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Sample records for app transgenic drosophila

  1. Axonal accumulation of synaptic markers in APP transgenic Drosophila depends on the NPTY motif and is paralleled by defects in synaptic plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusu, Patricia; Jansen, Anna; Soba, Peter

    2007-01-01

    . Specifically, axonal transport defects have been reported in AD animal models, including mice and flies that overexpress APP and tau. Here we demonstrate that the APP-induced traffic jam of vesicles in peripheral nerves of Drosophila melanogaster larvae depends on the four residues NPTY motif in the APP...... neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction in transgenic larvae that express human APP. Consistent with the observation that these larvae do not show any obvious movement deficits, we found no changes in basal synaptic transmission. However, short-term synaptic plasticity was affected by overexpression of APP...

  2. Transgenic APP expression during postnatal development causes persistent locomotor hyperactivity in the adult.

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    Rodgers, Shaefali P; Born, Heather A; Das, Pritam; Jankowsky, Joanna L

    2012-06-18

    Transgenic mice expressing disease-associated proteins have become standard tools for studying human neurological disorders. Transgenes are often expressed using promoters chosen to drive continuous high-level expression throughout life rather than temporal and spatial fidelity to the endogenous gene. This approach has allowed us to recapitulate diseases of aging within the two-year lifespan of the laboratory mouse, but has the potential for creating aberrant phenotypes by mechanisms unrelated to the human disorder. We show that overexpression of the Alzheimer's-related amyloid precursor protein (APP) during early postnatal development leads to severe locomotor hyperactivity that can be significantly attenuated by delaying transgene onset until adulthood. Our data suggest that exposure to transgenic APP during maturation influences the development of neuronal circuits controlling motor activity. Both when matched for total duration of APP overexpression and when matched for cortical amyloid burden, animals exposed to transgenic APP as juveniles are more active in locomotor assays than animals in which APP overexpression was delayed until adulthood. In contrast to motor activity, the age of APP onset had no effect on thigmotaxis in the open field as a rough measure of anxiety, suggesting that the interaction between APP overexpression and brain development is not unilateral. Our findings indicate that locomotor hyperactivity displayed by the tet-off APP transgenic mice and several other transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease may result from overexpression of mutant APP during postnatal brain development. Our results serve as a reminder of the potential for unexpected interactions between foreign transgenes and brain development to cause long-lasting effects on neuronal function in the adult. The tet-off APP model provides an easy means of avoiding developmental confounds by allowing transgene expression to be delayed until the mice reach adulthood.

  3. APP transgenic mice for modelling behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD)

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    Lalonde, R.; Fukuchi, K.; Strazielle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of gene mutations responsible for autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease has enabled researchers to reproduce in transgenic mice several hallmarks of this disorder, notably Aβ accumulation, though in most cases without neurofibrillary tangles. Mice expressing mutated and wild-type APP as well as C-terminal fragments of APP exhibit variations in exploratory activity reminiscent of behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzeimer dementia (BPSD). In particular, open-field, spontaneous alternation, and elevated plus-maze tasks as well as aggression are modified in several APP transgenic mice relative to non-transgenic controls. However, depending on the precise murine models, changes in open-field and elevated plus-maze exploration occur in either direction, either increased or decreased relative to controls. It remains to be determined which neurotransmitter changes are responsible for this variability, in particular with respect to GABA, 5HT, and dopamine. PMID:22373961

  4. Development of transgenic rats producing human β-amyloid precursor protein as a model for Alzheimer's disease: Transgene and endogenous APP genes are regulated tissue-specifically

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    Chan Anthony WS

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large and growing number of elderly individuals. In addition to idiopathic disease, AD is also associated with autosomal dominant inheritance, which causes a familial form of AD (FAD. Some instances of FAD have been linked to mutations in the β-amyloid protein precursor (APP. Although there are numerous mouse AD models available, few rat AD models, which have several advantages over mice, have been generated. Results Fischer 344 rats expressing human APP driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter were generated via lentiviral vector infection of Fischer 344 zygotes. We generated two separate APP-transgenic rat lines, APP21 and APP31. Serum levels of human amyloid-beta (Aβ40 were 298 pg/ml for hemizygous and 486 pg/ml for homozygous APP21 animals. Serum Aβ42 levels in APP21 homozygous rats were 135 pg/ml. Immunohistochemistry in brain showed that the human APP transgene was expressed in neurons, but not in glial cells. These findings were consistent with independent examination of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP in the brains of eGFP-transgenic rats. APP21 and APP31 rats expressed 7.5- and 3-times more APP mRNA, respectively, than did wild-type rats. Northern blots showed that the human APP transgene, driven by the ubiquitin-C promoter, is expressed significantly more in brain, kidney and lung compared to heart and liver. A similar expression pattern was also seen for the endogenous rat APP. The unexpected similarity in the tissue-specific expression patterns of endogenous rat APP and transgenic human APP mRNAs suggests regulatory elements within the cDNA sequence of APP. Conclusion This manuscript describes the generation of APP-transgenic inbred Fischer 344 rats. These are the first human AD model rat lines generated by lentiviral infection. The APP21 rat line expresses high levels of human APP and could be a useful model for AD. Tissue

  5. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin.

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    Gullmets, Josef; Torvaldson, Elin; Lindqvist, Julia; Imanishi, Susumu Y; Taimen, Pekka; Meinander, Annika; Eriksson, John E

    2017-12-01

    Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (cIFs) are found in all eumetazoans, except arthropods. To investigate the compatibility of cIFs in arthropods, we expressed human vimentin (hVim), a cIF with filament-forming capacity in vertebrate cells and tissues, transgenically in Drosophila Transgenic hVim could be recovered from whole-fly lysates by using a standard procedure for intermediate filament (IF) extraction. When this procedure was used to test for the possible presence of IF-like proteins in flies, only lamins and tropomyosin were observed in IF-enriched extracts, thereby providing biochemical reinforcement to the paradigm that arthropods lack cIFs. In Drosophila , transgenic hVim was unable to form filament networks in S2 cells and mesenchymal tissues; however, cage-like vimentin structures could be observed around the nuclei in internal epithelia, which suggests that Drosophila retains selective competence for filament formation. Taken together, our results imply that although the filament network formation competence is partially lost in Drosophila , a rudimentary filament network formation ability remains in epithelial cells. As a result of the observed selective competence for cIF assembly in Drosophila , we hypothesize that internal epithelial cIFs were the last cIFs to disappear from arthropods.-Gullmets, J., Torvaldson, E., Lindqvist, J., Imanishi, S. Y., Taimen, P., Meinander, A., Eriksson, J. E. Internal epithelia in Drosophila display rudimentary competence to form cytoplasmic networks of transgenic human vimentin. © FASEB.

  6. Genetic human prion disease modelled in PrP transgenic Drosophila.

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    Thackray, Alana M; Cardova, Alzbeta; Wolf, Hanna; Pradl, Lydia; Vorberg, Ina; Jackson, Walker S; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2017-09-20

    Inherited human prion diseases, such as fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), are associated with autosomal dominant mutations in the human prion protein gene PRNP and accumulation of PrP Sc , an abnormal isomer of the normal host protein PrP C , in the brain of affected individuals. PrP Sc is the principal component of the transmissible neurotoxic prion agent. It is important to identify molecular pathways and cellular processes that regulate prion formation and prion-induced neurotoxicity. This will allow identification of possible therapeutic interventions for individuals with, or at risk from, genetic human prion disease. Increasingly, Drosophila has been used to model human neurodegenerative disease. An important unanswered question is whether genetic prion disease with concomitant spontaneous prion formation can be modelled in Drosophila We have used pUAST/PhiC31-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to generate Drosophila transgenic for murine or hamster PrP (prion protein) that carry single-codon mutations associated with genetic human prion disease. Mouse or hamster PrP harbouring an FFI (D178N) or fCJD (E200K) mutation showed mild Proteinase K resistance when expressed in Drosophila Adult Drosophila transgenic for FFI or fCJD variants of mouse or hamster PrP displayed a spontaneous decline in locomotor ability that increased in severity as the flies aged. Significantly, this mutant PrP-mediated neurotoxic fly phenotype was transferable to recipient Drosophila that expressed the wild-type form of the transgene. Collectively, our novel data are indicative of the spontaneous formation of a PrP-dependent neurotoxic phenotype in FFI- or CJD-PrP transgenic Drosophila and show that inherited human prion disease can be modelled in this invertebrate host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Nuclear 82-kDa choline acetyltransferase decreases amyloidogenic APP metabolism in neurons from APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

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    Albers, Shawn; Inthathirath, Fatima; Gill, Sandeep K; Winick-Ng, Warren; Jaworski, Ewa; Wong, Daisy Y L; Gros, Robert; Rylett, R Jane

    2014-09-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is associated with increased amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to β-amyloid peptides (Aβ), cholinergic neuron loss with decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and cognitive dysfunction. Both 69-kDa ChAT and 82-kDa ChAT are expressed in cholinergic neurons in human brain and spinal cord with 82-kDa ChAT localized predominantly to neuronal nuclei, suggesting potential alternative functional roles for the enzyme. By gene microarray analysis, we found that 82-kDa ChAT-expressing IMR32 neural cells have altered expression of genes involved in diverse cellular functions. Importantly, genes for several proteins that regulate APP processing along amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways are differentially expressed in 82-kDa ChAT-containing cells. The predicted net effect based on observed changes in expression patterns of these genes would be decreased amyloidogenic APP processing with decreased Aβ production. This functional outcome was verified experimentally as a significant decrease in BACE1 protein levels and activity and a concomitant reduction in the release of endogenous Aβ1-42 from neurons cultured from brains of AD-model APP/PS1 transgenic mice. The expression of 82-kDa ChAT in neurons increased levels of GGA3, which is involved in trafficking BACE1 to lysosomes for degradation. shRNA-induced decreases in GGA3 protein levels attenuated the 82-kDa ChAT-mediated decreases in BACE1 protein and activity and Aβ1-42 release. Evidence that 82-kDa ChAT can enhance GGA3 gene expression is shown by enhanced GGA3 gene promoter activity in SN56 neural cells expressing this ChAT protein. These studies indicate a novel relationship between cholinergic neurons and APP processing, with 82-kDa ChAT acting as a negative regulator of Aβ production. This decreased formation of Aβ could result in protection for cholinergic neurons, as well as protection of other cells in the vicinity that are sensitive to

  8. Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells

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    Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S.; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

  9. Expression of multiple transgenes from a single construct using viral 2A peptides in Drosophila.

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    Richard W Daniels

    Full Text Available Expression of multiple reporter or effector transgenes in the same cell from a single construct is increasingly necessary in various experimental paradigms. The discovery of short, virus-derived peptide sequences that mediate a ribosome-skipping event enables generation of multiple separate peptide products from one mRNA. Here we describe methods and vectors to facilitate easy production of polycistronic-like sequences utilizing these 2A peptides tailored for expression in Drosophila both in vitro and in vivo. We tested the separation efficiency of different viral 2A peptides in cultured Drosophila cells and in vivo and found that the 2A peptides from porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A and Thosea asigna virus (T2A worked best. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we used the P2A peptide to co-express the red fluorescent protein tdTomato and the genetically-encoded calcium indicator GCaMP5G in larval motorneurons. This technique enabled ratiometric calcium imaging with motion correction allowing us to record synaptic activity at the neuromuscular junction in an intact larval preparation through the cuticle. The tools presented here should greatly facilitate the generation of 2A peptide-mediated expression of multiple transgenes in Drosophila.

  10. Efficient gene knock-out and knock-in with transgenic Cas9 in Drosophila.

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    Xue, Zhaoyu; Ren, Mengda; Wu, Menghua; Dai, Junbiao; Rong, Yikang S; Gao, Guanjun

    2014-03-21

    Bacterial Cas9 nuclease induces site-specific DNA breaks using small gRNA as guides. Cas9 has been successfully introduced into Drosophila for genome editing. Here, we improve the versatility of this method by developing a transgenic system that expresses Cas9 in the Drosophila germline. Using this system, we induced inheritable knock-out mutations by injecting only the gRNA into embryos, achieved highly efficient mutagenesis by expressing gRNA from the promoter of a novel non-coding RNA gene, and recovered homologous recombination-based knock-in of a fluorescent marker at a rate of 4.5% by co-injecting gRNA with a circular DNA donor. Copyright © 2014 Xue et al.

  11. Editing Transgenic DNA Components by Inducible Gene Replacement in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Potter, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Gene conversions occur when genomic double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) trigger unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a homologous template sequence. Exogenous or mutated sequence can be introduced through this homology-directed repair (HDR). We leveraged gene conversion to develop a method for genomic editing of existing transgenic insertions in Drosophila melanogaster. The clustered regularly-interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is used in the homology assisted CRISPR knock-in (HACK) method to induce DSBs in a GAL4 transgene, which is repaired by a single-genomic transgenic construct containing GAL4 homologous sequences flanking a T2A-QF2 cassette. With two crosses, this technique converts existing GAL4 lines, including enhancer traps, into functional QF2 expressing lines. We used HACK to convert the most commonly-used GAL4 lines (labeling tissues such as neurons, fat, glia, muscle, and hemocytes) to QF2 lines. We also identified regions of the genome that exhibited differential efficiencies of HDR. The HACK technique is robust and readily adaptable for targeting and replacement of other genomic sequences, and could be a useful approach to repurpose existing transgenes as new genetic reagents become available. PMID:27334272

  12. Effects of (-)Epicatechin on the Pathology of APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

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    Zeng, Yue-Qin; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disorder characterized by the progressive deterioration of neuronal networks. The clearance of Aβ from the brain and anti-inflammation are potential important strategies to prevent and treat disease. In a previous study, we demonstrated the grape seed extract (GSE) could reduce brain Aβ burden and microglia activation, but which polyphenol plays a major role in these events is not known. Here, we tested pharmacological effects of (-)epicatechin, one principle polyphenol compound in GSE, on transgenic AD mice. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were fed with (-)epicatechin diet (40 mg/kg/day) and curcumin diet (47 mg/kg/day) at 3 months of age for 9 months, the function of liver, Aβ levels in the brain and serum, AD-type neuropathology, plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured. Toward the end of the experiment, we found long-term feeding of (-)epicatechin diet was well tolerated without fatality, changes in food consumption, body weight, or liver function. (-)Epicatechin significantly reduced total Aβ in brain and serum by 39 and 40%, respectively, compared with control diet. Microgliosis and astrocytosis in the brain of Alzheimer's mice were also reduced by 38 and 35%, respectively. The (-)epicatechin diet did not alter learning and memory behaviors in AD mice. This study has provided evidence on the beneficial role of (-)epicatechin in ameliorating amyloid-induced AD-like pathology in AD mice, but the impact of (-)epicatechin on tau pathology is not clear, also the mechanism needs further research.

  13. Effects of (-epicatechin on the pathology of APP/PS1 transgenic mice

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    Yueqin eZeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease is a multifactorial disorder characterized by the progressive deterioration of neuronal networks. The clearance of Aβ from the brain and anti-inflammation are potential important strategies to prevent and treat disease. In a previous study, we demonstrated the grape seed extract (GSE could reduce brain Aβ burden and microglia activation,but which polyphenol plays a major role in these events is not known. Here we tested pharmacological effects of (-epicatechin, one principle polyphenol compound in GSE, on transgenic AD mice.Methods: APP/PS1 transgenic mice were fed with (-epicatechin diet(40mg/kg/d and curcumin diet (47mg/kg/d at 3 months of age for 9 months, the function of liver, Aβ levels in the brain and serum, AD-type neuropathology, plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured.Results: Towards the end of the experiment we found long-term feeding of (- epicatechin diet was well tolerated without fatality, changes in food consumption, body weight or liver function. (-Epicatechin significantly reduced total Aβ in brain and serum by 39% and 40%, respectively, compared with control diet. Microgliosis and astrocytosis in the brain of Alzheimer’s mice were also reduced by 38% and 35%, respectively. The (-epicatechin diet did not alter learning and memory behaviors in AD mice.Conclusions: This study has provided evidence on the beneficial role of (-epicatechin in ameliorating amyloid-induced AD-like pathology in AD mice, but the impact of (-epicatechin on tau pathology is not clear, also the mechanism needs further research.

  14. Curcumin Promotes A-beta Fibrillation and Reduces Neurotoxicity in Transgenic Drosophila

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    Caesar, Ina; Jonson, Maria; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Thor, Stefan; Hammarström, Per

    2012-01-01

    The pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of extracellular deposits of misfolded and aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and intraneuronal accumulation of tangles comprised of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein. For several years, the natural compound curcumin has been proposed to be a candidate for enhanced clearance of toxic Aβ amyloid. In this study we have studied the potency of feeding curcumin as a drug candidate to alleviate Aβ toxicity in transgenic Drosophila. The longevity as well as the locomotor activity of five different AD model genotypes, measured relative to a control line, showed up to 75% improved lifespan and activity for curcumin fed flies. In contrast to the majority of studies of curcumin effects on amyloid we did not observe any decrease in the amount of Aβ deposition following curcumin treatment. Conformation-dependent spectra from p-FTAA, a luminescent conjugated oligothiophene bound to Aβ deposits in different Drosophila genotypes over time, indicated accelerated pre-fibrillar to fibril conversion of Aβ1–42 in curcumin treated flies. This finding was supported by in vitro fibrillation assays of recombinant Aβ1–42. Our study shows that curcumin promotes amyloid fibril conversion by reducing the pre-fibrillar/oligomeric species of Aβ, resulting in a reduced neurotoxicity in Drosophila. PMID:22348084

  15. Genotype-induced changes in biophysical properties of frontal cortex lipid raft from APP/PS1 transgenic mice

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    Mario L Diaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the lipid composition of lipid rafts have been demonstrated both in human brain and transgenic mouse models, and it has been postulated that aberrant lipid composition in lipid rafts is partly responsible for neuronal degeneration. In order to assess the impact of lipid changes on lipid raft functional properties, we have aimed at determining relevant physicochemical modifications in lipid rafts purified from frontal cortex of wild type (WT and APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. By means of steady-state fluorescence anisotropy analyses using two lipid soluble fluorescent probes, TMA-DPH (1-[(4-trimethyl-aminophenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, we demonstrate that cortical lipid rafts from WT and APP/PS1 animals exhibit different biophysical behaviours, depending on genotype but also on age. Thus, aged APP/PS1 animals exhibited slightly more liquid-ordered lipid rafts than WT counterparts. Membrane microviscosity napp analyses demonstrate that WT lipid rafts are more fluid than APP/PS1 animals of similar age, both at the aqueous interface and hydrophobic core of the membrane. napp in APP/PS1 animals was higher for DPH than for TMA-DPH under similar experimental conditions, indicating that the internal core of the membrane is more viscous than the raft membrane at the aqueous interface. The most dramatic changes in biophysical properties of lipid rafts were observed when membrane cholesterol was depleted with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Overall, our results indicate that APP/PS1 genotype strongly affects physicochemical properties of lipid raft. Such alterations appear not to be homogeneous across the raft membrane axis, but rather are more prominent at the membrane plane. These changes correlate with aberrant proportions of sphingomyelin, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids, measured in lipid rafts from frontal cortex in this familial model of

  16. Effect of Withania somnifera leaf extract on the dietary supplementation in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease

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    YASIR HASAN SIDDIQUE

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Withania somnifera L. leaf extract was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αS in the neurons. The leaf extract was prepared in acetone and was subjected to GC-MS analysis. W. somnifera extract at final concentration of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 µL/mL was mixed with the diet and the flies were allowed to feed for 24 days. The effect of extract was studied on the climbing ability, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content in the brains of transgenic Drosophila. The exposure of extract to PD model flies did not show any significant delay in the loss of climbing ability nor reduced the oxidative stress in the brains of transgenic Drosophila as compared to untreated PD model flies. The results suggest that W. somnifera leaf extract is not potent in reducing the PD symptoms in transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Chemical mutagens, transposons, and transgenes to interrogate gene function in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Venken, Koen J T; Bellen, Hugo J

    2014-06-15

    The study of genetics, genes, and chromosomal inheritance was initiated by Thomas Morgan in 1910, when the first visible mutations were identified in fruit flies. The field expanded upon the work initiated by Herman Muller in 1926 when he used X-rays to develop the first balancer chromosomes. Today, balancers are still invaluable to maintain mutations and transgenes but the arsenal of tools has expanded vastly and numerous new methods have been developed, many relying on the availability of the genome sequence and transposable elements. Forward genetic screens based on chemical mutagenesis or transposable elements have resulted in the unbiased identification of many novel players involved in processes probed by specific phenotypic assays. Reverse genetic approaches have relied on the availability of a carefully selected set of transposon insertions spread throughout the genome to allow the manipulation of the region in the vicinity of each insertion. Lastly, the ability to transform Drosophila with single copy transgenes using transposons or site-specific integration using the ΦC31 integrase has allowed numerous manipulations, including the ability to create and integrate genomic rescue constructs, generate duplications, RNAi knock-out technology, binary expression systems like the GAL4/UAS system as well as other methods. Here, we will discuss the most useful methodologies to interrogate the fruit fly genome in vivo focusing on chemical mutagenesis, transposons and transgenes. Genome engineering approaches based on nucleases and RNAi technology are discussed in following chapters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transgenic Drosophila simulans strains prove the identity of the speciation gene Lethal hybrid rescue.

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    Prigent, Stéphane R; Matsubayashi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2009-10-01

    Speciation genes are responsible for genetic incompatibilities in hybrids of incipient species and therefore participate in reproductive isolation leading to complete speciation. Hybrid males between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die at late larval or prepupal stages due to a failure in chromosome condensation during mitosis. However a mutant male of D. simulans, named Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr), produces viable hybrid males when crossed to females of D. melanogaster. Recently the Lhr gene has been proposed as corresponding to the CG18468 gene in D. melanogaster. However this identification relied on sequence characteristics more than on a precise mapping and the use of the GAL4/UAS system to drive the transgene in D. melanogaster might have increased the complexity of interaction. Thus here we propose an independent identification of the Lhr gene based on a more precise mapping and transgenic experiments in D. simulans. We have mapped the Lhr gene by using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and identified within the candidate region the gene homologous to CG18468 as the Lhr gene as it was previously reported. Transgenic experiments in D. simulans with the native promoter of CG18468 prove that it is the Lhr gene of D. simulans by inducing the lethality of the hybrid males.

  19. Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside modulates amyloid precursor protein processing via activation of AKT-GSK3β pathway in cells and in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

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    Yin, Xiaomin; Chen, Chen; Xu, Ting; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2018-01-01

    Alternative splicing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) exon 7 generates the isoforms containing a Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain. APP-KPI levels in the brain are correlated with amyloid beta (Aβ) production. Here, we determined the effect of Tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) on the AKT-GSK3β pathway. We found GSK3β increased APP-KPI inclusion level and interacted with the splicing factor ASF. TSG was intragastrically administered to 5-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice for 12 months. We found that the activated the AKT-GSK3β signaling pathway suppressed APP-KPI inclusion. Moreover, TSG treatment attenuated amyloid deposition in APP/PS1 mice. This study demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of TSG on APP expression, suggesting that TSG may be beneficial for AD prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Splice form variant and amino acid changes in MDR49 confers DDT resistance in transgenic Drosophila.

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    Seong, Keon Mook; Sun, Weilin; Clark, John M; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2016-03-22

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters represent a superfamily of proteins that have important physiological roles in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In insects, ABC transporters have previously been implicated in insecticide resistance. The 91-R strain of Drosophila melanogaster has been intensely selected with DDT over six decades. A recent selective sweeps analysis of 91-R implicated the potential role of MDR49, an ABC transporter, in DDT resistance, however, to date the details of how MDR49 may play a role in resistance have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact of structural changes and an alternative splicing event in MDR49 on DDT-resistance in 91-R, as compared to the DDT susceptible strain 91-C. We observed three amino acid differences in MDR49 when 91-R was compared with 91-C, and only one isoform (MDR49B) was implicated in DDT resistance. A transgenic Drosophila strain containing the 91-R-MDR49B isoform had a significantly higher LD50 value as compared to the 91-C-MDR49B isoform at the early time points (6 h to 12 h) during DDT exposure. Our data support the hypothesis that the MDR49B isoform, with three amino acid mutations, plays a role in the early aspects of DDT resistance in 91-R.

  1. A transgenic rat expressing human APP with the Swedish Alzheimer's disease mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Ronnie; Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Kloskowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, transgenic mice have become valuable tools for studying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). With the aim of developing an animal model better for memory and neurobehavioural testing, we have generated a transgenic rat model of AD. These animals express human amyloid precursor...... in cerebrovascular blood vessels with very rare diffuse plaques. We believe that crossing these animals with mutant PS1 transgenic rats will result in accelerated plaque formation similar to that seen in transgenic mice....

  2. Transgene expression of Drosophila melanogaster nucleoside kinase reverses mitochondrial thymidine kinase 2 deficiency.

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    Krishnan, Shuba; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Paredes, João A; Kuiper, Raoul V; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-02-15

    A strategy to reverse the symptoms of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency in a mouse model was investigated. The nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) was expressed in TK2-deficient mice that have been shown to present with a severe phenotype caused by mitochondrial DNA depletion. The Dm-dNK(+/-) transgenic mice were shown to be able to rescue the TK2-deficient mice. The Dm-dNK(+/-)TK2(-/-) mice were normal as judged by growth and behavior during the observation time of 6 months. The Dm-dNK-expressing mice showed a substantial increase in thymidine-phosphorylating activity in investigated tissues. The Dm-dNK expression also resulted in highly elevated dTTP pools. The dTTP pool alterations did not cause specific mitochondrial DNA mutations or deletions when 6-month-old mice were analyzed. The mitochondrial DNA was also detected at normal levels. In conclusion, the Dm-dNK(+/-)TK2(-/-) mouse model illustrates how dTMP synthesized in the cell nucleus can compensate for loss of intramitochondrial dTMP synthesis in differentiated tissue. The data presented open new possibilities to treat the severe symptoms of TK2 deficiency.

  3. Transgene Expression of Drosophila melanogaster Nucleoside Kinase Reverses Mitochondrial Thymidine Kinase 2 Deficiency*♦

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    Krishnan, Shuba; Zhou, Xiaoshan; Paredes, João A.; Kuiper, Raoul V.; Curbo, Sophie; Karlsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A strategy to reverse the symptoms of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) deficiency in a mouse model was investigated. The nucleoside kinase from Drosophila melanogaster (Dm-dNK) was expressed in TK2-deficient mice that have been shown to present with a severe phenotype caused by mitochondrial DNA depletion. The Dm-dNK+/− transgenic mice were shown to be able to rescue the TK2-deficient mice. The Dm-dNK+/−TK2−/− mice were normal as judged by growth and behavior during the observation time of 6 months. The Dm-dNK-expressing mice showed a substantial increase in thymidine-phosphorylating activity in investigated tissues. The Dm-dNK expression also resulted in highly elevated dTTP pools. The dTTP pool alterations did not cause specific mitochondrial DNA mutations or deletions when 6-month-old mice were analyzed. The mitochondrial DNA was also detected at normal levels. In conclusion, the Dm-dNK+/−TK2−/− mouse model illustrates how dTMP synthesized in the cell nucleus can compensate for loss of intramitochondrial dTMP synthesis in differentiated tissue. The data presented open new possibilities to treat the severe symptoms of TK2 deficiency. PMID:23288848

  4. Tau Depletion in APP Transgenic Mice Attenuates Task-Related Hyperactivation of the Hippocampus and Differentially Influences Locomotor Activity and Spatial Memory

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    Misato Yoshikawa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal hyperactivity, ascribed to amyloid β (Aβ-induced imbalances in neural excitation and inhibition, is found in patients with mild cognitive impairment, a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD. To better understand the relationship between hippocampal hyperactivity and the molecular triggers of behavioral impairments in AD, we used Mn-enhanced MRI (MEMRI to assess neuronal activity after subjecting mice to a task requiring spatial learning and memory. Depletion of endogenous tau in an amyloid precursor protein (APP transgenic (J20 mouse line was shown to ameliorate hippocampal hyperactivity in J20 animals, tau depletion failed to reverse memory deficits associated with APP/Aβ overproduction. On the other hand, deletion of tau alleviated the hyperlocomotion displayed by APP transgenics, suggesting that the functional effects of Aβ-tau interactions reflect the temporal appearance of these molecules in individual brain areas.

  5. Insulin stimulates translocation of human GLUT4 to the membrane in fat bodies of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Georgeta Crivat

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in 'diabetic' flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4, the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM. We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to

  6. Insulin Stimulates Translocation of Human GLUT4 to the Membrane in Fat Bodies of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivat, Georgeta; Lizunov, Vladimir A.; Li, Caroline R.; Stenkula, Karin G.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Cushman, Samuel W.; Pick, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model system for studies of genes controlling development and disease. However, its applicability to physiological systems is less clear because of metabolic differences between insects and mammals. Insulin signaling has been studied in mammals because of relevance to diabetes and other diseases but there are many parallels between mammalian and insect pathways. For example, deletion of Drosophila Insulin-Like Peptides resulted in ‘diabetic’ flies with elevated circulating sugar levels. Whether this situation reflects failure of sugar uptake into peripheral tissues as seen in mammals is unclear and depends upon whether flies harbor the machinery to mount mammalian-like insulin-dependent sugar uptake responses. Here we asked whether Drosophila fat cells are competent to respond to insulin with mammalian-like regulated trafficking of sugar transporters. Transgenic Drosophila expressing human glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), the sugar transporter expressed primarily in insulin-responsive tissues, were generated. After expression in fat bodies, GLUT4 intracellular trafficking and localization were monitored by confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). We found that fat body cells responded to insulin with increased GLUT4 trafficking and translocation to the plasma membrane. While the amplitude of these responses was relatively weak in animals reared on a standard diet, it was greatly enhanced in animals reared on sugar-restricted diets, suggesting that flies fed standard diets are insulin resistant. Our findings demonstrate that flies are competent to mobilize translocation of sugar transporters to the cell surface in response to insulin. They suggest that Drosophila fat cells are primed for a response to insulin and that these pathways are down-regulated when animals are exposed to constant, high levels of sugar. Finally, these studies are the first to use TIRFM to monitor insulin

  7. Transplantation of NSC-derived cholinergic neuron-like cells improves cognitive function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G; Zhang, W; Li, M; Ni, J; Wang, P

    2015-04-16

    The ability to selectively control the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into cholinergic neurons in vivo would be an important step toward cell replacement therapy. First, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-NSCs were induced to differentiate into cholinergic neuron-like cells (CNLs) with retinoic acid (RA) pre-induction followed by nerve growth factor (NGF) induction. Then, these CNLs were transplanted into bilateral hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Behavioral parameters showed by Morris water maze (MWM) tests and the percentages of GFP-labeled cholinergic neurons of CNL transplanted mice were compared with those of controls. Brain levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA and proteins were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, ChAT activity and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration were also evaluated by ChAT activity and ACh concentration assay kits. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that 80.3±1.5% NSCs differentiated into CNLs after RA pre-induction followed by NGF induction in vitro. Three months after transplantation, 82.4±6.3% CNLs differentiated into cholinergic neurons in vivo. APP/PS1 mice transplanted with CNLs showed a significant improvement in learning and memory ability compared with control groups at different time points. Furthermore, CNLs transplantation dramatically increased in the expressions of ChAT mRNA and protein, as well ChAT activity and ACh concentration in APP/PS1 mice. Our findings support the prospect of using NSC-derived CNLs in developing therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A transgenic Drosophila model demonstrates that the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein functions as a eukaryotic Gab adaptor.

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    Crystal M Botham

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Infection with the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is associated with a spectrum of diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. The cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA protein of H. pylori, which is translocated into host cells via a type IV secretion system, is a major risk factor for disease development. Experiments in gastric tissue culture cells have shown that once translocated, CagA activates the phosphatase SHP-2, which is a component of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK pathways whose over-activation is associated with cancer formation. Based on CagA's ability to activate SHP-2, it has been proposed that CagA functions as a prokaryotic mimic of the eukaryotic Grb2-associated binder (Gab adaptor protein, which normally activates SHP-2. We have developed a transgenic Drosophila model to test this hypothesis by investigating whether CagA can function in a well-characterized Gab-dependent process: the specification of photoreceptors cells in the Drosophila eye. We demonstrate that CagA expression is sufficient to rescue photoreceptor development in the absence of the Drosophila Gab homologue, Daughter of Sevenless (DOS. Furthermore, CagA's ability to promote photoreceptor development requires the SHP-2 phosphatase Corkscrew (CSW. These results provide the first demonstration that CagA functions as a Gab protein within the tissue of an organism and provide insight into CagA's oncogenic potential. Since many translocated bacterial proteins target highly conserved eukaryotic cellular processes, such as the RTK signaling pathway, the transgenic Drosophila model should be of general use for testing the in vivo function of bacterial effector proteins and for identifying the host genes through which they function.

  9. Chronic caffeine treatment reverses memory impairment and the expression of brain BNDF and TrkB in the PS1/APP double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kun; Jia, Ning; Li, Ji; Yang, Li; Min, Lian-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying doses of caffeine on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF) and TrkB in PS1/APP double transgenic mouse models. PS1/APP double transgenic mice were administered 0.3 ml/day of saline, 1.5 mg/day of caffeine or 0.75 mg/day of caffeine for eight weeks. A water maze test and western blotting were used to determine the memory capability and expression of hippocampal BNDF and TrkB of the mice. The results demonstrated that 0.75 mg/day and 1.5 mg/day doses of caffeine significantly increased memory capability and the expression of hippocampal BDNF and TrkB in PS1/APP mice with a dose-response effect. The results suggested that chronic caffeine treatment may reverse memory impairment in PS1/APP transgenic mice, and BDNF and its receptor TrkB, may be involved in this process.

  10. Serum β-amyloid peptide levels spike in the early stage of Alzheimer-like plaque pathology in an APP/PS1 double transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jue; Qiao, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Shenghua; Xue, Mengzhou; Chen, Wenwu; Wang, Xinchun; Tempier, Adrien; Huang, Qingjun; Kong, Jiming; Li, Xin-Min

    2013-11-01

    Serum levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides may represent an early biomarker in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we investigated the temporal kinetic changes in the levels of serum Aβ 1-42 and 40 in an amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin (PS)1 double transgenic mouse model of AD. Serum Aβ peptide levels in 2-, 3-, 6-, 9- and 18-month old, and liver Aβ 1-40 level in 6-month old mice were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Results revealed that serum Aβ levels peaked in 3-month old transgenic mice, and the Aβ level in non-transgenic and transgenic mice is comparable in liver. Compared to the 6-month old transgenic mice, Congo red staining showed that the 3-month old transgenic mice had minimum brain Aβ plaques, corresponding to the early stage of Alzheimer-like plaque pathology, and confocal microscope images showed that the deposition of Aβ in their cerebral vessels was minimal. Furthermore, results of the water maze test, showed that memory was normal for the 3- month old transgenic mice when compared to age-matched non-transgenic mice. These results suggest that serum Aβ peptide levels may be peaked during the early stage of AD. Monitoring serum Aβ peptide levels in the potential AD population may provide an early diagnosis of AD prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms.

  11. Effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young transgenic APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Chun-Ni; Zhang, Lei; Chao, Feng-Lei; Chen, Lin-Mu; Jiang, Rong; Wu, Hong; Tang, Yong

    2018-08-01

    To investigate the effect of running exercise on the number of the neurons in the hippocampus of young APP/PS1 mice, twenty 6-month-old male APP/ PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into the APP/PS1 control (AD control) group and the APP/PS1 running (AD running) group (10 mice per group), and ten wild-type mice of the littermate were regarded as the wild-type (WT) group. The AD running mice ran on motorized treadmill machiene for 4 months, while the WT mice and AD control mice were housed in standard condition without running. Then, Morris water maze tests (MWM) were used to assess the special learning and memory abilities of mice in three groups. The stereological methods were used to quantitatively evaluate the volume of the hippocampus, CA1/2, CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG) and count the number of the neurons in CA1/2, CA3 and DG. We found that 4-month running effectively shortened the escape latency of young APP/PS1 control mice in MWM. More importantly, 4-month running effectively increased the volumes of the hippocampus, CA1/2, CA3 and DG and increased the number of neurons in CA1/2, CA3 and DG in young APP/PS1 mice. The present results suggested that 4-month running has significant beneficial effects on the spatial learning and memory capacities of young APP/PS1 mice and could delay the progress of atrophy of hippocampus and the neuron death in CA1/2, CA3 and DG in young APP/PS1 mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Naringin Dihydrochalcone Ameliorates Cognitive Deficits and Neuropathology in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

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    Wenjuan Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a multi-factorial neurodegenerative disorder with abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ plaques, neuroinflammation and impaired neurogenesis. Mounting evidences suggest that single-target drugs have limited effects on clinical treatment and alternative or multiple targets are required. In recent decades, natural compounds and their derivatives have gained increasing attention in AD drug discovery due to their inherently enormous chemical and structural diversity. In this study, we demonstrated that naringin dihydrochalcone (NDC, a widely used dietary sweetener with strong antioxidant activity, improved the cognitive function of transgenic AD mice. Pathologically, NDC attenuated Aβ deposition in AD mouse brain. Furthermore, NDC reduced periplaque activated microglia and astrocytes, indicating the inhibition of neuroinflammation. It also enhanced neurogenesis as investigated by BrdU/NeuN double labeling. Additionally, the inhibition of Aβ level and neuroinflammation by NDC treatment was also observed in an AD cell model or a microglia cell line. Taken together, our study indicated that NDC might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of AD against multiple targets that include Aβ pathology, neuroinflammation and neurogenesis.

  13. Curcumin Decreases Hyperphosphorylation of Tau by Down-Regulating Caveolin-1/GSK-3β in N2a/APP695swe Cells and APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jieyun; Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Chen; Teng, Zhipeng; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Caveolin-1, the marker protein of membranal caveolae, is not only involved in cholesterol regulation, but also participates in the cleavage of amyloid [Formula: see text]-protein precursor (APP) and the generation of [Formula: see text]-amyloid peptide. It has been reported to be tightly related with Tau. In our previous studies, curcumin has been confirmed to play a neuroprotective role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its effects on Caveolin-1, Tau and their correlation, and the mechanism is still unknown. As such, in the present study, N2a/WT cells, N2a/APP695swe cell and six-month-old APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were enrolled. After curcumin treatment, the expression of Caveolin-1, Tau and their relationship was detected, and the potential mechanisms were explored. The results showed that in the N2a/APP695swe cells, curcumin not only decreased the number of caveolae, but also made their membrane to be thinner; and curcumin could decreased the expression of phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau(ser404)/Tau) and Caveolin-1 ([Formula: see text]), but the expression of phosphorylated GSK-3[Formula: see text] (P-GSK-3[Formula: see text]/GSK-3[Formula: see text] was increased ([Formula: see text]). In APP/PS1 transgenic mice, the same results were observed. Taken together, our data suggest that curcumin may play an important role in AD via reducing Caveolin-1, inactivating GSK-3[Formula: see text] and inhibiting the abnormal excessive phosphorylation of Tau, which will provide a new theory for AD treatment with curcumin.

  14. Chronic stress induced cognitive impairment in APP/PS-1 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Bing HAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the effect of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS on the cognitive function and brain morphological changes in APP/PS-1 mice, one of the genetic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and to investigate the possible role of environmental factors in genetic mouse model of AD. Methods  There were 22-week-old wild-type C57BL/6 male mice (control group, N = 15 and APP/PS-1 double transgenic male mice [N = 27: AD group (N = 13 and AD + CUMS group (N = 14] tested in this study. Morris water maze test was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory of the mice. Amyloid deposition in the hippocampus was determined by Congo red staining. The ultrastructure of neurons in hippocampal CA1 region was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM.  Results  Compared with control group, AD + CUMS group had significantly longer fifth-day escape latency [(33.14 ± 14.37 s vs (21.22 ± 12.16 s; t = -2.701, P = 0.045], and significantly shortened time spent in platform quadrant [(9.74±1.35 s vs (15.02 ± 1.33 s; t = 2.639, P = 0.012] in Morris water maze test. Compared with AD group, the percentage of amyloid plaque area in hippocampal area was increased in AD + CUMS group [(0.59 ± 0.03% vs (0.04 ± 0.03%; t = -2.900, P = 0.005]. The ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in AD group was slightly damaged: cellular membrane was intact; cell matrix was uniform; intracelluar lipofuscin could be seen; the structure of nucleus and nuclear membrane had no obvious changes; mild fusion of cristae and membrane was seen in mitochondria; Golgi apparatus was partially indistinct; endoplasmic reticulum was mildly expanded. The ultrastructure of hippocampal neurons in AD + CUMS group was obviously damaged, including blurred cell membrane, reduced low-density and high-density granules in cytoplasm, uneven cell matrix, reduced number of organelles, lipofuscin and autophagosome deposition, obvious condensation of chromatin distributing over

  15. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on sleep and brain interstitial fluid amyloid-β in an APP transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fan; Zhang, Tony J; Mahan, Thomas E; Jiang, Hong; Holtzman, David M

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impairment of cognitive function, extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss. There is substantial evidence that the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD and that Aβ aggregation is a concentration dependent process. Recently, it was found that Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) are regulated by the sleep-wake cycle in both humans and mice; ISF Aβ is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep. Intracerebroventricular infusion of orexin increased wakefulness and ISF Aβ levels, and chronic sleep deprivation significantly increased Aβ plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APP) mice. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a well-documented sleep regulatory substance which promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep. GHRHR(lit/lit) mice that lack functional GHRH receptor have shorter sleep duration and longer wakefulness during light periods. The current study was undertaken to determine whether manipulating sleep by interfering with GHRH signaling affects brain ISF Aβ levels in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (PS1APP) transgenic mice that overexpress mutant forms of APP and PSEN1 that cause autosomal dominant AD. We found that intraperitoneal injection of GHRH at dark onset increased sleep and decreased ISF Aβ and that delivery of a GHRH antagonist via reverse-microdialysis suppressed sleep and increased ISF Aβ. The diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/lit) mice was significantly smaller than that in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/+) mice. However despite decreased sleep in GHRHR deficient mice, this was not associated with an increase in Aβ accumulation later in life. One of several possibilities for the finding is the fact that GHRHR deficient mice have GHRH-dependent but sleep-independent factors which protect against Aβ deposition. Copyright © 2014

  16. Immunocytochemical Characterization of Alzheimer Disease Hallmarks in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Treated with a New Anti-Amyloid-β Vaccine

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    Iván Carrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available APP/PS1 double-transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which overexpress mutated forms of the gene for human amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilin 1 (PS1, have provided robust neuropathological hallmarks of AD-like pattern at early ages. This study characterizes immunocytochemical patterns of AD mouse brain as a model for human AD treated with the EB101 vaccine. In this novel vaccine, a new approach has been taken to circumvent past failures by judiciously selecting an adjuvant consisting of a physiological matrix embedded in liposomes, composed of naturally occurring phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, and cholesterol. Our findings showed that administration of amyloid-β1−42 (Aβ and sphingosine-1-phosphate emulsified in liposome complex (EB101 to APP/PS1 mice before onset of Aβ deposition (7 weeks of age and/or at an older age (35 weeks of age is effective in halting the progression and clearing the AD-like neuropathological hallmarks. Passive immunization with EB101 did not activate inflammatory responses from the immune system and astrocytes. Consistent with a decreased inflammatory background, the basal immunological interaction between the T cells and the affected areas (hippocampus in the brain of treated mice was notably reduced. These results demonstrate that immunization with EB101 vaccine prevents and attenuates AD neuropathology in this type of double-transgenic mice.

  17. Non-Mendelian Dominant Maternal Effects Caused by CRISPR/Cas9 Transgenic Components in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Chun-Chieh Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genomic editing. The Cas9 endonuclease targets DNA via an experimentally determined guide RNA (gRNA. This results in a double-strand break at the target site . We generated transgenic Drosophila melanogaster in which the CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to target a GAL4 transgene in vivo. To our surprise, progeny whose genomes did not contain CRISPR/Cas9 components were still capable of mutating GAL4 sequences. We demonstrate this effect was caused by maternal deposition of Cas9 and gRNAs into the embryo, leading to extensive GAL4 mutations in both somatic and germline tissues. This serves as a cautionary observation on the effects of maternal contributions when conducting experiments using genomically encoded CRISPR/Cas9 components. These results also highlight a mode of artificial inheritance in which maternal contributions of DNA editing components lead to transmissible mutant defects even in animals whose genomes lack the editing components. We suggest calling this a dominant maternal effect to reflect it is caused by the gain of maternally contributed products. Models of CRISPR-mediated gene drive will need to incorporate dominant maternal effects in order to accurately predict the efficiency and dynamics of gene drive in a population.

  18. Neuro-peptide treatment with Cerebrolysin improves the survival of neural stem cell grafts in an APP transgenic model of Alzheimer disease

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    Edward Rockenstein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs have been considered as potential therapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD but their use is hampered by the poor survival of grafted cells. Supply of neurotrophic factors to the grafted cells has been proposed as a way to augment survival of the stem cells. In this context, we investigated the utility of Cerebrolysin (CBL, a peptidergic mixture with neurotrophic-like properties, as an adjunct to stem cell therapy in an APP transgenic (tg model of AD. We grafted murine NSCs into the hippocampus of non-tg and APP tg that were treated systemically with CBL and analyzed after 1, 3, 6 and 9 months post grafting. Compared to vehicle-treated non-tg mice, in the vehicle-treated APP tg mice there was considerable reduction in the survival of the grafted NSCs. Whereas, CBL treatment enhanced the survival of NSCs in both non-tg and APP tg with the majority of the surviving NSCs remaining as neuroblasts. The NSCs of the CBL treated mice displayed reduced numbers of caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells and increased brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and furin immunoreactivity. These results suggest that CBL might protect grafted NSCs and as such be a potential adjuvant therapy when combined with grafting.

  19. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of liposomes containing phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin reduce amyloid-β levels in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Re, Francesca; Bereczki, Erika

    2015-01-01

    , it was hypothesized that shifting this equilibrium towards the blood by enhancing peripheral clearance might reduce Aβ levels in the brain: the 'sink effect'. We tested this hypothesis by intraperitoneally injecting APP/PS1 transgenic mice with small unilamellar vesicles containing either phosphatidic acid...... Aβ may be therapeutically relevant in AD. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR: Intraperitoneal injection of small unilamellar vesicles containing phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin significantly reduced the amount of amyloid-beta (Aß) peptide in the plasma in a rodent model. Brain levels of Aß were also affected...

  20. Defective lysosomal proteolysis and axonal transport are early pathogenic events that worsen with age leading to increased APP metabolism and synaptic Abeta in transgenic APP/PS1 hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Manuel; Jimenez, Sebastian; Sanchez-Varo, Raquel; Navarro, Victoria; Trujillo-Estrada, Laura; Sanchez-Mejias, Elisabeth; Carmona, Irene; Davila, Jose Carlos; Vizuete, Marisa; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier

    2012-11-22

    Axonal pathology might constitute one of the earliest manifestations of Alzheimer disease. Axonal dystrophies were observed in Alzheimer's patients and transgenic models at early ages. These axonal dystrophies could reflect the disruption of axonal transport and the accumulation of multiple vesicles at local points. It has been also proposed that dystrophies might interfere with normal intracellular proteolysis. In this work, we have investigated the progression of the hippocampal pathology and the possible implication in Abeta production in young (6 months) and aged (18 months) PS1(M146L)/APP(751sl) transgenic mice. Our data demonstrated the existence of a progressive, age-dependent, formation of axonal dystrophies, mainly located in contact with congophilic Abeta deposition, which exhibited tau and neurofilament hyperphosphorylation. This progressive pathology was paralleled with decreased expression of the motor proteins kinesin and dynein. Furthermore, we also observed an early decrease in the activity of cathepsins B and D, progressing to a deep inhibition of these lysosomal proteases at late ages. This lysosomal impairment could be responsible for the accumulation of LC3-II and ubiquitinated proteins within axonal dystrophies. We have also investigated the repercussion of these deficiencies on the APP metabolism. Our data demonstrated the existence of an increase in the amyloidogenic pathway, which was reflected by the accumulation of hAPPfl, C99 fragment, intracellular Abeta in parallel with an increase in BACE and gamma-secretase activities. In vitro experiments, using APPswe transfected N2a cells, demonstrated that any imbalance on the proteolytic systems reproduced the in vivo alterations in APP metabolism. Finally, our data also demonstrated that Abeta peptides were preferentially accumulated in isolated synaptosomes. A progressive age-dependent cytoskeletal pathology along with a reduction of lysosomal and, in minor extent, proteasomal activity could be

  1. Antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ induces cerebellar amyloid-β levels and motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jing; Sun, Bing; Chen, Kui; Fan, Li; Wang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidences show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is involved in the modulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) cascade causing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and treatment with PPARγ agonists protects against AD pathology. However, the function of PPARγ steady-state activity in Aβ cascade and AD pathology remains unclear. In this study, an antagonist of PPARγ, GW9662, was injected into the fourth ventricle of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to inhibit PPARγ activity in cerebellum. The results show that inhibition of PPARγ significantly induced Aβ levels in cerebellum and caused cerebellar motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, GW9662 treatment markedly decreased the cerebellar levels of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which is responsible for the cellular degradation of Aβ. Since cerebellum is spared from significant Aβ accumulation and neurotoxicity in AD patients and animal models, these findings suggest a crucial role of PPARγ steady-state activity in protection of cerebellum against AD pathology.

  2. Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection of Hippocampus in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice via Upregulation of Mitochondrial 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase

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    Hai Bo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving mitochondrial function has been proposed as a reasonable therapeutic strategy to reduce amyloid-β (Aβ load and to modify the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, the relationship between mitochondrial adaptation and brain neuroprotection caused by physical exercise in AD is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of long-term treadmill exercise on mitochondrial 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1 level, mtDNA oxidative damage, and mitochondrial function in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD. In the present study, twenty weeks of treadmill training significantly improved the cognitive function and reduced the expression of Aβ-42 in APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg mice. Training also ameliorated mitochondrial respiratory function by increasing the complexes I, and IV and ATP synthase activities, whereas it attenuated ROS generation and mtDNA oxidative damage in Tg mice. Furthermore, the impaired mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes and mitochondrial OGG1 activities seen in Tg mice were restored with training. Acetylation level of mitochondrial OGG1 and MnSOD was markedly suppressed in Tg mice after exercise training, in parallel with increased level of SIRT3. These findings suggest that exercise training could increase mtDNA repair capacity in the mouse hippocampus, which in turn would result in protection against AD-related mitochondrial dysfunction and phenotypic deterioration.

