to be one of the variables of care intensity, the latter being defined as a commitment of care delivered to the patient. It is associated with the concepts of nursing work, nursing workload, patient acuity and severity of illness. Understanding and clarifying the concept of complexity of care is fundamental in order to measure and evaluate the real demand for nursing care by individual patients.

  16. New definite integrals and a two-term dilogarithm identity from a hyperbolic version of Calabi's change of variables

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, F M S

    2010-01-01

    Among the several proofs known for the closed-form result $\\sum_{n=1}^\\infty{1/n^2} = {\\pi^2/6}$, the one by Calabi (1993) involves the evaluation of a double integral over the unit square, namely $\\int_0^1{\\int_0^1{1/(1-x^2 y^2)} \\, dx \\, dy}$. He starts by showing that this integral is equivalent to $\\sum_{n=0}^\\infty{1/(2n+1)^2} = \\frac34 \\sum_{n=1}^\\infty{1/n^2}$, and then he applies the non-trivial, \\emph{trigonometric} change of variables ${\\,x = \\sin{u}/\\cos{v}}$, ${\\,y = \\sin{v}/\\cos{u}}$, transforming that integral into $\\,{\\int \\int}_T \\: 1 \\: du \\, dv$, where $T = \\{(u,v): \\, u \\ge 0, v \\ge 0, u+v \\le {\\,\\pi/2}\\}$ is a triangular domain. The latter integral is promptly identified with the area of $\\,T$, namely ${\\pi^2/8}$. Here in this note, I introduce a hyperbolic version of the Calabi's change of variables for unit square integrals. By applying it to the above double integral, I find exact closed-form expressions for the definite integrals $\\int_0^\\infty{[\\sinh^{-1}{(\\cosh{u})}-u] d u}$, $\\,\\int...

  17. Marginal share of renewable energy sources of variable electricity generation: A contribution to the concept definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grković Vojin R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development is a keystone within the efforts toward enabling longer duration of the world fossil energy resources. The past development and the technologies applied, cause huge emissions of СО2 that must be significantly reduced. Increased usage of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-e contributes essentially to the reduction of CO2, but on the other hand, under current conditions of feed-in priority reduces also the market for the electricity from fossil fuelled power plants (FFPP. The other possibility for reduction of CO2 emissions is to apply carbon capture and storage technologies as a part of overall FFPP technologies. A hypothesis presented in this paper is that there is a marginal share of RES variable electricity in overall annual electricity supply after which further increase of RES-e participation produces higher average electricity generated cost, than in the case of CO2 emission reduction by applying CCS technologies. The presented work confirms this hypothesis. Value of the marginal share depends to the price of RES-e feed-in. With the price span from 13.5 to 7.5€c/kWh, the marginal share is under 50%.

  18. Correlates of HPV vaccination among adolescent females from Appalachia and reasons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Paskett, Electra D

    2013-06-28

    Limited research has examined HPV vaccination in Appalachia, a region with cervical cancer disparities. We analyzed 2008-2010 National Immunization Survey-Teen data for adolescent females ages 13-17 from Appalachia (n=1951) to identify correlates of HPV vaccination and reasons why their parents do not intend to vaccinate. HPV vaccine initiation was 40.8%, completion was 27.7%, and follow-through was 67.8%. Vaccination outcomes tended to be higher among females who were older, had visited their healthcare provider in the last year, or whose parents reported receiving a provider recommendation to vaccinate. Only 41.0% of parents with unvaccinated daughters intended to vaccinate in the next year. The most common reasons for not intending to vaccinate were believing vaccination is not needed or not necessary (21.5%) and lack of knowledge (18.5%). Efforts to reduce missed opportunities for vaccination at healthcare visits and address reasons why parents are not vaccinating may help increase HPV vaccination in Appalachia.

  19. Tooth Loss in Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta Relative to Other Regions in the United States, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Marina Mileo; Sanders, Seth G.; Wu, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined regional variation in tooth loss in the United States from 1999 to 2010. Methods. We used 6 waves of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and data on county characteristics to describe regional trends in tooth loss and decompose diverging trends into the parts explained by individual and county components. Results. Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta had higher levels of tooth loss than the rest of the country in 1999. From 1999 to 2010, tooth loss declined in the United States. However, Appalachia did not converge toward the US average, and the Mississippi Delta worsened relative to the United States. Socioeconomic status explained the largest portion of differences between regions in 1999, but a smaller portion of the trends. The Mississippi Delta is aging more quickly than the rest of the country, which explains 17% of the disparity in the time trend. Conclusions. The disadvantage in tooth loss is persistent in Appalachia and growing in the Mississippi Delta. The increasing disparity is partly explained by changes in the age structure but is also associated with behavioral and environmental factors. PMID:24524527

  20. Time-variable gravity potential components for optical clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, C.; Denker, H.; Timmen, L.

    2016-12-01

    The latest generation of optical atomic clocks is approaching the level of one part in 1018 in terms of frequency stability and uncertainty. For clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales, a relativistic redshift effect of the clock frequencies has to be taken into account at a corresponding uncertainty level of about 0.1 m2 s-2 and 0.01 m in terms of gravity potential and height, respectively. Besides the predominant static part of the gravity potential, temporal variations must be considered in order to avoid systematic frequency shifts. Time-variable gravity potential components induced by tides and non-tidal mass redistributions are investigated with regard to the level of one part in 1018. The magnitudes and dominant time periods of the individual gravity potential contributions are investigated globally and for specific laboratory sites together with the related uncertainty estimates. The basics of the computation methods are presented along with the applied models, data sets and software. Solid Earth tides contribute by far the most dominant signal with a global maximum amplitude of 4.2 m2 s-2 for the potential and a range (maximum-to-minimum) of up to 1.3 and 10.0 m2 s-2 in terms of potential differences between specific laboratories over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. Amplitudes of the ocean tidal loading potential can amount up to 1.25 m2 s-2, while the range of the potential between specific laboratories is 0.3 and 1.1 m2 s-2 over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. These are the only two contributors being relevant at a 10-17 level. However, several other time-variable potential effects can particularly affect clock comparisons at the 10-18 level. Besides solid Earth pole tides, these are non-tidal mass redistributions in the atmosphere, the oceans and the continental water storage.

  1. Combining a Spatial Model and Demand Forecasts to Map Future Surface Coal Mining in Appalachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Strager

    Full Text Available Predicting the locations of future surface coal mining in Appalachia is challenging for a number of reasons. Economic and regulatory factors impact the coal mining industry and forecasts of future coal production do not specifically predict changes in location of future coal production. With the potential environmental impacts from surface coal mining, prediction of the location of future activity would be valuable to decision makers. The goal of this study was to provide a method for predicting future surface coal mining extents under changing economic and regulatory forecasts through the year 2035. This was accomplished by integrating a spatial model with production demand forecasts to predict (1 km2 gridded cell size land cover change. Combining these two inputs was possible with a ratio which linked coal extraction quantities to a unit area extent. The result was a spatial distribution of probabilities allocated over forecasted demand for the Appalachian region including northern, central, southern, and eastern Illinois coal regions. The results can be used to better plan for land use alterations and potential cumulative impacts.

  2. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeke, Laurie A; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy

    2015-04-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations.

  3. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers.

  4. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Theodore S., E-mail: tshong1@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bosch, Walter R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Krishnan, Sunil [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kim, Tae K. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Mount Sinai Hospital and Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Mamon, Harvey J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shyn, Paul [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Haddock, Michael G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Cheng, Jason C. [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Feng, Mary U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stephans, Kevin L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital/McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Crane, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment

  5. Community as classroom: teaching and learning public health in rural Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, James; Behringer, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Traditional models for public health professional education tend to be didactic, with brief, discrete practica appended. National reports of both practitioners and academicians have called for more competency-driven, interdisciplinary-focused, community-based, service-oriented, and experientially-guided learning for students across the curriculum. East Tennessee State University began its own curricular revisioning in health professions education nearly 2 decades ago with a grant from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, emphasizing competencies development through community-based learning in community-academic partnerships. This article describes 3 examples that grew from that initiative. In the first example, students in multiple classes delivered a longitudinal community-based employee wellness intervention for a rural county school district. BS public health students conducted needs assessments and prepared health education materials; MPH students conducted health assessments and worked with school wellness councils to deliver client-centered interventions; DrPH students supervised the project and provided feedback to the schools using participatory methods. In the second example, MPH students in a social-behavioral foundations course used experiential learning to investigate the region's elevated cancer mortality ranking. Following meetings with multiple community groups, students employed theoretical constructs to frame regional beliefs about cancer and presented findings to community leaders. One outcome was a 5-year community-based participatory research study of cancer in rural Appalachia. In the third example, MPH students in a health-consulting course assessed local African Americans' awareness of the university's health and education programs and perceptions of their community health issues. Students learned consultation methods by assisting at multiple regional African American community meetings to discover issues and interest that resulted in the

  6. A new definition of pharmaceutical quality: assembly of a risk simulation platform to investigate the impact of manufacturing/product variability on clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M; Cogdill, Robert P; D'Amico, Frank; Drennen, James K; Anderson, Carl A

    2010-12-01

    The absence of a unanimous, industry-specific definition of quality is, to a certain degree, impeding the progress of ongoing efforts to "modernize" the pharmaceutical industry. This work was predicated on requests by Dr. Woodcock (FDA) to re-define pharmaceutical quality in terms of risk by linking production characteristics to clinical attributes. A risk simulation platform that integrates population statistics, drug delivery system characteristics, dosing guidelines, patient compliance estimates, production metrics, and pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and in vitro-in vivo correlation models to investigate the impact of manufacturing variability on clinical performance of a model extended-release theophylline solid oral dosage system was developed. Manufacturing was characterized by inter- and intra-batch content uniformity and dissolution variability metrics, while clinical performance was described by a probabilistic pharmacodynamic model that expressed the probability of inefficacy and toxicity as a function of plasma concentrations. Least-squares regression revealed that both patient compliance variables, percent of doses taken and dosing time variability, significantly impacted efficacy and toxicity. Additionally, intra-batch content uniformity variability elicited a significant change in risk scores for the two adverse events and, therefore, was identified as a critical quality attribute. The proposed methodology demonstrates that pharmaceutical quality can be recast to explicitly reflect clinical performance.

  7. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  8. College students as facilitators in reducing adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia: Team Up for Healthy Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawson, Deborah Leachman; Dalton, William T; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Southerland, Jodi; Wang, Liang; Littleton, Mary Ann; Mozen, Diana; Relyea, George; Schetzina, Karen; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Stoots, James M; Wu, Tiejian

    2015-07-01

    The proportion of obese adolescents in Southern Appalachia is among the highest in the nation. Through funding from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities--National Institutes of Health, the Team Up for Healthy Living project was a cluster-randomized trial targeting obesity prevention in adolescents through a cross-peer intervention. The specific aims of the project were to: 1) develop a peer-based health education program focusing on establishing positive peer norms towards healthy eating and physical activity (PA) among high school students, 2) test program efficacy, and 3) explore mechanisms underlying the program. The study was guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior, which presupposes that human behavior is primarily driven by attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and social support. To deliver the intervention, undergraduate students from the disciplines of public health, nutrition, and kinesiology were hired as peer facilitators. Ten area high schools were invited to participate, were matched on demographics and then randomized to intervention or control. The primary outcomes of the study included body mass status, dietary behaviors, PA, and sedentary behaviors which were assessed at baseline and at three and twelve months post baseline. Intervention schools received Team Up for Healthy Living curriculum, which consists of eight 40-minute sessions. The curriculum focused on improving nutrition awareness, PA, leadership and communication. Control schools received their regularly scheduled Lifetime Wellness curriculum. The long-term goal of the study was to establish an effective academia-community partnership program to address adolescent obesity disparity in Southern Appalachia.

  9. Environmental variables and definitive host distribution: a habitat suitability modelling for endohelminth parasites in the marine realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Thomas; Cunze, Sarah; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-08-01

    Marine nematodes of the genus Anisakis are common parasites of a wide range of aquatic organisms. Public interest is primarily based on their importance as zoonotic agents of the human Anisakiasis, a severe infection of the gastro-intestinal tract as result of consuming live larvae in insufficiently cooked fish dishes. The diverse nature of external impacts unequally influencing larval and adult stages of marine endohelminth parasites requires the consideration of both abiotic and biotic factors. Whereas abiotic factors are generally more relevant for early life stages and might also be linked to intermediate hosts, definitive hosts are indispensable for a parasite’s reproduction. In order to better understand the uneven occurrence of parasites in fish species, we here use the maximum entropy approach (Maxent) to model the habitat suitability for nine Anisakis species accounting for abiotic parameters as well as biotic data (definitive hosts). The modelled habitat suitability reflects the observed distribution quite well for all Anisakis species, however, in some cases, habitat suitability exceeded the known geographical distribution, suggesting a wider distribution than presently recorded. We suggest that integrative modelling combining abiotic and biotic parameters is a valid approach for habitat suitability assessments of Anisakis, and potentially other marine parasite species.

  10. Definition of key variables for the induction of optimal NY-ESO-1-specific T cells in HLA transgene mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Alexandre; Genolet, Raphaël; Legler, Daniel F; Luther, Sanjiv A; Luescher, Immanuel F

    2010-09-15

    An attractive treatment of cancer consists in inducing tumor-eradicating CD8(+) CTL specific for tumor-associated Ags, such as NY-ESO-1 (ESO), a strongly immunogenic cancer germ line gene-encoded tumor-associated Ag, widely expressed on diverse tumors. To establish optimal priming of ESO-specific CTL and to define critical vaccine variables and mechanisms, we used HLA-A2/DR1 H-2(-/-) transgenic mice and sequential immunization with immunodominant DR1- and A2-restricted ESO peptides. Immunization of mice first with the DR1-restricted ESO(123-137) peptide and subsequently with mature dendritic cells (DCs) presenting this and the A2-restriced ESO(157-165) epitope generated abundant, circulating, high-avidity primary and memory CD8(+) T cells that efficiently killed A2/ESO(157-165)(+) tumor cells. This prime boost regimen was superior to other vaccine regimes and required strong Th1 cell responses, copresentation of MHC class I and MHC class II peptides by the same DC, and resulted in upregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1, and thus egress of freshly primed CD8(+) T cells from the draining lymph nodes into circulation. This well-defined system allowed detailed mechanistic analysis, which revealed that 1) the Th1 cytokines IFN-gamma and IL-2 played key roles in CTL priming, namely by upregulating on naive CD8(+) T cells the chemokine receptor CCR5; 2) the inflammatory chemokines CCL4 (MIP-1beta) and CCL3 (MIP-1alpha) chemoattracted primed CD4(+) T cells to mature DCs and activated, naive CD8(+) T cells to DC-CD4 conjugates, respectively; and 3) blockade of these chemokines or their common receptor CCR5 ablated priming of CD8(+) T cells and upregulation of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1. These findings provide new opportunities for improving T cell cancer vaccines.

  11. A quantitative correlational investigation of the definition of key decision variables used for the determination of wind energy systems' feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen M.

    Several factors are critical in determining if a wind farm has a high probability of success. These factors include wind energy potential or wind class, sales price, cost of the wind energy generated, market for selling the wind, capacity factor or efficiency of the turbines, capital investment cost, debt and financing, and governmental factors such as taxes and incentives. This research studied the critical factors of thirty-three land based wind farms in the United States with over 20 mega-watts (MW) of capacity that have become operational since 1999. The goal was to develop a simple yet effective decision model using the critical factors to predict an internal rate of return (IRR) and the impact of having a tax credit to supplement the revenue stream. The study found that there are five critical factors that are significantly correlated with the internal rate of return (IRR) of a wind farm project. The critical factors are wind potential or wind class, cost of the wind energy generated, capacity factor or efficiency of the wind turbines, cost of capital investment, and the existence of a federal production tax credit (PTC). The decision model was built using actual wind farm data and industry standards whereby a score from zero to one hundred was coded for each of values except for the production tax credit. Since all the projects qualified for the production tax credit prior to their start up, it was no longer a variable. However, without the presence of this tax credit, the data imply that the projects would not be profitable within the first ten to fifteen years of operation. The scores for each of the categories were totaled and regressed against a calculated internal rate of return. There was ninety-seven percent correlation which was supported by simulation analysis. While this model is not intended to supplant rigorous accounting and financial study, it will help quickly determine if a site has potential and save many hours of analytical work.

  12. Human papillomavirus infection, vaccination, and cervical cancer communication: the protection dilemma faced by women in southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Sadie P; Dorgan, Kelly A; Duvall, Kathryn L; Garrett, Linda H

    2011-11-30

    Human papillomavirus is the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted infection and has been recognized as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Understanding the shift in public awareness caused by recent changes to cervical prevention is critical to addressing cervical cancer disparities in Appalachia. Since the human papillomavirus vaccine was approved for prevention, little data have been collected regarding human papillomavirus risk assessment and vaccine perceptions among Appalachian women. The purpose of the authors in this study was to investigate communication and cultural issues via a social scripting framework that could influence human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among southern Appalachian women; and explore participants' perceptions of human papillomavirus, cervical cancer, and the vaccine. A qualitative, descriptive design was employed to examine these issues in eight counties in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia. Thirty-nine women aged 18-49 years participated in a single individual interview or focus group session from October 2007 through August 2008. Interview and focus group data were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Two major themes emerged from the data: the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma and spheres of silence surrounding the human papillomavirus vaccine protection dilemma. Study findings suggested areas for future research and may assist healthcare professionals in approaching southern Appalachian women as they make decisions regarding cervical cancer prevention.

  13. Factors Influencing Expectations of Physical Activity for Adolescents Residing in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; Nabors, Laura; King, Keith; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: Appalachian adolescents are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior; little research has addressed this concern. Purpose: This study examined adolescents' expectations for engaging in physical activity (PA), chiefly expectations for relaxation and fitness. Independent variables were self-efficacy expectations (SEEs) to overcome…

  14. Impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on computed tomography defined target volumes in radiation treatment planning of esophageal cancer: reduction in geographic misses with equal inter-observer variability: PET/CT improves esophageal target definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, L M A; Busz, D M; Paardekooper, G M R M; Beukema, J C; Jager, P L; Van der Jagt, E J; van Dam, G M; Groen, H; Plukker, J Th M; Langendijk, J A

    2010-08-01

    Target volume definition in modern radiotherapy is based on planning computed tomography (CT). So far, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has not been included in planning modality in volume definition of esophageal cancer. This study evaluates fusion of FDG-PET and CT in patients with esophageal cancer in terms of geographic misses and inter-observer variability in volume definition. In 28 esophageal cancer patients, gross, clinical and planning tumor volumes (GTV; CTV; PTV) were defined on planning CT by three radiation oncologists. After software-based emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) fusion, tumor delineations were redefined by the same radiation-oncologists. Concordance indexes (CCI's) for CT and PET/CT based GTV, CTV and PTV were calculated for each pair of observers. Incorporation of PET/CT modified tumor delineation in 17/28 subjects (61%) in cranial and/or caudal direction. Mean concordance indexes for CT-based CTV and PTV were 72 (55-86)% and 77 (61-88)%, respectively, vs. 72 (47-99)% and 76 (54-87)% for PET/CT-based CTV and PTV. Paired analyses showed no significant difference in CCI between CT and PET/CT. Combining FDG-PET and CT may improve target volume definition with less geographic misses, but without significant effects on inter-observer variability in esophageal cancer.

  15. 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI for GTV-definition of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions in patients with Prostate Cancer – an interobserver variability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the interobserver variability of gross tumor volume (GTV) - delineation of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions (DIPL) in patients with prostate cancer using published MRI criteria for multiparametric MRI at 3 Tesla by 6 different observers. Material and methods 90 GTV-datasets based on 15 multiparametric MRI sequences (T2w, diffusion weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) of 5 patients with prostate cancer were generated for GTV-delineation of DIPL by 6 observers. The reference GTV-dataset was contoured by a radiologist with expertise in diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using MRI. Subsequent GTV-delineation was performed by 5 radiation oncologists who received teaching of MRI-features of primary prostate cancer before starting contouring session. GTV-datasets were contoured using Oncentra Masterplan® and iplan® Net. For purposes of comparison GTV-datasets were imported to the Artiview® platform (Aquilab®), GTV-values and the similarity indices or Kappa indices (KI) were calculated with the postulation that a KI > 0.7 indicates excellent, a KI > 0.6 to 0.5 to < 0.6 moderate agreement. Additionally all observers rated difficulties of contouring for each MRI-sequence using a 3 point rating scale (1 = easy to delineate, 2 = minor difficulties, 3 = major difficulties). Results GTV contouring using T2w (KI-T2w = 0.61) and DCE images (KI-DCE = 0.63) resulted in substantial agreement. GTV contouring using DWI images resulted in moderate agreement (KI-DWI = 0.51). KI-T2w and KI-DCE was significantly higher than KI-DWI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003). Degree of difficulty in contouring GTV was significantly lower using T2w and DCE compared to DWI-sequences (both p < 0.0001). Analysis of delineation differences revealed inadequate comparison of functional (DWI, DCE) to anatomical sequences (T2w) and lack of awareness of non-specific imaging findings as a source of erroneous delineation. Conclusions Using T

  16. How many general and inflammatory variables need to be fulfilled when defining sepsis due to the 2003 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS definitions in critically ill surgical patients: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nass Maximilian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has never been specified how many of the extended general and inflammatory variables of the 2003 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/SIS consensus sepsis definitions are mandatory to define sepsis. Objectives To find out how many of these variables are needed to identify almost all patients with septic shock. Methods Retrospective observational single-centre study in postoperative/posttraumatic patients admitted to an University adult ICU. The survey looked at 1355 admissions, from 01/2007 to 12/2008, that were monitored daily computer-assisted for the eight general and inflammatory variables temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, significant edema, positive fluid balance, hyperglycemia, white blood cell count and C-reactive protein. A total of 507 patients with infections were classified based on the first day with the highest diagnostic category of sepsis during their stay using a cut-off of 1/8 variables compared with the corresponding classification based on a cut-off of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8/8 variables. Results Applying cut-offs of 1/8 up to 8/8 variables resulted in a decreased detection rate of cases with septic shock, i.e., from 106, 105, 103, 93, 65, 21, 3 to 0. The mortality rate increased up to a cut-off of 6/8 variables, i.e., 31% (33/106, 31% (33/105, 31% (32/103, 32% (30/93, 38% (25/65, 43% (9/21, 33% (1/3 and 0% (0/0. Conclusions Frequencies and mortality rates of diagnostic categories of sepsis differ depending on the cut-off for general and inflammatory variables. A cut-off of 3/8 variables is needed to identify almost all patients with septic shock who may benefit from optimal treatment.

  17. Evaluation of Variable Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma Definitions and Association of Virtual Histology-Intravascular Ultrasound Findings With Cavity Rupture Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Taishi; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Ling; Baaj, Shamsa; Kovarnik, Tomas; Porcaro, Katie; Kaminski, John; Hawn, Stephen; Agrawal, Anoop; Makki, Nader; Downe, Richard; Wahle, Andreas; Sonka, Milan; Lopez, John J

    2016-07-15

    The accepted definition of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (IVUS-VH) thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) is only a modest predictor of plaque rupture (PR). We sought to determine the relation between IVUS-VH findings and culprit lesions with PR using computational analysis. A total of 80 culprit lesions from 80 patients with stable angina (n = 37), unstable angina (n = 20), and myocardial infarction (n = 23) were divided into those with (n = 15) and without PR (n = 65). By use of automated computational analysis, the standard IVUS-VH TCFA criterion and 124 additional criteria were compared. The standard TCFA definition demonstrated modest ability to discriminate lesions with and without PR (sensitivity 87%, specificity 37%, PPV 0.24, and NPV 0.92). Of 124 additional IVUS-VH TCFA definitions, only 2 improved the discriminative ability even modestly. However, a positive correlation was demonstrated between cavity size and necrotic core percentage (r = 0.78, p VH criteria were only modestly associated with PR, without significant improvement by varying IVUS-VH TCFA features, but IVUS-VH features of ruptured plaques were strongly correlated with cavity size.

