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Sample records for apoptotic vascular signaling

  1. Propofol inhibits burn injury-induced hyperpermeability through an apoptotic signal pathway in microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    K.Y. Tian; X.J. Liu; J.D. Xu; L.J. Deng; G. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that an intrinsic apoptotic signaling cascade is involved in vascular hyperpermeability and endothelial barrier dysfunction. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) has also been reported to inhibit apoptotic signaling by regulating mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and caspase-3 activation. Here, we investigated whether propofol could alleviate burn serum-induced endothelial hyperpermeability through the inhibition of the intrinsic apoptotic sign...

  2. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M; Chaurio, Ricardo; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E; Janko, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. (paper)

  3. Activation of Apoptotic Signal in Endothelial Cells through Intracellular Signaling Molecules Blockade in Tumor-Induced Angiogenesis

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    Hossein Bazmara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced angiogenesis is the bridge between avascular and vascular tumor growth phases. In tumor-induced angiogenesis, endothelial cells start to migrate and proliferate toward the tumor and build new capillaries toward the tumor. There are two stages for sprout extension during angiogenesis. The first stage is prior to anastomosis, when single sprouts extend. The second stage is after anastomosis when closed flow pathways or loops are formed and blood flows in the closed loops. Prior to anastomosis, biochemical and biomechanical signals from extracellular matrix regulate endothelial cell phenotype; however, after anastomosis, blood flow is the main regulator of endothelial cell phenotype. In this study, the critical signaling pathways of each stage are introduced. A Boolean network model is used to map environmental and flow induced signals to endothelial cell phenotype (proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and lumen formation. Using the Boolean network model, blockade of intracellular signaling molecules of endothelial cell is investigated prior to and after anastomosis and the cell fate is obtained in each case. Activation of apoptotic signal in endothelial cell can prevent the extension of new vessels and may inhibit angiogenesis. It is shown that blockade of a few signaling molecules in endothelial cell activates apoptotic signal that are proposed as antiangiogenic strategies.

  4. Polyphenol supplementation alters intramuscular apoptotic signaling following acute resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jeremy R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Jajtner, Adam R; Church, David D; Beyer, Kyle S; Riffe, Joshua J; Muddle, Tyler W D; Herrlinger, Kelli L; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 28-days of supplementation with an aqueous proprietary polyphenol blend (PPB) sourced from Camellia sinensis on intramuscular apoptotic signaling following an acute lower-body resistance exercise protocol and subsequent recovery. Untrained males (n = 38, 21.8 ± 2.7 years, 173.4 ± 7.9 cm, 77.6 ± 14.6 kg) were randomized to PPB (n = 14), placebo (PL; n = 14) or control (CON; n = 10). Participants completed a lower-body resistance exercise protocol comprised of the squat, leg press, and leg extension exercises. Skeletal muscle microbiopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis preexercise (PRE), 1-h (1HR), 5-h (5HR), and 48-h (48HR) post-resistance exercise. Apoptotic signaling pathways were quantified using multiplex signaling assay kits to quantify total proteins (Caspase 3, 8, 9) and markers of phosphorylation status (JNK, FADD, p53, BAD, Bcl-2). Changes in markers of muscle damage and intramuscular signaling were analyzed via separate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Change in Bcl-2 phosphorylation at 1H was significantly greater in PL compared to CON (P = 0.001). BAD phosphorylation was significantly elevated at 5H in PL compared to PPB (P = 0.015) and CON (P = 0.006). The change in JNK phosphorylation was significantly greater in PPB (P = 0.009), and PL (P = 0.017) compared to CON at 1H, while the change for PL was elevated compared to CON at 5H (P = 0.002). A main effect was observed (P < 0.05) at 1H, 5H, and 48H for p53 and Caspase 8, with Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 elevated at 48H. These data indicate that chronic supplementation with PPB alters apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle following acute muscle-damaging resistance exercise. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Electrotonic vascular signal conduction and nephron synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, D.J.; Toma, I.; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2009-01-01

    frequencies of both pair members to converge to a common value. The myogenic oscillations also synchronized, and the synchronization between the TGF and the myogenic oscillations showed an increased stability against parameter perturbations. Electronic vascular signal propagation is a plausible mechanism...

  6. Hypoxia and nitric oxide exposure promote apoptotic signaling in contractile pulmonary arterial smooth muscle but not in pulmonary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postolow, F; Fediuk, J; Nolette, N; Hinton, M; Dakshinamurti, S

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal pulmonary hypertension is characterized by hypoxia, abnormal vascular remodeling, and impaired alveolarization. Nitric oxide (NO) regulates cell replication and activation of apoptosis. Our objective was to examine cell phenotype-specific effects of hypoxia and NO exposure on cumulative apoptotic signal in neonatal pulmonary epithelial cells and arterial smooth muscle. Primary cultured newborn porcine pulmonary arterial myocytes and epithelial cells were grown in normoxic (21% O2) or hypoxic conditions (10% O2). Myocyte phenotype was predetermined by serum-supplementation or -deprivation. Cells were exposed to sodium nitroprusside (10(-7) -10(-4)  M) or diluent for 3 days. Cell survival was estimated by MTT assay; BAX, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 by Western blot; cell cycle entry by laser scanning cytometry. Hypoxic epithelial cells exhibited a small increase in anti-apoptotic Bcl2, and decrease in BAX. Cell survival and active caspase-3 were unchanged. Exposure to NO had no impact on epithelial apoptosis, but initiated necrosis. In contractile myocytes, pro-apoptotic BAX abundance and caspase-3 activation were increased by hypoxia, augmented by NO exposure promoting apoptosis. Hypoxia decreased BAX/Bcl-2 ratio and promoted survival of synthetic myocytes; NO increased apoptosis of normoxic synthetic myocytes, but decreased apoptosis of hypoxic synthetic myocytes. The effect of NO on pulmonary apoptosis is phenotype-dependent. A cumulative apoptotic effect of hypoxia and NO in vitro exerted on contractile myocytes may lead to contraction of this subpopulation, while synthetic myocyte survival and proliferation is enhanced by hypoxia and NO. Epithelial survival is unaffected. We speculate that alveolar rarefaction reported after neonatal hypoxia may arise from growth arrest in the vascular rather than the epithelial compartment. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. NF1 Signal Transduction and Vascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    the effects of losing a second allele of NF1 in the vascular endothelium of the adult mouse. This will be the first model of NF1 loss in the... adult endothelium and can serve as a model system for investigation of both cardiovascular effects and the tumor microenvironment. Body: Aim 1...would be to try and determine if there were defects in TGF-b signaling (Smad activation/EndMT) prior to doing a wholesale catalog of all the

  8. Apoptotic Cells Induced Signaling for Immune Homeostasis in Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Trahtemberg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient and abnormal clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis contributes to systemic autoimmune disease in humans and mice, and inefficient chromosomal DNA degradation by DNAse II leads to systemic polyarthritis and a cytokine storm. By contrast, efficient clearance allows immune homeostasis, generally leads to a non-inflammatory state for both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs, and contributes to maintenance of peripheral tolerance. As many as 3 × 108 cells undergo apoptosis every hour in our bodies, and one of the primary “eat me” signals expressed by apoptotic cells is phosphatidylserine (PtdSer. Apoptotic cells themselves are major contributors to the “anti-inflammatory” nature of the engulfment process, some by secreting thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 or adenosine monophosphate and possibly other immune modulating “calm-down” signals that interact with macrophages and DCs. Apoptotic cells also produce “find me” and “tolerate me” signals to attract and immune modulate macrophages and DCs that express specific receptors for some of these signals. Neither macrophages nor DCs are uniform, and each cell type may variably express membrane proteins that function as receptors for PtdSer or for opsonins like complement or opsonins that bind to PtdSer, such as protein S and growth arrest-specific 6. Macrophages and DCs also express scavenger receptors, CD36, and integrins that function via bridging molecules such as TSP-1 or milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein and that differentially engage in various multi-ligand interactions between apoptotic cells and phagocytes. In this review, we describe the anti-inflammatory and pro-homeostatic nature of apoptotic cell interaction with the immune system. We do not review some forms of immunogenic cell death. We summarize the known apoptotic cell signaling events in macrophages and DCs that are related to toll-like receptors, nuclear factor kappa B, inflammasome, the lipid

  9. Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma and Therapeutic Implications

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    Silvia Anahi Valdés-Rives

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most hostile type of brain cancer. Its aggressiveness is due to increased invasion, migration, proliferation, angiogenesis, and a decreased apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the role of key regulators of apoptosis in GBM and glioblastoma stem cells. Given their importance in the etiology and pathogenesis of GBM, these signaling molecules may represent potential therapeutic targets.

  10. Anti-apoptotic signaling as a cytoprotective mechanism in mammalian hibernation

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    Andrew N. Rouble

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of normal cell turnover, apoptosis is a natural phenomenon involved in making essential life and death decisions. Apoptotic pathways balance signals which promote cell death (pro-apoptotic pathways or counteract these signals (anti-apoptotic pathways. We proposed that changes in anti-apoptotic proteins would occur during mammalian hibernation to aid cell preservation during prolonged torpor under cellular conditions that are highly injurious to most mammals (e.g. low body temperatures, ischemia. Immunoblotting was used to analyze the expression of proteins associated with pro-survival in six tissues of thirteen-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus. The brain showed a concerted response to torpor with significant increases in the levels of all anti-apoptotic targets analyzed (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, BI-1, Mcl-1, cIAP1/2, xIAP as well as enhanced phosphorylation of Bcl-2 at S70 and T56. Heart responded similarly with most anti-apoptotic proteins elevated significantly during torpor except for Bcl-xL and xIAP that decreased and Mcl-1 that was unaltered. In liver, BI-1 increased whereas cIAP1/2 decreased. In kidney, there was an increase in BI-1, cIAP and xIAP but decreases in Bcl-xL and p-Bcl-2(T56 content. In brown adipose tissue, protein levels of BI-1, cIAP1/2, and xIAP decreased significantly during torpor (compared with euthermia whereas Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 were unaltered; however, Bcl-2 showed enhanced phosphorylation at Thr56 but not at Ser70. In skeletal muscle, only xIAP levels changed significantly during torpor (an increase. The data show that anti-apoptotic pathways have organ-specific responses in hibernators with a prominent potential role in heart and brain where coordinated enhancement of anti-apoptotic proteins occurred in response to torpor.

  11. Modulation of Apoptotic Signaling by the Hepatitis B Virus X Protein

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    Michael J. Bouchard

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, an estimated 350 million people are chronically infected with the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV; chronic infection with HBV is associated with the development of severe liver diseases including hepatitis and cirrhosis. Individuals who are chronically infected with HBV also have a significantly higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC than uninfected individuals. The HBV X protein (HBx is a key regulatory HBV protein that is important for HBV replication, and likely plays a cofactor role in the development of HCC in chronically HBV-infected individuals. Although some of the functions of HBx that may contribute to the development of HCC have been characterized, many HBx activities, and their putative roles during the development of HBV-associated HCC, remain incompletely understood. HBx is a multifunctional protein that localizes to the cytoplasm, nucleus, and mitochondria of HBV‑infected hepatocytes. HBx regulates numerous cellular signal transduction pathways and transcription factors as well as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In this review, we will summarize reports in which the impact of HBx expression on cellular apoptotic pathways has been analyzed. Although various effects of HBx on apoptotic pathways have been observed in different model systems, studies of HBx activities in biologically relevant hepatocyte systems have begun to clarify apoptotic effects of HBx and suggest mechanisms that could link HBx modulation of apoptotic pathways to the development of HBV-associated HCC.

  12. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P.J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schuetze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Intestinal adenomas initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT pathway displayed an increased sensitivity to apoptosis. → Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes in Apc Min/+ mice revealed the differential expression of pro-apoptotic Bok and Bax. → APC-mutant adenomatous crypts in FAP patients showed strongly increased BAX immunoreactivity. → Blocking of β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in colon cancer cells reduced the expression of BOK and BAX. -- Abstract: In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin causes constitutively active β-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the transformation of intestinal crypts to cancer precursor lesions, called dysplastic aberrant crypt foci. Deregulated apoptosis is a hallmark of adenomatous colon tissue. However, the contribution of WNT signaling to this process is not fully understood. We addressed this role by analyzing the rate of epithelial apoptosis in aberrant crypts and adenomas of the Apc Min/+ mouse model. In comparison with normal crypts and adenomas, aberrant crypts displayed a dramatically increased rate of apoptotic cell death. Expression profiling of apoptosis-related genes along the crypt-villus axis and in Apc mutant adenomas revealed increased expression of two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in intestinal adenomas, Bok and Bax. Analysis of the colon of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients along the crypt-to-surface axis, and of dysplastic crypts, corroborated this expression pattern. Disruption of β-catenin/TCF-4-mediated signaling in the colorectal cancer cell line Ls174T significantly decreased BOK and BAX expression, confirming WNT-dependent regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. Our results suggest a feedback mechanism by which uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation in the

  13. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells.

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    Mariela Rivera

    Full Text Available Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa, is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12 and Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses.

  14. Targeting multiple pro-apoptotic signaling pathways with curcumin in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Mariela; Ramos, Yanilda; Rodríguez-Valentín, Madeline; López-Acevedo, Sheila; Cubano, Luis A.; Zou, Jin; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, an extract from the turmeric rhizome (Curcuma longa), is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Accumulative data indicate that curcumin may induce cancer cell death. However, the detailed mechanism underlying its pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer effects remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined the signaling pathways triggered by curcumin, specifically, the exact molecular mechanisms of curcumin-induced apoptosis in highly metastatic human prostate cancer cells. The effect of curcumin was evaluated using for the first time in prostate cancer, a gel-free shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis coupled with Tandem Mass Tag isobaric labeling-based-signaling networks. Results were confirmed at the gene expression level by qRT-PCR and at the protein expression level by western blot and flow cytometry. Our findings revealed that curcumin induced an Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in PC3. The mechanisms by which curcumin promoted cell death in these cells were associated with cell cycle arrest, increased reactive oxygen species, autophagy and the Unfolded Protein Response. Furthermore, the upregulation of ER stress was measured using key indicators of ER stress: Glucose-Regulated Protein 78, Inositol-Requiring Enzyme 1 alpha, Protein Disulfide isomerase and Calreticulin. Chronic ER stress induction was concomitant with the upregulation of pro-apoptotic markers (caspases 3,9,12) and Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The downregulated proteins include anti-apoptotic and anti-tumor markers, supporting their curcumin-induced pro-apoptotic role in prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that curcumin may serve as a promising anticancer agent by inducing a chronic ER stress mediated cell death and activation of cell cycle arrest, UPR, autophagy and oxidative stress responses. PMID:28628644

  15. Modulation of cardiac mitochondrial permeability transition and apoptotic signaling by endurance training and intermittent hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, J; Gonçalves, I O; Lumini-Oliveira, J; Marques-Aleixo, I; Passos, E; Rocha-Rodrigues, S; Machado, N G; Moreira, A C; Rizo, D; Viscor, G; Oliveira, P J; Torrella, J R; Ascensão, A

    2014-04-15

    Modulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and inhibition of the apoptotic signaling are critically associated with the cardioprotective phenotypes afforded by both intermittent hypobaric-hypoxia (IHH) and endurance-training (ET). We recently proposed that IHH and ET improve cardiac function and basic mitochondrial capacity, although without showing addictive effects. Here we investigate whether a combination of IHH and ET alters cardiac mitochondrial vulnerability to MPTP and related apoptotic signaling. Male Wistar rats were divided into normoxic-sedentary (NS), normoxic-exercised (NE, 1h/day/5 week treadmill-running), hypoxic-sedentary (HS, 6000 m, 5h/day/5 weeks) and hypoxic-exercised (HE) to study susceptibility to calcium-induced cardiac MPTP opening. Mitochondrial cyclophilin D (CypD), adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), Bax and Bcl-2 protein contents were semi-quantified by Western blotting. Cardiac caspase 3-, 8- and 9-like activities were measured. Mitochondrial aconitase and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) and sulphydryl group (-SH) content were determined. Susceptibility to MPTP decreased in NE and HS vs. NS and even further in HE. The ANT content increased in HE vs. NS. Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased in NE and HS compared to NS. Decreased activities in tissue caspase 3-like (HE vs. NS) and caspase 9-like (HS and HE vs. NS) were observed. Mitochondrial aconitase increased in NE and HS vs. NS. No alterations between groups were observed for caspase 8-like activity, MnSOD, CypD, MDA and -SH. Data confirm that IHH and ET modulate cardiac mitochondria to a protective phenotype characterized by decreased MPTP induction and apoptotic signaling, although without visible addictive effects as initially hypothesized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative and inflammatory signals in obesity-associated vascular abnormalities.

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    Reho, John J; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2017-07-15

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part due to vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. The hypertension and other health complications that arise from these vascular defects increase the risk of heart diseases and stroke. Prooxidant and proinflammatory signaling pathways as well as adipocyte-derived factors have emerged as critical mediators of obesity-associated vascular abnormalities. Designing treatments aimed specifically at improving the vascular dysfunction caused by obesity may provide an effective therapeutic approach to prevent the cardiovascular sequelae associated with excessive adiposity. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence supporting the role of oxidative stress and cytokines and inflammatory signals within the vasculature as well as the impact of the surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on the regulation of vascular function and arterial stiffening in obesity. In particular, we focus on the highly plastic nature of the vasculature in response to altered oxidant and inflammatory signaling and highlight how weight management can be an effective therapeutic approach to reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and improve vascular function. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  17. The viral oncoprotein LMP1 exploits TRADD for signaling by masking its apoptotic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schneider

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor necrosis factor (TNF-receptor 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD mediates induction of apoptosis as well as activation of NF-kappaB by cellular TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1. TRADD is also recruited by the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1 oncoprotein of Epstein-Barr virus, but its role in LMP1 signaling has remained enigmatic. In human B lymphocytes, we have generated, to our knowledge, the first genetic knockout of TRADD to investigate TRADD's role in LMP1 signal transduction. Our data from TRADD-deficient cells demonstrate that TRADD is a critical signaling mediator of LMP1 that is required for LMP1 to recruit and activate I-kappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta. However, in contrast to TNFR1, LMP1-induced TRADD signaling does not induce apoptosis. Searching for the molecular basis for this observation, we characterized the 16 C-terminal amino acids of LMP1 as an autonomous and unique virus-derived TRADD-binding domain. Replacing the death domain of TNFR1 by LMP1's TRADD-binding domain converts TNFR1 into a nonapoptotic receptor that activates NF-kappaB through a TRAF6-dependent pathway, like LMP1 but unlike wild-type TNFR1. Thus, the unique interaction of LMP1 with TRADD encodes the transforming phenotype of viral TRADD signaling and masks TRADD's pro-apoptotic function.

  18. The viral oncoprotein LMP1 exploits TRADD for signaling by masking its apoptotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Frank; Neugebauer, Julia; Griese, Janine; Liefold, Nicola; Kutz, Helmut; Briseño, Cinthia; Kieser, Arnd

    2008-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor 1-associated death domain protein (TRADD) mediates induction of apoptosis as well as activation of NF-kappaB by cellular TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1). TRADD is also recruited by the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) oncoprotein of Epstein-Barr virus, but its role in LMP1 signaling has remained enigmatic. In human B lymphocytes, we have generated, to our knowledge, the first genetic knockout of TRADD to investigate TRADD's role in LMP1 signal transduction. Our data from TRADD-deficient cells demonstrate that TRADD is a critical signaling mediator of LMP1 that is required for LMP1 to recruit and activate I-kappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta). However, in contrast to TNFR1, LMP1-induced TRADD signaling does not induce apoptosis. Searching for the molecular basis for this observation, we characterized the 16 C-terminal amino acids of LMP1 as an autonomous and unique virus-derived TRADD-binding domain. Replacing the death domain of TNFR1 by LMP1's TRADD-binding domain converts TNFR1 into a nonapoptotic receptor that activates NF-kappaB through a TRAF6-dependent pathway, like LMP1 but unlike wild-type TNFR1. Thus, the unique interaction of LMP1 with TRADD encodes the transforming phenotype of viral TRADD signaling and masks TRADD's pro-apoptotic function.

  19. Anti-apoptotic role of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in the proliferation of ameloblastoma.

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    Kanda, Shiori; Mitsuyasu, Takeshi; Nakao, Yu; Kawano, Shintaro; Goto, Yuichi; Matsubara, Ryota; Nakamura, Seiji

    2013-09-01

    Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is crucial to growth and patterning during organogenesis. Aberrant activation of the SHH signaling pathway can result in tumor formation. We examined the expression of SHH signaling molecules and investigated the involvement of the SHH pathway in the proliferation of ameloblastoma, the most common benign tumor of the jaws. We used immunohistochemistry on ameloblastoma specimens and immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-PCR on the ameloblastoma cell line AM-1. We also used the inhibitors of SHH signaling, SHH neutralizing antibody and cyclopamine, to assess the effects of SHH on the proliferation of AM-1 cells. We detected expression of SHH, patched, GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 in the ameloblastoma specimens and AM-1 cells. The proliferation of these cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of SHH neutralizing antibody or cyclopamine; this was confirmed by BrdU incorporation assays. Furthermore, in the presence of SHH neutralizing antibody, nuclear translocation of GLI1 and GLI2 was abolished, apoptosis was induced, BCL-2 expression decreased and BAX expression increased. Our results suggest that the SHH signaling pathway is constitutively active in ameloblastoma and plays an anti-apoptotic role in the proliferation of ameloblastoma cells through autocrine loop stimulation.

  20. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhmatikov, Alexey V; Voskoboynikova, Natalia; Cherepanov, Dmitry A; Skulachev, Maxim V; Steinhoff, Heinz-Jürgen; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2016-01-01

    Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane-liposomes of pure bovine heart CL-we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature.

  1. Kinetic characterization of apoptotic Ras signaling through Nore1-MST1 complex formation.

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    Koturenkiene, Agne; Makbul, Cihan; Herrmann, Christian; Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana

    2017-05-01

    Ras-mediated apoptotic signaling is expected to be mediated via Rassf-MST complexes, but the system has been poorly characterized in vitro until now. Here we demonstrate that active H-Ras, Nore1A and MST1 form a stable ternary complex in vitro without other external factors, Nore1A interacting simultaneously with H-Ras and MST1 via its RBD and SARAH domain, respectively. Moreover, our data show for the first time that the SARAH domain of Nore1A plays a role in the Nore1A binding to H-Ras. Finally, we analyze the relation between the electrostatic and hydrophobic forces and kinetic constants of the Nore1A - H-Ras complex.

  2. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling.

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    Ding, Li; Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong; Tong, Dewen

    2013-12-06

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Notch signaling change in pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats with pulmonary hypertension and its implication for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lina; Xie, Liang; Shi, Kun; Zhou, Tongfu; Hua, Yimin; Liu, Hanmin

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disease that lacks an effective therapy. Notch signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. However, its roles in vascular remodeling in PH have not been well studied. In the current study, using hypoxia-induced PH model in rat, we examined the expression of Notch and its downstream factors. Then, we used vessel strip culture system and γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, a Notch signaling inhibitor to determine the effect of Notch signaling in vascular remodeling and its potential therapeutic value. Our results indicated that Notch 1-4 were detected in the lung tissue with variable levels in different cell types such as smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells of pulmonary artery, bronchia, and alveoli. In addition, following the PH induction, all of Notch1, Notch3, Notch4 receptor, and downstream factor, HERP1 in pulmonary arteries, mRNA expressions were increased with a peak at 1-2 weeks. Furthermore, the vessel wall thickness from rats with hypoxia treatment increased after cultured for 8 days, which could be decreased approximately 30% by DAPT, accompanied with significant increase of expression level of apoptotic factors (caspase-3 and Bax) and transformation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype from synthetic towards contractile. In conclusion, the current study suggested Notch pathway plays an important role in pulmonary vascular remodeling in PH and targeting Notch signaling pathway could be a valuable approach to design new therapy for PH.

  4. Notch signaling change in pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats with pulmonary hypertension and its implication for therapeutic intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Qiao

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a fatal disease that lacks an effective therapy. Notch signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. However, its roles in vascular remodeling in PH have not been well studied. In the current study, using hypoxia-induced PH model in rat, we examined the expression of Notch and its downstream factors. Then, we used vessel strip culture system and γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, a Notch signaling inhibitor to determine the effect of Notch signaling in vascular remodeling and its potential therapeutic value. Our results indicated that Notch 1-4 were detected in the lung tissue with variable levels in different cell types such as smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells of pulmonary artery, bronchia, and alveoli. In addition, following the PH induction, all of Notch1, Notch3, Notch4 receptor, and downstream factor, HERP1 in pulmonary arteries, mRNA expressions were increased with a peak at 1-2 weeks. Furthermore, the vessel wall thickness from rats with hypoxia treatment increased after cultured for 8 days, which could be decreased approximately 30% by DAPT, accompanied with significant increase of expression level of apoptotic factors (caspase-3 and Bax and transformation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC phenotype from synthetic towards contractile. In conclusion, the current study suggested Notch pathway plays an important role in pulmonary vascular remodeling in PH and targeting Notch signaling pathway could be a valuable approach to design new therapy for PH.

  5. The evolutionary conservation of the core components necessary for the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, in Medaka fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kominami Katsuya

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death receptors on the cell surface and the interacting cytosolic molecules, adaptors and initiator caspases, are essential as core components of the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. While the apoptotic machinery governing the extrinsic signaling pathway is well characterized in mammals, it is not fully understood in fish. Results We identified and characterized orthologs of mammalian Fas, FADD and caspase-8 that correspond to the death receptor, adaptor and initiator caspase, from the Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes. Medaka Fas, caspase-8 and FADD exhibited protein structures similar to that of their mammalian counterparts, containing a death domain (DD, a death effector domain (DED or both. Functional analyses indicated that these molecules possess killing activity in mammalian cell lines upon overexpression or following activation by apoptotic stimuli, suggesting similar pro-apoptotic functions in the extrinsic pathway as those in mammals. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that the Medaka fas (tnfrsf6, fadd and caspase-8 (casp8 genes are organized in a similar genomic structure as the mammalian genes. Database search and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the fas gene, but not the fadd and casp8 genes, appear to be present only in vertebrates. Conclusion Our results indicate that the core components necessary for the extrinsic apoptotic pathway are evolutionarily conserved in function and structure across vertebrate species. Based on these results, we presume the mechanism of apoptosis induction via death receptors was evolutionarily established during the appearance of vertebrates.

  6. Antagonism between apoptotic (Bax/Bcl-2) and anti-apoptotic (IAP) signals in human osteoblastic cells under vector-averaged gravity condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroshi; Kumei, Yasuhiro; Morita, Sadao; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Ohya, Keiichi; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    2003-12-01

    A functional disorder associated with weightlessness is well documented in osteoblasts. The apototic features of this disorder are poorly understood. Harmful stress induces apoptosis in cells via mitochondria and/or Fas. The Bax triggers cytochrome c release from mitochondria, which can be blocked by the Bcl-2. Released cytochrome c then activates the initiator caspase, caspase-9, which can be blocked by the anti-apototic (IAP) family of molecules. The effector caspase, caspase-3, finally exerts DNA fragmentation. We conducted this study to examine the apoptotic effects of vector-averaged gravity on normal human osteoblastic cells. Cell culture flasks were incubated on the clinostat, which generated vector-averaged gravity condition (simulated microgravity) for 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours. Upon termination of clinostat cultures, the cell number and cell viability were assessed. DNA fragmentation was analyzed on the agarose-gel electrophoresis. The mRNA levels for Bax, Bcl-2, XIAP, and caspase-3 genes were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Twenty-four hours after starting clinostat rotation, the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA levels (indicator of apoptosis) were significantly increased to 136% of the 1G static controls. However, the XIAP mRNA levels (anti-apoptotic molecule) were increased concomitantly to 138% of the 1G static controls. Thus, cell proliferation or cell viability was not affected by vector-averaged gravity. DNA fragmentation was not observed in clinostat group as well as in control group. Finally, the caspase-3 mRNA levels were not affected by vector-averaged gravity. Simulated microgravity might modulate some apoptotic signals upstream the mitochondrial pathway.

  7. Regulation of ROS in transmissible gastroenteritis virus-activated apoptotic signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Li [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158 (China); Zhao, Xiaomin; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Dong, Feng; Zhang, Hongling; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Wenlong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A and F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation. •ROS accumulation is involved in TGEV-induced mitochondrial integrity impairment. •ROS is associated with p53 activation and apoptosis occurrence in TGEV-infected cells. -- Abstract: Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes severe lethal watery diarrhea and dehydration in piglets. Previous studies indicate that TGEV infection induces cell apoptosis in host cells. In this study, we investigated the roles and regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TGEV-activated apoptotic signaling. The results showed that TGEV infection induced ROS accumulation, whereas UV-irradiated TGEV did not promote ROS accumulation. In addition, TGEV infection lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential in PK-15 cell line, which could be inhibited by ROS scavengers, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic (PDTC) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Furthermore, the two scavengers significantly inhibited the activation of p38 MAPK and p53 and further blocked apoptosis occurrence through suppressing the TGEV-induced Bcl-2 reduction, Bax redistribution, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress pathway might be a key element in TGEV-induced apoptosis and TGEV pathogenesis.

  8. Manganese nanoparticle activates mitochondrial dependent apoptotic signaling and autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afeseh Ngwa, Hilary; Kanthasamy, Arthi [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Gu, Yan; Fang, Ning [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Anantharam, Vellareddy [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Kanthasamy, Anumantha G., E-mail: akanthas@iastate.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles ({approx} 25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25-400 {mu}g/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase C{delta} (PKC{delta}), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin 1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn nanoparticles

  9. Candida albicans induces pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic signals in macrophages as revealed by quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reales-Calderón, Jose Antonio; Sylvester, Marc; Strijbis, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play a pivotal role in the prevention of Candida albicans infections. Yeast recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages is mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) that initiate downstream signal transduction cascades by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We exposed...... RAW 264.7 macrophages to C. albicans for 3h and used SILAC to quantify macrophage proteins and phosphoproteins by mass spectrometry to study the effects of infection. We identified 53 macrophage up-regulated proteins and 15 less abundant in the presence of C. albicans out of a total of 2071 identified...... of apoptotic markers revealed that anti-apoptotic signals prevailed during the interaction of the yeast. Our proteomics study suggests that besides inflammation, apoptosis is a central pathway in the immune defense against C. albicans infection....