  3. Chronic caffeine treatment reverses memory impairment and the expression of brain BNDF and TrkB in the PS1/APP double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    HAN, KUN; JIA, NING; LI, JI; YANG, LI; MIN, LIAN-QIU

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying doses of caffeine on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF) and TrkB in PS1/APP double transgenic mouse models. PS1/APP double transgenic mice were administered 0.3 ml/day of saline, 1.5 mg/day of caffeine or 0.75 mg/day of caffeine for eight weeks. A water maze test and western blotting were used to determine the memory capability and expression of hippocampal BNDF and TrkB of the ...

  4. Downregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in curcumin-induced autophagy in APP/PS1 double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhang, Xiong; Teng, Zhipeng; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yu

    2014-10-05

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway, which is essential for cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and homeostasis. It is well known that beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation is one of key characteristics for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which triggers a complex pathological cascade, leading to neurodegeneration. Recent studies have shown that Aβ peptide is generated from amyloid β precursor protein (APP) during autophagic turnover of APP-rich organelles by autophagy. Aβ generation during normal autophagy is subsequently degraded by lysosomes. Curcumin, a nature plant extraction, has been reported to inhibit the generation and deposition of Aβ; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood yet. In the present study, we reported that curcumin treatment not only attenuated cognitive impairment detected by Morris water maze test, but also inhibited the generation of Aβ investigated by immunohistochemistry in APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mice. Moreover, curcumin induced autophagy in the mice, evidenced by LC3 immunofluorescence analysis and western blot assays on LC3. Furthermore, we found that curcumin significantly decreased the expression of Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated Akt and rapamycin (mTOR) at protein levels, respectively. Taken together, our data suggests that curcumin inhibits Aβ generation and induces of autophagy by downregulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, and further shows a neuroprotective effect. Meanwhile curcumin might be a candidate neuroprotective agent for AD patients treatment by inducing autophagy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Baculovirus immediate-early gene, ie1, promoter drives efficient expression of a transgene in both Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori.

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    Mika Masumoto

    Full Text Available Many promoters have been used to drive expression of heterologous transgenes in insects. One major obstacle in the study of non-model insects is the dearth of useful promoters for analysis of gene function. Here, we investigated whether the promoter of the immediate-early gene, ie1, from the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV could be used to drive efficient transgene expression in a wide variety of insects. We used a piggyBac-based vector with a 3xP3-DsRed transformation marker to generate a reporter construct; this construct was used to determine the expression patterns driven by the BmNPV ie1 promoter; we performed a detailed investigation of the promoter in transgene expression pattern in Drosophila melanogaster and in B. mori. Drosophila and Bombyx belong to different insect orders (Diptera and Lepidoptera, respectively; however, and to our surprise, ie1 promoter-driven expression was evident in several tissues (e.g., prothoracic gland, midgut, and tracheole in both insects. Furthermore, in both species, the ie1 promoter drove expression of the reporter gene from a relatively early embryonic stage, and strong ubiquitous ie1 promoter-driven expression continued throughout the larval, pupal, and adult stages by surface observation. Therefore, we suggest that the ie1 promoter can be used as an efficient expression driver in a diverse range of insect species.

  6. Stereological Investigation of the Effects of Treadmill Running Exercise on the Hippocampal Neurons in Middle-Aged APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Fenglei; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Chunni; Zhang, Lei; Tang, Jing; Liang, Xin; Qi, Yingqiang; Zhu, Yanqing; Ma, Jing; Tang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    The risk of cognitive decline during Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be reduced if physical activity is maintained; however, the specific neural events underlying this beneficial effect are still uncertain. To quantitatively investigate the neural events underlying the effect of running exercise on middle-aged AD subjects, 12-month-old male APP/PS1 mice were randomly assigned to a control group or running group, and age-matched non-transgenic littermates were used as a wild-type group. AD running group mice were subjected to a treadmill running protocol (regular and moderate intensity) for four months. Spatial learning and memory abilities were assessed using the Morris water maze. Hippocampal amyloid plaques were observed using Thioflavin S staining and immunohistochemistry. Hippocampal volume, number of neurons, and number of newborn cells (BrdU+ cells) in the hippocampus were estimated using stereological techniques, and newborn neurons were observed using double-labelling immunofluorescence. Marked neuronal loss in both the CA1 field and dentate gyrus (DG) and deficits in both the neurogenesis and survival of new neurons in the DG of middle-aged APP/PS1 mice were observed. Running exercise could improve the spatial learning and memory abilities, reduce amyloid plaques in the hippocampi, delay neuronal loss, induce neurogenesis, and promote the survival of newborn neurons in the DG of middle-aged APP/PS1 mice. Exercise-induced protection of neurons and adult neurogenesis within the DG might be part of the important structural basis of the improved spatial learning and memory abilities observed in AD mice.

  7. Chronic caffeine treatment reverses memory impairment and the expression of brain BNDF and TrkB in the PS1/APP double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    HAN, KUN; JIA, NING; LI, JI; YANG, LI; MIN, LIAN-QIU

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying doses of caffeine on memory impairment and the expression of brain neurotrophic derived factor (BNDF) and TrkB in PS1/APP double transgenic mouse models. PS1/APP double transgenic mice were administered 0.3 ml/day of saline, 1.5 mg/day of caffeine or 0.75 mg/day of caffeine for eight weeks. A water maze test and western blotting were used to determine the memory capability and expression of hippocampal BNDF and TrkB of the mice. The results demonstrated that 0.75 mg/day and 1.5 mg/day doses of caffeine significantly increased memory capability and the expression of hippocampal BDNF and TrkB in PS1/APP mice with a dose-response effect. The results suggested that chronic caffeine treatment may reverse memory impairment in PS1/APP transgenic mice, and BDNF and its receptor TrkB, may be involved in this process. PMID:23900282

  8. Andrographolide sulfonate improves Alzheimer-associated phenotypes and mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ji; Liu, Wen; Xiong, Yuyun; Ding, Hongqun; Jiang, Chunhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Xiang; Elgehama, Ahmed; Sun, Yang; Xu, Qiang; Guo, Wenjie; Gao, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with Amyloid-β plaques onset, synaptic damage, and cognitive decline. Aβ deposits cause pathological events including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuron death. In this study, APPswe/PSENΔ9 double transgenic mice model was used to imitate Alzheimer's disease and the effect and possible mechanism of Andrographolide sulfonate were examined. Andrographolide sulfonate was given to the mice for 7 months before the onset of Aβ plaque. Spatial memory test showed that Andrographolide sulfonate treatment prevented cognitive decline. Aβ deposits were not affected while hippocampus and synapse damage was significantly alleviated. Mechanism studies showed that oxidative stress and mitochondrial swelling was reduced after Andrographolide sulfonate administration. These findings suggest that Andrographolide sulfonate, which has been applied in clinical medicine, might be a promising therapeutic agent for AD therapy via mitochondria protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary DHA supplementation in an APP/PS1 transgenic rat model of AD reduces behavioral and Aβ pathology and modulates Aβ oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Edmond; Taylor, Karen; Bilousova, Tina; Weiland, David; Pham, Thaidan; Zuo, Xiaohong; Yang, Fusheng; Chen, Ping-Ping; Glabe, Charles G; Takacs, Alison; Hoffman, Dennis R; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Gregory M

    2015-10-01

    Increased dietary consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with decreased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). These effects have been postulated to arise from DHA's pleiotropic effects on AD pathophysiology, including its effects on β-amyloid (Aβ) production, aggregation, and toxicity. While in vitro studies suggest that DHA may inhibit and reverse the formation of toxic Aβ oligomers, it remains uncertain whether these mechanisms operate in vivo at the physiological concentrations of DHA attainable through dietary supplementation. We sought to clarify the effects of dietary DHA supplementation on Aβ indices in a transgenic APP/PS1 rat model of AD. Animals maintained on a DHA-supplemented diet exhibited reductions in hippocampal Aβ plaque density and modest improvements on behavioral testing relative to those maintained on a DHA-depleted diet. However, DHA supplementation also increased overall soluble Aβ oligomer levels in the hippocampus. Further quantification of specific conformational populations of Aβ oligomers indicated that DHA supplementation increased fibrillar (i.e. putatively less toxic) Aβ oligomers and decreased prefibrillar (i.e. putatively more toxic) Aβ oligomers. These results provide in vivo evidence suggesting that DHA can modulate Aβ aggregation by stabilizing soluble fibrillar Aβ oligomers and thus reduce the formation of both Aβ plaques and prefibrillar Aβ oligomers. However, since fibrillar Aβ oligomers still retain inherent neurotoxicity, DHA may need to be combined with other interventions that can additionally reduce fibrillar Aβ oligomer levels for more effective prevention of AD in clinical settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Erythrocyte membrane-encapsulated celecoxib improves the cognitive decline of Alzheimer's disease by concurrently inducing neurogenesis and reducing apoptosis in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing-Wen; Guan, Pei-Pei; Ding, Wei-Yan; Wang, Si-Ling; Huang, Xue-Shi; Wang, Zhan-You; Wang, Pu

    2017-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the loss of neurogenesis and excessive induction of apoptosis. The induction of neurogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis may be a promising therapeutic approach to combating the disease. Celecoxib (CB), a cyclooxygenase-2 specific inhibitor, could offer neuroprotection. Specifically, the CB-encapsulated erythrocyte membranes (CB-RBCMs) sustained the release of CB over a period of 72 h in vitro and exhibited high brain biodistribution efficiency following intranasal administration, which resulted in the clearance of aggregated β-amyloid proteins (Aβ) in neurons. The high accumulation of the CB-RBCMs in neurons resulted in a decrease in the neurotoxicity of CB and an increase in the migratory activity of neurons, and alleviated cognitive decline in APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice. Indeed, COX-2 metabolic products including prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) and PGD 2 , PGE 2 induced neurogenesis by enhancing the expression of SOD2 and 14-3-3ζ, and PGD 2 stimulated apoptosis by increasing the expression of BIK and decreasing the expression of ARRB1. To this end, the CB-RBCMs achieved better effects on concurrently increasing neurogenesis and decreasing apoptosis than the phospholipid membrane-encapsulated CB liposomes (CB-PSPD-LPs), which are critical for the development and progression of AD. Therefore, CB-RBCMs provide a rational design to treat AD by promoting the self-repairing capacity of the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial effect of antibodies against β- secretase cleavage site of APP on Alzheimer's-like pathology in triple-transgenic mice.

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    Inna Rabinovich-Nikitin

    Full Text Available The toxicity of amyloid β and tau, the two hallmark proteins in Alzheimer's disease (AD, has been extensively studied individually. Recently new data suggest their possible interactions and synergistic effects in the disease. In this study, we investigate the ability of antibodies against the β secretase cleavage site on APP, named BBS1, to affect tau pathology, besides their well established effect on intracellular Aβ and amyloid load. For this purpose we treated the triple transgenic mice model of AD (3x Tg-AD with mAb BBS1 intracerebroventricularly, using mini osmotic pumps for one month. The experimental data demonstrated reduction in total and phosphorylated tau levels, explained by significant reduction in GSK3β which phosphorylates tau on sites recognized by antibodies against PHF1 and AT-8. The treatment increased the cognitive capabilities and reduced the brain inflammation levels which accompany AD pathology. The data showing that tau pathology was significantly reduced by BBS1 antibodies suggest a close interaction between tau and Aβ in the development of AD, and may serve as an efficient novel immunotherapy against both hallmarks of this disease.

  12. Liraglutide Improves Water Maze Learning and Memory Performance While Reduces Hyperphosphorylation of Tau and Neurofilaments in APP/PS1/Tau Triple Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi; Sun, Jie; Zhao, Gang; Guo, Ai; Chen, Yanlin; Fu, Rongxia; Deng, Yanqiu

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how liraglutide affects AD-like pathology and cognitive function in APP/PS1/Tau triple transgenic (3 × Tg) Alzheimer disease (AD) model mice. Male 3 × Tg mice and C57BL/6 J mice were treated for 8 weeks with liraglutide (300 μg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) or saline. Levels of phosphorylated tau, neurofilaments (NFs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in brain tissues were assessed with western blots. Fluoro-Jade-B labeling were applied to detect pathological changes. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory. Liraglutide decreased levels of hyperphosphorylated tau and NFs in 3 × Tg liraglutide-treated (Tg + LIR) mice, increased ERK phosphorylation, and decreased JNK phosphorylation. Liraglutide also decreased the number of degenerative neurons in the hippocampus and cortex of Tg + LIR mice, and shortened their escape latencies and increased their hidden platform crossings in the MWM task. Liraglutide did not significantly affect the animals' body weight (BW) or fasting blood glucose. Liraglutide can reduce hyperphosphorylation of tau and NFs and reduce neuronal degeneration, apparently through alterations in JNK and ERK signaling, which may be related to its positive effects on AD-like learning and memory impairment.

  13. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9

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    Siddique, Y.H.; Anjum, S.; Rahul x, Smita Jyoti

    2017-07-01

    Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05). The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05).

  14. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ Bg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIR HASAN SIDDIQUE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05. The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05.

  15. Evaluation of the toxic potential of aspartame in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, Y.H.; Anjum, S.; Rahul x, Smita Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Aspartame is commonly used as a sweetener in prepared foods, beverages and in recipes. In the present study the possible toxic effects of aspartame were studied in third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ) Bg9. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on the diet having different doses of aspartame. The results obtained in the present study suggest that the exposure of third instar larvae to the diet having 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mM of aspartame did not show any significant the toxic effects after 24 hours of the exposure compared to control (p<0.05). The results for pupae formation and emergence of flies also did not show any significant difference compared to control (p<0.05).

  16. β-asarone improves learning and memory and reduces Acetyl Cholinesterase and Beta-amyloid 42 levels in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by regulating Beclin-1-dependent autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Minzhen; Huang, Liping; Ning, Baile; Wang, Nanbu; Zhang, Qinxin; Zhu, Caixia; Fang, Yongqi

    2016-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly, and studies have suggested that β-asarone has pharmacological effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ) injected in the rat hippocampus. However, the effect of β-asarone on autophagy in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse is unreported. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were randomly divided into six groups (n=10/group): an untreated group, an Aricept-treated group, a 3-MA-treated group, a rapamycin-treated group, an LY294002-treated group, a β-asarone-treated group. The control group consisted of wild-type C57BL/6 mice. All treatments were administered to the mice for 30 days. Spatial learning and memory were assessed by water maze, passive avoidance, and step-down tests. AChE and Aβ 42 levels in the hippocampus were determined by ELISA. p-Akt, p-mTOR, and LC3B expression were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of p-Akt, p-mTOR, Beclin-1, and p62 proteins was assessed by western blot. Changes in autophagy were viewed using a transmission electron microscope. APP and Beclin-1 mRNA levels were measured by Real-Time PCR. The learning and memory of APP/PS1 transgenic mice were improved significantly after β-asarone treatment compared with the untreated group. In addition, β-asarone treatment reduced AChE and Aβ 42 levels, increased p-mTOR and p62 expression, decreased p-Akt, Beclin-1, and LC3B expression, decreased the number of autophagosomes and reduced APP mRNA and Beclin-1 mRNA levels compared with the untreated group. That is, β-asarone treatment can improve the learning and memory abilities of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse by inhibiting Beclin-1-dependent autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impaired APP activity and altered Tau splicing in embryonic stem cell-derived astrocytes obtained from an APPsw transgenic minipig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa J. Hall

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of familial juvenile onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD often fail to produce diverse pathological features of the disease by modification of single gene mutations that are responsible for the disease. They can hence be poor models for testing and development of novel drugs. Here, we analyze in vitro-produced stem cells and their derivatives from a large mammalian model of the disease created by overexpression of a single mutant human gene (APPsw. We produced hemizygous and homozygous radial glial-like cells following culture and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs isolated from embryos obtained from mated hemizygous minipigs. These cells were confirmed to co-express varying neural markers, including NES, GFAP and BLBP, typical of type one radial glial cells (RGs from the subgranular zone. These cells had altered expression of CCND1 and NOTCH1 and decreased expression of several ribosomal RNA genes. We found that these cells were able to differentiate into astrocytes upon directed differentiation. The astrocytes produced had decreased α- and β-secretase activity, increased γ-secretase activity and altered splicing of tau. This indicates novel aspects of early onset mechanisms related to cell renewal and function in familial AD astrocytes. These outcomes also highlight that radial glia could be a potentially useful population of cells for drug discovery, and that altered APP expression and altered tau phosphorylation can be detected in an in vitro model of the disease. Finally, it might be possible to use large mammal models to model familial AD by insertion of only a single mutation.

  18. A glycine insertion in the estrogen-related receptor (ERR is associated with enhanced expression of three cytochrome P450 genes in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Sun

    Full Text Available Insecticide-resistant Drosophila melanogaster strains represent a resource for the discovery of the underlying molecular mechanisms of cytochrome P450 constitutive over-expression, even if some of these P450s are not directly involved in the resistance phenotype. For example, in select 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT resistant strains the glucocorticoid receptor-like (GR-like potential transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs have previously been shown to be associated with constitutively differentially-expressed cytochrome P450s, Cyp12d1, Cyp6g2 and Cyp9c1. However, insects are not known to have glucocorticoids. The only ortholog to the mammalian glucocorticoid receptor (GR in D. melanogaster is an estrogen-related receptor (ERR gene, which has two predicted alternative splice isoforms (ERRa and ERRb. Sequencing of ERRa and ERRb in select DDT susceptible and resistant D. melanogaster strains has revealed a glycine (G codon insertion which was only observed in the ligand binding domain of ERR from the resistant strains tested (ERR-G. Transgenic flies, expressing the ERRa-G allele, constitutively over-expressed Cyp12d1, Cyp6g2 and Cyp9c1. Only Cyp12d1 and Cyp6g2 were over-expressed in the ERRb-G transgenic flies. Phylogenetic studies show that the G-insertion appeared to be located in a less conserved domain in ERR and this insertion is found in multiple species across the Sophophora subgenera.

  19. Ubiquitous overexpression of a transgene encoding the extracellular portion of the Drosophila roughest-irregular chiasm C protein induces early embryonic lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, L; Machado, R C; Ramos, R G

    2000-09-01

    The cell adhesion molecule Rst-irreC is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily involved in several important developmental processes in Drosophila, including axonal pathfinding in the optic lobe and programmed cell death and pigment cell differentiation in the pupal retina. As an initial step towards the "in vivo" functional analysis of this protein we have generated transgenic fly stocks carrying a truncated cDNA construct encoding only the extracellular domain of Rst-IrreC under the transcriptional control of the heat shock inducible promoter hsp70. We show that heat-shocking embryos bearing the transgene during the first 8hs of development lead to a 3-4 fold reduction in their viability compared to wild type controls. The embryonic lethality can already be produced by applying the heat pulse in the first 3hs of embryonic development, does not seem to be suppressed in the absence of wildtype product and is progressively reduced as the heat treatment is applied later in embryogenesis. These results are compatible with the hypothesis of the lethal phenotype being primarily due to heterophilic interactions between Rst-IrreC extracellular domain and an yet unknown ligand.

  20. Localization and expression of substance P in transgenic mice overexpressing human APP751 with the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Michael; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Wietzorrek, Georg; Windisch, Manfred; Humpel, Christian; Knaus, Hans Günther; Marksteiner, Josef

    2007-04-27

    Substance P-like immunoreactivity (-LI) is found in neuritic plaques, and is reduced in patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). In this study, we examined the distribution and expression of substance P in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) APP751 with the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize substance P- and glial fibrillary acidic protein-LI by confocal microscopy. In hAPP transgenic mice, the number of beta-amyloid plaques significantly increased from 6 to 12 months. About 5% of beta-amyloid plaques were substance P-immunoreactive. In transgenic mice, the morphology of substance P-immunoreactive structures changed by consisting of swollen and dystrophic neurites mostly associated with beta-amyloid plaques. The overall localization and the relative substance P densities were not different between wild type and transgenic mice at 6 and 12 months. At month 12, a dramatic change in the distribution pattern of substance P-LI was observed as it was now expressed in a high number of reactive astrocytes. This expression of substance P in astrocytes was mainly found in the hippocampal formation and thalamic nuclei with a preferential association with beta-amyloid plaques, whereas in cortical regions only faintly substance P-immunoreactive astrocytes were observed. This study indicates that substance P undergoes complex changes in this animal Alzheimer disease model. Future experiments including substance P antagonists are necessary to further explore the interaction between beta-amyloid deposits and substance P.

  1. Transplantation of in vitro cultured endothelial progenitor cells repairs the blood-brain barrier and improves cognitive function of APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shishuang; Zhi, Yongle; Li, Fei; Huang, Shan; Gao, Huabin; Han, Zhaoli; Ge, Xintong; Li, Dai; Chen, Fanglian; Kong, Xiaodong; Lei, Ping

    2018-04-15

    To date, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains unclear. It is well-known that excessive deposition of Aβ in the brain is a crucial part of the pathogenesis of AD. In recent years, the AD neurovascular unit hypothesis has attracted much attention. Impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to abnormal amyloid-β (Aβ) transport, and chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causes Aβ deposition throughout the onset and progression of AD. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are the universal cells for repairing blood vessels. Our previous studies have shown that a reduced number of EPCs in the peripheral blood results in cerebral vascular repair disorder, cerebral hypoperfusion and neurodegeneration, which might be related to the cognitive dysfunction of AD patients. This study was designed to confirm whether EPCs transplantation could repair the blood-brain barrier, stimulate angiogenesis and reduce Aβ deposition in AD. The expression of ZO-1, Occludin and Claudin-5 was up-regulated in APP/PS1 transgenic mice after hippocampal transplantation of EPCs. Consistent with previous studies, EPC transplants also increased the microvessel density. We observed that Aβ senile plaque deposition was decreased and hippocampal cell apoptosis was reduced after EPCs transplantation. The Morris water maze test showed that spatial learning and memory functions were significantly improved in mice transplanted with EPCs. Consequently, EPCs could up-regulate the expression of tight junction proteins, repair BBB tight junction function, stimulate angiogenesis, promote Aβ clearance, and decrease neuronal loss, ultimately improve cognitive function. Taken together, these data demonstrate EPCs may play an important role in the therapeutic implications for vascular dysfunction in AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection by voxel-wise statistical analysis of significant changes in regional cerebral glucose uptake in an APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Albertine; Hérard, Anne-Sophie; Delatour, Benoît; Hantraye, Philippe; Bonvento, Gilles; Dhenain, Marc; Delzescaux, Thierry

    2010-06-01

    Biomarkers and technologies similar to those used in humans are essential for the follow-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models, particularly for the clarification of mechanisms and the screening and validation of new candidate treatments. In humans, changes in brain metabolism can be detected by 1-deoxy-2-[(18)F] fluoro-D-glucose PET (FDG-PET) and assessed in a user-independent manner with dedicated software, such as Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). FDG-PET can be carried out in small animals, but its resolution is low as compared to the size of rodent brain structures. In mouse models of AD, changes in cerebral glucose utilization are usually detected by [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose (2DG) autoradiography, but this requires prior manual outlining of regions of interest (ROI) on selected sections. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of applying the SPM method to 3D autoradiographic data sets mapping brain metabolic activity in a transgenic mouse model of AD. We report the preliminary results obtained with 4 APP/PS1 (64+/-1 weeks) and 3 PS1 (65+/-2 weeks) mice. We also describe new procedures for the acquisition and use of "blockface" photographs and provide the first demonstration of their value for the 3D reconstruction and spatial normalization of post mortem mouse brain volumes. Despite this limited sample size, our results appear to be meaningful, consistent, and more comprehensive than findings from previously published studies based on conventional ROI-based methods. The establishment of statistical significance at the voxel level, rather than with a user-defined ROI, makes it possible to detect more reliably subtle differences in geometrically complex regions, such as the hippocampus. Our approach is generic and could be easily applied to other biomarkers and extended to other species and applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H Hansen

    Full Text Available One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP and presenilin-1 (PS1 are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the 'London' (hAPPLon/PS1A246E and 'Swedish' mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c., or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.. In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD.

  4. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

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    Tang, Jun [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Song, Min; Wang, Yanyan [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Fan, Xiaotang [Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Xu, Haiwei, E-mail: haiweixu2001@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Physiology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Bai, Yun, E-mail: baiyungene@gmail.com [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2009-07-31

    In addition to the subventricular zone, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of the few brain regions in which neurogenesis continues into adulthood. Perturbation of neurogenesis can alter hippocampal function, and previous studies have shown that neurogenesis is dysregulated in Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous data indicated that increased expression of BMP4 mRNA within the dentate gyrus might contribute to decreased hippocampal cell proliferation in the APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} mouse AD model. However, it is not known whether the BMP antagonist Noggin contributes to the regulation of neurogenesis. We therefore studied the relative expression levels and localization of BMP4 and its antagonist Noggin in the dentate gyrus and whether these correlated with changes in neurogenesis in 6-12 mo old APP{sub swe}/PS1{sub {Delta}E9} transgenic mice. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label proliferative cells. We report that decreased neurogenesis in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice was accompanied by increased expression of BMP4 and decreased expression of Noggin at both the mRNA and protein levels; statistical analysis showed that the number of proliferative cells at different ages correlated positively with Noggin expression and negatively with BMP4 expression. Intraventricular administration of a chimeric Noggin/Fc protein was used to block the action of endogenous BMP4; this resulted in a significant increase in the number of BrdU-labeled cells in dentate gyrus subgranular zone and hilus in APP/PS1 mice. These results suggest that BMP4 and Noggin co-modulate neurogenesis.

  5. Chromogranin B and Secretogranin II in transgenic mice overexpressing human APP751 with the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations and in Alzheimer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Michael; Prokesch, Manuela; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Windisch, Manfred; Stridsberg, Mats; Mahata, Sushil K; Kirchmair, Rudolf; Wietzorrek, Georg; Knaus, Hans-Günther; Jellinger, Kurt; Humpel, Christian; Marksteiner, Josef

    2008-03-01

    Chromogranin B and secretogranin II are major soluble constituents of large dense core vesicles of presynaptic structures and have been found in neuritic plaques of Alzheimer patients. We examined the distribution and expression of these peptides in both transgenic mice over expressing human amyloid-beta protein precursor APP751 with the London (V717I) and Swedish (K670M/N671L) mutations and in human post-mortem brain. In transgenic mice, the number of amyloid-beta plaques and chromogranin immunopositive plaques increased from 6 to 12 months. About 60% of amyloid-beta plaques were associated with chromogranin B and about 40% with secretogranin II. Chromogranin immunoreactivity appeared mainly as swollen dystrophic neurites. Neither synaptophysin- nor glial fibrillary acidic protein- immunoreactivity was expressed in chromogranin immunoreactive structures at any timepoint. Density of chromogranin peptides in hippocampal structures did not change in transgenic animals at any timepoint, even though animals had a poorer performance in the Morris water maze task. In conclusion, our findings in transgenic animals partly resembled findings in Alzheimer patients. Chromogranin peptides were associated with amyloid-beta plaques, but were not reduced in specific brain areas as previously reported by our group. Therefore specific changes of chromogranin peptides observed in Alzheimer patients can be related to amyloid-beta pathology only.

  6. Evaluation of the toxic potential of calcium carbide in the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Mohd; Fatima, Ambreen; Khanam, Saba; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Ali, Fahad; Naz, Falaq; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the toxic potential of calcium carbide (CaC2) was studied on the third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZ)Bg(9). The third instar larvae were exposed to 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32×10(-3)g/ml of CaC2 in diet for 24h. The results reveal that the dose 2×10(-3)g/ml was not toxic but the remaining doses showed a dose dependent significant increase in the hsp70 expression, β-galactosidase activity, tissue damage, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content), glutathione-S-transferase activity, expression of Caspase 3 and 9, apoptotic index and DNA damage (midgut cells). A significant reduction as compared to control group in total protein, glutathione content and acetylcholinesterase activity was also observed. The Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy analysis (ICPAES) reveals the presence of copper, iron, sodium, aluminium, manganese, calcium, nickel and mercury. The toxic effects of CaC2 in the present study may be attributed to the impurities present in it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Osthole Stimulated Neural Stem Cells Differentiation into Neurons in an Alzheimer's Disease Cell Model via Upregulation of MicroRNA-9 and Rescued the Functional Impairment of Hippocampal Neurons in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Heng Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most serious neurodegenerative disease worldwide and is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and multiple neurological changes, including neuronal loss in the brain. However, there are no available drugs to delay or cure this disease. Consequently, neuronal replacement therapy may be a strategy to treat AD. Osthole (Ost, a natural coumarin derivative, crosses the blood-brain barrier and exerts strong neuroprotective effects against AD in vitro and in vivo. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs have demonstrated a crucial role in pathological processes of AD, implying that targeting miRNAs could be a therapeutic approach to AD. In the present study, we investigated whether Ost could enhance cell viability and prevent cell death in amyloid precursor protein (APP-expressing neural stem cells (NSCs as well as promote APP-expressing NSCs differentiation into more neurons by upregulating microRNA (miR-9 and inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway in vitro. In addition, Ost treatment in APP/PS1 double transgenic (Tg mice markedly restored cognitive functions, reduced Aβ plague production and rescued functional impairment of hippocampal neurons. The results of the present study provides evidence of the neurogenesis effects and neurobiological mechanisms of Ost against AD, suggesting that Ost is a promising drug for treatment of AD or other neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Toxic Potential of Synthesized Graphene Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite in the Third Instar Larvae of Transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZBg9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the graphene zinc oxide nanocomposite (GZNC was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for its toxic potential on third instar larvae of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster (hsp70-lacZBg9. The synthesized GZNC was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The GZNC in 0.1% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO was sonicated for 10 minutes and the final concentrations 0.033, 0.099, 0.199, and 3.996 μg/μL of diet were established. The third instar larvae were allowed to feed on it separately for 24 and 48 hr. The hsp70 expression was measured by o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside assay, tissue damage was measured by trypan blue exclusion test, and β-galactosidase activity was monitored by in situ histochemical β-galactosidase staining. Oxidative stress was monitored by performing lipid peroxidation assay and total protein estimation. Ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining was performed on midgut cells for apoptotic index and the comet assay was performed for the DNA damage. The results of the present study showed that the exposure of 0.199 and 3.996 μg/μL of GZNC was toxic for both 24 hr and 48 hr of exposure. The doses of 0.033 μg/μL and 0.099 of GZNC showed no toxic effects on its exposure to the third instar larvae for 24 hr as well as 48 hr of duration.

  9. App Inventor

    CERN Document Server

    Wolber, David; Spertus, Ellen; Looney, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Yes, you can create your own apps for Android phones-and it's easy to do. This extraordinary book introduces App Inventor for Android, a powerful visual tool that lets anyone build apps for Android-based devices. Learn the basics of App Inventor with step-by-step instructions for more than a dozen fun projects, such as creating location-aware apps, data storage, and apps that include decision-making logic. The second half of the book features an Inventor's manual to help you understand the fundamentals of app building and computer science. App Inventor makes an excellent textbook for beginne

  10. Huannao Yicong Formula(还脑益聪方) Regulates γ-Secretase Activity through APH-1 and PEN-2 Gene Ragulation Pathways in Hippocampus of APP/PS1 Double Transgenic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yong; LIU Jian-gang; WEI Yun; LIU Mei-xia; WANG Qi; LIANG Lin; YANG Hui-min; LI Hao

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of Huannao Yicong Formula(还脑益聪方, HYF) on learning and memory and it's regulating effect on γ,-secretase related anterior pharynx defective 1 (APH-1),presenilin enhancer-2 (PEN-2) signaling pathway,so as to discuss and further clarify the mechanism of HYF on Alzheimer's disease.Methods:Sixty APP/PS1 transgenic mice,randomly allocated into 4 groups,the model group,the donepezil group (0.65 mg/kg),HYF low-dose group (HYF-L,5.46 g/kg) and HYF high-dose group (HYF-H,10.92 g/kg),15 for each group.Another 15 C57BL/6J mice with the same age and same genetic background were allocated into the control group,proper dosage of drugs or distilled water were given by intragastric administration once daily for 12 weeks.After 12 weeks of administration,the learning and memory abilities of mice in each group was evaluated by the morris water maze test,amyloid precursor protein (APP),A β1-40 and A β1-42 levels in hippocampus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,γ-secretase was detected by dual luciferase assaying,the levels of APH-1a,hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1 α),cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and PEN-2 and their mRNA expression was measured by Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction.Resuits:HYF can ameliorate learning and memory deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice by decreasing the escape latency,improving the number of platform crossing and swimming speed (P<0.01,P<0.05).HYF can decrease the levels of APP,A β1-40,A β1-42 and the activity of γ-secretase in hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease model mice.HYF can down-regulate the levels of CREB and PEN-2 and the expression of their mRNA.Conclusion:HYF can improve the leaming and memory ability by inhibiting the activity of γ-secretase through the CREB/PEN-2 signaling pathway,and this may be one of the therapeutic mechanisms of HYF in Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Transplantation of Human Menstrual Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviates Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Pathology in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjia Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular β-amyloid (Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs are the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have shown therapeutic efficacy in many neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Human menstrual blood-derived stem cells (MenSCs are a novel source of MSCs advantageous for their higher proliferation rate and because they are easy to obtain without ethical concerns. Although MenSCs have exhibited therapeutic efficacy in some diseases, their effects on AD remain elusive. In the present study, we showed that intracerebral transplantation of MenSCs dramatically improved the spatial learning and memory of APP/PS1 mice. In addition, MenSCs significantly ameliorated amyloid plaques and reduced tau hyperphosphorylation in APP/PS1 mice. Remarkably, we also found that intracerebral transplantation of MenSCs markedly increased several Aβ degrading enzymes and modulated a panel of proinflammatory cytokines associated with an altered microglial phenotype, suggesting an Aβ degrading and anti-inflammatory impact of MenSCs in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that MenSCs are a promising therapeutic candidate for AD.

  12. Neuron and neuroblast numbers and cytogenesis in the dentate gyrus of aged APP(swe)/PS1(dE9) transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Louise Orum; Sivasaravanaparan, Mithula; Severino, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Altered neurogenesis may influence hippocampal functions such as learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance neurogenesis and have been reported to reduce cerebral amyloidosis in both humans and transgenic mice. We have used stereology to assess the...... working memory, independent of changes in total granular neurons. Furthermore, while long-term paroxetine treatment may be able to reduce hippocampal amyloidosis, it appears to have no effect on total number of granular neurons or spatial working memory....... the longitudinal changes in the number of doublecortin-expressing neuroblasts and number of granular neurons in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of long-term paroxetine treatment on the number of neuroblasts and granular neurons, hippocampal amyloidosis......Altered neurogenesis may influence hippocampal functions such as learning and memory in Alzheimer's disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors enhance neurogenesis and have been reported to reduce cerebral amyloidosis in both humans and transgenic mice. We have used stereology to assess...

  13. In vivo quantitative whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging analysis of APP/PS1 transgenic mice using voxel-based and atlas-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Mu-Wei; Oishi, Kenichi; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Lei, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been applied to characterize the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a mouse model, although little is known about whether these features are structure specific. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) and atlas-based analysis (ABA) are good complementary tools for whole-brain DTI analysis. The purpose of this study was to identify the spatial localization of disease-related pathology in an AD mouse model. VBA and ABA quantification were used for the whole-brain DTI analysis of nine APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (WT) controls. Multiple scalar measurements, including fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR), were investigated to capture the various types of pathology. The accuracy of the image transformation applied for VBA and ABA was evaluated by comparing manual and atlas-based structure delineation using kappa statistics. Following the MR examination, the brains of the animals were analyzed for microscopy. Extensive anatomical alterations were identified in APP/PS1 mice, in both the gray matter areas (neocortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus, claustrum, amygdala, and piriform cortex) and the white matter areas (corpus callosum/external capsule, cingulum, septum, internal capsule, fimbria, and optic tract), evidenced by an increase in FA or DA, or both, compared to WT mice (p 0.05). The histopathological changes in the gray matter areas were confirmed by microscopy studies. DTI did, however, demonstrate significant changes in white matter areas, where the difference was not apparent by qualitative observation of a single-slice histological specimen. This study demonstrated the structure-specific nature of pathological changes in APP/PS1 mouse, and also showed the feasibility of applying whole-brain analysis methods to the investigation of an AD mouse model. (orig.)

  14. In vivo quantitative whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging analysis of APP/PS1 transgenic mice using voxel-based and atlas-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, Mu-Wei; Oishi, Kenichi [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Zhu, Wen-Zhen [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Lei, Hao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China)

    2013-08-15

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been applied to characterize the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a mouse model, although little is known about whether these features are structure specific. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) and atlas-based analysis (ABA) are good complementary tools for whole-brain DTI analysis. The purpose of this study was to identify the spatial localization of disease-related pathology in an AD mouse model. VBA and ABA quantification were used for the whole-brain DTI analysis of nine APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (WT) controls. Multiple scalar measurements, including fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR), were investigated to capture the various types of pathology. The accuracy of the image transformation applied for VBA and ABA was evaluated by comparing manual and atlas-based structure delineation using kappa statistics. Following the MR examination, the brains of the animals were analyzed for microscopy. Extensive anatomical alterations were identified in APP/PS1 mice, in both the gray matter areas (neocortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus, claustrum, amygdala, and piriform cortex) and the white matter areas (corpus callosum/external capsule, cingulum, septum, internal capsule, fimbria, and optic tract), evidenced by an increase in FA or DA, or both, compared to WT mice (p < 0.05, corrected). The average kappa value between manual and atlas-based structure delineation was approximately 0.8, and there was no significant difference between APP/PS1 and WT mice (p > 0.05). The histopathological changes in the gray matter areas were confirmed by microscopy studies. DTI did, however, demonstrate significant changes in white matter areas, where the difference was not apparent by qualitative observation of a single-slice histological specimen. This study demonstrated the structure-specific nature of pathological changes in APP/PS1 mouse, and also showed the

  15. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer’s Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1 transgenic (Tg mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr. Morris water maze (MWM was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD. By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD. Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer’s cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.

  16. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Changes of Glucose Metabolic Disorder, Learning, and Memory Dysfunction in Early Alzheimer's Disease Assessed in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice Using 18F-FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Yuan; Men, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hua; Lei, Jian-Feng; Zuo, Fu-Xing; Wang, Zhan-Jing; Zhu, Zhao-Hui; Bao, Xin-Jie; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2016-10-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia worldwide, associated with cognitive deficits and brain glucose metabolic alteration. However, the associations of glucose metabolic changes with cognitive dysfunction are less detailed. Here, we examined the brains of APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic (Tg) mice aged 2, 3.5, 5 and 8 months using 18 F-labed fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) microPET to assess age- and brain region-specific changes of glucose metabolism. FDG uptake was calculated as a relative standardized uptake value (SUVr). Morris water maze (MWM) was used to evaluate learning and memory dysfunction. We showed a glucose utilization increase in multiple brain regions of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but not at 5 and 8 months. Comparisons of SUVrs within brains showed higher glucose utilization than controls in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of Tg mice at 2 and 3.5 months but in the thalamus and striatum at 3.5, 5 and 8 months. By comparing SUVrs in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, Tg mice were distinguished from controls at 2 and 3.5 months. In MWM, Tg mice aged 2 months shared a similar performance to the controls (prodromal-AD). By contrast, Tg mice failed training tests at 3.5 months but failed all MWM tests at 5 and 8 months, suggestive of partial or complete cognitive deficits (symptomatic-AD). Correlation analyses showed that hippocampal SUVrs were significantly correlated with MWM parameters in the symptomatic-AD stage. These data suggest that glucose metabolic disorder occurs before onset of AD signs in APP/PS1 mice with the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus affected first, and that regional FDG uptake increase can be an early biomarker for AD. Furthermore, hippocampal FDG uptake is a possible indicator for progression of Alzheimer's cognition after cognitive decline, at least in animals.

  17. Characterization of Drosophila fruitless-gal4 transgenes reveals expression in male-specific fruitless neurons and innervation of male reproductive structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2004-01-01

    The fruitless (fru) gene acts in the central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila melanogaster to establish male sexual behavior. Genetic dissection of the locus has shown that one of the fru gene's promoter, P1, controls the spatial and temporal expression of male-specific FruM proteins critical to

  18. Wnt signaling loss accelerates the appearance of neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease in J20-APP transgenic and wild-type mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Rojas, Cheril; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau protein, synaptic dysfunction, and spatial memory impairment. The Wnt signaling pathway has several key functions in the adult brain and has been associated with AD, mainly as a neuroprotective factor against Aβ toxicity and tau phosphorylation. However, dysfunction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling might also play a role in the onset and development of the disease. J20 APPswInd transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD was treated i.p. with various Wnt signaling inhibitors for 10 weeks during pre-symptomatic stages. Then, cognitive, biochemical and histochemical analyses were performed. Wnt signaling inhibitors induced severe changes in the hippocampus, including alterations in Wnt pathway components and loss of Wnt signaling function, severe cognitive deficits, increased tau phosphorylation and Aβ 1-42 peptide levels, decreased Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio and Aβ 1-42 concentration in the cerebral spinal fluid, and high levels of soluble Aβ species and synaptotoxic oligomers in the hippocampus, together with changes in the amount and size of senile plaques. More important, we also observed severe alterations in treated wild-type (WT) mice, including behavioral impairment, tau phosphorylation, increased Aβ 1-42 in the hippocampus, decreased Aβ 1-42 in the cerebral spinal fluid, and hippocampal dysfunction. Wnt inhibition accelerated the development of the pathology in a Tg AD mouse model and contributed to the development of Alzheimer's-like changes in WT mice. These results indicate that Wnt signaling plays important roles in the structure and function of the adult hippocampus and suggest that inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway is an important factor in the pathogenesis of AD. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 356. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Alterations in endocytic protein expression with increasing age in the transgenic APP695 V717I London mouse model of amyloid pathology: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rhian S; Alsaqati, Mouhamed; Bice, Justin S; Hvoslef-Eide, Martha; Good, Mark A; Kidd, Emma J

    2017-10-18

    A major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing age, but the reason behind this association has not been identified. It is thought that the changes in endocytosis seen in AD patients are causal for this condition. Thus, we hypothesized that the increased risk of developing AD associated with ageing may be because of changes in endocytosis. We investigated using Western blotting whether the expression of endocytic proteins involved in clathrin-mediated and clathrin-independent endocytosis are altered by increasing age in a mouse model of amyloid pathology. We used mice transgenic for human amyloid precursor protein containing the V717I London mutation. We compared the London mutation mice with age-matched wild-type (WT) controls at three ages, 3, 9 and 18 months, representing different stages in the development of pathology in this model. Having verified that the London mutation mice overexpressed amyloid precursor protein and β-amyloid, we found that the expression of the smallest isoform of PICALM, a key protein involved in the regulation of clathrin-coated pit formation, was significantly increased in WT mice, but decreased in the London mutation mice with age. PICALM levels in WT 18-month mice and clathrin levels in WT 9-month mice were significantly higher than those in the London mutation mice of the same ages. The expression of caveolin-1, involved in clathrin-independent endocytosis, was significantly increased with age in all mice. Our results suggest that endocytic processes could be altered by the ageing process and such changes could partly explain the association between ageing and AD.

  20. The Cyanthin Diterpenoid and Sesterterpene Constituents of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorate Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathologies in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Chin-Chu; Tsay, Huey-Jen; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping

    2018-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus was used in traditional Chinese medicine for physiologically beneficial medicines. Recently, it has become a candidate in causing positive brain health-related activities. We previously reported that Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-related pathologies. To reveal the role of the cyanthin diterpenoid and sesterterpene constituents on this effects, erinacine A and S were isolated and their effects on attenuating AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were investigated. A 30 day short-term administration of erinacine A and S were performed to explore the effect of each erinacine on AD-related pathology including amyloid β production and degradation, plaque formation, plaque growth, glial activation and neurogenesis deterioration. Our results indicated the benefit effects of both erinacine A and S in cerebrum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, including: (1) attenuating cerebral plaque loading by inhibiting plaque growth; (2) diminishing the activation of glial cells; (3) raising the level of insulin degrading enzyme; and (4) promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, erinacine A reduced the level of insoluble amyloid β and C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein which was not mediated by erinacine S. We further performed a long term administration of erinacine A and found that erinacine A recovered the impairment in the tasks including burrowing, nesting, and Morris water maze. Our data pointed out that although both erinacine A and S reduce AD pathology via reducing amyloid deposition and promoting neurogenesis, erinacine A can also inhibit amyloid β production and is worth to be further developed for AD therapeutic use. PMID:29463001

  1. The Cyanthin Diterpenoid and Sesterterpene Constituents of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorate Alzheimer's Disease-Related Pathologies in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Tsai-Teng; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Chin-Chu; Tsay, Huey-Jen; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Shen, Chien-Chang; Shiao, Young-Ji

    2018-02-17

    Hericium erinaceus was used in traditional Chinese medicine for physiologically beneficial medicines. Recently, it has become a candidate in causing positive brain health-related activities. We previously reported that Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathologies. To reveal the role of the cyanthin diterpenoid and sesterterpene constituents on this effects, erinacine A and S were isolated and their effects on attenuating AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were investigated. A 30 day short-term administration of erinacine A and S were performed to explore the effect of each erinacine on AD-related pathology including amyloid β production and degradation, plaque formation, plaque growth, glial activation and neurogenesis deterioration. Our results indicated the benefit effects of both erinacine A and S in cerebrum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, including: (1) attenuating cerebral plaque loading by inhibiting plaque growth; (2) diminishing the activation of glial cells; (3) raising the level of insulin degrading enzyme; and (4) promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, erinacine A reduced the level of insoluble amyloid β and C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein which was not mediated by erinacine S. We further performed a long term administration of erinacine A and found that erinacine A recovered the impairment in the tasks including burrowing, nesting, and Morris water maze. Our data pointed out that although both erinacine A and S reduce AD pathology via reducing amyloid deposition and promoting neurogenesis, erinacine A can also inhibit amyloid β production and is worth to be further developed for AD therapeutic use.

  2. The Cyanthin Diterpenoid and Sesterterpene Constituents of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium Ameliorate Alzheimer’s Disease-Related Pathologies in APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Teng Tzeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus was used in traditional Chinese medicine for physiologically beneficial medicines. Recently, it has become a candidate in causing positive brain health-related activities. We previously reported that Hericium erinaceus mycelium ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease (AD-related pathologies. To reveal the role of the cyanthin diterpenoid and sesterterpene constituents on this effects, erinacine A and S were isolated and their effects on attenuating AD-related pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice were investigated. A 30 day short-term administration of erinacine A and S were performed to explore the effect of each erinacine on AD-related pathology including amyloid β production and degradation, plaque formation, plaque growth, glial activation and neurogenesis deterioration. Our results indicated the benefit effects of both erinacine A and S in cerebrum of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, including: (1 attenuating cerebral plaque loading by inhibiting plaque growth; (2 diminishing the activation of glial cells; (3 raising the level of insulin degrading enzyme; and (4 promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, erinacine A reduced the level of insoluble amyloid β and C-terminal fragment of amyloid precursor protein which was not mediated by erinacine S. We further performed a long term administration of erinacine A and found that erinacine A recovered the impairment in the tasks including burrowing, nesting, and Morris water maze. Our data pointed out that although both erinacine A and S reduce AD pathology via reducing amyloid deposition and promoting neurogenesis, erinacine A can also inhibit amyloid β production and is worth to be further developed for AD therapeutic use.

  3. Photo Apps -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Images of various facilities used as a tool to eliminate travel time and for immediate access to concerned areas. App thumbnails images 4 per row and allows the user...

  4. 1H-MR spectroscopy in evaluating the effect of neural stem cell transplantation on Alzheimer's disease in an APP-PS1 transgenic mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuangqing; Cai Qing; Shen Yuying; Li Minghua; Zhang Wei; Wang Peijun; Zang Fengchao; Teng Gaojun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of 1 H-MRS on the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with neural stem cells (NSCs) transplantation in an APP-PS1 double transgenic (tg) AD mouse model. Methods: NSCs from C57BL/6 mice were cultured and amplified.APP-PS1 tg mice (n =30) aged 12 months were used as the study group, and mild-type mice (n=15) were used as the control group. Animals in the study group were randomized into two subgroups, the AD mice in one subgroup received NSCs transplantation (NSCs group) and in another subgroup received phosphate buffer saline (PBS, PBS group)in bilateral hippocampal CA1. Animals in the control group were not treated. Using a 7.0 T high-field strength MR imager, 1 H-MRS was performed before and 6 weeks after transplantation to measure the area under the peak of n-acetyl aspartate (NAA),glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) in the hippocampal area, NAA/Cr, Glu/Cr, mI/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio were calculated and compared with histopathological results (including Nissl's staining and electron microscope examination). Comparisons among NSCs, PBS and control groups were conducted by one-way ANOVA. Results: NSCs from C57BL/6 mice were cultured successfully. Before transplantation,the mean NAA/Cr, Glu/Cr and mI/Cr in NSCs, PBS and control groups were 0.89 ± 0.05, 0.88 ± 0.04 and 1.15 ± 0.05, 0.40 ± 0.03, 0.39 ± 0.03 and 0.45 ± 0.05, 0.67 ± 0.05, 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.52 ± 0.04, respectively, and differences were statistically significant (F =148.918,7.529,59.468,P<0.01). There were no significant differences in NAA/Cr,mI/Cr and Glu/Cr ratios between NSCs and PBS groups before transplantation (t=0.147, 0.096, 0.207, P>0.05), but the differences were significant compared with the control group (t=0.255, 0.467, 0.171 and t=0.269, 0.527, 0.151, P<0.05). Six weeks after transplantation,the mean NAA/Cr, Glu/Cr and mI/Cr in three groups were 1.13 ±0.07, 0.86 ±0.05 and 1.14 ±0.05, 0.45 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0

  5. Hippocampal network oscillations in APP/APLP2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Zhang

    Full Text Available The physiological function of amyloid precursor protein (APP and its two homologues APP-like protein 1 (APLP1 and 2 (APLP2 is largely unknown. Previous work suggests that lack of APP or APLP2 impairs synaptic plasticity and spatial learning. There is, however, almost no data on the role of APP or APLP at the network level which forms a critical interface between cellular functions and behavior. We have therefore investigated memory-related synaptic and network functions in hippocampal slices from three lines of transgenic mice: APPsα-KI (mice expressing extracellular fragment of APP, corresponding to the secreted APPsα ectodomain, APLP2-KO, and combined APPsα-KI/APLP2-KO (APPsα-DM for "double mutants". We analyzed two prominent patterns of network activity, gamma oscillations and sharp-wave ripple complexes (SPW-R. Both patterns were generally preserved in all strains. We find, however, a significantly reduced frequency of gamma oscillations in CA3 of APLP2-KO mice in comparison to APPsα-KI and WT mice. Network activity, basic synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity were unaltered in the combined mutants (APPsα-DM which showed, however, reduced long-term potentiation (LTP. Together, our data indicate that APLP2 and the intracellular domain of APP are not essential for coherent activity patterns in the hippocampus, but have subtle effects on synaptic plasticity and fine-tuning of network oscillations.