  18. 关于多元函数极限与连续性定义的探讨%INVESTIGATION OF DEFINITIONS OF LIMIT AND CONTINUITY OF FUNCTION OF SEVERAL VARIABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金承日; 王雪臣; 史磊

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of limit,continuity and discontinuity of function of several variables are the most basic concepts in the mathematical analysis.However,until now there is no uniform definition of these concepts among the popular text books.In this paper,we discuss the above concepts,and put forward the reasonable definitions,and particularly put forward the reasonable definition of discontinuity for binary function.%多元函数的极限、连续以及间断,是数学分析中最基本的概念。然而,到目前为止国内流行的教材中对这些概念还没有统一的定义。为此,本文探讨了以上几个概念,并提出了合理的定义,特别是给出了二元函数间断点的合理定义。

  19. Bullying by Definition: An Examination of Definitional Components of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Lack of definitional consensus remains an important unresolved issue within bullying research. This study examined the ability of definitional variables to predict overall level of victimisation (distress, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) and bullying (intention to harm, power inequity, and provocation as predictors) in 246…

  20. Bringing Definitions into High Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, John

    2010-01-01

    Why do definitions play such a central role in mathematics? It may seem obvious that precision about the terms one uses is necessary in order to use those terms reasonably (while reasoning). Definitions are chosen so as to be definite about the terms one uses, but also to make both the statement of, and the reasoning to justify, theorems as…

  1. Multiproxy assessment of Holocene relative sea-level changes in the western Mediterranean: sea-level variability and improvements in the definition of the isostatic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Spada, Giorgio; Fontana, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    After the review of 918 radiocarbon dated Relative Sea-Level (RSL) data-points we present here the first quality-controlled database constraining the Holocene sea-level histories of the western Mediterranean Sea (Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta and Tunisia). We reviewed and standardized the geological RSL data-points using a new multi-proxy methodology based on: (1) modern taxa assemblages in Mediterranean lagoons and marshes; (2) beachrock characteristics (cement fabric and chemistry, sedimentary structures); and (3) the modern distribution of Mediterranean fixed biological indicators. These RSL data-points were coupled with the large number of archaeological RSL indicators available for the western Mediterranean. We assessed the spatial variability of RSL histories for 22 regions and compared these with the ICE-5G VM2 GIA model. In the western Mediterranean, RSL rose continuously for the whole Holocene with a sudden slowdown at ~7.5 ka BP and a further deceleration during the last ~4.0 ka BP, after which time observed RSL changes are mainly related to variability in isostatic adjustment. The sole exception is southern Tunisia, where data show evidence of a mid-Holocene high-stand compatible with the isostatic impacts of the melting history of the remote Antarctic ice sheet. Our results indicate that late-Holocene sea-level rise was significantly slower than the current one. First estimates of GIA contribution indicate that, at least in the northwestern sector, it accounts at least for the 25-30% of the ongoing sea-level rise recorded by Mediterranean tidal gauges. Such contribution is less constrained at lower latitudes due to the lower quality of the late Holocene index points. Future applications of spatio-temporal statistical techniques are required to better quantify the gradient of the isostatic contribution and to provide improved context for the assessment of 20th century acceleration of Mediterranean sea-level rise.

  2. Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplow, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Market definition has long held a central place in competition law. This entry surveys recent analytical work that has called the market definition paradigm into question on a number of fronts: whether the process is feasible, whether market share threshold tests are coherent, whether the hypothetical monopolist test in merger guidelines is counterproductive, and whether and when the frequent focus on cross-elasticities is useful.

  3. Views of Appalachia: Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafin, Shirley R.

    Designed to teach twelfth grade English honors students in Kentucky to think critically, to write creatively, to develop a better self-concept, and to stimulate appreciation and pride for Appalachian literature and culture, this 9-week resource unit features mini-units on (1) Man and His Values; (2) Death; (3) Prejudice; (4) Strip Mining; and (5)…

  4. Hidden Variables or Positive Probabilities?

    CERN Document Server

    Rothman, T; Rothman, Tony

    2001-01-01

    Despite claims that Bell's inequalities are based on the Einstein locality condition, or equivalent, all derivations make an identical mathematical assumption: that local hidden-variable theories produce a set of positive-definite probabilities for detecting a particle with a given spin orientation. The standard argument is that because quantum mechanics assumes that particles are emitted in a superposition of states the theory cannot produce such a set of probabilities. We examine a paper by Eberhard who claims to show that a generalized Bell inequality, the CHSH inequality, can be derived solely on the basis of the locality condition, without recourse to hidden variables. We point out that he nonetheless assumes a set of positive-definite probabilities, which supports the claim that hidden variables or "locality" is not at issue here, positive-definite probabilities are. We demonstrate that quantum mechanics does predict a set of probabilities that violate the CHSH inequality; however these probabilities ar...

  5. Calculi of meta-variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiko SATO; Takafumi SAKURAI; Yukiyoshi KAMEYAMA; Atsushi IGARASH

    2008-01-01

    The notion of meta-variable plays a fun-damental role when we define formal systems such as logical and computational calculi. Yet it has been usually understood only informally as is seen in most textbooks of logic. Based on our observations of the usages of meta-variables in textbooks, we propose two formal systems that have the notion of meta-variable. In both calculi, each variable is given a level (non-negative integer), which classifies variables into object variables (level 0), meta-variables (level 1), metameta-variables (level 2) and so on. Then, simple arity systems are. used to exclude meaningless terms like a meta-level function operating on the metameta-level. A main difference of the two calculi lies in the definitions of substitution. The first calculus uses textual substitution, which can often be found in definitions of quantified formulae: when a term is substituted for a meta-variable, free object-level variables in the term may be captured. The second cal-culus is based on the observation that predicates can be regarded as meta-level functions on object-level terms, hence uses capture-avoiding substitution. We show that both calculi enjoy a number of properties including Church-Rosser and Strong Normalization, which are indispensable when we use them as frameworks to define logical systems.

  6. Conditional acceptability of random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasos C Christofides

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acceptable random variables introduced by Giuliano Antonini et al. (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 338:1188-1203, 2008 form a class of dependent random variables that contains negatively dependent random variables as a particular case. The concept of acceptability has been studied by authors under various versions of the definition, such as extended acceptability or wide acceptability. In this paper, we combine the concept of acceptability with the concept of conditioning, which has been the subject of current research activity. For conditionally acceptable random variables, we provide a number of probability inequalities that can be used to obtain asymptotic results.

  7. Hyperbolic variables on surfaces with non-definite quadratic forms (extension of Beltrami equation); Le variabili iperboliche sulle superfici a metrica non definita (estensione dell'equazione di Beltrami)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoni, F.; Cannata, R.; Nichelatti, E.; Zampetti, P. [ENEA, Divisione Sistemi Energetici per la Mobilita' e l' Habitat, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Gauss showed the link between the definite quadratic differential forms and the complex functions. Beltrami, following Gauss' idea, linked the complex functions to elliptic partial differential equations. In this report it was shown how the use of hyperbolic numbers and hyperbolic functions allows to extend the same results to non definite quadratic differential forms. Using this kind of approach, one can tackle the hyperbolic partial differential equations by a different point of view. [Italian] In un famoso lavoro per la rappresentazione conforme di due superfici, Gauss scompose le forme differenziali quadratiche in due fattori complessi coniugati. In questo modo ridusse la soluzione del problema a quella di una forma differnziale lineare. Beltrami, partendo dalla stessa decomposizione, collego' le f.d.q. alle equazioni differenziali a derivate parziali di tipo ellittico aprendo cosi' nuove strade per la loro soluzione. Dalla relativita' ristretta hanno pero' assunto importanza fisica anche le forme differenziali quadratiche non definite. Viene qui mostrato come con i numeri ipercomplessi iperbolici si possono seguire i procedimenti di Gauss e Beltrami e collegare queste forme alle equazioni differenziali a derivate parziali di tipo iperbolico. Questo pero' permettere di vedere sotto nuovi aspetti questo tipo di equazioni.

  8. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  9. RANDOM VARIABLE WITH FUZZY PROBABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕恩琳; 钟佑明

    2003-01-01

    Mathematic description about the second kind fuzzy random variable namely the random variable with crisp event-fuzzy probability was studied. Based on the interval probability and using the fuzzy resolution theorem, the feasible condition about a probability fuzzy number set was given, go a step further the definition arid characters of random variable with fuzzy probability ( RVFP ) and the fuzzy distribution function and fuzzy probability distribution sequence of the RVFP were put forward. The fuzzy probability resolution theorem with the closing operation of fuzzy probability was given and proved. The definition and characters of mathematical expectation and variance of the RVFP were studied also. All mathematic description about the RVFP has the closing operation for fuzzy probability, as a result, the foundation of perfecting fuzzy probability operation method is laid.

  10. Negative temperatures and the definition of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The concept of negative temperature has recently received renewed interest in the context of debates about the correct definition of the thermodynamic entropy in statistical mechanics. Several researchers have identified the thermodynamic entropy exclusively with the "volume entropy" suggested by Gibbs, and have further concluded that by this definition, negative temperatures violate the principles of thermodynamics. We disagree with these conclusions. We demonstrate that volume entropy is inconsistent with the postulates of thermodynamics for systems with non-monotonic energy densities, while a definition of entropy based on the probability distributions of macroscopic variables does satisfy the postulates of thermodynamics. Our results confirm that negative temperature is a valid extension of thermodynamics.

  11. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  12. Ashtekar variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2015-05-01

    In the spirit of Scholarpedia, this invited article is addressed to students and younger researchers. It provides the motivation and background material, a summary of the main physical ideas, mathematical structures and results, and an outline of applications of the connection variables for general relativity. These variables underlie both the canonical/Hamiltonian and the spinfoam/path integral approaches in loop quantum gravity.

  13. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, V Marco; Rubenfeld, Gordon D; Thompson, B Taylor; Ferguson, Niall D; Caldwell, Ellen; Fan, Eddy; Camporota, Luigi; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-06-20

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was defined in 1994 by the American-European Consensus Conference (AECC); since then, issues regarding the reliability and validity of this definition have emerged. Using a consensus process, a panel of experts convened in 2011 (an initiative of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine endorsed by the American Thoracic Society and the Society of Critical Care Medicine) developed the Berlin Definition, focusing on feasibility, reliability, validity, and objective evaluation of its performance. A draft definition proposed 3 mutually exclusive categories of ARDS based on degree of hypoxemia: mild (200 mm Hg Definition was empirically evaluated using patient-level meta-analysis of 4188 patients with ARDS from 4 multicenter clinical data sets and 269 patients with ARDS from 3 single-center data sets containing physiologic information. The 4 ancillary variables did not contribute to the predictive validity of severe ARDS for mortality and were removed from the definition. Using the Berlin Definition, stages of mild, moderate, and severe ARDS were associated with increased mortality (27%; 95% CI, 24%-30%; 32%; 95% CI, 29%-34%; and 45%; 95% CI, 42%-48%, respectively; P definition, the final Berlin Definition had better predictive validity for mortality, with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.577 (95% CI, 0.561-0.593) vs 0.536 (95% CI, 0.520-0.553; P Definition for ARDS addresses a number of the limitations of the AECC definition. The approach of combining consensus discussions with empirical evaluation may serve as a model to create more accurate, evidence-based, critical illness syndrome definitions and to better inform clinical care, research, and health services planning.

  14. Hierarchies in Dictionary Definition Space

    CERN Document Server

    Picard, Olivier; Harnad, Stevan; Marcotte, Odile; Chicoisne, Guillaume; Gargouri, Yassine

    2009-01-01

    A dictionary defines words in terms of other words. Definitions can tell you the meanings of words you don't know, but only if you know the meanings of the defining words. How many words do you need to know (and which ones) in order to be able to learn all the rest from definitions? We reduced dictionaries to their "grounding kernels" (GKs), about 10% of the dictionary, from which all the other words could be defined. The GK words turned out to have psycholinguistic correlates: they were learned at an earlier age and more concrete than the rest of the dictionary. But one can compress still more: the GK turns out to have internal structure, with a strongly connected "kernel core" (KC) and a surrounding layer, from which a hierarchy of definitional distances can be derived, all the way out to the periphery of the full dictionary. These definitional distances, too, are correlated with psycholinguistic variables (age of acquisition, concreteness, imageability, oral and written frequency) and hence perhaps with th...

  15. Toward More Precise Definition and Evaluation of Televised Educational Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa Fran; Morrison, Gary R.

    1978-01-01

    An operational definition of public television programming and its implications for development and production agencies is sorely needed. This article explores some of the components of such a definition and examines the differences in several types of educational programming in terms of specific design and evaluation variables of the program.…

  16. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  17. 12 CFR 617.7000 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 617.7000 Section 617.7000 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS General § 617.7000..., variable rate, or other similarly designated loans. Adverse credit decision means a credit decision where...

  18. An Einstein-Cartan Fine Structure Constant Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone R. A. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fine structure constant definition given in Stone R.A. Jr. Progress in Physics, 2010, v.1, 11-13 is compared to an Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant definition. It is shown that the Einstein-Cartan definition produces the correct pure theory value, just not the measure value. To produce the measured value, the pure theory Einstein-Cartan fine structure constant requires only the new variables and spin coupling of the fine structure constant definition in [1].

  19. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process....

  20. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  1. Variables Psicológicas Moduladoras de la Autodefinición del Perfil en Procesos de Acoso Escolar: El papel del género y el curriculum escolar Psychological Modulating Variables in the Profile Self-definition in School Bullying Process: the gender and the school curriculum role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se estudia el efecto de las interacciones entre el género y el tipo de currículum escolar (adaptado-no adaptado a las necesidades del estudiante y una serie de variables que describen la conducta violenta escolar. Se aplicó una batería de cuestionarios que incluía pruebas de conducta pro y antisocial, impulsividad y empatía. La muestra estaba formada por 295 estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria (44% varones. Para comprobar los efectos de las interacciones se aplicaron una serie de Manovas intersujetos. Los resultados revelan que el currículo no tiene efectos significativos en ninguna variable dependiente, por lo que no parece ser un factor modulador de la violencia escolar. Sí lo son la tipología de la violencia, el papel adoptado ante el acoso y la opinión sobre las víctimas y las peleas. El género aparece como un factor relevante en la tipología de la violencia y la opinión sobre víctimas y peleas. Las chicas resultan ser más empáticas y prosociales, mientras que los varones son más impulsivos y se sienten más aislados.

    Palabras clave: Acoso escolar, conducta antisocial, conducta prosocial, currículum académico, diferencias de género.

    Interactions between gender, adapted vs. non-adapted curricula, and a number of scholar violence-related factors are studied. Gender and curricula were considered independent variables. Some instruments were applied, including questionnaires of impulsivity, empathy, pro-social behaviour and anti-social behaviour, all them considered as dependent variables. Sample was composed by 295 students of secondary compulsory education (high-school, 44% male. The interactions between factors were analysed using inter-subject Manova statistics. Results show that curricula are not a relevant factor to understand violence. Typology of violence developed by subjects, role in bullying process, opinion about victims and opinion about fighting are relevant factors for

  2. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrett Michael

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1 and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2 defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3 generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables. Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what

  3. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  4. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  5. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We imp...

  6. Comparing Sudden Stratospheric Warming Definitions in Reanalysis Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Froila M.; Barriopedro, David; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Calvo, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) are the main source of variability in the northern hemisphere polar stratosphere during winter. They are characterized by a dramatic warming of the polar stratosphere and weakening of the polar vortex circulation. SSWs can have an impact on surface weather, which makes them a potential tool for seasonal prediction. However, there is no consensus on the definition of SSWs, and multiple methods exist in the literature, yielding discrepancies on the detected events. In this presentation we compare the SSWs signatures of eight representative definitions for the 1958-2009 period and using three different reanalysis data (ERA, NCEP and JRA). The monthly distribution of SSWs is indistinguishable across definitions, with a common peak in January. However, the multi-decadal variability is method-dependent, with only three definitions displaying minimum frequencies in the 1990s. Comparison of several SSW benchmarks reveals negligible differences among methods due to the large case-to-case variability of events within a given definition. In the troposphere, the most robust signals across definitions before and after events are dominated by major SSWs, which are detected by most methods. Interestingly, minor SSWs represent the largest source of discrepancy in the surface signals of SSWs across definitions. Therefore, our results indicate that only major SSWs should be considered in future studies if robust tropospheric signals of SSWs want to be obtained regardless of the chosen method.

  7. Definition of postprandial lipaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized by...... by non-fasting hypertriglyceridaemia that is associated with an increased risk of vascular events. This review considers the definition of PPL and the methodology for assessing this process.......At the present time, there is no widely agreed definition of postprandial lipaemia (PPL). This lack of a shared definition limits the identification and treatment of patients with exaggerated PPL as well as the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents. PPL is a complex syndrome characterized...

  8. Definition of intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shobhit; Siddiqui, Khurram A

    2011-01-01

    Defining intractable epilepsy is essential not only to identify up to 40% of patients refractory to pharmacological management, but also to facilitate selection and comparison of such patients for research purposes. The ideal definition still eludes us. Multiple factors including number of antiepileptic drug (AED) failures, seizure frequency and duration of unresponsiveness, etiology, and epilepsy syndromes are considered in formulating the definition of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. Most definitions used in the literature agree on the number of AED failures, which seem to be 2 or 3, however, the seizure frequency and time factor are varied. The International League Against Epilepsy proposed a definition of drug-resistant epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of 2 tolerated and appropriately chosen and used AED schedules. This for now, could provide an operational definition for clinical and research settings. However, with emergence of new data and novel treatments the criteria for intractability may change.

  9. Para-grassmann variables and coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Cabra, D C; Tanasa, A; Cabra, Daniel C.; Moreno, Enrique F.; Tanasa, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The definitions of para-grassmann variables and $q-$oscillator algebras are recalled. Some new properties are given. We then introduce appropriate coherent states as well as their dual states. This allows us to obtain a formula for the trace of a operator expressed as a function of the creation and annihilation operators.

  10. The definition of cross polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, Arthur

    1973-01-01

    There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice.......There are at least three different definitions of cross polarization used in the literature. The alternative definitions are discussed with respect to several applications, and the definition which corresponds to one standard measurement practice is proposed as the best choice....

  11. On Conditionally Positive Definite Dot Product Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A.MENEGATTO; C.P.OLIVEIRA; Ana P.PERON

    2008-01-01

    Let m and n be fixed,positive integers and a space composed of real polynomials in m variables.The authors study functions f:R→ R which map Gram matrices,based upon n points of Rm,into matrices,which are nonnegative definite with respect to .Among other things,the authors discuss continuity,differentiability,convexity,and convexity in the sense of Jensen,of such functions.

  12. Study on the Relation of Definite Integral and Indefinite Integral

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-fa

    2014-01-01

    Relation of definite integral and indefinite integral was discussed and an impor-tant result was gotten. If f (x) is bounded and has primary function, the formal definite integral R sx f˜(t)dt is the indefinite integral of f (x), where x is a self-variable, s is a param-eter, f˜(x) is a function defined in (−∞, +∞), which comes from f (x) by restriction and extension. In other words, the indefinite integral is a special form of definite integral, its lower integral limit and upper integral limit are all indefinite.

  13. 12 CFR 619.9340 - Variable interest rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Variable interest rate. 619.9340 Section 619.9340 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9340 Variable interest rate. An interest rate on the outstanding loan balances, which may be changed from time to...

  14. Overview of School and Unit Variables and Their Structural Relations in Phase I of the IGE Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gary G.; And Others

    This document provides an overview of the school variables and unit variables used in Phase 1 of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) evaluation. Included in the discussion of each variable are a verbal definition of the variable, a description of the distribution of the variable in the 156 schools that participated in the Phase 1 study, and…

  15. A Unified Definition of Mutual Information with Applications in Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various definitions of mutual information. Essentially, these definitions can be divided into two classes: (1 definitions with random variables and (2 definitions with ensembles. However, there are some mathematical flaws in these definitions. For instance, Class 1 definitions either neglect the probability spaces or assume the two random variables have the same probability space. Class 2 definitions redefine marginal probabilities from the joint probabilities. In fact, the marginal probabilities are given from the ensembles and should not be redefined from the joint probabilities. Both Class 1 and Class 2 definitions assume a joint distribution exists. Yet, they all ignore an important fact that the joint or the joint probability measure is not unique. In this paper, we first present a new unified definition of mutual information to cover all the various definitions and to fix their mathematical flaws. Our idea is to define the joint distribution of two random variables by taking the marginal probabilities into consideration. Next, we establish some properties of the newly defined mutual information. We then propose a method to calculate mutual information in machine learning. Finally, we apply our newly defined mutual information to credit scoring.

  16. Definition of Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2010-01-01

    Authentication is considered a pre-requisite for communication security, but the definition of authentication is generally not agreed upon. Many attacks on authentication protocols are the result of misunderstanding of the goals of authentication. This state of affairs indicate limitations...... in theoretical understanding of the meanings of authentication. We provide a new insight in this direction and formalize it in CFPS (Common Framework for authentication Protocols' Specifications). CFPS provides a precise scope of definition for authentication protocols, which could make the design and analysis...

  17. Prebiotics: why definitions matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutkins, Robert W; Krumbeck, Janina A; Bindels, Laure B; Cani, Patrice D; Fahey, George; Goh, Yong Jun; Hamaker, Bruce; Martens, Eric C; Mills, David A; Rastal, Robert A; Vaughan, Elaine; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2016-02-01

    The prebiotic concept was introduced twenty years ago, and despite several revisions to the original definition, the scientific community has continued to debate what it means to be a prebiotic. How prebiotics are defined is important not only for the scientific community, but also for regulatory agencies, the food industry, consumers and healthcare professionals. Recent developments in community-wide sequencing and glycomics have revealed that more complex interactions occur between putative prebiotic substrates and the gut microbiota than previously considered. A consensus among scientists on the most appropriate definition of a prebiotic is necessary to enable continued use of the term.

  18. Definition of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sunik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This definition can be applied to information of every kind, level and complexity. Information is considered as the feature manifesting itself in the relations between certain real world
    entities. The real world has to be seen in terms of objects, actions, relations and properties.. The defintion is used as the basis of the Theory of Meaningful Information [1] that explains the nature and functionality of information and enables the production of relevant definitions regarding language and knowledge, which remain operative also in the case of non-human languages and
    knowledge systems.

  19. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed a

  20. The definition of sarcopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  1. Definition af primitiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    1997-01-01

    tidspunkt, kan der spares meget tid senere, hvor det er besværligt at definerer primitiverne helt om.I denne rapport er de primitiver, der skal bruges til Sydkrafts net gennemgået. Der er taget stilling til hver enkelt tilstand for de forskellige primitiver. Dette er gjort for at få en definition, som er...

  2. COPD: Definition and Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J.

    2014-01-01

    particles or gases. Exacerbations and comorbidities contribute to the overall severity in individual patients. The evolution of this definition and the diagnostic criteria currently in use are discussed. COPD is increasingly divided in subgroups or phenotypes based on specific features and association...