  10. Ochratoxin A Inhibits Mouse Embryonic Development by Activating a Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Der Hsuuw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA, a mycotoxin found in many foods worldwide, causes nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we explored the cytotoxic effects exerted by OTA on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, on subsequent embryonic attachment, on outgrowth in vitro, and following in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated with or without OTA (1, 5, or 10 μM for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated using dual differential staining; apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay; and embryo implantation and post-implantation development were assessed by examination of in vitro growth and the outcome of in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 10 μM OTA displayed a significantly increased level of apoptosis and a reduction in total cell number. Interestingly, we observed no marked difference in implantation success rate between OTA-pretreated and control blastocysts either during in vitro embryonic development (following implantation in a fibronectin-coated culture dish or after in vivo embryo transfer. However, in vitro treatment with 10 μM OTA was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos by the mouse uterus, and decreased fetal weight upon embryo transfer. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to OTA triggers apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development after transfer of embryos to host mice. In addition, OTA induces apoptosis-mediated injury of mouse blastocysts, via reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and promotes mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling processes that impair subsequent embryonic development.

  11. Signaling pathways from membrane lipid rafts to JNK1 activation in reactive nitrogen species-induced non-apoptotic cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Zhang, S.; Kim, Y.-S.; Tan, H.-L.; Whiteman, M.; Ong, C.-N.; Liu, Z.-G.; Ichijo, H.; Shen, H.-M.

    2008-01-01

    At present, the signaling pathways controlling reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-induced non-apoptotic cell death are relatively less understood. In this work, various RNS donors are found to induce caspase-independent non-apoptotic cell death in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). In search of the

  12. Lysophosphatidic acid targets vascular and oncogenic pathways via RAGE signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Fatouma; Chitayat, Seth; Pei, Renjun; Song, Fei; Li, Qing; Zhang, Jinghua; Rosario, Rosa; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Chazin, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) regulates fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, motility, and invasion implicated in homeostatic and pathological conditions. Hence, delineation of the full range of molecular mechanisms by which LPA exerts its broad effects is essential. We report avid binding of LPA to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and mapping of the LPA binding site on this receptor. In vitro, RAGE was required for LPA-mediated signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells and C6 glioma cells, as well as proliferation and migration. In vivo, the administration of soluble RAGE or genetic deletion of RAGE mitigated LPA-stimulated vascular Akt signaling, autotaxin/LPA-driven phosphorylation of Akt and cyclin D1 in the mammary tissue of transgenic mice vulnerable to carcinogenesis, and ovarian tumor implantation and development. These findings identify novel roles for RAGE as a conduit for LPA signaling and suggest targeting LPA–RAGE interaction as a therapeutic strategy to modify the pathological actions of LPA. PMID:23209312

  13. Dietary fat modifies mitochondrial and plasma membrane apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle of calorie-restricted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Ramsey, Jon Jay; de Cabo, Rafael; Burón, María Isabel; Villalba, José M

    2013-12-01

    Calorie restriction decreases skeletal muscle apoptosis, and this phenomenon has been mechanistically linked to its protective action against sarcopenia of aging. Alterations in lipid composition of membranes have been related with the beneficial effects of calorie restriction. However, no study has been designed to date to elucidate if different dietary fat sources with calorie restriction modify apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle. We show that a 6-month calorie restriction decreased the activity of the plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, although caspase-8/10 activity was not altered, in young adult mice. Lipid hydroperoxides, Bax levels, and cytochrome c and AIF release/accumulation into the cytosol were also decreased, although caspase-9 activity was unchanged. No alterations in caspase-3 and apoptotic index (DNA fragmentation) were observed, but calorie restriction improved structural features of gastrocnemius fibers by increasing cross-sectional area and decreasing circularity of fibers in cross sections. Changing dietary fat with calorie restriction produced substantial alterations of apoptotic signaling. Fish oil augmented the protective effect of calorie restriction decreasing plasma membrane neutral sphingomyelinase, Bax levels, caspase-8/10, and -9 activities, while increasing levels of the antioxidant coenzyme Q at the plasma membrane, and potentiating the increase of cross-sectional area and the decrease of fiber circularity in cross sections. Many of these changes were not found when we used lard. Our data support that dietary fish oil with calorie restriction produces a cellular anti-apoptotic environment in skeletal muscle with a downregulation of components involved in the initial stages of apoptosis engagement, both at the plasma membrane and the mitochondria.

  14. Gravity sensing and signal transduction in vascular plant primary roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Katherine L; Strohm, Allison K; Masson, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    During gravitropism, the potential energy of gravity is converted into a biochemical signal. How this transfer occurs remains one of the most exciting mysteries in plant cell biology. New experiments are filling in pieces of the puzzle. In this review, we introduce gravitropism and give an overview of what we know about gravity sensing in roots of vascular plants, with special highlight on recent papers. When plant roots are reoriented sideways, amyloplast resedimentation in the columella cells is a key initial step in gravity sensing. This process somehow leads to cytoplasmic alkalinization of these cells followed by relocalization of auxin efflux carriers (PINs). This changes auxin flow throughout the root, generating a lateral gradient of auxin across the cap that upon transmission to the elongation zone leads to differential cell elongation and gravibending. We will present the evidence for and against the following players having a role in transferring the signal from the amyloplast sedimentation into the auxin signaling cascade: mechanosensitive ion channels, actin, calcium ions, inositol trisphosphate, receptors/ligands, ARG1/ARL2, spermine, and the TOC complex. We also outline auxin transport and signaling during gravitropism.

  15. The beneficial effects of strength exercise on hippocampal cell proliferation and apoptotic signaling is impaired by anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes Gomes, Fabiano Guimarães; Fernandes, Jansen; Vannucci Campos, Diego; Cassilhas, Ricardo Cardoso; Viana, Gustavo Monteiro; D'Almeida, Vânia; de Moraes Rêgo, Marta Karavisch; Buainain, Pedro Ivo; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that strength exercise improves memory and increases expression of a myriad of proteins involved on neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Conversely, chronic exposure to supraphysiological levels of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can induce psychiatric abnormalities, cognitive deficits, impair neurotransmission, alter the levels of neurotrophic factors, decrease cell proliferation and neurogenesis, and enhance neuronal cell death. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the AAS nandrolone decanoate (ND) administration during a strength exercise program on cell proliferation, apoptotic status and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the rat hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of progressive strength exercise in a vertical ladder apparatus with or without daily doses (5.0 mg/kg, SC) of ND. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that strength exercise increased significantly the number of Ki-67-positive cells (a cell proliferation marker) in dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus. However, this effect was abrogated when strength exercise was combined with ND. Although western blot analysis of whole hippocampus showed no significant differences in Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression among groups, the immunoreactivity of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was significantly increased in DG, CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subfields of sedentary rats treated with ND. Moreover, the increase in the immunoreactivity of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (DG and CA3) induced by strength exercise was diminished by ND. There were no significant differences in BDNF expression among experimental groups. Therefore, the present findings suggest that the beneficial effects of strength exercise on hippocampal cell proliferation and apoptotic signaling are impaired by ND. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EGCG protects against homocysteine-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells apoptosis by modulating mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic signaling and PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Sun, Zhengwu; Chu, Peng; Li, Hailong; Ahsan, Anil; Zhou, Ziru; Zhang, Zonghui; Sun, Bin; Wu, Jingjun; Xi, Yalin; Han, Guozhu; Lin, Yuan; Peng, Jinyong; Tang, Zeyao

    2017-05-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) induced vascular endothelial injury leads to the progression of endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a natural dietary antioxidant, has been applied to protect against atherosclerosis. However, the underlying protective mechanism of EGCG has not been clarified. The present study investigated the mechanism of EGCG protected against Hcy-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay (MTT), transmission electron microscope, fluorescent staining, flow cytometry, western blot were used in this study. The study has demonstrated that EGCG suppressed Hcy-induced endothelial cell morphological changes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Moreover, EGCG dose-dependently prevented Hcy-induced HUVECs cytotoxicity and apoptotic biochemical changes such as reducing mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreasing Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio and activating caspase-9 and 3. In addition, EGCG enhanced the protein ratio of p-Akt/Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and nitric oxide (NO) formation in injured cells. In conclusion, the present study shows that EGCG prevents Hcy-induced HUVECs apoptosis via modulating mitochondrial apoptotic and PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathways. Furthermore, the results indicate that EGCG is likely to represent a potential therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis associated with Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy).

  17. Podocytes, Signaling Pathways, and Vascular Factors in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Frank C.; Coward, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations and injury to glomerular podocytes play a key role in the initiation and early progression of diabetic kidney disease. Multiple factors in the diabetic milieu cause abnormalities in podocyte signaling that lead to podocyte foot process effacement, hypertrophy, detachment, loss and death. Alterations in insulin action and mTOR activation have been well documented to lead to pathology. For example, reduced insulin action directly leads to albuminuria, increased glomerular matrix accumulation, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, podocyte apoptosis and glomerulosclerosis. In addition, the podocyte generates factors that alter signaling in other glomerular cells. Prominent among these is VEGF-A which plays a complex role in maintaining glomerular endothelium viability but causes endothelial cell pathology when generated at too high a level. Finally, circulating vascular factors, such as activated protein C have a profound effect on podocyte stability and survival. This cytoprotective factor is critical for podocyte health and its deficiency promotes podocyte injury and apoptosis. Thus, the podocyte sits in the center of a network of paracrine and hormonal signaling systems that in health keep the podocyte adaptable and viable, but in diabetes can lead to pathologic changes, detachment and death. This podocyte injury is a critical determinant of the progression of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:24780459

  18. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular aging: chronic oxidative stress and impairment of redox signaling-consequences for vascular homeostasis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachschmid, Markus M; Schildknecht, Stefan; Matsui, Reiko; Zee, Rebecca; Haeussler, Dagmar; Cohen, Richard A; Pimental, David; Loo, Bernd van der

    2013-02-01

    Characteristic morphological and molecular alterations such as vessel wall thickening and reduction of nitric oxide occur in the aging vasculature leading to the gradual loss of vascular homeostasis. Consequently, the risk of developing acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases increases with age. Current research of the underlying molecular mechanisms of endothelial function demonstrates a duality of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in contributing to vascular homeostasis or leading to detrimental effects when formed in excess. Furthermore, changes in function and redox status of vascular smooth muscle cells contribute to age-related vascular remodeling. The age-dependent increase in free radical formation causes deterioration of the nitric oxide signaling cascade, alters and activates prostaglandin metabolism, and promotes novel oxidative posttranslational protein modifications that interfere with vascular and cell signaling pathways. As a result, vascular dysfunction manifests. Compensatory mechanisms are initially activated to cope with age-induced oxidative stress, but become futile, which results in irreversible oxidative modifications of biological macromolecules. These findings support the 'free radical theory of aging' but also show that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are essential signaling molecules, regulating vascular homeostasis.

  20. Anti-apoptotic signaling and failure of apoptosis in the ischemic rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Lassmann, Hans; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2007-01-01

    Several anti-apoptotic proteins are induced in CA1 neurons after transient forebrain ischemia (TFI), but fail to protect the majority of these cells from demise. Correlating cell death morphologies (apoptosis-like and necrosis-like death) with immunohistochemistry (IHC), we investigated whether...... anti-apoptosis contributes to survival, compromises apoptosis effector functions and/or delays death in CA1 neurons 1-7 days after TFI. As surrogate markers for bioenergetic failure, the IHC of respiratory chain complex (RCC) subunits was investigated. Dentate granule cell (DGC) apoptosis following...... colchicine injection severed as a reference for classical apoptosis. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) were upregulated in the majority of intact CA1 neurons paralleling the occurrence of CA1 neuronal death (days 3...

  1. PDE2A2 regulates mitochondria morphology and apoptotic cell death via local modulation of cAMP/PKA signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterisi, Stefania; Lobo, Miguel J; Livie, Craig; Castle, John C; Weinberger, Michael; Baillie, George; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Musheshe, Nshunge; Stangherlin, Alessandra; Gottlieb, Eyal; Maizels, Rory; Bortolozzi, Mario; Micaroni, Massimo; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2017-05-02

    cAMP/PKA signalling is compartmentalised with tight spatial and temporal control of signal propagation underpinning specificity of response. The cAMP-degrading enzymes, phosphodiesterases (PDEs), localise to specific subcellular domains within which they control local cAMP levels and are key regulators of signal compartmentalisation. Several components of the cAMP/PKA cascade are located to different mitochondrial sub-compartments, suggesting the presence of multiple cAMP/PKA signalling domains within the organelle. The function and regulation of these domains remain largely unknown. Here, we describe a novel cAMP/PKA signalling domain localised at mitochondrial membranes and regulated by PDE2A2. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches combined with real-time FRET imaging and high resolution microscopy, we demonstrate that in rat cardiac myocytes and other cell types mitochondrial PDE2A2 regulates local cAMP levels and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of Drp1. We further demonstrate that inhibition of PDE2A, by enhancing the hormone-dependent cAMP response locally, affects mitochondria dynamics and protects from apoptotic cell death.

  2. Impact of TNF-R1 and CD95 internalization on apoptotic and antiapoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Stefan; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf

    2009-01-01

    Internalization of cell surface receptors has long been regarded as a pure means to terminate signaling via receptor degradation. A growing body of information points to the fact that many internalized receptors are still in their active state and that signaling continues along the endocytic pathway. Thus endocytosis orchestrates cell signaling by coupling and integrating different cascades on the surface of endocytic vesicles to control the quality, duration, intensity, and distribution of signaling events. The death receptors tumor necrosis factor-receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and CD95 (Fas, APO-1) are known not only to signal for cell death via apoptosis but are also capable of inducing antiapoptotic signals via transcription factor NF-kappaB induction or activation of the proliferative mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) protein kinase cascades, resulting in cell protection and tissue regeneration. A clue to the understanding of these contradictory biological phenomena may arise from recent findings which reveal a regulatory role of receptor internalization and intracellular receptor trafficking in selectively transmitting signals, which lead either to apoptosis or to the survival of the cell. In this chapter, we discuss the dichotomy of pro- and antiapoptotic signaling of the death receptors TNF-R1 and CD95. First, we will address the role of lipid rafts and post-translational modifications of death receptors in regulating the formation of receptor complexes. Then, we will discuss the role of internalization in determining the fate of the receptors and subsequently the specificity of signaling events. We propose that fusion of internalized TNF-receptosomes with trans-Golgi vesicles should be recognized as a novel mechanism to transduce death signals along the endocytic route. Finally, the lessons learnt from the strategy of adenovirus to escape apoptosis by targeting death receptor internalization demonstrate the

  3. WNT signaling controls expression of pro-apoptotic BOK and BAX in intestinal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilstra, Jurrit; Joosten, Sander P. J.; Wensveen, Felix M.; Dessing, Mark C.; Schütze, Denise M.; Eldering, Eric; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    In a majority of cases, colorectal cancer is initiated by aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway. Mutation of the genes encoding the WNT signaling components adenomatous polyposis coli or beta-catenin causes constitutively active beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription, driving the

  4. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits PDGF-BB-induced migration and proliferation via apoptotic cell death in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Suji; Lee, Kang Pa; Cui, Long; Ryu, Yunkyoung; Hong, Jung Min; Kim, Junghwan; Jung, Seung Hyo; Bae, Young Min; Won, Kyung Jong; Kim, Bokyung

    2017-12-01

    Vascular restenosis after injury of blood vessel has been implicated in various responses including apoptosis, migration, and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by diverse growth factors underlying platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Previous studies evaluated the effects of low-power laser (LPL) irradiation over various wavelength ranges on VSMC events in normal and pathologic states. However, whether VSMC responses are affected by LPL irradiation remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of LPL (green diode laser 532-nm pulsed wave of 300 mW at a spot diameter of 1 mm) irradiation on the responses, apoptosis, migration, and proliferation of VSMCs. The effect of LPL irradiation was tested on VSMCs through cytotoxicity, proliferation, migration, and apoptotic assays. Aortic ring assay was used to assess the effect of LPL irradiation on aortic sprout outgrowth. Protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. LPL irradiation did not affect VSMC viability but slightly attenuated PDGF-BB-induced proliferation in VSMCs. In addition, LPL irradiation inhibited PDGF-BB-evoked migration of VSMCs. Aortic sprout outgrowth in response to PDGF-BB was diminished in cells treated with LPL. In contrast, LPL irradiation evoked apoptosis in VSMCs in the presence of PDGF-BB. Similarly, activation of caspase-3 and Bax, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in VSMCs treated with PDGF-BB was enhanced by exposure to LPL. These findings indicate that LPL irradiation induces vascular apoptosis via p38 MAPK activation and simultaneously inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration in response to PDGF-BB.

  5. Reactive oxygen species and angiotensin II signaling in vascular cells: implications in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touyz R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes are associated with vascular functional and structural changes including endothelial dysfunction, altered contractility and vascular remodeling. Cellular events underlying these processes involve changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC growth, apoptosis/anoikis, cell migration, inflammation, and fibrosis. Many factors influence cellular changes, of which angiotensin II (Ang II appears to be amongst the most important. The physiological and pathophysiological actions of Ang II are mediated primarily via the Ang II type 1 receptor. Growing evidence indicates that Ang II induces its pleiotropic vascular effects through NADPH-driven generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS function as important intracellular and intercellular second messengers to modulate many downstream signaling molecules, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases, protein tyrosine kinases, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and ion channels. Induction of these signaling cascades leads to VSMC growth and migration, regulation of endothelial function, expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, and modification of extracellular matrix. In addition, ROS increase intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, a major determinant of vascular reactivity. ROS influence signaling molecules by altering the intracellular redox state and by oxidative modification of proteins. In physiological conditions, these events play an important role in maintaining vascular function and integrity. Under pathological conditions ROS contribute to vascular dysfunction and remodeling through oxidative damage. The present review focuses on the biology of ROS in Ang II signaling in vascular cells and discusses how oxidative stress contributes to vascular damage in cardiovascular disease.

  6. Ethanol induces apoptotic death of developing beta-endorphin neurons via suppression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate production and activation of transforming growth factor-beta1-linked apoptotic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cui Ping; Kuhn, Peter; Chaturvedi, Kirti; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2006-03-01

    The mechanism by which ethanol induces beta-endorphin (beta-EP) neuronal death during the developmental period was determined using fetal rat hypothalamic cells in primary cultures. The addition of ethanol to hypothalamic cell cultures stimulated apoptotic cell death of beta-EP neurons by increasing caspase-3 activity. Ethanol lowered the levels of adenylyl cyclase (AC)7 mRNA, AC8 mRNA, and/or cAMP in hypothalamic cells, whereas a cAMP analog blocked the apoptotic action of ethanol on beta-EP neurons. The AC inhibitor dideoxyadenosine (DDA) increased cell apoptosis and reduced the number of beta-EP neurons, and it potentiated the apoptotic action of ethanol on these neurons. beta-EP neurons in hypothalamic cultures showed immunoreactivity to transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) protein. Ethanol and DDA increased TGF-beta1 production and/or release from hypothalamic cells. A cAMP analog blocked the activation by ethanol of TGF-beta1 in these cells. TGF-beta1 increased apoptosis of beta-EP neurons, but it did not potentiate the action of ethanol or DDA actions on these neurons. TGF-beta1 neutralizing antibody blocked the apoptotic action of ethanol on beta-EP neurons. Determination of TGF-beta1-controlled cell apoptosis regulatory gene levels in hypothalamic cell cultures and in isolated beta-EP neurons indicated that ethanol, TGF-beta1, and DDA similarly alter the expression of these genes in these cells. These data suggest that ethanol increases beta-EP neuronal death during the developmental period by cellular mechanisms involving, at least partly, the suppression of cAMP production and activation of TGF-beta1-linked apoptotic signaling.

  7. Estrogen treatment following severe burn injury reduces brain inflammation and apoptotic signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Ahamed H

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with severe burn injury experience a rapid elevation in multiple circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the levels correlating with both injury severity and outcome. Accumulations of these cytokines in animal models have been observed in remote organs, however data are lacking regarding early brain cytokine levels following burn injury, and the effects of estradiol on these levels. Using an experimental animal model, we studied the acute effects of a full-thickness third degree burn on brain levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and the protective effects of acute estrogen treatment on these levels. Additionally, the acute administration of estrogen on regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic events in the brain following severe burn injury were studied through measuring the levels of phospho-ERK, phospho-Akt, active caspase-3, and PARP cleavage in the placebo and estrogen treated groups. Methods In this study, 149 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats received 3rd degree 40% total body surface area (TBSA burns. Fifteen minutes following burn injury, the animals received a subcutaneous injection of either placebo (n = 72 or 17 beta-estradiol (n = 72. Brains were harvested at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours after injury from the control (n = 5, placebo (n = 8/time point, and estrogen treated animals (n = 8/time point. The brain cytokine levels were measured using the ELISA method. In addition, we assessed the levels of phosphorylated-ERK, phosphorylated-Akt, active caspase-3, and the levels of cleaved PARP at the 24 hour time-point using Western blot analysis. Results In burned rats, 17 beta-estradiol significantly decreased the levels of brain tissue TNF-α (~25%, IL-1β (~60%, and IL-6 (~90% when compared to the placebo group. In addition, we determined that in the estrogen-treated rats there was an increase in the levels of phospho-ERK (p p p p Conclusion Following severe burn injury, estrogens decrease both

  8. Pro-apoptotic effect of a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae putative type I signal peptidase on PK(15) swine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Jéssica A; Virginio, Veridiana G; Cancela, Martín; Leal, Fernanda M A; Borges, Thiago J; Jaeger, Natália; Bonorino, Cristina; Schrank, Irene S; Ferreira, Henrique B

    2017-03-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is an economically significant swine pathogen that causes porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). Important processes for swine infection by M. hyopneumoniae depend on cell surface proteins, many of which are secreted by secretion pathways not completely elucidated so far. A putative type I signal peptidase (SPase I), a possible component of a putative Sec-dependent pathway, was annotated as a product of the sipS gene in the pathogenic M. hyopneumoniae 7448 genome. This M. hyopneumoniae putative SPase I (MhSPase I) displays only 14% and 23% of sequence identity/similarity to Escherichia coli bona fide SPase I, and, in complementation assays performed with a conditional E. coli SPase I mutant, only a partial restoration of growth was achieved with the heterologous expression of a recombinant MhSPase I (rMhSPase I). Considering the putative surface location of MhSPase I and its previously demonstrated capacity to induce a strong humoral response, we then assessed its potential to elicit a cellular and possible immunomodulatory response. In assays for immunogenicity assessment, rMhSPase I unexpectedly showed a cytotoxic effect on murine splenocytes. This cytotoxic effect was further confirmed using the swine epithelial PK(15) cell line in MTT and annexin V-flow cytometry assays, which showed that rMhSPase I induces apoptosis in a dose dependent-way. It was also demonstrated that this pro-apoptotic effect of rMhSPase I involves activation of a caspase-3 cascade. The potential relevance of the rMhSPase I pro-apoptotic effect for M. hyopneumoniae-host interactions in the context of PEP is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Research advances in sorafenib-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in liver cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Chaoya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, sorafenib is the multi-target inhibitor for the treatment of advanced primary liver cancer, and can effectively prolong the progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with advanced primary liver cancer. The application of sorafenib in the targeted therapy for liver cancer has become a hot topic. Major targets or signaling pathways include Raf/Mek/Erk, Jak/Stat, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, VEGFR and PDGFR, STAT, microRNA, Wnt/β-catenin, autolysosome, and tumor-related proteins, and sorafenib can regulate the proliferation, differentiation, metastasis, and apoptosis of liver cancer cells through these targets. This article reviews the current research on the action of sorafenib on these targets or signaling pathways to provide useful references for further clinical research on sorafenib.

  10. CLE/RLK regulated vascular signalling pathways in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kücükoglu, Melis

    2009-01-01

    Entire postembryonic production of plant tissues are maintained by meristems. These specialized structures provide a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and a limited population of proliferating cells which are destined for differentiation in order to generate a variety of tissues in the plant body. For the forest trees, a large part of the biomass is produced by a secondary meristem called vascular cambium. Vascular cambium forms a continuous cylinder of meristematic cells in the stem, produ...

  11. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Gui-Fen; Chen, Shi-Yao; Sun, Zhi-Rong; Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng; Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing; Song, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. ► Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. ► Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. ► Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. ► FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GC cells by regulating apoptotic signaling, which could be a promising therapeutic approach for gastric cancer.

  12. FoxP3 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells by activating the apoptotic signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Gui-Fen [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Shi-Yao, E-mail: shiyao_chen@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Zhi-Rong [Department of Anesthesiology, Cancer Center, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Miao, Qing; Liu, Yi-Mei; Zeng, Xiao-Qing; Luo, Tian-Cheng [Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Ma, Li-Li; Lian, Jing-Jing [Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Song, Dong-Li [Biomedical Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The article revealed FoxP3 gene function in gastric cancer firstly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Present the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and promoting apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of FoxP3 increased proapoptotic molecules and repressed antiapoptotic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of FoxP3 reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FoxP3 is sufficient for activating the apoptotic signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Forkhead Box Protein 3 (FoxP3) was identified as a key transcription factor to the occurring and function of the regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, limited evidence indicated its function in tumor cells. To elucidate the precise roles and underlying molecular mechanism of FoxP3 in gastric cancer (GC), we examined the expression of FoxP3 and the consequences of interfering with FoxP3 gene in human GC cell lines, AGS and MKN45, by multiple cellular and molecular approaches, such as immunofluorescence, gene transfection, CCK-8 assay, clone formation assay, TUNEL assay, Flow cytometry, immunoassay and quantities polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As a result, FoxP3 was expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of GC cells. Up-regulation of FoxP3 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis. Overexpression of FoxP3 increased the protein and mRNA levels of proapoptotic molecules, such as poly ADP-ribose polymerase1 (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-9, and repressed the expression of antiapoptotic molecules, such as cellular inhibitor of apoptosis-1 (c-IAP1) and the long isoform of B cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). Furthermore, silencing of FoxP3 by siRNA in GC cells reduced the expression of proapoptotic genes, such as PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9. Collectively, our findings identify the novel roles of FoxP3 in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis

  13. Downregulation of Oxidative and Nitrosative Apoptotic Signaling by L-Carnitine in Ifosfamide-Induced Fanconi Syndrome Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well documented that ifosfamide (IFO therapy is associated with sever nephropathy in the form of Fanconi syndrome. Although oxidative stress has been reported as a major player in IFO-induced Fanconi syndrome, no mechanism for this effect has been ascertained. Therefore, this study has been initiated to investigate, on gene expression level, the mechanism of IFO-induce nephrotoxicity and those whereby carnitine supplementation attenuates this serious side effect of IFO. To achieve the ultimate goals of this study, adult male rats were assigned to one of four treatment groups, namely, control, L-carnitine, IFO, and IFO plus L-carnitine. Administration of IFO for 5 days significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx production in kidney tissues. In addition, IFO significantly increased mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, caspase-9, and caspase-3 and significantly decreased expression of glutathione peroxides (GPx, catalase (CAT, and Bcl2 in kidney tissues. Administration of L-carnitine to IFO-treated rats resulted in a complete reversal of the all biochemical and gene expression changes, induced by IFO, to the control values. Data from this study suggest that L-carnitine prevents the development of IFO-induced nephrotoxicity via downregulation of oxidative and nitrosative apoptotic signaling in kidney tissues.

  14. Downregulation of oxidative and nitrosative apoptotic signaling by L-carnitine in Ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M; Aldelemy, Meshan Lafi; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Al-Rejaie, Salem S; Al-Hosaini, Khaled A; Al-Harbi, Naif O; Al-Harbi, Mohamed M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that ifosfamide (IFO) therapy is associated with sever nephropathy in the form of Fanconi syndrome. Although oxidative stress has been reported as a major player in IFO-induced Fanconi syndrome, no mechanism for this effect has been ascertained. Therefore, this study has been initiated to investigate, on gene expression level, the mechanism of IFO-induce nephrotoxicity and those whereby carnitine supplementation attenuates this serious side effect of IFO. To achieve the ultimate goals of this study, adult male rats were assigned to one of four treatment groups, namely, control, L-carnitine, IFO, and IFO plus L-carnitine. Administration of IFO for 5 days significantly increased serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) production in kidney tissues. In addition, IFO significantly increased mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), caspase-9, and caspase-3 and significantly decreased expression of glutathione peroxides (GPx), catalase (CAT), and Bcl2 in kidney tissues. Administration of L-carnitine to IFO-treated rats resulted in a complete reversal of the all biochemical and gene expression changes, induced by IFO, to the control values. Data from this study suggest that L-carnitine prevents the development of IFO-induced nephrotoxicity via downregulation of oxidative and nitrosative apoptotic signaling in kidney tissues.

  15. Signal transduction of p53-independent apoptotic pathway induced by hexavalent chromium in U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoko; Kondo, Takashi; Zhao Qingli; Ogawa Ryohei; Cui Zhengguo; Feril, Loreto B.; Teranishi, Hidetoyo; Kasuya, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that the hexavalent chromium compound (Cr(VI)) can induce both p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. While a considerable amount of information is available on the p53-dependent pathway, only little is known about the p53-independent pathway. To elucidate the p53-independent mechanism, the roles of the Ca 2+ -calpain- and mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathways in apoptosis induced by Cr(VI) were investigated. When human lymphoma U937 cells, p53 mutated cells, were treated with 20 μM Cr(VI) for 24 h, nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed. Production of hydroxyl radicals revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping, and increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration monitored by digital imaging were also observed in Cr(VI)-treated cells. An intracellular Ca 2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, and calpain inhibitors suppressed the Cr(VI)-induced DNA fragmentation. The number of cells showing low mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), high level of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 - ), and high activity of caspase-3, which are indicators of mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathway, increased significantly in Cr(VI)-treated cells. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), decreased DNA fragmentation and inhibited the changes in MMP, O 2 - formation, and activation of caspase-3 induced by Cr(VI). No increase of the expressions of Fas and phosphorylated JNK was observed after Cr(VI) treatment. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the fraction of G2/M phase tended to increase after 24 h of treatment, suggesting that Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis is related to the G2 block. These results indicate that Ca 2+ -calpain- and mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathways play significant roles in the Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis via the G2 block, which are independent of JNK and Fas activation. The inhibition of apoptosis and all its signal transductions by NAC suggests that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are

  16. White matter hyperintensity signals associated with vascular risk factors in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, F W; Lewine, R R; Hudgins, P A

    1995-01-01

    1. A sample of 165 schizophrenic subjects was compared to a normal control group in order to evaluate associations between white matter hyperintensity signals and vascular risk factors. 2. A comprehensive medical chart review was completed on all subjects evaluating potential vascular risk factors. Brain MRI acquisition was performed with 0.5 and 1.5 Telsa Philips scanners. 3. Prevalence rates of WMH signals in schizophrenic subjects and normal controls were 4.8% and 4.9%, respectively. 4. A significant association was found for schizophrenics with WHM signals to schizophrenics without signals for hypertension and history of CVA's. 5. This finding is consistent with an etiology of WMH signals in schizophrenia being related to vascular disease.