  6. Apps Developed by Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Sophia; Yuan, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    In the days of the digital Wild West, developers from all backgrounds have joined in the gold rush trying to profit from the almost unbridled spending of well-to-do parents on educational products. In 2016, the Apple App Store had over 80,000 educational apps. The proliferation of educational apps has happened at a furious pace and more apps are…

  7. Smartphone apps for snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, M; Robertson, M; Abdullatif, J; Certal, V; Kram, Y A; Ruoff, C M; Brietzke, S E; Capasso, R

    2015-10-01

    To identify and systematically evaluate user-friendly smartphone snoring apps. The Apple iTunes app store was searched for snoring apps that allow recording and playback. Snoring apps were downloaded, evaluated and rated independently by four authors. Two patients underwent polysomnography, and the data were compared with simultaneous snoring app recordings, and one patient used the snoring app at home. Of 126 snoring apps, 13 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The most critical app feature was the ability to graphically display the snoring events. The Quit Snoring app received the highest overall rating. When this app's recordings were compared with in-laboratory polysomnography data, app snoring sensitivities ranged from 64 to 96 per cent, and snoring positive predictive values ranged from 93 to 96 per cent. A chronic snorer used the app nightly for one month and tracked medical interventions. Snoring decreased from 200 to 10 snores per hour, and bed partner snoring complaint scores decreased from 9 to 2 (on a 0-10 scale). Select smartphone apps are user-friendly for recording and playing back snoring sounds. Preliminary comparison of more than 1500 individual snores demonstrates the potential clinical utility of such apps; however, further validation testing is recommended.

  8. Best Android Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Hendrickson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    You can choose from thousands of apps to make your Android device do just about anything you can think of -- and probably a few things you'd never imagine. There are so many Android apps available, in fact, that it's been difficult to find the best of the bunch -- until now. Best Android Apps leads you beyond the titles in Android Market's "Top Paid" and "Top Free" bins to showcase apps that will truly delight, empower, and entertain you. The authors have tested and handpicked more than 200 apps and games, each listed with a description and details highlighting the app's valuable tips and sp

  9. Active immunization with the peptide epitope vaccine Aβ3-10-KLH induces a Th2-polarized anti-Aβ antibody response and decreases amyloid plaques in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Meng, Yuan; Zhang, Hui-Yi; Yin, Wen-Chao; Yan, Yi; Cao, Yun-Peng

    2016-11-10

    Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is effective in preventing Aβ deposition, facilitating plaque clearance, and improving cognitive functions in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Developing a safe and effective AD vaccine requires a delicate balance between inducing adequate humoral immune responses and avoiding T cell-mediated autoimmune responses. In this study, we designed 2 peptide epitope vaccines, Aβ3-10-KLH and 5Aβ3-10, prepared respectively by coupling Aβ3-10 to the immunogenic carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or by joining 5 Aβ3-10 epitopes linearly in tandem. Young APP/PS1 mice were immunized subcutaneously with Aβ3-10-KLH or 5Aβ3-10 mixed with Freund's adjuvant, and the immunopotencies of these Aβ3-10 peptide vaccines were tested. Aβ3-10-KLH elicited a robust Th2-polarized anti-Aβ antibody response and inhibited Aβ deposition in APP/PS1 mice. However, 5Aβ3-10 did not induce an effective humoral immune response. These results indicated that Aβ3-10-KLH may be a safe and efficient vaccine for AD and that conjugating the antigen to a carrier protein may be more effective than linking multiple peptide antigens in tandem in applications for antibody production and vaccine preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Google Apps zijn leuk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hollander, Franciscus

    Het bericht dat de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen overgaat op de mailvoorziening en agenda van Google Apps for Education bracht een golf van publiciteit teweeg. Mediaberichten naar aanleiding van de overgang naar Google Apps.

  11. Google App Inventor

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    This book is written in the Beginner's Guide format that takes the reader through a series of steps to build exciting apps using Google's App Inventor. This book is perfect for people with little or no experience, not just Android developers. No matter your level of experience, you will find plenty of information that you can use to create powerful apps, apps that can be published on Android Market and other places.

  12. Android apps security

    CERN Document Server

    Gunasekera, Sheran

    2012-01-01

    Android Apps Security provides guiding principles for how to best design and develop Android apps with security in mind. It explores concepts that can be used to secure apps and how developers can use and incorporate these security features into their apps. This book will provide developers with the information they need to design useful, high-performing, and secure apps that expose end-users to as little risk as possible.  Overview of Android OS versions, features, architecture and security.  Detailed examination of areas where attacks on applications can take place and what controls should b

  13. Design for children's apps

    OpenAIRE

    MORANTE BONET, MIRIAM; Costa Ferrer, María; Rodríguez Calatayud, María Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Are children under 2 years old exposed to apps? Which ones? How often? What kind of apps would be best suited for small children based on their physical and cognitive development, the evolution of their play patterns and their ability to interact with mobile devices? How to design apps as appropriate as possible for children under 2 years old? These are some of the main questions that are answered through the research presented in this publication. An investigation that demonstra...

  14. Programming Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, Dan

    2010-01-01

    As one of today's cloud computing services, Google App Engine does more than provide access to a large system of servers. It also offers you a simple model for building applications that scale automatically to accommodate millions of users. With Programming Google App Engine, you'll get expert practical guidance that will help you make the best use of this powerful platform. Google engineer Dan Sanderson shows you how to design your applications for scalability, including ways to perform common development tasks using App Engine's APIs and scalable services. You'll learn about App Engine's a

  15. Transgenic Epigenetics: Using Transgenic Organisms to Examine Epigenetic Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori A. McEachern

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-model organisms are generally more difficult and/or time consuming to work with than model organisms. In addition, epigenetic analysis of model organisms is facilitated by well-established protocols, and commercially-available reagents and kits that may not be available for, or previously tested on, non-model organisms. Given the evolutionary conservation and widespread nature of many epigenetic mechanisms, a powerful method to analyze epigenetic phenomena from non-model organisms would be to use transgenic model organisms containing an epigenetic region of interest from the non-model. Interestingly, while transgenic Drosophila and mice have provided significant insight into the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary conservation of the epigenetic processes that target epigenetic control regions in other model organisms, this method has so far been under-exploited for non-model organism epigenetic analysis. This paper details several experiments that have examined the epigenetic processes of genomic imprinting and paramutation, by transferring an epigenetic control region from one model organism to another. These cross-species experiments demonstrate that valuable insight into both the molecular mechanisms and evolutionary conservation of epigenetic processes may be obtained via transgenic experiments, which can then be used to guide further investigations and experiments in the species of interest.

  16. Splinkerette PCR for mapping transposable elements in Drosophila.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J Potter; Liqun Luo

    2010-01-01

    Transposable elements (such as the P-element and piggyBac) have been used to introduce thousands of transgenic constructs into the Drosophila genome. These transgenic constructs serve many roles, from assaying gene/cell function, to controlling chromosome arm rearrangement. Knowing the precise genomic insertion site for the transposable element is often desired. This enables identification of genomic enhancer regions trapped by an enhancer trap, identification of the gene mutated by a transpo...

  17. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  18. Sencha Architect app development

    CERN Document Server

    Groner, Loiane

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach for using Sencha Architect to develop applications in Ext JS and Sencha Touch.Sencha Architect App Development is for Ext JS and Sencha Touch developers that are looking to improve their productivity by using Sencha Architect for app development. Basic knowledge of Ext JS and Sencha Touch is required.

  19. Mobile Apps for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June L.

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing mobile environment, library and reading-related activities often take place on a phone or tablet device. Not only does this mean that library Web sites must keep mobile navigability in mind, but also develop and utilize apps that allow patrons to interact with information and with libraries. While apps do not serve every purpose,…

  20. Governance mechanisms for healthcare apps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kyng, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of the `app store' concept has challenged the way software is distributed and marketed: developers have easier access to customers, while customers have easy access to innovative applications. Apps today are increasingly focusing on more "mission-critical" areas like healthcare...... with the Apple AppStore counting more than 40,000 apps under the category "health & fitness". This rapid development of healthcare apps increases the necessity of governance as, currently, healthcare apps are not thoroughly governed. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Commission only have...... policies for apps that are medical devices.In this paper, we approach the problem of how to govern healthcare and medical apps by addressing the risks the use of these apps pose, while at the same time inviting for development of new apps. To do so we (i) analyze four cases of healthcare app governance...

  1. Health Apps and How to Market Them

    OpenAIRE

    Hillenbrand, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    In future health apps may become as popular as mobile games and retail shopping apps. Some consumers even think that health app usage is more valuable than making or receiving calls. This multibillion industry of mobile software applications and especially health apps is relatively new. The main research topic was how to market health apps globally. Health apps like fitness, weight loss and wellness apps are new trend in apps business. Healthcare apps are divided into health- and medical apps...

  2. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Electrical stimulation is currently the gold standard for cardiac pacing. However, it is invasive and nonspecific for cardiac tissues. We recently developed a noninvasive cardiac pacing technique using optogenetic tools, which are widely used in neuroscience. Optogenetic pacing of the heart provides high spatial and temporal precisions, is specific for cardiac tissues, avoids artifacts associated with electrical stimulation, and therefore promises to be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research. We demonstrated optogenetic control of heart rhythm in a well-established model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. We developed transgenic flies expressing a light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), specifically in their hearts and demonstrated successful optogenetic pacing of ChR2-expressing Drosophila at different developmental stages, including the larva, pupa, and adult stages. A high-speed and ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy imaging system that is capable of providing images at a rate of 130 frames/s with axial and transverse resolutions of 1.5 and 3.9 μm, respectively, was used to noninvasively monitor Drosophila cardiac function and its response to pacing stimulation. The development of a noninvasive integrated optical pacing and imaging system provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology. PMID:26601299

  3. Using Google App Engine

    CERN Document Server

    Severance, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Build exciting, scalable web applications quickly and confidently using Google App Engine and this book, even if you have little or no experience in programming or web development. App Engine is perhaps the most appealing web technology to appear in the last year, providing an easy-to-use application framework with basic web tools. While Google's own tutorial assumes significant experience, Using Google App Engine will help anyone get started with this platform. By the end of this book, you'll know how to build complete, interactive applications and deploy them to the cloud using the same s

  4. The Cytoscape app article collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pico, Alexander R.; Bader, Gary D.; Demchak, Barry; Guitart Pla, Oriol; Hull, Timothy; Longabaugh, William; Lopes, Christian; Lotia, Samad; Molenaar, Piet; Montojo, Jason; Morris, John H.; Ono, Keiichiro; Schwikowski, Benno; Welker, David; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    As a network visualization and analysis platform, Cytoscape relies on apps to provide domain-specific features and functions. There are many resources available to support Cytoscape app development and distribution, including the Cytoscape App Store and an online "cookbook" for app developers. This

  5. The World of Orthodontic apps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of the portable electronic devices such as the smartphones and handheld tablets has increased over the years, and this is true in the health-care industry also. This is because of the development of various patient management softwares. The use of apps to manage, educate, and inform patient is not uncommon among orthodontists nowadays. The aim of this article was to review the various apps available on the Google Play Store and iOS Apple Store for orthodontists and patients. Four smartphones using orthodontically relevant keywords such as orthodontics, orthodontists, and braces were searched and reviewed in detail. Out of the 354 orthodontically relevant apps available in both Android and Apple operating systems, the apps could be categorized as orthodontist-related apps or patient-related apps. Under these categories they could be further classified as practice managements apps, patient education apps, model analysis apps, tooth material calculators, patient reminder apps, etc.

  6. Apps for Mathematics Learning: A Review of "Educational" Apps from the iTunes App Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Kate; Goodwin, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly iPads™ are being used in schools and prior-to-school settings, with a plethora of Apps available for mathematics learning. Despite the growing number of Apps available in the iTunes App Store, there has been limited systematic analysis of the pedagogic design of Apps designed for mathematics learning. This paper describes a content…

  7. Designing apps for success developing consistent app design practices

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, Apple released the iPhone. With this release came tools as revolutionary as the internet was to businesses and individuals back in the mid- and late-nineties: Apps. Much like websites drove (and still drive) business, so too do apps drive sales, efficiencies and communication between people. But also like web design and development, in its early years and iterations, guidelines and best practices for apps are few and far between.Designing Apps for Success provides web/app designers and developers with consistent app design practices that result in timely, appropriate, and efficiently

  8. Pro Android Apps Performance Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Guihot, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    Today's Android apps developers are often running into the need to refine, improve and optimize their apps performances. As more complex apps can be created, it is even more important for developers to deal with this critical issue. Android allows developers to write apps using Java, C or a combination of both with the Android SDK and the Android NDK. Pro Android Apps Performance Optimization reveals how to fine-tune your Android apps, making them more stable and faster. In this book, you'll learn the following: * How to optimize your Java code with the SDK, but also how to write and optimize

  9. Cuisine Ireland 'APP'

    OpenAIRE

    Seberry, Dermot

    2014-01-01

    Description Cuisine Ireland contains 15 samplerecipes from renowned Irish chef and author Dermot Seberry. Taking you to the heart of ancient Ireland, from the most northern beauty of the Mourne & Cooley peninsula along the magnificent east coastline and across to the Boyne Valley, the focus of this app is on the very best the region has to offer food tourists and local chefs. This app was developed as a companion piece to Dermot’s new book “Ireland, A Culinary Journey of the North East”. T...

  10. Diet and Physical Activity Apps: Perceived Effectiveness by App Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Almli, Valerie L; Oostindjer, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet and physical activity apps are two types of health apps that aim to promote healthy eating and energy expenditure through monitoring of dietary intake and physical activity. No clear evidence showing the effectiveness of using these apps to promote healthy eating and physical activity has been previously reported. Objective This study aimed to identify how diet and physical activity (PA) apps affected their users. It also investigated if using apps was associated with changes in diet and PA. Methods First, 3 semi-structured focus group discussions concerning app usability were conducted (15 app users and 8 nonusers; mean age 24.2 years, SD 6.4), including outcome measures such as motivations, experiences, opinions, and adherence. Results from the discussions were used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire, which contained questions about behavior changes, app usage, perceived effectiveness, and opinions of app usability, was answered by 500 Norwegians, with a mean age of 25.8 years (SD 5.1). Results App users found diet and PA apps effective in promoting healthy eating and exercising. These apps affected their actions, health consciousness, and self-education about nutrition and PA; and were also a part of their social lives. Over half of the users perceived that apps were effective in assisting them to eat healthily and to exercise more. Diet apps were more effective when they were frequently used and over a long period of time, compared to infrequent or short-term use (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively). Users who used diet and PA apps, perceived apps as more effective than users who only used one type of app (all Pusers were better at maintaining diet and PA behaviors than nonusers (all P<.05). Young adults found apps fun to use, but sometimes time consuming. They wanted apps to be designed to meet their personal expectations. Conclusions App usage influenced action, consciousness, self-education about nutrition and PA, and social life. It

  11. Neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a short review that introduces recent advances of neuroanatomy and transgenic technologies. The anatomical complexity of the nervous system remains a subject of tremendous fascination among neuroscientists. In order to tackle this extraordinary complexity, powerful transgenic technologies a...

  12. Spatial Navigation in Complex and Radial Mazes in APP23 Animals and Neurotrophin Signaling as a Biological Marker of Early Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Rainer; Huber, Roman; Kuhl, Alexander; Riepe, Matthias W.; Lohmann, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Impairment of hippocampal function precedes frontal and parietal cortex impairment in human Alzheimer's disease(AD). Neurotrophins are critical for behavioral performance and neuronal survival in AD. We used complex and radial mazes to assess spatial orientation and learning in wild-type and B6-Tg(ThylAPP)23Sdz (APP23) animals, a transgenic mouse…

  13. There's an App for that!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Important as training the sales force is, mobile training apps are being used for much more. Visual Eyes Inc., for example, has developed training apps for the U.S. military's combat medical teams that detail specific medical procedures, such as controlling hemorrhaging. Other apps, developed for corporations and government agencies, pass along…

  14. Data Tools and Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My ). Business Dynamics Statistics This tool shows tabulations on establishments, firms, and employment with

  15. CLAS App ML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maher, Bridget; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Orrego, Carola; Drachsler, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    This is a multi-language (ML) update of the CLAS App original design by Bridget Maher from the School of Medicine at University College Cork, Ireland. The current version has an improve counting mechanism and has been translated from English to Spanish, Catalan and German languages within the

  16. Knoflook remt App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, M.F.; Becker, P.M.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Wisselink, H.J.; Stockhofe, N.

    2011-01-01

    De Animal Sciences Group van Wageningen UR heeft in opdracht van biologische varkenshouders onderzocht of het mogelijk is om in plaats van antibiotica, knoflook te gebruiken voor de bestrijding van longontsteking door de bacterie Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Uit de resultaten blijkt dat

  17. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human β-amyloid protein precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human β-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development

  18. Effect of catalpol on senile plaques and spatial learning and memory ability in amyloid-β protein precursor/presenilin 1 double transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋冲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether catalpol affects senile plaque formation and spatial learning and memory ability in the amyloid-βprotein precursor/presenilin 1(APP/PS1)double transgenic mice.Methods

  19. Altered ingestive behavior, weight changes, and intact olfactory sense in an APP overexpression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vloeberghs, Ellen; Van Dam, Debby; Franck, Frieda; Serroyen, Jan; Geert, Molenberghs; Staufenbiel, Matthias; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2008-06-01

    Transgenic APP23 mice were generated to model Alzheimer's disease. The APP23 model develops pathological features, learning deficits, and memory deficits analogous to dementing patients. In this report, transgenic mice exhibited several behavioral disturbances indicating the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Aiming to verify whether the model also develops other behavioral problems, the authors investigated ingestive behavior in APP23 males of 3, 6 and 12 months. In addition, body weights of a naive male group were longitudinally monitored starting at weaning. Olfactory acuity was evaluated in mice of different age groups. Although olfactory functioning of APP23 mice appeared intact, they drank more and took more food pellets compared with wild-type littermates during a 1-week registration period. From the age of 4.5 weeks onward, APP23 males weighed significantly less than their control littermates, whereas this difference became more prominent with increasing age. Our results suggest the presence of a hypermetabolic state in this model. This is the first report, evidencing the presence of changes in eating and drinking behavior in a single transgenic Alzheimer mouse model. (Copyright) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    A non-invasive, contact-less cardiac pacing technology can be a powerful tool in basic cardiac research and in clinics. Currently, electrical pacing is the gold standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling the cardiac function, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its capabilities. Optical pacing of heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Optical coherence tomography has been proved to be an effective technique in non-invasive imaging in vivo with ultrahigh resolution and imaging speed. In the last several years, non-invasive specific optical pacing in animal hearts has been reported in quail, zebrafish, and rabbit models. However, Drosophila Melanogaster, which is a significant model with orthologs of 75% of human disease genes, has rarely been studied concerning their optical pacing in heart. Here, we combined optogenetic control of Drosophila heartbeat with optical coherence microscopy (OCM) technique for the first time. The light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was specifically expressed by transgene as a pacemaker in drosophila heart. By stimulating the pacemaker with 472 nm pulsed laser light at different frequencies, we achieved non-invasive and more specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm, which demonstrates the wide potential of optical pacing for studying cardiac dynamics and development. Imaging capability of our customized OCM system was also involved to observe the pacing effect visually. No tissue damage was found after long exposure to laser pulses, which proved the safety of optogenetic control of Drosophila heart.

  1. Mobile Apps for Educational Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth

    With the growing number of mobile resources, nurse educators and professional development practitioners have the opportunity to harness mobile applications as a tool for their education toolbox. Yet, the overwhelming availability of choices can lead to questions, such as the following: How do we locate apps without spending huge amounts of our valuable time? How do we know which apps to choose? How can we evaluate apps? This article is aimed at addressing these questions.

  2. Reduction of β-amyloid accumulation by reticulon 3 in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Wataru; Oda, Akiko; Motoki, Kazumi; Hattori, Kotaro; Itoh, Masayuki; Yuasa, Shigeki; Konishi, Yoshihiro; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Tamaoka, Akira; Ogino, Koichi

    2013-02-01

    Inhibition of the β-secretase, BACE1, which cleaves amyloid precursor protein (APP) to produce β-amyloid protein (Aβ), is thought to be a feasible therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. Reticulon (RTN) proteins such as RTN3 have been identified as membrane proteins that interact with BACE1 and inhibit its Aβ-generating activity. In this study, we investigated whether RTN3 can regulate Aβ production in vivo, using transgenic (Tg) mice expressing APP with Swedish and London mutations (APP Tg mice) and those expressing RTN3; the latter mice showed ~1.4-fold higher expression levels of RTN3 protein in the cerebral cortex than non-Tg controls. We analyzed the brains of single APP Tg and double APP/RTN3 Tg mice at the age of approximately 15 months. The levels of secreted APP-β, a direct BACE1 cleavage product of APP, in Tris-soluble fraction were considerably reduced in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of APP/RTN3 Tg mice relative to those in APP Tg mice. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that Aβ burden and plaques were significantly (by approximately 50%) decreased in both the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of double Tg mice compared to APP Tg mice. Furthermore, the levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ40 and Aβ42 in these brain regions of APP/RTN3 Tg mice were relatively lower than those in APP Tg mice. These findings indicate that even a small increase in RTN3 expression exerts suppressive effects on amyloidogenic processing of APP and Aβ accumulation through modulation of BACE1 activity in vivo, and suggest that induction of RTN3 might be an effective therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Amazing Android Apps For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Begun, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Find the Android apps that are right for you so you can have fun and get more done!The popularity of Android apps is exploding and this handy guide helps you sort through the thousands of available applications so you can find the ones that are ideal for you. You'll explore a variety of apps in the areas of entertainment, finance, health, food, music, news, weather, photography, reference, dining out, social networking, sports, travel, and more. Author Daniel Begun helps you navigate through this enormous-and potentially overwhelming-array of Android apps.Holds your hand through the oftentimes

  4. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  5. Pro Java ME Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Iliescu, Ovidiu

    2011-01-01

    Pro Java ME Apps gives you, the developer, the know-how required for writing sophisticated Java ME applications and for taking advantage of this huge potential market. Java ME is the largest mobile software platform in the world, supported by over 80% of all phones. You'll cover what Java ME is and how it compares to other mobile software platforms, how to properly design and structure Java ME applications, how to think like an experienced Java ME developer, what common problems and pitfalls you may run into, how to optimize your code, and many other key topics. Unlike other Java ME books out

  6. Mobile apps in cardiology: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Herreros-González, Jesús

    2013-07-24

    Cardiovascular diseases are the deadliest diseases worldwide, with 17.3 million deaths in 2008 alone. Among them, heart-related deaths are of the utmost relevance; a fact easily proven by the 7.25 million deaths caused by ischemic heart disease alone in that year. The latest advances in smartphones and mHealth have been used in the creation of thousands of medical apps related to cardiology, which can help to reduce these mortality rates. The aim of this paper is to study the literature on mobile systems and applications currently available, as well as the existing apps related to cardiology from the leading app stores and to then classify the results to see what is available and what is missing, focusing particularly on commercial apps. Two reviews have been developed. One is a literature review of mobile systems and applications, retrieved from several databases and systems such as Scopus, PubMed, IEEE Xplore, and Web of Knowledge. The other is a review of mobile apps in the leading app stores, Google play for Android and Apple's App Store for iOS. Search queries up to May 2013 located 406 papers and 710 apps related to cardiology and heart disease. The most researched section in the literature associated with cardiology is related to mobile heart (and vital signs) monitoring systems and the methods involved in the classification of heart signs in order to detect abnormal functions. Other systems with a significant number of papers are mobile cardiac rehabilitation systems, blood pressure measurement, and systems for the detection of heart failure. The majority of apps for cardiology are heart monitors and medical calculators. Other categories with a high number of apps are those for ECG education and interpretation, cardiology news and journals, blood pressure tracking, heart rate monitoring using an external device, and CPR instruction. There are very few guides on cardiac rehabilitation and apps for the management of the cardiac condition, and there were no

  7. APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice present reduced neuropathic pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; LePecheur, Marie; Marcol, Wiesław; Olakowska, Edyta; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; London, Jacqueline

    2011-07-15

    There are controversies regarding pain expression in mentally disabled people, including Down syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathic pain-related behavior and peripheral nerve regeneration in mouse model of Down syndrome. Sciatic nerves of double transgenic mice, overexpressing both amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) genes, and FVB/N wild type mice were transected and immediately resutured. Evaluation of autotomy and functional recovery was carried out during 4-week follow-up. We found markedly less severe autotomy in transgenic animals, although the onset of autotomy was significantly delayed in control mice. Interestingly, neuroma formation at the injury site was significantly more prominent in transgenic animals. Sciatic function index outcome was better in transgenic mice than in wild-type group. Histological evaluation revealed no statistically significant differences in the number of GAP-43-positive growth cones and macrophages in the distal stump of the transected nerve between groups. However, in transgenic animals, the regenerating axons were arranged more chaotically. The number of Schwann cells in the distal stump of the transected nerves was significantly lower in transgenic mice. The number of surviving motoneurons was markedly decreased in transgenic group. We measured also the atrophy of denervated muscles and found it decreased in APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice. Taken together, in this model of Down syndrome, we observed increased neuroma formation and decreased autotomy after peripheral nerve injury. Our findings suggest that APP/SOD1 overexpressing mice are less sensitive for neuropathic pain associated with neuroma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mobile Videoconferencing Apps for Telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Wei-Li; Locatis, Craig; Ackerman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The quality and performance of several videoconferencing applications (apps) tested on iOS (Apple, Cupertino, CA) and Android (Google, Mountain View, CA) mobile platforms using Wi-Fi (802.11), third-generation (3G), and fourth-generation (4G) cellular networks are described. The tests were done to determine how well apps perform compared with videoconferencing software installed on computers or with more traditional videoconferencing using dedicated hardware. The rationale for app assessment and the testing methodology are described. Findings are discussed in relation to operating system platform (iOS or Android) for which the apps were designed and the type of network (Wi-Fi, 3G, or 4G) used. The platform, network, and apps interact, and it is impossible to discuss videoconferencing experienced on mobile devices in relation to one of these factors without referencing the others. Apps for mobile devices can vary significantly from other videoconferencing software or hardware. App performance increased over the testing period due to improvements in network infrastructure and how apps manage bandwidth.

  9. Best iPhone Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Biersdorfer, J

    2010-01-01

    With over 250,000 apps to choose from in Apple's App Store, you can make your iPhone or iPod Touch do just about anything you can imagine -- and almost certainly a few things you would never think of. While it's not hard to find apps, it is frustratingly difficult to find the the best ones. That's where this new edition of Best iPhone Apps comes in. New York Times technology columnist J.D. Biersdorfer has stress-tested hundreds of the App Store's mini-programs and hand-picked more than 200 standouts to help you get work done, play games, stay connected with friends, explore a new city, get i

  10. Your Life in Web Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, Giles

    2008-01-01

    What is a web app? It's software that you use right in your web browser. Rather than installing an application on your computer, you visit a web site and sign up as a new user of its software. Instead of storing your files on your own hard disk, the web app stores them for you, online. Is it possible to switch entirely to web apps? To run nothing but a browser for an entire day? In this PDF we'll take you through one day in the life of a web apps-only user and chronicle the pros and cons of living by browser. And if the idea of switching, fully or partially, to web apps sounds appealing to

  11. A Behavior-Based Circuit Model of How Outcome Expectations Organize Learned Behavior in Larval "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Michael; Saumweber, Timo; Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Fischer, Benjamin; von Alpen, Desiree; Pauls, Dennis; Thum, Andreas; Gerber, Bertram

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila larvae combine a numerically simple brain, a correspondingly moderate behavioral complexity, and the availability of a rich toolbox for transgenic manipulation. This makes them attractive as a study case when trying to achieve a circuit-level understanding of behavior organization. From a series of behavioral experiments, we suggest a…

  12. RNA-Interference Components Are Dispensable for Transcriptional Silencing of the Drosophila Bithorax-Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Cernilogar, Filippo M.; Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Lanzuolo, Chiara; Breiling, Achim; Imhof, Axel; Orlando, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    .Conclusions:We conclude that the Dicer-2/Argonaute-2 RNAi pathway, despite its role in pairing sensitive gene silencing of transgenes, does not have a role in PcG dependent silencing of major homeotic gene cluster loci in Drosophila. © 2013 Cernilogar et al.

  13. Selecting "App"ealing and "App"ropriate Book Apps for Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Maria; McGill-Franzen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with a brief rationale for selecting quality digital picture book apps for beginning readers, the authors describe the elements of digital picture books and provide a brief review of the instructional benefits of digital picture book use for beginning readers. They then present a detailed taxonomy for selecting quality picture book apps.…

  14. CRISPR/Cas9 mediates efficient conditional mutagenesis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhaoyu; Wu, Menghua; Wen, Kejia; Ren, Menda; Long, Li; Zhang, Xuedi; Gao, Guanjun

    2014-09-05

    Existing transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) methods greatly facilitate functional genome studies via controlled silencing of targeted mRNA in Drosophila. Although the RNAi approach is extremely powerful, concerns still linger about its low efficiency. Here, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conditional mutagenesis system by combining tissue-specific expression of Cas9 driven by the Gal4/upstream activating site system with various ubiquitously expressed guide RNA transgenes to effectively inactivate gene expression in a temporally and spatially controlled manner. Furthermore, by including multiple guide RNAs in a transgenic vector to target a single gene, we achieved a high degree of gene mutagenesis in specific tissues. The CRISPR/Cas9-mediated conditional mutagenesis system provides a simple and effective tool for gene function analysis, and complements the existing RNAi approach. Copyright © 2014 Xue et al.

  15. A Drosophila Model to Image Phagosome Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Brooks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo.

  16. Android app development for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The updated edition of the bestselling guide to Android app development If you have ambitions to build an Android app, this hands-on guide gives you everything you need to dig into the development process and turn your great idea into a reality! In this new edition of Android App Development For Dummies, you'll find easy-to-follow access to the latest programming techniques that take advantage of the new features of the Android operating system. Plus, two programs are provided: a simple program to get you started and an intermediate program that uses more advanced aspects of the Android plat

  17. Be smart: Download the app!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    What’s the closest snack point to the CLIC test facility? How do you get from your current location to SM18? How do you enter the CERN Open Days photo contest? Finding out is simple: there’s an app for that!   The CERN Open Days app is your personal guide to the Laboratory. Developed by expert volunteers from the IT Department, the app provides comprehensive practical information on CERN transport, shops, snack points and toilet facilities along with detailed location information and event timetables. You can also favourite the sites, activities and lectures you plan to see, and tick them off as you go along. More information here.

  18. in transgenic cucumber

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... College of Horticulture, South China Agriculture University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong ... The pattern of expression vector pBI-PacPAP. ..... Disease scale ... These transgenic T0 plants were self-pollinated and the.

  19. Transgene mus som sygdomsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have proven to be useful tools in understanding both basic biology and the events associated with disease. Recent technical advances in the area of genomic manipulation in combination with the availability of the human and murine genomic sequences now allow the precise...... tailoring of the mouse genome. In this review we describe a few systems in which transgenic animal models have been employed for the purpose of studying the etiology of human diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Feb-17...

  20. Metabolomic Studies in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, James E; Thummel, Carl S; Tennessen, Jason M

    2017-07-01

    Metabolomic analysis provides a powerful new tool for studies of Drosophila physiology. This approach allows investigators to detect thousands of chemical compounds in a single sample, representing the combined contributions of gene expression, enzyme activity, and environmental context. Metabolomics has been used for a wide range of studies in Drosophila , often providing new insights into gene function and metabolic state that could not be obtained using any other approach. In this review, we survey the uses of metabolomic analysis since its entry into the field. We also cover the major methods used for metabolomic studies in Drosophila and highlight new directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. Creating Innovative Student Projects with App Smashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donna

    2014-01-01

    The potential for using various apps to improve student learning is tremendous. Yet, despite the iPad's possibilities, apps are often limited in their functionality. No one has created that magical, one-size-fits-all app that accomplishes all of the tasks that you had in mind. Luckily, there is an answer to this common problem: app smashing.…

  2. Gamification in Stress Management Apps: A Critical App Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, Corinna A; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Background In today’s society, stress is more and more often a cause of disease. This makes stress management an important target of behavior change programs. Gamification has been suggested as one way to support health behavior change. However, it remains unclear to which extend available gamification techniques are integrated in stress management apps, and if their occurrence is linked to the use of elements from behavior change theory. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the use of gamification techniques in stress management apps and the cooccurrence of these techniques with evidence-based stress management methods and behavior change techniques. Methods A total of 62 stress management apps from the Google Play Store were reviewed on their inclusion of 17 gamification techniques, 15 stress management methods, and 26 behavior change techniques. For this purpose, an extended taxonomy of gamification techniques was constructed and applied by 2 trained, independent raters. Results Interrater-reliability was high, with agreement coefficient (AC)=.97. Results show an average of 0.5 gamification techniques for the tested apps and reveal no correlations between the use of gamification techniques and behavior change techniques (r=.17, P=.20), or stress management methods (r=.14, P=.26). Conclusions This leads to the conclusion that designers of stress management apps do not use gamification techniques to influence the user’s behaviors and reactions. Moreover, app designers do not exploit the potential of combining gamification techniques with behavior change theory. PMID:28592397

  3. Python for Google app engine

    CERN Document Server

    Pippi, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Python developer, whether you have experience in web applications development or not, and want to rapidly deploy a scalable backend service or a modern web application on Google App Engine, then this book is for you.

  4. Fabulous award for staffing app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    A safe staffing app giving up-to-date information on the number of nurses on the wards at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust scooped top prize at the inaugural Academy of Fabulous NHS Stuffawards in London last week.

  5. Smartphone App for Voice Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Taste, Smell, Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Smartphone App for Voice Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 ... developed a mobile monitoring device that relies on smartphone technology to gather a week's worth of talking, ...

  6. Instant Citrix XenApp

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a great tool to quickly learn and explore the features offered by XenApp 6.5.Windows system administrators who want a quick lesson on how to install and configure XenApp.

  7. Cooperativity, Specificity, and Evolutionary Stability of Polycomb Targeting in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schuettengruber

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Metazoan genomes are partitioned into modular chromosomal domains containing active or repressive chromatin. In flies, Polycomb group (PcG response elements (PREs recruit PHO and other DNA-binding factors and act as nucleation sites for the formation of Polycomb repressive domains. The sequence specificity of PREs is not well understood. Here, we use comparative epigenomics and transgenic assays to show that Drosophila domain organization and PRE specification are evolutionarily conserved despite significant cis-element divergence within Polycomb domains, whereas cis-element evolution is strongly correlated with transcription factor binding divergence outside of Polycomb domains. Cooperative interactions of PcG complexes and their recruiting factor PHO stabilize PHO recruitment to low-specificity sequences. Consistently, PHO recruitment to sites within Polycomb domains is stabilized by PRC1. These data suggest that cooperative rather than hierarchical interactions among low-affinity sequences, DNA-binding factors, and the Polycomb machinery are giving rise to specific and strongly conserved 3D structures in Drosophila. : Schuettengruber et al. present an extensive comparative epigenomics data set, providing new insights into cis-driven versus buffered evolution of Polycomb recruitment and Polycomb domain specificity. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and transgenic assays, they demonstrate an extremely high conservation of Polycomb repressive domains in five Drosophila species. Using Hi-C and knockout experiments, they challenge the standard hierarchical Polycomb recruitment model and demonstrate that cooperative rather than hierarchical interactions among DNA motifs, transcription factors, and Polycomb group complexes define Polycomb domains.

  8. Mobile app reading speed test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-04-01

    To validate the accuracy and repeatability of a mobile app reading speed test compared with the traditional paper version. Twenty-one subjects wearing their full refractive correction glasses read 14 sentences of decreasing print size between 1.0 and -0.1 logMAR, each consisting of 14 words (Radner reading speed test) at 40 cm with a paper-based chart and twice on iPad charts. Time duration was recorded with a stop watch for the paper chart and on the App itself for the mobile chart allowing critical print size (CPS) and optimal reading speed (ORS) to be derived objectively. The ORS was higher for the mobile app charts (194±29 wpm; 195±25 wpm) compared with the paper chart (166±20 wpm; F=57.000, pmobile app charts (0.17±0.20 logMAR; 0.18±0.17 logMAR) compared with the paper chart (0.25±0.17 logMAR; F=5.406, p=0.009). The mobile app test had a mean difference repeatability of 0.30±22.5 wpm, r=0.917 for ORS, and a CPS of 0.0±0.2 logMAR, r=0.769. Repeatability of the app reading speed test is as good (ORS) or better (CPS) than previous studies on the paper test. While the results are not interchangeable with paper-based charts, mobile app tablet-based tests of reading speed are reliable and rapid to perform, with the potential to capture functional visual ability in research studies and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Gamification in Stress Management Apps: A Critical App Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Alexandra; Christmann, Corinna A; Bleser, Gabriele

    2017-06-07

    In today's society, stress is more and more often a cause of disease. This makes stress management an important target of behavior change programs. Gamification has been suggested as one way to support health behavior change. However, it remains unclear to which extend available gamification techniques are integrated in stress management apps, and if their occurrence is linked to the use of elements from behavior change theory. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of gamification techniques in stress management apps and the cooccurrence of these techniques with evidence-based stress management methods and behavior change techniques. A total of 62 stress management apps from the Google Play Store were reviewed on their inclusion of 17 gamification techniques, 15 stress management methods, and 26 behavior change techniques. For this purpose, an extended taxonomy of gamification techniques was constructed and applied by 2 trained, independent raters. Interrater-reliability was high, with agreement coefficient (AC)=.97. Results show an average of 0.5 gamification techniques for the tested apps and reveal no correlations between the use of gamification techniques and behavior change techniques (r=.17, P=.20), or stress management methods (r=.14, P=.26). This leads to the conclusion that designers of stress management apps do not use gamification techniques to influence the user's behaviors and reactions. Moreover, app designers do not exploit the potential of combining gamification techniques with behavior change theory. ©Alexandra Hoffmann, Corinna A Christmann, Gabriele Bleser. Originally published in JMIR Serious Games (http://games.jmir.org), 07.06.2017.

  10. Mutational Analysis of Drosophila Basigin Function in the Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Michelle; Akkam, Yazan; Curtin, Kathryn D.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila basigin is a cell-surface glycoprotein of the Ig superfamily and a member of a protein family that includes mammalian EMMPRIN/CD147/basigin, neuroplastin, and embigin. Our previous work on Drosophila basigin has shown that it is required for normal photoreceptor cell structure and normal neuron-glia interaction in the fly visual system. Specifically, the photoreceptor neurons of mosaic animals that are mutant in the eye for basigin show altered cell structure with nuclei, mitochondria and rER misplaced and variable axon diameter compared to wild-type. In addition, glia cells in the optic lamina that contact photoreceptor axons are misplaced and show altered structure. All these defects are rescued by expression of either transgenic fly basigin or transgenic mouse basigin in the photoreceptors demonstrating that mouse basigin can functionally replace fly basigin. To determine what regions of the basigin protein are required for each of these functions, we have created mutant basigin transgenes coding for proteins that are altered in conserved residues, introduced these into the fly genome, and tested them for their ability to rescue both photoreceptor cell structure defects and neuron-glia interaction defects of basigin. The results suggest that the highly conserved transmembrane domain and the extracellular domains are crucial for basigin function in the visual system while the short intracellular tail may not play a role in these functions. PMID:19782733

  11. Splinkerette PCR for mapping transposable elements in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Potter

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (such as the P-element and piggyBac have been used to introduce thousands of transgenic constructs into the Drosophila genome. These transgenic constructs serve many roles, from assaying gene/cell function, to controlling chromosome arm rearrangement. Knowing the precise genomic insertion site for the transposable element is often desired. This enables identification of genomic enhancer regions trapped by an enhancer trap, identification of the gene mutated by a transposon insertion, or simplifying recombination experiments. The most commonly used transgene mapping method is inverse PCR (iPCR. Although usually effective, limitations with iPCR hinder its ability to isolate flanking genomic DNA in complex genomic loci, such as those that contain natural transposons. Here we report the adaptation of the splinkerette PCR (spPCR method for the isolation of flanking genomic DNA of any P-element or piggyBac. We report a simple and detailed protocol for spPCR. We use spPCR to 1 map a GAL4 enhancer trap located inside a natural transposon, pinpointing a master regulatory region for olfactory neuron expression in the brain; and 2 map all commonly used centromeric FRT insertion sites. The ease, efficiency, and efficacy of spPCR could make it a favored choice for the mapping of transposable element in Drosophila.

  12. Medication Adherence Apps: Review and Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Imran; Ahmad, Niall Safir; Ali, Shahnaz; Ali, Shair; George, Anju; Saleem Danish, Hiba; Uppal, Encarl; Soo, James; Mobasheri, Mohammad H; King, Dominic; Cox, Benita; Darzi, Ara

    2018-03-16

    Medication adherence is an expensive and damaging problem for patients and health care providers. Patients adhere to only 50% of drugs prescribed for chronic diseases in developed nations. Digital health has paved the way for innovative smartphone solutions to tackle this challenge. However, despite numerous apps available claiming to improve adherence, a thorough review of adherence apps has not been carried out to date. The aims of this study were to (1) review medication adherence apps available in app repositories in terms of their evidence base, medical professional involvement in development, and strategies used to facilitate behavior change and improve adherence and (2) provide a system of classification for these apps. In April 2015, relevant medication adherence apps were identified by searching the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store using a combination of relevant search terms. Data extracted included app store source, app price, documentation of health care professional (HCP) involvement during app development, and evidence base for each respective app. Free apps were downloaded to explore the strategies used to promote medication adherence. Testing involved a standardized medication regimen of three reminders over a 4-hour period. Nonadherence features designed to enhance user experience were also documented. The app repository search identified a total of 5881 apps. Of these, 805 fulfilled the inclusion criteria initially and were tested. Furthermore, 681 apps were further analyzed for data extraction. Of these, 420 apps were free for testing, 58 were inaccessible and 203 required payment. Of the 420 free apps, 57 apps were developed with HCP involvement and an evidence base was identified in only 4 apps. Of the paid apps, 9 apps had HCP involvement, 1 app had a documented evidence base, and 1 app had both. In addition, 18 inaccessible apps were produced with HCP involvement, whereas 2 apps had a documented evidence base. The 420 free apps were

  13. Persistent amyloidosis following suppression of Abeta production in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L Jankowsky

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteases (secretases that cleave amyloid-beta (Abeta peptide from the amyloid precursor protein (APP have been the focus of considerable investigation in the development of treatments for Alzheimer disease. The prediction has been that reducing Abeta production in the brain, even after the onset of clinical symptoms and the development of associated pathology, will facilitate the repair of damaged tissue and removal of amyloid lesions. However, no long-term studies using animal models of amyloid pathology have yet been performed to test this hypothesis.We have generated a transgenic mouse model that genetically mimics the arrest of Abeta production expected from treatment with secretase inhibitors. These mice overexpress mutant APP from a vector that can be regulated by doxycycline. Under normal conditions, high-level expression of APP quickly induces fulminant amyloid pathology. We show that doxycycline administration inhibits transgenic APP expression by greater than 95% and reduces Abeta production to levels found in nontransgenic mice. Suppression of transgenic Abeta synthesis in this model abruptly halts the progression of amyloid pathology. However, formation and disaggregation of amyloid deposits appear to be in disequilibrium as the plaques require far longer to disperse than to assemble. Mice in which APP synthesis was suppressed for as long as 6 mo after the formation of Abeta deposits retain a considerable amyloid load, with little sign of active clearance.This study demonstrates that amyloid lesions in transgenic mice are highly stable structures in vivo that are slow to disaggregate. Our findings suggest that arresting Abeta production in patients with Alzheimer disease should halt the progression of pathology, but that early treatment may be imperative, as it appears that amyloid deposits, once formed, will require additional intervention to clear.

  14. Transgenics in Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Transgenics in Agriculture. D Rex Arunraj B Gajendra Babu. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 83-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0083-0092 ...

  15. Android Apps for Absolute Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Wallace

    2011-01-01

    Anybody can start building simple apps for the Android platform, and this book will show you how! Android Apps for Absolute Beginners takes you through the process of getting your first Android applications up and running using plain English and practical examples. It cuts through the fog of jargon and mystery that surrounds Android application development, and gives you simple, step-by-step instructions to get you started.* Teaches Android application development in language anyone can understand, giving you the best possible start in Android development * Provides simple, step-by-step exampl

  16. [Drosophila melanogaster as a model for studying the function of animal viral proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omelianchuk, L V; Iudina, O S

    2011-07-01

    Studies in which Drosophila melanogaster individuals carrying transgenes of animal viruses were used to analyze the action of animal viral proteins on the cell are reviewed. The data presented suggest that host specificity of viruses is determined by their proteins responsible for the penetration of the virus into the cell, while viral proteins responsible for interactions with the host cell are much less host-specific. Due to this, the model of Drosophila with its developed system of searching for genetic interactions can be used to find intracellular targets for the action of viral proteins of the second group.

  17. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  18. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-08-12

    Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms "cannabis" and "marijuana." Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated "17+" years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated "high maturity" (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational (facts, strain classification), or recreational (games), likely

  19. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  20. mHealthApps: A Repository and Database of Mobile Health Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenlong; Liu, Yin

    2015-03-18

    The market of mobile health (mHealth) apps has rapidly evolved in the past decade. With more than 100,000 mHealth apps currently available, there is no centralized resource that collects information on these health-related apps for researchers in this field to effectively evaluate the strength and weakness of these apps. The objective of this study was to create a centralized mHealth app repository. We expect the analysis of information in this repository to provide insights for future mHealth research developments. We focused on apps from the two most established app stores, the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. We extracted detailed information of each health-related app from these two app stores via our python crawling program, and then stored the information in both a user-friendly array format and a standard JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format. We have developed a centralized resource that provides detailed information of more than 60,000 health-related apps from the Apple App Store and the Google Play Store. Using this information resource, we analyzed thousands of apps systematically and provide an overview of the trends for mHealth apps. This unique database allows the meta-analysis of health-related apps and provides guidance for research designs of future apps in the mHealth field.

  1. Evaluating Apps for Learning and Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Renee D Jonas-Dwyer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of educators and students are adopting mobile devices and using applications (apps. There are often no formal guidelines to assist with evaluating apps. A review of the literature was conducted to determine relevant criteria that could be applied to evaluating apps. Relevant examples are included where appropriate. Evaluation criteria are offered to assist educators and students with determining the suitability of apps.

  2. Smartphone use in neurosurgery? APP-solutely!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Michael; Drazin, Doniel

    2014-01-01

    A number of smartphone medical apps have recently emerged that may be helpful for the neurosurgical patient, practitioner, and trainee. This study aims to review the current neurosurgery-focused apps available for the iPhone, iPad, and Android platforms as of December 2013. Two of the most popular smartphone app stores (Apple Store and Android Google Play Store) were surveyed for neurosurgery-focused apps in December 2013. Search results were categorized based on their description page. Data were collected on price, rating, app release date, target audience, and medical professional involvement in app design. A review of the top apps in each category was performed. The search resulted in 111 unique apps, divided into these 7 categories: 16 (14%) clinical tools, 17 (15%) conference adjunct, 27 (24%) education, 18 (16%) literature, 15 (14%) marketing, 10 (9%) patient information, and 8 (7%) reference. The average cost of paid apps was $23.06 (range: $0.99-89.99). Out of the 111 apps, 71 (64%) were free, 48 (43%) had reviews, and 14 (13%) had more than 10 reviews. Seventy-three (66%) apps showed evidence of medical professional involvement. The number of apps being released every year has been increasing since 2009. There are a number of neurosurgery-themed apps available to all audiences. There was a lack of patient information apps for nonspinal procedures. Most apps did not have enough reviews to evaluate their quality. There was also a lack of oversight to validate the accuracy of medical information provided in these apps.

  3. The best 100 free apps for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Librarian Jim Hahn has carefully culled the over 500,000 available apps down to the 100 that are the absolute best for day-in, day-out library services. The guide covers apps from both Apple and Android devices, including tablets. This guide is intended as an introduction for those with little or no app experience and for those wanting to know more about app uses for information access.

  4. Analyzing Android Browser Apps for file:// Vulnerabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Daoyuan; Chang, Rocky K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Securing browsers in mobile devices is very challenging, because these browser apps usually provide browsing services to other apps in the same device. A malicious app installed in a device can potentially obtain sensitive information through a browser app. In this paper, we identify four types of attacks in Android, collectively known as FileCross, that exploits the vulnerable file:// to obtain users' private files, such as cookies, bookmarks, and browsing histories. We design an automated s...