  3. Romanian definite article revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Paliga

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available I shall attempt to resume a long, almost endless discussion: the origin of the Romanian definite article. Any grammar of Romanian or any comparative grammar the Romance languages (e. g. Tagliavini 1977 always observes that Romanian, an iso­ lated case in the Romance family, has an agglutinated definite article. The typology is not indeed rare: Bulgarian, Albanian, Armenian, Basque and Swedish witness the same mechanism. We cannot approach the topic by analysing all these languages, yet a comparative analysis would be finally useful. In our case, it is obvious that Romanian cannot be isolated from Albanian and Bulgarian. A potential solution must explain the situation in ALL these three "Balkanic" languages, even if Romanian is not Balkanic stricto sensu1. The paper shall focus on the deep roots of the Romanian and Albanian definite arti­ cle, its typological relations with other linguistic areas, and shall attempt to explain this isolated situation in the field of Romance linguistics. For sure, the Romanian definite article mainly reflects the Latin heritage. Nevertheless, by saying only this, the tableau is not complete: some forms are not Latin but Pre-Latin, Thracian. This paper will try to substantiate this assertion.

  4. Definition of Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning Forward, 2015

    2015-01-01

    President Obama signed into law the Every Student Succeeds Act, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, on December 10, 2015. "Learning Forward's focus in this new law is its improved definition of professional learning," said Stephanie Hirsh, executive director of Learning Forward. "We've long advocated…

  5. On some positive definite functions

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Rajendra; Jain, Tanvi

    2014-01-01

    We study the function $(1 - \\|x\\|)\\slash (1 - \\|x\\|^r),$ and its reciprocal, on the Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^n,$ with respect to properties like being positive definite, conditionally positive definite, and infinitely divisible.

  6. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  7. A New Definition of Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Alan; Korb, Kevin B.

    Creative artifacts can be generated by employing A-Life software, but programmers must first consider, explicitly or implicitly, what would count as creative. Most apply standard definitions that incorporate notions of novelty, value and appropriateness. Here we re-assess this approach. Some basic facts about creativity suggest criteria that guide us to a new definition of creativity. We briefly defend our definition against some plausible objections and explore the ways in which this new definition differs and improves upon the alternatives.

  8. A Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we offer a formal definition of Artificial Intelligence and this directly gives us an algorithm for construction of this object. Really, this algorithm is useless due to the combinatory explosion. The main innovation in our definition is that it does not include the knowledge as a part of the intelligence. So according to our definition a newly born baby also is an Intellect. Here we differs with Turing's definition which suggests that an Intellect is a person with knowledge gai...

  9. Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/fitnessdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Fitness To use the sharing features on ... the most of your exercise routine. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Activity Count Physical activity is ...

  10. Definitions of Health Terms: Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/mineralsdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms : Minerals To use the sharing features on ... of the minerals that you need. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Antioxidants Antioxidants are substances that ...

  11. HIV lipodystrophy case definition using artificial neural network modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Law, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A case definition of HIV lipodystrophy has recently been developed from a combination of clinical, metabolic and imaging/body composition variables using logistic regression methods. We aimed to evaluate whether artificial neural networks could improve the diagnostic accuracy. METHODS...

  12. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  13. XMPP The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Andre, Peter; Smith, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This practical book provides everything you need to know about the Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) -- the open technology for real-time communication used in instant messaging, Voice over IP, real-time collaboration, social networking, microblogging, lightweight middleware, cloud computing, and more. XMPP: The Definitive Guide walks you through the thought processes and design decisions involved in building a complete XMPP-enabled application, and adding real-time interfaces to existing applications.

  14. Definition Study PHARUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    definitie studie zijn gebruikt in het voorontwerp van het PHARUS systeem . TNO report STUDelft Page 6 ABSTRACT 3 SAMENVAlTING 4 CONTENTS 6 1 INTRODUCTION 9...University of Technology, Laboratory for Telecommunication and Remote Sensing Technology. FEL-TNO had tke lead and was responsible for the project management ...Aerospace Programs in Delft was responsible for the program management . The definition study PHARUS was started in the first half of 1988 and ended

  15. The Logic of Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Wittgenstein , in his Philosophical Investigations (1953), observed that, for many phenomena, there are no necessary conditions common to all members of... Wittgenstein 1953: §66, p.27e). Wittgenstein refers to these overlapping similarities as “family resemblances” (Ibid., §67, p.27e). Few, if any, of...that is, we may resort to stipulative definition). But this is not necessary for the concept to be usable. Indeed, as Wittgenstein says, sometimes

  16. [The research protocol IV: study variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel; Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    The variables in a research study are all that is measured, the information collected, or the data that is collected in order to answer the research questions, which are specified in the objectives. Their selection is essential to the research protocol. This article aims to point out the elements to be considered in the section of the variables. To avoid ambiguity, it is necessary to select only those that will help achieve the study objectives. It should subsequently be defined how they will be measured to ensure that the findings can be replicated; it is therefore desirable to include conceptual and operational definitions. From the methodological point of view, the classification of variables helps us understand how the relationship between them is conceptualized. Depending on the study design, the independent, dependent, universal, and confounding variables should be noted. Another indispensable element for planning statistical analyses is the scale of variable measurement. Therefore, one must specify whether the variables correspond to one of the following four: qualitative nominal, qualitative ordinal, quantitative range, or quantitative ratio. Finally, we should detail the measurement units of each variable.

  17. 42 CFR 440.2 - Specific definitions; definitions of services for FFP purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific definitions; definitions of services for... Definitions § 440.2 Specific definitions; definitions of services for FFP purposes. (a) Specific definitions...) Definitions of services for FFP purposes. Except as limited in part 441, FFP is available in...

  18. Boolean Variables in Economic Models Solved by Linear Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixandroiu D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the use of logical variables in economic models solved by linear programming. Focus is given to the presentation of the way logical constraints are obtained and of the definition rules based on predicate logic. Emphasis is also put on the possibility to use logical variables in constructing a linear objective function on intervals. Such functions are encountered when costs or unitary receipts are different on disjunct intervals of production volumes achieved or sold. Other uses of Boolean variables are connected to constraint systems with conditions and the case of a variable which takes values from a finite set of integers.

  19. Hadoop The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    White, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Hadoop: The Definitive Guide helps you harness the power of your data. Ideal for processing large datasets, the Apache Hadoop framework is an open source implementation of the MapReduce algorithm on which Google built its empire. This comprehensive resource demonstrates how to use Hadoop to build reliable, scalable, distributed systems: programmers will find details for analyzing large datasets, and administrators will learn how to set up and run Hadoop clusters. Complete with case studies that illustrate how Hadoop solves specific problems, this book helps you: Use the Hadoop Distributed

  20. Cassandra the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Eben

    2011-01-01

    What could you do with data if scalability wasn't a problem? With this hands-on guide, you'll learn how Apache Cassandra handles hundreds of terabytes of data while remaining highly available across multiple data centers -- capabilities that have attracted Facebook, Twitter, and other data-intensive companies. Cassandra: The Definitive Guide provides the technical details and practical examples you need to assess this database management system and put it to work in a production environment. Author Eben Hewitt demonstrates the advantages of Cassandra's nonrelational design, and pays special

  1. Jenkins The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, John

    2011-01-01

    Streamline software development with Jenkins, the popular Java-based open source tool that has revolutionized the way teams think about Continuous Integration (CI). This complete guide shows you how to automate your build, integration, release, and deployment processes with Jenkins-and demonstrates how CI can save you time, money, and many headaches. Ideal for developers, software architects, and project managers, Jenkins: The Definitive Guide is both a CI tutorial and a comprehensive Jenkins reference. Through its wealth of best practices and real-world tips, you'll discover how easy it is

  2. Apache The Definitive Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Laurie, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Apache is far and away the most widely used web server platform in the world. This versatile server runs more than half of the world's existing web sites. Apache is both free and rock-solid, running more than 21 million web sites ranging from huge e-commerce operations to corporate intranets and smaller hobby sites. With this new third edition of Apache: The Definitive Guide, web administrators new to Apache will come up to speed quickly, and experienced administrators will find the logically organized, concise reference sections indispensable, and system programmers interested in customizin

  3. Size definitions for particle sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The recommendations of an ad hoc working group appointed by Committee TC 146 of the International Standards Organization on size definitions for particle sampling are reported. The task of the group was to collect the various definitions of 'respirable dust' and to propose a practical definition on recommendations for handling standardization on this matter. One of two proposed cut-sizes in regard to division at the larynx will be adopted after a ballot.

  4. The definition of the thermodynamic entropy in statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.

    2017-02-01

    A definition of the thermodynamic entropy based on the time-dependent probability distribution of the macroscopic variables is developed. When a constraint in a composite system is released, the probability distribution for the new equilibrium values goes to a narrow peak. Defining the entropy by the logarithm of the probability distribution automatically makes it a maximum at the equilibrium values, so it satisfies the Second Law. It also satisfies the postulates of thermodynamics. Objections to this definition by Dieks and Peters are discussed and resolved.

  5. Formal Definition of Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrev, Dimiter

    2005-01-01

    * This publication is partially supported by the KT-DigiCult-Bg project. A definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI) was proposed in [1] but this definition was not absolutely formal at least because the word "Human" was used. In this paper we will formalize the definition from [1]. The biggest problem in this definition was that the level of intelligence of AI is compared to the intelligence of a human being. In order to change this we will introduce some parameters to which AI ...

  6. Phenotype definition in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Melodie R

    2006-05-01

    Phenotype definition consists of the use of epidemiologic, biological, molecular, or computational methods to systematically select features of a disorder that might result from distinct genetic influences. By carefully defining the target phenotype, or dividing the sample by phenotypic characteristics, we can hope to narrow the range of genes that influence risk for the trait in the study population, thereby increasing the likelihood of finding them. In this article, fundamental issues that arise in phenotyping in epilepsy and other disorders are reviewed, and factors complicating genotype-phenotype correlation are discussed. Methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation are addressed, focusing on epidemiologic studies. With this foundation in place, the epilepsy subtypes and clinical features that appear to have a genetic basis are described, and the epidemiologic studies that have provided evidence for the heritability of these phenotypic characteristics, supporting their use in future genetic investigations, are reviewed. Finally, several molecular approaches to phenotype definition are discussed, in which the molecular defect, rather than the clinical phenotype, is used as a starting point.

  7. Variability as an Operant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holth, Per

    2012-01-01

    A series of experiments on operant variability by Neuringer and colleagues (e.g., Neuringer, 1986, 2002; Page & Neuringer, 1985) have been repeatedly cited as showing that behavioral variability can be reinforced by making reinforcement contingent on it. They showed that the degree of variability in pigeons' eight-peck sequences, as measured by U…

  8. Extension of Variable Separable Solutions for Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Hua-Bing; ZHANG Shun-Li; XU Wei; ZHU Xiao-Ning; WANG Yong-Mao; LOU Sen-Yue

    2008-01-01

    We give the generalized definitions of variable separable solutions to nonlinear evolution equations, and characterize the relation between the functional separable solution and the derivative-dependent functional separablecation, we classify the generalized nonlinear diffusion equations that admit special functional separable solutions and obtain some exact solutions to the resulting equations.

  9. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught geography…

  10. MARKETING CONCEPT - DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasimir Davchev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the connection between the historical development of the marketing concept and the impact this development has on the precise definition of the marketing concept. The author proposes his own version of the definition based on the current state of socio-economic reality.

  11. MARKETING CONCEPT - DEFINITION AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Krasimir Davchev

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the connection between the historical development of the marketing concept and the impact this development has on the precise definition of the marketing concept. The author proposes his own version of the definition based on the current state of socio-economic reality.

  12. Product definition data interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchfield, B.; Downey, P.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of advanced Computer Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology in aerospace industry is discussed. New CAD/CAM capabilities provide the engineer and production worker with tools to produce better products and significantly improve productivity. This technology is expanding in all phases of engineering and manufacturing with large potential for improvements in productivity. The integration of CAD and CAM systematically to insure maximum utility throughout the U.S. Aerospace Industry, its large community of supporting suppliers, and the Department of Defense aircraft overhaul and repair facilities is outlined. The need for a framework for exchange of digital product definition data, which serves the function of the conventional engineering drawing is emphasized.

  13. Grouping Synonyms by Definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Ingrid; Jacquey, Evelyne; Venant, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for grouping the synonyms of a lemma according to its dictionary senses. The senses are defined by a large machine readable dictionary for French, the TLFi (Tr\\'esor de la langue fran\\c{c}aise informatis\\'e) and the synonyms are given by 5 synonym dictionaries (also for French). To evaluate the proposed method, we manually constructed a gold standard where for each (word, definition) pair and given the set of synonyms defined for that word by the 5 synonym dictionaries, 4 lexicographers specified the set of synonyms they judge adequate. While inter-annotator agreement ranges on that task from 67% to at best 88% depending on the annotator pair and on the synonym dictionary being considered, the automatic procedure we propose scores a precision of 67% and a recall of 71%. The proposed method is compared with related work namely, word sense disambiguation, synonym lexicon acquisition and WordNet construction.

  14. Sociocultural definitions of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1990-10-01

    Public constituencies frequently are criticized by technical experts as being irrational in response to low-probability risks. This presentation argued that most people are concerned with a variety of risk attributes other than probability and that is rather irrational to exclude these from the definition and analysis of technological risk. Risk communication, which is at the heart of the right-to-know concept, is described as the creation of shared meaning rather than the mere transmission of information. A case study of utilities, public utility commissions, and public interest groups illustrates how the diversity of institutional cultures in modern society leads to problems for the creation of shared meanings in establishing trust, distributing liability, and obtaining consent to risk. This holistic approach to risk analysis is most appropriate under conditions of high uncertainty and/or decision stakes. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  15. [Definition of shock types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles.

  16. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of IDAA1c and age on partial C-peptide remission (stimulated C-peptide, SCP > 300 pmol/L). RESULTS: PR (IDAA1c ≤ 9) in the Danish and Hvidoere cohorts occurred in 62 vs. 61% (3 months......OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  17. Definition of the characteristic impedance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐云生; Abbas Sayed OMAR

    1996-01-01

    Currently available definitions of the characteristic impedance are ambiguous andior inaccurate.A general definition,based on the description of discontinuities between adjacent waveguides,is given.This definition is accurate and independent of the structure concerned.So it can be applied to the design of passive components in any type of transmission lines.Using this definition,a given structure can be uniquely characterized,but the absolute value of the characteristic impedance has no sense any more.As an example,the design of a microstrip impedance transformer using this new definition is presented.Numerical results using the mode-matching method prove the accuracy of the theory.

  18. Self reference in word definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Levary, David; Moses, Elisha; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2011-01-01

    Dictionaries are inherently circular in nature. A given word is linked to a set of alternative words (the definition) which in turn point to further descendants. Iterating through definitions in this way, one typically finds that definitions loop back upon themselves. The graph formed by such definitional relations is our object of study. By eliminating those links which are not in loops, we arrive at a core subgraph of highly connected nodes. We observe that definitional loops are conveniently classified by length, with longer loops usually emerging from semantic misinterpretation. By breaking the long loops in the graph of the dictionary, we arrive at a set of disconnected clusters. We find that the words in these clusters constitute semantic units, and moreover tend to have been introduced into the English language at similar times, suggesting a possible mechanism for language evolution.

  19. Variability of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. H. Fan; Y. Liu; Y. Li; Q. F. Zhang; J. Tao; O. Kurtanidze

    2011-03-01

    Variability is one of the characteristics of blazars. The rapid variability is superposed on the long term variation. In this work, the variability on different time scales, such as intra-day (IDV), short-term (STV) and long-term (LTV) variations are presented for some sources. We also presented our own observations of some selected objects, for which the historical data were compiled for periodicity analysis using several methods. The parameters of the binary black hole system OJ 287 are determined.

  20. The nebular variables

    CERN Document Server

    Glasby, John S

    1974-01-01

    The Nebular Variables focuses on the nebular variables and their characteristics. Discussions are organized by type of nebular variable, namely, RW Aurigae stars, T Orionis stars, T Tauri stars, and peculiar nebular objects. Topics range from light variations of the stars to their spectroscopic and physical characteristics, spatial distribution, interaction with nebulosity, and evolutionary features. This volume is divided into four sections and consists of 25 chapters, the first of which provides general information on nebular variables, including their stellar associations and their classifi

  1. Definition and Classification of Generic Drugs Across the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Andia, Tatiana; Barbosa, Tatiana; Watanabe, Jonathan H

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to systematically identify and compare how generic medications, as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), World Health Organization (WHO), and European Medicines Agency (EMA), are classified and defined by regulatory agencies around the world. We focused on emerging markets and selected the most populated countries in each of the WHO regions: Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific. A structured review of published literature was performed through December 2013. Direct information from regulatory agencies and Ministries of Health for each country was extracted. Additionally, key informant interviews were performed for validation. Of the 21 countries selected, approximately half provided an official country-level definition for generic pharmaceuticals. The others did not have any definition or referred to the WHO. Only two-thirds of the countries had specific requirements for generic pharmaceuticals, often associated with clinical interchangeability. Most countries with requirements mention bioequivalence, but few required bioavailability studies explicitly. Over 30% of the countries had other terms associated with generics in their definitions and processes. In countries with generic drug policies, there is reference to patent and/or data protection during the drug registration process. Several countries do not mention good manufacturing practices as part of the evaluation process. Countries in Africa and Eastern Mediterranean regions appear to have a less developed regulatory framework. In summary, there is significant variability in the definition and classification of generic drugs in emerging markets. Standardization of the definitions is necessary to make international comparisons viable.

  2. Model Based Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Sidney E.

    2010-01-01

    In September 2007, the Engineering Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) created the Design System Focus Team (DSFT). MSFC was responsible for the in-house design and development of the Ares 1 Upper Stage and the Engineering Directorate was preparing to deploy a new electronic Configuration Management and Data Management System with the Design Data Management System (DDMS) based upon a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Product Data Management (PDM) System. The DSFT was to establish standardized CAD practices and a new data life cycle for design data. Of special interest here, the design teams were to implement Model Based Definition (MBD) in support of the Upper Stage manufacturing contract. It is noted that this MBD does use partially dimensioned drawings for auxiliary information to the model. The design data lifecycle implemented several new release states to be used prior to formal release that allowed the models to move through a flow of progressive maturity. The DSFT identified some 17 Lessons Learned as outcomes of the standards development, pathfinder deployments and initial application to the Upper Stage design completion. Some of the high value examples are reviewed.

  3. Decadal cyclone variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksch, U.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Raible, C.C. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Inst., Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-12-01

    The unstable midlatitude ocean-atmosphere coupling motivates the definition of two decadal regimes with distinct implications for the North Atlantic cyclone variability. Phases with low (high) decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which are connected with an annular (sectoral) spatial scale of the geopotential height teleconnection pattern, are identified as a hemispheric (regional) regime. In the hemispheric regime during a positive El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (warm event), the North Atlantic cyclones and the regions of enhanced precipitation shift southward while over northern Europe the cyclone activity and the rainfall are reduced. During the regional regime this impact of ENSO on the Atlantic storm track is extremely small and a clear interpretation over Europe is inhibited. (orig.)

  4. [Ethnicity and race as variables in epidemiological research about inequity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas L, Jairo; Villalón C, Marcelo; Valenzuela Y, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    Epidemiology analyzes differences in states of health and disease of populations. Public Policies are established considering inequities associated with ethnicity and race. In this context, the identification of vulnerable groups for concentration of resources is relevant. Nevertheless, the lack of a clear definition of these variables might lead to biased results and interpretations. Two problems about the use of these variables are discussed. First, lack of a measurable and objective characteristic, even considering self reference (gold standard), considering that the opinion of a person can change in time. The second problem is a consequence of the former, basing research on a poorly defined variable. Uses of ethnicity and race variables between 1920-1999 in the American Journal of Epidemiology, Health Services Research and American Journal of Public Health were reviewed. In 919 articles, 27 different names identified to describe these variables and more than half did not describe the reason to use these variables. Almost half did not describe analytical methods. Although some articles found statistically significant relationships, less than half discussed those results. It has been suggested that there is enough evidence to exclude these variables in biomedical investigations. However, others propose that they cannot be excluded, given their multidimensional condition that includes social, cultural and genetic features. Therefore, provided the lack of clear definition, the assessment of ethnicity and race effects must be done as rigorously as possible.

  5. Multifractality and heart rate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Roberto; Signorini, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Sergio

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we participate to the discussion set forth by the editor of Chaos for the controversy, "Is the normal heart rate chaotic?" Our objective was to debate the question, "Is there some more appropriate term to characterize the heart rate variability (HRV) fluctuations?" We focused on the ≈24 h RR series prepared for this topic and tried to verify with two different techniques, generalized structure functions and wavelet transform modulus maxima, if they might be described as being multifractal. For normal and congestive heart failure subjects, the hq exponents showed to be decreasing for increasing q with both methods, as it should be for multifractal signals. We then built 40 surrogate series to further verify such hypothesis. For most of the series (≈75%-80% of cases) multifractality stood the test of the surrogate data employed. On the other hand, series coming from patients in atrial fibrillation showed a small, if any, degree of multifractality. The population analyzed is too small for definite conclusions, but the study supports the use of multifractal series to model HRV. Also it suggests that the regulatory action of autonomous nervous system might play a role in the observed multifractality.

  6. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  7. Functional interpretation and inductive definitions

    CERN Document Server

    Avigad, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Extending G\\"odel's \\emph{Dialectica} interpretation, we provide a functional interpretation of classical theories of positive arithmetic inductive definitions, reducing them to theories of finite-type functionals defined using transfinite recursion on well-founded trees.

  8. Market Definition: Use and Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown; Dennis Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Market definition is a crude though sometimes useful tool for identifying market power. The ambiguity in what analysts mean by market power (price above marginal cost, or excess profits) cannot be resolved by market share.

  9. Definition and Facts for Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials View All Content Definition & Facts for Constipation What is Constipation? Constipation is a condition in which you typically ... to prevent or relieve constipation. How common is constipation? Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal ( ...

  10. Analytic definition of spin structure

    CERN Document Server

    Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.

  11. Nutraceutical-definition and introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Ekta K.

    2003-01-01

    Dr Stephen DeFelice coined the term “Nutraceutical” from “Nutrition” and “Pharmaceutical” in 1989. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. An attempt to redefine nutraceuticals and functional foods is made in this article. The proposed definitions can help distinguish between functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of nutraceuticals are also briefly discussed.

  12. Nutraceutical--definition and introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Ekta K

    2003-01-01

    Dr Stephen DeFelice coined the term "Nutraceutical" from "Nutrition" and "Pharmaceutical" in 1989. The term nutraceutical is being commonly used in marketing but has no regulatory definition. An attempt to redefine nutraceuticals and functional foods is made in this article. The proposed definitions can help distinguish between functional foods, nutraceuticals, and dietary supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of nutraceuticals are also briefly discussed.

  13. Eternity Variables to Simulate Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, WH; Boiten, EA; Moller, B

    2002-01-01

    Simulation of specifications is introduced as a unification and generalization of refinement mappings, history variables, forward simulations, prophecy variables, and backward simulations. Eternity variables are introduced as a more powerful alternative for prophecy variables and backward simulation

  14. 49 CFR 1101.1 - Statutory definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory definitions. 1101.1 Section 1101.1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE DEFINITIONS AND CONSTRUCTION § 1101.1 Statutory definitions. The definitions contained in section 10102...

  15. 37 CFR 41.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 41.201 Section... Definitions. In addition to the definitions in §§ 41.2 and 41.100, the following definitions apply to... invention. Involved claim means, for the purposes of 35 U.S.C. 135(a), a claim that has been designated...

  16. 42 CFR 1000.10 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 1000.10 Section 1000.10 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; GENERAL DEFINITIONS Definitions § 1000.10 General definitions. In this...

  17. 42 CFR 400.200 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 400.200 Section 400.200 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS INTRODUCTION; DEFINITIONS Definitions § 400.200 General definitions. In this chapter, unless...

  18. 48 CFR 302.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 302.101 Section 302.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND TERMS Definitions 302.101 Definitions. (a) Agency head or head of the Agency, unless...

  19. 24 CFR 891.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... definition. Rehabilitation may also include renovation, alteration, or remodeling for the conversion or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 891.105 Section 891... § 891.105 Definitions. The following definitions apply, as appropriate, throughout this part....