  17. Redox signaling in cardiovascular pathophysiology: A focus on hydrogen peroxide and vascular smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Byon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress represents excessive intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which plays a major role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Besides having a critical impact on the development and progression of vascular pathologies including atherosclerosis and diabetic vasculopathy, oxidative stress also regulates physiological signaling processes. As a cell permeable ROS generated by cellular metabolism involved in intracellular signaling, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 exerts tremendous impact on cardiovascular pathophysiology. Under pathological conditions, increased oxidase activities and/or impaired antioxidant systems results in uncontrolled production of ROS. In a pro-oxidant environment, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC undergo phenotypic changes which can lead to the development of vascular dysfunction such as vascular inflammation and calcification. Investigations are ongoing to elucidate the mechanisms for cardiovascular disorders induced by oxidative stress. This review mainly focuses on the role of H2O2 in regulating physiological and pathological signals in VSMC.

  18. Disruption of TGF-β signaling in smooth muscle cell prevents flow-induced vascular remodeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fu [Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing (China); Chambon, Pierre [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (CNRS UMR7104, INSERM U596, ULP, Collége de France) and Institut Clinique de la Souris, ILLKIRCH, Strasbourg (France); Tellides, George [Department of Surgery, Interdepartmental Program in Vascular Biology and Therapeutics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Kong, Wei [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Basic Medical College of Peking University, Beijing (China); Zhang, Xiaoming, E-mail: rmygxgwk@163.com [Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Wei [Department of Vascular Surgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • TGF-β signaling in SMC contributes to the flow-induced vascular remodeling. • Disruption of TGF-β signaling in SMC can prevent this process. • Targeting SM-specific Tgfbr2 could be a novel therapeutic strategy for vascular remodeling. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling has been prominently implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular remodeling, especially the initiation and progression of flow-induced vascular remodeling. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the principal resident cells in arterial wall and are critical for arterial remodeling. However, the role of TGF-β signaling in SMC for flow-induced vascular remodeling remains unknown. Therefore, the goal of our study was to determine the effect of TGF-β pathway in SMC for vascular remodeling, by using a genetical smooth muscle-specific (SM-specific) TGF-β type II receptor (Tgfbr2) deletion mice model. Mice deficient in the expression of Tgfbr2 (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup f/f}) and their corresponding wild-type background mice (MyhCre.Tgfbr2{sup WT/WT}) underwent partial ligation of left common carotid artery for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Then the carotid arteries were harvested and indicated that the disruption of Tgfbr2 in SMC provided prominent inhibition of vascular remodeling. And the thickening of carotid media, proliferation of SMC, infiltration of macrophage, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) were all significantly attenuated in Tgfbr2 disruption mice. Our study demonstrated, for the first time, that the TGF-β signaling in SMC plays an essential role in flow-induced vascular remodeling and disruption can prevent this process.

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling regulates the segregation of artery and vein via ERK activity during vascular development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se-Hee; Schmitt, Christopher E.; Woolls, Melissa J.; Holland, Melinda B.; Kim, Jun-Dae; Jin, Suk-Won

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► VEGF-A signaling regulates the segregation of axial vessels. ► VEGF-A signaling is mediated by PKC and ERK in this process. ► Ectopic activation of ERK is sufficient to rescue defects in vessel segregation. -- Abstract: Segregation of two axial vessels, the dorsal aorta and caudal vein, is one of the earliest patterning events occur during development of vasculature. Despite the importance of this process and recent advances in our understanding on vascular patterning during development, molecular mechanisms that coordinate the segregation of axial vessels remain largely elusive. In this report, we find that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) signaling regulates the segregation of dorsal aorta and axial vein during development. Inhibition of Vegf-A pathway components including ligand Vegf-A and its cognate receptor Kdrl, caused failure in segregation of axial vessels in zebrafish embryos. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (Map2k1)/Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (Erk) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3 K), which are downstream effectors of Vegf-A signaling pathway, led to the fusion of two axial vessels. Moreover, we find that restoring Erk activity by over-expression of constitutively active MEK in embryos with a reduced level of Vegf-A signaling can rescue the defects in axial vessel segregation. Taken together, our data show that segregation of axial vessels requires the function of Vegf-A signaling, and Erk may function as the major downstream effector in this process

  20. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark, orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

  1. Applications of supervised learning to biological signals: ECG signal quality and systemic vascular resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Stephen J; Lee, Qim Yi; Xie, Yang; Lovell, Nigel H

    2012-01-01

    Discovering information encoded in non-invasively recorded biosignals which belies an individual's well-being can help facilitate the development of low-cost unobtrusive medical device technologies, or enable the unsupervised performance of physiological assessments without excessive oversight from trained clinical personnel. Although the unobtrusive or unsupervised nature of such technologies often results in less accurate measures than their invasive or supervised counterparts, this disadvantage is typically outweighed by the ability to monitor larger populations than ever before. The expected consequential benefit will be an improvement in healthcare provision and health outcomes for all. The process of discovering indicators of health in unsupervised or unobtrusive biosignal recordings, or automatically ensuring the validity and quality of such signals, is best realized when following a proven systematic methodology. This paper provides a brief tutorial review of supervised learning, which is a sub-discipline of machine learning, and discusses its application in the development of algorithms to interpret biosignals acquired in unsupervised or semi-supervised environments, with the aim of estimating well-being. Some specific examples in the disparate application areas of telehealth electrocardiogram recording and calculating post-operative systemic vascular resistance are discussed in the context of this systematic approach for information discovery.

  2. Early embryonic vascular patterning by matrix-mediated paracrine signalling: a mathematical model study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Köhn-Luque

    Full Text Available During embryonic vasculogenesis, endothelial precursor cells of mesodermal origin known as angioblasts assemble into a characteristic network pattern. Although a considerable amount of markers and signals involved in this process have been identified, the mechanisms underlying the coalescence of angioblasts into this reticular pattern remain unclear. Various recent studies hypothesize that autocrine regulation of the chemoattractant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is responsible for the formation of vascular networks in vitro. However, the autocrine regulation hypothesis does not fit well with reported data on in vivo early vascular development. In this study, we propose a mathematical model based on the alternative assumption that endodermal VEGF signalling activity, having a paracrine effect on adjacent angioblasts, is mediated by its binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM. Detailed morphometric analysis of simulated networks and images obtained from in vivo quail embryos reveals the model mimics the vascular patterns with high accuracy. These results show that paracrine signalling can result in the formation of fine-grained cellular networks when mediated by angioblast-produced ECM. This lends additional support to the theory that patterning during early vascular development in the vertebrate embryo is regulated by paracrine signalling.

  3. Early embryonic vascular patterning by matrix-mediated paracrine signalling: a mathematical model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhn-Luque, Alvaro; de Back, Walter; Starruss, Jörn; Mattiotti, Andrea; Deutsch, Andreas; Pérez-Pomares, José María; Herrero, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    During embryonic vasculogenesis, endothelial precursor cells of mesodermal origin known as angioblasts assemble into a characteristic network pattern. Although a considerable amount of markers and signals involved in this process have been identified, the mechanisms underlying the coalescence of angioblasts into this reticular pattern remain unclear. Various recent studies hypothesize that autocrine regulation of the chemoattractant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is responsible for the formation of vascular networks in vitro. However, the autocrine regulation hypothesis does not fit well with reported data on in vivo early vascular development. In this study, we propose a mathematical model based on the alternative assumption that endodermal VEGF signalling activity, having a paracrine effect on adjacent angioblasts, is mediated by its binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Detailed morphometric analysis of simulated networks and images obtained from in vivo quail embryos reveals the model mimics the vascular patterns with high accuracy. These results show that paracrine signalling can result in the formation of fine-grained cellular networks when mediated by angioblast-produced ECM. This lends additional support to the theory that patterning during early vascular development in the vertebrate embryo is regulated by paracrine signalling.

  4. ER Alpha Rapid Signaling Is Required for Estrogen Induced Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lu

    Full Text Available Estrogen promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs, which likely underlies its ability to accelerate re-endothelialization and reduce adverse remodeling after vascular injury. In previous studies, we have shown that the protective effects of E2 (the active endogenous form of estrogen in vascular injury require the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα. ERα transduces the effects of estrogen via a classical DNA binding, "genomic" signaling pathway and via a more recently-described "rapid" signaling pathway that is mediated by a subset of ERα localized to the cell membrane. However, which of these pathways mediates the effects of estrogen on endothelial cells is poorly understood. Here we identify a triple point mutant version of ERα (KRR ERα that is specifically defective in rapid signaling, but is competent to regulate transcription through the "genomic" pathway. We find that in ECs expressing wild type ERα, E2 regulates many genes involved in cell migration and proliferation, promotes EC migration and proliferation, and also blocks the adhesion of monocytes to ECs. ECs expressing KRR mutant ERα, however, lack all of these responses. These observations establish KRR ERα as a novel tool that could greatly facilitate future studies into the vascular and non-vascular functions of ERα rapid signaling. Further, they support that rapid signaling through ERα is essential for many of the transcriptional and physiological responses of ECs to E2, and that ERα rapid signaling in ECs, in vivo, may be critical for the vasculoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen.

  5. ER Alpha Rapid Signaling Is Required for Estrogen Induced Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Schnitzler, Gavin R.; Ueda, Kazutaka; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Diomede, Olga I.; Andrade, Tiffany; Karas, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen promotes the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells (ECs), which likely underlies its ability to accelerate re-endothelialization and reduce adverse remodeling after vascular injury. In previous studies, we have shown that the protective effects of E2 (the active endogenous form of estrogen) in vascular injury require the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). ERα transduces the effects of estrogen via a classical DNA binding, “genomic” signaling pathway and via a more recently-described “rapid” signaling pathway that is mediated by a subset of ERα localized to the cell membrane. However, which of these pathways mediates the effects of estrogen on endothelial cells is poorly understood. Here we identify a triple point mutant version of ERα (KRR ERα) that is specifically defective in rapid signaling, but is competent to regulate transcription through the “genomic” pathway. We find that in ECs expressing wild type ERα, E2 regulates many genes involved in cell migration and proliferation, promotes EC migration and proliferation, and also blocks the adhesion of monocytes to ECs. ECs expressing KRR mutant ERα, however, lack all of these responses. These observations establish KRR ERα as a novel tool that could greatly facilitate future studies into the vascular and non-vascular functions of ERα rapid signaling. Further, they support that rapid signaling through ERα is essential for many of the transcriptional and physiological responses of ECs to E2, and that ERα rapid signaling in ECs, in vivo, may be critical for the vasculoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of estrogen. PMID:27035664

  6. A role of TDIF peptide signaling in vascular cell differentiation is conserved among euphyllophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eHirakawa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peptide signals mediate a variety of cell-to-cell communication crucial for plant growth and development. During Arabidopsis thaliana vascular development, a CLE (CLAVATA3/EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION-related family peptide hormone, TDIF (tracheary element differentiation inhibitory factor, regulates procambial cell fate by its inhibitory activity on xylem differentiation. To address if this activity is conserved among vascular plants, we performed comparative analyses of TDIF signaling in non-flowering vascular plants (gymnosperms, monilophytes and lycophytes. We identified orthologs of TDIF/CLE as well as its receptor TDR/PXY (TDIF RECEPTOR/PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM in Ginkgo biloba, Adiantum aethiopicum and Selaginella kraussiana by RACE-PCR. The predicted TDIF peptide sequences in seed plants and monilophytes were identical to that of A. thaliana TDIF. We examined the effects of exogenous CLE peptide-motif sequences of TDIF in these species. We found that liquid culturing of dissected leaves or shoots was useful for examining TDIF activity during vascular development. TDIF treatment suppressed xylem/tracheary element differentiation of procambial cells in G. bioloba and A. aethiopicum leaves. In contrast, neither TDIF nor putative endogenous TDIF inhibited xylem differentiation in developing shoots and rhizophores of S. kraussiana. These data suggest that activity of TDIF in vascular development is conserved among extant euphyllophytes. In addition to the conserved function, via liquid culturing of its bulbils, we found a novel inhibitory activity on root growth in the monilophyte Asplenium x lucrosum suggesting lineage-specific co-option of peptide signaling occurred during the evolution of vascular plant organs.

  7. Redox Signaling and Its Impact on Skeletal and Vascular Responses to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahimic, Candice; Globus, Ruth K.

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight entails exposure to numerous environmental challenges with the potential to contribute to both musculoskeletal and vascular dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to describe current understanding of microgravity and radiation impacts on the mammalian skeleton and associated vasculature at the level of the whole organism. Recent experiments from spaceflight and groundbased models have provided fresh insights into how these environmental stresses influence mechanisms that are related to redox signaling, oxidative stress, and tissue dysfunction. Emerging mechanistic knowledge on cellular defenses to radiation and other environmental stressors, including microgravity, are useful for both screening and developing interventions against spaceflight-induced deficits in bone and vascular function.

  8. Redox Signaling and Its Impact on Skeletal and Vascular Responses to Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice G. T. Tahimic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spaceflight entails exposure to numerous environmental challenges with the potential to contribute to both musculoskeletal and vascular dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to describe current understanding of microgravity and radiation impacts on the mammalian skeleton and associated vasculature at the level of the whole organism. Recent experiments from spaceflight and ground-based models have provided fresh insights into how these environmental stresses influence mechanisms that are related to redox signaling, oxidative stress, and tissue dysfunction. Emerging mechanistic knowledge on cellular defenses to radiation and other environmental stressors, including microgravity, are useful for both screening and developing interventions against spaceflight-induced deficits in bone and vascular function.

  9. Angelica sinensis Exerts Angiogenic and Anti-apoptotic Effects Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating p38MAPK/HIF-1[Formula: see text]/VEGF-A Signaling in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chin-Yi; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Tang, Nou-Ying; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Kao, Shung-Te; Lee, Yu-Chen

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Angelica sinensis extract [Dang Gui (DG)] administered before 60[Formula: see text]min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 3[Formula: see text]d of reperfusion and investigated the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1[Formula: see text] signaling in the cortical ischemic penumbra. DG was intraperitoneally administered at a dose of 0.25[Formula: see text]g/kg (DG-0.25g), 0.5[Formula: see text]g/kg (DG-0.5g), or 1[Formula: see text]g/kg (DG-1g) 30[Formula: see text]min before the onset of cerebral ischemia. Our study results revealed that DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment effectively attenuated cerebral infarct and improved neurological deficits. DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression and upregulated phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK)/p38 MAPK, phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB)/CREB, cytosolic and mitochondrial phospho-Bad (p-Bad)/Bad ratios, and HIF-1[Formula: see text], vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK), and von Willebrand factor (vWF) expression in the cortical ischemic penumbra. Pretreatment with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, dramatically abrogated the upregulating effects of DG-1g on p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK, p-CREB/CREB, and p-Bad/Bad ratios and HIF-1[Formula: see text], VEGF-A, and vWF expression and the downregulating effects of DG-1g on GFAP, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and cerebral infarction. DG-0.5g and DG-1g pretreatment provided neuroprotective effects against astrocyte-mediated cerebral infarction by activating angiogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling. Moreover, the angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects of DG pretreatment can be attributed to the activation of p38 MAPK/HIF-1[Formula: see text]/VEGF-A/vWF signaling and p38 MAPK/HIF-1[Formula: see text

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor A-stimulated signaling from endosomes in primary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a multifunctional cytokine that stimulates blood vessel sprouting, vascular repair, and regeneration. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) and stimulates intracellular signaling leading to changes in vascular physiology. An important aspect of this phenomenon is the spatiotemporal coordination of VEGFR trafficking and intracellular signaling to ensure that VEGFR residence in different organelles is linked to downstream cellular outputs. Here, we describe a series of assays to evaluate the effects of VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling from intracellular compartments such as the endosome-lysosome system. These assays include the initial isolation and characterization of primary human endothelial cells, performing reverse genetics for analyzing protein function; methods used to study receptor trafficking, signaling, and proteolysis; and assays used to measure changes in cell migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Each of these assays has been exemplified with studies performed in our laboratories. In conclusion, we describe necessary techniques for studying the role of VEGF-A in endothelial cell function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epothilones Suppress Neointimal Thickening in the Rat Carotid Balloon-Injury Model by Inducing Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis through p53-Dependent Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Dong Ju; Jung, Jae Chul; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Microtubule stabilizing agents (MTSA) are known to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, and effectively reduce neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. Epothilones (EPOs), non-taxane MTSA, have been found to be effective in the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and neointimal formation by cell cycle arrest. However, effect of EPOs on apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs as a possible way to reduce neointimal formation and its action mechanism related to VSMC viability has not been suited yet. Thus, the purposes of the present study was to investigate whether EPOs are able to inhibit neointimal formation by inducing apoptosis within the region of neointimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured rat carotid artery, as well as underlying action mechanism. Treatment of EPO-B and EPO-D significantly induced apoptotic cell death and mitotic catastrophe in hyper-proliferated VSMCs, resulting in cell growth inhibition. Further, EPOs significantly suppressed VSMC proliferation and induced apoptosis by activation of p53-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway, Bax/cytochrome c/caspase-3. We further demonstrated that the local treatment of carotid arteries with EPOs potently inhibited neointimal lesion formation by induction of apoptosis in rat carotid injury model. Our findings demonstrate a potent anti-neointimal hyperplasia property of EPOs by inducing p53-depedent apoptosis in hyper-proliferated VSMCs.

  12. Acquisition of apoptotic resistance in cadmium-induced malignant transformation: specific perturbation of JNK signal transduction pathway and associated metallothionein overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Fuquay, Richard; Sakurai, Teruaki; Waalkes, Michael P

    2006-08-01

    Prior work has shown that chronic cadmium exposed rat liver epithelial cells (CCE-LE) become malignantly transformed after protracted low level cadmium exposure. Acquisition of apoptotic resistance is common in oncogenesis and the present work explores this possibility in CCE-LE cells. CCE-LE cells were resistant to apoptosis induced by etoposide or an acute high concentration of cadmium as assessed by flow cytometry with annexin/FITC. Three key mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), namely ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38, were phosphorylated in CCE-LE cells after acute cadmium exposure. However, the levels of phosphorylated JNK1/2 were markedly decreased in CCE-LE cells compared to control. JNK kinase activity was also suppressed in CCE-LE cells exposed to cadmium. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), used as a positive control for stimulating JNK phosphorylation, was much less effective in CCE-LE cells than control cells. Ro318220 (Ro), a strong activator of JNK, increased phosphorylated JNK1/2 to levels similar to the cadmium-treated control cells and also enhanced apoptosis in response to cadmium in CCE-LE cells. Metallothionein (MT), which is thought to potentially inhibit apoptosis, was strongly overexpressed in CCE-LE cells. Further, in MT knockout (MT-/-) fibroblasts, JNK1/2 phosphorylation was markedly increased after cadmium exposure compared with similarly treated wild-type (MT+/+) cells. These results indicate cadmium-transformed cells acquired apoptotic resistance, which may be linked to the specific suppression of the JNK pathway and is associated with MT overexpression, which, in turn, may impact this signal transduction pathway. The acquisition of apoptotic resistance may play an important role in cadmium carcinogenesis by contributing to both tumor initiation and malignant progression.

  13. Effect of inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling on distribution of extravasated antibodies in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Tsutomu; Norberg, Scott M; Shalinsky, David R; Hu-Lowe, Dana D; McDonald, Donald M

    2006-02-01

    Antibodies and other macromolecular therapeutics can gain access to tumor cells via leaky tumor vessels. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling can reduce the vascularity of tumors and leakiness of surviving vessels, but little is known about how these changes affect the distribution of antibodies within tumors. We addressed this issue by examining the distribution of extravasated antibodies in islet cell tumors of RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice and implanted Lewis lung carcinomas using fluorescence and confocal microscopic imaging. Extravasated nonspecific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and antibodies to fibrin or E-cadherin accumulated in irregular patchy regions of stroma. Fibrin also accumulated in these regions. Anti-E-cadherin antibody, which targets epitopes on tumor cells of RIP-Tag2 adenomas, was the only antibody to achieve detectable levels within tumor cell clusters at 6 hours after i.v. injection. Treatment for 7 days with AG-013736, a potent inhibitor of VEGF signaling, reduced the tumor vascularity by 86%. The overall area density of extravasated IgG/antibodies decreased after treatment but the change was less than the reduction in vascularity and actually increased when expressed per surviving tumor vessel. Accumulation of anti-E-cadherin antibody in tumor cell clusters was similarly affected. The patchy pattern of antibodies in stroma after treatment qualitatively resembled untreated tumors and surprisingly coincided with sleeves of basement membrane left behind after pruning of tumor vessels. Together, the findings suggest that antibody transport increases from surviving tumor vessels after normalization by inhibition of VEGF signaling. Basement membrane sleeves may facilitate this transport. Antibodies preferentially distribute to tumor stroma but also accumulate on tumor cells if binding sites are accessible.

  14. Triggering apoptotic death of human malignant melanoma a375.s2 cells by bufalin: involvement of caspase cascade-dependent and independent mitochondrial signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Ping; Yu, Chun-Shu; Yu, Chien-Chih; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Ying; Tang, Nou-Ying; Yang, Jen-Hung; Huang, An-Cheng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-01-01

    Bufalin was obtained from the skin and parotid venom glands of toad and has been shown to induce cytotoxic effects in various types of cancer cell lines, but there is no report to show that whether bufalin affects human skin cancer cells. The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of bufalin on human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in induction of apoptosis. A375.S2 cells were treated with different concentrations of bufalin for a specific time period and investigated for effects on apoptotic analyses. Our results indicated that cells after exposure to bufalin significantly decreased cell viability, and induced cell morphological changes and chromatin condensation in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometric assays indicated that bufalin promoted ROS productions, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)), intracellular Ca(2+) release, and nitric oxide (NO) formations in A375.S2 cells. Additionally, the apoptotic induction of bufalin on A375.S2 cells resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction-related responses (disruption of the ΔΨ(m) and releases of cytochrome c, AIF, and Endo G), and activations of caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 expressions. Based on those observations, we suggest that bufalin-triggered apoptosis in A375.S2 cells is correlated with extrinsic- and mitochondria-mediated multiple signal pathways.

  15. Triiodothyronine Potentiates Vasorelaxation via PKG/VASP Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

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    Sherin Samuel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vascular relaxation caused by Triiodothyronine (T3 involves direct activation of endothelial cells (EC and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. Activation of protein kinase G (PKG has risen as a novel contributor to the vasorelaxation mechanism triggered by numerous stimuli. We hypothesize that T3-induced vasorelaxation involves PKG/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP signaling pathway in VSMC. Methods: Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC and VSMC were treated with T3 for short (2 to 60 minutes and long term (24 hours. Nitric oxide (NO production was measured using DAF-FM. Expression of protein targets was determined using western blot. For functional studies, rat aortas were isolated and treated with T3 for 20 minutes and mounted in a wire myograph. Relaxation was measured by a concentration-dependent response to acetylcholine (ACh and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Results: Aortas stimulated with T3 exhibited augmented sensitivity to ACh and SNP-induced relaxation, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent responses, respectively. T3 directly increased vasorelaxation, which was abolished in the presence of a PKG inhibitor. T3 markedly induced phosphorylation of Akt, eNOS and consequently increased NO production in EC. Likewise, T3 induced phosphorylation of VASP at serine 239 via the PKG pathway in VSMC. Conclusion: Our findings have uncovered a PKG/VASP signaling pathway in VSMC as a key molecular mechanism underlying T3-induced vascular relaxation.

  16. Non-thermal plasma induces mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway via ROS generation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yu, K N; Ma, Jie; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Cheng; Zhou, Fangjian; Cai, Zhiming; Han, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. Although increasing evidence suggests that NTP selectively induces apoptosis in some types of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we further investigated possible molecular mechanisms for NTP-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. The results showed that NTP exposure significantly inhibited the growth and viability of HeLa cells. Morphological observation and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that NTP exposure induced HeLa cell apoptosis. NTP exposure also activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently cleaved poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, NTP exposure suppressed Bcl-2 expression, enhanced Bax expression and translocation to mitochondria, activated mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, followed by the release of cytochrome c. Further studies showed that NTP treatment led to ROS generation, whereas blockade of ROS generation by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, ROS scavengers) significantly prevented NTP-induced mitochondrial alteration and subsequent apoptosis of HeLa cells via suppressing Bax translocation, cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our results indicated that NTP exposure induced mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis of HeLa cells was activated by ROS generation. These findings provide insights to the therapeutic potential and clinical research of NTP as a novel tool in cervical cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. VEGFR signaling during lymphatic vascular development: From progenitor cells to functional vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secker, Genevieve A; Harvey, Natasha L

    2015-03-01

    Lymphatic vessels are an integral component of the cardiovascular system, serving important roles in fluid homeostasis, lipid absorption, and immune cell trafficking. Defining the mechanisms by which the lymphatic vasculature is constructed and remodeled into a functional vascular network not only provides answers to fascinating biological questions, but is fundamental to understanding how lymphatic vessel growth and development goes awry in human pathologies. While long recognized as dysfunctional in lymphedema and exploited as a route of tumor metastasis, recent work has highlighted important roles for lymphatic vessels in modulating immune responses, regulating salt-sensitive hypertension and important for lung inflation at birth. Substantial progress in our understanding of the signaling pathways important for development and morphogenesis of the lymphatic vasculature has been made in recent years. Here, we review advances in our knowledge of the best characterized of these signaling pathways, that involving the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members VEGF-C and VEGF-D, together with their receptors VEGFR2 and VEGFR3. Recent work has defined multiple levels at which signal transduction by means of this key axis is regulated; these include control of ligand processing and bioavailability, modulation of receptor activation by interacting proteins, and regulation of receptor endocytosis and trafficking. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Caspase activity and apoptotic signaling in proliferating C2C12 cells following cisplatin or A23187 exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Bloemberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating cell death signaling using cell culture is commonly performed to examine the effects of novel pharmaceuticals or to further characterize discrete cellular signaling pathways. Here, we provide data regarding the cell death response to either cisplatin or A23187 in sub-confluent C2C12 cells, by utilizing several concentrations and incubation times for each chemical. These data include an assessment of the activation of the proteolytic enzymes caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, calpain, and cathepsin B/L. Additionally, the expression of the apoptosis-regulating proteins Bax, Bcl2, and p53 are presented.

  19. The role of Na,K-ATPase/Src-kinase signaling pathway in the vascular wall contaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena

    Aim: Na,K-ATPase is essential for maintaining the transmembrane ion gradient and might initiate various intracellular signaling. These signals possibly act through a modification of the local ion concentrations or via Src-kinase activation. It is known that inhibition of the α-2 isoform of Na...... of ouabain. Here we demonstrate results of our research on the mechanisms involved in the modulation of vascular wall contractility by ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase. Methods: The experiments were performed using rat mesenteric arteries in isometric myograph conditions. To inhibit kinase activity a Src......-family selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PP2, and pNaKtide - a membrane-permeable small peptide which antagonizes ouabain-induced activation of Src-kinase were used. Results: The pro-contractile action of ouabain is associated with activation of Src. This is supported by Western blot analyses showing activation...

  20. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Dong Ju; Kim, Soo Yeon; Han, Seong Su; Kim, Chan Woo; Kumar, Sandeep; Park, Byeoung Soo; Lee, Sung Eun; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Jo, Hanjoong; Park, Young Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. ► PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-κB activation. ► Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-Rβ and NF-κB-signaling. ► PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase Cγ1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-κB—a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  1. A Hepatic GAbp-AMPK Axis Links Inflammatory Signaling to Systemic Vascular Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Niopek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased pro-inflammatory signaling is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Although both inflammatory and energy substrate handling processes represent critical layers of metabolic control, their molecular integration sites remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the heterodimerization interface between the α and β subunits of transcription factor GA-binding protein (GAbp as a negative target of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α signaling. TNF-α prevented GAbpα and β complex formation via reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to the non-energy-dependent transcriptional inactivation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β1, which was identified as a direct hepatic GAbp target. Impairment of AMPKβ1, in turn, elevated downstream cellular cholesterol biosynthesis, and hepatocyte-specific ablation of GAbpα induced systemic hypercholesterolemia and early macro-vascular lesion formation in mice. As GAbpα and AMPKβ1 levels were also found to correlate in obese human patients, the ROS-GAbp-AMPK pathway may represent a key component of a hepato-vascular axis in diabetic long-term complications.

  2. Arterial-venous network formation during brain vascularization involves hemodynamic regulation of chemokine signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Jeroen; Wolfe, Scot A; Siekmann, Arndt F

    2011-05-01

    During angiogenic sprouting, newly forming blood vessels need to connect to the existing vasculature in order to establish a functional circulatory loop. Previous studies have implicated genetic pathways, such as VEGF and Notch signaling, in controlling angiogenesis. We show here that both pathways similarly act during vascularization of the zebrafish central nervous system. In addition, we find that chemokine signaling specifically controls arterial-venous network formation in the brain. Zebrafish mutants for the chemokine receptor cxcr4a or its ligand cxcl12b establish a decreased number of arterial-venous connections, leading to the formation of an unperfused and interconnected blood vessel network. We further find that expression of cxcr4a in newly forming brain capillaries is negatively regulated by blood flow. Accordingly, unperfused vessels continue to express cxcr4a, whereas connection of these vessels to the arterial circulation leads to rapid downregulation of cxcr4a expression and loss of angiogenic characteristics in endothelial cells, such as filopodia formation. Together, our findings indicate that hemodynamics, in addition to genetic pathways, influence vascular morphogenesis by regulating the expression of a proangiogenic factor that is necessary for the correct pathfinding of sprouting brain capillaries.

  3. Radial glial neural progenitors regulate nascent brain vascular network stabilization via inhibition of Wnt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Ma

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex performs complex cognitive functions at the expense of tremendous energy consumption. Blood vessels in the brain are known to form stereotypic patterns that facilitate efficient oxygen and nutrient delivery. Yet little is known about how vessel development in the brain is normally regulated. Radial glial neural progenitors are well known for their central role in orchestrating brain neurogenesis. Here we show that, in the late embryonic cortex, radial glial neural progenitors also play a key role in brain angiogenesis, by interacting with nascent blood vessels and regulating vessel stabilization via modulation of canonical Wnt signaling. We find that ablation of radial glia results in vessel regression, concomitant with ectopic activation of Wnt signaling in endothelial cells. Direct activation of Wnt signaling also results in similar vessel regression, while attenuation of Wnt signaling substantially suppresses regression. Radial glial ablation and ectopic Wnt pathway activation leads to elevated endothelial expression of matrix metalloproteinases, while inhibition of metalloproteinase activity significantly suppresses vessel regression. These results thus reveal a previously unrecognized role of radial glial progenitors in stabilizing nascent brain vascular network and provide novel insights into the molecular cascades through which target neural tissues regulate vessel stabilization and patterning during development and throughout life.