  5. App Inventor for Android Build Your Own Apps - No Experience Required!

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Create Android mobile apps, no programming required! Even with limited programming experience, you can easily learn to create apps for the Android platform with this complete guide to App Inventor for Android. App Inventor for Android is a visual language that relies on simple programming blocks that users can drag and drop to create apps. This handy book gives you a series of fully worked-out apps, complete with their programming blocks, which you can customize for your own use or use as a starting point for creating the next killer app. And it's all without writing a single line of code. Don

  6. Citrix XenApp performance essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dentella, Luca

    2013-01-01

    A practical hands-on tutorial including multiple examples on application management using Citrix XenApp 6.5.Citrix XenApp Performance Essentials is intended for IT architects and system administrators who work with Citrix XenApp and who need an agile, practical guide to tune and optimize the performance.

  7. Capitalizing on App Development Tools and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Instructional developers and others creating apps must choose from a wide variety of app development tools and technologies. Some app development tools have incorporated visual programming features, which enable some drag and drop coding and contextual programming. While those features help novices begin programming with greater ease, questions…

  8. Ferritin Assembly in Enterocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Rosas-Arellano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ferritins are protein nanocages that accumulate inside their cavity thousands of oxidized iron atoms bound to oxygen and phosphates. Both characteristic types of eukaryotic ferritin subunits are present in secreted ferritins from insects, but here dimers between Ferritin 1 Heavy Chain Homolog (Fer1HCH and Ferritin 2 Light Chain Homolog (Fer2LCH are further stabilized by disulfide-bridge in the 24-subunit complex. We addressed ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo using novel transgenic strains of Drosophila melanogaster. We concentrated on the intestine, where the ferritin induction process can be controlled experimentally by dietary iron manipulation. We showed that the expression pattern of Fer2LCH-Gal4 lines recapitulated iron-dependent endogenous expression of the ferritin subunits and used these lines to drive expression from UAS-mCherry-Fer2LCH transgenes. We found that the Gal4-mediated induction of mCherry-Fer2LCH subunits was too slow to effectively introduce them into newly formed ferritin complexes. Endogenous Fer2LCH and Fer1HCH assembled and stored excess dietary iron, instead. In contrast, when flies were genetically manipulated to co-express Fer2LCH and mCherry-Fer2LCH simultaneously, both subunits were incorporated with Fer1HCH in iron-loaded ferritin complexes. Our study provides fresh evidence that, in insects, ferritin assembly and iron loading in vivo are tightly regulated.

  9. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  10. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense

  11. Cognitive abilities of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice are modulated by social context and circadian rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryk, Anna; Mochol, Gabriela; Filipkowski, Robert K; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Lioudyno, Victoria; Knapska, Ewelina; Gorkiewicz, Tomasz; Balcerzyk, Marcin; Leski, Szymon; Leuven, Fred Van; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Wojcik, Daniel K; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we used a new training paradigm in the intelliCage automatic behavioral assessment system to investigate cognitive functions of the transgenic mice harboring London mutation of the human amyloid precursor protein (APP.V717I). Three groups of animals: 5-, 12- and 18-24-month old were subjected to both Water Maze training and the IntelliCage-based appetitive conditioning. The spatial memory deficit was observed in all three groups of transgenic mice in both behavioral paradigms. However, the APP mice were capable to learn normally when co-housed with the wild-type (WT) littermates, in contrast to clearly impaired learning observed when the transgenic mice were housed alone. Furthermore, in the transgenic mice kept in the Intellicage alone, the cognitive deficit of the young animals was modulated by the circadian rhythm, namely was prominent only during the active phase of the day. The novel approach to study the transgenic mice cognitive abilities presented in this paper offers new insight into cognitive dysfunctions of the Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

  12. Insulators form gene loops by interacting with promoters in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, Maksim; Davydova, Anna; Kyrchanova, Olga; Parshikov, Alexander; Georgiev, Pavel; Chetverina, Darya

    2011-09-01

    Chromatin insulators are regulatory elements involved in the modulation of enhancer-promoter communication. The 1A2 and Wari insulators are located immediately downstream of the Drosophila yellow and white genes, respectively. Using an assay based on the yeast GAL4 activator, we have found that both insulators are able to interact with their target promoters in transgenic lines, forming gene loops. The existence of an insulator-promoter loop is confirmed by the fact that insulator proteins could be detected on the promoter only in the presence of an insulator in the transgene. The upstream promoter regions, which are required for long-distance stimulation by enhancers, are not essential for promoter-insulator interactions. Both insulators support basal activity of the yellow and white promoters in eyes. Thus, the ability of insulators to interact with promoters might play an important role in the regulation of basal gene transcription.

  13. BMAA neurotoxicity in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianchong; Escala, Wilfredo; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon; Bradley, Walter G; Zhai, R Grace

    2009-01-01

    We report the establishment of an in vivo model using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the toxic effects of L-BMAA. We found that dietary intake of BMAA reduced the lifespan as well as the neurological functions of flies. Furthermore, we have developed an HPLC method to reliably detect both free and protein-bound BMAA in fly tissue extracts.

  14. Cancer in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herranz, Héctor; Eichenlaub, Teresa; Cohen, Stephen M

    2016-01-01

    Cancer genomics has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of the genetic and epigenetic changes found in human tumors. Understanding the functional relationships among these elements calls for the use of flexible genetic models. We discuss the use of Drosophila models to study...

  15. Office 2010 Web Apps For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Weverka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Enhance your Microsoft Office 2010 experience with Office 2010 Web Apps!. Office Web Apps complement Office, making it easy to access and edit files from anywhere. It also simplifies collaboration with those who don't have Microsoft Office on their computers. This helpful book shows you the optimum ways you can use Office Web Apps to save time and streamline your work. Veteran For Dummies author Peter Weverka begins with an introduction to Office Web Apps and then goes on to clearly explain how Office Web Apps provide you with easier, faster, more flexible ways to get things done.: Walks you t

  16. A synthetic maternal-effect selfish genetic element drives population replacement in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Hong; Huang, Haixia; Ward, Catherine M; Su, Jessica T; Schaeffer, Lorian V; Guo, Ming; Hay, Bruce A

    2007-04-27

    One proposed strategy for controlling the transmission of insect-borne pathogens uses a drive mechanism to ensure the rapid spread of transgenes conferring disease refractoriness throughout wild populations. Here, we report the creation of maternal-effect selfish genetic elements in Drosophila that drive population replacement and are resistant to recombination-mediated dissociation of drive and disease refractoriness functions. These selfish elements use microRNA-mediated silencing of a maternally expressed gene essential for embryogenesis, which is coupled with early zygotic expression of a rescuing transgene.

  17. Expression of human PQBP-1 in Drosophila impairs long-term memory and induces abnormal courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Natsue; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Masao; Saitoe, Minoru; Qi, Mei-Ling; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2006-04-17

    Frame shift mutations of the polyglutamine binding protein-1 (PQBP1) gene lead to total or partial truncation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) and cause mental retardation in human patients. Interestingly, normal Drosophila homologue of PQBP-1 lacks CTD. As a model to analyze the molecular network of PQBP-1 affecting intelligence, we generated transgenic flies expressing human PQBP-1 with CTD. Pavlovian olfactory conditioning revealed that the transgenic flies showed disturbance of long-term memory. In addition, they showed abnormal courtship that male flies follow male flies. Abnormal functions of PQBP-1 or its binding partner might be linked to these symptoms.

  18. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1α , DJ-1β , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular

  19. Apps of Steel: Are Exercise Apps Providing Consumers with Realistic Expectations?: A Content Analysis of Exercise Apps for Presence of Behavior Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Logan T.; Van Wagenen, Sarah A.; Brown, Brittany A.; Hedin, Riley J.; Seino-Stephan, Yukiko; Hall, P. Cougar; West, Joshua H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To quantify the presence of health behavior theory constructs in iPhone apps targeting physical activity. Methods. This study used a content analysis of 127 apps from Apple's (App Store) "Health & Fitness" category. Coders downloaded the apps and then used an established theory-based instrument to rate each app's inclusion of…

  20. Modeling Human Cancers in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoshita, M; Cagan, R L

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that affects multiple organs. Whole-body animal models provide important insights into oncology that can lead to clinical impact. Here, we review novel concepts that Drosophila studies have established for cancer biology, drug discovery, and patient therapy. Genetic studies using Drosophila have explored the roles of oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that when dysregulated promote cancer formation, making Drosophila a useful model to study multiple aspects of transformation. Not limited to mechanism analyses, Drosophila has recently been showing its value in facilitating drug development. Flies offer rapid, efficient platforms by which novel classes of drugs can be identified as candidate anticancer leads. Further, we discuss the use of Drosophila as a platform to develop therapies for individual patients by modeling the tumor's genetic complexity. Drosophila provides both a classical and a novel tool to identify new therapeutics, complementing other more traditional cancer tools. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interspecific studies of circadian genes period and timeless in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Shumaila; Pegoraro, Mirko; Nouroz, Faisal; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2018-03-30

    The level of rescue of clock function in genetically arrhythmic Drosophila melanogaster hosts using interspecific clock gene transformation was used to study the putative intermolecular coevolution between interacting clock proteins. Among them PER and TIM are the two important negative regulators of the circadian clock feedback loop. We transformed either the D. pseudoobscura per or tim transgenes into the corresponding arrhythmic D. melanogaster mutant (per01 or tim01) and observed >50% rhythmicity but the period of activity rhythm was either longer (D. pseudoobscura-per) or shorter than 24 h (D. pseudoobscura-tim) compared to controls. By introducing both transgenes simultaneously into double mutants, we observed that the period of the activity rhythm was rescued by the pair of hemizygous transgenes (~24 h). These flies also showed a more optimal level of temperature compensation for the period. Under LD 12:12 these flies have a D. pseudoobscura like activity profile with the absence of morning anticipation as well as a very prominent earlier evening peak of activity rhythm. These observation are consistent with the view that TIM and PER form a heterospecific coevolved module at least for the circadian period of activity rhythms. However the strength of rhythmicity was reduced by having both transgenes present, so while evidence for a coevolution between PER and TIM is observed for some characters it is not for others. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of short-term Western diet on cerebral oxidative stress and diabetes related factors in APP x PS1 knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinski, Christa M; Li, Feng; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Zhang, Le; Weidner, Adam M; Markesbery, William R; Murphy, M Paul; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2009-02-01

    A chronic high fat Western diet (WD) promotes a variety of morbidity factors although experimental evidence for short-term WD mediating brain dysfunction remains to be elucidated. The amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP x PS1) knock-in mouse model has been demonstrated to recapitulate some key features of Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-beta (Abeta) pathogenesis. In this study, we placed 1-month-old APP x PS1 mice and non-transgenic littermates on a WD for 4 weeks. The WD resulted in a significant elevation in protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the brain of APP x PS1 mice relative to non-transgenic littermates, which occurred in the absence of increased Abeta levels. Altered adipokine levels were also observed in APP x PS1 mice placed on a short-term WD, relative to non-transgenic littermates. Taken together, these data indicate that short-term WD is sufficient to selectively promote cerebral oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances in APP x PS1 knock-in mice, with increased oxidative stress preceding alterations in Abeta. These data have important implications for understanding how WD may potentially contribute to brain dysfunction and the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Functions of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway in Drosophila development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Metzstein

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD is a cellular surveillance mechanism that degrades transcripts containing premature translation termination codons, and it also influences expression of certain wild-type transcripts. Although the biochemical mechanisms of NMD have been studied intensively, its developmental functions and importance are less clear. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of Drosophila "photoshop" mutations, which increase expression of green fluorescent protein and other transgenes. Mapping and molecular analyses show that photoshop mutations are loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila homologs of NMD genes Upf1, Upf2, and Smg1. We find that Upf1 and Upf2 are broadly active during development, and they are required for NMD as well as for proper expression of dozens of wild-type genes during development and for larval viability. Genetic mosaic analysis shows that Upf1 and Upf2 are required for growth and/or survival of imaginal cell clones, but this defect can be overcome if surrounding wild-type cells are eliminated. By contrast, we find that the PI3K-related kinase Smg1 potentiates but is not required for NMD or for viability, implying that the Upf1 phosphorylation cycle that is required for mammalian and Caenorhabditis elegans NMD has a more limited role during Drosophila development. Finally, we show that the SV40 3' UTR, present in many Drosophila transgenes, targets the transgenes for regulation by the NMD pathway. The results establish that the Drosophila NMD pathway is broadly active and essential for development, and one critical function of the pathway is to endow proliferating imaginal cells with a competitive growth advantage that prevents them from being overtaken by other proliferating cells.

  4. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  5. Apps and intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Posadilla, D; Gómez-Marcos, V; Hernández-Tejedor, A

    2017-05-01

    Technological advances have played a key role over the last century in the development of humankind. Critical Care Medicine is one of the greatest examples of this revolution. Smartphones with multiple sensors constitute another step forward, and have led to the development of apps for use by both professionals and patients. We discuss their main medical applications in the field of Critical Care Medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning System Center App Controller

    CERN Document Server

    Naeem, Nasir

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for IT professionals working with Hyper-V, Azure cloud, VMM, and private cloud technologies who are looking for a quick way to get up and running with System Center 2012 R2 App Controller. To get the most out of this book, you should be familiar with Microsoft Hyper-V technology. Knowledge of Virtual Machine Manager is helpful but not mandatory.

  7. Detection of App Collusion Potential Using Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Jorge; Chen, Thomas M.; Muttik, Igor; Roggenbach, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Android is designed with a number of built-in security features such as app sandboxing and permission-based access controls. Android supports multiple communication methods for apps to cooperate. This creates a security risk of app collusion. For instance, a sandboxed app with permission to access sensitive data might leak that data to another sandboxed app with access to the internet. In this paper, we present a method to detect potential collusion between apps. First, we extract from apps a...

  8. App Savvy Turning Ideas into iPad and iPhone Apps Customers Really Want

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmosh, Ken

    2010-01-01

    How can you make your iPad or iPhone app stand out in the highly competitive App Store? While many books simply explore the technical aspects of iPad and iPhone app design and development, App Savvy also focuses on the business, product, and marketing elements critical to pursuing, completing, and selling your app -- the ingredients for turning a great idea into a genuinely successful product. Whether you're a designer, developer, entrepreneur, or just someone with a unique idea, App Savvy explains every step in the process, with guidelines for planning a solid concept, engaging customers ea

  9. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  11. Arm-Gal4 inheritance influences development and lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, F A; Staveley, B E

    2015-10-19

    The UAS-Gal4 ectopic expression system is a widely used and highly valued tool that allows specific gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster. Yeast transcription factor Gal4 can be directed using D. melanogaster transcriptional control elements, and is often assumed to have little effect on the organism. By evaluation of the consequences of maternal and paternal inheritance of a Gal4 transgene under the transcriptional regulation of armadillo control elements (arm-Gal4), we demonstrated that Gal4 expression could be detrimental to development and longevity. Male progeny expressing arm-Gal4 in the presence of UAS-lacZ transgene had reduced numbers and size of ommatidia, compared to flies expressing UAS-lacZ transgene under the control of other Gal4 transgenes. Aged at 25°C, the median life span of male flies with maternally inherited elav-Gal4 was 70 days, without a responding transgene or with UAS-lacZ. The median life span of maternally inherited arm-Gal4 male flies without a responding transgene was 48 days, and 40 days with the UAS-lacZ transgene. A partial rescue of this phenotype was observed with the expression of UAS-lacZ under paternal arm-Gal4 control, having an average median lifespan of 60 days. This data suggests that arm-Gal4 has detrimental effects on Drosophila development and lifespan that are directly dependent upon parental inheritance, and that the benign responder and reporter gene UAS-lacZ may influence D. melanogaster development. These findings should be taken into consideration during the design and execution of UAS-Gal4 expression experiments.

  12. Nebula/DSCR1 upregulation delays neurodegeneration and protects against APP-induced axonal transport defects by restoring calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian L Shaw

    Full Text Available Post-mortem brains from Down syndrome (DS and Alzheimer's disease (AD patients show an upregulation of the Down syndrome critical region 1 protein (DSCR1, but its contribution to AD is not known. To gain insights into the role of DSCR1 in AD, we explored the functional interaction between DSCR1 and the amyloid precursor protein (APP, which is known to cause AD when duplicated or upregulated in DS. We find that the Drosophila homolog of DSCR1, Nebula, delays neurodegeneration and ameliorates axonal transport defects caused by APP overexpression. Live-imaging reveals that Nebula facilitates the transport of synaptic proteins and mitochondria affected by APP upregulation. Furthermore, we show that Nebula upregulation protects against axonal transport defects by restoring calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling altered by APP overexpression, thereby preserving cargo-motor interactions. As impaired transport of essential organelles caused by APP perturbation is thought to be an underlying cause of synaptic failure and neurodegeneration in AD, our findings imply that correcting calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling can prevent APP-induced pathologies. Our data further suggest that upregulation of Nebula/DSCR1 is neuroprotective in the presence of APP upregulation and provides evidence for calcineurin inhibition as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in preventing axonal transport impairments associated with AD.

  13. Nebula/DSCR1 upregulation delays neurodegeneration and protects against APP-induced axonal transport defects by restoring calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jillian L; Chang, Karen T

    2013-01-01

    Post-mortem brains from Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show an upregulation of the Down syndrome critical region 1 protein (DSCR1), but its contribution to AD is not known. To gain insights into the role of DSCR1 in AD, we explored the functional interaction between DSCR1 and the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is known to cause AD when duplicated or upregulated in DS. We find that the Drosophila homolog of DSCR1, Nebula, delays neurodegeneration and ameliorates axonal transport defects caused by APP overexpression. Live-imaging reveals that Nebula facilitates the transport of synaptic proteins and mitochondria affected by APP upregulation. Furthermore, we show that Nebula upregulation protects against axonal transport defects by restoring calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling altered by APP overexpression, thereby preserving cargo-motor interactions. As impaired transport of essential organelles caused by APP perturbation is thought to be an underlying cause of synaptic failure and neurodegeneration in AD, our findings imply that correcting calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling can prevent APP-induced pathologies. Our data further suggest that upregulation of Nebula/DSCR1 is neuroprotective in the presence of APP upregulation and provides evidence for calcineurin inhibition as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in preventing axonal transport impairments associated with AD.

  14. Palmitoylated APP Forms Dimers, Cleaved by BACE1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available A major rate-limiting step for Aβ generation and deposition in Alzheimer's disease brains is BACE1-mediated cleavage (β-cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP. We previously reported that APP undergoes palmitoylation at two cysteine residues (Cys186 and Cys187 in the E1-ectodomain. 8-10% of total APP is palmitoylated in vitro and in vivo. Palmitoylated APP (palAPP shows greater preference for β-cleavage than total APP in detergent resistant lipid rafts. Protein palmitoylation is known to promote protein dimerization. Since dimerization of APP at its E1-ectodomain results in elevated BACE1-mediated cleavage of APP, we have now investigated whether palmitoylation of APP affects its dimerization and whether this leads to elevated β-cleavage of the protein. Here we report that over 90% of palAPP is dimerized while only ~20% of total APP forms dimers. PalAPP-dimers are predominantly cis-oriented while total APP dimerizes in both cis- and trans-orientation. PalAPP forms dimers 4.5-times more efficiently than total APP. Overexpression of the palmitoylating enzymes DHHC7 and DHHC21 that increase palAPP levels and Aβ release, also increased APP dimerization in cells. Conversely, inhibition of APP palmitoylation by pharmacological inhibitors reduced APP-dimerization in coimmunoprecipitation and FLIM/FRET assays. Finally, in vitro BACE1-activity assays demonstrate that palmitoylation-dependent dimerization of APP promotes β-cleavage of APP in lipid-rich detergent resistant cell membranes (DRMs, when compared to total APP. Most importantly, generation of sAPPβ-sAPPβ dimers is dependent on APP-palmitoylation while total sAPPβ generation is not. Since BACE1 shows preference for palAPP dimers over total APP, palAPP dimers may serve as novel targets for effective β-cleavage inhibitors of APP as opposed to BACE1 inhibitors.

  15. Enabling Psychiatrists to be Mobile Phone App Developers: Insights Into App Development Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Melvyn Wb; Tsang, Tammy; Cheow, Enquan; Ho, Cyrus Sh; Yeong, Ng Beng; Ho, Roger Cm

    2014-11-11

    The use of mobile phones, and specifically smartphones, in the last decade has become more and more prevalent. The latest mobile phones are equipped with comprehensive features that can be used in health care, such as providing rapid access to up-to-date evidence-based information, provision of instant communications, and improvements in organization. The estimated number of health care apps for mobile phones is increasing tremendously, but previous research has highlighted the lack of critical appraisal of new apps. This lack of appraisal of apps has largely been due to the lack of clinicians with technical knowledge of how to create an evidence-based app. We discuss two freely available methodologies for developing Web-based mobile phone apps: a website builder and an app builder. With these, users can program not just a Web-based app, but also integrate multimedia features within their app, without needing to know any programming language. We present techniques for creating a mobile Web-based app using two well-established online mobile app websites. We illustrate how to integrate text-based content within the app, as well as integration of interactive videos and rich site summary (RSS) feed information. We will also briefly discuss how to integrate a simple questionnaire survey into the mobile-based app. A questionnaire survey was administered to students to collate their perceptions towards the app. These two methodologies for developing apps have been used to convert an online electronic psychiatry textbook into two Web-based mobile phone apps for medical students rotating through psychiatry in Singapore. Since the inception of our mobile Web-based app, a total of 21,991 unique users have used the mobile app and online portal provided by WordPress, and another 717 users have accessed the app via a Web-based link. The user perspective survey results (n=185) showed that a high proportion of students valued the textbook and objective structured clinical

  16. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  17. Tolerance in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2009-01-01

    The set of genes that underlie ethanol tolerance (inducible resistance) are likely to overlap with the set of genes responsible for ethanol addiction. Whereas addiction is difficult to recognize in simple model systems, behavioral tolerance is readily identifiable and can be induced in large populations of animals. Thus, tolerance lends itself to analysis in model systems with powerful genetics. Drosophila melanogaster has been used by a variety of laboratories for the identification of genes...

  18. Huperzine A alleviates synaptic deficits and modulates amyloidogenic and nonamyloidogenic pathways in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Tang, Xi Can; Zhang, Hai Yan

    2012-02-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, HupA was shown to be active in modulating the nonamyloidogenic metabolism of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in APP-transfected human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293swe). However, in vivo research concerning the mechanism of HupA in APP transgenic mice has not yet been fully elucidated. The present study indicates that the loss of dendritic spine density and synaptotagmin levels in the brain of APPswe/presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenic mice was significantly ameliorated by chronic HupA treatment and provides evidence that this neuroprotection was associated with reduced amyloid plaque burden and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in the cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Our findings further demonstrate that the amelioration effect of HupA on Aβ deposits may be mediated, at least in part, by regulation of the compromised expression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and excessive membrane trafficking of β-site APP cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) in these transgenic mice. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) phosphorylation may also be partially involved in the effect of HupA on APP processing. In conclusion, our work for the first time demonstrates the neuroprotective effect of HupA on synaptic deficits in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice and further clarifies the potential pharmacological targets for this protective effect, in which modulation of nonamyloidogenic and amyloidogenic APP processing pathways may be both involved. These findings may provide adequate evidence for the clinical and experimental benefits gained from HupA treatment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Windows 8 app projects XAML and C#

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeir, Nico

    2013-01-01

    Become a leading Windows 8 app developer by using Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition to learn techniques, tools, and ideas to create successful, 5-star apps. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edition shows you the nuts and bolts of the Windows 8 development ecosystem. Then, through a series of example driven chapters, you'll discover how to leverage the platform's unique features. With each project, you'll be one step closer to building full-featured, responsive, and well designed apps that feel like they're a part of the operating system. Windows 8 App Projects - XAML and C# Edit

  20. Human Intellectual Disability Genes Form Conserved Functional Modules in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oortveld, Merel A. W.; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Oti, Martin; Nijhof, Bonnie; Fernandes, Ana Clara; Kochinke, Korinna; Castells-Nobau, Anna; van Engelen, Eva; Ellenkamp, Thijs; Eshuis, Lilian; Galy, Anne; van Bokhoven, Hans; Habermann, Bianca; Brunner, Han G.; Zweier, Christiane; Verstreken, Patrik; Huynen, Martijn A.; Schenck, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual Disability (ID) disorders, defined by an IQ below 70, are genetically and phenotypically highly heterogeneous. Identification of common molecular pathways underlying these disorders is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of cognition and for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. To systematically establish their functional connectivity, we used transgenic RNAi to target 270 ID gene orthologs in the Drosophila eye. Assessment of neuronal function in behavioral and electrophysiological assays and multiparametric morphological analysis identified phenotypes associated with knockdown of 180 ID gene orthologs. Most of these genotype-phenotype associations were novel. For example, we uncovered 16 genes that are required for basal neurotransmission and have not previously been implicated in this process in any system or organism. ID gene orthologs with morphological eye phenotypes, in contrast to genes without phenotypes, are relatively highly expressed in the human nervous system and are enriched for neuronal functions, suggesting that eye phenotyping can distinguish different classes of ID genes. Indeed, grouping genes by Drosophila phenotype uncovered 26 connected functional modules. Novel links between ID genes successfully predicted that MYCN, PIGV and UPF3B regulate synapse development. Drosophila phenotype groups show, in addition to ID, significant phenotypic similarity also in humans, indicating that functional modules are conserved. The combined data indicate that ID disorders, despite their extreme genetic diversity, are caused by disruption of a limited number of highly connected functional modules. PMID:24204314

  1. Overcoming antigen masking of anti-amyloidbeta antibodies reveals breaking of B cell tolerance by virus-like particles in amyloidbeta immunized amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugen Kenneth E

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In prior work we detected reduced anti-Aβ antibody titers in Aβ-vaccinated transgenic mice expressing the human amyloid precursor protein (APP compared to nontransgenic littermates. We investigated this observation further by vaccinating APP and nontransgenic mice with either the wild-type human Aβ peptide, an Aβ peptide containing the "Dutch Mutation", E22Q, or a wild-type Aβ peptide conjugated to papillomavirus virus-like particles (VLPs. Results Anti-Aβ antibody titers were lower in vaccinated APP than nontransgenic mice even when vaccinated with the highly immunogenic Aβ E22Q. One concern was that human Aβ derived from the APP transgene might mask anti-Aβ antibodies in APP mice. To test this possibility, we dissociated antigen-antibody complexes by incubation at low pH. The low pH incubation increased the anti-Aβ antibody titers 20–40 fold in APP mice but had no effect in sera from nontransgenic mice. However, even after dissociation, the anti-Aβ titers were still lower in transgenic mice vaccinated with wild-type Aβ or E22Q Aβ relative to non-transgenic mice. Importantly, the dissociated anti-Aβ titers were equivalent in nontransgenic and APP mice after VLP-based vaccination. Control experiments demonstrated that after acid-dissociation, the increased antibody titer did not cross react with bovine serum albumin nor alpha-synuclein, and addition of Aβ back to the dissociated serum blocked the increase in antibody titers. Conclusions Circulating human Aβ can interfere with ELISA assay measurements of anti-Aβ titers. The E22Q Aβ peptide vaccine is more immunogenic than the wild-type peptide. Unlike peptide vaccines, VLP-based vaccines against Aβ abrogate the effects of Aβ self-tolerance.

  2. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Meiklejohn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  3. Hypnosis: There’s an App for that. A systematic review of hypnosis apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucala, Madalina; Schnur, Julie B.; Glazier, Kimberly; Miller, Sarah J.; Green, Joseph P.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    The study systematically reviews the hypnosis apps available via iTunes that were compatible with iPhone or iPad. Of 1455 apps identified on iTunes, 407 met inclusion criteria and were further reviewed. Most common hypnosis app targets were: weight loss (23%), boosting self-esteem (20%), and relaxation/stress reduction (19%). 83% of apps delivered hypnosis via audio track, and 37% allowed tailoring. Less than 14% of apps reported disclaimers. None of the apps reported having been tested for efficacy, and none reported being evidence-based. Although apps have the potential to enhance hypnosis delivery, it seems as though technology has raced ahead of the supporting science. Recommendations from clinical researchers and policy makers are needed to inform responsible hypnosis app development and use. PMID:23957263

  4. Storybook app creation demystified a cast study

    CERN Document Server

    Friedlander, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This case study explains how Wasabi Productions created its first app, Lazy Larry Lizard, and provides insight into the development of soon-to-be-released app, Gorilla Band. Inside, you will find notes on how storybook apps are produced from start to finish, including costs, production process, people, technology, pricing, release cycle, marketing and more. You will also find insights on technology, storyboard development and pricing.

  5. Social gaming on the Spotify app platform

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Spotify wants to explore the possibilities of social gaming within their desktop client. Thanks to their Spotify Apps API it is possible to build applications that integrate with the Spotify library while using modern web technologies. This thesis work consists of exploring what is possible using the Spotify App API and the most modern web technologies available. The main theme and goal of the Spotify App is to engage users in a social context. Creating a quiz application, which users can pla...

  6. Behavioral Teratogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monalisa; Barik, Bedanta Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Developmental biology is a fascinating branch of science which helps us to understand the mechanism of development, thus the findings are used in various therapeutic approach. Drosophila melanogaster served as a model to find the key molecules that initiate and regulate the mechanism of development. Various genes, transcription factors, and signaling pathways helping in development are identified in Drosophila. Many toxic compounds, which can affect the development, are also recognized using Drosophila model. These compounds, which can affect the development, are named as a teratogen. Many teratogens identified using Drosophila may also act as a teratogen for a human being since 75% of conservation exist between the disease genes present in Drosophila and human. There are certain teratogens, which do not cause developmental defect if exposed during pregnancy, however; behavioral defect appears in later part of development. Such compounds are named as a behavioral teratogen. Thus, it is worthy to identify the potential behavioral teratogen using Drosophila model. Drosophila behavior is well studied in various developmental stages. This chapter describes various methods which can be employed to test behavioral teratogenesis in Drosophila.

  7. ApkCombiner: Combining Multiple Android Apps to Support Inter-App Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li , Li; Bartel , Alexandre; Bissyandé , Tegawendé ,; Klein , Jacques; Traon , Yves ,

    2015-01-01

    Part 8: Mobile and Cloud Services Security; International audience; Android apps are made of components which can leak information between one another using the ICC mechanism. With the growing momentum of Android, a number of research contributions have led to tools for the intra-app analysis of Android apps. Unfortunately, these state-of-the-art approaches, and the associated tools, have long left out the security flaws that arise across the boundaries of single apps, in the interaction betw...

  8. CSS for Windows 8 app development

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    CSS for Windows 8 App Development is your learning guide for CSS - the language of great Windows 8-style apps. Learn the built-in styles that make the built-in controls shine, how to define them, and how to use CSS to give your custom app assets that beautiful Modern UI style. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is the clear standard for styling web applications, and with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript now powering apps on Windows 8, it's the clear standard there as well. CSS is a powerful styling and layout language that greatly simplifies the selection of page elements and their visual display, layout,

  9. Redefining Cheminformatics with Intuitive Collaborative Mobile Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex M; Ekins, Sean; Williams, Antony J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The proliferation of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers has recently been extended to include a growing ecosystem of increasingly sophisticated chemistry software packages, commonly known as apps. The capabilities that these apps can offer to the practicing chemist are approaching those of conventional desktop-based software, but apps tend to be focused on a relatively small range of tasks. To overcome this, chemistry apps must be able to seamlessly transfer data to other apps, and through the network to other devices, as well as to other platforms, such as desktops and servers, using documented file formats and protocols whenever possible. This article describes the development and state of the art with regard to chemistry-aware apps that make use of facile data interchange, and some of the scenarios in which these apps can be inserted into a chemical information workflow to increase productivity. A selection of contemporary apps is used to demonstrate their relevance to pharmaceutical research. Mobile apps represent a novel approach for delivery of cheminformatics tools to chemists and other scientists, and indications suggest that mobile devices represent a disruptive technology for drug discovery, as they have been to many other industries. PMID:23198002

  10. Apps for Radiation Oncology. A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Calero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Software applications executed on a smart-phone or mobile device (“Apps” are increasingly used by oncologists in their daily work. A comprehensive critical review was conducted on Apps specifically designed for Radiation Oncology, which aims to provide scientific support for these tools and to guide users in choosing the most suited to their needs. Material and methods: A systematic search was conducted in mobile platforms, iOS and Android, returning 157 Apps. Excluding those whose purpose did not match the scope of the study, 31 Apps were methodically analyzed by the following items: Objective Features, List of Functionalities, Consistency in Outcomes and Usability. Results: Apps are presented in groups of features, as Dose Calculators (7 Apps, Clinical Calculators (4, Tools for Staging (7, Multipurpose (7 and Others (6. Each App is presented with the list of attributes and a brief comment. A short summary is provided at the end of each group. Discussion and Recommendations: There are numerous Apps with useful tools at the disposal of radiation oncologists. The most advisable Apps do not match the more expensive. Three all-in-one apps seem advisable above all: RadOnc Reference (in English, Easy Oncology (in German and iOncoR (in Spanish. Others recommendations are suggested for specific tasks: dose calculators, treatment-decision and staging.

  11. Building Web Apps for Google TV

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrate, Andres; Lee, Daniels; Ohye, Maile; Carff, Paul; Shen, Shawn; Hines, Steven

    2011-01-01

    By integrating the Web with traditional TV, Google TV offers developers an important new channel for content. But creating apps for Google TV requires learning some new skills-in fact, what you may already know about mobile or desktop web apps isn't entirely applicable. Building Web Apps for Google TV will help you make the transition to Google TV as you learn the tools and techniques necessary to build sophisticated web apps for this platform. This book shows you how Google TV works, how it fits into the web ecosystem, and what the opportunities are for delivering rich content to millions o

  12. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed. PMID:22368770

  13. The Drosophila melanogaster host model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina O. Igboin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen–host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial–host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis–host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  14. The Drosophila melanogaster host model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igboin, Christina O; Griffen, Ann L; Leys, Eugene J

    2012-01-01

    The deleterious and sometimes fatal outcomes of bacterial infectious diseases are the net result of the interactions between the pathogen and the host, and the genetically tractable fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has emerged as a valuable tool for modeling the pathogen-host interactions of a wide variety of bacteria. These studies have revealed that there is a remarkable conservation of bacterial pathogenesis and host defence mechanisms between higher host organisms and Drosophila. This review presents an in-depth discussion of the Drosophila immune response, the Drosophila killing model, and the use of the model to examine bacterial-host interactions. The recent introduction of the Drosophila model into the oral microbiology field is discussed, specifically the use of the model to examine Porphyromonas gingivalis-host interactions, and finally the potential uses of this powerful model system to further elucidate oral bacterial-host interactions are addressed.

  15. Motor impulsivity in APP-SWE mice: a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Walter; Ognibene, Elisa; Heuland, Emilie; Ghirardi, Orlando; Caprioli, Antonio; Laviola, Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Among transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, APP-SWE mice have been shown to develop beta-amyloid plaques and to exhibit progressive impairment of cognitive function. Human Alzheimer's disease, however, also includes secondary clinical manifestations, spanning from hyperactivity to agitation. The aim of this study was a better characterization of motor impulsivity in APP-SWE mice, observed at 12 months of age, when levels of soluble beta-amyloid are elevated and beta-amyloid neuritic plaques start to appear. Mice were tested for spatial learning abilities in the Morris water maze (seven daily sessions, four trials per day). The distance traveled to reach the hidden platform showed a learning curve in both groups. This profile, however, was somewhat delayed in APP-SWE mice, thus confirming slightly impaired spatial capacities. To evaluate motor impulsivity, animals were trained to nose-poke for a food reward, which was delivered after a waiting interval that increased over days (15-60 s). Further nose-poking during this signaled waiting interval resulted in food-reward loss and electric-shock punishment. APP-SWE mice received an increased quantity of punishment and were able to earn fewer food rewards, suggesting inability to wait already at the lowest delay. After the animals were killed, prefrontal cortex samples were assessed for neurochemical parameters. Serotonin turnover was elevated in the prefrontal cortex of APP-SWE mice compared with controls. The results clearly confirm cognitive deficits, and are consistent with the hypothesis of reduced behavioral-inhibition abilities. Together with recent findings, APP-SWE mice emerge as a suitable animal model, characterized by a number of specific behavioral alterations, resembling primary and secondary symptoms of human Alzheimer's disease.

  16. A Guide to Help Consumers Choose Apps and Avoid App Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Ellen; Zimmerman, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technology has transformed the way consumers access and use information. The exponential growth of mobile apps makes finding suitable, easy-to-use nutrition and health-related apps challenging. A guide for consumers helps them ask important questions before downloading apps. The guide can be adapted for other Extension disciplines.

  17. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  18. Characterization of in vivo MRI detectable thalamic amyloid plaques from APP/PS1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhenain, M. [URA CEA CNRS 2210, I2BM, SHFJ, 4 Place du General Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [U759 INSERM, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Dhenain, M.; El Tannir El Tayara, N.; Wu, T.D.; Volk, A.; Quintana, C. [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Laboratoire 112, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guegan, M.; Delatour, B. [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid-CSIC, 8, Isaac Newton, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Amyloid deposits are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies, in transgenic mice modeling Alzheimer's disease showed that, using in vivo, contrast agent-free, MRI, thalamic amyloid plaques are more easily detected than other plaques of the brain. Our study evaluated the characteristics of these thalamic plaques in a large population of APP/PS1, PS1 and C57BL/6 mice. Thalamic spots were detected in all mice but with different frequency and magnitude. Hence, the prevalence and size of the lesions were higher in APP/PS1 mice. However, even in APP/PS1 mice, thalamic spots did not occur in all the old animals. In APP/PS1 mice, spots detection was related to high iron and calcium load within amyloid plaques and thus reflects the ability of such plaque to capture large amounts of minerals. Interestingly, calcium and iron was also detected in extra-thalamic plaques but with a lower intensity. Hypointense lesions in the thalamus were not associated with the iron load in the tissue surrounding the plaques, nor with micro-hemorrhages, inflammation, or a neuro-degenerative context. (authors)

  19. Analysis of the interaction between human RITA and Drosophila Suppressor of Hairless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Birgit; Mastel, Helena; Oswald, Franz; Maier, Dieter

    2014-12-01

    Notch signalling mediates intercellular communication, which is effected by the transcription factor CSL, an acronym for vertebrate CBF1/RBP-J, Drosophila Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] and C. elegans Lag1. Nuclear import of CBF1/RBP-J depends on co-activators and co-repressors, whereas the export relies on RITA. RITA is a tubulin and CBF1/RBP-J binding protein acting as a negative regulator of Notch signalling in vertebrates. RITA protein is highly conserved in eumatazoa, but no Drosophila homologue was yet identified. In this work, the activity of human RITA in the fly was addressed. To this end, we generated transgenic flies that allow a tissue specific induction of human RITA, which was demonstrated by Western blotting and in fly tissues. Unexpectedly, overexpression of RITA during fly development had little phenotypic consequences, even when overexpressed simultaneously with either Su(H) or the Notch antagonist Hairless. We demonstrate the in vivo binding of human RITA to Su(H) and to tubulin by co-immune precipitation. Moreover, RITA and tubulin co-localized to some degree in several Drosophila tissues. Overall our data show that human RITA, albeit binding to Drosophila Su(H) and tubulin, cannot influence the Notch signalling pathway in the fly, suggesting that a nuclear export mechanism of Su(H), if existent in Drosophila, does not depend on RITA. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. App Usage Factor: A Simple Metric to Compare the Population Impact of Mobile Medical Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas Lorchan; Wyatt, Jeremy C

    2015-08-19

    One factor when assessing the quality of mobile apps is quantifying the impact of a given app on a population. There is currently no metric which can be used to compare the population impact of a mobile app across different health care disciplines. The objective of this study is to create a novel metric to characterize the impact of a mobile app on a population. We developed the simple novel metric, app usage factor (AUF), defined as the logarithm of the product of the number of active users of a mobile app with the median number of daily uses of the app. The behavior of this metric was modeled using simulated modeling in Python, a general-purpose programming language. Three simulations were conducted to explore the temporal and numerical stability of our metric and a simulated app ecosystem model using a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps. Simulations confirmed the metric was stable between predicted usage limits and remained stable at extremes of these limits. Analysis of a simulated dataset of 20,000 apps calculated an average value for the app usage factor of 4.90 (SD 0.78). A temporal simulation showed that the metric remained stable over time and suitable limits for its use were identified. A key component when assessing app risk and potential harm is understanding the potential population impact of each mobile app. Our metric has many potential uses for a wide range of stakeholders in the app ecosystem, including users, regulators, developers, and health care professionals. Furthermore, this metric forms part of the overall estimate of risk and potential for harm or benefit posed by a mobile medical app. We identify the merits and limitations of this metric, as well as potential avenues for future validation and research.

  1. Detecting android malicious apps and categorizing benign apps with ensemble of classifiers

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2017-01-17

    Android platform has dominated the markets of smart mobile devices in recent years. The number of Android applications (apps) has seen a massive surge. Unsurprisingly, Android platform has also become the primary target of attackers. The management of the explosively expansive app markets has thus become an important issue. On the one hand, it requires effectively detecting malicious applications (malapps) in order to keep the malapps out of the app market. On the other hand, it needs to automatically categorize a big number of benign apps so as to ease the management, such as correcting an app’s category falsely designated by the app developer. In this work, we propose a framework to effectively and efficiently manage a big app market in terms of detecting malapps and categorizing benign apps. We extract 11 types of static features from each app to characterize the behaviors of the app, and employ the ensemble of multiple classifiers, namely, Support Vector Machine (SVM), K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Naive Bayes (NB), Classification and Regression Tree (CART) and Random Forest (RF), to detect malapps and to categorize benign apps. An alarm will be triggered if an app is identified as malicious. Otherwise, the benign app will be identified as a specific category. We evaluate the framework on a large app set consisting of 107,327 benign apps as well as 8,701 malapps. The experimental results show that our method achieves the accuracy of 99.39% in the detection of malapps and achieves the best accuracy of 82.93% in the categorization of benign apps.

  2. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Rothwell, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health?related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps f...

  3. Popular weight-management apps: Their use and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Chen

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: While greater popularity of apps was associated with higher quality, the overall quality of commercial dietary weight-management apps remains suboptimal. Popular weight-management apps are useful for self-monitoring, however are lacking in the recognised behavioural change techniques that may facilitate changes in health behaviours. With the majority of these apps designed for self-directed management, strategies to improve the rigour of these apps are warranted and commercial app developers could benefit from collaboration with behavioural researchers.

  4. Gebruikersdata bij abonnementen in app stores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, A.P.C.; Nieuwenhuis, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    Kranten en tijdschriften bieden tegenwoordig vaak, naast de papieren edities, digitale abonnementen aan. De content wordt in dat geval via een app gelezen op een mobiele device, zoals een smartphone of tablet. Om abonnementen in deze vorm aan te kunnen bieden is het bouwen van een app noodzakelijk.

  5. Smartphone-apps som nyt psykiatrisk behandlingstiltag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse

    2014-01-01

    The number of smartphone apps for people with mental health issues is undergoing a dramatical growth in these years. We review the available literature on the topic, discuss opportunities and theoretical considerations using smartphone apps in psychiatric treatment and provide an overview...

  6. Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...

  7. Will HTML5 Kill the Native App?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredette, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    For colleges and universities today, the question is no longer whether to develop a campus app or not. Instead, the debate has shifted to the best--and most cost-efficient--way to make campus applications accessible to the myriad devices and operating systems out there. Schools have a few options: They can develop multiple native app versions;…

  8. Fra app'ernes planet til klasserummet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkesgaard Slot, Marie; Gissel, Stig Toke; Lorentzen, Rasmus Fink

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen udpeger en række kategorier og begreber, som læreren kan anvende i sit arbejde med at analysere og vurdere hvilke handle- og betydningsmuligheder, der er indbygget i hhv. funktionelle, didaktiske og semantiske apps. Med afsæt i disse begreber gives praksisnære bud på, hvordan apps på for...

  9. 15 CFR 740.7 - Computers (APP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4A003. (2) Technology and software. License Exception APP authorizes exports of technology and software... License Exception. (2) Access and release restrictions—(i)Computers and software. Computers and software... software eligible for License Exception APP may not be reexported or transferred (in country) without prior...

  10. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  11. Cool Apps: Productivity at Your Fingertips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    In addition to listing apps and their value, this article focuses on ways people can be more productive by adopting certain workflows in several ways. Apps listed herein include those useful in calendaring, printing, photo-editing, image-recognition, image scanning, electronic signatures, and making and sharing lists and notes.

  12. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  13. Social anxiety apps: a systematic review and assessment of app descriptors across mobile store platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyami, Mohsen; Giri, Bachan; Alyami, Hussain; Sundram, Frederick

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review is twofold: (1) to characterise the purpose and description of available social anxiety apps and (2) to review the evidence on the effectiveness of social anxiety apps. A search was conducted on three major mobile platforms: Apple iTunes, Google Play and Windows Store. Apps were included if they addressed social anxiety and used an English language interface. A systematic review of the literature from MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence-based evaluations of social anxiety apps was also undertaken. Of the 1154 apps identified, 38 apps met the inclusion criteria: iTunes (n=18), Google Play (n=16) and Windows Store (n=4). Over 60% of apps were exclusively focused on social anxiety, while the remainder targeted social anxiety and related conditions. Most developers did not provide information on their organisational affiliations or their content source. Most apps used multimedia while 17 apps used text only. Finally, although the systematic review of the literature identified 94 articles, none of which met inclusion criteria. Social anxiety apps have the potential to overcome barriers to accessing treatment; however, none of the apps identified have had studies on their effectiveness published. As the evidence base is lacking, it is therefore not currently possible to recommend their use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

  15. Review of Cadw Mobile App [application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rothenberg

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Welsh Government's historic environment service, Cadw (Welsh: 'to keep, protect', released a mobile app in early 2016 so that members of the public can learn about and plan visits to heritage sites cared for by Cadw. With more than one hundred archaeological sites available for browsing, conveniently ordered by spatial proximity to the user, and with a clean and accessible user-interface, the app effectively showcases the richness and distinctive character of Wales's archaeological record. The app is free and available to download for both iOS and Android devices (from Apple's App Store and the Google Play Store, and is also well signposted on Cadw's website. This article is a review of the Cadw mobile app.

  16. Smart apps for the smart plastic surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniketh Venkataram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have the ability to benefit plastic surgeons in all aspects of patient care and education. With the sheer number of applications available and more being created everyday, it is easy to miss out on apps which could be of great relevance. Moreover, the range of android applications available has not been extensively discussed in the literature. To this end, we have compiled an exhaustive list of android smartphone applications, which we feel can help our day to day functioning. The apps have been extensively reviewed and neatly described along with all their potential uses. In addition, we have made an effort to highlight ′non-medical′ or efficiency apps which can improve departmental functioning. These apps have not been described in prior articles, and their functionality might not be known to all. We believe that the technology savvy plastic surgeon can make maximum use of these apps to his benefit.

  17. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Attention and Cognitive Bias Modification Apps: Review of the Literature and of Commercially Available Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, JiangBo; Song, Guo; Fung, Daniel SS; Smith, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Background Automatic processes, such as attentional biases or interpretative biases, have been purported to be responsible for several psychiatric disorders. Recent reviews have highlighted that cognitive biases may be modifiable. Advances in eHealth and mHealth have been harnessed for the delivery of cognitive bias modification. While several studies have evaluated mHealth-based bias modification intervention, no review, to our knowledge, has synthesized the evidence for it. In addition, no review has looked at commercial apps and their functionalities and methods of bias modification. A review is essential in determining whether scientifically validated apps are available commercially and the proportion of commercial apps that have been evaluated scientifically. Objective The objective of this review was primarily to determine the proportion of attention or cognitive bias modification apps that have been evaluated scientifically and secondarily to determine whether the scientifically evaluated apps were commercially available. We also sought to identify commercially available bias modification apps and determine the functionalities of these apps, the methods used for attention or cognitive bias modification, and whether these apps had been evaluated scientifically. Methods To identify apps in the published literature, we searched PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Scopus for studies published from 2000 to April 17, 2018. The search terms used were “attention bias” OR “cognitive bias” AND “smartphone” OR “smartphone application” OR “smartphone app” OR “mobile phones” OR “mobile application” OR mobile app” OR “personal digital assistant.” To identify commercial apps, we conducted a manual cross-sectional search between September 15 and 25, 2017 in the Apple iTunes and Google Play app stores. The search terms used to identify the apps were “attention bias” and “cognitive bias.” We also conducted a manual search on the apps with

  19. Reduction in open field activity in the absence of memory deficits in the AppNL-G-F knock-in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Lauren S; Hemsley, Kim M; Lau, Adeline A; Hassiotis, Sofia; Saito, Takashi; Saido, Takaomi C; Hopwood, John J; Sargeant, Timothy J

    2018-01-15

    The recent development of knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease provides distinct advantages over traditional transgenic mouse models that rely on over-expression of amyloid precursor protein. Two such knock-in models that have recently been widely adopted by Alzheimer's researchers are the App NL-F and App NL-G-F mice. This study aimed to further characterise the behavioural phenotype and amyloid plaque distribution of App NL-G-F/NL-G-F (C57BL/6J background) mice at six-months of age. An attempt to replicate a previous study that observed deficits in working memory in the Y-maze, showed no difference between App NL-G-F/NL-G-F and wild-type mice. Further assessment of these mice using the novel object recognition test and Morris water maze also revealed no differences between App NL-G-F/NL-G-F and wild-type mice. Despite a lack of demonstrated cognitive deficits, we report a reduction in locomotor/exploratory activity in an open field. Histological examination of App NL-G-F/NL-G-F mice showed widespread distribution of amyloid plaques at this age. We conclude that whilst at six-months of age, memory deficits are not sufficiently robust to be replicated in varying environments, amyloid plaque burden is significant in App NL-G-F/NL-G-F knock-in brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  1. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  2. SUMOylation in Drosophila Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert J. Courey

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO, an ~90 amino acid ubiquitin-like protein, is highly conserved throughout the eukaryotic domain. Like ubiquitin, SUMO is covalently attached to lysine side chains in a large number of target proteins. In contrast to ubiquitin, SUMO does not have a direct role in targeting proteins for proteasomal degradation. However, like ubiquitin, SUMO does modulate protein function in a variety of other ways. This includes effects on protein conformation, subcellular localization, and protein–protein interactions. Significant insight into the in vivo role of SUMOylation has been provided by studies in Drosophila that combine genetic manipulation, proteomic, and biochemical analysis. Such studies have revealed that the SUMO conjugation pathway regulates a wide variety of critical cellular and developmental processes, including chromatin/chromosome function, eggshell patterning, embryonic pattern formation, metamorphosis, larval and pupal development, neurogenesis, development of the innate immune system, and apoptosis. This review discusses our current understanding of the diverse roles for SUMO in Drosophila development.