  20. Matricially free random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Lenczewski, Romuald

    2008-01-01

    We show that the operatorial framework developed by Voiculescu for free random variables can be extended to arrays of random variables whose multiplication imitates matricial multiplication. The associated notion of independence, called matricial freeness, can be viewed as a generalization of both freeness and monotone independence. At the same time, the sums of matricially free random variables, called random pseudomatrices, are closely related to Gaussian random matrices. The main results presented in this paper concern the standard and tracial central limit theorems for random pseudomatrices and the corresponding limit distributions which can be viewed as matricial generalizations of semicirle laws.

  1. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  2. The Princeton Variability Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, C

    2002-01-01

    The Princeton Variability Survey (PVS) is a robotic survey which makes use of readily available, ``off-the-shelf'' type hardware products, in conjunction with a powerful set of commercial software products, in order to monitor and discover variable objects in the night sky. The main goal of the PVS has been to devise an automated telescope and data reduction system, requiring only moderate technical and financial resources to assemble, which may be easily replicated by the dedicated amateur, a student group, or a professional and used to study and discover a variety of variable objects, such as stars. This paper describes the hardware and software components of the PVS device, as well as observational results from the initial season of the PVS, including the discovery of a new bright variable star.

  3. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  4. Software Testing Requires Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2003-01-01

    Software variability is the ability of a software system or artefact to be changed, customized or configured for use in a particular context. Variability in software systems is important from a number of perspectives. Some perspectives rightly receive much attention due to their direct economic...... impact in software production. As is also apparent from the call for papers these perspectives focus on qualities such as reuse, adaptability, and maintainability....

  5. A transdisciplinary definition of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitland, Murray E

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis is a fundamental abstract reasoning concept in healthcare. It forms the foundation for clinical guidelines, evidence-based practice, and healthcare interventions. The definition of diagnosis is evolving in a manner that may change patient care and clinical research. Currently, dictionary definitions of diagnosis fall into two broad categories, those that stress the original etymology and those that are based on classifying the patient problem according to preexisting labels. Many medical diagnoses are not sufficient to justify allied health, profession-specific interventions. Some authors have suggested profession-specific definitions of diagnosis and profession-specific nomenclature. However, a unique set of labels that are insulated from other health professions has been difficult to achieve because of the interdependence of pathology, impairments, and the patient's role in society. Coordinated interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary patient care, including clinical guidelines, and efficient delivery of services necessitate a definition that facilitates communication across health care professions. A solution to this dilemma may be to create a bridge, recognizing the multifactorial etiology of health and professional autonomy while explicitly stating the context of profession-specific interventions as a team approach. I propose that the definition of diagnosis be modified to: "the process of determining mechanisms by which the patient's health condition arises and the conclusions reached by doing so."

  6. Motion planning for variable inertia mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Elie A.; Choset, Howie; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we generate gaits for mixed systems, that is, dynamic systems that are subject to a set of nonholonomic constraints. What is unique about mixed systems is that when we express their dynamics in body coordinates, the motion of these systems can be attributed to two decoupled terms: the geometric and dynamic phase shifts. In our prior work, we analyzed systems whose dynamic phase shift was null by definition. Purely mechanical and principally kinematic systems are two classes of mechanical systems that have this property. We generated gaits for these two classes of systems by intuitively evaluating their geometric phase shift and relating it to a volume integral under well-defined height functions. One of the contributions of this paper is to present a similar intuitive approach for computing the dynamic phase shift. We achieve this, by introducing a new scaled momentum variable that not only simplifies the momentum evolution equation but also allows us to introduce a new set of well-defined gamma functions which enable us to intuitively evaluate the dynamic phase shift. More specifically, by analyzing these novel gamma functions in a similar way to how we analyzed height functions, and by analyzing the sign-definiteness of the scaled momentum variable, we are able to ensure that the dynamic phase shift is non-zero solely along the desired fiber direction. Finally, we also introduce a novel mechanical system, the variable inertia snakeboard, which is a generalization of the original snakeboard that was previously studied in the literature. Not only does this general system help us identify regions of the base space where we can not define a certain type of gaits, but also it helps us verify the generality and applicability of our gait generation approach.

  7. Classifying TDSS Stellar Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Rachael Christina; Green, Paul J.; TDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), a subprogram of SDSS-IV eBOSS, obtains classification/discovery spectra of point-source photometric variables selected from PanSTARRS and SDSS multi-color light curves regardless of object color or lightcurve shape. Tens of thousands of TDSS spectra are already available and have been spectroscopically classified both via pipeline and by visual inspection. About half of these spectra are quasars, half are stars. Our goal is to classify the stars with their correct variability types. We do this by acquiring public multi-epoch light curves for brighter stars (rprogram for analyzing astronomical time-series data, to constrain variable type both for broad statistics relevant to future surveys like the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and to find the inevitable exotic oddballs that warrant further follow-up. Specifically, the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram and the Box-Least Squares Method are being implemented and tested against their known variable classifications and parameters in the Catalina Surveys Periodic Variable Star Catalog. Variable star classifications include RR Lyr, close eclipsing binaries, CVs, pulsating white dwarfs, and other exotic systems. The key difference between our catalog and others is that along with the light curves, we will be using TDSS spectra to help in the classification of variable type, as spectra are rich with information allowing estimation of physical parameters like temperature, metallicity, gravity, etc. This work was supported by the SDSS Research Experience for Undergraduates program, which is funded by a grant from Sloan Foundation to the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  8. Vulvodynia. Definition, diagnosis and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Damsted; Lundvall, Lene; Kristensen, Ellids

    2008-01-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic painful disorder with an estimated prevalence of 9-12%. A rising incidence of the condition constitutes a growing problem. This has lead to an increased focus on etiology and treatment, while the definition also requires attention. Previous assumptions stating that the pro......Vulvodynia is a chronic painful disorder with an estimated prevalence of 9-12%. A rising incidence of the condition constitutes a growing problem. This has lead to an increased focus on etiology and treatment, while the definition also requires attention. Previous assumptions stating...... that the problem is solely a psychological disorder have been abandoned, because inflammatory mechanisms and genetic factors have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis as well as psychosexual contributors. This article describes the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on patho...

  9. Media Entrepreneurship: A Consensual Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    Media Entrepreneurship has been an ambiguous, unclear and controversial concept and despite of growing academic efforts in the last decade, it is still a poorly defined subject. This paper is an effort to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive definition of media entrepreneurship. Firstly......, a literature review conducted and entrepreneurship, media, opportunity and innovation as building blocks of media entrepreneurship explained. Then by using of a mixed of bibliographic method and a Delphi method with multi-stage analysis process, a consensual definition of media entrepreneurship proposed....... This definition integrates some key features of the emerging media environment such as distinction of content and platform, value delivery, opportunity development, non-monetary benefit, etc. It is expected that the findings of this research clear the ground for further researches in the field of media...

  10. Classification criteria of syndromes by latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The thesis has two parts; one clinical part: studying the dimensions of human immunodeficiency virus associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) by latent class models, and a more statistical part: investigating how to predict scores of latent variables so these can be used in subsequent regression...... analyses. Part 1: HALS engages different phenotypic changes of peripheral lipoatrophy and central lipohypertrophy.  There are several different definitions of HALS and no consensus on the number of phenotypes. Many of the definitions consist of counting fulfilled criteria on markers and do not include...... patient's characteristics. These methods may erroneously reduce multiplicity either by combining markers of different phenotypes or by mixing HALS with other processes such as aging. Latent class models identify homogenous groups of patients based on sets of variables, for example symptoms. As no gold...

  11. Deconstructed Transverse Mass Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Ahmed; Virzi, Joseph S; Walker, Devin G E

    2014-01-01

    Traditional searches for R-parity conserving natural supersymmetry (SUSY) require large transverse mass and missing energy cuts to separate the signal from large backgrounds. SUSY models with compressed spectra inherently produce signal events with small amounts of missing energy that are hard to explore. We use this difficulty to motivate the construction of "deconstructed" transverse mass variables which are designed preserve information on both the norm and direction of the missing momentum. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these variables in searches for the pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners which subsequently decay into a final state with an isolated lepton, jets and missing energy. We show that the use of deconstructed transverse mass variables extends the accessible compressed spectra parameter space beyond the region probed by traditional methods. The parameter space can further be expanded to neutralino masses that are larger than the difference between the stop and top masses. ...

  12. Gaia and Variable Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Udalski, A; Skowron, D M; Skowron, J; Pietrukowicz, P; Mróz, P; Poleski, R; Szymański, M K; Kozłowski, S; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Pawlak, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparison of the Gaia DR1 samples of pulsating variable stars - Cepheids and RR Lyrae type - with the OGLE Collection of Variable Stars aiming at the characterization of the Gaia mission performance in the stellar variability domain. Out of 575 Cepheids and 2322 RR Lyrae candidates from the Gaia DR1 samples located in the OGLE footprint in the sky, 559 Cepheids and 2302 RR Lyrae stars are genuine pulsators of these types. The number of misclassified stars is low indicating reliable performance of the Gaia data pipeline. The completeness of the Gaia DR1 samples of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars is at the level of 60-75% as compared to the OGLE Collection dataset. This level of completeness is moderate and may limit the applicability of the Gaia data in many projects.

  13. Validation and Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carusi, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    as inter-subject variability. This need is simultaneously social and epistemic: social as systems biologists attempt to engage with the interests and concerns of clinicians and others in applied medical research; epistemic as they attempt to develop new strategies to cope with variability in the validation...... and experimentally inclined modellers on one hand, and attempts to forge new collaborations with medical scientists on the other. Apart from the scientific interest of the population of models approach for tackling variability, the trial also offers a good illustration of the epistemology of experiment......-facing modelling. I claim that it shows the extent to which experiment-facing modelling and validation require the establishment of criteria for comparing models and experiments that enable them to be linked together. These 'grounds of comparability' are the broad framework in which validation experiments...

  14. Variable selection through CART

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvé, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with variable selection in the regression and binary classification frameworks. It proposes an automatic and exhaustive procedure which relies on the use of the CART algorithm and on model selection via penalization. This work, of theoretical nature, aims at determining adequate penalties, i.e. penalties which allow to get oracle type inequalities justifying the performance of the proposed procedure. Since the exhaustive procedure can not be executed when the number of variables is too big, a more practical procedure is also proposed and still theoretically validated. A simulation study completes the theoretical results.

  15. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, Dennis; Ryu, Youngryel; Keenan, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    A growing literature is reporting on how the terrestrial carbon cycle is experiencing year-to-year variability because of climate anomalies and trends caused by global change. As CO 2 concentration records in the atmosphere exceed 50 years and as satellite records reach over 30 years in length, we are becoming better able to address carbon cycle variability and trends. Here we review how variable the carbon cycle is, how large the trends in its gross and net fluxes are, and how well the signal can be separated from noise. We explore mechanisms that explain year-to-year variability and trends by deconstructing the global carbon budget. The CO 2 concentration record is detecting a significant increase in the seasonal amplitude between 1958 and now. Inferential methods provide a variety of explanations for this result, but a conclusive attribution remains elusive. Scientists have reported that this trend is a consequence of the greening of the biosphere, stronger northern latitude photosynthesis, more photosynthesis by semi-arid ecosystems, agriculture and the green revolution, tropical temperature anomalies, or increased winter respiration. At the global scale, variability in the terrestrial carbon cycle can be due to changes in constituent fluxes, gross primary productivity, plant respiration and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration, and losses due to fire, land use change, soil erosion, or harvesting. It remains controversial whether or not there is a significant trend in global primary productivity (due to rising CO 2, temperature, nitrogen deposition, changing land use, and preponderance of wet and dry regions). The degree to which year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation anomalies affect global primary productivity also remains uncertain. For perspective, interannual variability in global gross primary productivity is relatively small (on the order of 2 Pg-C y -1) with respect to a large and uncertain background (123 +/- 4 Pg-C y -1), and

  16. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  17. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  18. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  19. Low frequency variability of Southern Ocean jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. F.; Richards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Both observations and high resolution numerical models show that the Southern Ocean circumpolar flow is concentrated in a large number (approximately 8 to 12) of narrow filamentary jets. It is shown here that coherent jets exhibit a range of low frequency variability, on time scales of months to years, that can lead to displacement and to intermittent formation and dissipation of jets. Using output from an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model in local regions near topographic features, the impact of energy exchange between eddy and mean flow components on jet persistence and variability is examined. A novel approach that uses a time-dependent definition of the mean flow provides a clearer picture of eddy-mean flow interactions in regions with spatially and temporally varying flow structure. The dynamics are largely consistent with those in idealized quasi-geostrophic models, including topographically-organized and surface-enhanced Reynolds stress forcing of the mean flow. Jets form during periods of enhanced eddy activity, but may persist long after the eddy activity has decayed. Similarly, jets may evolve in a downstream sense, with jet formation localized near topography and undergoing modification in response to changing bathymetry. The evolution of both temperature and potential vorticity is used to show that the low-frequency variability of the jets impacts water mass structure and tracer transport. This study highlights various examples of Southern Ocean dynamics that will prove difficult to capture through existing parameterizations in coarser climate models.

  20. Mental Models: A Robust Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concept of a mental model has been described by theorists from diverse disciplines. The purpose of this paper is to offer a robust definition of an individual mental model for use in organisational management. Design/methodology/approach: The approach adopted involves an interdisciplinary literature review of disciplines, including…

  1. Humanism: A Definition of Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Argues that the issue of literacy goes beyond the acquisition of basic skills and examines the principles of classical humanism as a source for a definition of literacy. Proposes emphases on cultural literacy, social and moral questions, and genuine community as components of humanistic education. (DMM)

  2. A New Definition of Graviton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; PourImani, Hamed

    2008-01-01

    To date, there is no way to explain the process that describes how particles as photon absorb gravitons. According to the results of our years-long research we can definitely say that the best way for explain this process is using color charge concept from photon properties. This model might...

  3. On the definition of superclusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we

  4. A New Definition of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    Punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either the removal of positive reinforcement or the presentation of an aversive stimulus (Skinner, 1953) that results in a decrease in the frequency and/or intensity of the response (Azrin & Holtz, 1966). By definition, punishment seeks to stop unacceptable, unwanted, and bothersome…

  5. Autism: definition, neurobiology, screening, diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapin, Isabelle; Tuchman, Roberto F

    2008-10-01

    Autism (ie, the autism spectrum disorders) is now recognized in 1 in 150 children. This article highlights the definition, neurobiology, screening, and diagnosis of autism. The genetics, immunology, imaging, and neurophysiology of autism are reviewed, with particular emphasis on areas that impact pediatricians. Early recognition of the social deficits that characterize autism is key to maximizing the potential of these children.

  6. Racial Definition: Background for Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William Javier

    1986-01-01

    The racial definitional system in the United States ensures the separation of people. It is a caste-like system of nomenclature which was invented by Whites for their benefit. It is institutionalized and gets renewed through the socialization process. The system is only peripherally concerned with how Blacks define themselves. (VM)

  7. Definition and classification of cancer cachexia: an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Kenneth; Strasser, Florian; Anker, Stefan D; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Bruera, Eduardo; Fainsinger, Robin L; Jatoi, Aminah; Loprinzi, Charles; MacDonald, Neil; Mantovani, Giovanni; Davis, Mellar; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Ottery, Faith; Radbruch, Lukas; Ravasco, Paula; Walsh, Declan; Wilcock, Andrew; Kaasa, Stein; Baracos, Vickie E

    2011-05-01

    To develop a framework for the definition and classification of cancer cachexia a panel of experts participated in a formal consensus process, including focus groups and two Delphi rounds. Cancer cachexia was defined as a multifactorial syndrome defined by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass (with or without loss of fat mass) that cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment. Its pathophysiology is characterised by a negative protein and energy balance driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and abnormal metabolism. The agreed diagnostic criterion for cachexia was weight loss greater than 5%, or weight loss greater than 2% in individuals already showing depletion according to current bodyweight and height (body-mass index [BMI] definition and classification of cancer cachexia. After validation, this should aid clinical trial design, development of practice guidelines, and, eventually, routine clinical management.

  8. Open tibial shaft fractures: II. Definitive management and limb salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, J Stuart; Dombroski, Derek G; Torbert, Jesse T; Kovach, Stephen J; Esterhai, John L; Mehta, Samir

    2010-02-01

    Definitive treatment of open fractures of the tibial diaphysis is challenging. The high-energy nature of these fractures, as well as the contamination of the fracture site and devitalization of the soft-tissue envelope, greatly increases the risk of infection, nonunion, and wound complications. The goals of definitive treatment include wound coverage or closure; prevention of infection; restoration of length, alignment, rotation, and stability; fracture healing; and return of function. Advances in orthobiologics, modern plastic surgical techniques, and fracture stabilization methods, most notably locked intramedullary nailing, have led to improved prognosis for functional recovery and limb salvage. Despite improved union and limb salvage rates, the prognosis for severe type III open fracture of the tibial shaft remains guarded, and outcomes are often determined by patient psychosocial variables.

  9. Spatial Variability of Rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.E.; Pedersen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    As a part of a Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) calibration exercise 15 km south of Århus, Denmark, the variability in accumulated rainfall within a single radar pixel (500 by 500 m) was measured using nine high-resolution rain gauges. The measured values indicate up to a 100% variation between...

  10. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm, T. van der

    2004-01-01

    In component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the face of compone

  11. Variable gravity research facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Sean; Ancheta, Stan; Beine, Donna; Cink, Brian; Eagon, Mark; Eckstein, Brett; Luhman, Dan; Mccowan, Daniel; Nations, James; Nordtvedt, Todd

    1988-01-01

    Spin and despin requirements; sequence of activities required to assemble the Variable Gravity Research Facility (VGRF); power systems technology; life support; thermal control systems; emergencies; communication systems; space station applications; experimental activities; computer modeling and simulation of tether vibration; cost analysis; configuration of the crew compartments; and tether lengths and rotation speeds are discussed.

  12. Variability in GPS sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jauncey, DL; King, EA; Bignall, HE; Lovell, JEJ; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Tzioumis, AK; Tingay, SJ; Macquart, JP; McCulloch, PM

    2003-01-01

    Flux density monitoring data at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz is presented for a sample of 33 southern hemisphere GPS sources, drawn from the 2.7 GHz Parkes survey. This monitoring data, together with VLBI monitoring data, shows that a small fraction of these sources, similar to10%, vary. Their variability falls

  13. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  14. BISAC Variable Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Technology and Libraries, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Presents revision of Book Industry Systems Advisory Committee (BISAC) format designed specifically for electronic transmission of purchase orders for monograph or series titles combining fixed and variable length data fields which was approved in January 1983. Special characters, sample address descriptions, summary of fixed records, glossary, and…

  15. Several real variables

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovitz, Shmuel

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook is based on lectures given by the author on the differential and integral calculus of functions of several real variables. The book has a modern approach and includes topics such as: •The p-norms on vector space and their equivalence •The Weierstrass and Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorems •The differential as a linear functional; Jacobians, Hessians, and Taylor's theorem in several variables •The Implicit Function Theorem for a system of equations, proved via Banach’s Fixed Point Theorem •Applications to Ordinary Differential Equations •Line integrals and an introduction to surface integrals This book features numerous examples, detailed proofs, as well as exercises at the end of sections. Many of the exercises have detailed solutions, making the book suitable for self-study. Several Real Variables will be useful for undergraduate students in mathematics who have completed first courses in linear algebra and analysis of one real variable.

  16. Variable polarity arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. O., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Technological advances generate within themselves dissatisfactions that lead to further advances in a process. A series of advances in welding technology which culminated in the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding Process and an advance instituted to overcome the latest dissatisfactions with the process: automated VPPA welding are described briefly.

  17. Integration i flere variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    -integralerne. Undervejs introduceres \\texttt{Integrator8}. Det er en pakke med Maple procedurer, som er udviklet specielt med henblik på eksempelbaseret visuel læring af de indledende integrationsbegreber og deres mangfoldige anvendelser. Vi giver eksempler på, hvordan integration i flere variable anvendes til beregning...

  18. Variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systems are available to producers to make variable-rate applications of defoliants, fertilizer, lime, pesticides, plant growth regulators, and seed. These systems could potentially offer cost savings to a producer; however, the full potential of the benefits and savings cannot be realized if water ...

  19. Lake Ontario: Nearshore Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a high-resolution survey with towed electronic instrumentation along the Lake Ontario nearshore (720 km) at a 20 meter contour. The survey was conducted September 6-10, 2008 with a shorter 300 km survey conducted August 14-15 for comparing of temporal variability. ...

  20. 16 CFR 1610.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.31 Definitions. In addition to the definitions... method prescribed in the procedures provided under section 4(a) of the Act (16 CFR Part 1609). (f)...

  1. 40 CFR 305.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... (CERCLA) ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CLAIMS AGAINST THE SUPERFUND General § 305.3 Definitions. (a) The following definitions apply to this part: Administrative Law Judge means an...

  2. "On some definitions in matrix algebra"

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus, Jan R.; Karim M. Abadir

    2007-01-01

    Many definitions in matrix algebra are not standardized. This notediscusses some of thepitfalls associated with undesirable orwrong definitions, anddealswith central conceptslikesymmetry, orthogonality, square root, Hermitian and quadratic forms, and matrix derivatives.

  3. A note on antennas: Definitions and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1987-01-01

    Definitions of scattered and diffracted fields, originally given by R. F. Millar, are reviewed and supplemented. The definitions are used to discuss relations between results obtained by commonly used pattern prediction methods for reflector antennas....

  4. Short timescale variability in the Faint Sky Variability Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Rueda, L.; Groot, P.J.; Augusteijn, T.; Nelemans, G.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Besselaar, E.J.M. van den

    2006-01-01

    We present the V-band variability analysis of the point sources in the Faint Sky Variability Survey on time-scales from 24 min to tens of days. We find that about one per cent of the point sources down to V = 24 are variables. We discuss the variability-detection probabilities for each field dependi

  5. 42 CFR 405.2102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 405.2102 Section 405.2102 Public... Disease (ESRD) Services § 405.2102 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following definitions apply... hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). That stage of renal impairment...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.415-30 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stock or other property as indicated by market quotations. (2) ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 9904.415-30... STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.415-30 Definitions. (a) The following are definitions of...

  7. 48 CFR 514.270-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual price for each item does not have to be the lowest bid received. (See also the definition of a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 514.270-1... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 514.270-1 Definition. Aggregate award...

  8. 45 CFR 305.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 305.1 Section 305.1 Public Welfare..., STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.1 Definitions. The definitions found in § 301.1 of this... Consumer Price Index or CPI means the last Consumer Price Index for all-urban consumers published by...

  9. 7 CFR 29.6001 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 29.6001 Section 29.6001 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6001 Definitions. As used in these standards, the words and...

  10. 50 CFR 300.201 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 300.201 Section 300.201 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS Definition of Illegal, Unreported, or Unregulated Fishing § 300.201 Definition. Illegal, unreported,...

  11. 15 CFR 922.71 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary § 922.71 Definitions. In addition to those definitions found at 15 CFR 922.3, the following definitions apply to this subpart... into which altered genetic matter, or genetic matter from another species, has been transferred...

  12. 16 CFR 1110.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1110.3 Section 1110.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CERTIFICATES... stated, the definitions of section 3 of the CPSA and additional definitions in the Consumer...

  13. 16 CFR 1130.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions. In addition to the definitions given in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2052), the following definitions apply: (a) Durable infant or toddler product means the following... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS...

  14. 18 CFR 270.101 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gas produced from coal seams means naturally occurring natural gas released from entrapment from the fractures, pores and bedding planes of coal seams. (7) Natural gas produced from Devonian shale means... General Definitions § 270.101 General definitions. (a) NGPA definitions. Terms defined in the Natural...