  4. Synthetic peptide, Ala-Arg-Glu-Gly-Glu-Met, abolishes pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of high glucose in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaozhou; Lyu, Yi; Ning, Junyu; Tang, Xiaozhi; Shen, Xinchun

    2017-03-25

    Apoptosis plays a critical role in normal vascular development and atherosclerosis. However, high glucose has been reported to generate a certain level of ROS that can inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, with the underlying mechanism remaining unclear. In this study, a synthetic peptide AREGEM (Ala-Arg-Glu-Gly-Glu-Met) exhibited antioxidative effects and was used to investigate its function in VSMCs during hyperglycaemia. MTT assay results demonstrated that AREGEM significantly attenuated high glucose-induced VSMCs proliferation. Flow cytometry displayed that high glucose levels inhibited cell apoptosis, whereas this effect was attenuated by pre-incubation with AREGEM. In addition, the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) fluorescent probe assay further demonstrated that AREGEM reduced intracellular ROS accumulation in VSMCs. Furthermore, this peptide was able to prevent the decrease of caspase-3 activity and the increase of the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax protein in VSMCs exposed to high glucose. These findings demonstrated that AREGEM is able to abolish the effects of high glucose in VSMCs; therefore, this peptide can be a potential candidate to develop a novel strategy for curing diabetic related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Breast cancer drugs dampen vascular functions by interfering with nitric oxide signaling in endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajalakshmi, Palanivel; Priya, Mani Krishna; Pradeep, Thangaraj; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Muthumani, Kandasamy; Madhuwanti, Srinivasan; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2013-01-01

    Widely used chemotherapeutic breast cancer drugs such as Tamoxifen citrate (TC), Capecitabine (CP) and Epirubicin (EP) are known to cause various cardiovascular side-effects among long term cancer survivors. Vascular modulation warrants nitric oxide (NO) signal transduction, which targets the vascular endothelium. We hypothesize that TC, CP and EP interference with the nitric oxide downstream signaling specifically, could lead to cardiovascular dysfunctions. The results demonstrate that while all three drugs attenuate NO and cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (cGMP) production in endothelial cells, they caused elevated levels of NO in the plasma and RBC. However, PBMC and platelets did not show any significant changes under treatment. This implies that the drug effects are specific to the endothelium. Altered eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (Ser-1177) localization patterns in endothelial cells were observed following drug treatments. Similarly, the expression of phosphorylated eNOS (Ser-1177) protein was decreased under the treatment of drugs. Altered actin polymerization was also observed following drug treatment, while addition of SpNO and 8Br-cGMP reversed this effect. Incubation with the drugs decreased endothelial cell migration whereas addition of YC-1, SC and 8Br-cGMP recovered the effect. Additionally molecular docking studies showed that all three drugs exhibited a strong binding affinity with the catalytic domain of human sGC. In conclusion, results indicate that TC, CP and EP cause endothelial dysfunctions via the NO–sGC–cGMP pathway and these effects could be recovered using pharmaceutical agonists of NO signaling pathway. Further, the study proposes a combination therapy of chemotherapeutic drugs and cGMP analogs, which would confer protection against chemotherapy mediated vascular dysfunctions in cancer patients. - Highlights: • NO production is reduced in endothelial cells under breast cancer drug treatment. • Cellular cGMP level is decreased under

  6. Breast cancer drugs dampen vascular functions by interfering with nitric oxide signaling in endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajalakshmi, Palanivel; Priya, Mani Krishna; Pradeep, Thangaraj; Behera, Jyotirmaya; Muthumani, Kandasamy; Madhuwanti, Srinivasan; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro, E-mail: soovro@yahoo.ca

    2013-06-01

    Widely used chemotherapeutic breast cancer drugs such as Tamoxifen citrate (TC), Capecitabine (CP) and Epirubicin (EP) are known to cause various cardiovascular side-effects among long term cancer survivors. Vascular modulation warrants nitric oxide (NO) signal transduction, which targets the vascular endothelium. We hypothesize that TC, CP and EP interference with the nitric oxide downstream signaling specifically, could lead to cardiovascular dysfunctions. The results demonstrate that while all three drugs attenuate NO and cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (cGMP) production in endothelial cells, they caused elevated levels of NO in the plasma and RBC. However, PBMC and platelets did not show any significant changes under treatment. This implies that the drug effects are specific to the endothelium. Altered eNOS and phosphorylated eNOS (Ser-1177) localization patterns in endothelial cells were observed following drug treatments. Similarly, the expression of phosphorylated eNOS (Ser-1177) protein was decreased under the treatment of drugs. Altered actin polymerization was also observed following drug treatment, while addition of SpNO and 8Br-cGMP reversed this effect. Incubation with the drugs decreased endothelial cell migration whereas addition of YC-1, SC and 8Br-cGMP recovered the effect. Additionally molecular docking studies showed that all three drugs exhibited a strong binding affinity with the catalytic domain of human sGC. In conclusion, results indicate that TC, CP and EP cause endothelial dysfunctions via the NO–sGC–cGMP pathway and these effects could be recovered using pharmaceutical agonists of NO signaling pathway. Further, the study proposes a combination therapy of chemotherapeutic drugs and cGMP analogs, which would confer protection against chemotherapy mediated vascular dysfunctions in cancer patients. - Highlights: • NO production is reduced in endothelial cells under breast cancer drug treatment. • Cellular cGMP level is decreased under

  7. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling and Regulates Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingshan Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL, a compound extracted from Inula britannica L., on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling and angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs. We showed that ABL promotes VEGF-induced cell proliferation, growth, migration, and tube formation in cultured human ECs. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of ABL on VEGF-induced Akt, MAPK p42/44, and p38 phosphorylation, as well as on upstream VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, were associated with VEGF-dependent Matrigel angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, animals treated with ABL (26 mg/kg/day recovered blood flow significantly earlier than control animals, suggesting that ABL affects ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that ABL strongly reduced the levels of VEGFR-2 on the cell surface, enhanced VEGFR-2 endocytosis, which consistent with inhibited VE-cadherin, a negative regulator of VEGF signaling associated with VEGFR-2 complex formation, but did not alter VE-cadherin or VEGFR-2 expression in ECs. Our results suggest that ABL may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for various cardiovascular diseases, including chronic ischemia, by regulating VEGF signaling and modulating angiogenesis.

  8. Acetylbritannilactone Modulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling and Regulates Angiogenesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingshan; Niu, Honglin; Li, Aiying; Nie, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of 1-O-acetylbritannilactone (ABL), a compound extracted from Inula britannica L., on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and angiogenesis in endothelial cells (ECs). We showed that ABL promotes VEGF-induced cell proliferation, growth, migration, and tube formation in cultured human ECs. Furthermore, the modulatory effect of ABL on VEGF-induced Akt, MAPK p42/44, and p38 phosphorylation, as well as on upstream VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, were associated with VEGF-dependent Matrigel angiogenesis in vivo. In addition, animals treated with ABL (26 mg/kg/day) recovered blood flow significantly earlier than control animals, suggesting that ABL affects ischemia-mediated angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in vivo. Finally, we demonstrated that ABL strongly reduced the levels of VEGFR-2 on the cell surface, enhanced VEGFR-2 endocytosis, which consistent with inhibited VE-cadherin, a negative regulator of VEGF signaling associated with VEGFR-2 complex formation, but did not alter VE-cadherin or VEGFR-2 expression in ECs. Our results suggest that ABL may serve as a novel therapeutic intervention for various cardiovascular diseases, including chronic ischemia, by regulating VEGF signaling and modulating angiogenesis.

  9. BMP-2 Overexpression Augments Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Motility by Upregulating Myosin Va via Erk Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The disruption of physiologic vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC migration initiates atherosclerosis development. The biochemical mechanisms leading to dysfunctional VSMC motility remain unknown. Recently, cytokine BMP-2 has been implicated in various vascular physiologic and pathologic processes. However, whether BMP-2 has any effect upon VSMC motility, or by what manner, has never been investigated. Methods. VSMCs were adenovirally transfected to genetically overexpress BMP-2. VSMC motility was detected by modified Boyden chamber assay, confocal time-lapse video assay, and a colony wounding assay. Gene chip array and RT-PCR were employed to identify genes potentially regulated by BMP-2. Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed myosin Va expression locale. Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations were recorded. Results. VSMC migration was augmented in VSMCs overexpressing BMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myosin Va inhibited VSMC motility. Both myosin Va mRNA and protein expression significantly increased after BMP-2 administration and were inhibited by Erk1/2 inhibitor U0126. BMP-2 induced Ca2+ oscillations, generated largely by a “cytosolic oscillator”. Conclusion. BMP-2 significantly increased VSMCs migration and myosin Va expression, via the Erk signaling pathway and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. We provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, and inhibition of BMP-2-induced myosin Va expression may represent a potential therapeutic strategy.

  10. NASAs VESGEN: Systems Analysis of Vascular Phenotypes from Stress and Other Signaling Pathways Using GeneLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Weitzel, Alexander; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Wyatt, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    One fundamental requirement shared by humans with all higher terrestrial life forms, including insect wings, higher land plants and other vertebrates, is a complex, fractally branching vascular system. NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software maps and quantifies vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites according to weighted physiological rules such as vessel connectivity, tapering and bifurcational branching. According to fluid dynamics, successful vascular transport requires a complex distributed system of highly regulated laminar flow. Microvascular branching rules within vertebrates, dicot leaves and the other organisms therefore display many similarities. One unifying perspective is that vascular patterning offers a useful readout that necessarily integrates complex molecular signaling pathways. VESGEN has elucidated changes in vascular pattern resulting from inflammatory, stress response, developmental and other signaling within numerous tissues and major model organisms studied for Space Biology. For a new VESGEN systems approach, we analyzed differential gene expression in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana reported by GeneLab (GLDS-7) for spaceflight. Vascular-related changes in leaf gene expression were identified that can potentially be phenocopied by mutants in ground-based experiments. To link transcriptional, protein and other molecular change with phenotype, alterations in the Euclidean and dynamic dimensions (x,y,t) of vascular patterns for Arabidopsis leaves and other model species are being co-localized with signaling patterns of single molecular expression analyzed as information dimensions (i,j,k,...). Previously, Drosophila microarray data returned from space suggested significant changes in genes related to wing venation development that include EGF, Notch, Hedghog, Wingless and Dpp signaling. Phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the (non-spaceflight) Drosophila wing generated by overexpression of a

  11. The milk-derived fusion peptide, ACFP, suppresses the growth of primary human ovarian cancer cells by regulating apoptotic gene expression and signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Zhao, Mengjing; Tang, Yigui; Wang, Jing; Wei, Cai; Gu, Fang; Lei, Ting; Chen, Zhiwu; Qin, Yide

    2016-03-24

    ACFP is an anti-cancer fusion peptide derived from bovine milk protein. This study was to investigate the anti-cancer function and underlying mechanisms of ACFP in ovarian cancer. Fresh ovarian tumor tissues were collected from 53 patients who underwent initial debulking surgery, and primary cancer cells were cultured. Normal ovarian surface epithelium cells (NOSECs), isolated from 7 patients who underwent surgery for uterine fibromas, were used as normal control tissue. Anti-viabilities of ACFP were assessed by WST-1 (water-soluble tetrazolium 1), and apoptosis was measured using a flow cytometry-based assay. Gene expression profiles of ovarian cancer cells treated with ACFP were generated by cDNA microarray, and the expression of apoptotic-specific genes, such as bcl-xl, bax, akt, caspase-3, CDC25C and cyclinB1, was assessed by real time PCR and western blot analysis. Treatment with ACFP inhibited the viability and promoted apoptosis of primary ovarian cancer cells but exhibited little or no cytotoxicity toward normal primary ovarian cells. Mechanistically, the anti-cancer effects of ACFP in ovarian cells were shown to occur partially via changes in gene expression and related signal pathways. Gene expression profiling highlighted that ACFP treatment in ovarian cancer cells repressed the expression of bcl-xl, akt, CDC25C and cyclinB1 and promoted the expression of bax and caspase-3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that ACFP may represent a potential therapeutic agent for ovarian cancer that functions by altering the expression and signaling of cancer-related pathways in ovarian cancer cells.

  12. Electroacupuncture reduces apoptotic index and inhibits p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the hippocampus of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture attenuates cerebral hypoxia and neuronal apoptosis induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. To further identify the involved mechanisms, we assumed that electroacupuncture used to treat cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was associated with the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. We established rat models of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using the modified Zea-Longa's method. At 30 minutes before model establishment, p38 MAPK blocker SB20358 was injected into the left lateral ventricles. At 1.5 hours after model establishment, electroacupuncture was administered at acupoints of Chize (LU5, Hegu (LI4, Zusanli (ST36, and Sanyinjiao (SP6 for 20 minutes in the affected side. Results showed that the combination of EA and SB20358 injection significantly decreased neurologic impairment scores, but no significant differences were determined among different interventional groups. Hematoxylin-eosin staining also showed reduced brain tissue injuries. Compared with the SB20358 group, the cells were regularly arranged, the structures were complete, and the number of viable neurons was higher in the SB20358 + electroacupuncture group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay showed a decreased apoptotic index in each group, with a significant decrease in the SB20358 + electroacupuncture group. Immunohistochemistry revealed reduced phosphorylated p38 expression at 3 days in the electroacupuncture group and SB20358 + electroacupuncture group compared with the ischemia/reperfusion group. There was no significant difference in phosphorylated p38 expression between the ischemia/reperfusion group and SB20358 group. These findings confirmed that the electroacupuncture effects on mitigating cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury are possibly associated with the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. A time period of 3 days could promote the repair of ischemic cerebral nerves.

  13. VEGF production and signaling in Müller glia are critical to modulating vascular function and neuronal integrity in diabetic retinopathy and hypoxic retinal vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yun-Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Müller glia (MG) are major retinal supporting cells that participate in retinal metabolism, function, maintenance, and protection. During the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a neurovascular disease and a leading cause of blindness, MG modulate vascular function and neuronal integrity by regulating the production of angiogenic and trophic factors. In this article, I will (1) briefly summarize our work on delineating the role and mechanism of MG-modulated vascular function through the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and on investigating VEGF signaling-mediated MG viability and neural protection in diabetic animal models, (2) explore the relationship among VEGF and neurotrophins in protecting Müller cells in in vitro models of diabetes and hypoxia and its potential implication to neuroprotection in DR and hypoxic retinal diseases, and (3) discuss the relevance of our work to the effectiveness and safety of long-term anti-VEGF therapies, a widely used strategy to combat DR, diabetic macular edema, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and other hypoxic retinal vascular disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 Signaling in the Recovery from Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hideki; Kato, Shintaro; Ito, Yoshiya; Eshima, Koji; Ogawa, Fumihiro; Takahashi, Ryo; Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Tamaki, Hideaki; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Masabumi; Majima, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most potent angiogenesis stimulators. VEGF binds to VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), inducing angiogenesis through the receptor's tyrosine kinase domain (TK), but the mechanism is not well understood. We investigated the role of VEGFR1 tyrosine kinase signaling in angiogenesis using the ischemic hind limb model. Relative to control mice, blood flow recovery was significantly impaired in mice treated with VEGFA-neutralizing antibody. VEGFR1 tyrosine kinase knockout mice (TK-/-) had delayed blood flow recovery from ischemia and impaired angiogenesis, and this phenotype was unaffected by treatment with a VEGFR2 inhibitor. Compared to wild type mice (WT), TK-/- mice had no change in the plasma level of VEGF, but the plasma levels of stromal-derived cell factor 1 (SDF-1) and stem cell factor, as well as the bone marrow (BM) level of pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9), were significantly reduced. The recruitment of cells expressing VEGFR1 and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) into peripheral blood and ischemic muscles was also suppressed. Furthermore, WT transplanted with TK-/- BM significantly impaired blood flow recovery more than WT transplanted with WT BM. These results suggest that VEGFR1-TK signaling facilitates angiogenesis by recruiting CXCR4+VEGFR1+ cells from BM.

  15. Sex differences in vascular physiology and pathophysiology: estrogen and androgen signaling in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Austin C; Kim, Seong C; Yin, Ke-Jie; Lee, Jean-Pyo; Hamblin, Milton H

    2017-09-01

    Sex differences between women and men are often overlooked and underappreciated when studying the cardiovascular system. It has been long assumed that men and women are physiologically similar, and this notion has resulted in women being clinically evaluated and treated for cardiovascular pathophysiological complications as men. Currently, there is increased recognition of fundamental sex differences in cardiovascular function, anatomy, cell signaling, and pathophysiology. The National Institutes of Health have enacted guidelines expressly to gain knowledge about ways the sexes differ in both normal function and diseases at the various research levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ system). Greater understanding of these sex differences will be used to steer future directions in the biomedical sciences and translational and clinical research. This review describes sex-based differences in the physiology and pathophysiology of the vasculature, with a special emphasis on sex steroid receptor (estrogen and androgen receptor) signaling and their potential impact on vascular function in health and diseases (e.g., atherosclerosis, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, abdominal aortic aneurysms, cerebral aneurysms, and stroke). Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The Inhibition of microRNA-128 on IGF-1-Activating mTOR Signaling Involves in Temozolomide-Induced Glioma Cell Apoptotic Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Hsu Chen

    Full Text Available Temozolomide (TMZ, an alkylating agent of the imidazotetrazine series, is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug used in the clinical therapy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and high-grade primary glioma in adults. Micro (miRNAs, which are small noncoding RNAs, post-transcriptionally regulate gene expressions and are involved in gliomagenesis. However, no studies have reported relationships between TMZ and miRNA gene regulation. We investigated TMZ-mediated miRNA profiles and its molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of glioma cell death. By performing miRNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses, we observed that expression of 248 miRNAs was altered, including five significantly upregulated and 17 significantly downregulated miRNAs, in TMZ-treated U87MG cells. miR-128 expression levels were lower in different glioma cells and strongly associated with poor survival. TMZ treatment significantly upregulated miR-128 expression. TMZ significantly enhanced miR-128-1 promoter activity and transcriptionally regulated miR-128 levels through c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2/c-Jun pathways. The overexpression and knockdown of miR-128 expression significantly affected TMZ-mediated cell viability and apoptosis-related protein expression. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-128 alone enhanced apoptotic death of glioma cells through caspase-3/9 activation, poly(ADP ribose polymerase degradation, reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, and non-protective autophagy formation. Finally, we identified that key members in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling including mTOR, rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR, insulin-like growth factor 1, and PIK3R1, but not PDK1, were direct target genes of miR-128. TMZ inhibited mTOR signaling through miR-128 regulation. These results indicate that miR-128-inhibited mTOR signaling is involved in TMZ-mediated cytotoxicity. Our findings may provide a better understanding

  17. Using NASA's GeneLab for VESGEN Systems Analysis of Vascular Phenotypes from Stress and Other Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, P.; Weitzel, Alexander; Vyas, R. J.; Murray, M. C.; Vickerman, M. B.; Bhattacharya, S.; Wyatt, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    One fundamental requirement shared by humans with all higher terrestrial life forms, including other vertebrates, insects, and higher land plants, is a complex, fractally branching vascular system. NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software maps and quantifies vascular trees, networks, and tree-network composites according to weighted physiological rules such as vessel connectivity, tapering and bifurcational branching. According to fluid dynamics, successful vascular transport requires a complex distributed system of highly regulated laminar flow. Microvascular branching rules within vertebrates, dicot leaves and the other organisms therefore display many similarities. A unifying perspective is that vascular patterning offers a useful readout of molecular signaling that necessarily integrates these complex pathways. VESGEN has elucidated changes in vascular pattern resulting from inflammatory, developmental and other signaling within numerous tissues and major model organisms studied for Space Biology. For a new VESGEN systems approach, we analyzed differential gene expression in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana reported by GeneLab (GLDS-7) for spaceflight. Vascularrelated changes in leaf gene expression were identified that can potentially be phenocopied by mutants in ground-based experiments. To link transcriptional, protein and other molecular change with phenotype, alterations in the spatial and dynamic dimensions of vascular patterns for Arabidopsis leaves and other model species are being co-localized with signaling patterns of single molecular expression analyzed as information dimensions. Previously, Drosophila microarray data returned from space suggested significant changes in genes related to wing venation development that include EGF, Notch, Hedghog, Wingless and Dpp signaling. Phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the (non-spaceflight) Drosophila wing generated by overexpression of a Notch antagonist were analyzed by

  18. Apoptotic Signaling in Mouse Odontogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matalová, Eva; Švandová, Eva; Tucker, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 60-70 ISSN 1536-2310 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600450904; GA ČR GA203/08/1680 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH * PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH * VESTIGIAL TOOTH PRIMORDIA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.730, year: 2012

  19. Variable levels of apoptotic signal-associated cytokines in the disease course of patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongsheng; Li, Feng; Du, Juan; Shen, Yanyun; Lin, Jinran; Zhu, Xiaohua; Luo, Xiaoqun; Liang, Jun; Xu, Jinhua

    2017-08-01

    Keratinocyte death is a hallmark of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). Apoptotic signal-associated cytokines, such as TNF-α, sFasL, granulysin, sTRAIL and IFN-γ have been reported to participate in keratinocyte apoptosis. However, their levels are variable, which hampers the elucidation of the role of these cytokines. We sought to determine whether cytokine levels vary with disease course. The serum cytokine levels of 24 patients and blister fluid of 10 were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on the first day of their admission to hospital and were evaluated at different time points in the disease course. Meanwhile, surface markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD1a, CD14, CD16+56 and CD68) of blister fluid cells were measured by flow cytometry. The concentrations of all cytokines in the serum and blister fluid were higher than those in the controls and were more elevated in the blister fluid than in the serum. Moreover, sTRAIL, IFN-γ and TNF-α quantities were relatively stable, while those of sFasL and granulysin decreased rapidly in the disease course. On the first day, CD8+ T and natural killer cells were predominant in the blister fluid but their relative percentage diminished gradually, while that of CD14+ cells increased. Our study confirmed there are high but variable levels of these cytokines in SJS/TEN, especially in the early phase and different tendencies are manifested in the disease course. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  20. Integration of hormonal signaling networks and mobile microRNAs is required for vascular patterning in Arabidopsis roots

    KAUST Repository

    Muraro, D.

    2013-12-31

    As multicellular organisms grow, positional information is continually needed to regulate the pattern in which cells are arranged. In the Arabidopsis root, most cell types are organized in a radially symmetric pattern; however, a symmetry-breaking event generates bisymmetric auxin and cytokinin signaling domains in the stele. Bidirectional cross-talk between the stele and the surrounding tissues involving a mobile transcription factor, SHORT ROOT (SHR), and mobile microRNA species also determines vascular pattern, but it is currently unclear how these signals integrate. We use a multicellular model to determine a minimal set of components necessary for maintaining a stable vascular pattern. Simulations perturbing the signaling network show that, in addition to the mutually inhibitory interaction between auxin and cytokinin, signaling through SHR, microRNA165/6, and PHABULOSA is required to maintain a stable bisymmetric pattern. We have verified this prediction by observing loss of bisymmetry in shr mutants. The model reveals the importance of several features of the network, namely the mutual degradation of microRNA165/6 and PHABULOSA and the existence of an additional negative regulator of cytokinin signaling. These components form a plausible mechanism capable of patterning vascular tissues in the absence of positional inputs provided by the transport of hormones from the shoot.

  1. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy; Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna; Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  2. Atorvastatin ameliorates arsenic-induced hypertension and enhancement of vascular redox signaling in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Waghe, Prashantkumar; Gupta, Priyanka; Choudhury, Soumen; Kannan, Kandasamy [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Pillai, Ayyappan Harikrishna [Division of Animal Biochemistry, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Harikumar, Sankaran Kutty; Mishra, Santosh Kumar [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India); Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, 243122 Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2014-11-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been linked to elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases, while statins reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease predominantly by their low density lipoprotein-lowering effect. Besides, statins have other beneficial effects, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated whether atorvastatin, a widely used statin, can ameliorate arsenic-induced increase in blood pressure and alteration in lipid profile and also whether the amelioration could relate to altered NO and ROS signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91st day, blood was collected for lipid profile. Western blot of iNOS and eNOS protein, NO and 3-nitrotyrosine production, Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants were evaluated in thoracic aorta. Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure, while it decreased HDL-C and increased LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Arsenic down-regulated eNOS and up-regulated iNOS protein expression and increased basal NO and 3-nitrotyrosine level. Arsenic increased aortic Nox-4 and p22Phox mRNA expression, Nox activity, ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. Further, arsenic decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and depleted aortic GSH content. Atorvastatin regularized blood pressure, improved lipid profile and attenuated arsenic-mediated redox alterations. The results demonstrate that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced hypertension by improving lipid profile, aortic NO signaling and restoring vascular redox homeostasis. - Highlights: • Arsenic increased systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure and caused dyslipidemia. • Arsenic increased

  3. Notch signaling induces osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells: role of Msx2 gene induction via Notch-RBP-Jk signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takehisa; Tanaka, Toru; Iso, Tatsuya; Doi, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroko; Kawai-Kowase, Keiko; Arai, Masashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2009-07-01

    Vascular calcification is closely correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here, we demonstrate the role of Notch signaling in osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The Msx2 gene, a key regulator of osteogenesis, was highly induced by coculture with Notch ligand-expressing cells or overexpression of Notch intracellular domains (NICDs) in human aortic SMCs (HASMCs). Furthermore, the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1-ICD) overexpression markedly upregulated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and matrix mineralization of HASMCs. A knockdown experiment with a small interfering RNA confirmed that Msx2 mediated N1-ICD-induced osteogenic conversion of HASMCs. Interestingly, Msx2 induction by N1-ICD was independent of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), an osteogenic morphogen upstream of Msx2. The transcriptional activity of the Msx2 promoter was significantly enhanced by N1-ICD overexpression. The RBP-Jk binding element within the Msx2 promoter was critical to Notch-induced Msx2 gene expression. Correspondingly, N1-ICD overexpression did not induce the Msx2 expression in RBP-Jk-deficient fibroblasts. Immunohistochemistry of human carotid artery specimens revealed localization of Notch1, Jagged1 and Msx2 to fibrocalcific atherosclerotic plaques. These results imply a new mechanism for osteogenic differentiation of vascular SMCs in which Notch/RBP-Jk signaling directly induces Msx2 gene expression and suggest its crucial role in mediating vascular calcification.

  4. Spironolactone treatment attenuates vascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO/GC signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Alves Barbosa Da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (DM2 increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aldosterone, which has pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system, is positively regulated in DM2. We assessed whether blockade of mineralocorticoid receptors (MR with spironolactone decreases ROS-associated vascular dysfunction and improves vascular NO signaling in diabetes. Leptin receptor knockout [LepRdb/LepRdb (db/db] mice, a model of DM2, and their counterpart controls [LepRdb/LepR+, (db/+ mice] received spironolactone (50 mg/kg body weight/day or vehicle (ethanol 1% via oral per gavage for 6 weeks. Spironolactone treatment abolished the endothelial dysfunction and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation (Ser1177, determined by acetylcholine-induced relaxation and Western Blot analysis, respectively. MR antagonist therapy also abrogated augmented ROS-generation in aorta from diabetic mice, determined by lucigenin luminescence assay. Spironolactone treatment increased superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1 and catalase expression, improved sodium nitroprusside (SNP and BAY 41-2272-induced relaxation, as well as increased soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC subunit β protein expression in arteries from db/db mice. Our results demonstrate that spironolactone decreases diabetes-associated vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular dysfunction through processes involving increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and sGC. These findings further elucidate redox-sensitive mechanisms whereby spironolactone protects against vascular injury in diabetes.

  5. LRP1 functions as an atheroprotective integrator of TGFbeta and PDFG signals in the vascular wall: implications for Marfan syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Boucher

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The multifunctional receptor LRP1 controls expression, activity and trafficking of the PDGF receptor-beta in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC. LRP1 is also a receptor for TGFbeta1 and is required for TGFbeta mediated inhibition of cell proliferation.We show that loss of LRP1 in VSMC (smLRP(- in vivo results in a Marfan-like syndrome with nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated Smad2/3, disruption of elastic layers, tortuous aorta, and increased expression of the TGFbeta target genes thrombospondin-1 (TSP1 and PDGFRbeta in the vascular wall. Treatment of smLRP1(- animals with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone abolished nuclear pSmad accumulation, reversed the Marfan-like phenotype, and markedly reduced smooth muscle proliferation, fibrosis and atherosclerosis independent of plasma cholesterol levels.Our findings are consistent with an activation of TGFbeta signals in the LRP1-deficient vascular wall. LRP1 may function as an integrator of proliferative and anti-proliferative signals that control physiological mechanisms common to the pathogenesis of Marfan syndrome and atherosclerosis, and this is essential for maintaining vascular wall integrity.

  6. Subcellular localization of CrmA : identification of a novel leucine-rich nuclear export signal conserved in anti-apoptotic serpins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, JA; Span, SW; Kruyt, FAE; Giaccone, G

    2003-01-01

    The cowpox virus-encoded anti-apoptotic protein cytokine response modifier A (CrmA) is a member of the serpin family that specifically inhibits the cellular proteins caspase 1, caspase 8 and granzyme B. In this study, we have used Flag- and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged versions of CrmA to

  7. Temporal activation of anti- and pro-apoptotic factors in human gingival fibroblasts infected with the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis: potential role of bacterial proteases in host signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehara Tadamichi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porphyromonas gingivalis is the foremost oral pathogen of adult periodontitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of bacterial invasion and the resultant destruction of the gingival tissue remain largely undefined. Results We report host-P. gingivalis interactions in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF cells. Quantitative immunostaining revealed the need for a high multiplicity of infection for optimal infection. Early in infection (2–12 h, P. gingivalis activated the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappa B, partly via the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway. This was accompanied by the induction of cellular anti-apoptotic genes, including Bfl-1, Boo, Bcl-XL, Bcl2, Mcl-1, Bcl-w and Survivin. Late in infection (24–36 h the anti-apoptotic genes largely shut down and the pro-apoptotic genes, including Nip3, Hrk, Bak, Bik, Bok, Bax, Bad, Bim and Moap-1, were activated. Apoptosis was characterized by nuclear DNA degradation and activation of caspases-3, -6, -7 and -9 via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Use of inhibitors revealed an anti-apoptotic function of NF-kappa B and PI3 kinase in P. gingivalis-infected HGF cells. Use of a triple protease mutant P. gingivalis lacking three major gingipains (rgpA rgpB kgp suggested a role of some or all these proteases in myriad aspects of bacteria-gingival interaction. Conclusion The pathology of the gingival fibroblast in P. gingivalis infection is affected by a temporal shift from cellular survival response to apoptosis, regulated by a number of anti- and pro-apoptotic molecules. The gingipain group of proteases affects bacteria-host interactions and may directly promote apoptosis by intracellular proteolytic activation of caspase-3.