  3. Transgene teknikker erstatter problematisk avl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder.......Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder....

  4. Neuronal control of locomotor handedness in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sean M; Kain, Jamey S; de Bivort, Benjamin L

    2015-05-26

    Genetically identical individuals display variability in their physiology, morphology, and behaviors, even when reared in essentially identical environments, but there is little mechanistic understanding of the basis of such variation. Here, we investigated whether Drosophila melanogaster displays individual-to-individual variation in locomotor behaviors. We developed a new high-throughout platform capable of measuring the exploratory behavior of hundreds of individual flies simultaneously. With this approach, we find that, during exploratory walking, individual flies exhibit significant bias in their left vs. right locomotor choices, with some flies being strongly left biased or right biased. This idiosyncrasy was present in all genotypes examined, including wild-derived populations and inbred isogenic laboratory strains. The biases of individual flies persist for their lifetime and are nonheritable: i.e., mating two left-biased individuals does not yield left-biased progeny. This locomotor handedness is uncorrelated with other asymmetries, such as the handedness of gut twisting, leg-length asymmetry, and wing-folding preference. Using transgenics and mutants, we find that the magnitude of locomotor handedness is under the control of columnar neurons within the central complex, a brain region implicated in motor planning and execution. When these neurons are silenced, exploratory laterality increases, with more extreme leftiness and rightiness. This observation intriguingly implies that the brain may be able to dynamically regulate behavioral individuality.

  5. Effects of Spaceflight on Drosophila Neural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Haig S.

    1997-01-01

    The major goal from the animal side, however, has been achieved, namely to develop Drosophila lines where we can assay individual neuromuscular endings directly without dissection. This was achieved by means of using the GAL4-UAS system, where we have succeeded in establishing stocks of flies where the key neuromuscular connections can be assayed directly in undissected larvae by means of the expression of endogenously fluorescent reporters in the specific motor endings. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter allows scoring of neural anatomy en-masse in whole mount using fluorescent microscopy without the need for either dissection or specific labeling. Two stocks have been developed. The first, which we developed first, uses the S65T mutant form, which has a dramatically brighter expression than the native protein. This animal will use GAL4 drivers with expression under the control of the elav gene, and which will ensure expression in all neurons of the embryo and larva. The second transgenic animal we have developed is of a novel kind, and makes use of dicistronic design, so that two copies of the protein will be expressed per insert. We have also developed a tricistronic form, but this has not yet been transformed into flies, and we do not imagine that this third line will be ready in time for the flight.

  6. Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Jenett, Arnim; Hammonds, Ann S.; Ngo, Teri-T B.; Misra, Sima; Murphy, Christine; Scully, Audra; Carlson, Joseph W.; Wan, Kenneth H.; Laverty, Todd R.; Mungall, Chris; Svirskas, Rob; Kadonaga, James T.; Doe, Chris Q.; Eisen, Michael B.; Celniker, Susan E.; Rubin, Gerald M.

    2008-08-11

    We demonstrate the feasibility of generating thousands of transgenic Drosophila melanogaster lines in which the expression of an exogenous gene is reproducibly directed to distinct small subsets of cells in the adult brain. We expect the expression patterns produced by the collection of 5,000 lines that we are currently generating to encompass all neurons in the brain in a variety of intersecting patterns. Overlapping 3-kb DNA fragments from the flanking noncoding and intronic regions of genes thought to have patterned expression in the adult brain were inserted into a defined genomic location by site-specific recombination. These fragments were then assayed for their ability to function as transcriptional enhancers in conjunction with a synthetic core promoter designed to work with a wide variety of enhancer types. An analysis of 44 fragments from four genes found that >80% drive expression patterns in the brain; the observed patterns were, on average, comprised of <100 cells. Our results suggest that the D. melanogaster genome contains >50,000 enhancers and that multiple enhancers drive distinct subsets of expression of a gene in each tissue and developmental stage. We expect that these lines will be valuable tools for neuroanatomy as well as for the elucidation of neuronal circuits and information flow in the fly brain.

  7. The Transgenic RNAi Project at Harvard Medical School: Resources and Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Lizabeth A; Holderbaum, Laura; Tao, Rong; Hu, Yanhui; Sopko, Richelle; McCall, Kim; Yang-Zhou, Donghui; Flockhart, Ian; Binari, Richard; Shim, Hye-Seok; Miller, Audrey; Housden, Amy; Foos, Marianna; Randkelv, Sakara; Kelley, Colleen; Namgyal, Pema; Villalta, Christians; Liu, Lu-Ping; Jiang, Xia; Huan-Huan, Qiao; Wang, Xia; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Ayers, Kathleen; Blum, Allison; Czech, Benjamin; Neumuller, Ralph; Yan, Dong; Cavallaro, Amanda; Hibbard, Karen; Hall, Don; Cooley, Lynn; Hannon, Gregory J; Lehmann, Ruth; Parks, Annette; Mohr, Stephanie E; Ueda, Ryu; Kondo, Shu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Perrimon, Norbert

    2015-11-01

    To facilitate large-scale functional studies in Drosophila, the Drosophila Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP) at Harvard Medical School (HMS) was established along with several goals: developing efficient vectors for RNAi that work in all tissues, generating a genome-scale collection of RNAi stocks with input from the community, distributing the lines as they are generated through existing stock centers, validating as many lines as possible using RT-qPCR and phenotypic analyses, and developing tools and web resources for identifying RNAi lines and retrieving existing information on their quality. With these goals in mind, here we describe in detail the various tools we developed and the status of the collection, which is currently composed of 11,491 lines and covering 71% of Drosophila genes. Data on the characterization of the lines either by RT-qPCR or phenotype is available on a dedicated website, the RNAi Stock Validation and Phenotypes Project (RSVP, http://www.flyrnai.org/RSVP.html), and stocks are available from three stock centers, the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (United States), National Institute of Genetics (Japan), and TsingHua Fly Center (China). Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. The Transgenic RNAi Project at Harvard Medical School: Resources and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Lizabeth A.; Holderbaum, Laura; Tao, Rong; Hu, Yanhui; Sopko, Richelle; McCall, Kim; Yang-Zhou, Donghui; Flockhart, Ian; Binari, Richard; Shim, Hye-Seok; Miller, Audrey; Housden, Amy; Foos, Marianna; Randkelv, Sakara; Kelley, Colleen; Namgyal, Pema; Villalta, Christians; Liu, Lu-Ping; Jiang, Xia; Huan-Huan, Qiao; Wang, Xia; Fujiyama, Asao; Toyoda, Atsushi; Ayers, Kathleen; Blum, Allison; Czech, Benjamin; Neumuller, Ralph; Yan, Dong; Cavallaro, Amanda; Hibbard, Karen; Hall, Don; Cooley, Lynn; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lehmann, Ruth; Parks, Annette; Mohr, Stephanie E.; Ueda, Ryu; Kondo, Shu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Perrimon, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate large-scale functional studies in Drosophila, the Drosophila Transgenic RNAi Project (TRiP) at Harvard Medical School (HMS) was established along with several goals: developing efficient vectors for RNAi that work in all tissues, generating a genome-scale collection of RNAi stocks with input from the community, distributing the lines as they are generated through existing stock centers, validating as many lines as possible using RT–qPCR and phenotypic analyses, and developing tools and web resources for identifying RNAi lines and retrieving existing information on their quality. With these goals in mind, here we describe in detail the various tools we developed and the status of the collection, which is currently composed of 11,491 lines and covering 71% of Drosophila genes. Data on the characterization of the lines either by RT–qPCR or phenotype is available on a dedicated website, the RNAi Stock Validation and Phenotypes Project (RSVP, http://www.flyrnai.org/RSVP.html), and stocks are available from three stock centers, the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center (United States), National Institute of Genetics (Japan), and TsingHua Fly Center (China). PMID:26320097

  9. Evolutionary genetics: the Drosophila model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Evolutionary genetics straddles the two fundamental processes of life, ... of the genus Drosophila have been used extensively as model systems in experimental ... issue will prove interesting, informative and thought-provoking for both estab-.

  10. Loss of GABAergic inputs in APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutu Oyelami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by symptoms which include seizures, sleep disruption, loss of memory as well as anxiety in patients. Of particular importance is the possibility of preventing the progressive loss of neuronal projections in the disease. Transgenic mice overexpressing EOFAD mutant PS1 (L166P and mutant APP (APP KM670/671NL Swedish (APP/PS1 develop a very early and robust Amyloid pathology and display synaptic plasticity impairments and cognitive dysfunction. Here we investigated GABAergic neurotransmission, using multi-electrode array (MEA technology and pharmacological manipulation to quantify the effect of GABA Blockers on field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP, and immunostaining of GABAergic neurons. Using MEA technology we confirm impaired LTP induction by high frequency stimulation in APPPS1 hippocampal CA1 region that was associated with reduced alteration of the pair pulse ratio after LTP induction. Synaptic dysfunction was also observed under manipulation of external Calcium concentration and input-output curve. Electrophysiological recordings from brain slice of CA1 hippocampus area, in the presence of GABAergic receptors blockers cocktails further demonstrated significant reduction in the GABAergic inputs in APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, immunostaining of GAD65 a specific marker for GABAergic neurons revealed reduction of the GABAergic inputs in CA1 area of the hippocampus. These results might be linked to increased seizure sensitivity, premature death and cognitive dysfunction in this animal model of AD. Further in depth analysis of GABAergic dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice is required and may open new perspectives for AD therapy by restoring GABAergic function.

  11. APP overexpression prevents neuropathic pain and motoneuron death after peripheral nerve injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotulska, Katarzyna; Larysz-Brysz, Magdalena; LePecheur, Marie; Marcol, Wiesław; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna; Paly, Evelyn; London, Jacqueline

    2010-03-16

    Despite general capacity of peripheral nervous system to regenerate, peripheral nerve injury is often followed by incomplete recovery of function and sometimes burdened by neuropathic pain. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) was suggested to play a role in neuronal growth, however, its role in peripheral nerve repair was not studied. The aim of this study was to examine the role of APP overexpression in peripheral nerve regeneration and neuropathic pain-related behavior in mice. Sciatic nerves of APP overexpressing and FVB/N wild-type mice were transected and immediately resutured. Evaluation of motor and sensory function and autotomy was carried out during 4-week follow up. We found no autotomy behavior as well as less significant atrophy of denervated muscles in APP overexpressing animals when compared to wild-type ones. Sciatic nerve function index outcome did not differ between groups. Histological evaluation revealed that the intensity of regeneration features, including GAP-43-positive growth cones and Schwann cells number in the distal stump of the transected nerve, was also similar in both groups. However, the regenerating fibers were organized more chaotically in wild-type mice and neuromas were much more often seen in this group. The number of macrophages infiltrating the injury site was significantly higher in control group. The number of surviving motoneurons was higher in transgenic mice than in control animals. Taken together, our findings suggest that APP overexpression is beneficial for nerve regeneration processes due to better organization of regenerating fibers, increased survival of motoneurons after autotomy and prevention of neuropathic pain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Creating mobile apps with Appcelerator Titanium

    CERN Document Server

    Brousseau, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium provides a hands-on approach and working examples on creating apps and games as well as embedding them onto a social networking website. Developers can then move on from there to develop their own applications based on the ones they have developed throughout the course of this book.""Creating Mobile Apps with Appcelerator Titanium"" is for developers who have experience with modern languages and development environments. Also, if you are familiar with the concepts of Object-oriented Programming (OOP), reusable components, AJAX closures, and so on

  13. Pro JavaScript for web apps

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Adam

    2012-01-01

    JavaScript is the engine behind every web app, and a solid knowledge of it is essential for all modern web developers. Pro JavaScript for Web Apps gives you all of the information that you need to create professional, optimized, and efficient JavaScript applications that will run across all devices. It takes you through all aspects of modern JavaScript application creation, showing you how to combine JavaScript with the new features of HTML5 and CSS3 to make the most of the new web technologies. The focus of the book is on creating professional web applications, ensuring that your app provides

  14. Direct to Consumer Mobile Teledermatology Apps: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kochmann, Matthias; Locatis, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Background: Since 2012, “Direct to Consumer” mobile teledermatology apps have become more available, relinquishing many data collection tasks normally done by healthcare professionals directly to patients. Introduction: To determine user friendliness, diagnostic quality, and service of commercially available mobile teledermatology apps. Materials and Methods: All mobile teledermatology apps available at the Apple App Store were reviewed. The two most popular mobile teledermatol...

  15. Beyond Native Apps: Web Technologies to the Rescue! (Keynote)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malavolta, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    As of today, mobile software development teams can follow a number of different development and distribution strategies, ranging from native apps, to mobile web apps, hybrid apps, and the recently emerging progressive web apps. This talk provides a state-of-the-art overview of the development

  16. Humidity Sensing in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enjin, Anders; Zaharieva, Emanuela E; Frank, Dominic D; Mansourian, Suzan; Suh, Greg S B; Gallio, Marco; Stensmyr, Marcus C

    2016-05-23

    Environmental humidity influences the fitness and geographic distribution of all animals [1]. Insects in particular use humidity cues to navigate the environment, and previous work suggests the existence of specific sensory mechanisms to detect favorable humidity ranges [2-5]. Yet, the molecular and cellular basis of humidity sensing (hygrosensation) remains poorly understood. Here we describe genes and neurons necessary for hygrosensation in the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster. We find that members of the Drosophila genus display species-specific humidity preferences related to conditions in their native habitats. Using a simple behavioral assay, we find that the ionotropic receptors IR40a, IR93a, and IR25a are all required for humidity preference in D. melanogaster. Yet, whereas IR40a is selectively required for hygrosensory responses, IR93a and IR25a mediate both humidity and temperature preference. Consistent with this, the expression of IR93a and IR25a includes thermosensory neurons of the arista. In contrast, IR40a is excluded from the arista but is expressed (and required) in specialized neurons innervating pore-less sensilla of the sacculus, a unique invagination of the third antennal segment. Indeed, calcium imaging showed that IR40a neurons directly respond to changes in humidity, and IR40a knockdown or IR93a mutation reduced their responses to stimuli. Taken together, our results suggest that the preference for a specific humidity range depends on specialized sacculus neurons, and that the processing of environmental humidity can happen largely in parallel to that of temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anxiety: There is an app for that. A systematic review of anxiety apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucala, Madalina; Cuijpers, Pim; Muench, Frederick; Cardoș, Roxana; Soflau, Radu; Dobrean, Anca; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; David, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Smartphones and mobile devices have become ubiquitous, and with the rapid advance of technology, the number of health applications (apps) that are available for consumers on these devices is constantly growing. In particular, there has been a recent proliferation of anxiety apps. However, there has been no review of the quality or content of these anxiety apps and little is known about their purpose, the features they contain, and their empirical support. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the commercially available anxiety apps. A list of anxiety apps was collected in January 2017, using the Power Search function of iTunes and Google Play. Of 5,078 identified apps, 52 met our inclusion criteria (i.e., being defined as an anxiety/worry relief app, and offering psychological techniques aimed primarily at reducing anxiety) and were further reviewed. The majority (67.3%) of the currently available anxiety apps were found to lack the involvement of health care professionals in their development, and very few (3.8%) of them have been rigorously tested. At the moment, although anxiety apps have the potential to enhance access to mental health care, there is a marked discrepancy between the wealth of commercially available apps, and the paucity of data regarding their efficacy and effectiveness. Although the great promise of apps is their ability to increasing access to evidence-based mental health, the field is not quite there yet and the full potential of apps for treating anxiety has yet to be exploited. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. From analogue to apps--developing an app to prepare children for medical imaging procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gigi; Greene, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Children's Hospital (RCH) in Melbourne has launched a world-first app for children that will help reduce anxiety and the need for anesthesia during medical imaging procedures. The free, game-based app, "Okee in Medical Imaging", helps children aged from four to eight years to prepare for all medical imaging procedures--X-ray, CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy. The app is designed to reduce anticipatory fear of imaging procedures, while helping to ensure that children attend imaging appointments equipped with the skills required for efficient and effective scans to be performed. This paper describes how the app was developed.

  19. iPad apps for orthopedic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Orrin I; Bhola, Siddharth

    2011-12-01

    The development and distribution of mobile applications, or apps, designed for medical professionals and patients is quickly expanding, and within this group are apps designed specifically for orthopedic use. Currently, the most popular mobile apps are sponsored by private companies and focus on delivering device-specific information. If this trend toward the use of privately funded educational materials continues, regulations may need to be established to ensure that the information provided is accurate, honest, and supported by peer-reviewed literature. It will likely be the responsibility of the orthopedic community to ensure that the development and use of these apps has appropriate oversight and validation as they are incorporated into clinical practice and training. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. iOS app development for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Feiler, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    If you've got incredible iOS ideas, get this book and bring them to life! iOS 7 represents the most significant update to Apple's mobile operating system since the first iPhone was released, and even the most seasoned app developers are looking for information on how to take advantage of the latest iOS 7 features in their app designs. That's where iOS App Development For Dummies comes in! Whether you're a programming hobbyist wanting to build an app for fun or a professional developer looking to expand into the iOS market, this book will walk you through the fundamentals of building a univer

  1. ''Are Chemistry Educational Apps Useful?''--A Quantitative Study with Three In-House Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Grace Lee Yuan; Lok, Chang; Yeat, Tan Wei; Cherynn, Tan Jie Ying; Tan, Emelyn Sue Qing

    2018-01-01

    Three internally developed mobile apps, "3D Sym Op", "SM2 Chem" and "ARMolVis," available for free on both the Apple App Store and Google Play Store were evaluated in seven studies. Each study was a systematic process of Pre-Test, In-lecture App Demo, App Assisted Interactive Tutorials (AAITs) and/or Independent App…

  2. Hermann Muller and Mutations in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Hermann Muller and Mutations in Drosophila Resources with University of Texas. In Austin his experiments on fruit flies (Drosophila) first showed that exposure to September to spend a year at the only Drosophila laboratory in Europe which was doing parallel work

  3. Use of Drosophila to study DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.B.; Harris, P.V.; Sakaguchi, K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses Drosophila, the premier metazoan organism for analyzing many fundamental features of eukaryotic gene regulation. The authors present adaptations of several approaches for studying DNA repair to an analysis of repair-defective mutants in Drosophila. A current understanding of Drosophila DNA repair is described

  4. Behavioral analysis of Drosophila transformants expressing human taste receptor genes in the gustatory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Ryota; Sasaki, Yuko; Morita, Hiromi; Komai, Michio; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Goto, Tomoko; Furuyama, Akira; Isono, Kunio

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic Drosophila expressing human T2R4 and T2R38 bitter-taste receptors or PKD2L1 sour-taste receptor in the fly gustatory receptor neurons and other tissues were prepared using conventional Gal4/UAS binary system. Molecular analysis showed that the transgene mRNAs are expressed according to the tissue specificity of the Gal4 drivers. Transformants expressing the transgene taste receptors in the fly taste neurons were then studied by a behavioral assay to analyze whether transgene chemoreceptors are functional and coupled to the cell response. Since wild-type flies show strong aversion against the T2R ligands as in mammals, the authors analyzed the transformants where the transgenes are expressed in the fly sugar receptor neurons so that they promote feeding ligand-dependently if they are functional and activate the neurons. Although the feeding preference varied considerably among different strains and individuals, statistical analysis using large numbers of transformants indicated that transformants expressing T2R4 showed a small but significant increase in the preference for denatonium and quinine, the T2R4 ligands, as compared to the control flies, whereas transformants expressing T2R38 did not. Similarly, transformants expressing T2R38 and PKD2L1 also showed a similar preference increase for T2R38-specific ligand phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and a sour-taste ligand, citric acid, respectively. Taken together, the transformants expressing mammalian taste receptors showed a small but significant increase in the feeding preference that is taste receptor and also ligand dependent. Although future improvements are required to attain performance comparable to the endogenous robust response, Drosophila taste neurons may serve as a potential in vivo heterologous expression system for analyzing chemoreceptor function.

  5. Developing multiplatform apps : using hybrid solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kristbergsson, Ellert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to describe the process of developing multiplatform apps for mobile phones by discussing and comparing the different methods of developing apps for all platforms. The purpose is to ease decision making of smaller companies that are starting to develop their own product for smartphones. The paper analyses tools based on the Cordova framework and the Qt framework. The difference between how the frameworks deliver the code to the machine, Cordova compiles JavaScript...

  6. Consumer behaviour in Apple's App Store

    OpenAIRE

    Ayalew, Romel

    2011-01-01

    Mobile applications stores such as Apple’s App Store and Google’s Android Market revolutionized the distribution of applications for mobile devices. However, with thousands of application submissions, limited testing resources and the lack of an effective filtering mechanism, application stores suffer from information overload and a risk of releasing poor quality applications that could create confusion to consumers and may seriously affect the App store markets. Thus concern has been raised ...

  7. Enhancing Pharmacy Student Learning and Perceptions of Medical Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Rodis, Jennifer; Aungst, Timothy Dy; Brown, Nicole V; Cui, Yan; Tam, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of mobile apps in health care is growing. Current and future practitioners must be equipped with the skills to navigate and utilize apps in patient care, yet few strategies exist for training health care professional students on the usage of apps. Objective To characterize first-year pharmacy student use of medical apps, evaluate first-year pharmacy student's perception of skills in finding, evaluating, and using medical apps before and after a focused learning experience, ...

  8. Automation support for mobile app quality assurance - a tool landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Susanne; Elberzhager, Frank; Holl, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Competitive pressure in app stores, as well as direct and transparent feedback of app store reviews have resulted in an increased demand for outstanding app quality and user experience. At the same time, reduced time-to-market, decreased budgets and time available for quality assurance, and careful user experience design have to be considered. In response, an enormous market for mobile app quality and user experience measurement tools has grown around the mobile app store ecosystems. Develope...

  9. Composite Social Network for Predicting Mobile Apps Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    Social network tools (such as the Facebook app and the Twitter app) can observe users’ online friendship network . In this work, our key idea is...the friendship network from phones by collecting data from social networking apps such as the Facebook and Twitter apps. We summarize all the networks ...ar X iv :1 10 6. 03 59 v1 [ cs .S I] 2 J un 2 01 1 Composite Social Network for Predicting Mobile Apps Installation Wei Pan

  10. [Transgenic cell cultures that synthesize neurotrophic factors and the possibility of therapeutic use of its cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, G V; Kanaĭkina, N N; Panteleev, D Iu; Okhotin, V E; Revishchin, A V

    2012-01-01

    Under the leadership of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences L.I. Korochkin, the Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Developmental Genetics (Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences) for many years has been conducting studies of nervous system development, neural cell differentiation, and application of gene and cell technology to cure neurodegenerative diseases. The results of the study initiated by L.I. Korochkin and continued by his scientific successors support the direction of allocation of transgenic neurotrofic factors and heat-shock proteins as neuroprotectors for cell therapy. Potential for usage of promoter of HSP70 heat-shock gene of Drosophila to create transgenic constructs for therapy has been shown. Further improvement of technology of nonvirus transfer for therapeutic genes, as well as production of multicomponent genetic constructs coding several therapeutic factors with synergy effect, would stimulate creation of efficient cell medicals to cure neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Airport Surface Access and Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martin-Domingo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Airport Surface Access faces two main opposite issues: (1 cars, being the main transport mode, contribute to the increasing level of congestion and pollution of cities; and (2 simultaneously, parking fees are one important source of airports commercial revenue, creating a dilemma for airports when facing the problem. Following the recent trend of air passengers travelling with Smartphone (78% in 2013, the purpose of this paper is to monitor the adoption of mobile Applications (Apps by airports and to analyze if the information and functions provided in those Apps can help to overcome the above two issues. Design/methodology/approach: 31 iPhone App of some of the largest European airports were evaluated in the lab using the evaluation model of Destinations Mobile Applications (Scolari and Fernández-Cavia 2014 adapted for for the Airport Surface Access on Airport Apps Findings and Originality/value: The Apps evaluated provided a very limited functionality to help passengers to plan and book their trips to/from the airports on public transports and gave high priority to parking information and services. Originality/value: Although Airport Surface Access has been a widely researched, the originality of this paper is the analysis of airport mobile Apps as a potential tool for airports to deal with the surface airport access problems.Access, Airports, Mobile Internet, Commercial Revenues

  12. Assessing the usability of Shazam mobile app

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Almazini, Hassan; Almazini, Hussein

    2017-10-01

    Like searching for a "needle" in a "haystack", suppose that there is a large set of signals (finite sequences of numbers) fs1; s2; s3; g, and a special signal q that may or may not be in the collection. How can the signals be found in the collection that is similar, or identical to q, and how can this be done quickly? A solution to this question is the basis of the Shazam smart phone app, where a listener captures a short excerpt of a recorded song with the smart phone's microphone, and in a matter of moments the app reports the name of the song and the artist. Here, the "needle" is the excerpt, and the "haystack" is a vast corpus of popular music. The Shazam algorithm is powered by Fourier analysis. This paper presents a report on a usability evaluation of Amazon Shazam app. The researchers present the outcome based on a task-based evaluation that involved 15 users of different level of experience who performed 5 tasks using the Shazam mobile app. Post-test questionnaire was used to capture users' perceptions about the app. The results demonstrate that most of the participants were satisfied with services provided by the app.

  13. Apps for Hearing Science and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Our research aims at the identification and assessment of applications (referred to as apps) in the hearing health care domain. This research forum article presents an overview of the current availability, affordability, and variety of hearing-related apps. The available apps were reviewed by searching on the leading platforms (iOS, Android, Windows Phone stores) using the keywords hearing, audiology, audio, auditory, speech, language, tinnitus, hearing loss, hearing aid, hearing sys tem, cochlear implant, implantable device, auditory training, hearing rehabilitation, and assistive technology/tool/device. O n the bas is of the offered services, apps were classified into 4 application domains: (a) screening and assessment, (b) intervention and rehabilitation, (c) education and information, and (d) assistive tools. A large variety of apps are available in the hearing health care domain. These cover a wide range of services for people with hearing or communication problems as well as for hearing professionals, families, or informal caregivers. This evolution can potentially bring along considerable advantages and improved outcomes in the field of hearing health care. Nevertheless, potential risks and threats (e.g., safety, quality, effectiveness, privacy, and regulation) should not be overlooked. Significant research—particularly in terms of assessment and guidance—is still needed for the informed, aware, and safe adoption of hearing-related apps by patients and professionals.

  14. A phonology-free mobile communication app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, Ananya; Zhang, Lee R; Patel, Shreya; Han, Xiao; Kim, Hee Jin; Li, Xintong; Altschuler, Eric L

    2016-11-01

    Aphasia - loss of comprehension or expression of language - is a devastating functional sequela of stroke. There are as yet no effective methods for rehabilitation of aphasia. An assistive device that allows aphasia patients to communicate and interact at speeds approaching real time is urgently needed. Behavioral and linguistic studies of aphasia patients show that they retain normal thinking processes and most aspects of language. They lack only phonology: the ability to translate (input) and/or output sounds (or written words) such as "ta-ble" into the image of a four-legged object with a top at which one works or eats. We have made a phonology-free communication mobile app that may be useful for patients with aphasia and other communication disorders. Particular innovations of our app include calling Google Images as a "subroutine" to allow a near-infinite number of choices (e.g. food or clothing items) for patients without having to make countless images, and by the use of animation for words, phrases or concepts that cannot be represented by a single image. We have tested our app successfully in one patient. The app may be of great benefit to patients with aphasia and other communication disorders. Implications for Rehabilitation We have made a phonology-free mobile communication app. This app may facilitate communication for patients with aphasia and other communication disorders.

  15. The Top Chinese Mobile Health Apps: A Systematic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Liu, Di; Yu, Ya Min; Zhao, Hui Tong; Chen, Zhi Rou; Li, Jiao; Chen, Wei

    2016-08-29

    China's mHealth market is on track to become a global leader by industry size. The Chinese mobile app market and health care system have peculiarities that distinguish them from other app markets. To date, Chinese mHealth apps have not been systematically investigated. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of Chinese mHealth apps as of December 2015. We identified and investigated the most downloaded apps from the iOS and Android platforms. For each app, we analyzed and recorded its main service offered, mHealth initiative, disease and specialty focus, app cost, target user, Web app availability, and emphasis on information security. Standard descriptive statistics were used. A total of 234 apps met the inclusion criteria and were investigated. The apps targeting nonhealth care professionals focused on providing telemedicine and appointment-making services. The apps targeting health care professionals focused on education and peer reviewed articles. The most common disease-specific apps focused primarily on diabetes, hypertension, and hepatitis management. Most apps were free and available on both iOS and Android platforms. The primary mHealth initiatives targeted by the apps reflect Chinese patients' demand for access to medical care. Disease-specific apps are also representative of disease prevalence in China. Government press releases suggest that new policies on the horizon may shift the industry.

  16. Taurine in drinking water recovers learning and memory in the adult APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Hyunjin V.; Yoon, Jin H.; Kang, Bo Ram; Cho, Soo Min; Lee, Sejin; Kim, Ji Yoon; Kim, Joo Won; Cho, Yakdol; Woo, Jiwan; Kim, YoungSoo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD. We orally administered taurine via drinking water to adult APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model for 6 weeks. Taurine treatment rescued cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice up to the age-matching wild-type mice in Y-maze and passive avoidance tests without modifying the behaviours of cognitively normal mice. In the cortex of APP/PS1 mice, taurine slightly decreased insoluble fraction of Aβ. While the exact mechanism of taurine in AD has not yet been ascertained, our results suggest that taurine can aid cognitive impairment and may inhibit Aβ-related damages. PMID:25502280

  17. Metabolism of methoxychlor by the P450-monooxygenase CYP6G1 involved in insecticide resistance of Drosophila melanogaster after expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, Nicole; Schuphan, Ingolf; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2010-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP6G1 of Drosophila melanogaster was heterologously expressed in a cell suspension culture of Nicotiana tabacum. This in vitro system was used to study the capability of CYP6G1 to metabolize the insecticide methoxychlor (=1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)ethane, 1) against the background of endogenous enzymes of the corresponding non-transgenic culture. The Cyp6g1-transgenic cell culture metabolized 96% of applied methoxychlor (45.8 microg per assay) within 24 h by demethylation and hydroxylation mainly to trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor (16 and 17%, resp.). About 34% of the metabolism and the distinct formation of trishydroxy and catechol methoxychlor were due to foreign enzyme CYP6G1. Furthermore, methoxychlor metabolism was inhibited by 43% after simultaneous addition of piperonyl butoxide (458 microg), whereas inhibition in the non-transgenic culture amounted to 92%. Additionally, the rate of glycosylation was reduced in both cultures. These results were supported by the inhibition of the metabolism of the insecticide imidacloprid (6; 20 microg, 24 h) in the Cyp6g1-transgenic culture by 82% in the presence of piperonyl butoxide (200 microg). Due to CYP6G1 being responsible for imidacloprid resistance of Drosophila or being involved in DDT resistance, it is likely that CYP6G1 conveys resistance to methoxychlor (1). Furthermore, treating Drosophila with piperonyl butoxide could weaken the observed resistance phenomena.

  18. Smartphone apps for orthopaedic sports medicine - a smart move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Seng Juong; Robertson, Greg A; Connor, Katie L; Brady, Richard R; Wood, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of smartphones together with their downloadable applications (apps), there is increasing opportunities for doctors, including orthopaedic sports surgeons, to integrate such technology into clinical practice. However, the clinical reliability of these medical apps remains questionable. We reviewed available apps themed specifically towards Orthopaedic Sports Medicine and related conditions and assessed the level of medical professional involvement in their design and content, along with a review of these apps. The most popular smartphone app stores (Android, Apple, Blackberry, Windows, Samsung, Nokia) were searched for Orthopaedic Sports medicine themed apps, using the search terms; Orthopaedic Sports Medicine, Orthopaedics, Sports medicine, Knee Injury, Shoulder Injury, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear, Medial Collateral Ligament Tear, Rotator Cuff Tear, Meniscal Tear, Tennis Elbow. All English language apps related to orthopaedic sports medicine were included. A total of 76 individual Orthopaedic Sports Medicine themed apps were identified. According to app store classifications, there were 45 (59 %) medical themed apps, 28 (37 %) health and fitness themed apps, 1 (1 %) business app, 1 (1 %) reference app and 1 (1 %) sports app. Forty-nine (64 %) apps were available for download free of charge. For those that charged access, the prices ranged from £0.69 to £69.99. Only 51 % of sports medicine apps had customer satisfaction ratings and 39 % had named medical professional involvement in their development or content. We found the majority of Orthopaedic Sports Medicine apps had no named medical professional involvement, raising concerns over their content and evidence-base. We recommend increased regulation of such apps to improve the accountability of app content.

  19. miRNA-dependent translational repression in the Drosophila ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Reich

    Full Text Available The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary.Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed.Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary.

  20. The Drosophila Helicase MLE Targets Hairpin Structures in Genomic Transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cugusi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA hairpins are a common type of secondary structures that play a role in every aspect of RNA biochemistry including RNA editing, mRNA stability, localization and translation of transcripts, and in the activation of the RNA interference (RNAi and microRNA (miRNA pathways. Participation in these functions often requires restructuring the RNA molecules by the association of single-strand (ss RNA-binding proteins or by the action of helicases. The Drosophila MLE helicase has long been identified as a member of the MSL complex responsible for dosage compensation. The complex includes one of two long non-coding RNAs and MLE was shown to remodel the roX RNA hairpin structures in order to initiate assembly of the complex. Here we report that this function of MLE may apply to the hairpins present in the primary RNA transcripts that generate the small molecules responsible for RNA interference. Using stocks from the Transgenic RNAi Project and the Vienna Drosophila Research Center, we show that MLE specifically targets hairpin RNAs at their site of transcription. The association of MLE at these sites is independent of sequence and chromosome location. We use two functional assays to test the biological relevance of this association and determine that MLE participates in the RNAi pathway.

  1. Systems neuroscience in Drosophila: Conceptual and technical advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, H

    2015-06-18

    The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is ideally suited for investigating the neural circuit basis of behavior. Due to the simplicity and genetic tractability of the fly brain, neurons and circuits are identifiable across animals. Additionally, a large set of transgenic lines has been developed with the aim of specifically labeling small subsets of neurons and manipulating them in sophisticated ways. Electrophysiology and imaging can be applied in behaving individuals to examine the computations performed by each neuron, and even the entire population of relevant neurons in a particular region, because of the small size of the brain. Moreover, a rich repertoire of behaviors that can be studied is expanding to include those requiring cognitive abilities. Thus, the fly brain is an attractive system in which to explore both computations and mechanisms underlying behavior at levels spanning from genes through neurons to circuits. This review summarizes the advantages Drosophila offers in achieving this objective. A recent neurophysiology study on olfactory behavior is also introduced to demonstrate the effectiveness of these advantages. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemolymph amino acid analysis of individual Drosophila larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyankarage, Sujeewa C; Augustin, Hrvoje; Grosjean, Yael; Featherstone, David E; Shippy, Scott A

    2008-02-15

    One of the most widely used transgenic animal models in biology is Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly. Chemical information from this exceedingly small organism is usually accomplished by studying populations to attain sample volumes suitable for standard analysis methods. This paper describes a direct sampling technique capable of obtaining 50-300 nL of hemolymph from individual Drosophila larvae. Hemolymph sampling performed under mineral oil and in air at 30 s intervals up to 120 s after piercing larvae revealed that the effect of evaporation on amino acid concentrations is insignificant when the sample was collected within 60 s. Qualitative and quantitative amino acid analyses of obtained hemolymph were carried out in two optimized buffer conditions by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection after derivatizing with fluorescamine. Thirteen amino acids were identified from individual hemolymph samples of both wild-type (WT) control and the genderblind (gb) mutant larvae. The levels of glutamine, glutamate, and taurine in the gb hemolymph were significantly lower at 35%, 38%, and 57% of WT levels, respectively. The developed technique that samples only the hemolymph fluid is efficient and enables accurate organism-level chemical information while minimizing errors associated with possible sample contaminations, estimations, and effects of evaporation compared to the traditional hemolymph-sampling techniques.

  3. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  4. Leakiness and Creepiness in App Space: User Perceptions of Privacy and Mobile App Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Mainwaring, Scott; Skúladóttir, Halla Hrund

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices are playing an increasingly intimate role in everyday life. However, users can be surprised when in- formed of the data collection and distribution activities of apps they install. We report on two studies of smartphone users in western European countries, in which users were confr...... to important underlying issues, even when users continue using apps they find creepy....

  5. Planet App: Kids' Book Apps Are Everywhere. But Are They Any Good?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A proper picture book app lets a parent and child read, listen to, or explore a book in a fun and interactive manner. Typical options offered in these apps include turning off the sound (so that a parent or child can read on their own), changing from one language to another, and small interactive features, such as making the characters move. To…

  6. Red flag on the white reporter: a versatile insulator abuts the white gene in Drosophila and is omnipresent in mini-white constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Chetverina, Darya; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Maksimenko, Oksana; Melnikova, Larisa; Zaytseva, Olga; Parshikov, Alexander; Galkin, Alexander V.; Georgiev, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research on insulators in Drosophila has been done with transgenic constructs using the white gene (mini-white) as reporter. Hereby we report that the sequence between the white and CG32795 genes in Drosophila melanogaster contains an insulator of a novel kind. Its functional core is within a 368 bp segment almost contiguous to the white 3′UTR, hence we name it as Wari (white-abutting resident insulator). Though Wari contains no binding sites for known insulator proteins and does ...

  7. Phylogeny of the Genus Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Grady, Patrick M.; DeSalle, Rob

    2018-01-01

    Understanding phylogenetic relationships among taxa is key to designing and implementing comparative analyses. The genus Drosophila, which contains over 1600 species, is one of the most important model systems in the biological sciences. For over a century, one species in this group, Drosophila melanogaster, has been key to studies of animal development and genetics, genome organization and evolution, and human disease. As whole-genome sequencing becomes more cost-effective, there is increasing interest in other members of this morphologically, ecologically, and behaviorally diverse genus. Phylogenetic relationships within Drosophila are complicated, and the goal of this paper is to provide a review of the recent taxonomic changes and phylogenetic relationships in this genus to aid in further comparative studies. PMID:29716983

  8. Progress on researches of transgenic alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiqin; Wang Mi; Ren Weibo; Xu Zhu; Chen Libo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the progress on the researches of transgenic alfalfa in the past two decades had been reviewed in the aspects of regeneration system, transformation, improvement of the important traits and so on. Moreover, such problems as variation of transgene expression and safety of transgenic plant had also been discussed and propose had been given for the future research work. (authors)

  9. Mobile medical apps for patient education: a graded review of available dermatology apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Aisha; Shafi, Shahram; Rao, Babar K

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of mobile applications (apps) as educational resources for patients highlights the need for an objective method of evaluating the quality of health care-related mobile apps. In this study, a quantified rubric was developed to objectively grade publicly available dermatology mobile apps with the primary focus of patient education. The rubric included 5 criteria thought to be most important in evaluating the adequacy of these apps in relaying health information to patients: educational objectives, content, accuracy, design, and conflict of interest. A 4-point scale was applied to each criterion. The use of this objective rubric could have implications in the evaluation and recommendation of mobile health care apps as a vital educational resource for patients.

  10. APP processing and the APP-KPI domain involvement in the amyloid cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-González, M; Pérez-Pinera, P; Martínez-Rivera, M; Calatayud, M T; Blázquez Menes, B

    2005-01-01

    Alternative APP mRNA splicing can generate isoforms of APP containing a Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain. KPI is one of the main serine protease inhibitors. Protein and mRNA KPI(+)APP levels are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and are associated with increased amyloid beta deposition. In the last years increasing evidence on multiple points in the amyloid cascade where KPI(+)APP is involved has been accumulated, admitting an outstanding position in the pathogenesis of AD to the KPI domain. This review focuses on the APP processing, the molecular activity of KPI and its physiological and pathological roles and the KPI involvement in the amyloid cascade through the nerve growth factor, the lipoprotein receptor-related protein, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme and the Notch1 protein.

  11. Commercially available mobile phone headache diary apps: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundert, Amos S; Huguet, Anna; McGrath, Patrick J; Stinson, Jennifer N; Wheaton, Mike

    2014-08-19

    Headache diaries are often used by headache sufferers to self-monitor headaches. With advances in mobile technology, mobile electronic diary apps are becoming increasingly common. This review aims to identify and evaluate all commercially available mobile headache diary apps for the two most popular mobile phone platforms, iOS and Android. The authors developed a priori a set of 7 criteria that define an ideal headache diary app intended to help headache sufferers better understand and manage their headaches, while providing relevant data to health professionals. The app criteria were intended as minimum requirements for an acceptable headache diary app that could be prescribed by health care professionals. Each app was evaluated and scored against each criterion. Of the 38 apps identified, none of the apps met all 7 app criteria. The 3 highest scoring apps, meeting 5 of the app criteria, were iHeadache (developed by Better QOL), ecoHeadache (developed by ecoTouchMedia), and Headache Diary Pro (developed by Froggyware). Only 18% of the apps were created with scientific or clinical headache expertise and none of the apps reported on psychometric properties. Despite the growing market and demand, there is a concerning lack of scientific expertise and evidence base associated with headache diary apps.

  12. An integrated optical coherence microscopy imaging and optical stimulation system for optogenetic pacing in Drosophila melanogaster (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Aneesh; Li, Airong; Men, Jing; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Electrical stimulation is the clinical standard for cardiac pacing. Although highly effective in controlling cardiac rhythm, the invasive nature, non-specificity to cardiac tissues and possible tissue damage limits its applications. Optogenetic pacing of the heart is a promising alternative, which is non-invasive and more specific, has high spatial and temporal precision, and avoids the shortcomings in electrical stimulation. Drosophila melanogaster, which is a powerful model organism with orthologs of nearly 75% of human disease genes, has not been studied for optogenetic pacing in the heart. Here, we developed a non-invasive integrated optical pacing and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging system to control the heart rhythm of Drosophila at different developmental stages using light. The OCM system is capable of providing high imaging speed (130 frames/s) and ultrahigh imaging resolutions (1.5 μm and 3.9 μm for axial and transverse resolutions, respectively). A light-sensitive pacemaker was developed in Drosophila by specifically expressing the light-gated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in transgenic Drosophila heart. We achieved non-invasive and specific optical control of the Drosophila heart rhythm throughout the fly's life cycle (larva, pupa, and adult) by stimulating the heart with 475 nm pulsed laser light. Heart response to stimulation pulses was monitored non-invasively with OCM. This integrated non-invasive optogenetic control and in vivo imaging technique provides a novel platform for performing research studies in developmental cardiology.

  13. Affecting Rhomboid-3 function causes a dilated heart in adult Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila is a well recognized model of several human diseases, and recent investigations have demonstrated that Drosophila can be used as a model of human heart failure. Previously, we described that optical coherence tomography (OCT can be used to rapidly examine the cardiac function in adult, awake flies. This technique provides images that are similar to echocardiography in humans, and therefore we postulated that this approach could be combined with the vast resources that are available in the fly community to identify new mutants that have abnormal heart function, a hallmark of certain cardiovascular diseases. Using OCT to examine the cardiac function in adult Drosophila from a set of molecularly-defined genomic deficiencies from the DrosDel and Exelixis collections, we identified an abnormally enlarged cardiac chamber in a series of deficiency mutants spanning the rhomboid 3 locus. Rhomboid 3 is a member of a highly conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases and processes Spitz, an epidermal growth factor (EGF-like ligand. Using multiple approaches based on the examination of deficiency stocks, a series of mutants in the rhomboid-Spitz-EGF receptor pathway, and cardiac-specific transgenic rescue or dominant-negative repression of EGFR, we demonstrate that rhomboid 3 mediated activation of the EGF receptor pathway is necessary for proper adult cardiac function. The importance of EGF receptor signaling in the adult Drosophila heart underscores the concept that evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanisms are required to maintain normal myocardial function. Interestingly, prior work showing the inhibition of ErbB2, a member of the EGF receptor family, in transgenic knock-out mice or individuals that received herceptin chemotherapy is associated with the development of dilated cardiomyopathy. Our results, in conjunction with the demonstration that altered ErbB2 signaling underlies certain forms of mammalian cardiomyopathy, suggest

  14. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression. PMID:29693007

  15. Modelling Cooperative Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena E. Richardson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of human metastatic cancer is a multistep process, involving the acquisition of several genetic mutations, tumour heterogeneity, and interactions with the surrounding microenvironment. Due to the complexity of cancer development in mammals, simpler model organisms, such as the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, are being utilized to provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms involved. In this review, we highlight recent advances in modelling tumorigenesis using the Drosophila model, focusing on the cooperation of oncogenes or tumour suppressors, and the interaction of mutant cells with the surrounding tissue in epithelial tumour initiation and progression.

  16. CERN Apps meet in a forum

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    In the fast-evolving world of mobile apps, creativity and usability are key words. For the time being, the number of CERN apps is quite limited but the situation could quickly change. An information-sharing forum set up by the IT Department is a starting point to channel your creativity with the help of experts, best practices and useful guidelines.   The CAPPS (CERN Apps) Forum was set up about a year ago. Its members come from various departments and meet every two or three months to update each other on the apps that are in preparation, share the latest news on the available software, discuss best practices and so on. “The Forum is open to anybody wanting to develop apps at CERN,” explains David Foster, Deputy Department Head and initiator of the CAPPS Forum. “Developers, communication experts and IT infrastructure experts meet and discuss various topics, from branding-related issues to coding and implementation solutions. The aim is to go forward in a coherent way...

  17. Keep Using My Health Apps: Discover Users' Perception of Health and Fitness Apps with the UTAUT2 Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shupei; Ma, Wenjuan; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Peng, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Health and fitness applications (apps) are one of the major app categories in the current mobile app market. Few studies have examined this area from the users' perspective. This study adopted the Extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) Model to examine the predictors of the users' intention to adopt health and fitness apps. A survey (n=317) was conducted with college-aged smartphone users at a Midwestern university in the United States. Performance expectancy, hedonic motivations, price value, and habit were significant predictors of users' intention of continued usage of health and fitness apps. However, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions were not found to predict users' intention of continued usage of health and fitness apps. This study extends the UTATU2 Model to the mobile apps domain and provides health professions, app designers, and marketers with the insights of user experience in terms of continuously using health and fitness apps.

  18. The Business of iPhone App Development

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenal success of the iPhone and the iPod touch has ushered in a "gold rush" for developers, but with well over 100,000 apps in the highly competitive App Store, it has become increasingly difficult for new apps to stand out in the crowd. Achieving consumer awareness and sales longevity for your iPhone app requires a lot of organization and some strategic planning. This book will show you how to incorporate marketing and business savvy into every aspect of the design and development process, giving your app the best possible chance of succeeding in the App Store. The Business

  19. Drosophila photoreceptor axon guidance and targeting requires the dreadlocks SH2/SH3 adapter protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, P A; Rao, Y; Salecker, I; McGlade, J; Pawson, T; Zipursky, S L

    1996-05-31

    Mutations in the Drosophila gene dreadlocks (dock) disrupt photoreceptor cell (R cell) axon guidance and targeting. Genetic mosaic analysis and cell-type-specific expression of dock transgenes demonstrate dock is required in R cells for proper innervation. Dock protein contains one SH2 and three SH3 domains, implicating it in tyrosine kinase signaling, and is highly related to the human proto-oncogene Nck. Dock expression is detected in R cell growth cones in the target region. We propose Dock transmits signals in the growth cone in response to guidance and targeting cues. These findings provide an important step for dissection of signaling pathways regulating growth cone motility.