  15. 7 CFR 1145.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY FORWARD PRICING PROGRAM Definitions § 1145.1 Definitions. (a) Program means the dairy forward pricing program as established by Section 1502 of Public Law... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Definitions. 1145.1 Section 1145.1...

  16. 47 CFR 69.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Pricing Flexibility § 69.703 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart: (a) Channel terminations. (1) A... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 69.703 Section 69.703... Statistical Area (MSA). This term shall have the definition provided in § 22.909(a) of this chapter....

  17. 7 CFR 59.200 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 59.200 Section 59.200 Agriculture... REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.200 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Affiliate... in which the pricing mechanism is a formula price based on any market other than the market for...

  18. 75 FR 47458 - TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... of Health and Food and Drug Administration definitions when making coverage decisions for treatments... Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB26 TRICARE; Rare Diseases Definition AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule revises the definition of...

  19. 16 CFR 1404.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1404.3 Section 1404.3... INSULATION § 1404.3 Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C... as the marketer of the brand)....

  20. Definitions of Insanity in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, John F.; Weinstein, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The legal concept of insanity has had many definitions throughout the years, and the precise definition used is critical in determining the status of a person in the legal system. Past research has demonstrated that different professions working in the legal system cannot agree on the definition of insanity (Weinstein & Geiger, 2003). However,…

  1. 7 CFR 215.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL MILK PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN § 215.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this... the Child Nutrition Act of 1966. Adults means those persons not included under the definition of... the definition of School in this section. CND means the Child Nutrition Division of the Food...

  2. 50 CFR 37.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., engineering or culture, as determined in accordance with 36 CFR 60.6. (f) Department means the Department of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 37.2 Section 37.2 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, ALASKA General Provisions § 37.2 Definitions. The following definitions...

  3. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section 7... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural...

  4. Definitions of Health Terms: General Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/definitions/generalhealthdefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: General Health To use the sharing features ... healthy. You can start by learning these general health terms. Find more definitions on Fitness | General Health | Minerals | Nutrition | Vitamins Basal ...

  5. 42 CFR 416.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 416.2 Section 416.2 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES General Provisions and Definitions § 416.2 Definitions. As used...

  6. 42 CFR 418.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 418.3 Section 418.3 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE General Provision and Definitions § 418.3 Definitions. For purposes of this...

  7. 42 CFR 136.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 136.1 Section 136.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Purpose and Definitions § 136.1 Definitions. When used in...

  8. 42 CFR 421.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 421.3 Section 421.3 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Scope, Definitions, and General Provisions § 421.3 Definitions. As used...

  9. 42 CFR 137.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 137.10 Section 137.10 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Definitions § 137.10 Definitions. Unless...

  10. 22 CFR 171.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 171.31 Section 171.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Privacy Act Provisions § 171.31 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following definitions...

  11. 23 CFR 660.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... are included in the FS's planning and land management processes. Statewide transportation plan means... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 660.103 Section 660.103 Highways FEDERAL... (DIRECT FEDERAL) Forest Highways § 660.103 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in 23 U.S.C....

  12. 50 CFR 22.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as determined by the continuing absence of any adult, egg, or dependent young at the nest for at... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 22.3 Section 22.3 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) EAGLE PERMITS Introduction § 22.3 Definitions. In addition to the definitions contained in...

  13. 12 CFR 616.600 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 616.600 Section 616.600 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.600 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following definitions apply: (a) Interests in leases means ownership interests in...

  14. 7 CFR 1210.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Referendum Procedures § 1210.601 Definitions. Unless otherwise defined in this section, the definition of terms used in these procedures shall have the same meaning as the definitions in the Plan....

  15. Analytic complexity of functions of two variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, V. K.

    2007-09-01

    The definition of analytic complexity of an analytic function of two variables is given. It is proved that the class of functions of a chosen complexity is a differentialalgebraic set. A differential polynomial defining the functions of first class is constructed. An algorithm for obtaining relations defining an arbitrary class is described. Examples of functions are given whose order of complexity is equal to zero, one, two, and infinity. It is shown that the formal order of complexity of the Cardano and Ferrari formulas is significantly higher than their analytic complexity. The complexity classes turn out to be invariant with respect to a certain infinite-dimensional transformation pseudogroup. In this connection, we describe the orbits of the action of this pseudogroup in the jets of orders one, two, and three. The notion of complexity order is extended to plane (or “planar”) 3-webs. It is discovered that webs of complexity order one are the hexagonal webs. Some problems are posed.

  16. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  17. [Socioeconomic variables and fertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, O

    1980-08-01

    While making comparative analyses of data collected by the World Fertility Survey regarding Latin America, a group of investigators of CELADE (Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia) realized that the selection of economic variables for the study of fertility had serious limitations. Such limitations did not allow the elaboration of a theory which took into account the complicated process of fertility, in all its socioeconomic, cultural, and psychological manifestations. Thus, this paper intends to lay the theoretical basis for the selection of all relevant variables, distinguishing, for example, the average fertility of women according to area of residence, place of early socialization, migrant status, social status, occupation of husband, level of instruction, occupation, and all changes in occupational activities of women in fertile age.

  18. Complex variable HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-08-13

    Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)

  19. Flaring variability of Microquasars

    CERN Document Server

    Trushkin, Sergei A; Nizhelskij, Nikolaj A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss flaring variability of radio emission of microquasars, measured in monitoring programs with the RATAN-600 radio telescope. We carried out a multi-frequency (1-30 GHz) daily monitoring of the radio flux variability of the microquasars SS433, GRS1915+105, and Cyg X-3 during the recent sets in 2005-2007. A lot of bright short-time flares were detected from GRS 1915+105 and they could be associated with active X-ray events. In January 2006 we detected a drop down of the quiescent fluxes from Cyg X-3 (from 100 to $\\sim$20 mJy), then the 1 Jy-flare was detected on 2 February 2006 after 18 days of quenched radio emission. The daily spectra of the flare in the maximum were flat from 2 to 110 GHz, using the quasi-simultaneous observations at 110 GHz with the RT45m telescope and the NMA millimeter array of NRO in Japan. Several bright radio flaring events (1-15 Jy) followed during the continuing state of very variable and intensive 1-12 keV X-ray emission ($\\sim$0.5 Crab), which was monitored in the RXTE ASM...

  20. Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals.

  1. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making activities fall within the spectrum of social entrepreneurship. To become an important stream in the entrepreneurship literature, social entrepreneurship needs to be properly defined and it requires a theoretical framework that links it to the theory of entrepreneurship. This article builds on the literature to define social entrepreneurship, discusses the boundaries of socially-oriented entrepreneurial activities, and positions the social entrepreneur in the spectrum of entrepreneurship.

  2. TOWARDS A DEFINITION OF CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Mocanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlling is a concept that is still subject of many controversies. Nowadays, it is used both in theory and in practice to designate a variety of activities. The paper aims at shedding light on this enigmatic concept. First of all, the author offers an overview of the historical roots of “controlling”. Secondly, different definitions of the concept of “controlling” are contrasted. The author comments upon two types of definitions: concepts oriented towards the goal to obtain results (profit, turnover, low costs and concepts oriented towards the universal goals of the company (e.g. product-related, environmental, social goals. Last but not least, the paper identifies the different perspectives used when defining the concept, in order to provide the proper background for understanding “controlling”: the information-oriented perspective, the coordination-oriented perspective and the reflection-oriented perspective, and the rationality-oriented perspective.

  3. On the definition of superclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, Gayoung; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally...

  4. Prebiotics: Definition and protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2016-02-01

    The increase in chronic metabolic and immunologic disorders in the modern society is linked to major changes in the dietary patterns. These chronic conditions are associated with intestinal microbiota dysbiosis where important groups of carbohydrate fermenting, short-chain fatty acids-producing bacteria are reduced. Dietary prebiotics are defined as a selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon host health. Application of prebiotics may then restore the gut microbiota diversity and activity. Unlike the previously accepted prebiotics definition, where a limited number of bacterial species are involved in the prebiotic activity, new data from community-wide microbiome analysis demonstrated a broader affect of the prebiotics on the intestinal microbiota. These new findings require a revision of the current definition. In addition, prebiotics may exert immunomodulatory effects through microbiota-independent mechanisms that will require future investigations involving germ-free animal disease models.

  5. Contribution on family business definition

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, C

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous researches and an ample literature, there is not a unanimously and approved family business definition which identify family businesses from nonfamily businesses. Which are the aspects to describe exactly a family business? Which are the aspects that help to recognise family business from nonfamily business? Answering to these questions means to circumscribe the field of investigation, and obtain a comparable sample for international researches; to individualize the presence ...

  6. Definition of done in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Björgólfur Guðbjörnsson 1985

    2016-01-01

    Definition of Done is an artifact that is used to define when a software feature is completed and what work has to be performed so that a feature can fulfill its main goal of being a potentially releasable functionality. It is especially used in Agile processes for project management, like Scrum. Customers often experience that they are not being delivered the right kind of quality when development teams push out a new product feature from their latest project period. This study gives insight...

  7. On the definition of superclusters

    OpenAIRE

    Chon, Gayoung; Boehringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show tha...

  8. Process characterization and Design Space definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakemeyer, Christian; McKnight, Nathan; St John, Rick; Meier, Steven; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Kelley, Brian; Zettl, Frank; Puskeiler, Robert; Kleinjans, Annika; Lim, Fred; Wurth, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is a global regulatory initiative with the goal of enhancing pharmaceutical development through the proactive design of pharmaceutical manufacturing process and controls to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. The principles of pharmaceutical development relevant to QbD are described in the ICH guidance documents (ICHQ8-11). An integrated set of risk assessments and their related elements developed at Roche/Genentech were designed to provide an overview of product and process knowledge for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody (MAb). This chapter describes the tools used for the characterization and validation of MAb manufacturing process under the QbD paradigm. This comprises risk assessments for the identification of potential Critical Process Parameters (pCPPs), statistically designed experimental studies as well as studies assessing the linkage of the unit operations. Outcome of the studies is the classification of process parameters according to their criticality and the definition of appropriate acceptable ranges of operation. The process and product knowledge gained in these studies can lead to the approval of a Design Space. Additionally, the information gained in these studies are used to define the 'impact' which the manufacturing process can have on the variability of the CQAs, which is used to define the testing and monitoring strategy.

  9. Spectral Variability of FSRQs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minfeng Gu; Y. L. Ai

    2011-03-01

    The optical variability of 29 flat spectrum radio quasars in SDSS Stripe 82 region are investigated by using DR7 released multi-epoch data. All FSRQs show variations with overall amplitude ranging from 0.24 mag to 3.46 mag in different sources. About half of FSRQs show a bluer-when-brighter trend, which is commonly observed for blazars. However, only one source shows a redder-when-brighter trend, which implies it is rare in FSRQs. In this source, the thermal emission may be responsible for the spectral behaviour.

  10. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  11. Variable leak gas source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  12. Jets with Variable R

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new class of jet algorithms designed to return conical jets with a variable Delta R radius. A specific example, in which Delta R scales as 1/pT, proves particularly useful in capturing the kinematic features of a wide variety of hard scattering processes. We implement this Delta R scaling in a sequential recombination algorithm and test it by reconstructing resonance masses and kinematic endpoints. These test cases show 10-20% improvements in signal efficiency compared to fixed Delta R algorithms. We also comment on cuts useful in reducing continuum jet backgrounds.

  13. A novel definition of the multivariate coefficient of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Adelin; Zhang, Lixin

    2010-10-01

    The coefficient of variation CV (%) is widely used to measure the relative variation of a random variable to its mean or to assess and compare the performance of analytical techniques/equipments. A review is made of the existing multivariate extensions of the univariate CV where, instead of a random variable, a random vector is considered, and a novel definition is proposed. The multivariate CV obtained only requires the calculation of the mean vector, the covariance matrix and simple quadratic forms. No matrix inversion is needed which makes the new approach equally attractive in high dimensional as in very small sample size problems. As an illustration, the method is applied to electrophoresis data from external quality assessment in laboratory medicine, to phenotypic characteristics of pocket gophers and to a microarray data set.

  14. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter.

  15. Variable optofluidic slit aperture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Schuhladen; Kaustubh Banerjee; Moritz Stürmer; Philipp Müller; Ulrike Wallrabe; Hans Zappe

    2016-01-01

    The shape of liquid interfaces can be precisely controlled using electrowetting,an actuation mechanism which has been widely used for tunable optofluidic micro-optical components such as lenses or irises.We have expanded the considerable flexibility inherent in electrowetting actuation to realize a variable optofluidic slit,a tunable and reconfigurable two-dimensional aperture with no mechanically moving parts.This optofluidic slit is formed by precisely controlled movement of the liquid interfaces of two highly opaque ink droplets.The 1.5 mm long slit aperture,with controllably variable discrete widths down to 45 μm,may be scanned across a length of 1.5 mm with switching times between adjacent slit positions of less than 120 ms.In addition,for a fixed slit aperture position,the width may be tuned to a minimum of 3 μm with high uniformity and linearity over the entire slit length.This compact,purely fluidic device offers an electrically controlled aperture tuning range not achievable with extant mechanical alternatives of a similar size.

  16. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-12-01

    Electromechanical variable capacitors, or varactors, find a wide range of applications including sensing applications and the tuning of electrical circuit resonance. We demonstrate a nano-electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage and high tunable capacitance density in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays comprising thousands of suspensions were fabricated to give a tunable capacitance of over 10 pF mm-2. This capacitance density suggests that graphene offers a potential solution to the challenge of reducing the size of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). A capacitance tuning of 55% was achieved with a 10 V actuating voltage, exceeding the 50% tuning limit of Hookean parallel plate pull-in without the use of complex mechanical schemes that occupy substrate area. Capacitor behavior was investigated experimentally, and described by a simple theoretical model. Mechanical properties of the graphene membranes were measured independently using atomic force microscopy. We present a comparison of state-of-the-art MEMS and graphene varactors. The quality factor of graphene varactors is limited by graphene sheet resistance, pull-in voltage can be improved with more aggressive scaling, while the power handling and cycling stability of graphene varactors remains unknown.

  17. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  18. Modeling Shared Variables in VHDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan; Brage, Jens P.

    1994-01-01

    A set of concurrent processes communicating through shared variables is an often used model for hardware systems. This paper presents three modeling techniques for representing such shared variables in VHDL, depending on the acceptable constraints on accesses to the variables. Also a set of guide......A set of concurrent processes communicating through shared variables is an often used model for hardware systems. This paper presents three modeling techniques for representing such shared variables in VHDL, depending on the acceptable constraints on accesses to the variables. Also a set...

  19. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K -satisfiability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed.

  20. Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Material that enhances bone growth. DC: Doctor of Chiropractic. decompression: Surgical removal of pressure from nerve roots ... fusion is not obtained after fusion surgery. PT: Physical therapist. PVA: Percutaneous vertebral augmentation. A procedure that helps ...

  1. Mei Symmetry and Lie Symmetry of the Rotational Relativistic Variable Mass System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANGJian-Hui

    2003-01-01

    The Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of a rotational relativistic variable mass system are studied. The definitions and criteria of the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry of the rotational relativistic variable mass system are given. The relation between the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry is found. The conserved quantities which the Mei symmetry and the Lie symmetry lead to are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  2. The Husain-Kuchar Model Time Variables and Non-degenerate Metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, J F G; Tresguerres, R; Tiemblo, Alfredo; Treseguerres, Romualdo

    1998-01-01

    We study the Husain-Kuchar model by introducing a new action principle similar to the self-dual action used in the Ashtekar variables approach to Quantum Gravity. This new action has several interesting features; among them, the presence of a scalar time variable that allows the definition of geometric observables without adding new degrees of freedom, the appearance of a natural non-degenerate four-metric and the possibility of coupling ordinary matter.

  3. Gait Variability and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Socie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait variability, that is, fluctuations in movement during walking, is an indicator of walking function and has been associated with various adverse outcomes such as falls. In this paper, current research concerning gait variability in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS is discussed. It is well established that persons with MS have greater gait variability compared to age and gender matched controls without MS. The reasons for the increase in gait variability are not completely understood. Evidence indicates that disability level, assistive device use, attentional requirement, and fatigue are related to gait variability in persons with MS. Future research should address the time-evolving structure (i.e., temporal characteristics of gait variability, the clinical importance of gait variability, and underlying mechanisms that drive gait variability in individuals with MS.

  4. "Preclinical" MSA in definite Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diehl, Roberta; Rey, Maria Jesus; Gironell, Alexandre; Martinez-Saez, Elena; Ferrer, Isidre; Sánchez-Valle, Raquel; Jagüe, Jordi; Nos, Carlos; Gelpi, Ellen

    2012-04-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic alpha-synucleinopathy clinically characterized by variable degrees of parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic dysfunction. The histopathological hallmark of MSA is glial cytoplasmic inclusion (GCI). It is considered to represent the earliest stage of the degenerative process in MSA and to precede neuronal degeneration. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a fatal, rapidly progressive dementia generally associated with ataxia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms and myoclonus. Definite diagnosis needs neuropathological demonstration of variable degrees of spongiform degeneration of neuropil, neuronal loss, astro- and microgliosis, and the presence of abnormal deposits of the misfolded prion protein PrP(res) . Both diseases, CJD and MSA are infrequent among neurodegenerative diseases. In the present report we describe clinical and neuropathological findings of a previously healthy 64-year-old woman who developed symptoms of classical CJD. At post mortem examination, the brain showed in addition to classical methionine/methionine PrP(res) type 1 (MM1) sCJD changes and moderate Alzheimer-type pathology, features of "preclinical" MSA with minimal histopathological changes. These were characterized by discrete amounts of alpha-synuclein immunoreacive glial cytoplasmic inclusions in the striato-nigral system, isolated intraneuronal inclusions in pigmented neurons of the substantia nigra, as well as some vermiform intranuclear inclusions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the coexistence of definite sCJD and "minimal changes" MSA in the same patient.

  5. Mastering IDEAScript the definitive guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    With approximately 44,000 users in the U.S. and Canada, as well as 42,000 in Europe, IDEA software has become a leading provider of data analysis software for use by auditors and accountants. Written to provide users with a quick access guide for optimal use of IDEAScript, Mastering IDEAScript: The Definitive Guide is IDEA's official guide to mastering IDEAScript, covering essential topics such as Introducing IDEAScript, Understanding the Basics of IDEAScript Editor, Designing Structured Applications, Understanding IDEA Databases and much more. For auditors, accountants and controllers.

  6. Recursive Definitions of Monadic Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Using standard domain-theoretic fixed-points, we present an approach for defining recursive functions that are formulated in monadic style. The method works both in the simple option monad and the state-exception monad of Isabelle/HOL's imperative programming extension, which results in a convenient definition principle for imperative programs, which were previously hard to define. For such monadic functions, the recursion equation can always be derived without preconditions, even if the function is partial. The construction is easy to automate, and convenient induction principles can be derived automatically.

  7. Recursive Definitions of Monadic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krauss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Using standard domain-theoretic fixed-points, we present an approach for defining recursive functions that are formulated in monadic style. The method works both in the simple option monad and the state-exception monad of Isabelle/HOL's imperative programming extension, which results in a convenient definition principle for imperative programs, which were previously hard to define. For such monadic functions, the recursion equation can always be derived without preconditions, even if the function is partial. The construction is easy to automate, and convenient induction principles can be derived automatically.

  8. Definitions of deafblindness and congenital deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask Larsen, Flemming; Damen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    in determining eligibility of the studies were encountered due to heterogeneity in definitions and inclusion criteria used in the articles. The present systematic review aims to provide both an overview of this terminological and methodological heterogeneity and suggestions for better future research practices....... A systematic review of definitions used in (N = 30) studies employing psychological assessment of people with CDB served as a sample of the scientific literature on DB and CDB. Absent or heterogeneous definitions and inclusion criteria regarding both DB and CDB are evident in the sample. Fifty percent...... of the studies reported no definition of DB and 76.7% reported no definition of CDB. Main discrepancies are: (1) medical/functional versus ability/functioning definitions regarding DB; and (2) different criteria for onset of DB in the case of defining CDB (e.g. age versus developmental level). The results...

  9. Categories of definiteness in Classical Armenian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Müth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the use of the definite article in semantic and pragmatic categories in the Greek and Classical Armenian New Testament translation is compared. Greek and Classical Armenian agree in their use of the definite article only in NPs determined by contrastive attributes. In all other categories the systems of both languages differ. Generally, Armenian avoids the definite article with proper nouns and nouns with unique reference, while definite articles with proper names in Greek are common (with the exception of sacred or especially “respected” persons such as prophets. If the definite article is present in Greek, it is often motivated by pragmatic factors (e.g. re-topicalization, etc.. There is no clear evidence in Armenian for the use of the definite article as a marker of generic reference, nor for the use in NPs determined by superlative, comparative or ordinal attributes.

  10. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.;

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  11. Impact analysis of flow variability in sizing kanbans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Pergher

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of variability flow, advocated by Factory Physics, in sizing Kanban production systems. The variability of flow presupposes that the variability of activities performed by a process is dissipated throughout the productive flow system, causing variations in the lead time, the work-in-process levels and the equipment availability, among others. To conduct the research, we created a didactic model of discrete event computer simulation. The proposed model aims to present the possible impacts caused by the variability flow in a production system regarding the sizing of the number of Kanbans cards, by using the results supplied by two different investigated scenarios. The main results of the research allow concluding that, by comparing the two scenarios developed in the model, the presence of variability in the production system caused an average increase of 32% in the number of Kanban cards (p=0,000. This implies that, in real productive systems, the study of Kanban sizing should consider the variability of individual operations, a fact often relegated as an assumption in the formulation from classical literature on the definition of the number of Kanbans, thus providing opportunities for the development of future research.

  12. Another Definition of Order—Sorted Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何自强

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the definition of order-sorted algebra is generalized by introducing transformation functions between subtypes and supertypes.According to our definition,a type needn't be a subset of its supertype and a record model may form an order-sorted algebra.A new definition of equation is given.It has also been proved that equational theories and describing single inheritance have the initial model.

  13. Evolving Definitions of Mental Illness and Wellness

    OpenAIRE

    Tara W. Strine, MPH; Satvinder Dhingra, MPH; Lela R. McKnight-Eily, PhD; Carol D. Ryff, PhD; Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH; Ronald W. Manderscheid, PhD

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the definitions of wellness and illness has changed from the mid-20th century to modern times, moving from a diagnosis-focused to a person-focused definition of mental illnesses, and from an "absence of disease" model to one that stresses positive psychological function for mental health. Currently, wellness refers to the degree to which one feels positive and enthusiastic about oneself and life, whereas illness refers to the presence of disease. These definitions apply to ph...

  14. Toward a definition of colonic inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabrio Bassotti; Giuseppe de Roberto; Luca Sediari; Antonio Morelli

    2004-01-01

    Chronic constipation is a relatively frequent symptom; among its subtypes, the so called-colonic inertia represents a disease condition that is often considered for surgery. However, to date, there has been no agreement on definition of colonic inertia, and a literature review showed that this definition was given to numerous entities that differ from each other.In this paper these concepts are reviewed and a more stringent definition of colonic inertia is proposed.

  15. A new definition of Bejan number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of Bejan number will be generated by replacing the thermal diffusivity with the mass diffusivity. For example, the Schmidt number is the mass transfer analog of the Prandtl number. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Sc = Pr = = 1, both current and new definitions of Bejan number are the same. This new definition is useful and needed for diffusion of mass (mass diffusion.

  16. 50 CFR 697.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 697.2 Section 697.2 Wildlife....2 Definitions. (a) In addition to the definitions in the Magnuson-Stevens Act and in §§ 600.10 and..., at least 1/4 inch (0.64 cm) in depth and tapering to a point. Parts thereof means any part of...