  8. Temporal activation of anti- and pro-apoptotic factors in human gingival fibroblasts infected with the periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis: potential role of bacterial proteases in host signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnowey, Sonya; Ansai, Toshihiro; Bitko, Vira; Nakayama, Koji; Takehara, Tadamichi; Barik, Sailen

    2006-03-08

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is the foremost oral pathogen of adult periodontitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of bacterial invasion and the resultant destruction of the gingival tissue remain largely undefined. We report host-P. gingivalis interactions in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Quantitative immunostaining revealed the need for a high multiplicity of infection for optimal infection. Early in infection (2-12 h), P. gingivalis activated the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappa B, partly via the PI3 kinase/AKT pathway. This was accompanied by the induction of cellular anti-apoptotic genes, including Bfl-1, Boo, Bcl-XL, Bcl2, Mcl-1, Bcl-w and Survivin. Late in infection (24-36 h) the anti-apoptotic genes largely shut down and the pro-apoptotic genes, including Nip3, Hrk, Bak, Bik, Bok, Bax, Bad, Bim and Moap-1, were activated. Apoptosis was characterized by nuclear DNA degradation and activation of caspases-3, -6, -7 and -9 via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Use of inhibitors revealed an anti-apoptotic function of NF-kappa B and PI3 kinase in P. gingivalis-infected HGF cells. Use of a triple protease mutant P. gingivalis lacking three major gingipains (rgpA rgpB kgp) suggested a role of some or all these proteases in myriad aspects of bacteria-gingival interaction. The pathology of the gingival fibroblast in P. gingivalis infection is affected by a temporal shift from cellular survival response to apoptosis, regulated by a number of anti- and pro-apoptotic molecules. The gingipain group of proteases affects bacteria-host interactions and may directly promote apoptosis by intracellular proteolytic activation of caspase-3.

  9. Kaurene diterpene induces apoptosis in U87 human malignant glioblastoma cells by suppression of anti-apoptotic signals and activation of cysteine proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarte, F.S.; Tirapelli, D.P.C.; Ambrosio, S.R.; Tirapelli, C.R.; Oliveira, F.M.; Novais, P.C.; Peria, F.M.; Oliveira, H.F.; Carlotti, C.G.; Tirapelli, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors in humans. Studies have shown that classes of kaurene diterpene have anti-tumor activity related to their ability to induce apoptosis. We investigated the response of the human glioblastoma cell line U87 to treatment with ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid, KA). We analyzed cell survival and the induction of apoptosis using flow cytometry and annexin V staining. Additionally, the expression of anti-apoptotic (c-FLIP and miR-21) and apoptotic (Fas, caspase-3 and caspase-8) genes was analyzed by relative quantification (real-time PCR) of mRNA levels in U87 cells that were either untreated or treated with KA (30, 50, or 70 µM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. U87 cells treated with KA demonstrated reduced viability, and an increase in annexin V- and annexin V/PI-positive cells was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 9% for control cells, 26% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 50 µM KA, and 31% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 70 µM KA. Similarly, in U87 cells treated with KA for 48 h, we observed an increase in the expression of apoptotic genes (caspase-8, -3) and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (miR-21 and c-FLIP). KA possesses several interesting properties and induces apoptosis through a unique mechanism. Further experiments will be necessary to determine if KA may be used as a lead compound for the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of primary brain tumors. PMID:23314342

  10. Kaurene diterpene induces apoptosis in U87 human malignant glioblastoma cells by suppression of anti-apoptotic signals and activation of cysteine proteases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizarte, F.S. Neto; Tirapelli, D.P.C. [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ambrosio, S.R. [Universidade de Franca, Núcleo de Pesquisa em Ciências e Tecnologia, Franca, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, C.R. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas, Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, F.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Novais, P.C. [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Peria, F.M.; Oliveira, H.F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Carlotti, C.G. Junior; Tirapelli, L.F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-11

    Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors in humans. Studies have shown that classes of kaurene diterpene have anti-tumor activity related to their ability to induce apoptosis. We investigated the response of the human glioblastoma cell line U87 to treatment with ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid, KA). We analyzed cell survival and the induction of apoptosis using flow cytometry and annexin V staining. Additionally, the expression of anti-apoptotic (c-FLIP and miR-21) and apoptotic (Fas, caspase-3 and caspase-8) genes was analyzed by relative quantification (real-time PCR) of mRNA levels in U87 cells that were either untreated or treated with KA (30, 50, or 70 µM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. U87 cells treated with KA demonstrated reduced viability, and an increase in annexin V- and annexin V/PI-positive cells was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 9% for control cells, 26% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 50 µM KA, and 31% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 70 µM KA. Similarly, in U87 cells treated with KA for 48 h, we observed an increase in the expression of apoptotic genes (caspase-8, -3) and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (miR-21 and c-FLIP). KA possesses several interesting properties and induces apoptosis through a unique mechanism. Further experiments will be necessary to determine if KA may be used as a lead compound for the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of primary brain tumors.

  11. Kaurene diterpene induces apoptosis in U87 human malignant glioblastoma cells by suppression of anti-apoptotic signals and activation of cysteine proteases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizarte, F.S. Neto; Tirapelli, D.P.C.; Ambrosio, S.R.; Tirapelli, C.R.; Oliveira, F.M.; Novais, P.C.; Peria, F.M.; Oliveira, H.F.; Carlotti, C.G. Junior; Tirapelli, L.F.

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors in humans. Studies have shown that classes of kaurene diterpene have anti-tumor activity related to their ability to induce apoptosis. We investigated the response of the human glioblastoma cell line U87 to treatment with ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid, KA). We analyzed cell survival and the induction of apoptosis using flow cytometry and annexin V staining. Additionally, the expression of anti-apoptotic (c-FLIP and miR-21) and apoptotic (Fas, caspase-3 and caspase-8) genes was analyzed by relative quantification (real-time PCR) of mRNA levels in U87 cells that were either untreated or treated with KA (30, 50, or 70 µM) for 24, 48, and 72 h. U87 cells treated with KA demonstrated reduced viability, and an increase in annexin V- and annexin V/PI-positive cells was observed. The percentage of apoptotic cells was 9% for control cells, 26% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 50 µM KA, and 31% for cells submitted to 48 h of treatment with 70 µM KA. Similarly, in U87 cells treated with KA for 48 h, we observed an increase in the expression of apoptotic genes (caspase-8, -3) and a decrease in the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (miR-21 and c-FLIP). KA possesses several interesting properties and induces apoptosis through a unique mechanism. Further experiments will be necessary to determine if KA may be used as a lead compound for the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of primary brain tumors

  12. LPS Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation Through the TLR4/Rac1/Akt Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianran Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a potent activator of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs proliferation, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we knocked down Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1 expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA in order to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of LPS-induced VSMCs proliferation. Methods: VSMCs proliferation was monitored by 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine staining, and Rac1 activity was measured via Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay. mRNAs encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, smooth muscle 22α (SM22α, myosin heavy chain (MYH and transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1 were detected by qRT-PCR. The expression of total Akt, p-Akt (308, p-Akt (473, SM22α, MYH and TRPC1 protein was analysed by Western blot. Results: Treatment with TLR4 siRNA (siTLR4 or Rac1 siRNA (siRac1 significantly decreased LPS-induced VSMCs proliferation. Moreover, LPS-induced activation of Rac1 through TLR4 was observed. Western blot analysis revealed that transfection with siTLR4 or siRac1 inhibited LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation. We discovered that LPS stimulated VSMCs proliferation via phenotypic modulation and that this effect was partially inhibited by pre-treatment with siTLR4 or siRac1. Further, TLR4 and Rac1 are involved in LPS-induced activation of TRPC1. Conclusion: This study suggests that LPS exerts an effect on VSMCs proliferation and that the TLR4/Rac1/Akt signalling pathway mediates this effect.

  13. LPS Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Proliferation Through the TLR4/Rac1/Akt Signalling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qianran; Jiang, Dehua; Li, Lei; Yang, Yu; Wu, Pei; Luo, Yuanyuan; Yang, Rongli; Li, Dongye

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent activator of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we knocked down Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in order to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of LPS-induced VSMCs proliferation. VSMCs proliferation was monitored by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine staining, and Rac1 activity was measured via Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay. mRNAs encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), smooth muscle 22α (SM22α), myosin heavy chain (MYH) and transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1) were detected by qRT-PCR. The expression of total Akt, p-Akt (308), p-Akt (473), SM22α, MYH and TRPC1 protein was analysed by Western blot. Treatment with TLR4 siRNA (siTLR4) or Rac1 siRNA (siRac1) significantly decreased LPS-induced VSMCs proliferation. Moreover, LPS-induced activation of Rac1 through TLR4 was observed. Western blot analysis revealed that transfection with siTLR4 or siRac1 inhibited LPS-induced Akt phosphorylation. We discovered that LPS stimulated VSMCs proliferation via phenotypic modulation and that this effect was partially inhibited by pre-treatment with siTLR4 or siRac1. Further, TLR4 and Rac1 are involved in LPS-induced activation of TRPC1. This study suggests that LPS exerts an effect on VSMCs proliferation and that the TLR4/Rac1/Akt signalling pathway mediates this effect. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases Ameliorates Hypertension-Induced Renal Vascular Remodeling in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, on high blood pressure and related vascular changes. Blood pressure was recorded, thicknesses of renal small artery walls were measured and ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and endothelial cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in normotensive wistar kyoto (WKY rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and PD98059-treated SHR. Compared with normo-tensive WKY rats, SHR developed hypertension at 8 weeks of age, thickened renal small artery wall and asymmetric arrangement of VSMCs at 16 and 24 weeks of age. Phospho-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA expression levels were increased in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries in the SHR. Treating SHR with PD98059 reduced the spontaneous hypertension-induced vascular wall thickening. This effect was associated with suppressions of erk2 mRNA expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries. It is concluded that inhibition of ERK1/2 ameliorates hypertension induced vascular remodeling in renal small arteries.

  15. ANTITUMOR AND APOPTOTIC EFFECTS OF CUCURBITACIN A IN A-549 LUNG CARCINOMA CELLS IS MEDIATED VIA G2/M CELL CYCLE ARREST AND M-TOR/PI3K/AKT SIGNALLING PATHWAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Dong; Liu, Yan; Su, Yuan; Xiong, Xian-Zhi; Shang, Dan; Xu, Juan-Juan; Liu, Hong-Ju

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to demonstrate the antitumor potential of cucurbitacin A on A-549 NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer cells). The effects of Cucurbitacin A on apoptotic induction, cell physic, cell cycle failure and m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway were also investigated in the present study. MTT assay and clonogenic assay were carried out to study effects of this compound on cell cytotoxicity and colony forming tendency in A-549 cells. Moreover, phase and fluorescence microscopic techniques were used to examine the effects on cell morphology and induction of apoptosis. The effects on cell cycle phase distribution were investigated by flow cytometry and effects on m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling proteins were assessed by western blot analysis. Results showed that cucurbitacin A induced dose-dependent cytotoxic effects along with suppressing the colony forming tendency in these cells. Cucurbitacin A also induced morphological changes in these cells featuring chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic body formation. G2/M phase cell cycle collapse was also induced by Cucurbitacin A along with inhibition of expression levels of m-TOR/PI3K/Akt proteins. In conclusion, cucurbitacin A inhibits cancer growth in A-549 NSCLC cells by inducing apoptosis, targeting m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and G2/M cell cycle.

  16. The neuropeptide catestatin promotes vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through the Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaoxia [Department of Cardiology, People' s Hospital, Peking University, No. 11 South Avenue, Xi Zhi Men Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China); Zhou, Chunyan, E-mail: chunyanzhou@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Ningling, E-mail: nlsun@263.net [Department of Cardiology, People' s Hospital, Peking University, No. 11 South Avenue, Xi Zhi Men Xicheng District, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Catestatin stimulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} Catestatin provokes sustained increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. {yields} Catestatin produces increased activation of calcineurin and promotes NFATc1 translocation into the nucleus. -- Abstract: The Chromogranin A-derived neuropeptide catestatin is an endogenous nicotinic cholinergic antagonist that acts as a pleiotropic hormone. Since catestatin shares several functions with other members derived from the chromogranin/secretogranin protein family and other neuropeptides which exert proliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we therefore hypothesized that catestatin would regulate VSMC proliferation. The present study demonstrates that catestatin caused a dose-dependent induction of proliferation in rat aortic smooth muscle cells and furthermore evoked a sustained increase in intracellular calcium. This subsequently leaded to enhanced activation of the Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin and resulted in an activation of the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), initiating transcription of proliferative genes. In addition, cyclosporin A (CsA), a potent inhibitor of calcineurin, abrogated catestatin-mediated effect on VSMCs, indicating that the calcineurin-NFAT signaling is strongly required for catestatin-induced growth of VSMCs. The present study establishes catestatin as a novel proliferative cytokine on vascular smooth muscle cells and this effect is mediated by the Ca{sup 2+}-calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway.

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor signaling is necessary for expansion of medullary microvessels during postnatal kidney development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robdrup Tinning, Anne; Jensen, Boye L; Johnsen, Iben

    2016-01-01

    for the development of the renal medullary microcirculation. Endothelial cell-specific immunolabeling of kidney sections from rats showed immature vascular bundles at postnatal day (P) 10 with subsequent expansion of bundles until P21. Medullary VEGF protein abundance coincided with vasa recta bundle formation....... In human fetal kidney tissue, immature vascular bundles appeared early in the third trimester (GA27-28) and expanded in size until term. Rat pups treated with the VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) inhibitor vandetanib (100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) from P7 to P12 or P10 to P16 displayed growth retardation and proteinuria....... Stereological quantification showed a significant reduction in total length (386 ± 13 vs. 219 ± 16 m), surface area, and volume of medullary microvessels. Vascular bundle architecture was unaffected. ANG II-AT1A/1B (-/-) mice kidneys displayed poorly defined vasa recta bundles whereas mice with collecting duct...

  18. Elastin insufficiency causes hypertension, structural defects and abnormal remodeling of renal vascular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth A; Jie, Li; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Osei-Owusu, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Elastin deficiency causes vascular stiffening, a leading risk for hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The mechanisms mediating hypertension and/or CKD pathogenesis due to elastin deficiency are poorly understood. Using the elastin heterozygous (Eln+/-) mouse model, we tested whether renal dysfunction due to elastin deficiency occurs independently of and precedes the development of hypertension. We assessed blood pressure and renal hemodynamics in 30-day and 12-week-old male and female mice. At P30, blood pressure of Eln+/- mice was similar to wild-type controls; however, renal blood flow was lower, whereas renal vascular resistance was augmented at baseline in Eln+/- mice. At 12 weeks, renal vascular resistance remained elevated while filtration fraction was higher in male Eln+/- relative to wild-type mice. Heterozygous mice showed isolated systolic hypertension that was evident only at nighttime. Acute salt loading with 6% dietary sodium increased daytime systolic blood pressure only in male Eln+/- mice, causing a rightward shift and blunted slope of the pressure-natriuresis curve. Renal interlobar artery basal tone and myogenic response to increasing intraluminal pressure at day 10 were similar, whereas they were augmented at day 30 and at 12 weeks old in Eln+/- mice, and normalized by the AT1R blocker, candesartan. Heterozygous mice also exhibited podocyte foot process damage that persisted even when blood pressure was normalized to wild-type levels with hydralazine. Thus, elastin insufficiency triggers structural defects and abnormal remodeling of renal vascular signaling involving AT1R-mediated vascular mechanotransduction and renal hyperfiltration with increased blood pressure sensitivity to dietary sodium contributing to systolic hypertension. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate-induced apoptotic signaling pathways in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiwen; Zhou, Peijiang; Guo, Yongyong; Lee, Jae-Seong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2017-01-01

    Tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP, also known as TDCPP), an extensively used flame retardant, is frequently detected in the environment and biota. Recent studies have shown that TDCIPP has neurotoxic effects. In this study, we determined the mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells. By using morphological examination, flow cytometry, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm) measurement, we confirmed that exposure to TDCIPP caused apoptosis accompanied by the activation of apoptosis-related genes (e.g. Bax and Bcl-2) and caspase 3 protein in SH-SY5Y cells. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and intracellular calcium ions ([Ca 2+ ] i ) were also observed in TDCIPP-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure to TDCIPP led to the activation of protein markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, including eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a subunit (p-EIF2a), activation transcription factor (ATF4), glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), and the proapoptotic factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). To determine the role of the ER in apoptosis, phenyl butyric acid (PBA), an ER stress inhibitor, was applied. Treatment with PBA effectively attenuated TDCIPP-induced ER stress and protected against apoptotic death in SH-SY5Y cells by inhibition of Bax expression and promotion of Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, we found that pretreatment of the cells with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) inhibited the ER stress response and prevented apoptosis. The combination of PBA and NAC pretreatment could further prevent TDCIPP induced ER-stress and apoptotic death compared with PBA or NAC pretreatment alone. Thus, in the present study, we demonstrated that TDCIPP induces cytotoxicity through a ROS-dependent mechanism involving ER stress and activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathways in SH-SY5Y cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Atorvastatin restores arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction in rats: Modulation of nitric oxide signaling and inflammatory mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavan, Manickam; Sarath, Thengumpallil Sasindran; Kannan, Kandasamy; Suresh, Subramaniyam; Gupta, Priyanka; Vijayakaran, Karunakaran; Sankar, Palanisamy; Kurade, Nitin Pandurang; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath, E-mail: snsarkar1911@rediffmail.com

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated whether atorvastatin, an extensively prescribed statin for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases, can reduce the risk of arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation in rats and whether the modulation could be linked to improvement in vascular NO signaling. Rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (100 ppm) through drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg bw, orally) was administered once daily during the last 30 days of arsenic exposure. On the 91{sup st} day, blood was collected for measuring serum C-reactive protein. Thoracic aorta was isolated for assessing reactivity to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside and acetylcholine; evaluating eNOS and iNOS mRNA expression and measuring NO production, while abdominal aorta was used for ELISA of cytokines, chemokine and vascular cell adhesion molecules. Histopathology was done in aortic arches. Arsenic did not alter phenylephrine-elicited contraction. Atorvastatin inhibited E{sub max} of phenylephrine, but it augmented the contractile response in aortic rings from arsenic-exposed animals. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was not altered with any treatment. However, arsenic reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and affected aortic eNOS at the levels of mRNA expression, protein concentration, phosphorylation and NO production. Further, it increased aortic iNOS mRNA expression, iNOS-derived NO synthesis, production of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, VCAM, sICAM) and serum C-reactive protein and aortic vasculopathic lesions. Atorvastatin attenuated these arsenic-mediated functional, biochemical and structural alterations. Results show that atorvastatin has the potential to ameliorate arsenic-induced vascular dysfunction and inflammation by restoring endothelial function with improvement in NO signaling and attenuating production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cell adhesion molecules. - Highlights: • We evaluated if atorvastatin reduce arsenic

  1. Abnormal sinoatrial node development resulting from disturbed vascular endothelial growth factor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calkoen, Emmeline E.; Vicente-Steijn, Rebecca; Hahurij, Nathan D.; van Munsteren, Conny J.; Roest, Arno A. W.; Deruiter, Marco C.; Steendijk, Paul; Schalij, Martin J.; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C.; Blom, Nico A.; Jongbloed, Monique R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sinus node dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Variants in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF) pathway are associated with CHD. In Vegf(120/120) mice, over-expressing VEGF(120), a reduced sinoatrial node (SAN) volume was

  2. Ucma/GRP inhibits phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification via SMAD-dependent BMP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Brecht A; Furmanik, Malgorzata; Caron, Marjolein M J; Chatrou, Martijn L L; Kusters, Dennis H M; Welting, Tim J M; Stock, Michael; Rafael, Marta S; Viegas, Carla S B; Simes, Dina C; Vermeer, Cees; Reutelingsperger, Chris P M; Schurgers, Leon J

    2018-03-21

    Vascular calcification (VC) is the process of deposition of calcium phosphate crystals in the blood vessel wall, with a central role for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VC is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and thought, in part, to be induced by phosphate imbalance. The molecular mechanisms that regulate VC are not fully known. Here we propose a novel role for the mineralisation regulator Ucma/GRP (Upper zone of growth plate and Cartilage Matrix Associated protein/Gla Rich Protein) in phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. We show that Ucma/GRP is present in calcified atherosclerotic plaques and highly expressed in calcifying VSMCs in vitro. VSMCs from Ucma/GRP -/- mice showed increased mineralisation and expression of osteo/chondrogenic markers (BMP-2, Runx2, β-catenin, p-SMAD1/5/8, ALP, OCN), and decreased expression of mineralisation inhibitor MGP, suggesting that Ucma/GRP is an inhibitor of mineralisation. Using BMP signalling inhibitor noggin and SMAD1/5/8 signalling inhibitor dorsomorphin we showed that Ucma/GRP is involved in inhibiting the BMP-2-SMAD1/5/8 osteo/chondrogenic signalling pathway in VSMCs treated with elevated phosphate concentrations. Additionally, we showed for the first time evidence of a direct interaction between Ucma/GRP and BMP-2. These results demonstrate an important role of Ucma/GRP in regulating osteo/chondrogenic differentiation and phosphate-induced mineralisation of VSMCs.

  3. Table-moving contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Evaluation of imaging methods and its vascular signal characters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanuma, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hirata, Hisashi; Kozawa, Eito; Enomoto, Kyoko; Watabe, Tsuneya; Heshiki, Atsuko [Saitama Medical School, Moroyama (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Signal characteristics of table-moving contrast enhanced MR angiography (MRA) were analyzed in 31 consecutive patients. Imaging was performed at four different stations continuously before and after Gd-DTPA infusion and subtracted MRA were processed. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the main arteries was measured at 11 different points and their distribution pattern was compared relative to its position and dose of Gd-DTPA. Degree of arterial and venous demonstration was also scored by two radiologists. Arterial signal in the proximal stations showed significantly higher value than that in distal stations. In a single station, the proximal part of arterial main stem also had higher signal value than did distal part. The signal difference was largest in the proximal station. Although higher dose of contrast medium provided higher vascular signal, image quality was also clinically acceptable in the nearly single dose (0.10-0.15 mmol/kg). By optimizing imaging parameters, high quality whole-body MRA was possible even with single dose of contrast medium. (author)

  4. The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-08-18

    VEGFs (vascular endothelial growth factors) are a family of conserved disulfide-linked soluble secretory glycoproteins found in higher eukaryotes. VEGFs mediate a wide range of responses in different tissues including metabolic homoeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis. Such responses are initiated by VEGF binding to soluble and membrane-bound VEGFRs (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases) and co-receptors. VEGF and receptor splice isoform diversity further enhances complexity of membrane protein assembly and function in signal transduction pathways that control multiple cellular responses. Different signal transduction pathways are simultaneously activated by VEGFR-VEGF complexes with membrane trafficking along the endosome-lysosome network further modulating signal output from multiple enzymatic events associated with such pathways. Balancing VEGFR-VEGF signal transduction with trafficking and proteolysis is essential in controlling the intensity and duration of different intracellular signalling events. Dysfunction in VEGF-regulated signal transduction is important in chronic disease states including cancer, atherosclerosis and blindness. This family of growth factors and receptors is an important model system for understanding human disease pathology and developing new therapeutics for treating such ailments. © 2015 Authors.

  5. Apoptotic Bodies: Selective Detection in Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul; Wang, Sha; Didenko, Vladimir V

    2017-01-01

    Normal and dying cells release various types of membrane-bound vesicles including microvesicles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies. These vesicles play important roles in intercellular communication and signal transduction. However, their diverse forms and subtypes fluctuate in size and other properties. In result current purification approaches do not fully discriminate between different categories of extracellular vesicles. Here, we present a fluorescence technique that specifically identifies apoptotic bodies in preparations of microvesicles, exosomes, and other extracellular vesicles.The approach exclusively labels the vesicles that contain DNA with 5'PO 4 blunt-ended DNA breaks, such as those produced by the apoptotic CAD nuclease during apoptotic DNA degradation. The technique can be useful in studies of apoptosis involving microvesicles and exosomes.

  6. c-Met Overexpression Contributes to the Acquired Apoptotic Resistance of Nonadherent Ovarian Cancer Cells through a Cross Talk Mediated by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie K.S. Tang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer mainly because of widespread peritoneal dissemination and malignant ascites. Key to this is the capacity of tumor cells to escape suspension-induced apoptosis (anoikis, which also underlies their resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we used a nonadherent cell culture model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of apoptotic resistance of ovarian cancer cells that may mimic the chemoresistance found in solid tumors. We found that ovarian cancer cells acquired a remarkable resistance to anoikis and apoptosis induced by exposure to clinically relevant doses of two front-line chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin and paclitaxel when grown in three-dimensional than monolayer cultures. Inhibition of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF receptor c-Met, which is frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer, by a specific inhibitor or small interfering RNA blocked the acquired anoikis resistance and restored chemosensitivity in three-dimensional not in two-dimensional cultures. These effects were found to be dependent on both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2 signaling pathways. Inhibitors of PI3K/Akt abrogated ERK1/2 activation and its associated anoikis resistance in response to HGF, suggesting a signaling relay between these two pathways. Furthermore, we identified a central role of Ras as a mechanism of this cross talk. Interestingly, Ras did not lie upstream of PI3K/Akt, whereas PI3K/Akt signaling to ERK1/2 involved Ras. These findings shed new light on the apoptotic resistance mechanism of nonadherent ovarian cancer ascites cells and may have important clinical implications.

  7. Pro-contractile action of the Na,K-ATPase/Src-kinase signaling pathway in the vascular wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Aalkjær, Christian; Matchkov, Vladimir

    Aim: Na,K-ATPase is essential for maintaining the transmembrane ion gradient and might initiate various intracellular signaling. These signals possibly act through a modification of the local ion concentrations or via Src-kinase activation. It is known that inhibition of the α-2 isoform of Na...... of ouabain. Here we demonstrate results of our research on the mechanisms involved in the modulation of vascular wall contractility by ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase. Methods: The experiments were performed using rat mesenteric arteries in isometric myograph conditions. To inhibit kinase activity a Src......-family selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, PP2, and pNaKtide - a membrane-permeable small peptide which antagonizes ouabain-induced activation of Src-kinase were used. Results: The pro-contractile action of ouabain is associated with activation of Src. This is supported by Western blot analyses showing activation...

  8. T-type Ca2+channels elicit pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic responses through impaired PP2A/Akt1 signaling in PASMCs from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhe, Safietou; Manousakidi, Sevasti; Antigny, Fabrice; Arthur Ataam, Jennifer; Bentebbal, Sana; Ruchon, Yann; Lecerf, Florence; Sabourin, Jessica; Price, Laura; Fadel, Elie; Dorfmüller, Peter; Eddahibi, Saadia; Humbert, Marc; Perros, Frédéric; Capuano, Véronique

    2017-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH) is characterized by obstructive hyperproliferation and apoptosis resistance of distal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). T-type Ca 2+ channel blockers have been shown to reduce experimental pulmonary hypertension, although the impact of T-type channel inhibition remains unexplored in PASMCs from iPAH patients. Here we show that T-type channels Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 are present in the lung and PASMCs from iPAH patients and control subjects. The blockade of T-type channels by the specific blocker, TTA-A2, prevents cell cycle progression and PASMCs growth. In iPAH cells, T-type channel signaling fails to activate phosphatase PP2A, leading to an increase in ERK1/2, P38 activation. Moreover, T-type channel signaling is redirected towards the activation of the kinase Akt1, leading to increased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin, and a decrease in the pro-apoptotic mediator FoxO3A. Finally, in iPAH cells, Akt1 is no longer able to regulate caspase 9 activation, whereas T-type channel overexpression reverses PP2A defect in iPAH cells but reinforces the deleterious effects of Akt1 activation. Altogether, these data highlight T-type channel signaling as a strong trigger of the pathological phenotype of PASMCs from iPAH patients (hyper-proliferation/cells survival and apoptosis resistance), suggesting that both T-type channels and PP2A may be promising therapeutic targets for pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Integration of Electrical Signals Originating in the Root of Vascular Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Canales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have developed different signaling systems allowing for the integration of environmental cues to coordinate molecular processes associated to both early development and the physiology of the adult plant. Research on systemic signaling in plants has traditionally focused on the role of phytohormones as long-distance signaling molecules, and more recently the importance of peptides and miRNAs in building up this communication process has also been described. However, it is well-known that plants have the ability to generate different types of long-range electrical signals in response to different stimuli such as light, temperature variations, wounding, salt stress, or gravitropic stimulation. Presently, it is unclear whether short or long-distance electrical communication in plants is linked to nutrient uptake. This review deals with aspects of sensory input in plant roots and the propagation of discrete signals to the plant body. We discuss the physiological role of electrical signaling in nutrient uptake and how nutrient variations may become an electrical signal propagating along the plant.