  20. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Picado, Patricia; Valdez Melara, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee [es

  1. Beebook: light field mapping app

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Di Pietro, Gianfranco; Rinnone, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade the mobile systems for field digital mapping were developed (see Wikipedia for "Digital geologic mapping"), also against many skeptic traditional geologists. Until now, hardware was often heavy (tablet PC) and software sometime difficult also for expert GIS users. At present, the advent of light tablet and applications makes things easier, but we are far to find a whole solution for a complex survey like the geological one where you have to manage complexities such information, hypothesis, data, interpretation. Beebook is a new app for Android devices, has been developed for fast ad easy mapping work in the field trying to try to solve this problem. The main features are: • off-line raster management, GeoTIFF ed other raster format using; • on-line map visualisation (Google Maps, OSM, WMS, WFS); • SR management and conversion using PROJ.4; • vector file mash-up (KML and SQLite format); • editing of vector data on the map (lines, points, polygons); • augmented reality using "Mixare" platform; • export of vector data in KML, CSV, SQLite (Spatialite) format; • note: GPS or manual point inserting linked to other application files (pictures, spreadsheet, etc.); • form: creation, edition and filling of customized form; • GPS: status control, tracker and positioning on map; • sharing: synchronization and sharing of data, forms, positioning and other information can be done among users. The input methods are different from digital keyboard to fingers touch, from voice recording to stylus. In particular the most efficient way of inserting information is the stylus (or pen): field geologists are familiar with annotation and sketches. Therefore we suggest the use of devices with stylus. The main point is that Beebook is the first "transparent" mobile GIS for tablet and smartphone deriving from previous experience as traditional mapping and different previous digital mapping software ideation and development (MapIT, BeeGIS, Geopaparazzi

  2. MedAd-AppQ: A quality assessment tool for medication adherence apps on iOS and android platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eskinder Eshetu; Teo, Amanda Kai Sin; Goh, Sherlyn Xue Lin; Chew, Lita; Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern

    2018-02-02

    With the recent proliferation of smartphone medication adherence applications (apps), it is increasingly more difficult for patients and clinicians to identify the most useful app. To develop a quality assessment tool for medication adherence apps, and evaluate the quality of such apps from the major app stores. In this study, a Medication Adherence App Quality assessment tool (MedAd-AppQ) was developed and two evaluators independently assessed apps that fulfilled the following criteria: availability in English, had at least a medication reminder feature, non-specific to certain disease conditions (generic apps), free of technical malfunctions and availability on both the iPhone Operating System (iOS) and Android platforms. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson product moment correlation and Spearman rank-order correlation were used for statistical analysis. MedAd-AppQ was designed to have 24 items (total 43 points) categorized under three sections: content reliability (11 points), feature usefulness (29 points) and feature convenience (3 points). The three sections of MedAd-AppQ were found to have inter-rater correlation coefficients of 0.801 (p-value apps (27 iOS and 25 Android), quality scores ranged between 7/43 (16.3%) and 28/43 (65.1%). There was no significant difference between the quality scores of the Android and iOS versions. None of the apps had features for self-management of side effects. Only two apps in each platform provided disease-related and/or medication information. MedAd-AppQ can be used to reliably assess the quality of adherence apps. Clinicians can use the tool in selecting apps for use by patients. Developers of adherence apps should consider features that provide therapy-related information and help patients in medications and side-effects management. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. iOS app development portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The essential skills and technologies needed for iOS development in one handy guide! The unprecedented popularity of iOS devices, such as the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, has led to a development boom. If you’re eager to become part of the action, then this is the book for you! Packed with must-have information on iOS development, this handy guide covers Objective-C, Xcode, Frameworks, and sound design principles and explains how to upload an app to the app store and integrate apps with the latest advances that Apple offers developers. The featured tips and tricks will get you up and ru

  4. Design of Trigonometry Apps for Vocational Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Bjarke; Andersen, Steffen; Majgaard, Gunver

    2012-01-01

    How can smartphones apps enrich the learning of mathematicsin vocational education? This article examines how mathematics teaching can be enriched by apps using smartphone sensors such as gyroscope, compass, camera, and touch screen in a aming context. An iterative and participatory design process.......The combination of competition to unlock exercises, competition for placing on the high-score list, and physical activity proved very motivating for the students and was also approved by their teachers. In this article we describe our design principles, the overall game architecture and the games themselves. We...... talk about our experience in implementing our design process and subsequently summarize the pros and cons of the application and the smartphone platform and how the app developed contributes to vocational mathematics teaching....

  5. Autism Children’s App using PECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareena Soomro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since autistic children suffers from learning disabilities and communication barriers, this research aim to design, develop and evaluate an Android based mobile application (app providing better learning environment with inclusion of graphical representation in a cost effective manner. This research evaluate various supporting technologies and finds Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS to be better choice for integrating with the app. Evaluation results reveal that the inclusion of PECS helped the children suffering from Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD to better communicate with others. The study included autistic children who do not speak, who are unintelligible and who are minimally effective communicators with their present communication system. The evolution results showed encouraging impacts of the Autism App in supporting autistic children to adapt to normal life and improve the standard of their life.

  6. Just a fad? Gamification in health and fitness apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Cameron; West, Joshua H; Cannon, Ben; Sax, Tyler; Brodegard, David

    2014-08-04

    Gamification has been a predominant focus of the health app industry in recent years. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a review of gamification elements in relation to health behavior constructs, or insight into the true proliferation of gamification in health apps. The objective of this study was to identify the extent to which gamification is used in health apps, and analyze gamification of health and fitness apps as a potential component of influence on a consumer's health behavior. An analysis of health and fitness apps related to physical activity and diet was conducted among apps in the Apple App Store in the winter of 2014. This analysis reviewed a sample of 132 apps for the 10 effective game elements, the 6 core components of health gamification, and 13 core health behavior constructs. A regression analysis was conducted in order to measure the correlation between health behavior constructs, gamification components, and effective game elements. This review of the most popular apps showed widespread use of gamification principles, but low adherence to any professional guidelines or industry standard. Regression analysis showed that game elements were associated with gamification (Pgamification (Pgamification was only associated with composite motivational behavior scores (Pgamification use in health and fitness apps, and the potential to impact health behavior. The results show that use of gamification in health and fitness apps has become immensely popular, as evidenced by the number of apps found in the Apple App Store containing at least some components of gamification. This shows a lack of integrating important elements of behavioral theory from the app industry, which can potentially impact the efficacy of gamification apps to change behavior. Apps represent a very promising, burgeoning market and landscape in which to disseminate health behavior change interventions. Initial results show an abundant use of gamification in health and

  7. Smartphone apps for spinal surgery: is technology good or evil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wong, Seng Juong; Brady, Richard R; Subramanian, Ashok S

    2016-05-01

    The increased utilization of smartphones together with their downloadable applications (apps) provides opportunity for doctors, including spinal surgeons, to integrate such technology into clinical practice. However, the clinical reliability of the medical app sector remains questionable. We reviewed available apps themed specifically towards spinal surgery and related conditions and assessed the level of medical professional involvement in their design and content. The most popular smartphone app stores (Android, Apple, Blackberry, Windows, Samsung, Nokia) were searched for spinal surgery-themed apps, using the disease terms Spinal Surgery, Back Surgery, Spine, Disc Prolapse, Sciatica, Radiculopathy, Spinal Stenosis, Scoliosis, Spinal Fracture and Spondylolisthesis. A total of 78 individual spinal surgery themed apps were identified, of which there were six duplicates (N = 72). According to app store classifications, there were 57 (79 %) medical themed apps, 11 (15 %) health and fitness themed apps, 1 (1 %) business and 3 (4 %) education themed apps. Forty-five (63 %) apps were available for download free of charge. For those that charged access, the prices ranged from £0.62 to £47.99. Only 44 % of spinal surgery apps had customer satisfaction ratings and 56 % had named medical professional involvement in their development or content. This is the first study to specifically address the characteristics of apps related to spinal surgery. We found that nearly half of spinal surgery apps had no named medical professional involvement, raising concerns over app content and evidence base for their use. We recommend increased regulation of spinal surgical apps to improve the accountability of app content.

  8. easyHealthApps: e-Health Apps dynamic generation for smartphones & tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschou, Mersini; Sakkopoulos, Evangelos; Tsakalidis, Athanasios

    2013-06-01

    Mobile phones and especially smartphones have been embraced by a rapidly increasing number of people worldwide and this trend is expected to evolve even more in the years to come. There are numerous smartphone Apps that record critical medical data in an effort to solve a particular health issue each time. We studied such applications and not surprisingly, we have found that development and design effort is often repeated. Software patterns have been detected to exist, however re-usability has not been enforced. This leads to lost programming manpower and to increased probability of repeating bugs in Apps. Moreover, at the moment smartphone e-Health Apps demand time, effort and costs for development. Unfortunately even simple data recording Apps are practically impossible to be produced by multiple health domain users who are not developers. In this work, we propose, design and implement a simple and integrated solution which gives healthcare professionals and researchers the ability to create their own data intensive smartphone applications, independent of the desired healthcare domain. The proposed approach applies efficient software techniques that hide development from the users and enable App creation through a simple Web User Interface. The Apps produced are in native format and it is possible to dynamically receive m-Health business logic and the chosen UI. Evaluation of the proposed solution has shown that the generated Apps are functionally and UI equivalent to human-coded Apps according to a number of comparison parameters. Furthermore, e-Health professionals show particular interest in developing Apps on their own for a particular domain they focus on.

  9. Review of Pocket Guide Megaliths [app

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney Harris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pocket Guide Megaliths app was developed by Senet Mobile UK in collaboration with The Megalithic Portal website. The app was released in 2016 and is currently available for iOS devices, such as iPhone and iPads. Pocket Guide Megaliths presents the Megalithic Portal's burgeoning worldwide database of ancient and prehistoric sites in a variety of innovative and engaging ways. It aims to act primarily as a guide to enjoying and exploring the rich prehistoric heritage of the world, though offers additional functionality for would-be monument explorers too.

  10. Tapworthy Designing Great iPhone Apps

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Josh

    2010-01-01

    So you've got an idea for an iPhone app -- along with everyone else on the planet. Set your app apart with elegant design, efficient usability, and a healthy dose of personality. This accessible, well-written guide shows you how to design exceptional user experiences for the iPhone and iPod Touch through practical principles and a rich collection of visual examples. Whether you're a designer, programmer, manager, or marketer, Tapworthy teaches you to "think iPhone" and helps you ask the right questions -- and get the right answers -- throughout the design process. You'll explore how consider

  11. The Ubx Polycomb response element bypasses an unpaired Fab-8 insulator via cis transvection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Danfeng; Li, Zhuoran; Li, Lingling; Yang, Liping; Chen, Guijun; Yang, Deying; Zhang, Yue; Singh, Vikrant; Smith, Sheryl; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Erlin; Ye, Yunshuang; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Lei; Rong, Yikang; Zhou, Jumin

    2018-01-01

    Chromatin insulators or boundary elements protect genes from regulatory activities from neighboring genes or chromatin domains. In the Drosophila Abdominal-B (Abd-B) locus, the deletion of such elements, such as Frontabdominal-7 (Fab-7) or Fab-8 led to dominant gain of function phenotypes, presumably due to the loss of chromatin barriers. Homologous chromosomes are paired in Drosophila, creating a number of pairing dependent phenomena including transvection, and whether transvection may affect the function of Polycomb response elements (PREs) and thus contribute to the phenotypes are not known. Here, we studied the chromatin barrier activity of Fab-8 and how it is affected by the zygosity of the transgene, and found that Fab-8 is able to block the silencing effect of the Ubx PRE on the DsRed reporter gene in a CTCF binding sites dependent manner. However, the blocking also depends on the zygosity of the transgene in that the barrier activity is present when the transgene is homozygous, but absent when the transgene is heterozygous. To analyze this effect, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR) experiments on homozygous transgenic embryos, and found that H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 marks are restricted by Fab-8, but they spread beyond Fab-8 into the DsRed gene when the two CTCF binding sites within Fab-8 were mutated. Consistent with this, the mutation reduced H3K4me3 and RNA Pol II binding to the DsRed gene, and consequently, DsRed expression. Importantly, in heterozygous embryos, Fab-8 is unable to prevent the spread of H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 marks from crossing Fab-8 into DsRed, suggesting an insulator bypass. These results suggest that in the Abd-B locus, deletion of the insulator in one copy of the chromosome could lead to the loss of insulator activity on the homologous chromosome, and in other loci where chromosomal deletion created hemizygous regions of the genome, the chromatin barrier could be compromised. This study highlights

  12. Review of Tour of the Nile [iPad App

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Strudwick

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of the iPad app, Tour of the Nile. The app promises 'a virtual journey along the Nile Valley' plus the chance to 'handle' objects through the technology of augmented reality.

  13. Functional evolution of cis-regulatory modules at a homeotic gene in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret C W Ho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a long-held belief in evolutionary biology that the rate of molecular evolution for a given DNA sequence is inversely related to the level of functional constraint. This belief holds true for the protein-coding homeotic (Hox genes originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of the Hox genes in Drosophila embryos is essential for body patterning and is controlled by an extensive array of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs. How the regulatory modules functionally evolve in different species is not clear. A comparison of the CRMs for the Abdominal-B gene from different Drosophila species reveals relatively low levels of overall sequence conservation. However, embryonic enhancer CRMs from other Drosophila species direct transgenic reporter gene expression in the same spatial and temporal patterns during development as their D. melanogaster orthologs. Bioinformatic analysis reveals the presence of short conserved sequences within defined CRMs, representing gap and pair-rule transcription factor binding sites. One predicted binding site for the gap transcription factor KRUPPEL in the IAB5 CRM was found to be altered in Superabdominal (Sab mutations. In Sab mutant flies, the third abdominal segment is transformed into a copy of the fifth abdominal segment. A model for KRUPPEL-mediated repression at this binding site is presented. These findings challenge our current understanding of the relationship between sequence evolution at the molecular level and functional activity of a CRM. While the overall sequence conservation at Drosophila CRMs is not distinctive from neighboring genomic regions, functionally critical transcription factor binding sites within embryonic enhancer CRMs are highly conserved. These results have implications for understanding mechanisms of gene expression during embryonic development, enhancer function, and the molecular evolution of eukaryotic regulatory modules.

  14. Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response: There's An App for That.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Daniel J; Jamison, Nathan K; Martin, Andrew; Delgado, Jose; Kman, Nicholas E

    2015-10-01

    Smartphone applications (or apps) are becoming increasingly popular with emergency responders and health care providers, as well as the public as a whole. There are thousands of medical apps available for Smartphones and tablet computers, with more added each day. These include apps to view textbooks, guidelines, medication databases, medical calculators, and radiology images. Hypothesis/Problem With an ever expanding catalog of apps that relate to disaster medicine, it is hard for both the lay public and responders to know where to turn for effective Smartphone apps. A systematic review of these apps was conducted. A search of the Apple iTunes store (Version 12; Apple Inc.; Cupertino, California USA) was performed using the following terms obtained from the PubMed Medical Subject Headings Database: Emergency Preparedness, Emergency Responders, Disaster, Disaster Planning, Disaster Medicine, Bioterrorism, Chemical Terrorism, Hazardous Materials (HazMat), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). After excluding any unrelated apps, a working list of apps was formed and categorized based on topics. Apps were grouped based on applicability to responders, the lay public, or regional preparedness, and were then ranked based on iTunes user reviews, value, relevance to audience, and user interface. This search revealed 683 applications and was narrowed to 219 based on relevance to the field. After grouping the apps as described above, and subsequently ranking them, the highest quality apps were determined from each group. The Community Emergency Response Teams and FEMA had the best apps for National Disaster Medical System responders. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had high-quality apps for emergency responders in a variety of fields. The National Library of Medicine's Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) app was an excellent app for HazMat responders. The American Red Cross had the most useful apps for natural

  15. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  16. Apps: a new medium for non-fiction innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Apps are now a dominant content medium: in the US people spend more time on apps than they do watching TV. Non-fiction content is being avidly consumed on mobile devices, but in a completely different way to the book model. This article explores three strands of potential that the app medium holds for non-fiction content, putting forward the case that apps have the power to further weave non-fiction into the fabric of society and life.

  17. Specialized Binary Analysis for Vetting Android APPS Using GUI Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    user expectation of what the app is doing. These techniques enable security analysts to quickly vet any given Android app even if the source code is...Malware Detection for Android applications, Binary Analysis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...of what the app is doing. These techniques enable security analysts to quickly vet any given Android app even if the source code is unavailable. These

  18. Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch

    CERN Document Server

    Hockenberry, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Creating iPhone Apps with Cocoa Touch: The Mini Missing Manual walks you through developing your first iPhone App and introduces you to your programming environments and tools: Cocoa Touch, Interface Builder, Xcode, and the Objective-C programming language. If you're a Java or C developer, this eBook is your fast track to App development. This eBook is adapted from parts of iPhone App Development: The Missing Manual.

  19. A review of mobile apps for epilepsy self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; McGee, Robin; Bidwell, Jonathan; Sims, Christopher; Thropp, Eliana Kovitch; Frazier, Cherise; Mynatt, Elizabeth D

    2018-04-01

    Mobile health app developers increasingly are interested in supporting the daily self-care of people with chronic conditions. The purpose of this study was to review mobile applications (apps) to promote epilepsy self-management. It investigates the following: 1) the available mobile apps for epilepsy, 2) how these apps support patient education and self-management (SM), and 3) their usefulness in supporting management of epilepsy. We conducted the review in Fall 2017 and assessed apps on the Apple App Store that related to the terms "epilepsy" and "seizure". Inclusion criteria included apps (adult and pediatric) that, as follows, were: 1) developed for patients or the community; 2) made available in English, and 3) less than $5.00. Exclusion criteria included apps that were designed for dissemination of publications, focused on healthcare providers, or were available in other languages. The search resulted in 149 apps, of which 20 met the selection criteria. A team reviewed each app in terms of three sets of criteria: 1) epilepsy-specific descriptions and SM categories employed by the apps and 2) Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS) subdomain scores for reviewing engagement, functionality, esthetics, and information; and 3) behavioral change techniques. Most apps were for adults and free. Common SM domains for the apps were treatment, seizure tracking, response, and safety. A number of epilepsy apps existed, but many offered similar functionalities and incorporated few SM domains. The findings underline the need for mobile apps to cover broader domains of SM and behavioral change techniques and to be evaluated for outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ghera: A Repository of Android App Vulnerability Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Joydeep; Ranganath, Venkatesh-Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Security of mobile apps affects the security of their users. This has fueled the development of techniques to automatically detect vulnerabilities in mobile apps and help developers secure their apps; specifically, in the context of Android platform due to openness and ubiquitousness of the platform. Despite a slew of research efforts in this space, there is no comprehensive repository of up-to-date and lean benchmarks that contain most of the known Android app vulnerabilities and, consequent...

  1. English Language Teaching Apps: Positioning Parents and Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of iPads in 2010, the sales of tablet computers and mobile applications (apps) have grown exponentially. iPads and other tablets are marketed as learning tools, and many apps target learners as young as six months old. This article reports on a research project examining the unique features of English learning apps based on…

  2. Using the Modern Technology That Is the "App"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardelli, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    A few years ago, the sight of the letters APP would have made teachers in England think of the Assessing Pupils' Progress assessment approach introduced by the government. Now, when they see those same letters they mostly think about smartphone and tablet applications, shortened to "apps." With the thousands of apps available in the…

  3. How Can iPad Apps Enrich Postgraduate Psychology Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucirkova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    In this short Opinion piece, I outline how iPad apps can facilitate theory development, data collection, data representation and dissemination of postgraduate psychology research. I reflect on how apps supported my own postgraduate research practice and how one particular app--Our Story--enriched the individual stages of my research enquiry. I…

  4. A parental perspective on apps for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekman, F.L.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Beentjes, H.W.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Touchscreen applications (apps) for young children have seen increasingly high rates of growth with more than a hundred thousand now available apps. As with other media, parents play a key role in young children’s app selection and use. However, to date, we know very little about how parents select

  5. Cleaning up That Mess: A Framework for Classifying Educational Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherner, Todd; Dix , Judy; Lee, Corey

    2014-01-01

    As tablet technologies continue to evolve, the emergence of educational applications (apps) is impacting the work of teacher educators. Beyond online lists of best apps for education and recommendations from colleagues, teacher educators have few resources available to support their teaching of how to select educational apps. In response, this…

  6. Educational Behavior Apps and Wearable Devices: Current Research and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Dartmouth and MIT have developed educational behavior apps and wearable devices that collect contiguous streams of data from student users. Given the consent of the user, the app collects information about a student's physical activity, sleep patterns, and location to form conjectures about social and academic behavior. These apps have the…

  7. Interactivity in Educational Apps for Young Children: A Multimodal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz-Raith, Alexandra H.; Liu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Interactivity is an important indicator of an educational app's reception. Since most educational apps are multimodal, it justifies a methodological initiative to understand meaningful involvement of multimodality in enacting and even amplifying interactivity in an educational app. Yet research so far has largely concentrated on algorithm…

  8. Athletic Training Education: There's an App for That

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Kim; Potteiger, Kelly; Brown, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Mobile applications (apps) are growing in popularity due to the increased use of smartphones. Many available apps are educational in nature and may provide both students and educators freedom for learning to occur outside of the typical classroom environment. Objective: To provide a description of relevant apps along with a brief synopsis…

  9. Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platform | News | NREL Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android Platform Popular NREL-Developed Transportation Mobile App Launches on Android Platform May 23, 2017 More since the new Android version of the Alternative Fueling Station Locator App launched last week. The U.S

  10. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  11. Mobile Phone Apps to Improve Medication Adherence: A Systematic Stepwise Process to Identify High-Quality Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Karla; Richtering, Sarah S; Chalmers, John; Thiagalingam, Aravinda; Chow, Clara K; Redfern, Julie

    2016-12-02

    There are a growing number of mobile phone apps available to support people in taking their medications and to improve medication adherence. However, little is known about how these apps differ in terms of features, quality, and effectiveness. We aimed to systematically review the medication reminder apps available in the Australian iTunes store and Google Play to assess their features and their quality in order to identify high-quality apps. This review was conducted in a similar manner to a systematic review by using a stepwise approach that included (1) a search strategy; (2) eligibility assessment; (3) app selection process through an initial screening of all retrieved apps and full app review of the included apps; (4) data extraction using a predefined set of features considered important or desirable in medication reminder apps; (5) analysis by classifying the apps as basic and advanced medication reminder apps and scoring and ranking them; and (6) a quality assessment by using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS), a reliable tool to assess mobile health apps. We identified 272 medication reminder apps, of which 152 were found only in Google Play, 87 only in iTunes, and 33 in both app stores. Apps found in Google Play had more customer reviews, higher star ratings, and lower cost compared with apps in iTunes. Only 109 apps were available for free and 124 were recently updated in 2015 or 2016. Overall, the median number of features per app was 3.0 (interquartile range 4.0) and only 18 apps had ≥9 of the 17 desirable features. The most common features were flexible scheduling that was present in 56.3% (153/272) of the included apps, medication tracking history in 54.8% (149/272), snooze option in 34.9% (95/272), and visual aids in 32.4% (88/272). We classified 54.8% (149/272) of the included apps as advanced medication reminder apps and 45.2% (123/272) as basic medication reminder apps. The advanced apps had a higher number of features per app compared with the

  12. Detecting android malicious apps and categorizing benign apps with ensemble of classifiers

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xing; Liu, Jiqiang; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Android platform has dominated the markets of smart mobile devices in recent years. The number of Android applications (apps) has seen a massive surge. Unsurprisingly, Android platform has also become the primary target of attackers. The management

  13. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  14. A novel Drosophila model of TDP-43 proteinopathies: N-terminal sequences combined with the Q/N domain induce protein functional loss and locomotion defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Langellotti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43, also known as TBPH in Drosophila melanogaster and TARDBP in mammals is the main protein component of the pathological inclusions observed in neurons of patients affected by different neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD. The number of studies investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration is constantly growing; however, the role played by TDP-43 in disease onset and progression is still unclear. A fundamental shortcoming that hampers progress is the lack of animal models showing aggregation of TDP-43 without overexpression. In this manuscript, we have extended our cellular model of aggregation to a transgenic Drosophila line. Our fly model is not based on the overexpression of a wild-type TDP-43 transgene. By contrast, we engineered a construct that includes only the specific TDP-43 amino acid sequences necessary to trigger aggregate formation and capable of trapping endogenous Drosophila TDP-43 into a non-functional insoluble form. Importantly, the resulting recombinant product lacks functional RNA recognition motifs (RRMs and, thus, does not have specific TDP-43-physiological functions (i.e. splicing regulation ability that might affect the animal phenotype per se. This novel Drosophila model exhibits an evident degenerative phenotype with reduced lifespan and early locomotion defects. Additionally, we show that important proteins involved in neuromuscular junction function, such as syntaxin (SYX, decrease their levels as a consequence of TDP-43 loss of function implying that the degenerative phenotype is a consequence of TDP-43 sequestration into the aggregates. Our data lend further support to the role of TDP-43 loss-of-function in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The novel transgenic Drosophila model presented in this study will help to gain further insight into the

  15. App Improves Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer screening reduces deaths from the disease, yet about one-third of Americans aren’t up to date with screening. In this Cancer Currents blog post, learn what happened when people waiting for routine checkups could order their own screening test using a computer app.

  16. Fra app'ernes planet til klasserummet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Gissel, Stig Toke

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen henvender sig til lærere og konsulenter, som ønsker at kvalificere deres fagsprog i arbejdet med apps og undervisningsdesign. Med udgangspunkt i læremiddeldidaktikken udpeger vi en række kategorier og begreber, som læreren kan anvende i sit arbejde med at analysere og vurdere hvilke hand...

  17. Smart phones and apps application in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are a device that is more than just a phone and more than a personel digital assistant.Nowadays a phone is as a powerful handheld computer,camera,video recorder,media player,GPS receiver,MP3 player,radio and as well as a communication tool. Smartphones (mobile phones with advanced computing capability are rapidly gaining new use with the advent of dowloadable applications known as ‘Apps’. There are a lot of medical apps avaliable.Dermatology themed smartphone apps were provided as reference materials,illustrated databases of common skin conditions for accessing online versions of popular dermatology textbook and journals;dermatology based questionnairs; including disease severity scoring calculators and /or providing automated photo analysers for skin lesions / as an electronic dermoscopy. Most of the apps applications are free of charge and can be easily dowloaded to smartphones. Furthermore the possibility to send and save both text and images by this technology seems perfectly tailored to dermatology.Recently electronic teaching and learning via smartphones are becoming very popular for medical students aswell. However there is relatively little research on medical uses and potential roles of them in dermatology.This article summarizes the curent trends in the ‘smartphone market’ and takes a glance at some dermatology apps ‘which are currently available.

  18. Ebola - What You Need to Know app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roger

    2015-02-03

    This app is the pocket companion to the Ebola in Africa section of the International SOS website. With headquarters in London and Singapore, International SOS is a company that provides medical, clinical and security services in 81 countries for organisations with international operations.

  19. App Studies : Platform Rules and Methodological Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlitz, C.; Helmond, A.; van der Vlist, F.; Weltevrede, E.; De Groote, S.; Majmundar, P.

    2016-01-01

    The panel engages with conceptual and methodological challenges within a specific area of ‘internet rules’, namely the space of mobile apps. Whereas the web was set out to function as a ‘generative’ and open technology facilitating the production of unanticipated services and applications, the

  20. Techtalk: Mobile Apps and College Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Theresa V.; Caverly, David C.

    2013-01-01

    In this column, the authors discuss apps useful in developing mathematical reasoning. They place these into a theoretical framework, suggesting how they could be used in an instructional model such as the Algorithmic Instructional Technique (AIT) developed by Vasquez (2003). This model includes four stages: modeling, practice, transition, and…

  1. Apps ændrer din hverdag: Apps to change your life

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsen, Kasper Emil; Jensen, Anders Mandrup; Andersen, Kristian Coff Schang

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem that apps that intend to improve our health, are not effective in regards to making people exercise, whereas games and other entertainment apps made primarily for pastime easily catches the attention of most. To investigate the cause of this issue, we made use of material presented by Nir Eyal, Charles Duhigg, B. J. Fogg, Cass R. Sunstein and Richard H. Thaler. Based on the knowledge obtained through the theories of the aforementioned theorists, we have selecte...

  2. Semi-automated quantitative Drosophila wings measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sheng Yang Michael; Ogawa, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Sara; Tamura, Koichiro; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2017-06-28

    Drosophila melanogaster is an important organism used in many fields of biological research such as genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila wings have been widely used to study the genetics of development, morphometrics and evolution. Therefore there is much interest in quantifying wing structures of Drosophila. Advancement in technology has increased the ease in which images of Drosophila can be acquired. However such studies have been limited by the slow and tedious process of acquiring phenotypic data. We have developed a system that automatically detects and measures key points and vein segments on a Drosophila wing. Key points are detected by performing image transformations and template matching on Drosophila wing images while vein segments are detected using an Active Contour algorithm. The accuracy of our key point detection was compared against key point annotations of users. We also performed key point detection using different training data sets of Drosophila wing images. We compared our software with an existing automated image analysis system for Drosophila wings and showed that our system performs better than the state of the art. Vein segments were manually measured and compared against the measurements obtained from our system. Our system was able to detect specific key points and vein segments from Drosophila wing images with high accuracy.

  3. The full-length form of the Drosophila amyloid precursor protein is involved in memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdet, Isabelle; Preat, Thomas; Goguel, Valérie

    2015-01-21

    The APP plays a central role in AD, a pathology that first manifests as a memory decline. Understanding the role of APP in normal cognition is fundamental in understanding the progression of AD, and mammalian studies have pointed to a role of secreted APPα in memory. In Drosophila, we recently showed that APPL, the fly APP ortholog, is required for associative memory. In the present study, we aimed to characterize which form of APPL is involved in this process. We show that expression of a secreted-APPL form in the mushroom bodies, the center for olfactory memory, is able to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL partial loss of function. We next assessed the impact on memory of the Drosophila α-secretase kuzbanian (KUZ), the enzyme initiating the nonamyloidogenic pathway that produces secreted APPLα. Strikingly, KUZ overexpression not only failed to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL loss of function, it exacerbated this deficit. We further show that in addition to an increase in secreted-APPL forms, KUZ overexpression caused a decrease of membrane-bound full-length species that could explain the memory deficit. Indeed, we observed that transient expression of a constitutive membrane-bound mutant APPL form is sufficient to rescue the memory deficit caused by APPL reduction, revealing for the first time a role of full-length APPL in memory formation. Our data demonstrate that, in addition to secreted APPL, the noncleaved form is involved in memory, raising the possibility that secreted and full-length APPL act together in memory processes. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351043-09$15.00/0.

  4. Developing smartphone apps for behavioural studies: The AlcoRisk app case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony; de Salas, Kristy; Lewis, Ian; Schüz, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Smartphone apps have emerged as valuable research tools to sample human behaviours at their time of occurrence within natural environments. Human behaviour sampling methods, such as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), aim to facilitate research that is situated in ecologically valid real world environments rather than laboratory environments. Researchers have trialled a range of EMA smartphone apps to sample human behaviours such as dieting, physical activity and smoking. Software development processes for EMA smartphones apps, however, are not widely documented with little guidance provided for the integration of complex multidisciplinary behavioural and technical fields. In this paper, the AlcoRisk app for studying alcohol consumption and risk taking tendencies is presented alongside a software development process that integrates these multidisciplinary fields. The software development process consists of three stages including requirements analysis, feature and interface design followed by app implementation. Results from a preliminary feasibility study support the efficacy of the AlcoRisk app's software development process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Manipulation of gene expression by infrared laser heat shock and its application to the study of tracheal development in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Guangxia; Hayashi, Shigeo

    2015-03-01

    Induction of gene expression in a specific cell and a defined time window is desirable to investigate gene function at the cellular level during morphogenesis. To achieve this, we attempted to introduce the infrared laser-evoked gene operator system (IR-LEGO, Kamei et al., 2009) in the Drosophila embryo. In this technique, infrared laser light illumination induces genes to be expressed under the control of heat shock promoters at the single cell level. We applied IR-LEGO to a transgenic fly stock, HS-eGFP, in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene is placed under the control of heat shock protein 70 promoter, and showed that eGFP expression can be induced in single cells within 1-2 hr after IR illumination. Furthermore, induction of HS-Branchless transgene encoding the Drosophila fibroblast growth factor (FGF) effectively altered the migration and branching patterns of the tracheal system. Our results indicated that IR-LEGO is a promising choice for the timely control of gene expression in a small group of cells in the Drosophila embryo. By using IR-LEGO, we further demonstrated that the tracheal terminal branching program is sensitive to localized expression of exogenous FGF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Apps in therapy: occupational therapists' use and opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anna M; Stotz, Nicole; Metz, Alexia E

    2017-11-01

    To gather information on occupational therapy practitioners' use and opinions of apps, an online survey was distributed to occupational therapy practitioners licensed in the state of Ohio. The survey sought information regarding clinical populations and skill areas for which apps are used, potential barriers to use of apps and preferred apps/app features. OTs working in medical and education-based settings and with clients of all ages responded to the survey. Over half (53%) reported not using apps in therapy, with "not having access to the technology at work" being the leading reason endorsed. Of practitioners who did report using apps, the majority used them with ≤25% of their case load and primarily used tablets to do so. Clinicians indicated that they use apps for a wide variety of reasons, including to promote skill building and to support the therapeutic process. Preferred features included the ability to grade difficulty up/down, multiple uses and accurate feedback. Recommendations from peers were the most commonly reported way respondents found new apps. The results suggest that occupational therapy practitioners employ clinical reasoning when implementing apps in therapy. Possible ways to improve access to apps for therapists who would like to implement them are discussed. Implications for Rehabilitation Many occupational therapy practitioners are using apps with at least a portion of their caseloads. Therapists select apps based on peer recommendations, most commonly selecting those which promote skill building and support the therapeutic process. More therapists might make use of apps if potential barriers were reduced or eliminated, including availability of technology in the clinical practice setting, therapist training and education, therapist input into app development and an enhanced evidence base.

  7. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Rothwell, Emily R

    2015-11-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health-related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. The apps for people with eating disorders had four main functions. Most common was the provision of advice, the quality of which ranged from sound to potentially harmful. Five apps included self-assessment tools but only two used methods that would generally be viewed as reliable. Four apps had the self-monitoring of eating habits as a major feature. Entering information into these apps could be accomplished with varying degrees of ease, but viewing it was more difficult. One app allowed the transfer of information between patients and clinicians. The enthusiasm for apps outstrips the evidence supporting their use. Given their popularity, it is suggested that clinicians evaluate app use as part of routine assessment. The clinical utility of the existing apps is not clear. Some are capable of tracking key features over time, but none has the functions required for analytic self-monitoring as in cognitive behavioral treatments. The full potential of apps has yet to be realized. Specialized apps could be designed to augment various forms of treatment, and there is the possibility that they could deliver an entire personalized intervention. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Huperzine A activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Tao; Xie, Jing-Wei; Wang, Si-Ling; Zhao, Bao-Lu; Teng, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhan-You

    2011-04-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a reversible and selective inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and it has multiple targets when used for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. In this study, we searched for new mechanisms by which HupA could activate Wnt signaling and reduce amyloidosis in AD brain. A nasal gel containing HupA was prepared. No obvious toxicity of intranasal administration of HupA was found in mice. HupA was administered intranasally to β-amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein and presenilin-1 double-transgenic mice for 4 months. We observed an increase in ADAM10 and a decrease in BACE1 and APP695 protein levels and, subsequently, a reduction in Aβ levels and Aβ burden were present in HupA-treated mouse brain, suggesting that HupA enhances the nonamyloidogenic APP cleavage pathway. Importantly, our results further showed that HupA inhibited GSK3α/β activity, and enhanced the β-catenin level in the transgenic mouse brain and in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing Swedish mutation APP, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of HupA is not related simply to its AChE inhibition and antioxidation, but also involves other mechanisms, including targeting of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in AD brain.

  9. The Rise and Need for Mobile Apps for Maternal and Child Health Care in China: Survey Based on App Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Puhong; Dong, Le; Chen, Huan; Chai, Yanling; Liu, Jianbo

    2018-06-08

    Mobile health services are thriving in the field of maternal and child health in China due to expansions in the field of electronic health and the introduction of the two-child policy. There are numerous maternal and child health apps in computer stores, but the exact number of apps, number of downloads, and features of these apps is not known. This study aimed to explore the use of maternal and child health apps in Android and iOS app stores and to describe the key functional features of the most popular apps, with the purpose of providing insight into further research and development of maternal and child health mobile health products. The researchers conducted a search in the 3 most popular Android app stores (Tencent MyApp, Baidu Mobile Assistant, and 360 Mobile Assistant) and the iTunes App Store in China. All apps regarding family planning (contraception and preparing for pregnancy), pregnancy and perinatal care, neonatal care and health, and development for children under 6 years were included in the initial analysis. Maternal and child health mobile apps with predominant features of product marketing, children's songs, animation, or games were excluded from the study. The 50 most frequently used apps in each of the Android stores as well as the iTunes store (a total of 78 deduplicated apps) were selected and downloaded for an in-depth analysis. A total of 5276 Android apps and 877 iOS apps developed for maternal and child health care were identified. Of the 78 most frequently used apps, 43 (55%) apps focused on one stage of MCH care, mainly targeting child care (25 apps) and before pregnancy care (11 apps), whereas 35 (45%) of the apps covered 2 or more stages, most of which (32 apps) included both pregnancy and child care services. The app features that were commonly adopted by the popular apps were health education, communication, health status self-monitoring, a diary, reminders, and counseling. Within the app feature of "health status self

  10. Comparison of nutrition composition of transgenic maize (chitinase gene) with its non-transgenic counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-mei, Yan; Yu-kui, Rui; Xiao-yan, Yan; Zheng, Chai; Qing, Wang; Jian-zhong, Du; Yi, Sun

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the nutrition components of transgenic maize seeds (chitinase gene), achieved by the pollen-mediated approach, with its non-transgenic counterpart, Vitamin B1, vitamin B2, fatty acids and essential amino acids of transgenic maize seeds and their counterparts were analyzed by the Chinese national standard methods or AOAC methods. The results showed that the contents of all the six kinds of fatty acids detected in transgenic maize seeds were significantly higher than those i...

  11. Ensifer meliloti overexpressing Escherichia coli phytase gene ( appA) improves phosphorus (P) acquisition in maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Ajit; Archana, G.; Kumar, G. Naresh

    2016-10-01

    The Escherichia coli phytase gene appA encoding enzyme AppA was cloned in a broad host range plasmid pBBR1MCS2 ( lac promoter), termed pVA1, and transformed into the Ensifer meliloti 1020. Transformation of pVA1 in Ensifer meliloti { E. m (pVA1)} increased its phosphatase and phytase activity by ˜9- and ˜50-fold, respectively, compared to the transformants containing empty plasmid as control { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)}. The western blot experiments using rabbit anti-AppA antibody showed that AppA is translocated into the periplasm of the host after its expression. Ensifer meliloti harboring AppA protein { E. m (pVA1)} and { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} could acidify the unbuffered phytate minimal media (pH 8.0) containing Ca-phytate or Na-phytate as sole organic P (Po) source to below pH 5.0 and released P. However, both { E. m (pVA1)} and { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} neither dropped pH of the medium nor released P when the medium was buffered at pH 8.0 using Tris-Cl, indicating that acidification of medium was important for the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate. Further experiments proved that maize plants inoculated with { E. m. (pVA1)} showed increase in growth under sterile semi solid agar (SSA) medium containing Na-phytate as sole P source. The present study could be helpful in generating better transgenic bioinoculants harboring phosphate mineralization properties that ultimately promote plant growth.

  12. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  14. Development of a Mobile App for Family Planning Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsall, Viannella; Rogers, Jennifer; Witt, Jacki; Song, Sejun; Nguyen, Hoang Duc Huy; Kelly, Patricia

    To provide an overview of lessons learned during the development process of an app for iOS and Android based on national recommendations for providing quality family planning services. After a review of existing apps was conducted to determine whether an app of clinical recommendations for family planning existed, a team of clinicians, training specialists, and app developers created a resource app by first drafting a comprehensive content map. A prototype of the app was then pilot tested using smart tablets by a volunteer convenience sample of women's healthcare professionals. Outcomes measured included usability, acceptability, download analytics, and satisfaction by clinicians as reported through an investigator-developed tool. Sixty-nine professionals tested a prototype of the app, and completed a user satisfaction tool. Overall, user feedback was positive, and a zoom function was added to the final version as a result of the pilot test. Within 3 months of being publicly available, the app was downloaded 677 times, with 97% of downloads occurring on smart phones, 76% downloads occurring on iOS devices, and 24% on Android devices. This trend persisted throughout the following 3 months. Clinicians with an interest in developing an app should consider a team approach to development, pilot test the app prior to wider distribution, and develop a web-based version of the app to be used by clinicians who are unable to access smart devices in their practice setting.

  15. App Reviews: Breaking the User and Developer Language Barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Hoon, Leonard; Rodriguez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Vasa, Rajesh; Valencia-Garcí a, Rafael; Schneider, Jean-Guy

    2015-01-01

    Apple, Google and third party developers offer apps across over twenty categories for various smart mobile devices. Offered exclusively through the App Store and Google Play, each app allows users to review the app and their experience with it. Current literature offers a general statistical picture of these reviews, and a broad overview of the nature of discontent of apps. However, we do not yet have a good framework to classify user reviews against known software quality attributes like performance or usability. In order to close this gap, in this paper, we develop an ontology encompassing software attributes derived from software quality models. This decomposes into approximately five thousand words that users employ to review apps. By identifying a consistent set of vocabulary that users communicate with, we can sanitise large datasets to extract stakeholder actionable information from reviews. The findings offered in this paper assists future app review analysis by bridging end-user communication and software engineering vocabulary.

  16. App Reviews: Breaking the User and Developer Language Barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Hoon, Leonard

    2015-10-22

    Apple, Google and third party developers offer apps across over twenty categories for various smart mobile devices. Offered exclusively through the App Store and Google Play, each app allows users to review the app and their experience with it. Current literature offers a general statistical picture of these reviews, and a broad overview of the nature of discontent of apps. However, we do not yet have a good framework to classify user reviews against known software quality attributes like performance or usability. In order to close this gap, in this paper, we develop an ontology encompassing software attributes derived from software quality models. This decomposes into approximately five thousand words that users employ to review apps. By identifying a consistent set of vocabulary that users communicate with, we can sanitise large datasets to extract stakeholder actionable information from reviews. The findings offered in this paper assists future app review analysis by bridging end-user communication and software engineering vocabulary.

  17. Smartphone Applications - Idea sourcing, and app development: Implications for firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Vigar-Ellis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the dramatic increase in smartphone usage and the consequent increase in applications (apps for these smartphones, organisations are constantly looking for new apps to offer customers as well as employees.  Information Systems (IS departments of organisations have traditionally been tasked with the acquisition and/or development of such information technologies within organisations.  This research aimed to determine from IS managers, the smartphone app usage in firms, the sources of app ideas and the locations for app development.  It also investigated various aspects of the success or otherwise of the development process.  Results indicate that while most ideas for apps currently come from IS and marketing departments within the organisation, and development of apps is also done mainly within the organisation , these development strategies are not necessarily the most effective.  Managerial implications are discussed.

  18. APP Metabolism Regulates Tau Proteostasis in Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moore

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Aβ peptide fragments of the APP protein and neurofibrillary tangles of the microtubule-associated protein tau are the cellular hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, we studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of AD, all of which increase the release of pathogenic Aβ peptides. We identified marked increases in intracellular tau in genetic forms of AD that either mutated APP or increased its dosage, suggesting that APP metabolism is coupled to changes in tau proteostasis. Manipulating APP metabolism by β-secretase and γ-secretase inhibition, as well as γ-secretase modulation, results in specific increases and decreases in tau protein levels. These data demonstrate that APP metabolism regulates tau proteostasis and suggest that the relationship between APP processing and tau is not mediated solely through extracellular Aβ signaling to neurons.

  19. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.; Zakharov, I.A.

    1976-01-01

    45 of radiosensitive strains of Drosophila melanogaster were isolated by Curly/Lobe technique after EMS treatment of Livadia population males. The lethality of non-Curly late larvae after gamma-irradiation (4000r) characterized radiosensitivity strains. Most of them exhibited higher frequency of the spontaneous dominant lethals (up to 69%). The males of 6 strains were semi-sterile. 5 of these strains exhibited higher frequency of X-chromosome non-disjunction

  20. Olfactory memory traces in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Jacob; Krause, William C.; Davis, Ronald L.

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila the fruit fly, coincident exposure to an odor and an aversive electric shock can produce robust behavioral memory. This behavioral memory is thought to be regulated by cellular memory traces within the central nervous system of the fly. These molecular, physiological or structural changes in neurons, induced by pairing odor and shock, regulate behavior by altering the neurons’ response to the learned environment. Recently, novel in vivo functional imaging techniques have allowed...

  1. Drosophila: Retrotransposons Making up Telomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casacuberta, Elena

    2017-07-19

    Drosophila and extant species are the best-studied telomerase exception. In this organism, telomere elongation is coupled with targeted retrotransposition of Healing Transposon (HeT-A) and Telomere Associated Retrotransposon (TART) with sporadic additions of Telomere Associated and HeT-A Related (TAHRE), all three specialized non-Long Terminal Repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons. These three very special retroelements transpose in head to tail arrays, always in the same orientation at the end of the chromosomes but never in interior locations. Apparently, retrotransposon and telomerase telomeres might seem very different, but a detailed view of their mechanisms reveals similarities explaining how the loss of telomerase in a Drosophila ancestor could successfully have been replaced by the telomere retrotransposons. In this review, we will discover that although HeT-A, TART, and TAHRE are still the only examples to date where their targeted transposition is perfectly tamed into the telomere biology of Drosophila, there are other examples of retrotransposons that manage to successfully integrate inside and at the end of telomeres. Because the aim of this special issue is viral integration at telomeres, understanding the base of the telomerase exceptions will help to obtain clues on similar strategies that mobile elements and viruses could have acquired in order to ensure their survival in the host genome.

  2. 'Peer pressure' in larval Drosophila?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewalda, Thomas; Jeske, Ines; Michels, Birgit; Gerber, Bertram

    2014-06-06

    Understanding social behaviour requires a study case that is simple enough to be tractable, yet complex enough to remain interesting. Do larval Drosophila meet these requirements? In a broad sense, this question can refer to effects of the mere presence of other larvae on the behaviour of a target individual. Here we focused in a more strict sense on 'peer pressure', that is on the question of whether the behaviour of a target individual larva is affected by what a surrounding group of larvae is doing. We found that innate olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (i) by the level of innate olfactory preference in the surrounding group nor (ii) by the expression of learned olfactory preference in the group. Likewise, learned olfactory preference of a target individual was neither affected (iii) by the level of innate olfactory preference of the surrounding group nor (iv) by the learned olfactory preference the group was expressing. We conclude that larval Drosophila thus do not take note of specifically what surrounding larvae are doing. This implies that in a strict sense, and to the extent tested, there is no social interaction between larvae. These results validate widely used en mass approaches to the behaviour of larval Drosophila. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Quantification of Drosophila Grooming Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradale, Francesca; Sinha, Kairav; Lebestky, Tim

    2017-07-19

    Drosophila grooming behavior is a complex multi-step locomotor program that requires coordinated movement of both forelegs and hindlegs. Here we present a grooming assay protocol and novel chamber design that is cost-efficient and scalable for either small or large-scale studies of Drosophila grooming. Flies are dusted all over their body with Brilliant Yellow dye and given time to remove the dye from their bodies within the chamber. Flies are then deposited in a set volume of ethanol to solubilize the dye. The relative spectral absorbance of dye-ethanol samples for groomed versus ungroomed animals are measured and recorded. The protocol yields quantitative data of dye accumulation for individual flies, which can be easily averaged and compared across samples. This allows experimental designs to easily evaluate grooming ability for mutant animal studies or circuit manipulations. This efficient procedure is both versatile and scalable. We show work-flow of the protocol and comparative data between WT animals and mutant animals for the Drosophila type I Dopamine Receptor (DopR).

  4. The Business of iPhone and iPad App Development Making and Marketing Apps That Succeed

    CERN Document Server

    Wooldridge, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenal success of the iPhone, iPad and the iPod touch has ushered in a "gold rush" for developers, but with well over 300,000 apps in the highly competitive App Store, it has become increasingly difficult for new apps to stand out in the crowd. Achieving consumer awareness and sales longevity for your iOS app requires a lot of organization and some strategic planning. Updated and expanded for iOS 4, this bestselling book will show you how to incorporate marketing and business savvy into every aspect of the design and development process, giving your app the best possible chance of

  5. Apps and Mobile Support Services in Canadian Academic Medical Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Grynoch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine how Canadian academic medical libraries are supporting mobile apps, what apps are currently being provided by these libraries, and what types of promotion are being used. Methods: A survey of the library websites for the 17 medical schools in Canada was completed. For each library website surveyed, the medical apps listed on the website, any services mentioned through this medium, and any type of app promotion events were noted. When Facebook and Twitter accounts were evident, the tweets were searched and the past two years of Facebook posts scanned for mention of medical apps or mobile services/events. Results: All seventeen academic medical libraries had lists of mobile medical apps with a large range in the number of medical relevant apps (average=31, median= 23. A total of 275 different apps were noted and the apps covered a wide range of subjects. Five of the 14 Facebook accounts scanned had posts about medical apps in the past two years while 11 of the 15 Twitter accounts had tweets about medical apps. Social media was only one of the many promotional methods noted. Outside of the app lists and mobile resources guides, Canadian academic medical libraries are providing workshops, presentations, and drop-in sessions for mobile medical apps. Conclusion: While librarians cannot simply compare mobile services and resources between academic medical libraries without factoring in a number of other circumstances, librarians can learn from mobile resources strategies employed at other libraries, such as using research guides to increase medical app literacy.

  6. Sleep apps and behavioral constructs: A content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Grigsby-Toussaint

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although sleep apps are among the most popular commercially available health apps, little is known about how well these apps are grounded in behavioral theory. Three-hundred and sixty-nine apps were initially identified using the term “sleep” from the Google play store and Apple iTunes in September 2015. The final sample consisted of 35 apps that met the following inclusion criteria: 1 Stand-alone functionality; 2 Sleep tracker or monitor apps ranked by 100+ users; 3 Sleep Alarm apps ranked by 1000+ users; and 4 English language. A coding instrument was developed to assess the presence of 19 theoretical constructs. All 35 apps were downloaded and coded. The inter-rater reliability between coders was 0.996. A “1” was assigned if a construct was present in the app and “0” if it was not. Mean scores were calculated across all apps, and comparisons were made between total scores and app ratings using R. The mean behavior construct scores (BCS across all apps was 34% (5% - 84%. Behavioral constructs for realistic goal setting (86%, time management (77%, and self-monitoring (66% were most common. Although a positive association was observed between BCS and user ratings, this was not found to be statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mean persuasive technology score was 42% (20% to 80%, with higher scores for paid compared to free apps (p < 0.05. While the overall behavior construct scores were low, an opportunity exists to develop or modify existing apps to support sustainable sleep hygiene practices.