  17. Neonatal hypoglycaemia--the controversy regarding definition.

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, T H; Eyre, J. A.; Aynsley-Green, A

    1988-01-01

    Major paediatric textbooks and the views of neonatologists in the United Kingdom were surveyed to establish a definition of neonatal hypoglycaemia. The definition ranged from a glucose concentration of less than 1 mmol/l to less than 4 mmol/l. Hypoglycaemia is recognised to cause neurological sequelae and yet there is no accepted definition of the lower limit of normality for circulating blood glucose concentrations.

  18. Exploring Diabetes Beliefs in At-Risk Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study quantifies and describes perceptions of susceptibility and severity of diabetes; cultural beliefs, barriers, and knowledge about diabetes; and social stigma associated with diabetes in an Eastern Appalachian Kentucky population. Methods: A 55-item intercept survey was administered in 2 large retail outlets in Eastern Kentucky.…

  19. Practical resources for critical science education in rural Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Ann

    2017-03-01

    This article argues that there is no typical Appalachian experience or community. There is more cultural diversity and global interchange in this region of the U.S. than appears in popular representations of "isolated" Appalachians, which are ironic because of the region's having been so central to the global extractive economy for centuries. Some pedagogical resources are provided to encourage or contribute to a broader perspective on the possibilities and knowledge centered in rural communities, with Appalachian examples.

  20. Daughters of the mountain: women coal miners in central Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallichet, S.E. [Morehead State University in Kentucky, KY (United States). Department of Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology

    2006-10-15

    The book introduces us to a cohort of women miners at a large underground coal mine in southern West Virginia, where women entered the workforce in the late 1970s after mining jobs began opening up for women throughout the Appalachian coalfields. The work goes beyond anecdotal evidence to provide complex and penetrating analyses of qualitative data. Based on in-depth interviews with including social relations among men and women, professional advancement, and union participation. She also explores the ways in which women adapt to mining culture, developing strategies for both resistance and accommodation to an overwhelmingly male-dominated world. 1 app.

  1. Heroines on Horseback: The Frontier Nursing Service of Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Caroline C.

    2014-01-01

    The men of the Breckinridge family have a long history of service to the nation, including many politicians, soldiers, and even a vice president of the United States. But it was a woman in the family, Mary, who had, arguably, the most direct and long-lived impact on those she served. As the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service (FNS) of Eastern…

  2. Practical resources for critical science education in rural Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsolver, Ann

    2016-08-01

    This article argues that there is no typical Appalachian experience or community. There is more cultural diversity and global interchange in this region of the U.S. than appears in popular representations of "isolated" Appalachians, which are ironic because of the region's having been so central to the global extractive economy for centuries. Some pedagogical resources are provided to encourage or contribute to a broader perspective on the possibilities and knowledge centered in rural communities, with Appalachian examples.

  3. Exploratory drilling methods for bituminous coal in Appalachia, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossakowski, L.; Michota, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Using boreholes as an example, exploratory drilling methods near anthracite mines are demonstrated. The borehole designs are described in detail and their primary diameters are given together with the drilling equipment used and the organization of labor. The results obtained are also given.

  4. The Hollow Holiday: Christmas, A Time of Death in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Cindy; Harshbarger, Dwight

    An inquiry was conducted into the question of the influence of Christmas and Easter on the occurrence of death. The authors hypothesized that dying might be postponed until after these two important events resulting in a significantly increased frequency of death after these holidays. Obituaries were read for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after each…

  5. Fabulachia: Urban, Black Female Experiences and Higher Education in Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on focus group conversations with black female college students attending a small, liberal arts institution in Kentucky. Based primarily on group interviews and discussions, as well as observations and analysis--a theoretical domain (referred to throughout the article as "Fabulachia") emerged as a site-specific outcome…

  6. Refining the definition of hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Hans-Uwe; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Weller, Peter F.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Wechsler, Michael E.; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.; Roufosse, Florence; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.

    2012-01-01

    Because of advances in our understanding of the hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and the availability of novel therapeutic agents, the original criteria defining these disorders are becoming increasingly problematic. Here, we discuss shortcomings with the current definition of HES and recent developments in the classification of these disorders. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of some forms of HES, the current state of knowledge is still insufficient to formulate a new comprehensive etiologic definition of HESs. Nevertheless, we suggest a new working definition that overcomes some of the most obvious limitations with the original definition. PMID:20639008

  7. 50 CFR 91.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING AND CONSERVATION STAMP CONTEST Introduction § 91.2 Definitions... submitted to the contest that satisfies the requirements outlined in subpart B. Reproduction...

  8. A Unified Symmetry of Mechanical Systems with Variable Mass in Phase Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Peng; FANG Jian-Hui; ZHANG Peng-Yu; DING Ning

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry of the mechanical system with variable mass in phase space are given. The Noether conserved quantity, the generalized Hojman conserved quantity, and Mei conserved quantity deduced from the unified symmetry are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  9. Sessile serrated lesion and its borderline variant - Variables with impact on recorded data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Mahin; Garbyal, Rajendra S; Kristensen, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    has its relation to SPs with subtle aberrant features, falling short of definite SSL-histology, been sufficiently addressed. The aim of this study was to highlight variables that may influence recorded data on SSL and to further discuss the appropriate place of SPs that possess histological attributes...

  10. Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltsas Gregory

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a complex disorder defined by a cluster of interconnected factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, several different definitions of MetS exist, causing substantial confusion as to whether they identify the same individuals or represent a surrogate of risk factors. Recently, a number of other factors besides those traditionally used to define MetS that are also linked to the syndrome have been identified. In this review, we critically consider existing definitions and evolving information, and conclude that there is still a need to develop uniform criteria to define MetS, so as to enable comparisons between different studies and to better identify patients at risk. As the application of the MetS model has not been fully validated in children and adolescents as yet, and because of its alarmingly increasing prevalence in this population, we suggest that diagnosis, prevention and treatment in this age group should better focus on established risk factors rather than the diagnosis of MetS.

  11. On the definition of superclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Gayoung; Böhringer, Hans; Zaroubi, Saleem

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a physically well-motivated definition of superclusters, we proposed in our previous work to select superclusters with an overdensity criterion that selects only those objects that will collapse in the future, including those that are at a turn-around in the present epoch. In this paper we present numerical values for these criteria for a range of standard cosmological models. We express these criteria in terms of a density ratio or, alternatively, as an infall velocity and show that these two criteria give almost identical results. To better illustrate the implications of this definition, we applied our criteria to some prominent structures in the local Universe, the Local supercluster, Shapley supercluster, and the recently reported Laniakea supercluster to understand their future evolution. We find that for the Local and Shapley superclusters, only the central regions will collapse in the future, while Laniakea does not constitute a significant overdensity and will disperse in the future. Finally, we suggest that those superclusters that will survive the accelerating cosmic expansion and collapse in the future be called "superstes-clusters", where "superstes" means survivor in Latin, to distinguish them from traditional superclusters.

  12. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  13. Interreligious Communication (Definition, Concepts, Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bashir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Religion and monotheistic beliefs are the bases of the human societies and culture and communications are the most important manifestations of these bases. About the three elements of religion, culture and communications, which act as the distinctions of human beings from other beings, and the relationship among them, many discussions have been occurred. In this article, the definitions offered for religion, culture and communication and their relationship, using the literature governing the Intercultural Communication and Cross-cultural Communication as two subjects discussed in the field of Cultural Communication and International Communication, have been reviewed and tried through a novel method to promote the level of religion from a concept usually seen as something such as race, ethnic, identity and life style under the title of international communication and cultural communication to a much higher position and place it under the title of interreligious communication. Following creation of a new field of study, many of the scholars and thinkers who are concerned about that field get together and focus of its issues and try to offer definitions and divisions about the subject. Later, after accumulation of scientific materials about different issues in the field, the human knowledge in that subject starts to develop further and in a more organized way. In this regard, first, the preferred definitions of religion, culture, communication, and Interreligious Communication will be offered. Accordingly, every society includes a meaning structure which is called culture and communication would act as an interaction tool in this system whose task is coding and decoding. Religion is considered the origin of culture and the director of communication. Based on these primary definitions, the interreligious communication is defined as: the relationship between or among the monotheistic religions based on the common understanding of religious

  14. On the mid-infrared variability of candidate eruptive variables (exors): A comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniucci, S.; Giannini, T.; Li Causi, G.; Lorenzetti, D., E-mail: simone.antoniucci@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: teresa.giannini@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: gianluca.licausi@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: dario.lorenzetti@oa-roma.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio (Italy)

    2014-02-10

    Aiming to statistically study the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects, we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 μm Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 μm. From this comparison, we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class ≡ Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigated for similarities with known young eruptive variables, namely the EXors. In particular, we analyzed (1) the shape of the spectral energy distribution, (2) the IR excess over the stellar photosphere, (3) magnitude versus color variations, and (4) output parameters of model fitting. This first systematic search for EXors ends up with 11 bona fide candidates that can be considered as suitable targets for monitoring or future investigations.

  15. Variable subsistence indemnity

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its meeting on 8 November 2000, the Finance Committee approved, with effect from 1st January 2001, adjustments to the Variable Subsistence Indemnity according to the rates published by the United Nations Organization given in document CERN/FC/4339. This decision maintained the reference method in force since 1983. The Management now proposes to adjust the CERN rates of indemnities, with effect from 1st January 2002, on the basis of the United Nations 2001 rates. Simply to give some examples extracted from the complete United Nations lists, the attached Annex shows the rates for a number of typical CERN duty travel destinations. For those countries concerned, the rates will be expressed in Euros from 2002. It is to be noted that the cost level for most destinations will not change significantly if calculated in Swiss Francs and, in any case, the Management will ensure that the total volume of costs for duty travel is contained within the limits of the 2002 budget. It is also to be noted that, since 1st Janu...

  16. Variable subsistence indemnity

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    At its meeting on 15 December 1999, the Finance Committee approved, with effect from 1st January 2000, adjustments to the Variable Subsistence Indemnity according to the rates published by the United Nations Organization given in document CERN/FC/4219. This decision maintained the reference method in force since 1983. The Management now proposes to adjust the CERN rates of indemnities, with effect from 1st January 2001, on the basis of the United Nations 2000 rates. The table contained in this document shows the rates for typical destinations, but they are only extracts from the complete UN table. Although a precise estimate of the cost effect for duty travel is difficult to achieve due to currency exchange values, it is probable that this will remain unchanged if calculated in Swiss francs. It may also be noted that, since 1 January this year, Article R IV 1.41 of the Staff Rules and Regulations has been changed in order to formalize the practice of the payment of a lower subsistence indemnity than the appro...

  17. Variable subsistence indemnity

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    At its meeting on 9 December 1998, the Finance Committee approved, with effect from 1st January 1999, adjustments to the Variable Subsistence Indemnity according to the rates published by the United Nations Organization given in document CERN/FC/4113. This decision maintained the reference method in force since 1983. The Management now proposes to adjust the CERN rates of indemnities, with effect from 1st January 2000, on the basis of the United Nations 1999 rates, as shown for typical destinations in the table contained in this document. Although a precise estimate of the cost effect for duty travel is difficult to achieve due to currency exchange values, it is probable that this will remain unchanged if calculated in Swiss francs. The Management also proposes to formalise the practice of paying a lower subsistence indemnity than the approved basic amount, wherever feasible for events such as group duty travel to conferences or similar events, as discussed at the Finance Committee in December 1998. An amendm...

  18. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  19. Variables moderadoras del estres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Richaud de Minzi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la influenciadel estilo atribucional, la confianza interpersonal y el soporte social sobre la percepción de la amenaza. Se administraron la Escala de Estilo Atribucional; la Manheim Interview 01 Social Support, la Escala de Confianza Interpersonal; y el Inventario de Situaciones y Respuestas de Ansiedad, a 260 sujetos de ambos sexos, de 30 años de edad promedio, de nivel socioeconómico medio, residentes en la ciudad de Buenos Aires. El soporte social no demostró influencia significativa sobre la percepción de la amenaza. Con respecto a la influencia del estilo atribucional se puede decir que las personas indefensas perciben más amenaza, especialmente expresada como ansiedad cognitiva y, en menor grado, como ansiedad motora o conductual. La confianza interpersonal demostró ser una variable importante en la percepción de la amenaza. Los sujetos que presentaron alta desconfianza hacia las personas de su entorno perciben un mundo amenazante, que se manifiesta como ansiedad cognitiva, fisiológica y motora o conductual.

  20. Intraspecific chromosome variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dubinin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available (Editorial preface. The publication is presented in order to remind us of one of dramatic pages of the history of genetics. It re-opens for the contemporary reader a comprehensive work marking the priority change from plant cytogenetics to animal cytogenetics led by wide population studies which were conducted on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. The year of the publication (1937 became the point of irretrievable branching between the directions of Old World and New World genetics connected with the problems of chromosome variability and its significance for the evolution of the species. The famous book of T. Dobzhansky (1937 was published by Columbia University in the US under the title “Genetics and the origin of species”, and in the shadow of this American ‘skybuilding’ all other works grew dim. It is remarkable that both Dobzhansky and Dubinin come to similar conclusions about the role of chromosomes in speciation. This is not surprising given that they both might be considered as representatives of the Russian genetic school, by their birth and education. Interestingly, Dobzhansky had never referred to the full paper of Dubinin et al. (1937, though a previous short communication in Nature (1936 was included together with all former papers on the related subject. In full, the volume of the original publication printed in the Biological Journal in Moscow comprised 47 pages, in that number 41 pages of the Russian text accompanied by 16 Figs, a table and reference list, and, above all, 6 pages of the English summary. This final part in English is now reproduced in the authors’ version with the only addition being the reference list in the originally printed form.

  1. 10 CFR 51.14 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) § 51.14 Definitions. (a... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 51.14 Section 51.14 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY.... Environmental Impact Statement means a detailed written statement as required by section 102(2)(C) of...

  2. 33 CFR 321.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transport interstate or foreign commerce. See 33 CFR part 329 for a more complete definition of this term... Act of 1899. (See 33 CFR part 322.) ... DAMS AND DIKES IN NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES § 321.2 Definitions. For the purpose of...

  3. 42 CFR 456.151 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 456.151 Section 456.151 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals § 456.151 Definitions. As used in this subpart: Medical care appraisal norms or norms means numerical or statistical measures...

  4. 42 CFR 456.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 456.51 Section 456.51 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Hospitals § 456.51 Definitions. As used in this... hospitals appear in subpart D. Medical care appraisal norms or norms means numerical or statistical...

  5. 48 CFR 22.103-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 22.103-1... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.103-1 Definition... does not exceed the norm for the area, as determined by local custom, tradition, or law; and (2)...

  6. 22 CFR 92.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 92.1 Section 92.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Introduction § 92.1 Definitions. (a) In the United States the term notary or notary public means a public officer qualified...

  7. 48 CFR 1217.7000 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 1217.7000... AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Fixed Price Contracts for Vessel Repair, Alteration or Conversion 1217.7000 Definition. Lay Days means the time allowed to the master of a vessel for loading...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1430.1 Section 1430.1 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Price Support Program for Milk § 1430.1 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart, unless the context indicates otherwise, the following...

  9. 5 CFR 610.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 610.102 Section 610.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS HOURS OF DUTY Weekly and Daily Scheduling of Work § 610.102 Definitions. In this subpart: Administrative workweek means any period of...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.202 Definitions. The definitions in this section shall be applicable for all purposes of administering the Milk... Corporation of the Department. Class I Milk means milk, including milk components, classified as Class I...

  11. 29 CFR 4903.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... person, organization, or entity, except another Federal agency. Consumer reporting agency has the meaning... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 4903.3 Section 4903.3 Labor Regulations... PROCEDURES DEBT COLLECTION General § 4903.3 Definitions. The following terms are defined in § 4001.2 of...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4301 Definitions... typically the entity reporting all loan activity to VA and filing claims under the guaranty on behalf of the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions....

  13. 12 CFR 334.41 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING Duties of Furnishers of Information § 334.41 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart and... to one or more consumer reporting agencies for inclusion in a consumer report. An entity is not a... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 334.41 Section 334.41 Banks...

  14. 48 CFR 8.1101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 8.1101 Section 8.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 8.1101 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Leasing, means the acquisition...

  15. 48 CFR 4.1101 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 4.1101 Section 4.1101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Central Contractor Registration 4.1101 Definition. As used in this subpart— Agreement means basic agreement, basic ordering agreement,...

  16. 12 CFR 956.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 956.1 Section 956.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Deposits in banks or...

  17. 7 CFR 760.1102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Angora goats. Non-adult beef cattle means a bovine animal that weighed 500 pounds or more on the... bull. Non-adult dairy cattle means a bovine livestock, of a breed used for the purpose of providing... Definitions. The following definitions apply to this subpart. Adult beef bull means a male beef bovine...

  18. 40 CFR 444.11 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 444.11 Section 444.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS WASTE COMBUSTORS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Commercial Hazardous Waste Combustor Subcategory § 444.11 Definitions....

  19. 16 CFR 444.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 444.1 Section 444.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES CREDIT PRACTICES § 444.1 Definitions. (a) Lender. A person who engages in the business of lending money to consumers within the jurisdiction of...

  20. 7 CFR 2812.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2812.3 Section 2812.3 Agriculture...) § 2812.3 Definitions. (a) Cannibalization. The dismantling of equipment for parts to repair or enhance..., routers, and servers), including telecommunications and research equipment, that are appropriate for...

  1. 33 CFR 154.1020 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions. Except as otherwise defined in this section, the definition in 33 CFR 154.105 apply to this... estuarine reserves, conservation areas, preserves, wildlife areas, wildlife refuges, wild and scenic rivers... research areas, heritage program areas, land trust areas, and historical and archaeological sites and...

  2. 31 CFR 103.90 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definitions apply: (a) Money laundering means an activity criminalized by 18 U.S.C. 1956 or 1957, or an... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 103.90 Section 103.90 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING...

  3. 32 CFR 235.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Exchanges, and ship stores. Sexually explicit material. Material, the dominant theme of which is the... SALE OR RENTAL OF SEXUALLY EXPLICIT MATERIAL ON DOD PROPERTY § 235.3 Definitions. For the purpose of this part, the following definitions apply: Dominant theme. A theme of any material that is superior...

  4. 41 CFR 109-27.5101 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.51-Management of Precious Metals § 109-27.5101 Definition. Precious metals means... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 109-27.5101 Section 109-27.5101 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  5. 16 CFR 1633.10 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1633.10 Section 1633.10 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Rules and Regulations § 1633.10 Definitions. (a) Standard means...

  6. 16 CFR 1115.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.3 Definitions. In addition to the definitions given... Sunshine Act, 16 CFR part 1012. (c) Noncompliance means the failure of a consumer product to comply with...

  7. 5 CFR 9901.504 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (NSPS) Staffing and Employment General § 9901.504 Definitions. In this subpart— Career conditional... does not meet the definition of a career employee. Career employee means an individual appointed..., of an employee to another position or set of duties with the expectation that the employee...

  8. 48 CFR 9.601 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 9.601 Section 9.601 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Contractor Team Arrangements 9.601 Definition. Contractor team arrangement, as...

  9. 28 CFR 905.1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 905.1 Section 905.1 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL NATIONAL FINGERPRINT FILE (NFF) PROGRAM QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS § 905.1 Definition. “National Fingerprint File” means a database of fingerprints,...

  10. 42 CFR 8.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... treatment of an individual for opioid addiction. Medical director means a physician, licensed to practice... or Territory for governing the treatment of opiate addiction with an opioid drug. Treatment plan... TREATMENT PROGRAMS Accreditation § 8.2 Definitions. The following definitions apply to this...

  11. 22 CFR 221.01 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Definitions § 221.01 Definitions. Wherever used in these standard terms and conditions: (a) A.I.D. means the... government or any agency or political subdivision thereof....

  12. 49 CFR 611.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION MAJOR CAPITAL INVESTMENT PROJECTS § 611.5 Definitions. The definitions established by Titles 12... transit investment means any project that involves the construction of a new fixed guideway system or... project is compared to develop project justification measures. Relative to the no build alternative,...

  13. 20 CFR 903.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 903.2 Section 903.2 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES ACCESS TO RECORDS Records Pertaining to Individuals § 903.2 Definitions. (a) The term agency includes any executive department, military...

  14. 20 CFR 902.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 902.2 Section 902.2 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES RULES REGARDING AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 902.2 Definitions. (a) Records of the Joint Board. For purposes of this part, the term “records of the Joint...

  15. Omani Students' Definitions of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nofli, Mohammed Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Very few studies have been conducted on students' definitions of geography. The purpose of the present study was to add to the existing literature by exploring Omani students' definitions of geography. Participants were 477 students of grade 6 (ages 11-12) and grade 10 (ages 15-16) in one school district in Oman. They had been taught…

  16. 10 CFR 431.192 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Distribution Transformers § 431.192 Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart: Autotransformer means a transformer that: (1) Has one physical winding that consists of a series winding part and...) During step-down operation, has a primary voltage that is equal to the total of the series and...

  17. 21 CFR 135.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 135.3 Section 135.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN DESSERTS General Provisions § 135.3 Definitions. For the purposes of this part,...

  18. 21 CFR 158.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 158.3 Section 158.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES General Provisions § 158.3 Definitions. For the purposes of this part...

  19. 28 CFR 34.103 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 34.103 Section 34.103 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OJJDP COMPETITION AND PEER REVIEW PROCEDURES Peer Review § 34.103 Definition. Peer review means the technical and programmatic evaluation by a group of...

  20. 7 CFR 783.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... grape, kiwi fruit, or passion fruit. Individual stand means an area of trees, bushes or vines that are... SPECIAL PROGRAMS TREE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 783.3 Definitions. (a) The definitions in part 718 of this... grapes, kiwi fruit, or passion fruit or similar fruit as approved by the Deputy Administrator....

  1. 24 CFR 135.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPPORTUNITY ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES FOR LOW- AND VERY LOW-INCOME PERSONS General Provisions § 135.5 Definitions... economic opportunities for low- and very low-income persons. See definition of “section 3 business concern... housing for low income families. The ACC must be in a form prescribed by HUD under which HUD agrees...

  2. 26 CFR 1.535-1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition. 1.535-1 Section 1.535-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Corporations Used to Avoid Income Tax on Shareholders § 1.535-1 Definition. (a)...

  3. 50 CFR 300.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 300.2 Definitions. In addition to the definitions in each act, agreement, convention, or treaty... designated by a member of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources as an inspector under Article XXIV of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources...

  4. 42 CFR 59a.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 59a.12 Section 59a.12 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE GRANTS Establishment of Regional Medical Libraries § 59a.12 Definitions. Underfined terms have the same meaning...

  5. Oxidation and Reduction: Too Many Definitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Todd P.

    2011-01-01

    IUPAC gives several different definitions of oxidation: loss of electrons, increase in oxidation state, loss of hydrogen, or gain of oxygen. Most introductory or general chemistry textbooks use all of these definitions at one time or another, which can lead to some confusion in the minds of first-year chemistry students. Some paradoxical…

  6. 45 CFR 400.141 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Services § 400.141 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart— Refugee social services means any service set... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 400.141 Section 400.141 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR...

  7. 45 CFR 95.505 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 95.505 Section 95.505 Public Welfare... Definitions. As used in this subpart: State agency costs include all costs incurred by or allocable to the... Refugee Resettlement. Public assistance programs means the programs cited in § 95.503. State means the...

  8. 45 CFR 401.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 401.2 Section 401.2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CUBAN/HAITIAN ENTRANT PROGRAM § 401.2 Definitions....

  9. 5 CFR 300.703 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 300.703 Section 300.703... Bar to Appointment of Persons Who Fail To Register Under Selective Service Law § 300.703 Definitions... citizen or an alien (including parolees and refugees and those who are lawfully admitted to the...

  10. 45 CFR 400.41 - Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Identification of Refugees § 400.41 Definitions For purposes of this subpart— Applicant for asylum means an... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions 400.41 Section 400.41 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN...