  10. Embryonic vascular disruption adverse outcomes: Linking high-throughput signaling signatures with functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Settivari, Raja S; McCoy, Alene T; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Franzosa, Jill; Knudsen, Thomas B; Carney, Edward W

    2017-04-13

    Embryonic vascular disruption is an important adverse outcome pathway (AOP) as chemical disruption of cardiovascular development induces broad prenatal defects. High-throughput screening (HTS) assays aid AOP development although linking in vitro data to in vivo apical endpoints remains challenging. This study evaluated two anti-angiogenic agents, 5HPP-33 and TNP-470, across the ToxCastDB HTS assay platform and anchored the results to complex in vitro functional assays: the rat aortic explant assay (AEA), rat whole embryo culture (WEC), and the zebrafish embryotoxicity (ZET) assay. Both were identified as putative vascular disruptive compounds (pVDCs) in ToxCastDB and disrupted angiogenesis and embryogenesis in the functional assays. Differences were observed in potency and adverse effects: 5HPP-33 was embryolethal (WEC and ZET); TNP-470 produced caudal defects at lower concentrations. This study demonstrates how a tiered approach using HTS signatures and complex functional in vitro assays might be used to prioritize further in vivo developmental toxicity testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Camel milk triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines through transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  12. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2 and human breast (MCF7 cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  13. Triggering Apoptotic Death of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes by Malic Acid: Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress- and Mitochondria-Dependent Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Hsiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malic acid (MA has been commonly used in cosmetic products, but the safety reports in skin are sparse. To investigate the biological effects of MA in human skin keratinocytes, we investigated the potential cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of MA in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT. The data showed that MA induced apoptosis based on the observations of DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation, and sub-G1 phase in HaCaT cells and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs. Flow cytometric assays also showed that MA increased the production of mitochondrial superoxide (mito-SOX but decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Analysis of bioenergetics function with the XF 24 analyzer Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer demonstrated that oxygen consumption rate (OCR was significantly decreased whereas extracellular acidification rate (ECAR was increased in MA-treated keratinocytes. The occurrence of apoptosis was proved by the increased expressions of FasL, Fas, Bax, Bid, caspases-3, -8, -9, cytochrome c, and the declined expressions of Bcl-2, PARP. MA also induced endoplasmic reticulum stress associated protein expression such as GRP78, GADD153, and ATF6α. We demonstrated that MA had anti-proliferative effect in HaCaT cell through the inhibition of cell cycle progression at G0/G1, and the induction of programmed cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress- and mitochondria-dependent pathways.

  14. TRAIL induces pro-apoptotic crosstalk between the TRAIL-receptor signaling pathway and TrkAIII in SH-SY5Y cells, unveiling a potential therapeutic "Achilles heel" for the TrkAIII oncoprotein in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gneo, Luciana; Ruggeri, Pierdomenico; Cappabianca, Lucia; Farina, Antonietta Rosella; Di Ianni, Natalia; Mackay, Andrew Reay

    2016-12-06

    TrkAIII expression in neuroblastoma (NB) associates with advanced stage disease, worse prognosis, post therapeutic relapse, and in NB models TrkAIII exhibits oncogenic activity and promotes chemotherapeutic-resistance. Here, we report a potential therapeutic "Achilles heel" for the TrkAIII oncoprotein in a SH-SY5Y NB model that is characterised by one-way TRAIL-induced, pro-apoptotic crosstalk between the TRAIL receptor signaling pathway and TrkAIII that results in the delayed induction of apoptosis. In TrkAIII SH-SY5Y cells, blocked in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway by elevated constitutive Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 expression, TRAIL induced delayed caspase-dependent apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway and completely abrogated tumourigenic capacity in vitro. This effect was initiated by TRAIL-induced SHP-dependent c-Src activation, the induction of TrkAIII/SHP-1/c-Src complexing leading to SHP-mediated TrkAIII de-phosphorylation, subsequent induction of complexing between de-phosphorylated TrkAIII and cFLIP associated with a time-dependent increase the caspase-8 to cFLIP ratio at activated death receptors, resulting in delayed caspase cleavage and caspase-dependent apoptosis. We also confirm rate-limiting roles for c-FLIP and Mcl-1 in regulating the sensitivity of TrkAIII SH-SY5Y cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, respectively. Our study unveils a novel mechanism for the TRAIL-induced apoptosis of TrkAIII expressing NB cells that depends upon SHP/Src-mediated crosstalk between the TRAIL-receptor signaling pathway and TrkAIII, and supports a novel potential pro-apoptotic therapeutic use for TRAIL in TrkAIII expressing NB.

  15. Angiotensin II–dependent TGF-β signaling contributes to Loeys-Dietz syndrome vascular pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Elena M.; Loch, David C.; Habashi, Jennifer P.; Calderon, Juan F.; Chen, Yichun; Bedja, Djahida; van Erp, Christel; Gerber, Elizabeth E.; Parker, Sarah J.; Sauls, Kimberly; Judge, Daniel P.; Cooke, Sara K.; Lindsay, Mark E.; Rouf, Rosanne; Myers, Loretha; ap Rhys, Colette M.; Kent, Kathleen C.; Norris, Russell A.; Huso, David L.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2013-01-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder that is characterized by a high risk for aneurysm and dissection throughout the arterial tree and phenotypically resembles Marfan syndrome. LDS is caused by heterozygous missense mutations in either TGF-β receptor gene (TGFBR1 or TGFBR2), which are predicted to result in diminished TGF-β signaling; however, aortic surgical samples from patients show evidence of paradoxically increased TGF-β signaling. We generated 2 knockin mouse strains with LDS mutations in either Tgfbr1 or Tgfbr2 and a transgenic mouse overexpressing mutant Tgfbr2. Knockin and transgenic mice, but not haploinsufficient animals, recapitulated the LDS phenotype. While heterozygous mutant cells had diminished signaling in response to exogenous TGF-β in vitro, they maintained normal levels of Smad2 phosphorylation under steady-state culture conditions, suggesting a chronic compensation. Analysis of TGF-β signaling in the aortic wall in vivo revealed progressive upregulation of Smad2 phosphorylation and TGF-β target gene output, which paralleled worsening of aneurysm pathology and coincided with upregulation of TGF-β1 ligand expression. Importantly, suppression of Smad2 phosphorylation and TGF-β1 expression correlated with the therapeutic efficacy of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist losartan. Together, these data suggest that increased TGF-β signaling contributes to postnatal aneurysm progression in LDS. PMID:24355923

  16. Apoptotic signaling pathways induced by acute administration of branched-chain amino acids in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Thais C; Scaini, Giselli; Furlanetto, Camila B; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Santos, João Paulo A; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, José Cláudio F; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

    2017-02-01

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity. This blockage leads to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, as well as their corresponding α-keto acids and α-hydroxy acids. The affected patients present severe neurological symptoms, such as coma and seizures, as well as edema and cerebral atrophy. Considering that the mechanisms of the neurological symptoms presented by MSUD patients are still poorly understood, in this study, protein levels of apoptotic factors are measured, such as Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, caspase-3 and -8 in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats submitted to acute administration of branched-chain amino acids during their development. The results in this study demonstrated that BCAA acute exposure during the early postnatal period did not significantly change Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax and caspase-8 protein levels. However, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and procaspase-3 protein levels were decreased in hippocampus. On the other hand, acute administration of BCAA in 30-day-old rats increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio followed by an increased caspase-3 activity in cerebral cortex, whereas BCAA induces apoptosis in hippocampus through activation and cleavage of caspase-3 and -8 without changing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, the results suggest that apoptosis could be of pivotal importance in the developmental neurotoxic effects of BCAA. In addition, the current studies also suggest that multiple mechanisms may be involved in BCAA-induced apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

  17. Hedgehog signaling mediates woven bone formation and vascularization during stress fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; McKenzie, Jennifer A; Shen, Tony S; Long, Fanxin; Silva, Matthew J

    2015-12-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is critical in developmental osteogenesis, and recent studies suggest it may also play a role in regulating osteogenic gene expression in the post-natal setting. However, there is a void of studies directly assessing the effect of Hh inhibition on post-natal osteogenesis. This study utilized a cyclic loading-induced ulnar stress fracture model to evaluate the hypothesis that Hh signaling contributes to osteogenesis and angiogenesis during stress fracture healing. Immediately prior to loading, adult rats were given GDC-0449 (Vismodegib - a selective Hh pathway inhibitor; 50mg/kg orally twice daily), or vehicle. Hh signaling was upregulated in response to stress fracture at 3 days (Ptch1, Gli1 expression), and was markedly inhibited by GDC-0449 at 1 day and 3 days in the loaded and non-loaded ulnae. GDC-0449 did not affect Hh ligand expression (Shh, Ihh, Dhh) at 1 day, but decreased Shh expression by 37% at 3 days. GDC-0449 decreased woven bone volume (-37%) and mineral density (-17%) at 7 days. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed that the 7 day callus was composed predominantly of woven bone in both groups. The observed reduction in woven bone occurred concomitantly with decreased expression of Alpl and Ibsp, but was not associated with differences in early cellular proliferation (as determined by callus PCNA staining at 3 days), osteoblastic differentiation (Osx expression at 1 day and 3 days), chondrogenic gene expression (Acan, Sox9, and Col2α1 expression at 1 day and 3 days), or bone resorption metrics (callus TRAP staining at 3 days, Rankl and Opg expression at 1 day and 3 days). To evaluate angiogenesis, vWF immunohistochemistry showed that GDC-0449 reduced fracture callus blood vessel density by 55% at 3 days, which was associated with increased Hif1α gene expression (+30%). Dynamic histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that GDC-0449 also inhibited lamellar bone formation. Lamellar bone analysis of the loaded limb (directly adjacent

  18. Isorhynchophylline, a Potent Plant Alkaloid, Induces Apoptotic and Anti-Metastatic Effects in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells through the Modulation of Diverse Cell Signaling Cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwool Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Isorhynchophylline (Rhy is an active pharmacological component of Uncaria rhynchophylla that has been reported previously to exert significant antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects. However, very little is known about its potential anti-cancer activities. This study was carried out to evaluate the anticancer effects of Rhy against various human carcinoma cell lines. We found that Rhy exhibited substantial cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells when compared with other human carcinoma cell lines including those of lung, pancreas, prostate, head and neck, breast, multiple myeloma, brain and renal cell carcinoma. Rhy induced apoptosis as characterized by accumulation of cells in sub G1 phase; positive Annexin V binding; activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3; and cleavage of PARP (poly-ADP ribose polymerase. This effect of Rhy correlated with the down-regulation of various proteins that mediated cell proliferation, cell survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Moreover, cell proliferation, migration, and constitutive CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4, MMP-9 (Matrix metallopeptidase-9, and MMP-2 expression were inhibited upon Rhy treatment. We further investigated the effect of Rhy on the oncogenic cell signaling cascades through phospho-kinase array profiling assay. Rhy was found to abrogate phospho-p38, ERK, JNK, CREB, c-Jun, Akt, and STAT3 signals, but interestingly enhanced phospho-p53 signal. Overall, our results indicate, for the first time, that Rhy could exert anticancer and anti-metastatic effects through regulation of multiple signaling cascades in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

  19. Effect of activation of canonical Wnt signaling by the Wnt-3a protein on the susceptibility of PC12 cells to oxidative and apoptotic insults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, E.M.; Gleichmann, M.; Yshii, L.M.; Sá Lima, L. de; Mattson, M.P.; Scavone, C.

    2011-01-01

    Wnt proteins are involved in tissue development and their signaling pathways play an important role during embryogenesis. Wnt signaling can promote cell survival, which is beneficial for neurons, but could also lead to tumor development in different tissues. The present study investigated the effects of a Wnt protein on the susceptibility of a neural tumor cell line (PC12 cells) to the cytotoxic compounds ferrous sulfate (10 mM), staurosporine (100 and 500 nM), 3-nitropropionic acid (5 mM), and amyloid β-peptide (Aβ 25-35 ; 50 µM). Cells (1 × 10 6 cells/mL) were treated with the Wnt-3a recombinant peptide (200 ng/mL) for 24 h before exposure to toxic insults. The Wnt-3a protein partially protected PC12 cells, with a 6-15% increase in cell viability in the presence of toxic agents, similar to the effect measured using the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase cell viability assays. The Wnt-3a protein increased protein expression of β-catenin by 52% compared to control. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling can protect neural cells against apoptosis induced by toxic agents, which are relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases

  20. Effect of activation of canonical Wnt signaling by the Wnt-3a protein on the susceptibility of PC12 cells to oxidative and apoptotic insults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Kawamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wnt proteins are involved in tissue development and their signaling pathways play an important role during embryogenesis. Wnt signaling can promote cell survival, which is beneficial for neurons, but could also lead to tumor development in different tissues. The present study investigated the effects of a Wnt protein on the susceptibility of a neural tumor cell line (PC12 cells to the cytotoxic compounds ferrous sulfate (10 mM, staurosporine (100 and 500 nM, 3-nitropropionic acid (5 mM, and amyloid β-peptide (Aβ25-35; 50 µM. Cells (1 x 10(6 cells/mL were treated with the Wnt-3a recombinant peptide (200 ng/mL for 24 h before exposure to toxic insults. The Wnt-3a protein partially protected PC12 cells, with a 6-15% increase in cell viability in the presence of toxic agents, similar to the effect measured using the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase cell viability assays. The Wnt-3a protein increased protein expression of β-catenin by 52% compared to control. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling can protect neural cells against apoptosis induced by toxic agents, which are relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases.

  1. Arctigenin, a Natural Lignan Compound, Induces Apoptotic Death of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Suppression of PI3-K/Akt Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoxin; Zeng, Leping; Huang, Jufang; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Yubin

    2015-04-28

    In this study, we explored the cytotoxic effects of arctigenin, a natural lignan compound, on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and check the involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt signaling. HCC cells were treated with different concentrations of arctigenin and cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. Manipulating Akt signaling was used to determine its role in the action of arctigenin. Arctigenin significantly inhibited the viability of HCC cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Arctigenin induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-9 and -3. Overexpression of a constitutively active Akt mutant blocked arctigenin-induced apoptosis. Combinational treatment with arctigenin and the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 significantly enhanced apoptosis. Arctigenin reduced the expression of Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, and survivin and the phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K, which were significantly reversed by overexpression of constitutively active Akt. This is the first report about the anticancer activity of arctigenin in HCC cells, which is mediated by inactivation of PI3-K/Akt signaling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of activation of canonical Wnt signaling by the Wnt-3a protein on the susceptibility of PC12 cells to oxidative and apoptotic insults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, E.M. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gleichmann, M. [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD (United States); Yshii, L.M.; Sá Lima, L. de [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mattson, M.P. [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD (United States); Scavone, C. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-25

    Wnt proteins are involved in tissue development and their signaling pathways play an important role during embryogenesis. Wnt signaling can promote cell survival, which is beneficial for neurons, but could also lead to tumor development in different tissues. The present study investigated the effects of a Wnt protein on the susceptibility of a neural tumor cell line (PC12 cells) to the cytotoxic compounds ferrous sulfate (10 mM), staurosporine (100 and 500 nM), 3-nitropropionic acid (5 mM), and amyloid β-peptide (Aβ{sub 25-35}; 50 µM). Cells (1 × 10{sup 6} cells/mL) were treated with the Wnt-3a recombinant peptide (200 ng/mL) for 24 h before exposure to toxic insults. The Wnt-3a protein partially protected PC12 cells, with a 6-15% increase in cell viability in the presence of toxic agents, similar to the effect measured using the MTT and lactate dehydrogenase cell viability assays. The Wnt-3a protein increased protein expression of β-catenin by 52% compared to control. These findings suggest that Wnt signaling can protect neural cells against apoptosis induced by toxic agents, which are relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases.

  3. Intracellular NAMPT-NAD+-SIRT1 cascade improves post-ischaemic vascular repair by modulating Notch signalling in endothelial progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Du, Hui; Zhou, Can-Can; Song, Jie; Liu, Xingguang; Cao, Xuetao; Mehta, Jawahar L; Shi, Yi; Su, Ding-Feng; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis. This study investigated the role of NAMPT-mediated NAD(+) signalling in post-ischaemic vascular repair. Mouse hind-limb ischaemia up-regulated NAMPT expression and NAD(+) level in bone marrow (BM). Pharmacological inhibition of NAMPT by a chemical inhibitor FK866 impaired the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from BM upon ischaemic stress. Transgenic mice overexpressing NAMPT (Tg mice), but not H247A-mutant dominant-negative NAMPT (DN-Tg mice), exhibited enhanced capillary density, increased number of proliferating endothelial cells, improved blood flow recovery, and augmented collateral arterioles in the ischaemic limb. In cultured BM-derived EPCs, inhibition of NAMPT suppressed proliferation, migration, and tube formation, whereas overexpression of NAMPT induced opposite effects. The promoting effects of NAMPT on EPCs were abolished by silencing of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), rather than silencing of SIRT2-7. Overexpression of NAMPT led to a SIRT1-depedent enhancement of Notch-1 intracellular domain deacetylation, which inhibited Delta-like ligand-4 (DLL4)-Notch signalling and thereby up-regulated of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Injection of recombinant VEGF induced a more pronounced EPC mobilization in Tg, but not in DN-Tg, mice. Furthermore, overexpression of NAMPT down-regulated Fringe family glycosyltransferases in a SIRT1-dependent manner, which rendered Notch more sensitive to the pro-angiogenic ligand Jagged1 rather than the anti-angiogenic ligand DLL4. These results demonstrate that intracellular NAMPT-NAD(+)-SIRT1 cascade improves post-ischaemic neovascularization. The modulation of Notch signalling may contribute to the enhanced post-ischaemic neovascularization. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling facilitates liver repair from acute ethanol-induced injury in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwen Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease (ALD results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 h induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. Although inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ameliorated hepatic steatosis and attenuated hepatic angiogenesis that accelerated after the ethanol treatment. qPCR showed that hepatic stellate cells are the first liver cell type to increase the expression of VEGF ligand and receptor genes in response to ethanol exposure. Both hepatic stellate cells and endothelial cells, but not hepatic parenchymal cells, expressed kdrl upon ethanol exposure and were likely the direct targets of Kdrl inhibition. Ethanol-induced steatosis and fibrogenesis still occurred in cloche mutants that have hepatic stellate cells but lack hepatic endothelial cells, and Kdrl inhibition suppressed both phenotypes in the mutants. These results suggest that VEGF signaling mediates interactions between activated hepatic stellate cells and hepatocytes that lead to steatosis. Our study demonstrates the involvement of VEGF signaling in regulating sustained liver injuries after acute alcohol exposure. It also provides a proof of principle of using the

  5. Chemical composition of total flavonoids from Polygonum amplexicaule and their pro-apoptotic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma cells: Potential roles of suppressing STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Hong, Zongguo; Yang, Tianming; Shu, Guangwen

    2015-06-01

    Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (P. amplexicaule) is a medical plant traditionally used in the treatment of malignant diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the scientific basis underlying its anti-HCC activity remains poorly understood. Here, we explored the chemical profile of total flavonoids from P. amplexicaule (TFPA). Nine compounds that constituted the major components of TFPA were separated and identified. Further investigations revealed that TFPA dose-dependently induced HepG2, Huh-7 and H22 HCC cell apoptosis. In HCC cells, TFPA dramatically inhibited the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In addition, TFPA increased the expression of SHP-1, a protein tyrosine phosphatase catalyzing STAT3 dephosphorylation, in HCC cells. Animal studies showed that TFPA considerably provoked transplanted H22 cell apoptosis with undetectable toxicological effects on tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, TFPA dose-dependently inhibited transcriptional activity of STAT3 in transplanted tumor tissues. This study collectively demonstrated that TFPA has the capacity of inducing HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo with low toxic effects on normal hepatocytes and vital organs of tumor-bearing mice. Suppressing STAT3 signaling is implicated in TFPA-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Osteoprotegerin inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cell via down regulation of the Notch1-RBP-Jκ/Msx2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaoqiong; Fang, Xin; Fang, Xing; Xin, Huaping; Li, Wei; Qiu, Hongyu; Guan, Siming

    2013-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a common pathobiological process which occurs among the elder population and in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Osteoprotegerin, a secreted glycoprotein that regulates bone mass, has recently emerged as an important regulator of the development of vascular calcification. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. The purpose of this study is to explore novel signaling mechanisms of osteoprotegerin in the osteoblastic differentiation in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMCs were isolated from thoracic aorta of Sprague Dawley rats. Osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs was induced by an osteogenic medium. We confirmed by Von Kossa staining and direct cellular calcium measurement that mineralization was significantly increased in VSMCs cultured in osteogenic medium; consistent with an enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity. This osteoblastic differentiation in VSMCs was significantly reduced by the addition of osteoprotegerin in a dose responsive manner. Moreover, we identified, by real-time qPCR and western blotting, that expression of Notch1 and RBP-Jκ were significantly up-regulated in VSMCs cultured in osteogenic medium at both the mRNA and protein levels, these effects were dose-dependently abolished by the treatment of osteoprotegerin. Furthermore, we identified that Msx2, a downstream target of the Notch1/RBP-Jκ signaling, was markedly down-regulated by the treatment of osteoprotegerin. Osteoprotegerin inhibits vascular calcification through the down regulation of the Notch1-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway.

  7. TRAF6 inhibits proangiogenic signals in endothelial cells and regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, Sarah; Datta, Dipak; Flaxenburg, Jesse A.; Pal, Soumitro [Transplantation Research Center, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Briscoe, David M., E-mail: david.briscoe@childrens.harvard.edu [Transplantation Research Center, Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Children' s Hospital Boston, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-receptor associated factors (TRAFs) function in the angiogenesis response. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 regulates basal and inducible expression of VEGF in endothelial cells (EC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 is an endogenous inhibitor of EC proliferation and migration in EC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 inhibits VEGF expression in part via its ability to regulate Src signaling. -- Abstract: TNF-family molecules induce the expression Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in endothelial cells (EC) and elicit signaling responses that result in angiogenesis. However, the role of TNF-receptor associated factors (TRAFs) as upstream regulators of VEGF expression or as mediators of angiogenesis is not known. In this study, HUVEC were cotransfected with a full-length VEGF promoter-luciferase construct and siRNAs to TRAF 1, -2, -3, -5, -6, and promoter activity was measured. Paradoxically, rather than inhibiting VEGF expression, we found that knockdown of TRAF6 resulted in a 4-6-fold increase in basal VEGF promoter activity compared to control siRNA-transfected EC (P < 0.0001). In addition, knockdown of TRAF 1, -2, -3 or -5 resulted in a slight increase or no change in VEGF promoter activation. Using [{sup 3}H]thymidine incorporation assays as well as the in vitro wound healing assay, we also found that basal rates of EC proliferation and migration were increased following TRAF6 knockdown; and this response was inhibited by the addition of a blocking anti-VEGF antibody into cell cultures. Using a limited protein array to gain insight into TRAF6-dependent intermediary signaling responses, we observed that TRAF6 knockdown resulted in an increase in the activity of Src family kinases. In addition, we found that treatment with AZD-0530, a pharmacological Src inhibitor, reduced the regulatory effect of TRAF6 knockdown on VEGF promoter activity. Collectively, these findings define a novel pro-angiogenic signaling

  8. Isoproterenol induces vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction via a Giα-coupled β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathway.

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    Ana P Davel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sustained β-adrenergic stimulation is a hallmark of sympathetic hyperactivity in cardiovascular diseases. It is associated with oxidative stress and altered vasoconstrictor tone. This study investigated the β-adrenoceptor subtype and the signaling pathways implicated in the vascular effects of β-adrenoceptor overactivation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice lacking the β1- or β2-adrenoceptor subtype (β1KO, β2KO and wild-type (WT were treated with isoproterenol (ISO, 15 μg.g(-1 x day(-1, 7 days. ISO significantly enhanced the maximal vasoconstrictor response (Emax of the aorta to phenylephrine in WT (+34% and β1KO mice (+35% but not in β2KO mice. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor L-NAME abolished the differences in phenylephrine response between the groups, suggesting that ISO impaired basal NO availability in the aorta of WT and β1KO mice. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, pertussis toxin (PTx or PD 98,059 (p-ERK 1/2 inhibitor incubation reversed the hypercontractility of aortic rings from ISO-treated WT mice; aortic contraction of ISO-treated β2KO mice was not altered. Immunoblotting revealed increased aortic expression of Giα-3 protein (+50% and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (+90% and decreased eNOS dimer/monomer ratio in ISO-treated WT mice. ISO enhanced the fluorescence response to dihydroethidium (+100% in aortas from WT mice, indicating oxidative stress that was normalized by SOD, PTx and L-NAME. The ISO effects were abolished in β2KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: The β2-adrenoceptor/Giα signaling pathway is implicated in the enhanced vasoconstrictor response and eNOS uncoupling-mediated oxidative stress due to ISO treatment. Thus, long-term β2-AR activation might results in endothelial dysfunction.

  9. Oxidant-redox regulation of pulmonary vascular responses to hypoxia and nitric oxide-cGMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, Michael S; Gupte, Sachin A; Neo, Boon Hwa; Gao, Qun; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2010-01-01

    Most current theories for the mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) include a role for reactive oxygen species and/or changes in redox regulation, but extreme controversy exists regarding which systems and redox changes mediate the HPV response. Nitric oxide (NO) appears to help to maintain low pulmonary arterial pressure, suppress HPV, and prevent the development of pulmonary hypertension. Our studies have found a key role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in bovine pulmonary arterial smooth muscle functioning to maintain elevated levels of cytosolic NADPH which fuels the generation of vasodilator levels of hydrogen peroxide. HPV results from hypoxia removing vasodilation by peroxide. Decreased superoxide generation by Nox4 oxidase and its conversion to peroxide by Cu,Zn-SOD appear to be potential factors in sensing hypoxia, and decreased cGMP-associated vasodilation and removal of redox controlled vasodilator mechanisms by increased cytosolic NADPH may be key coordinators of the HPV response. Oxidant generation associated with vascular disease processes, including the removal of NO by superoxide, and attenuation of its ability to stimulate cGMP production by oxidation of the heme and thiols of soluble guanylate cyclase attenuate potential beneficial actions of NO on pulmonary arterial function. While pulmonary hypertension appears to have multiple poorly understood effects on redox-associated processes, potentially influencing responses to hypoxia and NO-cGMP signaling, much remains to be elucidated regarding how these processes may be important factors in the progression, expression and therapeutic treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  10. MiR-21 inhibits c-Ski signaling to promote the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Li; He, Xie; Yang, Ting; Yang, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we reported that the decrease of endogenous c-Ski expression is implicated in the progression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation after arterial injury. However, the molecular mechanism of the down-regulation of c-Ski is not clear. In this study, a potential miR-21 recognition element was identified in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of rat c-Ski mRNA. A reporter assay revealed that miR-21 could recognize the miR-21 recognition element of c-Ski mRNA. In A10 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, overexpression of miR-21 significantly inhibited the expression of c-Ski protein and promoted cell proliferation, which could be blocked by inhibition of miR-21 or overexpression of c-Ski. Further investigation demonstrated that the effect of miR-21 on VSMC proliferation resulted from negative regulation of c-Ski to suppress p38-p21/p27 signaling, the downstream pathway of c-Ski in VSMCs. These results indicate that c-Ski is a target gene of miR-21. miR-21 specifically binds to the 3'-untranslated region of c-Ski and negatively regulates c-Ski expression to diminish the protective effects of c-Ski and stimulate VSMC proliferation in the progression of arterial injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Intervention of Didang Decoction on MLCK Signaling Pathways in Vascular Endothelial Cells of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

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    Shoujiao Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, type 2 diabetic rat model was established using streptozotocin (STZ combined with a high-fat diet, and the rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were further divided into nonintervening, simvastatin, Didang Decoction (DDD early-phase intervening, DDD mid-phase intervening, and DDD late-phase intervening groups. The expression level of MLCK was detected using Western Blot analysis, and the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, protein kinase C (PKC, and protein kinase A (PKA were examined using Real Time PCR. Under the electron microscope, the cells in the early-DDD-intervention group and the simvastatin group were significantly more continuous and compact than those in the diabetic group. Compared with the control group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was decreased in all diabetic groups, whereas the expression of MLCK and PKC was increased in early- and mid-phase DDD-intervening groups (P<0.05; compared with the late-phase DDD-intervening group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was higher, but the level of MLCK and PKC was lower in early-phase DDD-intervening group (P<0.05. In conclusion, the early use of DDD improves the permeability of vascular endothelial cells by regulating the MLCK signaling pathway.

  12. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

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    Shih-Ping Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  13. Modulation of Ca2+ Signaling by Anti-apoptotic B-Cell Lymphoma 2 Proteins at the Endoplasmic Reticulum–Mitochondrial Interface

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    Tim Vervliet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are important regulators of cell death and cell survival. Mitochondrial Ca2+ levels are critically involved in both of these processes. On the one hand, excessive mitochondrial Ca2+ leads to Ca2+-induced mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and thus apoptosis. On the other hand, mitochondria need Ca2+ in order to efficiently fuel the tricarboxylic acid cycle and maintain adequate mitochondrial bioenergetics. For obtaining this Ca2+, the mitochondria are largely dependent on close contact sites with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, the so-called mitochondria-associated ER membranes. There, the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are responsible for the Ca2+ release from the ER. It comes as no surprise that this Ca2+ release from the ER and the subsequent Ca2+ uptake at the mitochondria are finely regulated. Cancer cells often modulate ER-Ca2+ transfer to the mitochondria in order to promote cell survival and to inhibit cell death. Important regulators of these Ca2+ signals and the onset of cancer are the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 family of proteins. An increasing number of reports highlight the ability of these Bcl-2-protein family members to finely regulate Ca2+ transfer from ER to mitochondria both in healthy cells and in cancer. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the dynamic regulation of ER–mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes by Bcl-2-family members and how this impacts cell survival, cell death and mitochondrial energy production.

  14. Measuring vascular reactivity with resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations: A potential alternative to the breath-holding challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Christen, Thomas; Moseley, Michael E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Wright, Clinton B; Tamura, Manjula K; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide (P a CO 2 ) levels. However, following the proper commands for a breath-holding experiment may be difficult or impossible for many patients. In this study, we evaluated two approaches for obtaining vascular reactivity information using blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data: physiological fluctuation regression and coefficient of variation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. We studied a cohort of 28 older adults (69 ± 7 years) and found that six of them (21%) could not perform the breath-holding protocol, based on an objective comparison with an idealized respiratory waveform. In the subjects that could comply, we found a strong linear correlation between data extracted from spontaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal fluctuations and the blood oxygenation level-dependent percentage signal change during breath-holding challenge ( R 2  = 0.57 and 0.61 for resting-state physiological fluctuation regression and resting-state coefficient of variation methods, respectively). This technique may eliminate the need for subject cooperation, thus allowing the evaluation of vascular reactivity in a wider range of clinical and research conditions in which it may otherwise be impractical.

  15. Andrographolide inhibits nuclear factor-κB activation through JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade in tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Lee, Lin-Wen; Chen, Zhih-Cherng; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism.