  7. GABA(A receptor-mediated acceleration of aging-associated memory decline in APP/PS1 mice and its pharmacological treatment by picrotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yoshiike

    Full Text Available Advanced age and mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP and presenilin (PS1 are two serious risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Finding common pathogenic changes originating from these risks may lead to a new therapeutic strategy. We observed a decline in memory performance and reduction in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP in both mature adult (9-15 months transgenic APP/PS1 mice and old (19-25 months non-transgenic (nonTg mice. By contrast, in the presence of bicuculline, a GABA(A receptor antagonist, LTP in adult APP/PS1 mice and old nonTg mice was larger than that in adult nonTg mice. The increased LTP levels in bicuculline-treated slices suggested that GABA(A receptor-mediated inhibition in adult APP/PS1 and old nonTg mice was upregulated. Assuming that enhanced inhibition of LTP mediates memory decline in APP/PS1 mice, we rescued memory deficits in adult APP/PS1 mice by treating them with another GABA(A receptor antagonist, picrotoxin (PTX, at a non-epileptic dose for 10 days. Among the saline vehicle-treated groups, substantially higher levels of synaptic proteins such as GABA(A receptor alpha1 subunit, PSD95, and NR2B were observed in APP/PS1 mice than in nonTg control mice. This difference was insignificant among PTX-treated groups, suggesting that memory decline in APP/PS1 mice may result from changes in synaptic protein levels through homeostatic mechanisms. Several independent studies reported previously in aged rodents both an increased level of GABA(A receptor alpha1 subunit and improvement of cognitive functions by long term GABA(A receptor antagonist treatment. Therefore, reduced LTP linked to enhanced GABA(A receptor-mediated inhibition may be triggered by aging and may be accelerated by familial AD-linked gene products like Abeta and mutant PS1, leading to cognitive decline that is pharmacologically treatable at least at this stage of disease progression in mice.

  8. A molecularly defined duplication set for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Popodi, Ellen; Holtzman, Stacy L.; Schulze, Karen L.; Park, Soo; Carlson, Joseph W.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Kaufman, Thomas C.

    2010-07-22

    We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using C31 integrase, allowing direct comparison of different transgenes. The insertions complement 92% of the essential and viable mutations and deletions tested, demonstrating that almost all Drosophila genes are compact and that the current annotations of the genome are reasonably accurate. Moreover, almost all genes are tolerated at twice the normal dosage. Finally, we more precisely mapped two regions at which duplications cause diplo-lethality in males. This collection comprises the first molecularly defined duplication set to cover a whole chromosome in a multicellular organism. The work presented removes a long-standing barrier to genetic analysis of the Drosophila X chromosome, will greatly facilitate functional assays of X-linked genes in vivo, and provides a model for functional analyses of entire chromosomes in other species.

  9. Cardiac optogenetic pacing in drosophila melanogaster using red-shifted opsins (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Jing; Li, Airong; Jerwick, Jason; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhou, Chao

    2017-02-01

    Electrical pacing is the current gold standard for investigation of mammalian cardiac electrical conduction systems as well as for treatment of certain cardiac pathologies. However, this method requires an invasive surgical procedure to implant the pacing electrodes. Recently, optogenetic pacing has been developed as an alternative, non-invasive method for heartbeat pacing in animals. It induces heartbeats by shining pulsed light on transgene-generated microbial opsins which in turn activate light gated ion channels in animal hearts. However, commonly used opsins, such as channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), require short light wavelength stimulation (475 nm), which is strongly absorbed and scattered by tissue. Here, we expressed recently engineered red-shifted opsins, ReaChR and CsChrimson, in the heart of a well-developed animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, for the first time. Optogenetic pacing was successfully conducted in both ReaChR and CsChrimson flies at their larval, pupal, and adult stages using 617 nm excitation light pulse, enabling a much deeper tissue penetration compared to blue stimulation light. A customized high speed and ultrahigh resolution OCM system was used to non-invasively monitor the heartbeat pacing in Drosophila. Compared to previous studies on optogenetic pacing of Drosophila, higher penetration depth of optogenetic excitation light was achieved in opaque late pupal flies. Lower stimulating power density is needed for excitation at each developmental stage of both groups, which improves the safety of this technique for heart rhythm studies.

  10. A molecularly defined duplication set for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venken, Koen J T; Popodi, Ellen; Holtzman, Stacy L; Schulze, Karen L; Park, Soo; Carlson, Joseph W; Hoskins, Roger A; Bellen, Hugo J; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using ΦC31 integrase, allowing direct comparison of different transgenes. The insertions complement 92% of the essential and viable mutations and deletions tested, demonstrating that almost all Drosophila genes are compact and that the current annotations of the genome are reasonably accurate. Moreover, almost all genes are tolerated at twice the normal dosage. Finally, we more precisely mapped two regions at which duplications cause diplo-lethality in males. This collection comprises the first molecularly defined duplication set to cover a whole chromosome in a multicellular organism. The work presented removes a long-standing barrier to genetic analysis of the Drosophila X chromosome, will greatly facilitate functional assays of X-linked genes in vivo, and provides a model for functional analyses of entire chromosomes in other species.

  11. Radioresistance and radiosensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reguly, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Studying the mechanisms controlling radioresistant in Drosophila the sensibility of four strains of Drosophila melanogaster to sex-linked recessive lethal mutations induced by 5kR Cobalt-60 gamma radiation and 0,006 M EMS or 0,25% of caffeine was determined. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. The Drosophila melanogaster circadian pacemaker circuit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Keywords. circadian rhythm; neuronal network; ion channel; behaviour; neurotransmitter; electrophysiology; Drosophila. Abstract. As an experimental model system, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been seminal in shaping our understanding of the circadian clockwork. The wealth of genetic tools ...

  13. Identification of the Drosophila skpA gene as a novel target of the transcription factor DREF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Thi Phuong Thao; Ida, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    SKPa is component of a Drosophila SCF complex that functions in combination with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcD1. skpA null mutation results in centrosome overduplication, unusual chromatin condensation, defective endoreduplication and cell-cycle progression. While the molecular mechanisms that regulate expression of the skpA gene are poorly understood, the DNA replication-related element (DRE) and the DRE-binding factor (DREF) play important roles in regulating proliferation-related genes in Drosophila and DRE (5'-TATCGATA) and DRE-like (5'-CATCGATT) sequences were here found to be involved in skpA promoter activity. Thus both luciferase transient expression assays in cultured Drosophila S2 cells using skpA promoter-luciferase fusion plasmids and anti-lacZ immunostaining of various tissues from transgenic third instar larvae carrying the skpA promoter-lacZ fusion genes provided supportive evidence. Furthermore, anti-SKPa immunostaining of eye imaginal discs from flies overexpressing DREF showed ectopic expression of protein in the region posterior to the morphogenetic furrow where DREF is overexpressed. Knockdown of DREF in some tissues where SKPa distribution is well known almost completely abrogated the skpA gene expression. These findings, taken together, indicate that the Drosophila skpA gene is a novel target of the transcription factor DREF

  14. Recent progress on technologies and applications of transgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... this, the methods for producing transgenic poultry must become routine. ... and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have been developed to generate transgenic chickens. ... any procedure aimed at generating transgenic birds.

  15. Impairments in neurogenesis are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Iascone

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia, is also associated with depression. Although the precise mechanisms that lead to depression in AD are unknown, the impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in AD may play a role. Adult-born neurons play a critical role in regulating both cognition and mood, and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with depression in other neurological disorders. To assess the relationship between Alzheimer's disease, neurogenesis, and depression, we studied human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP transgenic mice, a well-characterized model of AD. We report that reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis are evident early in disease progression in hAPP mice, but a mild depressive phenotype manifests only in later stages of disease. We found that hAPP mice exhibited a reduction in BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, as well as a reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells, relative to nontransgenic controls at 5-7 months of age. These alterations in neurogenesis appeared to worsen with age, as the magnitude of reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells was greater in hAPP mice at 13-15 months of age. Only 13-15 month old hAPP mice exhibited depressive behavior in the tail suspension test. However, mice at both age groups exhibited deficits in spatial memory, which was observed in the Morris water maze test for hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that neurogenesis impairments are accompanied by cognitive deficits, but are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in hAPP mice.

  16. Data Exchanges in Mobile News Apps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske; Wallberg, Filip

    This paper maps the flows of data to and from third-party actors when users access content in mobile news apps. This way, it analyzes the strategic networks of collaboration and data exchange that news organizations engage in in the digital economy, expanding the traditional two-sided model...... of media economics (centered around sales to audiences and advertisers) to also account for what happens “behind the curtain”. Research already shows that the trade with data constitutes a central component of web-based business models (Evens & Van Damme, 2016; Gerlitz & Helmond, 2013; Lindskow, 2016......), but no systematic scrutiny of the same phenomenon exists with regards to mobile news use even though the use of mobile platforms for news accessing increases these years (Newman, Levy, & Nielsen, 2015). This study measures all calls made by the news apps upon accessing content, mapping which third-party actors get...

  17. Nature apps: Waiting for the revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul; Ladle, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Apps are small task-orientated programs with the potential to integrate the computational and sensing capacities of smartphones with the power of cloud computing, social networking, and crowdsourcing. They have the potential to transform how humans interact with nature, cause a step change in the quantity and resolution of biodiversity data, democratize access to environmental knowledge, and reinvigorate ways of enjoying nature. To assess the extent to which this potential is being exploited in relation to nature, we conducted an automated search of the Google Play Store using 96 nature-related terms. This returned data on ~36 304 apps, of which ~6301 were nature-themed. We found that few of these fully exploit the full range of capabilities inherent in the technology and/or have successfully captured the public imagination. Such breakthroughs will only be achieved by increasing the frequency and quality of collaboration between environmental scientists, information engineers, computer scientists, and interested publics.

  18. Designing platform independent mobile apps and services

    CERN Document Server

    Heckman, Rocky

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to help create an innovative and future proof architecture for mobile apps by introducing practical approaches to increase the value and flexibility of their service layers and reduce their delivery time. Designing Platform Independent Mobile Apps and Services begins by describing the mobile computing landscape and previous attempts at cross platform development. Platform independent mobile technologies and development strategies are described in chapter two and three. Communication protocols, details of a recommended five layer architecture, service layers, and the data abstraction layer are also introduced in these chapters. Cross platform languages and multi-client development tools for the User Interface (UI) layer, as well as message processing patterns and message routing of the Service Int rface (SI) layer are explained in chapter four and five. Ways to design the service layer for mobile computing, using Command Query Responsibility Segregation (CQRS) and the Data Abstraction La...

  19. Interrater Reliability of mHealth App Rating Measures: Analysis of Top Depression and Smoking Cessation Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam C; Torous, John; Chan, Steven; Raynor, Geoffrey Stephen; Shwarts, Erik; Shanahan, Meghan; Landman, Adam B

    2016-02-10

    There are over 165,000 mHealth apps currently available to patients, but few have undergone an external quality review. Furthermore, no standardized review method exists, and little has been done to examine the consistency of the evaluation systems themselves. We sought to determine which measures for evaluating the quality of mHealth apps have the greatest interrater reliability. We identified 22 measures for evaluating the quality of apps from the literature. A panel of 6 reviewers reviewed the top 10 depression apps and 10 smoking cessation apps from the Apple iTunes App Store on these measures. Krippendorff's alpha was calculated for each of the measures and reported by app category and in aggregate. The measure for interactiveness and feedback was found to have the greatest overall interrater reliability (alpha=.69). Presence of password protection (alpha=.65), whether the app was uploaded by a health care agency (alpha=.63), the number of consumer ratings (alpha=.59), and several other measures had moderate interrater reliability (alphas>.5). There was the least agreement over whether apps had errors or performance issues (alpha=.15), stated advertising policies (alpha=.16), and were easy to use (alpha=.18). There were substantial differences in the interrater reliabilities of a number of measures when they were applied to depression versus smoking apps. We found wide variation in the interrater reliability of measures used to evaluate apps, and some measures are more robust across categories of apps than others. The measures with the highest degree of interrater reliability tended to be those that involved the least rater discretion. Clinical quality measures such as effectiveness, ease of use, and performance had relatively poor interrater reliability. Subsequent research is needed to determine consistent means for evaluating the performance of apps. Patients and clinicians should consider conducting their own assessments of apps, in conjunction with

  20. Nematode neuropeptides as transgenic nematicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Warnock

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs seriously threaten global food security. Conventionally an integrated approach to PPN management has relied heavily on carbamate, organophosphate and fumigant nematicides which are now being withdrawn over environmental health and safety concerns. This progressive withdrawal has left a significant shortcoming in our ability to manage these economically important parasites, and highlights the need for novel and robust control methods. Nematodes can assimilate exogenous peptides through retrograde transport along the chemosensory amphid neurons. Peptides can accumulate within cells of the central nerve ring and can elicit physiological effects when released to interact with receptors on adjoining cells. We have profiled bioactive neuropeptides from the neuropeptide-like protein (NLP family of PPNs as novel nematicides, and have identified numerous discrete NLPs that negatively impact chemosensation, host invasion and stylet thrusting of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Transgenic secretion of these peptides from the rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis, and the terrestrial microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii reduce tomato infection levels by up to 90% when compared with controls. These data pave the way for the exploitation of nematode neuropeptides as a novel class of plant protective nematicide, using novel non-food transgenic delivery systems which could be deployed on farmer-preferred cultivars.

  1. Audio App Brings a Better Nights Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscientist Seth Horowitz was part of a NASA-funded team at State University of New York Stony Brook demonstrating that low-amplitude vestibular stimulation could induce sleep. After recognizing the same stimulation could be applied through sound, Horowitz founded Sleep Genius, located in Park City, Utah, and released a mobile app of the same name that helps people to get a more restful sleep.

  2. Medical apps: public and academic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, William H

    2013-01-01

    Medical apps have featured in popular websites and mainstream news media in recent months. However, there has been almost no mention of these tools in journals focusing on relevant ethical or social issues, including conflict of interest, the role of politics in science, and technological oversight. This essay examines the role that these philosophical issues might play in answering both public and academic questions about these pieces of emergent technology.

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Scanning Ultrasound Treatment of Aged APP23 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leinenga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ peptide leads to amyloid plaques that together with tau deposits characterize the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. In modeling this pathology, transgenic animals such as the APP23 strain, that expresses a mutant form of the amyloid precursor protein found in familial cases of AD, have been instrumental. In previous studies, we have shown that repeated treatments with ultrasound in a scanning mode (termed scanning ultrasound or SUS were effective in removing Aβ and restoring memory functions, without the need for a therapeutic agent such as an Aβ antibody. Considering that age is the most important risk factor for AD, we extended this study in which the mice were only 12 months old at the time of treatment by assessing a cohort of 2 year-old mice. Interestingly, at this age, APP23 mice are characterized by cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA and the presence of occasional microbleeds. We found that SUS in aged mice that have been exposed to four SUS sessions that were spread out over 8 weeks and analyzed 4 weeks later did not show evidence of increased CAA or microbleeds. Furthermore, amyloid was reduced as assessed by methoxy-XO4 fluorescence. In addition, plaque-associated microglia were more numerous in SUS treated mice. Together this adds to the notion that SUS may be a treatment modality for human neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; West, Joshua H; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. Objective This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Methods Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Results Each app was ...

  5. Learn ggplot2 using Shiny App

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Keon-Woong

    2016-01-01

    This book and app is for practitioners, professionals, researchers, and students who want to learn how to make a plot within the R environment using ggplot2, step-by-step without coding. In widespread use in the statistical communities, R is a free software language and environment for statistical programming and graphics. Many users find R to have a steep learning curve but to be extremely useful once overcome. ggplot2 is an extremely popular package tailored for producing graphics within R but which requires coding and has a steep learning curve itself, and Shiny is an open source R package that provides a web framework for building web applications using R without requiring HTML, CSS, or JavaScript. This manual—"integrating" R, ggplot2, and Shiny—introduces a new Shiny app, Learn ggplot2, that allows users to make plots easily without coding. With the Learn ggplot2 Shiny app, users can make plots using ggplot2 without having to code each step, reducing typos and error messages and allowing users to bec...

  6. No app for that? Make it yourself!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Are you passionate about science? Do you like communicating that passion to the general public? Then come along to the very first CERN Summer Student Webfest kicking off on Friday 3 August! The Webfest is a grassroots initiative by the summer students, seeking to spark new ideas that could innovate the future of web-based education about CERN, the LHC and particle physics.   The CERN Summer Student Webfest is a weekend of online web-based creativity modelled on the gatherings (sometimes called hackfests or hackathons) that energize many open source communities. You can work with like-minded students and CERN staff to design and build demos of the web apps you would like to see online. Prizes will be awarded to the best apps, with a Grand Prize winner receiving a trip to the Mozilla Festival in London! Participants in the CERN Summer Student Webfest will work in teams and design neat web apps that encourage the public to learn more about science and, in particular, CERN, the LHC and particle physi...

  7. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... production of flowers, apomixis (Nassar et al., 2000; ... In order to increase the stress tolerance capacity of ... stress-related procedure due to the activities of auxin ... the evaluation of the transgenic lines for rate of OES .... Some transgenic lines carrying the 35S-AOX fragment amplified using 35S303F1 and.

  8. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  9. [New advances in animal transgenic technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-Hong; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Rui-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Animal transgenic technology is one of the fastest growing biotechnology in the 21st century. It is used to integrate foreign genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that foreign genes can be expressed and inherited to the offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors on preparation of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic techniques are available, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages and still needs further study because of unresolved technical and safety issues. With the in-depth research, the transgenic technology will have broad application prospects in the fields of exploration of gene function, animal genetic improvement, bioreactor, animal disease models, organ transplantation and so on. This article reviews the recently developed animal gene transfer techniques, including germline stem cell mediated method to improve the efficiency, gene targeting to improve the accuracy, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing technology, and the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) transgenic technology. The new transgenic techniques can provide a better platform for the study of trans-genic animals and promote the development of medical sciences, livestock production, and other fields.

  10. High Glucose Promotes Aβ Production by Inhibiting APP Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuting; Song, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal deposition of neuriticplaques is the uniqueneuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD).Amyloid β protein (Aβ), the major component of plaques, is generated from sequential cleavage of amyloidβ precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase complex. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), characterized by chronic hyperglycemia,have increased risk of AD development.However, the role of high blood glucose in APP processing and Aβ generation remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of high glucose on APP metabolism and Aβ generation in cultured human cells. We found that high glucose treatment significantly increased APP protein level in both neuronal-like and non-neuronal cells, and promoted Aβ generation. Furthermore, we found that high glucose-induced increase of APP level was not due to enhancement of APP gene transcription but resulted from inhibition of APP protein degradation. Taken together, our data indicated that hyperglycemia could promote AD pathogenesis by inhibiting APP degradation and enhancing Aβ production. More importantly, the elevation of APP level and Aβ generation by high glucose was caused by reduction of APP turnover rate.Thus,our study provides a molecular mechanism of increased risk of developing AD in patients withDMand suggests thatglycemic control might be potentially beneficial for reducing the incidence of AD in diabetic patients and delaying the AD progression. PMID:23894546

  11. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Yuan, Shupei; Hussain, Syed Ali

    2016-11-14

    Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users' perceptive. In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1) barriers to adoption of health apps, 2) barriers to continued use of health apps, 3) motivators, 4) information and personalized guidance, 5) tracking for awareness and progress, 6) credibility, 7) goal setting, 8) reminders, and 9) sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users' perspective.

  12. Consumer Mobile Health Apps: Current State, Barriers, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Cheng-Kai; Liebovitz, David M

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current state, barriers, and future directions of consumer-facing applications (apps). There are currently more than 165,000 mobile health apps publicly available in major app stores, the vast majority of which are designed for patients. The top 2 categories are wellness management and disease management apps, whereas other categories include self-diagnosis, medication reminder, and electronic patient portal apps. Apps specific to physical medicine and rehabilitation also are reviewed. These apps have the potential to provide low-cost, around-the-clock access to high-quality, evidence-based health information to end users on a global scale. However, they have not yet lived up to their potential due to multiple barriers, including lack of regulatory oversight, limited evidence-based literature, and concerns of privacy and security. The future directions may consist of improving data integration into the health care system, an interoperable app platform allowing access to electronic health record data, cloud-based personal health record across health care networks, and increasing app prescription by health care providers. For consumer mobile health apps to fully contribute value to health care delivery and chronic disease management, all stakeholders within the ecosystem must collaborate to overcome the significant barriers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Popularity Modeling for Mobile Apps: A Sequential Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hengshu; Liu, Chuanren; Ge, Yong; Xiong, Hui; Chen, Enhong

    2015-07-01

    The popularity information in App stores, such as chart rankings, user ratings, and user reviews, provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand user experiences with mobile Apps, learn the process of adoption of mobile Apps, and thus enables better mobile App services. While the importance of popularity information is well recognized in the literature, the use of the popularity information for mobile App services is still fragmented and under-explored. To this end, in this paper, we propose a sequential approach based on hidden Markov model (HMM) for modeling the popularity information of mobile Apps toward mobile App services. Specifically, we first propose a popularity based HMM (PHMM) to model the sequences of the heterogeneous popularity observations of mobile Apps. Then, we introduce a bipartite based method to precluster the popularity observations. This can help to learn the parameters and initial values of the PHMM efficiently. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PHMM is a general model and can be applicable for various mobile App services, such as trend based App recommendation, rating and review spam detection, and ranking fraud detection. Finally, we validate our approach on two real-world data sets collected from the Apple Appstore. Experimental results clearly validate both the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed popularity modeling approach.

  14. App Use in Psychiatric Education: A Medical Student Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Cecilia; Kolli, Venkata

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study is to understand and appraise app use by medical students during their clerkships. Following Creighton University IRB approval, a voluntary and anonymous paper-based, 15-question survey was distributed to third-year medical students. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Of 112 medical students available, 76.7% (86) participated in the survey. All participants owned a smartphone or tablet with 84.9% using Apple iOS, followed by 12.8% using Android platform. Students reported using the fewest number of apps during surgery, psychiatry, and obstetrics and gynecology clerkships. The largest number of apps were used during the internal medicine rotation (70.3%). The three most popular apps were Epocrates, UpToDate, and UWorld. The most common uses for these apps were as references during the clerkship, followed by improving knowledge, and test taking. Perceived major benefits included accessibility (96% of student respondents) and interactivity (39.5%). Common apps used during the psychiatry clerkship included UpToDate (71%), Epocrates (51%), and Medscape (43%). Despite less frequent app use during their psychiatry clerkship, 90% felt there was a utility for educational apps in psychiatric education. Consistent with the previous literature on medical students preferring educational apps, students suggest developers focus on question bank-type apps, followed by clinical support-focused and self-directed case-based learning apps for psychiatry clerkship learning. Educators should factor these modes of educational delivery into future educational app development. This survey shows a high degree of smartphone and tablet use among medical students, and they attest to mobile phone app utility in psychiatric education.

  15. Differential gene expression in ADAM10 and mutant ADAM10 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postina Rolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD, cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP by the α-secretase ADAM10 prevented amyloid plaque formation, and alleviated cognitive deficits. Furthermore, ADAM10 overexpression increased the cortical synaptogenesis. These results suggest that upregulation of ADAM10 in the brain has beneficial effects on AD pathology. Results To assess the influence of ADAM10 on the gene expression profile in the brain, we performed a microarray analysis using RNA isolated from brains of five months old mice overexpressing either the α-secretase ADAM10, or a dominant-negative mutant (dn of this enzyme. As compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice, in ADAM10 transgenic mice 355 genes, and in dnADAM10 mice 143 genes were found to be differentially expressed. A higher number of genes was differentially regulated in double-transgenic mouse strains additionally expressing the human APP[V717I] mutant. Overexpression of proteolytically active ADAM10 affected several physiological pathways, such as cell communication, nervous system development, neuron projection as well as synaptic transmission. Although ADAM10 has been implicated in Notch and β-catenin signaling, no significant changes in the respective target genes were observed in adult ADAM10 transgenic mice. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed a downregulation of genes coding for the inflammation-associated proteins S100a8 and S100a9 induced by moderate ADAM10 overexpression. Overexpression of the dominant-negative form dnADAM10 led to a significant increase in the expression of the fatty acid-binding protein Fabp7, which also has been found in higher amounts in brains of Down syndrome patients. Conclusion In general, there was only a moderate alteration of gene expression in ADAM10 overexpressing mice. Genes coding for pro-inflammatory or pro-apoptotic proteins were not over-represented among differentially regulated genes. Even a decrease of

  16. Overexpression of phyA and appA Genes Improves Soil Organic Phosphorus Utilisation and Seed Phytase Activity in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ye, Xiangsheng; Ding, Guangda; Xu, Fangsen

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P) in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT) controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg–1 seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals. PMID:23573285

  17. Overexpression of phyA and appA genes improves soil organic phosphorus utilisation and seed phytase activity in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg(-1 seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals.

  18. UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase activities toward UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc play different roles in the development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M I Daenzer

    Full Text Available In both humans and Drosophila melanogaster, UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE catalyzes two distinct reactions, interconverting UDP-galactose (UDP-gal and UDP-glucose (UDP-glc in the final step of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism, and also interconverting UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (UDP-galNAc and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-glcNAc. All four of these UDP-sugars serve as vital substrates for glycosylation in metazoans. Partial loss of GALE in humans results in the spectrum disorder epimerase deficiency galactosemia; partial loss of GALE in Drosophila melanogaster also results in galactose-sensitivity, and complete loss in Drosophila is embryonic lethal. However, whether these outcomes in both humans and flies result from loss of one GALE activity, the other, or both has remained unknown. To address this question, we uncoupled the two activities in a Drosophila model, effectively replacing the endogenous dGALE with prokaryotic transgenes, one of which (Escherichia coli GALE efficiently interconverts only UDP-gal/UDP-glc, and the other of which (Plesiomonas shigelloides wbgU efficiently interconverts only UDP-galNAc/UDP-glcNAc. Our results demonstrate that both UDP-gal and UDP-galNAc activities of dGALE are required for Drosophila survival, although distinct roles for each activity can be seen in specific windows of developmental time or in response to a galactose challenge. By extension, these data also suggest that both activities might play distinct and essential roles in humans.

  19. Just a Fad? Gamification in Health and Fitness Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gamification has been a predominant focus of the health app industry in recent years. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a review of gamification elements in relation to health behavior constructs, or insight into the true proliferation of gamification in health apps. Objective The objective of this study was to identify the extent to which gamification is used in health apps, and analyze gamification of health and fitness apps as a potential component of influence on a consumer’s health behavior. Methods An analysis of health and fitness apps related to physical activity and diet was conducted among apps in the Apple App Store in the winter of 2014. This analysis reviewed a sample of 132 apps for the 10 effective game elements, the 6 core components of health gamification, and 13 core health behavior constructs. A regression analysis was conducted in order to measure the correlation between health behavior constructs, gamification components, and effective game elements. Results This review of the most popular apps showed widespread use of gamification principles, but low adherence to any professional guidelines or industry standard. Regression analysis showed that game elements were associated with gamification (P<.001). Behavioral theory was associated with gamification (P<.05), but not game elements, and upon further analysis gamification was only associated with composite motivational behavior scores (P<.001), and not capacity or opportunity/trigger. Conclusions This research, to our knowledge, represents the first comprehensive review of gamification use in health and fitness apps, and the potential to impact health behavior. The results show that use of gamification in health and fitness apps has become immensely popular, as evidenced by the number of apps found in the Apple App Store containing at least some components of gamification. This shows a lack of integrating important elements of behavioral theory from the app industry

  20. Browser App Approach: Can It Be an Answer to the Challenges in Cross-Platform App Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Q. Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: As smartphones proliferate, many different platforms begin to emerge. The challenge to developers as well as IS educators and students is how to learn the skills to design and develop apps to run on cross-platforms. Background: For developers, the purpose of this paper is to describe an alternative to the complex native app development. For IS educators and students, the paper provides a feasible way to learn and develop fully functional mobile apps without technical burdens. Methodology: The methods used in the development of browser-based apps is prototyping. Our proposed approach is browser-based, supports cross-platforms, uses open-source standards, and takes advantage of “write-once-and-run-anywhere” (WORA concept. Contribution: The paper illustrates the application of the browser-based approach to create a series of browser apps without high learning curve. Findings: The results show the potentials for using browser app approach to teach as well as to create new apps. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Our proposed browser app development approach and example would be useful to mobile app developers/IS educators and non-technical students because the source code as well as documentations in this project are available for downloading. Future Research: For further work, we discuss the use of hybrid development framework to enhance browser apps.

  1. Acidic Food pH Increases Palatability and Consumption and Extends Drosophila Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sonali A; Yamada, Ryuichi; Mak, Christine M; Hunter, Brooke; Soto Obando, Alina; Hoxha, Sany; Ja, William W

    2015-12-01

    Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila as a model in studies of nutrition, the effects of fundamental food properties, such as pH, on animal health and behavior are not well known. We examined the effect of food pH on adult Drosophila lifespan, feeding behavior, and microbiota composition and tested the hypothesis that pH-mediated changes in palatability and total consumption are required for modulating longevity. We measured the effect of buffered food (pH 5, 7, or 9) on male gustatory responses (proboscis extension), total food intake, and male and female lifespan. The effect of food pH on germfree male lifespan was also assessed. Changes in fly-associated microbial composition as a result of food pH were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Male gustatory responses, total consumption, and male and female longevity were additionally measured in the taste-defective Pox neuro (Poxn) mutant and its transgenic rescue control. An acidic diet increased Drosophila gustatory responses (40-230%) and food intake (5-50%) and extended survival (10-160% longer median lifespan) compared with flies on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Alkaline food pH shifted the composition of fly-associated bacteria and resulted in greater lifespan extension (260% longer median survival) after microbes were eliminated compared with flies on an acidic (50%) or neutral (130%) diet. However, germfree flies lived longer on an acidic diet (5-20% longer median lifespan) compared with those on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Gustatory responses, total consumption, and longevity were unaffected by food pH in Poxn mutant flies. Food pH can directly influence palatability and feeding behavior and affect parameters such as microbial growth to ultimately affect Drosophila lifespan. Fundamental food properties altered by dietary or drug interventions may therefore contribute to changes in animal physiology, metabolism, and survival. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. From Nature to the Lab: Establishing Drosophila Resources for Evolutionary Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor G. Faria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years important tools have been developed in Drosophila to capture with the greatest possible accuracy the variation found in nature. Efforts, such as the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP or the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource (DSPR allied to the advances in whole-genome sequencing and analysis have propelled to unprecedented level our capacity to dissect the genotype-phenotype map. However, several practical problems arise upstream of these analyses starting with the collection and identification of wild specimens. These problems are dealt with in different ways by each researcher generating solutions not necessarily compatible across laboratories. Here, we provide a systematic coverage of every phase of this process based on our experience, and suggest procedures to maximize and share the generated resources potentiating future applications. We propose a detailed pipeline to guide researchers from collection in the wild to the development of a large array of molecular and genetic resources. We designed a multiplex-PCR that distinguishes sister species D. melanogaster and D. simulans and is diagnostic of the presence/absence of Wolbachia infection. These procedures may extend to other cryptic species pairs and endosymbionts. We developed a standardized protocol to create, replicate and maintain isofemale lines and outbred populations. Finally, we explore the potential of outbred populations across several applications from experimental evolution, to introgression of transgenic constructs or mutant alleles, and genomic analyses. We hope to contribute to the success in developing Drosophila resources for evolutionary genetics studies and facilitate exchanges across laboratories based on a common set of procedures.

  3. PoliticAPP: Towards a Categorization of Mobile Apps in Political Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo VÁZQUEZ SANDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analyze of all mobile apps that are available in the field of Spanish political communication, with the aim to develop a pioneering categorization of these platforms according to various criteria as promoters, aims pursued or areas of performance. It includes also a critical review from which it is concluded that these app reproduce classic communication patterns with the voters. That means that the implementation of these channels seems to have been due more to political marketing than to boost democratic participation or to introduce an horizontal outline of a new relationship between politicians and citizens.

  4. Engineering stories? A narratological approach to children's book apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadassah Stichnothe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of smartphones and tablet pcs, children's book apps have emerged as a new type of children's media. While some of them are based on popular children's books such as Mo Willems’ Pigeon books or Beatrix Potter's Peter Rabbit, others were specifically designed as apps. This paper focuses on examining book apps under the aspects of implied user strategies and narrative structure. Using a narratological framework that also takes into account the unique characteristics of the medium, a terminology for the analysis of book apps will be sketched out. Furthermore, an exemplary analysis of iOS books apps for pre- and grade school children comes to the conclusion that, far from offering the child users room for individual creativity, a large number of apps rather train their users in following prescribed paths of reading.

  5. Targeted On-Demand Team Performance App Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    management protocols and set up file management using encryption and a secure server. Complete 10 Customize Data Collection App Modify CareAssess App to...greater team morale. An App that serves to build relationships around the management of emergency medicine cases over time, could stimulate the... Management 4. Casualty Care 5. Trauma Care 6. Critical Care 7. Trauma Management 8. High Performing Teams 9. Team Characteristics 10. Team Composition

  6. Web-based hybrid mobile apps: state of the practice and research opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malavolta, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the contents of a tutorial on web-based hybrid mobile apps. Nowadays millions of mobile apps are downloaded and used all over the world. Mobile apps are distributed via different app stores like Google Play Store, the Apple App Store, the Windows Phone Store. One of the most

  7. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  8. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps

    OpenAIRE

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A.; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Intern...

  9. Apps: a new medium for non-fiction innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Allen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apps are now a dominant content medium: in the US people spend more time on apps than they do watching TV. Non-fiction content is being avidly consumed on mobile devices, but in a completely different way to the book model. This article explores three strands of potential that the app medium holds for non-fiction content, putting forward the case that apps have the power to further weave non-fiction into the fabric of society and life.

  10. Mobile Apps for Self-Injury: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Aaron M; Lewis, Stephen P

    2018-05-01

    A growing body of research points to the salience of the Internet and mobile material among individuals who self-injure. However, to date, no research has investigated the mobile apps related to nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Such information would clarify which apps may be useful for those who self-injure while highlighting whether app-related content warrants improvement. The current study examined the content and usability of NSSI apps available on the two largest app-related platforms (Google Play and iTunes). Using content analysis, apps were examined regarding their content (e.g., presence of NSSI myths and types of coping strategies) as well as usability (e.g., app performance). Results indicate that NSSI apps have varied content, with few developed by, or affiliated with, a trusted source (e.g., university). NSSI apps tend to not propagate NSSI myths that vary with respect to the quality of coping strategies offered. They also tend to be rated favorably in terms of their usability. Overall, the present findings add to the NSSI literature and highlight several implications and avenues for future work, which are discussed.

  11. Subgrouping the users of a specialized app for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Kim, Jane Paik; Darcy, Alison M; Neri, Eric; Vierhile, Molly; Robinson, Athena; Tregarthen, Jenna; Lock, James D

    2018-02-16

    Although mobile technologies for eating disorders (EDs) are burgeoning, there is limited data about the clinical characteristics of individuals using specialized smartphone applications (apps) without accompanying traditional forms of treatment. This study evaluated whether the users of an ED app cluster in clinically meaningful groups. Participants were 1,280 app users (91.3% female; mean age 27) who reported not being in a weekly treatment for their ED. A hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished five groups of participants, all approximating DSM-5 ED categories. One cluster comprised of non-female, ethnically diverse users with Bulimia Nervosa features. Findings suggest that app users resemble known patient classifications.

  12. Towards a Framework for Evaluating Mobile Mental Health Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Steven; Torous, John; Hinton, Ladson; Yellowlees, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Mobile phones are ubiquitous in society and owned by a majority of psychiatric patients, including those with severe mental illness. Their versatility as a platform can extend mental health services in the areas of communication, self-monitoring, self-management, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the efficacy and reliability of publicly available applications (apps) have yet to be demonstrated. Numerous articles have noted the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy and clinical utility of smartphone apps, which are largely unregulated. Professional clinical organizations do not provide guidelines for evaluating mobile apps. Guidelines and frameworks are needed to evaluate medical apps. Numerous frameworks and evaluation criteria exist from the engineering and informatics literature, as well as interdisciplinary organizations in similar fields such as telemedicine and healthcare informatics. We propose criteria for both patients and providers to use in assessing not just smartphone apps, but also wearable devices and smartwatch apps for mental health. Apps can be evaluated by their usefulness, usability, and integration and infrastructure. Apps can be categorized by their usability in one or more stages of a mental health provider's workflow. Ultimately, leadership is needed to develop a framework for describing apps, and guidelines are needed for both patients and mental health providers.

  13. Plausibility of Menstrual Cycle Apps Claiming to Support Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freis, Alexander; Freundl-Schütt, Tanja; Wallwiener, Lisa-Maria; Baur, Sigfried; Strowitzki, Thomas; Freundl, Günter; Frank-Herrmann, Petra

    2018-01-01

    The interval of peak fertility during the menstrual cycle is of limited duration, and the day of ovulation varies, even in women with fairly regular cycles. Therefore, menstrual cycle apps identifying the "fertile window" for women trying to conceive must be quite precise. A deviation of a few days may lead the couple to focus on less- or non-fertile days for sexual intercourse and thus may be worse than random intercourse. The aim of the present investigation was to develop a scoring system for rating available apps for determining the fertile window and secondarily pilot test 12 apps currently available in both German and English (consisting of 6 calendar-based apps: Clue Menstruations- und Zykluskalender, Flo Menstruationskalender, Maya-Mein Periodentracker, Menstruationskalender Pro, Period Tracker Deluxe, and WomanLog-Pro-Kalender; 2 calculothermal apps: Ovy and Natural Cycles; and 4 symptothermal apps: myNFP, Lady Cycle, Lily, and OvuView). The calendar-based apps were investigated by entering several series of cycles with varying lengths, whereas the symptom-based apps were examined by entering data of cycles with known temperature rise, cervical mucus pattern, and clinical ovulation. The main criteria for evaluating the cycle apps were as follows: (1) What methods/parameters were used to determine the fertile window? (2) What study results exist concerning that underlying method/parameters? (3) What study results exist concerning the app itself? (4) Was there a qualified counseling service? The calendar-based apps predicted the fertile days based on data of previous cycles. They obtained zero points in our scoring system, as they did not comply with any of the evaluated criteria. Calculothermal apps had similar deficits for predicting the most fertile days and produced suboptimal results (Ovy 3/30 points and Natural Cycles 2/30 points). The symptothermal apps determined the fertile days based on parameters of the current cycle: Lady Cycle scored 20

  14. Quality of Smartphone Apps Related to Alcohol Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzenstadler, Louise; Chatton, Anne; Van Singer, Mathias; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    Apps for smartphones are opening an important range of opportunities for improving the care of people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This study aimed to evaluate the quality of English language apps for AUDs and to compare paid and free apps. The keywords 'alcohol', 'alcohol addiction', 'alcohol help' and 'stop drinking' were entered into the iTunes Store search engine. Apps were evaluated using a standardized assessment designed to rate the quality of apps in terms of accountability, interactivity, self-help score and evidence-based content. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the 'Health on the Net' label were also used as content quality indicators. Of the 137 unique apps identified, 52 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the content quality and self-help scores of these AUD apps were poor. The main quality indicators were not linked to payment status. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted content quality. Poor content quality and self-help scores of AUD smartphone apps underline the gap between their potential promises and the overall quality of available products in stores. The quality indicators used in the present study may be used for further app developments. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. WhatsApp in Clinical Practice: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Several spontaneous telemedicine services using WhatsApp Messenger have started in South Africa raising issues of confidentiality, data security and storage, record keeping and reporting. This study reviewed the literature on WhatsApp in clinical practice, to determine how it is used, and users' satisfaction. Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct and IEE Expert databases were searched using the search term WhatsApp and Google Scholar using the terms WhatsApp Telemedicine and WhatsApp mHealth. Thirty-two papers covering 17 disciplines were relevant with the most papers, 12, from India. Seventeen papers reported the use of WhatsApp Groups within departments, 14 of which were surgery related disciplines. Groups improved communication and advice given on patient management. Confidentiality was mentioned in 19 papers and consent in five. Data security was partially addressed in 11 papers with little understanding of how data are transmitted and stored. Telemedicine services outside of departmental groups were reported in seven papers and covered emergency triage in maxillofacial, plastic, neuro and general surgery, and cardiology and telestroke. WhatsApp is seen to be a simple, cheap and effective means of communication within the clinical health sector and its use will grow. Users have paid little attention to confidentiality, consent and data security. Guidelines for using WhatsApp for telemedicine are required including downloading. WhatsApp messages to computer for integration with electronic medical records.

  16. A Novel Approach for Designing Mobile Native Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Pani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are differed from desktop based systems in terms of particular execution environment, constrained resources, and high mobility requirement. To overcome these shortcomings, various agile based methodologies are developed for native mobile applications such as Mobile-D, Scrum etc. These agile techniques are based on various phases and these phases begin from exploring, initializing and implementing the mobile apps. But these techniques are not focusing on elaborating design model for mobile native apps. The aim of the paper is to provide a layered approach or layered model for design of mobile native apps which can be used as a framework for developing mobile native apps. Any mobile native app developer can use this sequential approach or design model for design and development of mobile native apps. This design model gives a standard or framework, based on which generic native mobile apps can be designed and developed. This paper also shows an empirical analysis among the web app design models with the proposed design model for mobile native app development.

  17. Effects of curcuminoids identified in rhizomes of Curcuma longa on BACE-1 inhibitory and behavioral activity and lifespan of Alzheimer’s disease Drosophila models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of presenile and senile dementia. The human β-amyloid precursor cleavage enzyme (BACE-1) is a key enzyme responsible for amyloid plaque production, which implicates the progress and symptoms of AD. Here we assessed the anti-BACE-1 and behavioral activities of curcuminoids from rhizomes of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), diarylalkyls curcumin (CCN), demethoxycurcumin (DMCCN), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMCCN) against AD Drosophila melanogaster models. Methods Neuro-protective ability of the curcuminoids was assessed using Drosophila melanogaster model system overexpressing BACE-1 and its substrate APP in compound eyes and entire neurons. Feeding and climbing activity, lifespan, and morphostructural changes in fly eyes also were evaluated. Results BDMCCN has the strongest inhibitory activity toward BACE-1 with 17 μM IC50, which was 20 and 13 times lower than those of CCN and DMCCN respectively. Overexpression of APP/BACE-1 resulted in the progressive and measurable defects in morphology of eyes and locomotion. Remarkably, supplementing diet with either 1 mM BDMCCN or 1 mM CCN rescued APP/BACE1-expressing flies and kept them from developing both morphological and behavioral defects. Our results suggest that structural characteristics, such as degrees of saturation, types of carbon skeleton and functional group, and hydrophobicity appear to play a role in determining inhibitory potency of curcuminoids on BACE-1. Conclusion Further studies will warrant possible applications of curcuminoids as therapeutic BACE-1 blockers. PMID:24597901

  18. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs, however, few apps appear to apply the techniques systematically or to define the BCTs they include. Aim: We aimed a to assess the number apps that incorporate gamification to modify health behaviors, b to examine the BCT repertoire and combinations used in these apps c to consider associations with user satisfaction. Methods: English-language health apps that contain gamification techniques were identified through a systematic search of the official Apple and Google Play store and the NHS health apps library. Top rated free and paid Medical, Health & Wellness, Health & Fitness apps as defined by Apple and Google Play stores were searched. Apps were coded for BCTs according to the Michie et al. taxonomy. The taxonomy comprises 16 categories and 93 individual BCTs. BCT coding was conducted by two trained researchers (EE, JL who scored independently and then cross-checked for discrepancies. BCT numbers, user ratings and app pricing were compared. We explored the association between number of BCTs per app, user and NHS libraries’ ratings and price. We also investigated, which of the 16 BCT categories and the individual 93 BCTs and their combinations were most commonly used. Results: 1,680 Medical, Health & Wellness or Health & Fitness Apps were reviewed and seventy containing gamification techniques were identified. The mean number of BCTs used was 12.5 (range 1-24. There was no correlation between number of BCTs, customer ratings, NHS library app rating or

  19. Adaptive genic evolution in the Drosophila genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Joshua A; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Chenhui

    2007-01-01

    and stable population. In this study, we sequenced 419 genes from 24 lines of Drosophila melanogaster and its close relatives. Together with data from Drosophila simulans, these data reveal the following. (i) Approximately 10% of the loci in regions of normal recombination are much less polymorphic at silent...... sites than expected, hinting at the action of selective sweeps. (ii) The level of polymorphism is negatively correlated with the rate of nonsynonymous divergence across loci. Thus, even under strict neutrality, the ratio of amino acid to silent nucleotide changes (A:S) between Drosophila species...

  20. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  1. The Anatomy of Virtual Manipulative Apps: Using Grounded Theory to Conceptualize and Evaluate Educational Apps that Contain Virtual Manipulatives

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer-Thurgood, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study used grounded theory to investigate the anatomy of educational apps that contain virtual manipulatives. For this study 100 virtual manipulatives within educational apps designed for the iPad were observed by the researcher in order to expand the explanations of and build theory about virtual manipulatives within apps. Affordance theory was used to frame all six phases of the study in which the researcher identified virtual manipulatives situated within educa...

  2. Lack of tau proteins rescues neuronal cell death and decreases amyloidogenic processing of APP in APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Karelle; Ando, Kunie; Laporte, Vincent; Dedecker, Robert; Suain, Valérie; Authelet, Michèle; Héraud, Céline; Pierrot, Nathalie; Yilmaz, Zehra; Octave, Jean-Noël; Brion, Jean-Pierre

    2012-12-01

    Lack of tau expression has been reported to protect against excitotoxicity and to prevent memory deficits in mice expressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) identified in familial Alzheimer disease. In APP mice, mutant presenilin 1 (PS1) enhances generation of Aβ42 and inhibits cell survival pathways. It is unknown whether the deficient phenotype induced by concomitant expression of mutant PS1 is rescued by absence of tau. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of tau deletion in mice expressing mutant APP and PS1. Although APP/PS1/tau(+/+) mice had a reduced survival, developed spatial memory deficits at 6 months and motor impairments at 12 months, these deficits were rescued in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Neuronal loss and synaptic loss in APP/PS1/tau(+/+) mice were rescued in the APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. The amyloid plaque burden was decreased by roughly 50% in the cortex and the spinal cord of the APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. The levels of soluble and insoluble Aβ40 and Aβ42, and the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio were reduced in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Levels of phosphorylated APP, of β-C-terminal fragments (CTFs), and of β-secretase 1 (BACE1) were also reduced, suggesting that β-secretase cleavage of APP was reduced in APP/PS1/tau(-/-) mice. Our results indicate that tau deletion had a protective effect against amyloid induced toxicity even in the presence of mutant PS1 and reduced the production of Aβ. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  4. The App Map: A Tool for Systematic Evaluation of Apps for Early Literacy Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelson, Madeleine Heins

    2015-01-01

    As portable devices become increasingly available in elementary classrooms teachers are expected to use these new technologies to engage students in both traditional print-based literacy learning and digital literacies practices, such as multimodal composing. Teachers face the daunting task of integrating apps into their current research-based…

  5. 3rd MeTrApp Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Lovasz, Erwin-Christian; Hüsing, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    This volume deals with topics such as mechanism and machine design, biomechanics and medical engineering, gears, mechanical transmissions, mechatronics, computational and experimental methods, dynamics of mechanisms and machines, micromechanisms and microactuators, and history of mechanisms and transmissions. Following MeTrApp 2011 and 2013, held under the auspices of the IFToMM, these proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications offer a platform for original research presentations for researchers, scientists, industry experts and students in the fields of mechanisms and transmissions with special emphasis on industrial applications in order to stimulate the exchange of new and innovative ideas.

  6. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitivity strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.R.; Sharygin, V.I.; Khromykh, Yu.U.

    1985-01-01

    Fertility of radiosensitive mutant drosophila female strain rad (2) 201 61 after irradiation and frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM), induced by γ-radiation for 0-5 h and 5-7 days, are investigated. It is shown, that oocytes of the mutant strain are more radiosensitive as compared with cells of mongrel flies as to criterion of DLM appearance over the period of maturing. Early oocytes of stages 2-7 are the most sensitive, i.e. at the stages, corresponding to the manifestation of previously established recombination-defective properties of mutations rad (2) 201 61 . It is also sown, that doses of γ-rays, exceeding 10 Gy produce a strong sterilizing effect on mutant females due to destruction and resorption of egg chambers, irradiated at the stages of previtellogenetic growth of oocytes. In females, carrying mutation of radiosensitivity there is no direct correlation betwen sensitivity of oocytes proper to DLM induction and sensitivity of egg folleicles to resorbing effect of γ-rays. The ways of possible involvement of mutant locus studied into genetic processes in various specialized cells of drosophila

  7. Transgenic expression of the Aedes aegypti CYP9J28 confers pyrethroid resistance in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlidi, N.; Monastirioti, M.; Daborn, P.; Van Leeuwen, T.; Vontas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, such as the major vector of dengue and yellow fever Aedes aegypti, is a major public health problem. A number of studies have been conducted to-date aiming to identify specific molecular changes that are associated with the phenotype,

  8. Evaluating the Dietary and Nutritional Apps in the Google Play Store.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumer, Harleigh; Amadi, Chioma; Joshi, Ashish

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the features of diet and nutrition apps available in the Google Play Store. A search was conducted in August 2017 using the Google Play Store database to identify apps related to diet and nutrition. Terms entered into the app search engine included 'diet apps' and 'nutrition apps'. The first 50 apps resulting from each search term was assessed. Duplicates were removed, and a comparative analysis was performed on the remaining diet and nutrition apps. A total of 86 diet and nutrition apps were identified. One hundred percent (n = 86) of the apps retrieved were freely available. More than half of the apps were applicable to a target user group of all ages (94%, n = 81). Stratified analysis across unique diet and nutrition apps (total, n = 72) showed a higher average rating for the diet apps (4.4) in comparison to that for the nutrition apps (4.3). Diet apps were more likely to be recently updated than the nutrition apps (72% vs. 66%), and diet apps were more likely to feature app purchase than nutrition apps (36% vs. 19%). The average rating was slightly higher for diet apps not featuring in-app purchases, but ratings were similar for the nutrition apps. A centralized resource is needed that can provide information on health-related apps to allow for systematic evaluation of their effectiveness. Further research needs to examine improved methods of designing app-store platforms and presenting the available apps to properly guide users in app selection.