  11. 43 CFR 32.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 32.2 Section 32.2 Public... CONSERVATION CORPS (YACC) PROGRAM § 32.2 Definitions. The terms used in these regulations are defined as... the Pacific Islands and the Northern Marianas. (e) Refugee/parolee. An alien who is admitted into...

  12. 32 CFR 319.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 319.4 Definitions. (a) All terms used in this part which are... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 319.4 Section 319.4 National... Intelligence Agency....

  13. 5 CFR 9.1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 9.1 Section 9.1... Definition. As used in this rule, 'Executive agency' means an Executive department, a Government corporation... Code, but does not include the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Central Intelligence Agency,...

  14. 23 CFR 950.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 950.3 Section 950.3 Highways FEDERAL... COLLECTION § 950.3 Definitions. As used in this part: 1604 toll program refers to any of the tolling programs authorized under section 1604 of SAFETEA-LU. These programs include the Value Pricing Pilot Program,...

  15. 15 CFR 718.1 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition. 718.1 Section 718.1... INFORMATION § 718.1 Definition. The Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998 (“the Act”) defines... marketing data (other than shipment data); (c) Pricing data; (d) Personnel data; (e) Research data;...

  16. 48 CFR 15.401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 15.401 Section 15.401 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 15.401 Definitions. As used in...

  17. 77 FR 45285 - Definition of Troubled Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 700, 701, 741 and 750 RIN 3133-AD97 Definition of Troubled Condition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: NCUA proposes to amend the definition of ``troubled condition'' as that term appears in Sec. 701.14...

  18. 10 CFR 431.442 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... electric motor means a NEMA general purpose alternating current single-speed induction motor, built in a... electric motor's group (i.e., capacitor-start, capacitor-run; capacitor-start, induction-run; or polyphase... Small Electric Motors § 431.442 Definitions. The following definitions are applicable to this...

  19. 16 CFR 259.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 259.1 Section 259.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDE CONCERNING FUEL ECONOMY ADVERTISING FOR NEW AUTOMOBILES § 259.1 Definitions. For the purposes of this part, the following...

  20. 33 CFR 136.5 - Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions 136.5 Section 136.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION... SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT General § 136.5 Definitions (a) As used in this part, the following terms...

  1. 29 CFR 20.76 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Definitions. 20.76 Section 20.76 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Salary Offset § 20.76 Definitions. (a) Disposable pay means... property, overpayments, penalties, damages, interest, fines and forfeitures (except those arising under...

  2. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  3. Mathematical Definitions of Operators for Cartographic Generalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper puts forword 11 cartographic generalization operator models and introduces their mathematical definitions,and thus a precise mathematical form and quantitative description has been given to these formerly limited qualitative concepts.The meaning of mathematical definition of operators for cartographic generalization and the application prospect in computer-aided cartography (CAC) is stated.

  4. 12 CFR 989.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 989.1 Section 989.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS OF THE BANKS § 989.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Audit means an examination of the financial statements by an...

  5. 12 CFR 19.242 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 19.242 Section 19.242 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19.242 Definitions. As used in...

  6. 21 CFR 1401.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1401.3 Section 1401.3 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION § 1401.3 Definitions. For the...) Representative of the news media means any person actively gathering news for an entity that is organized...

  7. European Mixed Forests: Definition and research perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Andenmatten, E.; Barbati, A.; Barreiro, S.; Brang, P.; Bravo, F.; Coll, L.; Corona, P.; Ouden, den J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) briefly review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material an

  8. 28 CFR 26.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 26.21 Section 26.21 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEATH SENTENCES PROCEDURES Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems § 26.21 Definitions. For purposes of this part, the term— Appropriate state official means...

  9. 33 CFR 174.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS General § 174.3 Definitions. As used in this part: Operator means... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 174.3 Section 174.3... claims lawful possession of a vessel by virtue of legal title or equitable interest therein...

  10. 19 CFR 115.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Definitions. For the purpose of this part: (a) Certifying Authority. “Certifying Authority” means a nonprofit... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 115.3 Section 115.3 Customs Duties U....3 cubic feet) or more. (d) Manufacturer. “Manufacturer” means an organization or person...

  11. 5 CFR 734.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lawful nonprofit organization, association, society, or club composed of Federal employees. Federal labor... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 734.101 Section 734.101...) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES General Provisions § 734.101 Definitions. For the purposes of...

  12. 45 CFR 159.110 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...” found at section 1304(a)(3). State Health Benefits High Risk Pools: Means nonprofit organizations... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 159.110 Section 159.110 Public... REFORM INSURANCE WEB PORTAL § 159.110 Definitions. For purposes of part 159, the following...

  13. 5 CFR 300.401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Commercial Recruiting Firms and Nonprofit Employment Services § 300.401 Definitions. For purposes of this... nonprofit employment service sponsored by a partisan political organization. By contract, a nonprofit... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 300.401 Section...

  14. 22 CFR 203.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Cooperative Development Organization (CDO) means an... Voluntary Organization (LPVO) means a non-U.S. based PVO that meets the definition of an International... nonprofit or profit-making. (i) Nonprofit organization means any corporation, trust,...

  15. 12 CFR 313.21 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 313.21 Section 313.21 Banks and... DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 313.21 Definitions. (a) Administrative offset means withholding...) Person includes a natural person or persons, profit or nonprofit corporation, partnership,...

  16. 32 CFR 266.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 266.3 Section 266.3 National... AUDITS OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, AND OTHER NONPROFIT INSTITUTIONS § 266.3 Definitions. Terms used in this part are defined in OMB Circulars A-128 and A-133 with...

  17. 48 CFR 408.701 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 408.701... ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Nonprofit Agencies Employing People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 408.701 Definitions. Committee Member is the...

  18. 45 CFR 211.1 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General definitions. 211.1 Section 211.1 Public... ILL NATIONALS OF THE UNITED STATES, RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 211.1 General definitions. When... nonprofit agency with which the Administrator has entered into arrangements for the provision of...

  19. 42 CFR 433.136 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 433.136 Section 433.136 Public Health... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Third Party Liability § 433.136 Definitions. For purposes of... contracts); (2) Any profit or nonprofit prepaid plan offering either medical services or full or...

  20. 40 CFR 47.105 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 47.105 Section 47.105... ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.105 Definitions. (a) Environmental education and environmental education... nonprofit affiliates) as defined and licensed by the Federal Communications Commission; (f) Tribal...

  1. Revised definitions of women's sexual dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basson, Rosemary; Leiblum, Sandra; Brotto, Lori; Derogatis, Leonard; Fourcroy, Jean; Fugl-Meyer, Kerstin; Graziottin, Alessandra; Heiman, Julia R.; Laan, Ellen; Meston, Cindy; Schover, Leslie; van Lankveld, Jacques; Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar

    2004-01-01

    Introduction. Existing definitions of women's sexual disorders are based mainly on genitally focused events in a linear sequence model (desire, arousal and orgasm). Aim. To revise definitions based on an alternative model reflecting women's reasons/incentives for sexual activity beyond any initial a

  2. 10 CFR 81.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 81.2 Section 81.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Act means the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (68 Stat. 619), including any... under this subpart; (c) NRC invention means an invention covered by a U.S. patent or patent...

  3. 10 CFR 781.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 781.3 Section 781.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS General Provisions § 781.3 Definitions. (a) Board means the Invention Licensing Appeal Board. (b) Department of Energy, Department, or DOE mean the Department of...

  4. 15 CFR 296.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 296.2 Section 296.2... General § 296.2 Definitions. Award means Federal financial assistance made under a grant or cooperative... Republic of Palau. Intellectual property means an invention patentable under title 35, United States...

  5. 32 CFR 746.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTRACTS LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT INVENTIONS IN THE CUSTODY OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY § 746.4 Definitions. (a) Government invention means an invention covered by a domestic patent or patent application... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 746.4 Section 746.4...

  6. 37 CFR 4.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.2 Definitions. (a) Invention Promoter means any person, firm, partnership, corporation, or other entity who offers to perform or performs invention... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 4.2 Section...

  7. 48 CFR 27.301 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 27.301... REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.301 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Invention means any invention or discovery that is or may be patentable or...

  8. 7 CFR 550.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 550.2 Section 550.2 Agriculture... Definitions. Accrued expenditures means the charges incurred by the Cooperator during a given period requiring... participating Federal agencies with the technology to electronically manage extramural invention portfolios...

  9. 29 CFR 575.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 575.2 Section 575.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS WAIVER OF CHILD LABOR... § 575.2 Definitions. As used in this part: Act means the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as...

  10. 47 CFR 13.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.3 Definitions. The definitions of terms used in part 13 are: (a) COLEM. Commercial operator license examination manager. (b) Commercial radio operator. A person holding a license or licenses specified in § 13.7(b)....

  11. 32 CFR 767.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 767.2 Section 767.2 National... DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY Regulations and Obligations § 767.2 Definitions. Aircraft wreck means the physical... culture or human history. Cultural resource means any prehistoric or historic district, site,...

  12. 25 CFR 262.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 262.2 Section 262.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Definitions. As used for purposes of this part: (a) Funerary objects means objects that, as a part of the death rite or ceremony of a culture, are reasonably believed to have been placed with human remains...

  13. 25 CFR 83.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 83.1 Section 83.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... GROUP EXISTS AS AN INDIAN TRIBE § 83.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Area Office means a Bureau of... of the history, geography, culture and social organization of the petitioning group. Board means...

  14. 40 CFR 410.51 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the knit fabric finishing subcategory for facilities that are engaged primarily in dyeing or finishing... STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Knit Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.51 Specialized definitions. In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401 and § 410.01 of this part,...

  15. 40 CFR 410.41 - Specialized definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS TEXTILE MILLS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Woven Fabric Finishing Subcategory § 410.41 Specialized definitions. In addition to the definitions set forth in 40 CFR part 401 and § 410.01 of this part the... following unit processes: Desizing, fiber preparation and dyeing. (b) The term complex...

  16. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  17. Excessive infant crying : definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Hirasing, RA

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting evidenc

  18. 14 CFR 1203b.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1203b.102 Section 1203b.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SECURITY PROGRAMS; ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.102 Definitions. Accredited Course of...

  19. 42 CFR 412.602 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment for Inpatient Rehabilitation Hospitals and Rehabilitation Units § 412.602 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Assessment reference date... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 412.602 Section 412.602 Public...

  20. 38 CFR 21.6503 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 21.6503...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training and Rehabilitation § 21.6503 Definitions. (a) Program period. The term program period means the period beginning on February 1, 1985,...

  1. 12 CFR 980.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 980.1 Section 980.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.1 Definitions. As used in this part: New business activity means any business activity...

  2. 49 CFR 565.22 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Effect for Limited Period § 565.22 Definitions. (a) Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Definitions... passenger car or a multipurpose passenger vehicle, or truck with a gross vehicle weight rating of 4536 kg... assembling motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment; or (2) Importing motor vehicles or motor...

  3. 49 CFR 565.12 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions. (a) Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Definitions. Unless otherwise indicated, all terms... manufacturer and make shall be represented if the engine powers a passenger car or a multipurpose passenger... assembling motor vehicles or motor vehicle equipment; or (2) Importing motor vehicles or motor...

  4. 28 CFR 549.61 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 549.61 Section 549.61 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.61 Definition. As defined in this rule, an inmate is on a hunger strike:...

  5. 34 CFR 304.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definition. (b) Act means the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, as amended, 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 304.3 Section 304.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION...

  6. 5 CFR 630.601 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 630.601 Section 630.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.601 Definitions. In this subpart: Home leave means leave authorized by section 6305(a) of title...

  7. 40 CFR 35.161 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 35.161 Section 35.161 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.161 Definition....

  8. 40 CFR 35.141 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 35.141 Section 35.141 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) § 35.141 Definitions. In...

  9. 38 CFR 21.7020 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bill-Active Duty) Definitions § 21.7020 Definitions. For the purposes of regulations from § 21.7000.... (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 3034, 3680(a); Pub. L. 98-525) (21) Normal commuting distance. The term normal... school, junior college, teachers' college, college, normal school, professional school, university...

  10. 10 CFR 431.172 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions for Commercial HVAC & Water Heating Products § 431.172 Definitions. The following definitions... forth in Section 340 of the Act. Basic model means, with respect to a commercial HVAC & WH product, all... consumption. Commercial HVAC & WH product means any small or large commercial package air-conditioning...

  11. 46 CFR 24.10-1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... definition, includes every territory for the international relations of which a contracting government to the... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used... monetary contribution or donation of fuel, food, beverage, or other supplies. Headquarters means the...

  12. 8 CFR 331.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 331.1 Section 331.1 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS ALIEN ENEMIES; NATURALIZATION UNDER SPECIFIED CONDITIONS AND PROCEDURES § 331.1 Definitions. As used in this part: Alien enemy means any...

  13. 22 CFR 63.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 63.1 Section 63.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.1 Definitions. For the purpose...

  14. 22 CFR 64.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 64.2 Section 64.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PARTICIPATION BY FEDERAL EMPLOYEES IN CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAMS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 64.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this part: (a)...

  15. 22 CFR 46.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 46.1 Section 46.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS CONTROL OF ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 46.1 Definitions... public ferry, passenger vessel sailing coastwise on a fixed schedule, excursion vessel, or...

  16. 22 CFR 171.20 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 171.20 Section 171.20 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACCESS TO INFORMATION AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC Executive Order 12958 Provisions § 171.20 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the following...

  17. 42 CFR 421.401 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 421.401 Section 421.401 Public Health... PROGRAM MEDICARE CONTRACTING Medicare Administrative Contractors (MACs) § 421.401 Definitions. For... perform a particular Medicare administrative function in relation to: (1) A particular individual...

  18. 36 CFR 294.11 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... State Petitions for Inventoried Roadless Area Management § 294.11 Definition. Inventoried roadless areas... subsequent update or revision of those maps through the land management planning process. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 294.11...

  19. 44 CFR 353.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 353.3 Section 353.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... LICENSEE RADIOLOGICAL EMERGENCY PLANS AND PREPAREDNESS § 353.3 Definitions. As used in this part,...

  20. 44 CFR 350.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 350.2 Section 350.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 350.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the following terms are defined: (a) Administrator means...

  1. 48 CFR 2009.570-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-2 Definitions... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 2009.570-2... exceeding $10,000. Technical consulting and management support services means internal assistance to...

  2. 44 CFR 201.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 201.2 Section 201.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MITIGATION PLANNING § 201.2 Definitions. Administrator means the head of...

  3. 5 CFR 2635.303 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Gifts Between Employees § 2635.303 Definitions. For purposes of this subpart... purposes of that definition an employee will be deemed to have paid market value for any benefit...

  4. 27 CFR 7.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 7.51 Section 7.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF... Definitions. As used in §§ 7.50 through 7.55 of this part, the term “advertisement” includes any written...

  5. 27 CFR 5.62 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition. 5.62 Section 5.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Definition. As used in §§ 5.61 through 5.66 of this part, the term “advertisement” includes any written...

  6. 48 CFR 519.7002 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... designed to enhance the business success of the protégé. (b) Mentor-Protégé Program Manager means an... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7002 Definitions. The definitions of small business concern, small disadvantaged business concern, HUBZone small business concern,...

  7. 10 CFR 707.4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... counseling and assessment, crisis intervention, referral to outside treatment facilities, and follow-up... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 707.4 Section 707.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAMS AT DOE SITES General Provisions § 707.4 Definitions. For...

  8. 45 CFR 160.103 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... care, and counseling, service, assessment, or procedure with respect to the physical or mental... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 160.103 Section 160.103 Public... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 160.103 Definitions. Except as otherwise...

  9. 28 CFR 544.31 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... include screening, assessments, goal setting, fitness/nutrition prescriptions and counseling. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 544.31 Section 544.31... Recreation Programs § 544.31 Definitions. (a) Leisure activities are a wide range of activities in...

  10. 7 CFR 271.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...- tative. Assessment an in-depth evaluation of employability skills coupled with counseling on how and... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 271.2 Section 271.2 Agriculture... FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM GENERAL INFORMATION AND DEFINITIONS § 271.2...

  11. 7 CFR 1430.602 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... declaration. Milk handler or cooperative means the marketing agency to, or through which, the producer commercially markets whole milk. Milk marketings means a marketing of milk for which there is a verifiable... Program II (DDAP-II) § 1430.602 Definitions. The definitions in 7 CFR part 718 shall apply to this...

  12. 22 CFR 94.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 94.1 Section 94.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.1 Definitions... International Child Abduction, Appendix B to Department of State notice, 51 FR 10498, March 26, 1986....

  13. 28 CFR 500.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 500.1 Section 500.1 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL DEFINITIONS... health care training or experience which support, complement, or supplement the administration of...

  14. 40 CFR 205.51 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 205.51 Section 205.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.51 Definitions. (a) As used in this...

  15. 48 CFR 509.403 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 509.403 Definitions... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 509.403... counsel, or agent for service of process. In the case of a business, such notice may be sent to...

  16. 13 CFR 303.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 303.2 Section 303.2 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PLANNING INVESTMENTS AND COMPREHENSIVE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES § 303.2 Definitions. In addition to the...

  17. 48 CFR 3009.171-2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Responsible Prospective Contractors 3009.171-2 Definitions. As used in this subpart— Business concern means a commercial... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions....

  18. 40 CFR 350.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... business advantages it derives from its right in the information. The definition is meant to encompass any... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 350.1 Section 350.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING,...

  19. 48 CFR 1509.170-4 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Contractor Performance Evaluations 1509.170-4 Definitions. (a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Definitions. 1509.170-4.... Performance categories include quality, cost control, timeliness of performance, business...

  20. 7 CFR 1206.201 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION Rules and Regulations § 1206.201 Definitions. Organic Act means section 2103 of the Organic Foods... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1206.201 Section 1206.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING...

  1. 34 CFR 5b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maintained by the Department, including but not limited to the individual's education, financial transactions... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 5b.1 Section 5b.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 5b.1 Definitions. As used in this part:...

  2. 16 CFR 1505.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CHILDREN Regulations § 1505.1 Definitions. (a) The following definitions apply to this part 1505: (1) The term “electrically operated toy or other electrically operated article intended for use by children” means any toy, game, or other article designed, labeled, advertised, or otherwise intended for use...

  3. 45 CFR 88.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 88.2 Section 88.2 Public Welfare... SERVICES FUNDS DO NOT SUPPORT COERCIVE OR DISCRIMINATORY POLICIES OR PRACTICES § 88.2 Definitions. For the... State and local governments, public and private institutions of higher education, public and...

  4. 19 CFR 143.32 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 143.32 Section 143.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Electronic Entry Filing § 143.32 Definitions. The following...

  5. 19 CFR 12.90 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 12.90 Section 12.90 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Electronic Products § 12.90 Definitions. As used in §§ 12.90 and 12.91,...

  6. 12 CFR 604.400 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 604.400 Section 604.400 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION BOARD MEETINGS § 604.400 Definitions. For purposes of this part: (a) Agency means the Farm Credit Administration....

  7. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  8. 16 CFR 1203.32 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Certification § 1203.32 Definitions. The following definitions shall apply to this subpart: (a) Foreign manufacturer means an entity that manufactured a bicycle helmet outside the... manufactured a helmet in the United States or imported a helmet manufactured outside the United States....

  9. 38 CFR 9.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the total amount of insurance covered by the policy and issues individual life insurance policies to... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.1 Definitions. The following definitions are in... the Office of Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance, located at 80 Livingston Avenue, Roseland,...

  10. 40 CFR 87.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 87.1 Section 87.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.1 Definitions. (a) As used in this...

  11. 23 CFR 230.202 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disadvantaged business enterprise (DBE), all defined under 49 CFR part 23. This expanded definition is used only... businesses active in the highway program and contribute to the growth and eventual self-sufficiency of... for Minority, Disadvantaged, and Women Business Enterprises § 230.202 Definitions. (a)...

  12. 12 CFR 725.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 725.2 Section 725.2 Banks and... ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.2 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Agent means an Agent... loan means an advance of funds by an Agent to a member natural person credit union to meet...

  13. 12 CFR 370.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 370.2 Section 370.2 Banks and... LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.2 Definitions. As used in this part, the terms listed in this section are... institution; (ii) A U.S. bank holding company, provided that it controls, directly or indirectly, at least...

  14. 32 CFR 257.3 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE OF PROCESS § 257.3 Definition. Service of Process. When applied to the filing of a court action against an officer or agency of the United States, service of process refers to the delivery or, when... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 257.3 Section 257.3 National...

  15. 42 CFR 34.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 34.2 Section 34.2 Public Health PUBLIC... OF ALIENS § 34.2 Definitions. As used in this part, terms shall have the following meanings: (a) CDC... International Health Regulations (http://www.who.int/csr/ihr/en/), as adopted by the Fifty-Eighth World...

  16. Considerations concerning the definition of sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this commentary, we describe the sarcopenia spectrum that results in frailty and consider the impact of several components of the frailty definition on its global prevalence. We review proposed operational definitions of sarcopenia the extent to which they have been shown to predict hard clinical...

  17. 10 CFR 835.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 835.2 Section 835.2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION General Provisions § 835.2 Definitions. (a) As used in this part... computer program, The ICRP Database of Dose Coefficients: Workers and Members of the Public, (ISBN 0 08...

  18. 21 CFR 50.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 50.3 Section 50.3 Food and Drugs FOOD... General Provisions § 50.3 Definitions. As used in this part: (a) Act means the Federal Food, Drug, and... part 314. (8) Data and information about the bioavailability or bioequivalence of drugs for human...

  19. 48 CFR 9.501 - Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 9.501 Definition. Marketing... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition. 9.501 Section... of an offer for a Government contract by that offeror. An independent contractor is not a...

  20. 10 CFR 1046.3 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... physician is not available, physicians who are not board-certified in occupational medicine may be... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1046.3 Section 1046.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF SECURITY INTERESTS General § 1046.3 Definitions....

  1. 23 CFR 500.202 - TMS definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false TMS definitions. 500.202 Section 500.202 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING SYSTEMS Traffic Monitoring System § 500.202 TMS definitions. Unless...

  2. 18 CFR 1.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.101 Section 1.101 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Definitions and Rules of Construction §...

  3. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  4. 5 CFR 179.302 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 179.302 Section 179.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.302 Definitions. Administrative offset, as defined in 31 U.S.C. 3701(a)(1),...

  5. 5 CFR 185.102 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 185.102 Section 185.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.102 Definitions. For the purposes of this part— ALJ means an Administrative Law Judge in...

  6. [Definition and classification of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibiki, Itsuki

    2014-05-01

    The concept or definition of epilepsy was mentioned as a chronic disease of the brain consisting of repetitions of EEG paroxysm and clinical seizures caused by excessive discharges of the cerebral neurons, in reference with Gastaut's opinion and the other statements. Further, we referred to diseases to be excluded from epilepsy such as isolated, occasional and subclinical seizures and so on. Next, new classifications of seizures and epilepsies were explained on the basis of revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies in Report of the ILAE Communication in Classification and Terminology, 2005-09, in comparison with the Classification of Epileptic Seizures in 1981 and the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndromes in 1989.

  7. On the definition of learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Since the turn of the century the phenomenon of learning has received increasingly more attention. Within the theoretical field, a variety of theories of learning have evolved. The field of research on learning has become very complex, with different foci, founders and proponents, schools......, and disciplinary approaches. This book is a first publication in the ‘On the definition of learning’ network. The network arose out of the aspiration to study the phenomenon of learning in depth and to understand its complex relationship to empirical investigation and teaching. Based on the assumption...... that it is important to be sensitive to the variety of concepts and theories of learning in the field, and to continue to cultivate that variety, the book takes a step towards actively and critically engaging the various approaches in the field of learning theory. At the same time it emphasizes the complex...