  16. Notch 1 and 3 receptor signaling modulates vascular smooth muscle cell growth, apoptosis, and migration via a CBF-1/RBP-Jk dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Catherine; Morrow, David; Birney, Yvonne A; Coyle, Seamus; Hennessy, Colm; Scheller, Agnieszka; Cummins, Philip M; Walls, Dermot; Redmond, Eileen M; Cahill, Paul A

    2004-09-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) fate decisions (cell growth, migration, and apoptosis) are fundamental features in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. We investigated the role of Notch 1 and 3 receptor signaling in controlling adult SMC fate in vitro by establishing that hairy enhancer of split (hes-1 and -5) and related hrt's (hrt-1, -2, and -3) are direct downstream target genes of Notch 1 and 3 receptors in SMC and identified an essential role for nuclear protein CBF-1/RBP-Jk in their regulation. Constitutive expression of active Notch 1 and 3 receptors (Notch IC) resulted in a significant up-regulation of CBF-1/RBP-Jk-dependent promoter activity and Notch target gene expression concomitant with significant increases in SMC growth while concurrently inhibiting SMC apoptosis and migration. Moreover, inhibition of endogenous Notch mediated CBF-1/RBP-Jk regulated gene expression with a non-DNA binding mutant of CBF-1, a Notch IC deleted of its delta RAM domain and the Epstein-Barr virus encoded RPMS-1, in conjunction with pharmacological inhibitors of Notch IC receptor trafficking (brefeldin A and monensin), resulted in a significant decrease in cell growth while concomitantly increasing SMC apoptosis and migration. These findings suggest that endogenous Notch receptors and downstream target genes control vascular cell fate in vitro. Notch signaling, therefore, represents a novel therapeutic target for disease states in which changes in vascular cell fate occur in vivo.

  17. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Augments Arginine Transport and Nitric Oxide Generation via a KDR Receptor Signaling Pathway

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    Moshe Shashar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is an endothelium-specific peptide that stimulates angiogenesis via two receptor tyrosine kinases, Flt-1 and KDR. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS plays a major role in VEGF signaling. Delivery of arginine to membrane bound eNOS by the cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1 has been shown to modulate eNOS activity. The current studies were designed to test the hypothesis that VEGF enhances eNOS activity via modulation of arginine transport by CAT-1. Methods: Using radio-labeled arginine, {[3H] L-arginine} uptake was determined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC following incubation with VEGF with and without silencing the VEGF receptors Flt-1 or KDR. Subsequently, western blotting for CAT-1, PKCα, ERK 1/2, JNK, and their phosphorylated forms were performed. NO generation was measured by the Griess reaction. Results: VEGF (50 and 100 ng/ml significantly augmented endothelial arginine transport in a time dependent manner, an effect which was prevented by Sunitinib (2 µM, a multi targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The increase in arginine transport velocities by VEGF was not affected by silencing Flt-1 while silencing KDR abrogated VEGF effect. Furthermore, incubating cells with 50 and 100 ng of VEGF for 30 minutes significantly augmented CAT-1 abundance. The expression of PKC-α, JNK, and ERK1/2 and their phosphorylated forms were unchanged following incubation of HUVEC with VEGF. The concentration of NO2/NO3 following incubation with VEGF was significantly higher than from untreated cells. This increase was significantly attenuated by silencing KDR. Conclusions: VEGF increases arginine transport via modulation of CAT-1 in endothelial cells. This effect is exclusively dependent on KDR rather than Flt-1.

  18. Role of vascular smooth muscle PPARγ in regulating AT1 receptor signaling and angiotensin II-dependent hypertension.

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    Maria Alicia Carrillo-Sepulveda

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ has been reported to play a protective role in the vasculature; however, the underlying mechanisms involved are not entirely known. We previously showed that vascular smooth muscle-specific overexpression of a dominant negative human PPARγ mutation in mice (S-P467L leads to enhanced myogenic tone and increased angiotensin-II-dependent vasoconstriction. S-P467L mice also exhibit increased arterial blood pressure. Here we tested the hypotheses that a mesenteric smooth muscle cells isolated from S-P467L mice exhibit enhanced angiotensin-II AT1 receptor signaling, and b the increased arterial pressure of S-P467L mice is angiotensin-II AT1 receptor dependent. Phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 was robustly increased in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cell cultures from S-P467L in response to angiotensin-II. The increase in ERK1/2 activation by angiotensin-II was blocked by losartan, a blocker of AT1 receptors. Angiotensin-II-induced ERK1/2 activation was also blocked by Tempol, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, and correlated with increased Nox4 protein expression. To investigate whether endogenous renin-angiotensin system activity contributes to the elevated arterial pressure in S-P467L, non-transgenic and S-P467L mice were treated with the AT1 receptor blocker, losartan (30 mg/kg per day, for 14-days and arterial pressure was assessed by radiotelemetry. At baseline S-P467L mice showed a significant increase of systolic arterial pressure (142.0 ± 10.2 vs 129.1 ± 3.0 mmHg, p<0.05. Treatment with losartan lowered systolic arterial pressure in S-P467L (132.2 ± 6.9 mmHg to a level similar to untreated non-transgenic mice. Losartan also lowered arterial pressure in non-transgenic (113.0 ± 3.9 mmHg mice, such that there was no difference in the losartan-induced depressor response between groups (-13.53 ± 1.39 in S-P467L vs -16.16 ± 3

  19. Ferulic Acid Administered at Various Time Points Protects against Cerebral Infarction by Activating p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 Anti-Apoptotic Signaling in the Subacute Phase of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

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    Chin-Yi Cheng

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ferulic acid (FA administered at various time points before or after 30 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo followed by 7 d of reperfusion and to examine the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in the cortical penumbra.FA was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg 24 h before ischemia (B-FA, 2 h before ischemia (P-FA, immediately after ischemic insult (I-FA, 2 h after reperfusion (R-FA, or 24 h after reperfusion (D-FA.Our study results indicated that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively reduced cerebral infarct areas and neurological deficits. P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA significantly downregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, mitochondrial Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and effectively restored the phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio, phospho-90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p-p90RSK expression, phospho-Bad (p-Bad expression, the phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB/CREB ratio, the cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios, and the cytosolic Bcl-xL/Bax ratio in the cortical penumbra 7 d after reperfusion. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, administered 30 min prior to ischemia abrogated the downregulating effects of I-FA on cerebral infarction, and mitochondrial Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression, and the upregulating effects of I-FA on the p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK ratio, p-p90RSK expression, p-Bad expression, and the p-CREB/CREB, and cytosolic and mitochondrial Bcl-2/Bax ratios.Our study results thus indicate that P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA effectively suppress reactive astrocytosis and exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral infarction by activating p38 MAPK signaling. The regulating effects of P-FA, I-FA, and R-FA on Bax-induced apoptosis result from activation of the p38 MAPK/p90RSK/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway, and eventually contribute to inhibition of the cytochrome c

  20. High Phosphate-Induced Calcification of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells is Associated with the TLR4/NF-κb Signaling Pathway

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    Daohai Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperphosphatemia is one of the most notable features of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have found that high serum phosphate concentrations are associated with calcification in the coronary arteries. However, the mechanisms underlying the vascular calcification induced by high phosphate have not been understood fully. Methods: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs were cultured in high-phosphate media to induce vascular calcification, which was detected by Alizarin red S staining. Gene expression and protein levels of differentiation markers were determined by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. Protein levels of phosphorylated NF-κB and TLR4 were detected by western blotting, and the role of NF-κB/TLR4 was further confirmed by using an NF-κB inhibitor or TLR4 siRNA. Results: Our results showed that high-phosphate media induced obvious calcification of VSMCs. Simultaneously, VSMC differentiation was confirmed by the increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and Runt-related transcription factor 2 and decreased expression of the VSMC-specific marker SM22α, which was accompanied by the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, a significant upregulation of TLR4 and phosphorylated NF-κB was also detected in VSMCs with high-phosphate media. In contrast, VSMC calcification and the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines were markedly attenuated by pretreatment with TLR4 siRNA and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid, an NF-κB inhibitor. Conclusion: These data suggest that high-phosphate conditions directly induce vascular calcification via the activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling in VSMCs. Moreover, inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway might be a key intervention to prevent vascular calcification in patients with CKD.

  1. Function and Mechanism of CNTF/LIF Signaling in Retinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rhee, Kun Do; Yang, Xian-Jie

    2010-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) exhibit multiple biological effects in the developing vertebrate retina. CNTF/LIF inhibits rod photoreceptor, and promotes bipolar cells and Muller glia differentiation. In addition, CNTF/LIF has been shown to have proliferative and apoptotic effects. Moreover, LIF also inhibits retinal vascular development. CNTF/LIF signaling components CNTFRα, LIFRβ, gp130, and a number of STAT proteins are expressed in the retina. CNTF...

  2. Inhibition of Phosphate-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Osteo-/Chondrogenic Signaling and Calcification by Bafilomycin A1 and Methylamine

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    Ioana Alesutan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excessive phosphate concentrations trigger vascular calcification, an active process promoted by osteoinduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs with increased expression and activity of transcription factor RUNX2 (Core-binding factor α1, CBFA1, alkaline phosphatase (ALPL, TGFß1, transcription factor NFAT5, and NFAT5-sensitive transcription factor SOX9. The osteoinductive signaling and vascular calcification of hyperphosphatemic klotho-hypomorphic mice could be reversed by treatment with NH4Cl, effects involving decrease of TGFß1 and inhibition of NFAT5-dependent osteoinductive signaling. Known effects of NH4Cl include alkalinization of acidic cellular compartments. The present study explored whether osteo-/chondrogenic signaling could be influenced by alkalinization of acidic cellular compartments following inhibition of the vacuolar H+ ATPase with bafilomycin A1 or following dissipation of the pH gradient across the membranes of acidic cellular compartments with methylamine. Methods: Primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs were treated with high phosphate to trigger osteo-/chondrogenic signaling and calcification in the absence or presence of bafilomycin A1 or methylamine. Calcium content was determined using a QuantiChrom Calcium assay, ALP activity by a colorimetric assay and transcript levels by quantitative RT-PCR. Results: High phosphate increased significantly the calcium deposition, CBFA1 and ALPL mRNA expression as well as alkaline phosphatase activity in HAoSMCs, all effects ameliorated by both, bafilomycin A1 and methylamine. High phosphate further significantly up-regulated the mRNA levels of TGFB1, NFAT5 and SOX9, effects significantly blunted by additional treatment with bafilomycin A1 or methylamine. Treatment of HAoSMCs with human TGFß1 protein or high phosphate up-regulated NFAT5, SOX9, CBFA1 and ALPL mRNA expression to similarly high levels which could not be further increased by combined

  3. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qi-Feng; Yu, Hong-Wei; Sun, Li-Li; You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou; Qu, Bao-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  4. Apelin-13 upregulates Egr-1 expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi-Feng [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Yu, Hong-Wei [Department of Cardiology, Jinzhou Central Hospital, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Sun, Li-Li [Department of Ophthalmology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); You, Lu; Tao, Gui-Zhou [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China); Qu, Bao-Ze, E-mail: qubaoze1971@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou 121001 (China)

    2015-12-25

    Previous studies have shown that Apelin-13 upregulates early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. Apelin-13 induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) as well as the upregulation of osteopontin (OPN) via the upregulation of Egr-1. This study was designed to further explore the activity of Apelin-13 in VSMCs by investigating members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in particular Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38). We also examined whether the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of Egr-1 by Apelin-13. We treated rat aortic VSMCs with Apelin-13 and examined the expression of JNK, p-JNK, P38, and p-P38 to investigate whether Apelin-13-mediated increases in Egr-1 occurred through the JNK and P38 signaling pathways. We then pretreated VSMCs with the Gi protein inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) and the Gq inhibitor YM254890, added Apelin-13 and looked for changes in Egr-1 expression. Finally, we pretreated with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and the PKC inhibitor GF109203X, and treated with Apelin-13. Our results showed that JNK and P38 did not participate in Apelin-13-mediated increase in Egr-1. Instead, Apelin-13 upregulation of Egr-1 was mediated by a PTX-sensitive Gi protein. Apelin-13 did increase ERK phosphorylation through the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling pathways, resulting in changes in Egr-1 expression. These data provide important targets for future studies to modulate vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • Apelin-13 mediates Egr-1 upregulation in vascular smooth muscle cells via ERK1/2. • The underlying mechanisms are unknown, but exclude Jnk or p38 pathway activation. • Apelin-13 binds to Gi, activating the PI3K/Akt and PKC signaling cascades. • Consequent ERK phosphorylation results in increased Egr-1

  5. Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing ERK1/2 MAPK signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease. Our current study sought to explore the effects of tanshinone IIA on the proliferation and migration of VSMCs induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the effects of tanshinone IIA by cell proliferation assay and cell migration assay. And we explored the underlying mechanism by Western blotting. Results: AGEs significantly induced the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, but treatment with tanshinone IIA attenuated these effects. AGEs could increase the activity of the ERK1/2 and p38 pathways but not the JNK pathway. Treatment with tanshinone IIA inhibited the AGEs-induced activation of the ERK1/2 pathway but not the p38 pathway.   Conclusion: Tanshinone IIA inhibits AGEs-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by suppressing the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway.

  6. Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 Regulates Xylem Development and Growth by a Conserved Mechanism That Modulates Hormone Signaling1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienenberger, Etienne; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strict conservation of the vascular tissues in vascular plants (tracheophytes), our understanding of the genetic basis underlying the differentiation of secondary cell wall-containing cells in the xylem of tracheophytes is still far from complete. Using coexpression analysis and phylogenetic conservation across sequenced tracheophyte genomes, we identified a number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes of unknown function whose expression is correlated with secondary cell wall deposition. Among these, the Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 (VUP1) gene encodes a predicted protein of 24 kD with no annotated functional domains but containing domains that are highly conserved in tracheophytes. Here, we show that the VUP1 expression pattern, determined by promoter-β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression, is associated with vascular tissues, while vup1 loss-of-function mutants exhibit collapsed morphology of xylem vessel cells. Constitutive overexpression of VUP1 caused dramatic and pleiotropic developmental defects, including severe dwarfism, dark green leaves, reduced apical dominance, and altered photomorphogenesis, resembling brassinosteroid-deficient mutants. Constitutive overexpression of VUP homologs from multiple tracheophyte species induced similar defects. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that overexpression of VUP1 represses the expression of many brassinosteroid- and auxin-responsive genes. Additionally, deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify critical domains and amino acids required for VUP1 function. Altogether, our data suggest a conserved role for VUP1 in regulating secondary wall formation during vascular development by tissue- or cell-specific modulation of hormone signaling pathways. PMID:24567189

  7. Placental-Specific sFLT-1 e15a Protein Is Increased in Preeclampsia, Antagonizes Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling, and Has Antiangiogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Kirsten R; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Hastie, Roxanne; Hannan, Natalie J; Ye, Louie; Binder, Natalie; Cannon, Ping; Tuohey, Laura; Johns, Terrance G; Shub, Alexis; Tong, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    In preeclampsia, the antiangiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) is released from placenta into the maternal circulation, causing endothelial dysfunction and organ injury. A recently described splice variant, sFLT-1 e15a, is primate specific and the most abundant placentally derived sFLT-1. Therefore, it may be the major sFLT-1 isoform contributing to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. sFLT-1 e15a protein remains poorly characterized: its bioactivity has not been comprehensively examined, and serum levels in normal and preeclamptic pregnancy have not been reported. We generated and validated an sFLT-1 e15a-specific ELISA to further characterize serum levels during pregnancy, and in the presence of preeclampsia. Furthermore, we performed assays to examine the bioactivity and antiangiogenic properties of sFLT-1 e15a protein. sFLT-1 e15a was expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast, and serum levels rose across pregnancy. Strikingly, serum levels were increased 10-fold in preterm preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls. We confirmed sFLT-1 e15a is bioactive and is able to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and block downstream Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, sFLT-1 e15a has antiangiogenic properties. sFLT-1 e15a decreased endothelial cell migration, invasion, and inhibited endothelial cell tube formation. Administering sFLT-1 e15a blocked vascular endothelial growth factor induced sprouts from mouse aortic rings ex vivo. We have demonstrated that sFLT-1 e15a is increased in preeclampsia, antagonizes vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, and has antiangiogenic activity. Future development of diagnostics and therapeutics for preeclampsia should consider targeting placentally derived sFLT-1 e15a. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Andrographolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κB Activation through JNK-Akt-p65 Signaling Cascade in Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Stimulated Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical vascular inflammation leads to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases, including abdominal aortic aneurysms, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. Andrographolide is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata, a herbal medicine widely used for treating anti-inflammation in Asia. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of andrographolide in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs exposed to a proinflammatory stimulus, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Treating TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs with andrographolide suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in a concentration-dependent manner. A reduction in TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, Akt, and p65 phosphorylation was observed in andrographolide-treated VSMCs. However, andrographolide affected neither IκBα degradation nor p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation under these conditions. Both treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, and treatment with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, markedly reversed the andrographolide-mediated inhibition of p65 phosphorylation. In addition, LY294002 and SP600125 both diminished Akt phosphorylation, whereas LY294002 had no effects on JNK phosphorylation. These results collectively suggest that therapeutic interventions using andrographolide can benefit the treatment of vascular inflammatory diseases, and andrographolide-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activity in TNF-α-stimulated VSMCs occurs through the JNK-Akt-p65 signaling cascade, an IκBα-independent mechanism.

  9. NF-kappaB signaling mediates vascular smooth muscle endothelin type B receptor expression in resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptor upregulation results in strong vasoconstriction and reduction of local blood flow. We hypothesizes that the underlying molecular mechanisms involve transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) pathway. ET(B) recepto...

  10. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine induces pulmonary vascular dysfunction via activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekarova, Michaela; Koudelka, Adolf; Kolarova, Hana; Ambrozova, Gabriela; Klinke, Anna; Cerna, Anna; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Trundova, Maria; Sindlerova Svihalkova, Lenka; Kuchta, Radek; Kuchtova, Zdenka; Lojek, Antonin; Kubala, Lukas

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), associated with imbalance in vasoactive mediators and massive remodeling of pulmonary vasculature, represents a serious health complication. Despite the progress in treatment, PH patients typically have poor prognoses with severely affected quality of life. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), also represents one of the critical regulators of pulmonary vascular functions. The present study describes a novel mechanism of ADMA-induced dysfunction in human pulmonary endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The effect of ADMA was compared with well-established model of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular dysfunction. It was discovered for the first time that ADMA induced the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in both types of cells, associated with drastic alternations in normal cellular functions (e.g., nitric oxide production, cell proliferation/Ca(2+) concentration, production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and expression of eNOS, DDAH1, and ICAM-1). Additionally, ADMA significantly enhanced the hypoxia-mediated increase in the signaling cascades. In summary, increased ADMA may lead to manifestation of PH phenotype in human endothelial and smooth muscle cells via the STAT3/HIF-1α cascade. Therefore this signaling pathway represents the potential pathway for future clinical interventions in PH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. p115 RhoGEF activates the Rac1 GTPase signaling cascade in MCP1 chemokine-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhlesh K; Janjanam, Jagadeesh; Rao, Gadiparthi N

    2017-08-25

    Although the involvement of Rho proteins in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases is well studied, little is known about the role of their upstream regulators, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs). Here, we sought to identify the RhoGEFs involved in monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1)-induced vascular wall remodeling. We found that, among the RhoGEFs tested, MCP1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p115 RhoGEF but not of PDZ RhoGEF or leukemia-associated RhoGEF in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Moreover, p115 RhoGEF inhibition suppressed MCP1-induced HASMC migration and proliferation. Consistent with these observations, balloon injury (BI) induced p115 RhoGEF tyrosine phosphorylation in rat common carotid arteries, and siRNA-mediated down-regulation of its levels substantially attenuated BI-induced smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, resulting in reduced neointima formation. Furthermore, depletion of p115 RhoGEF levels also abrogated MCP1- or BI-induced Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling, which, as we reported previously, is involved in vascular wall remodeling. Our findings also show that protein kinase N1 (PKN1) downstream of Rac1-cyclin D1/CDK6 and upstream of CDK4-PAK1 in the p115 RhoGEF-Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling axis is involved in the modulation of vascular wall remodeling. Of note, we also observed that CCR2-G i/o -Fyn signaling mediates MCP1-induced p115 RhoGEF and Rac1 GTPase activation. These findings suggest that p115 RhoGEF is critical for MCP1-induced HASMC migration and proliferation in vitro and for injury-induced neointima formation in vivo by modulating Rac1-NFATc1-cyclin D1-CDK6-PKN1-CDK4-PAK1 signaling. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. A naturally occurring carotenoid, lutein, reduces PDGF and H2O2 signaling and compromised migration in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent stimulator of growth and motility of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Abnormalities of PDGF/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) are thought to contribute to vascular diseases and malignancy. We previously showed that a carotenoid, lycopene, can directly bind to PDGF and affect its related functions in VSMCs. In this study we examined the effect of the other naturally occurring carotenoid, lutein, on PDGF signaling and migration in VSMCs. Methods Western blotting was performed to examine PDGF and H2O2 signaling. Flowcytometry was used to determine PDGF binding to VSMCs. Fluorescence microscopy was performed to examine intracellular ROS production. Modified Boyden chamber system (Transwell apparatus) was used for migration assay. Results Lutein reduced PDGF signaling, including phosphorylation of PDGFR-β and its downstream protein kinases/enzymes such as phospholipase C-γ, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Although lutein possesses a similar structure to lycopene, it was striking that lutein inhibited PDGF signaling through a different way from lycopene in VSMCs. Unlike lycopene, lutein not only interacted with (bound to) PDGF but also interfered with cellular components. This was evidenced that preincubation of PDGF with lutein and treatment of VSMCs with lutein followed by removing of lutein compromised PDGF-induced signaling. Lutein reduced PDGF-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and attenuated ROS- (H2O2-) induced ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK activation. A further analysis indicated lutein could inhibit a higher concentration of H2O2-induced PDGFR signaling, which is known to act through an oxidative inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase. Finally, we showed that lutein functionally inhibited PDGF-induced VSMC migration, whereas its stereo-isomer zeaxanthin did not, revealing a special action of lutein on VSMCs. Conclusions Our study reveals a differential action

  13. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, S.C.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chen, J.-W.; Chiang, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-α induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-α dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-α concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-α (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-α-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-α. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-κB attenuates TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-α induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-κB in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-α. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-α was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression

  14. Upregulation of Klotho potentially inhibits pulmonary vascular remodeling by blocking the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in rats with PM2.5-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lu-Hong; Du, Shi-Yu; Wu, Yi-Na; Liu, Ying; Li, Tao; Wang, Hui; Li, Gang; Duan, Jun

    2018-01-30

    We evaluated the effects of Klotho on pulmonary vascular remodeling and cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat models with PM2.5-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) via the Wnt signaling pathway. After establishing rat models of PM2.5-induced PAH, these Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into control and model groups. Cells extracted from the model rats were sub-categorized into different groups. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling transcription factor was detected by a TOPFlash/FOPFlash assay. A serial of experiment was conducted to identify the mechanism of Klotho on PHA via the Wnt signaling pathway. VEGF levels and PaCO 2 content were higher in the model group, while PaO 2, NO 2 - /NO 3 - content and Klotho level was lower compared to the control group. In comparison to the control group, the model group had decreased Klotho and Bax levels, and elevated Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA expression, VEGF, IL-6, TNF-α, TNF-β1, and bFGF levels, as well as the percentage of pulmonary artery ring contraction. The Klotho vector, DKK-1 and DKK-1 + Klotho vector groups exhibited reduced cell proliferation, luciferase activity, and the expression of Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA, as well as shortened S phase compared with the blank and NC groups. Compared with the Klotho vector and DKK-1 groups, the DKK-1 + Klotho vector groups had reduced cell proliferation, luciferase activity, and the expression of Wnt-1, β-catenin, bcl-2, survivin, and PCNA, as well as a shortened S phase. Conclusively, Klotho inhibits pulmonary vascular remodeling by inactivation of Wnt signaling pathway. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Early alterations of Hedgehog signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells after peripheral nerve injury elicit blood-nerve barrier disruption, nerve inflammation, and neuropathic pain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Nathan; Mauborgne, Annie; Bourgoin, Sylvie; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette B; Villanueva, Luis; Pohl, Michel; Boucher, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the nerve's microenvironment and local inflammation resulting from peripheral nerve injury participate in nerve sensitization and neuropathic pain development. Taking part in these early changes, disruption of the blood-nerve barrier (BNB) allows for infiltration of immunocytes and promotes the neuroinflammation. However, molecular mechanisms engaged in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) dysfunction and BNB alterations remain unclear. In vivo, BNB permeability was assessed following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the rat sciatic nerve (ScN) and differential expression of markers of VEC functional state, inflammation, and intracellular signaling was followed from 3 hours to 2 months postinjury. Several mechanisms potentially involved in functional alterations of VEC were evaluated in vitro using human VEC (hCMEC/D3), then confronted to in vivo physiopathological conditions. CCI of the ScN led to a rapid disruption of endoneurial vascular barrier that was correlated to a decreased production of endothelial tight-junction proteins and an early and sustained alteration of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. In vitro, activation of Toll-like receptor 4 in VEC downregulated the components of Hh pathway and altered the endothelial functional state. Inhibition of Hh signaling in the ScN of naive rats mimicked the biochemical and functional alterations observed after CCI and was, on its own, sufficient to evoke local neuroinflammation and sustained mechanical allodynia. Alteration of the Hh signaling pathway in VEC associated with peripheral nerve injury, is involved in BNB disruption and local inflammation, and could thus participate in the early changes leading to the peripheral nerve sensitization and, ultimately, neuropathic pain development.

  16. The regulation of apoptotic cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarante-Mendes G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a fundamental biological phenomenon in which the death of a cell is genetically and biochemically regulated. Different molecules are involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process. Death receptors, coupled to distinct members of the caspases as well as other adapter molecules, are involved in the initiation of the stress signals (The Indictment. Members of the Bcl-2 family control at the mitochondrial level the decision between life and death (The Judgement. The effector caspases are responsible for all morphological and biochemical changes related to apoptosis including the "eat-me" signals perceived by phagocytes and neighboring cells (The Execution. Finally, apoptosis would have little biological significance without the recognition and removal of the dying cells (The Burial.

  17. The regulation of apoptotic cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Amarante-Mendes

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a fundamental biological phenomenon in which the death of a cell is genetically and biochemically regulated. Different molecules are involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process. Death receptors, coupled to distinct members of the caspases as well as other adapter molecules, are involved in the initiation of the stress signals (The Indictment. Members of the Bcl-2 family control at the mitochondrial level the decision between life and death (The Judgement. The effector caspases are responsible for all morphological and biochemical changes related to apoptosis including the "eat-me" signals perceived by phagocytes and neighboring cells (The Execution. Finally, apoptosis would have little biological significance without the recognition and removal of the dying cells (The Burial.

  18. Immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voll, Reinhard E.; Herrmann, Martin; Roth, Edith A.; Stach, Christian; Kalden, Joachim R.; Girkontaite, Irute

    1997-11-01

    Apoptotic cell death is important in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and is a highly controlled means of eliminating dangerous, damaged or unnecessary cells without causing an inflammatory response or tissue damage,. We now show that the presence of apoptotic cells during monocyte activation increases their secretion of the anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL-10) and decreases secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1 and IL-12. This may inhibit inflammation and contribute to impaired cell-mediated immunity in conditions associated with increased apoptosis, such as viral infections, pregnancy, cancer and exposure to radiation.

  19. The pro-resolving lipid mediator maresin 1 (MaR1 attenuates inflammatory signaling pathways in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuran Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Inflammation and its resolution are central to vascular injury and repair. Maresins comprise a new family of bioactive lipid mediators synthesized from docosahexaenoic acid, an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. They have been found to exert anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving responses in macrophages, neutrophils and bronchial epithelial cells and impart beneficial actions in murine models of peritonitis and colitis. We investigated the impact of maresin-1 (MaR1 on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α induced inflammatory responses in human vascular endothelial (EC and smooth muscle cells (VSMC.Primary cultures of human saphenous vein EC and VSMC were employed. We tested the naturally occurring MaR1 as modulator of TNF-α effects, with examination of monocyte adhesion, oxidant stress, and intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways.MaR1 attenuated TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in both EC and VSMC, associated with down-regulated expression (cell surface of the adhesion molecule E-selectin (in EC and NADPH-oxidases (NOX4, NOX1, NOX2. MaR1 attenuated TNF-α induced release of pro-inflammatory mediators by EC and VSMC. MaR1 caused an attenuation of TNF-α induced NF-κB activation in both cell types associated with inhibition of I-κ Kinase (IKK phosphorylation, IκB-α degradation and nuclear translocation of the NF- κB p65 subunit. MaR1 also caused a time-dependent increase in intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP in both naive and TNF-α stimulated VSMC and EC.MaR1 has broad anti-inflammatory actions on EC and VSMC, which may be partly mediated through up-regulation of cAMP and down-regulation of the transcription factor NF-κB. The results suggest that the pro-resolving lipid mediator MaR1 exerts homeostatic actions on vascular cells that counteract pro-inflammatory signals. These findings may have direct relevance for acute and chronic states of vascular inflammation.