  9. Apps seeking theories: results of a study on the use of health behavior change theories in cancer survivorship mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-03-27

    Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile phone cancer survivorship apps. The research team selected a set of criteria-based health apps for mobile phones and assessed each app using qualitative coding methods to assess the application of health behavior change and communication theories. Each app was assessed using a coding derived from the taxonomy of 26 health behavior change techniques by Abraham and Michie with a few important changes based on the characteristics of mHealth apps that are specific to information processing and human computer interaction such as control theory and feedback systems. A total of 68 mobile phone apps and games built on the iOS and Android platforms were coded, with 65 being unique. Using a Cohen's kappa analysis statistic, the inter-rater reliability for the iOS apps was 86.1 (Papps, 77.4 (Papps were consistently higher than those of the Android platform apps. For personalization and tailoring, 67% of the iOS apps (24/36) had these elements as compared to 38% of the Android apps (12/32). In the area of prompting for intention formation, 67% of the iOS apps (34/36) indicated these elements as compared to 16% (5/32) of the Android apps. Mobile apps are rapidly emerging as a way to deliver health behavior change interventions that can be tailored or personalized for individuals. As these apps and games continue to evolve and include interactive and adaptive sensors and other forms of dynamic feedback, their content and interventional elements need to be grounded in human computer interface design and health

  10. Smartphone Apps for Measuring Human Health and Climate Change Co-Benefits: A Comparison and Quality Rating of Available Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel K; Marsh, Samantha; Halvarsson, Jakob; Holdsworth, Michelle; Waterlander, Wilma; Poelman, Maartje P; Salmond, Jennifer Ann; Christian, Hayley; Koh, Lenny Sc; Cade, Janet E; Spence, John C; Woodward, Alistair; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-12-19

    Climate change and the burden of noncommunicable diseases are major global challenges. Opportunities exist to investigate health and climate change co-benefits through a shift from motorized to active transport (walking and cycling) and a shift in dietary patterns away from a globalized diet to reduced consumption of meat and energy dense foods. Given the ubiquitous use and proliferation of smartphone apps, an opportunity exists to use this technology to capture individual travel and dietary behavior and the associated impact on the environment and health. The objective of the study is to identify, describe the features, and rate the quality of existing smartphone apps which capture personal travel and dietary behavior and simultaneously estimate the carbon cost and potential health consequences of these actions. The Google Play and Apple App Stores were searched between October 19 and November 6, 2015, and a secondary Google search using the apps filter was conducted between August 8 and September 18, 2016. Eligible apps were required to estimate the carbon cost of personal behaviors with the potential to include features to maximize health outcomes. The quality of included apps was assessed by 2 researchers using the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). Out of 7213 results, 40 apps were identified and rated. Multiple travel-related apps were identified, however no apps solely focused on the carbon impact or health consequences of dietary behavior. None of the rated apps provided sufficient information on the health consequences of travel and dietary behavior. Some apps included features to maximize participant engagement and encourage behavior change towards reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Most apps were rated as acceptable quality as determined by the MARS; 1 was of poor quality and 10 apps were of good quality. Interrater reliability of the 2 evaluators was excellent (ICC=0.94, 95% CI 0.87-0.97). Existing apps capturing travel and dietary behavior and the

  11. Public health guidelines for physical activity: is there an app for that? A review of android and apple app stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Emily; Stuckey, Melanie I; Prapavessis, Harry; Petrella, Robert J

    2015-05-21

    Physical activity participation is an important behavior for modifying lifestyle-related disease risk. Mobile health apps for chronic disease management and prevention are being developed at a rapid rate. However, it is unclear whether these apps are evidence-based. Current public health recommendations for physical activity participation for adults highlight the importance of engaging in 150 minutes weekly of purposeful exercise, and muscle strengthening activities on at least 2 days of the week. The aims of the present review were to (1) identify available evidence-based physical activity apps, and (2) identify technological features that could be leveraged to improve health outcomes. iTunes and Google Play mobile app stores were searched using keyword and category searching during a single day (February 18, 2014) for physical activity apps available in English. The description pages of eligible apps were reviewed by 4 independent reviewers for evidence-based content, technological, and descriptive features. An a priori subset of apps was downloaded for further review (n=6 affiliated with a non-commercial agency; n=10 top rated; n=10 random selection), and developers were contacted for information regarding evidence-informed content. The initial search yielded 2400 apps, of which 379 apps (n=206 iTunes; n=173 Google Play) were eligible. Primary results demonstrated no apps (n=0) adhering to evidence-based guidelines for aerobic physical activity, and 7 out of 379 implementing evidence-based guidelines for resistance training physical activity. Technological features of apps included social networking (n=207), pairing with a peripheral health device (n=61), and measuring additional health parameters (n=139). Secondary results revealed 1 app that referenced physical activity guidelines (150 minutes/weekly of exercise), and demonstrated that apps were based on various physical activity reports (n=4) or personal expertise (n=2). The present study demonstrated a

  12. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch plants indicated that the ...

  13. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch.

  14. Parallel pathways for cross-modal memory retrieval in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaonan; Ren, Qingzhong; Guo, Aike

    2013-05-15

    Memory-retrieval processing of cross-modal sensory preconditioning is vital for understanding the plasticity underlying the interactions between modalities. As part of the sensory preconditioning paradigm, it has been hypothesized that the conditioned response to an unreinforced cue depends on the memory of the reinforced cue via a sensory link between the two cues. To test this hypothesis, we studied cross-modal memory-retrieval processing in a genetically tractable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. By expressing the dominant temperature-sensitive shibire(ts1) (shi(ts1)) transgene, which blocks synaptic vesicle recycling of specific neural subsets with the Gal4/UAS system at the restrictive temperature, we specifically blocked visual and olfactory memory retrieval, either alone or in combination; memory acquisition remained intact for these modalities. Blocking the memory retrieval of the reinforced olfactory cues did not impair the conditioned response to the unreinforced visual cues or vice versa, in contrast to the canonical memory-retrieval processing of sensory preconditioning. In addition, these conditioned responses can be abolished by blocking the memory retrieval of the two modalities simultaneously. In sum, our results indicated that a conditioned response to an unreinforced cue in cross-modal sensory preconditioning can be recalled through parallel pathways.

  15. Recurring ethanol exposure induces disinhibited courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Gwan Lee

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a strong causal relationship with sexual arousal and disinhibited sexual behavior in humans; however, the physiological support for this notion is largely lacking and thus a suitable animal model to address this issue is instrumental. We investigated the effect of ethanol on sexual behavior in Drosophila. Wild-type males typically court females but not males; however, upon daily administration of ethanol, they exhibited active intermale courtship, which represents a novel type of behavioral disinhibition. The ethanol-treated males also developed behavioral sensitization, a form of plasticity associated with addiction, since their intermale courtship activity was progressively increased with additional ethanol experience. We identified three components crucial for the ethanol-induced courtship disinhibition: the transcription factor regulating male sex behavior Fruitless, the ABC guanine/tryptophan transporter White and the neuromodulator dopamine. fruitless mutant males normally display conspicuous intermale courtship; however, their courtship activity was not enhanced under ethanol. Likewise, white males showed negligible ethanol-induced intermale courtship, which was not only reinstated but also augmented by transgenic White expression. Moreover, inhibition of dopamine neurotransmission during ethanol exposure dramatically decreased ethanol-induced intermale courtship. Chronic ethanol exposure also affected a male's sexual behavior toward females: it enhanced sexual arousal but reduced sexual performance. These findings provide novel insights into the physiological effects of ethanol on sexual behavior and behavioral plasticity.

  16. Mdr65 decreases toxicity of multiple insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haina; Buchon, Nicolas; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-10-01

    ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The major function of eukaryotic ABC transporters is to mediate the efflux of a variety of substrates (including xenobiotics) out of cells. ABC transporters have been widely investigated in humans, particularly for their involvement in multidrug resistance (MDR). Considerably less is known about their roles in transport and/or excretion in insects. ABC transporters are only known to function as exporters in insects. Drosophila melanogaster has 56 ABC transporter genes, including eight which are phylogenetically most similar to the human Mdr genes (ABCB1 clade). We investigated the role of ABC transporters in the ABCB1 clade in modulating the susceptibility to insecticides. We took advantage of the GAL4/UAS system in D. melanogaster to knockdown the expression levels of Mdr65, Mdr50, Mdr49 and ABCB6 using transgenic UAS-RNAi lines and conditional driver lines. The most notable effects were increased sensitivities to nine different insecticides by silencing of Mdr65. Furthermore, a null mutation of Mdr65 decreased the malathion, malaoxon and fipronil LC 50 values by a factor of 1.9, 2.1 and 3.9, respectively. Altogether, this data demonstrates the critical role of ABC transporters, particularly Mdr65, in altering the toxicity of specific, structurally diverse, insecticides in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Qualitative evaluation of mobile cancer apps with particular attention to the target group, content, and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Cathleen; von Osthoff, Marc Baron; Frey, Katrin; Hübner, Jutta

    2018-01-01

    Medical apps are gaining importance rapidly. Also in the field of cancer care, apps are offered. Yet, so far little is known with respect to their quality. In a pilot phase we developed a rating tool based on formal and content-related criteria for the assessment of cancer apps. We used this instrument on cancer apps available in the App Store (iOS) concerning breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. The results were stratified according to target group, content and advertising. We assessed 41 mobile cancer apps. Six apps (14.63%) scored very high, fifteen apps (36.59%) high, seventeen apps (41.46%) were deficient, and three apps (7.32%) were insufficient. The largest group of apps represents those apps with the "deficient" rating. The very good to good apps had reliable sources, a concrete intent/ purpose in their app description, and a strict distinction of scientific content and advertisement. Apps with the predicates "deficient" or "insufficient" had particularly poor ratings, e.g. in the subscales "information on sources" and "data protection". Almost half of the tested apps were deficient or insufficient. In order to improve safety of patients using apps, some regulation seems mandatory. Putting apps under the legislation for medical products might be one way to better regulate and control quality. Second, efforts should focus on the development of checklists that make it easier for patients to search for suitable cancer apps.

  18. Cerebrolysin modulates pronerve growth factor/nerve growth factor ratio and ameliorates the cholinergic deficit in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubhi, Kiren; Rockenstein, Edward; Vazquez-Roque, Ruben; Mante, Michael; Inglis, Chandra; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Fahnestock, Margaret; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philip; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by degeneration of neocortex, limbic system, and basal forebrain, accompanied by accumulation of amyloid-β and tangle formation. Cerebrolysin (CBL), a peptide mixture with neurotrophic-like effects, is reported to improve cognition and activities of daily living in patients with AD. Likewise, CBL reduces synaptic and behavioral deficits in transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP). The neuroprotective effects of CBL may involve multiple mechanisms, including signaling regulation, control of APP metabolism, and expression of neurotrophic factors. We investigate the effects of CBL in the hAPP tg model of AD on levels of neurotrophic factors, including pro-nerve growth factor (NGF), NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotropin (NT)-3, NT4, and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that levels of pro-NGF were increased in saline-treated hAPP tg mice. In contrast, CBL-treated hAPP tg mice showed levels of pro-NGF comparable to control and increased levels of mature NGF. Consistently with these results, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated increased NGF immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of CBL-treated hAPP tg mice. Protein levels of other neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, NT3, NT4, and CNTF, were unchanged. mRNA levels of NGF and other neurotrophins were also unchanged. Analysis of neurotrophin receptors showed preservation of the levels of TrKA and p75(NTR) immunoreactivity per cell in the nucleus basalis. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis were reduced in the saline-treated hAPP tg mice, and treatment with CBL reduced these cholinergic deficits. These results suggest that the neurotrophic effects of CBL might involve modulation of the pro-NGF/NGF balance and a concomitant protection of cholinergic neurons. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mobile Apps for Weight Management: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jordan; McPherson, Amy; Hamilton, Jill; Birken, Catherine; Coons, Michael; Iyer, Sindoora; Agarwal, Arnav; Lalloo, Chitra; Stinson, Jennifer

    2016-07-26

    Obesity remains a major public health concern. Mobile apps for weight loss/management are found to be effective for improving health outcomes in adults and adolescents, and are pursued as a cost-effective and scalable intervention for combating overweight and obesity. In recent years, the commercial market for 'weight loss apps' has expanded at rapid pace, yet little is known regarding the evidence-based quality of these tools for weight control. To characterize the inclusion of evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of commercial mobile apps for weight loss/management. An electronic search was conducted between July 2014 and July 2015 of the official app stores for four major mobile operating systems. Three raters independently identified apps with a stated goal of weight loss/management, as well as weight loss/management apps targeted to pediatric users. All discrepancies regarding selection were resolved through discussion with a fourth rater. Metadata from all included apps were abstracted into a standard assessment criteria form and the evidence-based strategies, health care expert involvement, and scientific evaluation of included apps was assessed. Evidence-based strategies included: self-monitoring, goal-setting, physical activity support, healthy eating support, weight and/or health assessment, personalized feedback, motivational strategies, and social support. A total of 393 apps were included in this review. Self-monitoring was most common (139/393, 35.3%), followed by physical activity support (108/393, 27.5%), weight assessment (100/393, 25.4%), healthy eating support (91/393, 23.2%), goal-setting (84/393, 21.4%), motivational strategies (28/393, 7.1%), social support (21/393, 5.3%), and personalized feedback (7/393, 1.8%). Of apps, 0.8% (3/393) underwent scientific evaluation and 0.3% (1/393) reported health care expert involvement. No apps were comprehensive in the assessment criteria, with the majority

  20. Medical apps in endocrine diseases - hide and seek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; von Jan, Ute

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative review and categorization of available endocrinology related mobile apps for the iOS platform (Apple®) and outline of search strategies to identify appropriate mobile apps for this field. A total of 80 endocrinology related search terms were collected and grouped into 8 main categories covering different areas of endocrinology. These terms were then used to perform comprehensive searches in three categories of Apple's app store, namely 'Medicine', 'Health and Fitness', and 'Reference'. Altogether, matches were found for only 33 of the 80 collected endocrinology related search terms; the majority of matches were found in the medical category, followed by matches for the health and fitness (27/33), and reference (16/33) categories. Restricting the search to these categories significantly helped in discriminating between health related apps and those having another purpose. The distribution of apps per category roughly matches what one can expect considering available data for incidence and prevalence of corresponding endocrinological conditions. Apps matching terms belonging to the spectrum of glucose homeostasis disorders are the most common. For conditions where patients do not have to constantly monitor their condition, apps tend to have a reference or educational character, while for conditions that require a high level of involvement from patients, there are proportionally more apps for self-management. With a single exception, the identified apps had not undergone regulation, and information about the data sources, professional backgrounds, and reliability of the content and integrated information sources was rare. While applying a good search strategy is important for finding apps for endocrinology related problems, users also need to consider whether the app they have found respects all necessary criteria regarding reliability, privacy and data protection before they place their trust in it.

  1. Medical apps in endocrine diseases – hide and seek

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Jan, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Quantitative review and categorization of available endocrinology related mobile apps for the iOS platform (Apple®) and outline of search strategies to identify appropriate mobile apps for this field. Methods: A total of 80 endocrinology related search terms were collected and grouped into 8 main categories covering different areas of endocrinology. These terms were then used to perform comprehensive searches in three categories of Apple’s app store, namely ‘Medicine’, ‘Health and Fitness’, and ‘Reference’. Results: Altogether, matches were found for only 33 of the 80 collected endocrinology related search terms; the majority of matches were found in the medical category, followed by matches for the health and fitness (27/33), and reference (16/33) categories. Restricting the search to these categories significantly helped in discriminating between health related apps and those having another purpose. The distribution of apps per category roughly matches what one can expect considering available data for incidence and prevalence of corresponding endocrinological conditions. Apps matching terms belonging to the spectrum of glucose homeostasis disorders are the most common. For conditions where patients do not have to constantly monitor their condition, apps tend to have a reference or educational character, while for conditions that require a high level of involvement from patients, there are proportionally more apps for self-management. With a single exception, the identified apps had not undergone regulation, and information about the data sources, professional backgrounds, and reliability of the content and integrated information sources was rare. Conclusions: While applying a good search strategy is important for finding apps for endocrinology related problems, users also need to consider whether the app they have found respects all necessary criteria regarding reliability, privacy and data protection before they place their trust in

  2. Functional Analysis of Drosophila NF1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernards, Andre

    2005-01-01

    ...) for Ras, yet homozygous loss of a highly conserved Drosophila NF1 ortholog results in several phenotypes that are insensitive to manipulating Ras signal transduction, but rescued by increasing...

  3. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARUL BANERJEE

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Drosophila bipectinata species complex: phylogenetic relationship among different members based on chromosomal variations. PARUL BANERJEE and BASHISTH N. SINGH. ∗. Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi ...

  4. Drosophila melanogaster gene expression changes after spaceflight.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression levels were determined in 3rd instar and adult Drosophila melanogaster reared during spaceflight to elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms...

  5. Ecdysteroid receptors in Drosophila melanogaster adult females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecdysteroid receptors were identified and partially characterized from total cell extracts of whole animals and dissected tissues from Drosophila melanogaster adult females. Binding studies indicated the presence of two ecdysteroid binding components having high affinity and specificity consistent w...

  6. High-fat-diet-induced weight gain ameliorates bone loss without exacerbating AβPP processing and cognition in female APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhua ePeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.

  7. AN APPROACH TO TRANSGENIC CROP MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing by aerial or satellite images may provide a method of identifying transgenic pesticidal crop distribution in the landscape. Genetically engineered crops containing bacterial gene(s) that express an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are regulated...

  8. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  9. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  10. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  11. Lack of robustness of life extension associated with several single-gene P element mutations in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockett, Robin J; Nobles, Amber C

    2013-10-01

    The hypothesis tested in this study was that single-gene mutations found previously to extend the life span of Drosophila melanogaster could do so consistently in both long-lived y w and standard w (1118) genetic backgrounds. GAL4 drivers were used to express upstream activation sequence (UAS)-responder transgenes globally or in the nervous system. Transgenes associated with oxidative damage prevention (UAS-hSOD1 and UAS-GCLc) or removal (EP-UAS-Atg8a and UAS-dTOR (FRB) ) failed to increase mean life spans in any expression pattern in either genetic background. Flies containing a UAS-EGFP-bMSRA (C) transgene associated with protein repair were found not to exhibit life extension or detectable enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) activity. The presence of UAS-responder transgenes was confirmed by PCR amplification and sequencing at the 5' and 3' end of each insertion. These results cast doubt on the robustness of life extension in flies carrying single-gene mutations and suggest that the effects of all such mutations should be tested independently in multiple genetic backgrounds and laboratory environments.

  12. Chronic apocynin treatment attenuates beta amyloid plaque size and microglial number in hAPP(751(SL mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda E Lull

    Full Text Available NADPH oxidase is implicated in neurotoxic microglial activation and the progressive nature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Here, we test the ability of two NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and dextromethorphan (DM, to reduce learning deficits and neuropathology in transgenic mice overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish and London mutations (hAPP(751(SL.Four month old hAPP(751(SL mice were treated daily with saline, 15 mg/kg DM, 7.5 mg/kg DM, or 10 mg/kg apocynin by gavage for four months.Only hAPP(751(SL mice treated with apocynin showed reduced plaque size and a reduction in the number of cortical microglia, when compared to the saline treated group. Analysis of whole brain homogenates from all treatments tested (saline, DM, and apocynin demonstrated low levels of TNFα, protein nitration, lipid peroxidation, and NADPH oxidase activation, indicating a low level of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in hAPP(751(SL mice at 8 months of age that was not significantly affected by any drug treatment. Despite in vitro analyses demonstrating that apocynin and DM ameliorate Aβ-induced extracellular superoxide production and neurotoxicity, both DM and apocynin failed to significantly affect learning and memory tasks or synaptic density in hAPP(751(SL mice. To discern how apocynin was affecting plaque levels (plaque load and microglial number in vivo, in vitro analysis of microglia was performed, revealing no apocynin effects on beta-amyloid (Aβ phagocytosis, microglial proliferation, or microglial survival.Together, this study suggests that while hAPP(751(SL mice show increases in microglial number and plaque load, they fail to exhibit elevated markers of neuroinflammation consistent with AD at 8 months of age, which may be a limitation of this animal model. Despite absence of clear neuroinflammation, apocynin was still able to reduce both plaque size and microglial number, suggesting that apocynin may have additional

  13. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  14. Interaction Modes for Emergency Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nass

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While seemingly irrational behaviors such as panicking or displaying antisocial behavior are the responses to emergency situations the media and movies lead us to believe, several studies show that people rather react based on decision-making such as acting altruistically and protectively. However, what can we really expect from people in a crowd in terms of participation in an emergency response system? In this paper, we present a mobile application called the RESCUER App, which allows civilians to participate in the emergency response process by providing information about the emergency to a command center and to receive instructions from this command center. We developed a human reaction model for emergencies to better understand the human–computer interaction capabilities of people in an emergency situation. Based on this model, we defined three different interaction modes: one-click interaction, guided interaction, and chat interaction. These interaction modes were implemented in an interactive prototype and evaluated in an experiment in which high cognitive load was induced to simulate a stress situation, similar to the stress experienced in an emergency. The experiment results showed that the three predefined interaction modes enabled people to interact with the RESCUER App even though they were in a stress situation.

  15. Mapping of gene mutations in drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Halvorsen, Charlotte Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this experiment, mutant genes of a given unknown mutant strain of Drosophila melanogaster were mapped to specific chromosomes. Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, was the appropriate choice for the organism to use in this specific experiment because of its relatively rapid life cycle of 10-14 days and because of the small amount of space and food neccessary for maintaining thousands of flies. The D. Melanogaster unknown strain specifically used in this experiment wa...

  16. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  17. Ethics and Transgenic Crops: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    This article represents a review of some of the ethical dilemmas that have arisen as a result of the development and deployment of transgenic crop plants. The potential for transgenic crops to alleviate human hunger and the possible effects on human health are discussed. Risks and benefits to the environment resulting from genetic engineering of crops for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses are considered, in addition to effects on biodiversity. The socio-economic impacts and distributi...

  18. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  19. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bagle TR, Kunkulol RR, Baig MS, More SY

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, AT...

  20. Medical applications: a database and characterization of apps in Apple iOS and Android platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabrook, Heather J; Stromer, Julie N; Shevkenek, Cole; Bharwani, Aleem; de Grood, Jill; Ghali, William A

    2014-08-27

    Medical applications (apps) for smart phones and tablet computers are growing in number and are commonly used in healthcare. In this context, there is a need for a diverse community of app users, medical researchers, and app developers to better understand the app landscape. In mid-2012, we undertook an environmental scan and classification of the medical app landscape in the two dominant platforms by searching the medical category of the Apple iTunes and Google Play app download sites. We identified target audiences, functions, costs and content themes using app descriptions and captured these data in a database. We only included apps released or updated between October 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012, with a primary "medical" app store categorization, in English, that contained health or medical content. Our sample of Android apps was limited to the most popular apps in the medical category. Our final sample of Apple iOS (n = 4561) and Android (n = 293) apps illustrate a diverse medical app landscape. The proportion of Apple iOS apps for the public (35%) and for physicians (36%) is similar. Few Apple iOS apps specifically target nurses (3%). Within the Android apps, those targeting the public dominated in our sample (51%). The distribution of app functions is similar in both platforms with reference being the most common function. Most app functions and content themes vary considerably by target audience. Social media apps are more common for patients and the public, while conference apps target physicians. We characterized existing medical apps and illustrated their diversity in terms of target audience, main functions, cost and healthcare topic. The resulting app database is a resource for app users, app developers and health informatics researchers.

  1. The fitness of apps: a theory-based examination of mobile fitness app usage over 5 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsook

    2017-01-01

    Background There are thousands of fitness-related smartphone applications (“apps”) available for free and purchase, but there is uncertainty if these apps help individuals achieve and maintain personal fitness. Technology usage attrition is also a concern among research studies on health technologies. Methods Usage of three fitness apps was examined over 5 months to assess adherence and effectiveness. Initially, 64 participants downloaded three free apps available on Android and iOS and 47 remained in the study until posttest. With a one group pre-posttest design and checkpoints at months 1, 3, and 5, exercise and exercise with fitness apps were examined in the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) using a validated survey. Apps were selected based on their function from the Functional Triad. Perceived fitness was also measured. T-tests, sign tests, Fisher’s exact tests, and linear and logistic regression were used to compare pre to posttests and users to non-users of the apps. Results Forty-seven participants completed both pre and posttests. Individual item scores indicated no significant change pre to posttest except for decreases observed in usefulness of using apps for exercise (attitude) (−0.78, Papps (subjective norm) (−1.02, Papps (perceived behavioral control) (−1.29, Papps over the next 2 weeks (behavioral intention) (Papps (−1.72, Papps (−2.56, Papp users (n=32) to non-users (n=15), there was only a significant difference in subscale total scores at posttest for attitude toward exercising using apps, which was significantly more favorable among users than non-users (32.3 vs. 27.6, PApp usage and effectiveness appears to have a connection to usefulness (attitude) and to perceived difficulties of exercising using apps (perceived behavioral control). Exercise and exercise using apps are not influenced by peer influence (subjective norm). Intention to exercise using these particular apps decreased (behavioral intention). Those who

  2. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robab, U.E.; )

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  3. Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  4. Metabolome analysis of Drosophila melanogaster during embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Phan Nguyen Thuy; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster embryo has been widely utilized as a model for genetics and developmental biology due to its small size, short generation time, and large brood size. Information on embryonic metabolism during developmental progression is important for further understanding the mechanisms of Drosophila embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the changes in embryos' metabolome that occur at different stages of the Drosophila embryonic development. Time course samples of Drosophila embryos were subjected to GC/MS-based metabolome analysis for profiling of low molecular weight hydrophilic metabolites, including sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. The results showed that the metabolic profiles of Drosophila embryo varied during the course of development and there was a strong correlation between the metabolome and different embryonic stages. Using the metabolome information, we were able to establish a prediction model for developmental stages of embryos starting from their high-resolution quantitative metabolite composition. Among the important metabolites revealed from our model, we suggest that different amino acids appear to play distinct roles in different developmental stages and an appropriate balance in trehalose-glucose ratio is crucial to supply the carbohydrate source for the development of Drosophila embryo.

  5. Characterization of Autophagic Responses in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Kumar, S; Denton, D

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila is an excellent model system for studying autophagy during animal development due to the availability of genetic reagents and opportunity for in vivo cell biological analysis. The regulation and mechanism of autophagy are highly evolutionarily conserved and the role of autophagy has been characterized during various stages of Drosophila development as well as following starvation. Studies in Drosophila have revealed novel insights into the role of distinct components of the autophagy machinery. This chapter describes protocols for examining autophagy during Drosophila development. A crucial step in the induction of autophagy is the incorporation of Atg8a into the autophagosome. This can be measured as autophagic puncta using live fluorescent imaging, immunostaining, or immunoblot analysis of LC3/Atg8a processing. The level of autophagy can also be examined using other specific components of the autophagy pathway as markers detected by immunofluorescent imaging. Based on the distinct morphology of autophagy, it can also be examined by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, one of the advantages of using Drosophila as a model is the ability to undertake genetic analysis of individual components of the autophagy machinery. Current approaches that can be used to monitor autophagy, including the overall flux and individual steps in Drosophila melanogaster, will be discussed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mobile Distance Learning with Smartphones and Apps in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cano, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the results of researcher' ongoing activities regarding the use of smartphones and a specific subject-app used at the Spanish National University of Distance Education (UNED) have been reported. The purpose of this trial is to assess the app's didactic use and potential to enhance student learning in university subjects in…

  7. Reading apps for children: Readability from the design perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Wasan Abdulwahab; Husni, Husniza

    2017-10-01

    Electronic reading for young children opens new avenues especially with the advance of modern reading devices. The readability of mobile learning applications has received extensive attention by the designers and developers. The reason for such concern is due to its importance in determining usability related issues especially in the design context for children. In many cases, children find it difficult to interact with mobile reading apps. This is because apps for reading and for entertainment require different features. As such, this study sets out three objectives: 1) to evaluate five reading apps for young children from design perspectives; 2) to examine the readability for current existing mobile apps for reading and 3) to propose and evaluate mobile apps UI guideline for readability. Readability indices, observation and interview were conducted on 6 - 8 years old students. The obtained result showed that certain reading apps provide better reading experience for children than others. Some of the reasons are mostly related to the design characteristics embedded within the app. In addition, the use of animation was found to stimulate children reading experience as it is believed to offer the interactivity elements to gain their interest and willingness to read. These findings are believed to provide the recommendations and insights for designers of reading apps for children.

  8. Validation of a Tool Evaluating Educational Apps for Smart Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Sook; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate an evaluation tool of educational apps for smart education. Based on literature reviews, a potential model for evaluating educational apps was suggested. An evaluation tool consisting of 57 survey items was delivered to 156 students in middle and high schools. An exploratory factor analysis was…

  9. Designing and Creating an Educational App Rubric for Preschool Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Stamatios; Kalogiannakis, Michail; Zaranis, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    International studies indicate that the use of smart mobile devices and their accompanying educational applications (apps) can revolutionize young children's learning experiences. Although there is a vast array of educational apps for preschoolers, they are not actually educational in their majority. In this context, it is important for preschool…

  10. A Comprehensive Evaluation Rubric for Assessing Instructional Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Cherner, Todd Sloan

    2015-01-01

    There is a pressing need for an evaluation rubric that examines all aspects of educational apps designed for instructional purposes. In past decades, many rubrics have been developed for evaluating educational computer-based programs; however, rubrics designed for evaluating the instructional implications of educational apps are scarce. When an…

  11. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  12. Microlearning mApp raises health competence : Hybrid service design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, L.P.A.; Foerster, F.; Bruck, P.A.; Motiwalla, L.; Jonker, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Work place health support interventions can help support our aging work force, with mApps offering cost-effectiveness opportunities. Previous research shows that health support apps should offer users enough newness and relevance each time they are used. Otherwise the ‘eHealth law of attrition’

  13. Using a Mobile Gaming App to Enhance Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Poh-Sun; Wong, Suay-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe the first mobile gaming app for learning accounting, Accounting Challenge (ACE). On September 30, 2016, ACE had been downloaded 23,230 times, spanning 90 countries, and had won three international teaching awards. The app was motivated by the aim to empower students to learn accounting in a fun way, outside of the classroom.…

  14. Mobile health apps in Sweden: what do physicians recommend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiping; Koch, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Currently over 50,000 mobile health apps are available worldwide. In general, they are considered as innovations potentially delivering benefits to patients. Physicians are considered as potential channels to disseminate these innovations to patients. However, physicians' behavior in this regard has not been studied. To capture physicians' attitudes towards recommending health apps to patients and to describe factors influencing physicians' behavior, taking the specifics of an early adopter country, Sweden, into account. Diffusion of Innovation theory, the Health App Maturity Model and the Six Hurdles Model were used to construct a web-based survey that was answered by 44 Swedish physicians. Survey results were followed up with 2 individual interviews. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis and recursive abstraction for qualitative data analysis. Only a small group of physicians currently recommend mobile health apps to their patients. However, most physicians have a positive attitude and perceive improvement of patients' self-management ability as main benefit of health apps. Main perceived weaknesses include the lack of evidence-based content and lack of multi-language support. Regulation of health apps under the Medical Device Directive is asked for to assure quality and patient safety. Innovators and early adopters play an important role in the diffusion of mobile health apps. Interpersonal communication is seen as the most effective way for physicians gaining information and also motivates them to recommend mobile health apps to their patients. Physicians' knowledge about certified websites to ensure quality is however low.

  15. Examining Preservice Teachers' Criteria for Evaluating Educational Mobile Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Evrim; Uygun, Erdem; Altan, Tugba

    2017-01-01

    Recent interest in integrating mobile apps into teaching will continue growing. There remains, however, a pressing need to develop methods and resources to support and educate preservice teachers about the use of these technologies. This case study aimed to examine preservice teachers' criteria for evaluating educational mobile apps. Nineteen…

  16. Mobile Apps to Support and Assess Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Anke; Palomo-Duarte, Manuel; Dodero, Juan Manuel; Ruiz-Ladrón, Juan Miguel; Márquez, Andrea Calderón

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades there have been many attempts to integrate all kinds of mobile devices and apps to support formal as well as informal learning processes. However, most of the available apps still support mainly individual learning, using mobile devices to deliver content rather than providing learners with the opportunity to interact with…

  17. Citrix XenApp 7.5 desktop virtualization solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Andy

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Citrix® engineer, a virtualization consultant, or an IT project manager with prior experience of using Citrix XenApp® and related technologies for desktop virtualization and want to further explore the power of XenApp® for flawless desktop virtualization, then this book is for you.

  18. Free Play or Tight Spaces? Mapping Participatory Literacies in Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…

  19. Effect of non-nutritive sugars to decrease the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of non-nutritive sugars and sugar alcohols on the survivorship of spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, and found erythritol and erythrose as potentially toxic to the fly. In a dose-dependent study, erythritol and erythrose significantly reduced fly ...

  20. New record for the invasive Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Anillaco, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is reported for the first time in La Rioja, Argentina. This represents a major range expansion for this species. The natural enemies of SWD, Leptopilina clavipes and Ganaspis hookeri were also collected with the SWD at the s...

  1. Enhancing Pharmacy Student Learning and Perceptions of Medical Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Jennifer; Aungst, Timothy Dy; Brown, Nicole V; Cui, Yan; Tam, Leonard

    2016-05-12

    The use of mobile apps in health care is growing. Current and future practitioners must be equipped with the skills to navigate and utilize apps in patient care, yet few strategies exist for training health care professional students on the usage of apps. To characterize first-year pharmacy student use of medical apps, evaluate first-year pharmacy student's perception of skills in finding, evaluating, and using medical apps before and after a focused learning experience, and assess student satisfaction and areas for improvement regarding the learning experience. Students listened to a recorded, Web-based lecture on finding, evaluating, and using mobile apps in patient care. A 2-hour, interactive workshop was conducted during which students were led by an instructor through a discussion on strategies for finding and using apps in health care. The students practiced evaluating 6 different health care-related apps. Surveys were conducted before and after the focused learning experience to assess students' perceptions of medical apps and current use and perspectives on satisfaction with the learning experience and role of technology in health care. This educational intervention is the first described formal, interactive method to educate student pharmacists on medical apps. With a 99% response rate, surveys conducted before and after the learning experience displayed perceived improvement in student skills related to finding (52/119, 44% before vs 114/120, 95% after), evaluating (18/119, 15% before vs 112/120, 93% after), and using medical apps in patient care (31/119, 26% before vs 108/120, 90% after) and the health sciences classroom (38/119, 32% before vs 104/120, 87% after). Students described satisfaction with the educational experience and agreed that it should be repeated in subsequent years (89/120, 74% agreed or strongly agreed). Most students surveyed possessed portable electronic devices (107/119, 90% mobile phone) and agreed with the concept of medical apps

  2. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data.

  3. Building Android Apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    If you know HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, you already have the tools you need to develop Android applications. This hands-on book shows you how to use these open source web standards to design and build apps that can be adapted for any Android device -- without having to use Java. You'll learn how to create an Android-friendly web app on the platform of your choice, and then convert it to a native Android app with the free PhoneGap framework. Discover why device-agnostic mobile apps are the wave of the future, and start building apps that offer greater flexibility and a broader reach. Learn the

  4. Security Concerns in Android mHealth Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongjing; Naveed, Muhammad; Gunter, Carl A.; Nahrstedt, Klara

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) applications lie outside of regulatory protection such as HIPAA, which requires a baseline of privacy and security protections appropriate to sensitive medical data. However, mHealth apps, particularly those in the app stores for iOS and Android, are increasingly handling sensitive data for both professionals and patients. This paper presents a series of three studies of the mHealth apps in Google Play that show that mHealth apps make widespread use of unsecured Internet communications and third party servers. Both of these practices would be considered problematic under HIPAA, suggesting that increased use of mHealth apps could lead to less secure treatment of health data unless mHealth vendors make improvements in the way they communicate and store data. PMID:25954370

  5. Identification of four Drosophila allatostatins as the cognate ligands for the Drosophila orphan receptor DAR-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, C; Williamson, M; Hansen, G N

    2001-01-01

    The allatostatins are generally inhibitory insect neuropeptides. The Drosophila orphan receptor DAR-2 is a G-protein-coupled receptor, having 47% amino acid residue identity with another Drosophila receptor, DAR-1 (which is also called dros. GPCR, or DGR) that was previously shown...... to be the receptor for an intrinsic Drosophila A-type (cockroach-type) allatostatin. Here, we have permanently expressed DAR-2 in CHO cells and found that it is the cognate receptor for four Drosophila A-type allatostatins, the drostatins-A1 to -A4. Of all the drostatins, drostatin-A4 (Thr...... weakly in the brain. The Drosophila larval gut also contains about 20-30 endocrine cells, expressing the gene for the drostatins-A1 to -A4. We suggest, therefore, that DAR-2 mediates an allatostatin (drostatin)-induced inhibition of gut motility. This is the first report on the permanent and functional...

  6. A large-scale, in vivo transcription factor screen defines bivalent chromatin as a key property of regulatory factors mediating Drosophila wing development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertel, Claus; Albarca, Monica; Rockel-Bauer, Claudia; Kelley, Nicholas W; Bischof, Johannes; Hens, Korneel; van Nimwegen, Erik; Basler, Konrad; Deplancke, Bart

    2015-04-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of cell fate. The estimated 755 genes that encode DNA binding domain-containing proteins comprise ∼ 5% of all Drosophila genes. However, the majority has remained uncharacterized so far due to the lack of proper genetic tools. We generated 594 site-directed transgenic Drosophila lines that contain integrations of individual UAS-TF constructs to facilitate spatiotemporally controlled misexpression in vivo. All transgenes were expressed in the developing wing, and two-thirds induced specific phenotypic defects. In vivo knockdown of the same genes yielded a phenotype for 50%, with both methods indicating a great potential for misexpression to characterize novel functions in wing growth, patterning, and development. Thus, our UAS-TF library provides an important addition to the genetic toolbox of Drosophila research, enabling the identification of several novel wing development-related TFs. In parallel, we established the chromatin landscape of wing imaginal discs by ChIP-seq analyses of five chromatin marks and RNA Pol II. Subsequent clustering revealed six distinct chromatin states, with two clusters showing enrichment for both active and repressive marks. TFs that carry such "bivalent" chromatin are highly enriched for causing misexpression phenotypes in the wing, and analysis of existing expression data shows that these TFs tend to be differentially expressed across the wing disc. Thus, bivalently marked chromatin can be used as a marker for spatially regulated TFs that are functionally relevant in a developing tissue. © 2015 Schertel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Effect of Hawthorn on Drosophila Melanogaster Antioxidant-Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The results indicate that hawthorn extract prolonged the life span of Drosophila, with 50 % survival time of 0.8 ... Drosophila's aging gene is highly similar to humans [4,5]. ..... reduces lipid peroxidation in senescence-accelerated mice .

  8. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users’ perceptive. Methods In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Results Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1 barriers to adoption of health apps, 2 barriers to continued use of health apps, 3 motivators, 4 information and personalized guidance, 5 tracking for awareness and progress, 6 credibility, 7 goal setting, 8 reminders, and 9 sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. Conclusions This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users’ perspective.

  9. Using Mobile App Development Tools to Build a GIS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, A.; Catchen, M.; Mital, K.

    2014-12-01

    Our group designed and built working web, android, and IOS applications using different mapping libraries as bases on which to overlay fire data from NASA. The group originally planned to make app versions for Google Maps, Leaflet, and OpenLayers. However, because the Leaflet library did not properly load on Android, the group focused efforts on the other two mapping libraries. For Google Maps, the group first designed a UI for the web app and made a working version of the app. After updating the source of fire data to one which also provided historical fire data, the design had to be modified to include the extra data. After completing a working version of the web app, the group used webview in android, a built in resource which allowed porting the web app to android without rewriting the code for android. Upon completing this, the group found Apple IOS devices had a similar capability, and so decided to add an IOS app to the project using a function similar to webview. Alongside this effort, the group began implementing an OpenLayers fire map using a simpler UI. This web app was completed fairly quickly relative to Google Maps; however, it did not include functionality such as satellite imagery or searchable locations. The group finished the project with a working android version of the Google Maps based app supporting API levels 14-19 and an OpenLayers based app supporting API levels 8-19, as well as a Google Maps based IOS app supporting both old and new screen formats. This project was implemented by high school and college students under an SGT Inc. STEM internship program

  10. Gustatory Processing in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kristin

    2018-01-07

    The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output. This review discusses the molecules and cells that detect taste compounds in the periphery and the circuits that process taste information in the brain. These studies are providing insight into how the detection of taste compounds regulates feeding decisions.

  11. Inhibition of microglial activation protects hippocampal neurogenesis and improves cognitive deficits in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Barbara; Lindvall, Olle; Tesco, Giuseppina; Ekdahl, Christine T; Nitsch, Roger M

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia with macrophage-like functions invade and surround β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), possibly contributing to the turnover of Aβ, but they can also secrete proinflammatory factors that may be involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Microglia are known to modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis. To determine the role of microglia on neurogenesis in brains with Aβ pathology, we inhibited microglial activation with the tetracycline derivative minocycline in doubly transgenic mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) and mutant human presenilin-1 (PS1). Minocycline increased the survival of new dentate granule cells in APP/PS1 mice indicated by more BrdU+/NeuN+ cells as compared to vehicle-treated transgenic littermates, accompanied by improved behavioral performance in a hippocampus-dependent learning task. Both brain levels of Aβ and Aβ-related morphological deficits in the new neurons labeled with GFP-expressing retrovirus were unaffected in minocycline-treated mice. These results suggest a role for microglia in Aβ-related functional deficits and in suppressing the survival of new neurons, and show that modulation of microglial function with minocycline can protect hippocampal neurogenesis in the presence of Aβ pathology. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A Genome-wide Gene-Expression Analysis and Database in Transgenic Mice during Development of Amyloid or Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Matarin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide microarray data comparing genome-wide differential expression and pathology throughout life in four lines of “amyloid” transgenic mice (mutant human APP, PSEN1, or APP/PSEN1 and “TAU” transgenic mice (mutant human MAPT gene. Microarray data were validated by qPCR and by comparison to human studies, including genome-wide association study (GWAS hits. Immune gene expression correlated tightly with plaques whereas synaptic genes correlated negatively with neurofibrillary tangles. Network analysis of immune gene modules revealed six hub genes in hippocampus of amyloid mice, four in common with cortex. The hippocampal network in TAU mice was similar except that Trem2 had hub status only in amyloid mice. The cortical network of TAU mice was entirely different with more hub genes and few in common with the other networks, suggesting reasons for specificity of cortical dysfunction in FTDP17. This Resource opens up many areas for investigation. All data are available and searchable at http://www.mouseac.org.

  13. Characterization of amyloid beta peptides from brain extracts of transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human amyloid precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pype, Stefan; Moechars, Dieder; Dillen, Lieve; Mercken, Marc

    2003-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques in the brain of patients. To study plaque formation, we report on further quantitative and qualitative analysis of human and mouse amyloid beta peptides (Abeta) from brain extracts of transgenic mice overexpressing the London mutant of human amyloid precursor protein (APP). Using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs) specific for either human or rodent Abeta, we found that the peptides from both species aggregated to form plaques. The ratios of deposited Abeta1-42/1-40 were in the order of 2-3 for human and 8-9 for mouse peptides, indicating preferential deposition of Abeta42. We also determined the identity and relative levels of other Abeta variants present in protein extracts from soluble and insoluble brain fractions. This was done by combined immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (IP/MS). The most prominent peptides truncated either at the carboxyl- or the amino-terminus were Abeta1-38 and Abeta11-42, respectively, and the latter was strongly enriched in the extracts of deposited peptides. Taken together, our data indicate that plaques of APP-London transgenic mice consist of aggregates of multiple human and mouse Abeta variants, and the human variants that we identified were previously detected in brain extracts of AD patients.

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic Mapping in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that recently have revolutionized human, mouse, and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila by using a sequence tagged site-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that sp...

  15. User Experience of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Apps for Depression: An Analysis of App Functionality and User Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarz, Katarzyna; Preist, Chris; Tallon, Debbie; Wiles, Nicola; Coyle, David

    2018-06-06

    Hundreds of mental health apps are available to the general public. With increasing pressures on health care systems, they offer a potential way for people to support their mental health and well-being. However, although many are highly rated by users, few are evidence-based. Equally, our understanding of what makes apps engaging and valuable to users is limited. The aim of this paper was to analyze functionality and user opinions of mobile apps purporting to support cognitive behavioral therapy for depression and to explore key factors that have an impact on user experience and support engagement. We systematically identified apps described as being based on cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. We then conducted 2 studies. In the first, we analyzed the therapeutic functionality of apps. This corroborated existing work on apps' fidelity to cognitive behavioral therapy theory, but we also extended prior work by examining features designed to support user engagement. Engagement features found in cognitive behavioral therapy apps for depression were compared with those found in a larger group of apps that support mental well-being in a more general sense. Our second study involved a more detailed examination of user experience, through a thematic analysis of publicly available user reviews of cognitive behavioral therapy apps for depression. We identified 31 apps that purport to be based on cognitive behavioral therapy for depression. Functionality analysis (study 1) showed that they offered an eclectic mix of features, including many not based on cognitive behavioral therapy practice. Cognitive behavioral therapy apps used less varied engagement features compared with 253 other mental well-being apps. The analysis of 1287 user reviews of cognitive behavioral therapy apps for depression (study 2) showed that apps are used in a wide range of contexts, both replacing and augmenting therapy, and allowing users to play an active role in supporting their mental

  16. Building Android Apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript Making Native Apps with Standards-Based Web Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stark, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    It's true: if you know HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, you already have the tools you need to develop Android applications. Now updated for HTML5, the second edition of this hands-on guide shows you how to use open source web standards to design and build apps that can be adapted for any Android device. You'll learn how to create an Android-friendly web app on the platform of your choice, and then use Adobe's free PhoneGap framework to convert it to a native Android app. Discover why device-agnostic mobile apps are the wave of the future, and start building apps that offer greater flexibility and

  17. TRANSGENIC STRATEGY FOR IDENTIFYING SYNAPTIC CONNECTIONS IN MICE BY FLUORESCENCE COMPLEMENTATION (GRASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito eYamagata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the "GFP reconstitution across synaptic partners" (GRASP method, non-fluorescent fragments of GFP are expressed in two different neurons; the fragments self-assemble at synapses between the two to form a fluorophore. GRASP has proven useful for light microscopic identification of synapses in two invertebrate species, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, but has not yet been applied to vertebrates. Here, we describe GRASP constructs that function in mammalian cells and implement a transgenic strategy in which a Cre-dependent gene switch leads to expression of the two fragments in mutually exclusive neuronal subsets in mice. Using a transgenic line that expresses Cre selectively in rod photoreceptors, we demonstrate labeling of synapses in the outer plexiform layer of the retina. Labeling is specific, in that synapses made by rods remain labeled for at least 6 months whereas nearby synapses made by intercalated cone photoreceptors on many of the same interneurons remain unlabeled. We also generated antisera that label reconstituted GFP but neither fragment in order to amplify the GRASP signal and thereby increase the sensitivity of the method.

  18. The mir-279/996 cluster represses receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to determine cell fates in the Drosophila eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hong; de Navas, Luis F; Hu, Fuqu; Sun, Kailiang; Mavromatakis, Yannis E; Viets, Kayla; Zhou, Cyrus; Kavaler, Joshua; Johnston, Robert J; Tomlinson, Andrew; Lai, Eric C

    2018-04-09

    Photoreceptors in the crystalline Drosophila eye are recruited by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras signaling mediated by Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the Sevenless (Sev) receptor. Analyses of an allelic deletion series of the mir-279/996 locus, along with a panel of modified genomic rescue transgenes, show that Drosophila eye patterning depends on both miRNAs. Transcriptional reporter and activity sensor transgenes reveal expression and function of miR-279/996 in non-neural cells of the developing eye. Moreover, mir-279/996 mutants exhibit substantial numbers of ectopic photoreceptors, particularly of R7, and cone cell loss. These miRNAs restrict RTK signaling in the eye, since mir-279/996 nulls are dominantly suppressed by positive components of the EGFR pathway and enhanced by heterozygosity for an EGFR repressor. miR-279/996 limit photoreceptor recruitment by targeting multiple positive RTK/Ras signaling components that promote photoreceptor/R7 specification. Strikingly, deletion of mir-279/996 sufficiently derepresses RTK/Ras signaling so as to rescue a population of R7 cells in R7-specific RTK null mutants boss and sev , which otherwise completely lack this cell fate. Altogether, we reveal a rare setting of developmental cell specification that involves substantial miRNA control. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Novel synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements drive population replacement in Drosophila; a theoretical exploration of Medea-dependent population suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Omar S; Chen, Chun-Hong; Marshall, John M; Huang, Haixia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Hay, Bruce A

    2014-12-19

    Insects act as vectors for diseases of plants, animals, and humans. Replacement of wild insect populations with genetically modified individuals unable to transmit disease provides a potentially self-perpetuating method of disease prevention. Population replacement requires a gene drive mechanism in order to spread linked genes mediating disease refractoriness through wild populations. We previously reported the creation of synthetic Medea selfish genetic elements able to drive population replacement in Drosophila. These elements use microRNA-mediated silencing of myd88, a maternally expressed gene required for embryonic dorso-ventral pattern formation, coupled with early zygotic expression of a rescuing transgene, to bring about gene drive. Medea elements that work through additional mechanisms are needed in order to be able to carry out cycles of population replacement and/or remove existing transgenes from the population, using second-generation elements that spread while driving first-generation elements out of the population. Here we report the synthesis and population genetic behavior of two new synthetic Medea elements that drive population replacement through manipulation of signaling pathways involved in cellular blastoderm formation or Notch signaling, demonstrating that in Drosophila Medea elements can be generated through manipulation of diverse signaling pathways. We also describe the mRNA and small RNA changes in ovaries and early embryos associated from Medea-bearing females. Finally, we use modeling to illustrate how Medea elements carrying genes that result in diapause-dependent female lethality could be used to bring about population suppression.

  20. Instant RubyMotion app development

    CERN Document Server

    Laborde, Gant

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is a practical, task-based, step-by-step tutorial that will get you started with using RubyMotion to quickly and efficiently write iOS apps.To make the most of this book, you should understand the basics of programming concepts and have a basic understanding of a language similar to Ruby. If you are an Objective-C programmer, you'll learn the advantages of RubyMotion which can access the benefits of Cocoapods, but takes everything a st