  8. Hidden variable models for quantum mechanics can have local parts

    CERN Document Server

    Larsson, Jan-Ake

    2009-01-01

    We present an explicit nonlocal nonsignaling model which has a nontrivial local part and is compatible with quantum mechanics. This model constitutes a counterexample to Colbeck and Renner's statement [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 050403 (2008)] that "any hidden variable model can only be compatible with quantum mechanics if its local part is trivial". Furthermore, we examine Colbeck and Renner's definition of "local part" and find that, in the case of models reproducing the quantum predictions for the singlet state, it is a restriction equivalent to the conjunction of nonsignaling and trivial local part.

  9. Product Structure, the Heart of Product Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHoog, C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the LMMSS Product Definition System (PDS) philosophy and approach were the use of each item parts document or software can be traced to a specific end item (EI) serial/tail number of the product. It explains why a part-oriented approach to data organization and configuration management is required. The definition of part-oriented is that all appropriate product definition data products will be collected. Referenced and managed by their linkage/relationship to parts/items, The paper will touch upon how LMMSS store/controls product definition information under each project's top product designator in a two tiered approach. One tier for each product end item and another tier which contain/controls listings of drawings, documents. Specifications and standards that are required for hardware item definition.

  10. MODELING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the dynamic behavior of the variables that can play a major role in the performance improvement in a supply chain, a System Dynamics-based model is proposed. The model provides an effective framework for analyzing different variables affecting supply chain performance. Among different variables, a causal relationship among different variables has been identified. Variables emanating from performance measures such as gaps in customer satisfaction, cost minimization, lead-time reduction, service level improvement and quality improvement have been identified as goal-seeking loops. The proposed System Dynamics-based model analyzes the affect of dynamic behavior of variables for a period of 10 years on performance of case supply chain in auto business.

  11. Benchmarking Variable Selection in QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Martin; Norinder, Ulf; Boyer, Scott; Carlsson, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Variable selection is important in QSAR modeling since it can improve model performance and transparency, as well as reduce the computational cost of model fitting and predictions. Which variable selection methods that perform well in QSAR settings is largely unknown. To address this question we, in a total of 1728 benchmarking experiments, rigorously investigated how eight variable selection methods affect the predictive performance and transparency of random forest models fitted to seven QSAR datasets covering different endpoints, descriptors sets, types of response variables, and number of chemical compounds. The results show that univariate variable selection methods are suboptimal and that the number of variables in the benchmarked datasets can be reduced with about 60 % without significant loss in model performance when using multivariate adaptive regression splines MARS and forward selection.

  12. Population Synthesis for Mira Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Zhu; Chao-Zheng Zha

    2005-01-01

    By means of a population synthesis code, we investigate the Mira variables. Their birth rate (over 0.65yr-1) and their number (~ 130000) in the Galaxy are estimated. For all possible Mira variables, ranges of their initial masses,pulsating periods, mass losses and lifetimes are given. We check our model with the observed Mira variables near the Sun and our results prove to be valid.

  13. The Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS) Psychometric Validity of Individual Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon Czopp, Shira; Zeligman, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication of the Rorschach Inkblot Method (Rorschach, 1921/1942 ), theorists, researchers, and practitioners have been debating the nature of the task, its conceptual foundation, and most important its psychometric properties. The validity of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 1974 , 2003; Exner & Weiner, 1995 ) has been supported by several meta-analyses that used different types of nontest external criterion for validating individual variables. In a recent meta-analysis, Mihura, Meyer, Dumitrascu, and Bombel ( 2013 ) found coefficients ranging from modest to excellent for most of the selected CS variables, with 13 of them reported as showing "little to no support." This article focuses on these variables. Although endorsing Mihura et al.'s mainly validating findings, we also suggest that the evidence presented for the little or no validity of these 13 variables is not quite compelling enough to warrant changing their definition or coding, or removing them from the system. We point to some issues concerning the description and interpretation of these variables and the appropriateness of the external criteria used for exploring their validity, and suggest considering these issues in further CS research. Implications of Mihura et al.'s meta-analysis for clinical and forensic practice are discussed.

  14. Variable Sampling Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey, S.; Aronstein, David L.; Dean, Bruce H.; Lyon, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an optical system (for example, a telescope) is limited by the misalignments and manufacturing imperfections of the optical elements in the system. The impact of these misalignments and imperfections can be quantified by the phase variations imparted on light traveling through the system. Phase retrieval is a methodology for determining these variations. Phase retrieval uses images taken with the optical system and using a light source of known shape and characteristics. Unlike interferometric methods, which require an optical reference for comparison, and unlike Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors that require special optical hardware at the optical system's exit pupil, phase retrieval is an in situ, image-based method for determining the phase variations of light at the system s exit pupil. Phase retrieval can be used both as an optical metrology tool (during fabrication of optical surfaces and assembly of optical systems) and as a sensor used in active, closed-loop control of an optical system, to optimize performance. One class of phase-retrieval algorithms is the iterative transform algorithm (ITA). ITAs estimate the phase variations by iteratively enforcing known constraints in the exit pupil and at the detector, determined from modeled or measured data. The Variable Sampling Mapping (VSM) technique is a new method for enforcing these constraints in ITAs. VSM is an open framework for addressing a wide range of issues that have previously been considered detrimental to high-accuracy phase retrieval, including undersampled images, broadband illumination, images taken at or near best focus, chromatic aberrations, jitter or vibration of the optical system or detector, and dead or noisy detector pixels. The VSM is a model-to-data mapping procedure. In VSM, fully sampled electric fields at multiple wavelengths are modeled inside the phase-retrieval algorithm, and then these fields are mapped to intensities on the light detector, using the properties

  15. Variable Speed Rotor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Variable speed rotors will give helicopters several advantages: higher top speed, greater fuel efficiency, momentary emergency over-power, resonance detuning...

  16. Morphological variability of the Asiatic cyprinid, topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva, in its introduced European range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhorská, E; Kovác, V; Falka, I; Beyer, K; Katina, S; Copp, G H; Gozlan, R E

    2009-01-01

    To assess the spatial variability in external morphology of non-native populations of topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva within an ontogenetic context, triple regression analysis (distance-based measurements) was applied to data from eight European populations (two Slovak, four Romanian, one English and one French). The data from Slovakia were also subjected to geometrical analysis (co-ordinates-based measurements) to obtain a more complex picture of the species' overall morphology. Great phenotypic variability was observed, being expressed not only in the formation of different definite phenotypes but also in the manner by which the phenotypes are achieved. Thus, both the definite phenotype and the patterns of development in invasive P. parva may be highly influenced by environmental conditions. Such great morphological (phenotypic) variability is likely to be one of the attributes that make this species such a successful invader.

  17. Mixed-Variable Requirements Roadmaps and their Role in the Requirements Engineering of Adaptive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jureta, Ivan; Ernst, Neil A

    2011-01-01

    The requirements roadmap concept is introduced as a solution to the problem of the requirements engineering of adaptive systems. The concept requires a new general definition of the requirements problem which allows for quantitative (numeric) variables, together with qualitative (binary boolean) propositional variables, and distinguishes monitored from controlled variables for use in control loops. We study the consequences of these changes, and argue that the requirements roadmap concept bridges the gap between current general definitions of the requirements problem and its notion of solution, and the research into the relaxation of requirements, the evaluation of their partial satisfaction, and the monitoring and control of requirements, all topics of particular interest in the engineering of requirements for adaptive systems [Cheng et al. 2009]. From the theoretical perspective, we show clearly and formally the fundamental differences between more traditional conception of requirements engineering (e.g., Z...

  18. Methodology for Definition of Yellow Fever Priority Areas, Based on Environmental Variables and Multiple Correspondence Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno; Rita de Cássia Barradas Barata

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Pau...

  19. Long term variability of Cygnus X-1 V. State definitions with all sky monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Grinberg, V; Pottschmidt, K; Böck, M; Nowak, M A; Rodriguez, J; Bodaghee, A; Bel, M Cadolle; Case, G L; Hanke, M; Kühnel, M; Markoff, S B; Pooley, G G; Rothschild, R E; Tomsick, J A; Wilson-Hodge, C A; Wilms, J

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme to determine the spectral state of the canonical black hole Cyg X-1 using data from previous and current X-ray all sky monitors (RXTE-ASM, Swift-BAT, MAXI, and Fermi-GBM). State determinations of the hard/intermediate and soft state agree to better than 10% between different monitors, facilitating the determination of the state and its context for any observation of the source, potentially over the lifetimes of different individual monitors. A separation of the hard and the intermediate state, which strongly differ in their spectral shape and short-term timing behavior, is only possible when monitor data in the soft X-rays (<5 keV) are available. A statistical analysis of the states confirms the different activity patterns of the source (e.g., months to years long hard state periods or phases during which numerous transitions occurs). It also shows the hard and soft states to be stable, with the probability of Cyg X-1 remaining in a given state for at least one week to be larger than 85...

  20. Balancing assembly lines with variable parallel workplaces: Problem definition, model and exact solution procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Becker; Armin Scholl

    2008-01-01

    Assembly line balancing problems (ALBP) arise whenever an assembly line is con- figured, redesigned or adjusted. An ALBP consists of distributing the total workload for manu- facturing any unit of the products to be assembled among the work stations along the line sub- ject to a strict or average cycle time. Traditionally, stations are considered to be manned by one operator, respectively, or duplicated in form of identical parallel stations, each also manned by a single operator. In practice...

  1. Current variables, definitions and endpoints of the European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwitter Juerg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR is increasingly used in daily clinical practice. However, little is known about its clinical utility such as image quality, safety and impact on patient management. In addition, there is limited information about the potential of CMR to acquire prognostic information. Methods The European Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Registry (EuroCMR Registry will consist of two parts: 1 Multicenter registry with consecutive enrolment of patients scanned in all participating European CMR centres using web based online case record forms. 2 Prospective clinical follow up of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM every 12 months after enrolment to assess prognostic data. Conclusion The EuroCMR Registry offers an opportunity to provide information about the clinical utility of routine CMR in a large number of cases and a diverse population. Furthermore it has the potential to gather information about the prognostic value of CMR in specific patient populations.

  2. On the mid-IR variability of candidate eruptive variables (EXors): a comparison between Spitzer and WISE data

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniucci, S; Causi, G Li; Lorenzetti, D

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at statistically studying the variability in the mid-IR of young stellar objects (YSOs), we have compared the 3.6, 4.5, and 24 um Spitzer fluxes of 1478 sources belonging to the C2D (Cores to Disks) legacy program with the WISE fluxes at 3.4, 4.6, and 22 um. From this comparison we have selected a robust sample of 34 variable sources. Their variations were classified per spectral Class (according to the widely accepted scheme of Class I/flat/II/III protostars), and per star forming region. On average, the number of variable sources decreases with increasing Class and is definitely higher in Perseus and Ophiuchus than in Chamaeleon and Lupus. According to the paradigm Class Evolution, the photometric variability can be considered to be a feature more pronounced in less evolved protostars, and, as such, related to accretion processes. Moreover, our statistical findings agree with the current knowledge of the star formation activity in different regions. The 34 selected variables were further investigate...

  3. Multi-Wavelength Variability in PKS 2155-304

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. G. Zheng; L. Zhang; X. Zhang; H. J. Ma

    2011-03-01

    We study multi-wavelength variability in BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304 in the frame of the time dependent one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, where stochastic particle acceleration is taken into account. In this model, a homogeneously and isotropically spherical structure is assumed, the Fokker–Planck type equation which describes the evolution of the particles energy is numerically solved, and the synchrotron and self-Compton components from the spherical blob are calculated. Our results can reproduce observed spectra energy distribution (SED) and give definite predictions for the flux and spectral variability of PKS 2155-304.We find that particle injection rate, magnetic field and Doppler factor in the acceleration zone are important parameters for explaining its flaring behaviour.

  4. Evolution, reproduction and definition of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodasewicz, Krzysztof

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic theory of evolution is a superior integrative biological theory. Therefore, there is nothing surprising about the fact that multiple attempts of defining life are based on this theory. One of them even has a status of NASA's working definition. According to this definition, 'life is a self-sustained chemical system capable of undergoing Darwinian evolution' Luisi (Orig Life Evol Bios 28:613-622, 1998); Cleland, Chyba (Orig Life Evol Bios 32:387-393, 2002). This definition is often considered as one of the more theoretically mature definitions of life. This Darwinian definition has nonetheless provoked a lot of criticism. One of the major arguments claims that this definition is wrong due to 'mule's problem'. Mules (and other infertile hybrids), despite being obviously living organisms, in the light of this definition are considered inanimate objects. It is strongly counterintuitive. The aim of this article was to demonstrate that this reasoning is false. In the later part of the text, I also discuss some other arguments against the Darwinian approach to defining life.

  5. Advanced calculus of a single variable

    CERN Document Server

    Geveci, Tunc

    2016-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook is based on a one-semester course on single variable calculus that the author has been teaching at San Diego State University for many years. The aim of this classroom-tested book is to deliver a rigorous discussion of the concepts and theorems that are dealt with informally in the first two semesters of a beginning calculus course. As such, students are expected to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental concepts of calculus, such as limits (with an emphasis on ε-δ definitions), continuity (including an appreciation of the difference between mere pointwise and uniform continuity), the derivative (with rigorous proofs of various versions of L’Hôpital’s rule) and the Riemann integral (discussing improper integrals in-depth, including the comparison and Dirichlet tests). Success in this course is expected to prepare students for more advanced courses in real and complex analysis and this book will help to accomplish this. The first semester of advanced calculus...

  6. Variability in human body size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    The range of variability found among homogeneous groups is described and illustrated. Those trends that show significantly marked differences between sexes and among a number of racial/ethnic groups are also presented. Causes of human-body size variability discussed include genetic endowment, aging, nutrition, protective garments, and occupation. The information is presented to aid design engineers of space flight hardware and equipment.

  7. Predictor variables of clergy pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, M F

    1997-10-01

    File data on familial traits, past sexual experience as a victim, and other traits identified in the literature as leading toward pedophilia, were summarized for 10 convicted clergy pedophiles to construct a set of variables possibly useful for screening. Further research is underway to identify trauma in early life and those personality-related variables current studies indicate as relevant.

  8. Complex Variables in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jerry; Moskal, Barbara; Duke, Billy; Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the work of outreach mathematicians introducing the topic of complex variables to eighth and ninth grade students (13- to 15-year-olds) in the US. Complex variables is an area of mathematics that is not typically studied at secondary level. The authors developed seven lessons designed to stimulate students' interest in…

  9. Variable Selection in Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberty, Carl J.; Mourad, Salah A.

    Methods for ordering and selecting variables for discriminant analysis in multiple group comparison or group prediction studies include: univariate Fs, stepwise analysis, learning discriminant function (LDF) variable correlations, communalities, LDF standardized coefficients, and weighted standardized coefficients. Five indices based on distance,…

  10. WEAK UNCORRELATEDNESS OF RANDOM VARIABLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sofiya Ostrovska

    2006-01-01

    New measures of independence for n random variables, based on their moments, are studied. A scale of degrees of independence for random variables which starts with uncorrelatedness (for n = 2) and finishes at independence is constructed. The scale provides a countable linearly ordered set of measures of independence.

  11. Index for Wind Power Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Scharff, Richard; Milligan, Michael; Weir, David Edward

    2014-11-13

    Variability of large scale wind power generation is dependent on several factors: characteristics of installed wind power plants, size of the area where the plants are installed, geographic dispersion within that area and its weather regime(s). Variability can be described by ramps in power generation, i.e. changes from time period to time period. Given enough data points, it can be described with a probability density function. This approach focuses on two dimensions of variability: duration of the ramp and probability distribution. This paper proposes an index based on these two dimensions to enable comparisons and characterizations of variability under different conditions. The index is tested with real, large scale wind power generation data from several countries. Considerations while forming an index are discussed, as well as the main results regarding what the drivers of variability experienced for different data.

  12. In search of a gust definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L.; Casanova, M.; Courtney, M.S.;

    1991-01-01

    We propose a simple gust definition based on the theory of excursions by Rice (1944 and 1945). We discuss the relation to the distribution of extreme events and demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the most probable extreme event is very close to being identical to the gust according...... to our definition. We demonstrate how it is possible to predict the gust on the basis of the measured mean wind and variance rather than rely on actually measured extreme excursions. Our gust definition also allows us to predict the average duration of a gust....

  13. Idiopathic environmental intolerance: case definition issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, R

    2000-01-01

    Case definitions of the same phenomenon may be different for different purposes. Case definitions usually become more specific over time as more information about the condition becomes available. Idiopathic environmental intolerance is one of many labels for a heterogeneous group of conditions in which subjects describe multiple symptoms that are attributed to exposure to extremely low doses of common chemicals. Dr. Kreutzer presents issues in case definition for clinical purposes and for population-based studies, and makes recommendations for the clinician and for the public health investigator.

  14. Concepts, definitions and classifications for internal migration statistics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    This brief discussion of the various data collection systems used in Africa represents the data situation with regard to African migration statistics. Population censuses are increasingly becoming the most popular source for migration statistics in Africa. The derivation of internal migration information from surrogate measures such as age and sex distributions is predicated on the assumption that the movement is selective with respect to these variables. The part attributable to migration after taking into account natural increases is made difficult in Africa because the correct levels of birth and death rates are not usually known with certainty, nationally or locally. The population census data are useful for the investigation of the national volumes and rates of migration; this provides information on broad patterns of migration for countries. However, it is not suitable for migration studies that intend to investigate in-depth such topics as determinants and impact and delineate various types of migratory movements. African countries should, in addition to the birthplace question, include at least 1 of the following supplementary questions: 1) duration of residence, 2) place of previous residence, and 3) place of residence at a fixed prior date. It is increasingly noted that sample surveys are where most of the new data required for policy ought to come from. Longitudinal surveys on migration are also required to advance our present knowledge about the various types of mobility and their seasonal character and about the consequences of the movement. Data collection systems must also be improved in the concepts, definitions, and classifications. This applies to the definition of migration as well as the spatial classifications used as the reference units for the collection of data and the definitions of rural and urban.

  15. Quaternary: status, rank, definition, survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marie-PierreAubry; WilliamA.Berggren; JohnVanCouvering; BrianMcGowran; BradPillans; FritsHilgen

    2005-01-01

    The long controversy over the term ‘Quaternary' as a chronostratigraphic unit may be reaching an apotheosis, judging from recent papers (Pillans and Naish, 2004; Gibbard et al., 2005; and referencest herein). The debate is no longer centered on whether there should be a place in the geological time scale for a unit termed ‘Quaternary'-despite its dubious past, it cannot be denied that a large body of earth-historical research is strongly identified with this term. The challenge now concerns an appropriate rank and definition of Quaternary with regard to other chronostratigraphic units. Several options have been proposed (Pillans and Naish, 2004), and Gibbard et al. (2005) encourage a debate on these before decision is reached. In this brief note, we describe an arrangement not previously considered that seems advantageous. It is instructive, however, to first review the Pleistocene Series and Neogene System, the two units that are directly affected by introduction of the Quaternary into the chronostratigraphic hierarchy.

  16. Structuralism in architecture: a definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Söderqvist

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available What structuralism in architecture aimed at has often been misunderstood. Structuralism was not about democracy, giving the users of a building the possibility to make changes in it. On the contrary, structuralism aimed at expressing social patterns and relations and these were apprehended as permanent and invariant and definitely not possible to change. Architects and city planners organized buildings and cities on the basis of communication routes, streets, and squares, what in a structuralist analysis constitutes the invariant structures of a city.Social patterns were apprehended not only as invariant but also as complex and, therefore, ideal buildings and cities should be complex, often visualized as a jumble of corridors, roads, underground-tracks, and footbridges in different levels connected by escalators, stairs, and elevators being stressed by their size, color, or material.To stress binary pairs was another aspect of structuralism in architecture. Outside/inside and nature/culture are examples of this. It lead architects to use materials we normally would associate with exteriors in interiors such as “raw” concrete; that is, concrete walls with no plaster or stonepaving.

  17. Marketing Mix is The Only Variable to Choose Brands and Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbas Krisnanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is to find out how the role and influence of marketing stimuli (advertising, pricing, and sales promotion as well as the role of family and brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality of Pepsodent toothpaste. The benefits of this research study is expected to be considered in developing a marketing mix that ultimately led to the formation of perceived qualitys. Second, updating the theory of consumer behavior and marketing theory. This research method is accomplished by using a descriptive study using survey. The population in this study is consumer of Pepsodent toothpaste. Samples done by accidental sampling. For data collection questionnaire used closed type. Operationalization variable using descriptive and quantitative analysis variable (GSCA and SEM. The results showed the influence of very low ranging from 0.00 to 0.19 for the relationship of advertising and brand awareness variables, the price and brand association variables, promotion and brand awareness variables, relationship between family variable and brand awareness and brand association. While family variable and perceived quality variable had reverse effect. The low but definite effect ranged from 0.20 to 0.39 for the advertising variable, brand associations variable, and perceived quality as well as variable promotion, promotional variable to variable brand associations and perceived quality variables. The effect was ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 for brand awareness and perceived quality variables. Recommendations to PT Unilever should deliver more competitive promotion thus proving that good quality is always supported by good and great promotion, low price version. Pepsodent should promote impressed with quality, still showing the previous experience of the people who have benefited from Pepsodent, while providing marketing and advertising top of mind to their customers so that they lose sight of the Pepsodent, still suggested best quality can be compared

  18. Marketing Mix is The Only Variable to Choose Brands and Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbas Krisnanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is to find out how the role and influence of marketing stimuli (advertising, pricing, and sales promotion as well as the role of family and brand awareness, brand associations, perceived quality of Pepsodent toothpaste. The benefits of this research study is expec-ted to be considered in developing a marketing mix that ultimately led to the formation of perceived qualitys. Second, updating the theory of consumer behavior and marketing theory. This research method is accomplished by using a descriptive study using survey. The popula-tion in this study is consumer of Pepsodent toothpaste. Samples done by accidental sampling. For data collection questionnaire used closed type. Operationalization variable using descriptive and quantitative analysis variable (GSCA and SEM. The results showed the influence of very low ranging from 0.00 to 0.19 for the relationship of advertising and brand awareness variables, the price and brand association variables, promotion and brand awareness variables, relationship between fami-ly variable and brand awareness and brand association. While family variable and perceived quality variable had reverse effect. The low but definite effect ranged from 0.20 to 0.39 for the advertising variable, brand associations variable, and perceived quality as well as variable promotion, promotional variable to variable brand associations and perceived quality variables. The effect was ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 for brand awareness and perceived quality variables. Recommenda-tions to PT Unilever should deliver more competitive promotion thus proving that good quality is always supported by good and great promotion, low price version. Pepsodent should promote impressed with quality, still showing the previous experience of the people who have benefited from Pepsodent, while providing marketing and advertising top of mind to their customers so that they lose sight of the Pepsodent, still suggested best quality can be

  19. Association between oral variables and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Milana Drumond Ramos; de Souza, Ana Cecilia Amorim; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2013-12-27

    The heart rate variability is a useful method to assess cardiac autonomic modulation in patients undergoing dental procedures, because knowledge of physiological conditions provides greater security to the professional as well as the possibility of a better plan treatment to patient benefit. The aim of our study was to describe the association between cardiac autonomic control and dental variables. We consulted the databases Medline, SciELO, Lilacs and Cochrane, using the terms "autonomic", "dentistry", "heart rate variability", "cardiovascular physiology." The selected studies indicated a strong relationship between dental variables and HRV. There was an association between malocclusion, TMD, dental procedures cirugia and low HRV. Thus, they become more studies that relate to HRV in dental science, especially in clinical practice.

  20. 14 CFR 1275.101 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... economics, education, linguistics, medicine, psychology, social sciences, statistics, and research involving... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 1275.101 Definitions. (a) Research misconduct means fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing,...