  20. F-actin-rich contractile endothelial pores prevent vascular leakage during leukocyte diapedesis through local RhoA signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Niels; Schimmel, Lilian; Oort, Chantal; van Rijssel, Jos; Yin, Taofei; Ma, Bin; van Unen, Jakobus; Pitter, Bettina; Huveneers, Stephan; Goedhart, Joachim; Wu, Yi; Montanez, Eloi; Woodfin, Abigail; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2016-01-01

    During immune surveillance and inflammation, leukocytes exit the vasculature through transient openings in the endothelium without causing plasma leakage. However, the exact mechanisms behind this intriguing phenomenon are still unknown. Here we report that maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity during leukocyte diapedesis requires local endothelial RhoA cycling. Endothelial RhoA depletion in vitro or Rho inhibition in vivo provokes neutrophil-induced vascular leakage that manifests during the physical movement of neutrophils through the endothelial layer. Local RhoA activation initiates the formation of contractile F-actin structures that surround emigrating neutrophils. These structures that surround neutrophil-induced endothelial pores prevent plasma leakage through actomyosin-based pore confinement. Mechanistically, we found that the initiation of RhoA activity involves ICAM-1 and the Rho GEFs Ect2 and LARG. In addition, regulation of actomyosin-based endothelial pore confinement involves ROCK2b, but not ROCK1. Thus, endothelial cells assemble RhoA-controlled contractile F-actin structures around endothelial pores that prevent vascular leakage during leukocyte extravasation. PMID:26814335

  1. c-Ski inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells via suppressing Smad3 signaling but stimulating p38 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Li, Gong-Bo; Zhou, Yuan-Guo; Yang, Kang; Dai, Shuang-Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays key roles in the progression of intimal hyperplasia, but the molecular mechanisms that trigger VSMC proliferation after vascular injury remain unclear. c-Ski, a co-repressor of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling, was detected to express in VSMC of rat artery. During the course of arterial VSMC proliferation induced by balloon injury in rat, the endogenous protein expressions of c-Ski decreased markedly in a time-dependent manner. In vivo c-Ski gene delivery was found to significantly suppress balloon injury-induced VSMC proliferation and neointima formation. Further investigation in A10 rat aortic smooth muscle cells demonstrated that overexpression of c-Ski gene inhibited TGF-β1 (1 ng/ml)-induced A10 cell proliferation while knockdown of c-Ski by RNAi enhanced the stimulatory effect of TGF-β1 on A10 cell growth. Western blot for signaling detection showed that suppression of Smad3 phosphorylation while stimulating p38 signaling associated with upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27 was responsible for the inhibitory effect of c-Ski on TGF-β1-induced VSMC proliferation. These data suggest that the decrease of endogenous c-Ski expression is implicated in the progression of VSMC proliferation after arterial injury and c-Ski administration represents a promising role for treating intimal hyperplasia via inhibiting the proliferation of VSMC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ulinastatin: Inhibiting the hyperpermeability of vascular endothelial cells induced by TNF-α via the RhoA/ROCK signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fu; Liu, Siyi; Luo, Li; Gu, Nina; Zeng, Yan; Chen, Xiaoying; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Dan

    2017-05-01

    Ulinastatin reduces the high permeability of vascular endothelial cells induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). This study investigated the molecular mechanism behind this effect, with the aim of understanding the action of ulinastatin in sepsis therapy and exploring novel therapeutic strategies for sepsis patients. A TNF-α treated human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) was employed as an inflammation model. Horseradish peroxidase permeability assays and an epithelial voltmeter method were used to measure the permeability of EA.hy926 cells. Immunocytochemistry was used to assay the expression of p-MYPT1 and the distribution and morphology of F-actin; the expression of the key molecules related to vascular endothelial permeability (RhoA, ROCK2, MYPT1, p-MYPT1 and VE-cadherin) was detected by immunocytochemistry assays, western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. After incubation with TNF-α or septic serum, the transendothelial electrical resistance of EA.hy926 cells decreased and the permeability of the cells increased significantly (all PTNF-α (PTNF-α and ulinastatin, compared with normal EA.hy926 cells, overexpression of RhoA upregulated expression of RhoA, ROCK2 and p-MYPT1, downregulated expression of VE-cadherin, and restored the hyperpermeability of vascular endothelial cells due to TNF-α treatment (PTNF-α. This inhibitory effect of ulinastatin may be related to the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagic effects of the Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237) on human osteosarcoma U-2 OS and MG-63 cells through the activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway and inhibition of p38 MAPK/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ning-Kui; Wang, Zi-Li; Pan, Shu-Ting; Ding, Hui-Qiang; Au, Giang H T; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Xiao, Guozhi; Yang, Yin-Xue; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor occurring mostly in children and adolescents between 10 and 20 years of age with poor response to current therapeutics. Alisertib (ALS, MLN8237) is a selective Aurora kinase A inhibitor that displays anticancer effects on several types of cancer. However, the role of ALS in the treatment of OS remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ALS on the cell growth, apoptosis, autophagy, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the underlying mechanisms in two human OS cell lines U-2 OS and MG-63. The results showed that ALS had potent growth inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, pro-autophagic, and EMT inhibitory effects on U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS remarkably induced G2/M arrest and down-regulated the expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 and cyclin B1 in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS markedly induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with a significant increase in the expression of key pro-apoptotic proteins and a decrease in main anti-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, ALS promoted autophagic cell death via the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathways, and activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway. Inducers or inhibitors of apoptosis or autophagy simultaneously altered ALS-induced apoptotic and autophagic death in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells, suggesting a crosstalk between these two primary modes of programmed cell death. Moreover, ALS suppressed EMT-like phenotypes with a marked increase in the expression of E-cadherin but a decrease in N-cadherin in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS treatment also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but inhibited the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in both cell lines. Taken together, these findings show that ALS promotes

  4. Camptothecin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun-Seok [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin-il [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyu-dong [Hazardous Substances Analysis Division, Gwangju Regional Food and Drug Administration, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Yea [Department of Nursing Kyungbok University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Hwan-Soo; Hong, Jin-Tae [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hwa-Sup [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Life Science, College of Health and Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bokyung [Department of Physiology, Konkuk Medical School, Konkuk University, Chungju, Chungbuk (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo-Pyo, E-mail: ypyun@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arterial wall is a major cause of vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis and restenosis after angioplasty. In this study, we investigated not only the inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation, but also its molecular mechanism of this inhibition. CPT significantly inhibited proliferation with IC50 value of 0.58 μM and the DNA synthesis of PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner (0.5–2 μM ) without any cytotoxicity. CPT induced the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase. Also, CPT decreased the expressions of G0/G1-specific regulatory proteins including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, cyclin D1 and PCNA in PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMCs. Pre-incubation of VSMCs with CPT significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt activation, whereas CPT did not affect PDGF-receptor beta phosphorylation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation and phospholipase C (PLC)-γ1 phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. Our data showed that CPT pre-treatment inhibited VSMC proliferation, and that the inhibitory effect of CPT was enhanced by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, on PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation. In addition, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway by LY294002 significantly enhanced the suppression of PCNA expression and Akt activation by CPT. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative activity of CPT is mediated in part by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. - Highlights: ► CPT inhibits proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMC without cytotoxicity. ► CPT arrests the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase by downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK2. ► CPT significantly attenuates Akt phosphorylation in PDGF-BB signaling pathway. ► LY294002 enhanced the inhibitory effect of CPT on VSMC proliferation. ► Thus, CPT is mediated by downregulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  5. Andrographolide, a Novel NF-κB Inhibitor, Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via a Ceramide-p47phox-ROS Signaling Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ying Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is linked with the development of many cardiovascular complications. Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, the apoptosis of VSMCs, which occurs in the progression of vascular proliferation, may provide a beneficial strategy for managing cardiovascular diseases. Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor-κB inhibitor, is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Recent studies have indicated that andrographolide is a potential therapeutic agent for treating cancer through the induction of apoptosis. In this study, the apoptosis-inducing activity and mechanisms in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs were characterized. Andrographolide significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, p53 activation, Bax, and active caspase-3 expression, and these phenomena were suppressed by pretreating the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, or diphenylene iodonium, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase (Nox inhibitor. Furthermore, p47phox, a Nox subunit protein, was phosphorylated in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs. However, pretreatment with 3-O-methyl-sphingomyelin, a neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor, significantly inhibited andrographolide-induced p47phox phosphorylation as well as Bax and active caspase-3 expression. Our results collectively demonstrate that andrographolide-reduced cell viability can be attributed to apoptosis in VSMCs, and this apoptosis-inducing activity was associated with the ceramide-p47phox-ROS signaling cascade.

  6. Andrographolide, a Novel NF- κ B Inhibitor, Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via a Ceramide-p47phox-ROS Signaling Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lee, Lin-Wen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is linked with the development of many cardiovascular complications. Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, the apoptosis of VSMCs, which occurs in the progression of vascular proliferation, may provide a beneficial strategy for managing cardiovascular diseases. Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor- κ B inhibitor, is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Recent studies have indicated that andrographolide is a potential therapeutic agent for treating cancer through the induction of apoptosis. In this study, the apoptosis-inducing activity and mechanisms in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs were characterized. Andrographolide significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, p53 activation, Bax, and active caspase-3 expression, and these phenomena were suppressed by pretreating the cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a ROS scavenger, or diphenylene iodonium, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) inhibitor. Furthermore, p47phox, a Nox subunit protein, was phosphorylated in andrographolide-treated rat VSMCs. However, pretreatment with 3-O-methyl-sphingomyelin, a neutral sphingomyelinase inhibitor, significantly inhibited andrographolide-induced p47phox phosphorylation as well as Bax and active caspase-3 expression. Our results collectively demonstrate that andrographolide-reduced cell viability can be attributed to apoptosis in VSMCs, and this apoptosis-inducing activity was associated with the ceramide-p47phox-ROS signaling cascade.

  7. X-ray irradiation has positive effects for the recovery of peripheral nerve injury maybe through the vascular smooth muscle contraction signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Zhang, Yong; She, Chang; Zhao, Jiaju; Zhou, Kailong; Zuo, Zhicheng; Zhou, Xiaozhong; Wang, Peiji; Dong, Qirong

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that moderate to high doses of ionizing radiation have a toxic effect on the organism. However, there are few experimental studies on the mechanisms of LDR ionizing radiation on nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. We established the rats' peripheral nerve injury model via repaired Peripheral nerve injury nerve, vascular endothelial growth factor a and Growth associated protein-43 were detected from different treatment groups. We performed transcriptome sequencing focusing on investigating the differentially expressed genes and gene functions between the control group and 1Gy group. Sequencing was done by using high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) technologies. The results showed the 1Gy group to be the most effective promoting repair. RNA-sequencing identified 619 differently expressed genes between control and treated groups. A Gene Ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed enrichment in the functional pathways. Among them, candidate genes associated with nerve repair were identified. Pathways involved in cell-substrate adhesion, vascular smooth muscle contraction and cell adhesion molecule signaling may be involved in recovery from peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Vascular mechanotransduction data in a rodent model of diabetes: Pressure-induced regulation of SHP2 and associated signaling in the rat inferior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of diabetes on vascular mechano-transductive response is of great concern. Given the higher rate of vein graft failures associated with diabetes, understanding the multiple cellular and molecular events associated with vascular remodeling is of vital importance. This article represents data related to a study published in Cardiovascular Diabetology [1] (Rice et al., 2006 and Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases [2] (Rice et al., 2015 evaluating the effect of pressurization on rat inferior venae cavae (IVC. Provided within this articles is information related to the method and processing of raw data related to our prior publish work and Data in Brief articles [3,4] (Rice et al., 2017, as well as the evaluation of alternation in SHP-2 signaling and associated proteins in response to mechanical force. IVC from lean and obese animals were exposed to a 30 min perfusion of 120 mm Hg pressure and evaluated for changes in expression of SHP2, BCL-3, BCL-XL, HSP 27, HSP 70, and PI3K p85, along with the phosphorylation of SHP-2 (Tyr 542.

  9. GPCR responses in vascular smooth muscle can occur predominantly through dual transactivation of kinase receptors and not classical Gαq protein signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Peter J

    2013-05-30

    GPCR signalling is well known to proceed through several linear pathways involving activation of G proteins and their downstream signalling pathways such as activation of phospholipase C. In addition, GPCRs signal via transactivation of Protein Tyrosine Kinase receptors such as that for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) where GPCR agonists mediate increase levels of phosphorylated Erk (pErk) the immediate downstream product of the activation of EGF receptor. It has recently been shown that this paradigm can be extended to include the GPCR transactivation of a Protein Serine/Threonine Kinase receptor, specifically the Transforming Growth Factor β Type I receptor (also known as Alk V) (TβRI) in which case GPCR activation leads to the formation of carboxy terminal polyphosphorylated Smad2 (phosphoSmad2) being the immediate downstream product of the activation of TβRI. Growth factor and hormone regulation of proteoglycan synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells represent one component of an in vitro model of atherosclerosis because modified proteoglycans show enhanced binding to lipoproteins as the initiating step in atherosclerosis. In the example of proteoglycan synthesis stimulated by GPCR agonists such as thrombin and endothelin-1, the transactivation pathways for the EGF receptor and TβRI are both active and together account for essentially all of the response to the GPCRs. In contrast, signalling downstream of GPCRs such as increased inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) and intracellular calcium do not have any effect on GPCR stimulated proteoglycan synthesis. These data lead to the conclusion that dual transactivation pathways for protein tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase receptors may play a far greater role in GPCR signalling than currently recognised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Niclosamide enhances the antitumor effects of radiation by inhibiting the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Mei; Chen, Zihong; Yang, Donghong; Li, Haiwen; Zuo, Yufang; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Wendian; Zhou, Hechao; Jiang, Danxian; Xu, Zumin; Yu, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality, worldwide. The overall survival rate remains low, but progress has been made in improving the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer over the past decades. Niclosamide, a salicylanilide derivative used for the treatment of tapeworm infections, is safe, well tolerated, inexpensive and readily available. Previous studies have identified niclosamide as a potential anticancer agent. The present study demonstrated that niclosamide enhanced the effect of irradiation by inhibiting the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway. These findings suggest that niclosamide may be a promising candidate for clinical evaluation as part of a combined regimen for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

  11. [Effect of microRNA-34a/SIRT1/p53 signal pathway on notoginsenoside R₁ delaying vascular endothelial cell senescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiao-Hua; Lei, Yan; Yang, Jing; Xiu, Cheng-Kui

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of notoginsenoside R₁ in delaying H₂O₂-induced vascular endothelial cell senescence through microRNA-34a/SIRT1/p53 signal pathway. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) were selected as the study object; the aging model induced by hydrogen peroxide(H₂O₂) was established, with resveratrol as the positive drug. HUVECs were randomly divided into four groups, youth group, senescence model group, notoginsenoside R₁ group and resveratrol group. Notoginsenoside R₁ group and resveratrol group were modeled with 100 μmoL·L⁻¹ H₂O₂ for 4 h after 24 h treatment with notoginsenoside R₁(30 μmoL·L⁻¹) and resveratrol(10 μmoL·L⁻¹) respectively. At the end, each group was cultured with complete medium for 24 h. The degree of cellular senescence was detected by senescence-associated β-galactosidase(SA-β-Gal) staining kit, the cell viability was detected by cell counting kit-8, the cell cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry, and the cellular SOD activity was detected by WST-1 method in each group. The expressions of SIRT1, p53, p21 and p16 proteins in HUVECs were detected by Western blot. In addition, the mRNA expressions of miRNA-34a, SIRT1 and p53 in HUVECs were assayed by Real-time PCR. These results indicated that notoginsenoside R₁ significantly reduced the positive staining rate of senescent cells, enhanced the cell proliferation capacity and intracellular SOD activity, decreased the proportion of cells in G₀/G₁ phase, and increased the percentage of cells in S phase simultaneously compared with the senescence model group. Moreover, notoginsenoside R₁ decreased the mRNA expressions of miRNA-34a and p53 and the protein expression of p53, p21 and p16.At the same time, notoginsenoside R₁ increased the protein and mRNA expressions of SIRT1. The differences in these results between the senescence model group and the

  12. Low-dose testosterone alleviates vascular damage caused by castration in male rats in puberty via modulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Ge-Li; Wei, Ying; Jiang, Li-Hong; Bao, Peng-Li; Yang, Qing-Yan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of testosterone on glucolipid metabolism and vascular injury in male rats, and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n=10), high-fat-diet + castration group (n=10), high‑fat‑diet + castration + low dose testosterone group (n=10), and high-fat-diet + castration + high dose testosterone group (n=10). Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to evaluate the morphology of the thoracic aortic tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect biomarkers of the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. The mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K, AKT, insulin receptor substrate‑1 (IRS‑1), glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT‑4), nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α in the aortas were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. Apoptosis in the aortic tissues was detected using a TUNEL assay. Castration induced apoptosis in the animals fed a high‑fat‑diet, whereas low dose testosterone replacement ameliorated the apoptosis in the aorta. However, the levels of apoptosis was more severe following high‑dose testosterone treatment. Low‑dose testosterone induced upregulation in the levels of IRS‑1, AKT, GLUT‑4 protein, NF‑κB, TNF‑α and PI3K, compared with those in the animals fed a high‑fat diet following castration. A high dose of testosterone resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of IRS‑1, AKT, GLUT‑4, NF‑κB, TNF‑α and PI3K. Compared with the rats in the high‑fat diet + castration group, a low dose of testosterone induced upregulation in the mRNA levels of IRS‑1, AKT and GLUT‑4, and downregulation of the mRNA levels of NF‑κB, TNF‑α and PI3K. A high dose of testosterone resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of IRS‑1, AKT and GLUT‑4, and marked

  13. Folic acid inhibits dedifferentiation of PDGF-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing mTOR/P70S6K signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sunlei; Lin, Hui; Luo, Hangqi; Gao, Feidan; Meng, Liping; Zhou, Changzuan; Jiang, Chengjian; Guo, Yan; Ji, Zheng; Chi, Jufang; Guo, Hangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation reduces the risk of atherosclerosis and stroke. Phenotypic change from differentiated to dedifferentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in atherosclerosis development; however, the exact mechanisms remain unknown. This study aimed to assess whether FA through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/P70S6K signaling inhibits platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB) induced VSMC dedifferentiation. VSMCs from primary cultures were identified by morphological observation and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SM-actin, α-SMA) immunocytochemistry. Then, VSMCs were induced by PDGF-BB and treated with varying FA concentrations. Rapamycin and MHY-1485 were used to inhibit or activate the mTOR/P70S6K pathway, respectively. Next, MTT, Transwell, and wound healing assays were employed to assess proliferation and migration of VSMCs. In addition, Western blotting was used to evaluate protein levels of α-SMA, calponin, osteopontin, mTOR, p-mTOR, P70S6K and p-P70S6K in VSMCs. VSMCs showed phenotypic alteration from differentiated to dedifferentiated cells in response to PDGF-BB. MTT, Transwell and wound healing assays showed that FA markedly inhibited proliferation and migration in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs, in a time and concentration-dependent manner. FA treatment increased the expression levels of the contractile phenotype marker proteins α-SMA and calponin compared with VSMCs stimulated by PDGF-BB alone. Furthermore, FA significantly suppressed mTOR and P70S6K phosphorylation compared with PDGF-BB alone. Similar to FA, downregulation of mTOR signaling by rapamycin inhibited VSMC dedifferentiation. In contrast, upregulation of mTOR signaling by MHY-1485 reversed the FA-induced inhibition of VSMC dedifferentiation. Folic acid inhibits dedifferentiation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs by suppressing mTOR/P70S6K signaling.

  14. Crosstalk of mitochondria with NADPH oxidase via reactive oxygen and nitrogen species signalling and its role for vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiber, Andreas; Di Lisa, Fabio; Oelze, Matthias; Kröller-Schön, Swenja; Steven, Sebastian; Schulz, Eberhard; Münzel, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are associated with and/or caused by oxidative stress. This concept has been proven by using the approach of genetic deletion of reactive species producing (pro-oxidant) enzymes as well as by the overexpression of reactive species detoxifying (antioxidant) enzymes leading to a marked reduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and in parallel to an amelioration of the severity of diseases. Likewise, the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases is aggravated by overexpression of RONS producing enzymes as well as deletion of antioxidant RONS detoxifying enzymes. Thus, the consequences of the interaction (redox crosstalk) of superoxide/hydrogen peroxide produced by mitochondria with other ROS producing enzymes such as NADPH oxidases (Nox) are of outstanding importance and will be discussed including the consequences for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling as well as the redox regulation of the vascular function/tone in general (soluble guanylyl cyclase, endothelin-1, prostanoid synthesis). Pathways and potential mechanisms leading to this crosstalk will be analysed in detail and highlighted by selected examples from the current literature including hypoxia, angiotensin II-induced hypertension, nitrate tolerance, aging and others. The general concept of redox-based activation of RONS sources via "kindling radicals" and enzyme-specific "redox switches" will be discussed providing evidence that mitochondria represent key players and amplifiers of the burden of oxidative stress. This article is part of a themed section on Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.12/issuetoc. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide potentiates interleukin-1β-induced nitric oxide production via enhancement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sun-Oh; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Oh, Gi-Su; Jeong, Gil-Saeng; Lee, Bok-Soo; Lee, Seoul; Kim, Du Yong; Rhew, Hyun Yul; Lee, Kang-Min; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and nitric oxide (NO) are endogenously synthesized from L-cysteine and L-arginine, respectively. They might constitute a cooperative network to regulate their effects. In this study, we investigated whether H 2 S could affect NO production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated with interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Although H 2 S by itself showed no effect on NO production, it augmented IL-β-induced NO production and this effect was associated with increased expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. IL-1β activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and this activation was also enhanced by H 2 S. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation by the selective inhibitor U0126 inhibited IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation, iNOS expression, and NO production either in the absence or presence of H 2 S. Our findings suggest that H 2 S enhances NO production and iNOS expression by potentiating IL-1β-induced NF-κB activation through a mechanism involving ERK1/2 signaling cascade in rat VSMCs

  16. Coculture with endothelial cells enhances osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells via cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2/vascular endothelial growth factor signaling under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lixing; Wu, Yeke; Tan, Lijun; Xu, Zhenrui; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Zhihe; Li, Xiaoyu; Li, Yu; Yang, Pu; Tang, Tian

    2013-12-01

    During periodontitis and orthodontic tooth movement, periodontal vasculature is severely impaired, leading to a hypoxic microenvironment of periodontal cells. However, the impact of hypoxia on periodontal cells is poorly defined. The present study investigates responses of cocultured endothelial cells (ECs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) to hypoxia. Osteogenic differentiation, molecular characterization, and various behaviors of PDLSCs and human umbilical venous ECs under hypoxia were assessed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, the effect of ECs on PDLSC osteogenic differentiation was tested using NS398 (cyclooxygenase 2 blocker), SU5416 (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] receptor inhibitor), AH6809, L-798106, and L-161982 (EP1/2/3/4 antagonists). First, hypoxia promoted osteogenic differentiation in PDLSCs and enhanced EC migration, whereas PD98059 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase [ERK] inhibitor) blocked, and cocultured ECs further enhanced, hypoxia-induced osteogenic differentiation. Second, NS398 impaired EC migration and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)/VEGF release, whereas cocultured PDLSCs and exogenous PGE2 partially reversed it. Third, NS398 (pretreated ECs) decreased PGE2/VEGF concentrations. NS398-treated ECs and AH6809/SU5416-treated PDLSCs impaired cocultured EC-induced enhancement of PDLSC osteogenic differentiation. Hypoxia enhances ERK-mediated osteogenic differentiation in PDLSCs. Coculture with EC further augments PDLSC osteogenic differentiation via cyclooxygenase-2/PGE2/VEGF signaling.

  17. Diabetes alters vascular mechanotransduction data: Pressure-induced regulation of mTor and associated signaling in the rat inferior vena cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Rice

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a multifaceted disease with various etiologies. The complexity of this pathology creates a myriad of factors that must be considered when addressing surgical outcomes and prognosis. Of vital importance to cardiovascular surgery is the viability of homographic vein grafts. Due to the fact, diabetic patients have a higher rate of vein graph failure, a greater understanding of the effect diabetes has on vascular mechano-transductive response is critical to improving patient prognosis. This article represents data regarding a study published in Cardiovascular Diabetology (Rice et al., 2006 [1] and Open Journal of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases (Rice et al., 2015 [2] with the purpose of evaluating the effect of pressurization on rat inferior venae cavae (IVC. Here we provide the information about the method and processing of raw data related to our prior publish work and Data in Brief articles (Rice et al., Submitted for publication [3,4]. The data contained in this article evaluates the contribution of mTor signaling and associated proteins. IVC from lean and obese animals were exposed to a 30 min perfusion of 120 mm Hg pressure and evaluated for changes in expression and phosphorylation of mTor, p70s6k, GSK3β, and 4EBP-1. Keywords: Inferior vena cava, Diabetes, mTor, Mechanotransduction, Cardiovascular, Signaling

  18. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Oxidative Stress by Apoptosis Inhibition, Cell Survival Signalling Activation and Mitochondrial Function Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Surico

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Previous reports have made it hypothetically possible that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG could protect against the onset of pregnancy-related pathological conditions by acting as an antioxidant. In the present study we planned to examine the effects of hCG against oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Methods: HUVEC were subjected to peroxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The modulation of nitric oxide (NO release by hCG and its effects on cell viability, glutathione (GSH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial transition pore opening (MPTP were examined by specific dyes. Endothelial and inducible NO synthase (eNOS and iNOS, Akt and extracellular -signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 activation and markers of apoptosis were analyzed by Western Blot. Results: In HUVEC, hCG reduced NO release by modulating eNOS and iNOS. Moreover, hCG protected HUVEC against oxidative stress by preventing GSH reduction and apoptosis, by maintaining Akt and ERK1/2 activation and by keeping mitochondrial function. Conclusion: The present results have for the first time shown protective effects exerted by hCG on vascular endothelial function, which would be achieved by modulation of NO release, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions and activation of cell survival signalling. These findings could have clinical implications in the management of pregnancy-related disorders.

  19. Acute Podocyte Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-A) Knockdown Disrupts alphaVbeta3 Integrin Signaling in the Glomerulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, Delma; Villegas, Guillermo; Aggarwal, Pardeep Kumar; Bertuccio, Claudia; Jimenez, Juan; Velazquez, Heino; Reidy, Kimberly; Abrahamson, Dale R.; Moeckel, Gilbert; Kashgarian, Michael; Tufro, Alda

    2012-01-01

    Podocyte or endothelial cell VEGF-A knockout causes thrombotic microangiopathy in adult mice. To study the mechanism involved in acute and local injury caused by low podocyte VEGF-A we developed an inducible, podocyte-specific VEGF-A knockdown mouse, and we generated an immortalized podocyte cell line (VEGFKD) that downregulates VEGF-A upon doxycycline exposure. Tet-O-siVEGF:podocin-rtTA mice express VEGF shRNA in podocytes in a doxycycline-regulated manner, decreasing VEGF-A mRNA and VEGF-A protein levels in isolated glomeruli to ∼20% of non-induced controls and urine VEGF-A to ∼30% of control values a week after doxycycline induction. Induced tet-O-siVEGF:podocin-rtTA mice developed acute renal failure and proteinuria, associated with mesangiolysis and microaneurisms. Glomerular ultrastructure revealed endothelial cell swelling, GBM lamination and podocyte effacement. VEGF knockdown decreased podocyte fibronectin and glomerular endothelial alphaVbeta3 integrin in vivo. VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) interacts with beta3 integrin and neuropilin-1 in the kidney in vivo and in VEGFKD podocytes. Podocyte VEGF knockdown disrupts alphaVbeta3 integrin activation in glomeruli, detected by WOW1-Fab. VEGF silencing in cultured VEGFKD podocytes downregulates fibronectin and disrupts alphaVbeta3 integrin activation cell-autonomously. Collectively, these studies indicate that podocyte VEGF-A regulates alphaVbeta3 integrin signaling in the glomerulus, and that podocyte VEGF knockdown disrupts alphaVbeta3 integrin activity via decreased VEGFR2 signaling, thereby damaging the three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier, causing proteinuria and acute renal failure. PMID:22808199

  20. Selective Deletion of Leptin Signaling in Endothelial Cells Enhances Neointima Formation and Phenocopies the Vascular Effects of Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Astrid; Bochenek, Magdalena L; Schütz, Eva; Gogiraju, Rajinikanth; Münzel, Thomas; Schäfer, Katrin

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with elevated circulating leptin levels and hypothalamic leptin resistance. Leptin receptors (LepRs) are expressed on endothelial cells, and leptin promotes neointima formation in a receptor-dependent manner. Our aim was to examine the importance of endothelial LepR (End.LepR) signaling during vascular remodeling and to determine whether the cardiovascular consequences of obesity are because of hyperleptinemia or endothelial leptin resistance. Mice with loxP-flanked LepR alleles were mated with mice expressing Cre recombinase controlled by the inducible endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase promoter. Obesity was induced with high-fat diet. Neointima formation was examined after chemical carotid artery injury. Morphometric quantification revealed significantly greater intimal hyperplasia, neointimal cellularity, and proliferation in End.LepR knockout mice, and similar findings were obtained in obese, hyperleptinemic End.LepR wild-type animals. Analysis of primary endothelial cells confirmed abrogated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 phosphorylation in response to leptin in LepR knockout and obese LepR wild-type mice. Quantitative PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence analyses revealed increased expression and release of endothelin-1 in End.LepR-deficient and LepR-resistant cells, and ET receptor A/B antagonists abrogated their paracrine effects on murine aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation. Reduced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and increased nuclear activator protein-1 staining was observed in End.LepR-deficient and LepR-resistant cells, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ antagonization increased endothelial endothelin-1 expression. Our findings suggest that intact endothelial leptin signaling limits neointima formation and that obesity represents a state of endothelial leptin resistance. These observations and the identification of endothelin-1 as soluble mediator of the

  1. Endometrial signals improve embryo outcome: functional role of vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms on embryo development and implantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, N K; Evans, J; Gardner, D K; Salamonsen, L A; Hannan, N J

    2014-10-10

    Does vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have important roles during early embryo development and implantation? VEGF plays key roles during mouse preimplantation embryo development, with beneficial effects on time to cavitation, blastocyst cell number and outgrowth, as well as implantation rate and fetal limb development. Embryo implantation requires synchronized dialog between maternal cells and those of the conceptus. Following ovulation, secretions from endometrial glands increase and accumulate in the uterine lumen. These secretions contain important mediators that support the conceptus during the peri-implantation phase. Previously, we demonstrated a significant reduction of VEGFA in the uterine cavity of women with unexplained infertility. Functional studies demonstrated that VEGF significantly enhanced endometrial epithelial cell adhesive properties and embryo outgrowth. Human endometrial lavages (n = 6) were obtained from women of proven fertility. Four-week old Swiss mice were superovulated and mated with Swiss males to obtain embryos for treatment with VEGF in vitro. Preimplantation embryo development was assessed prior to embryo transfer (n = 19-30/treatment group/output). Recipient F1 female mice (8-12 weeks of age) were mated with vasectomized males to induce pseudopregnancy and embryos were transferred. On Day 14.5 of pregnancy, uterine horns were collected for analysis of implantation rates as well as placental and fetal development (n = 14-19/treatment). Lavage fluid was assessed by western immunoblot analysis to determine the VEGF isoforms present. Mouse embryos were treated with either recombinant human (rh)VEGF, or VEGF isoforms 121 and 165. Preimplantation embryo development was quantified using time-lapse microscopy. Blastocysts were (i) stained for cell number, (ii) transferred to wells coated with fibronectin to examine trophoblast outgrowth or (iii) transferred to pseudo pregnant recipients to analyze implantation rates, placental and

  2. Vascular Cures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vascular disease, such as stroke, aneurysm and pulmonary artery disease. Each one has their own unique story about their battle with vascular disease and their road to recovery. SEE PATIENT STORIES Our Supporters Caring ...

  3. Regulation of angiogenesis by vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in the rat aorta model: distinct temporal patterns of intracellular signaling correlate with induction of angiogenic sprouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Hui; MacIntyre, Angela; Nicosia, Roberto Francesco

    2002-09-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) promote the spontaneous angiogenic response of freshly cut rat aortic rings. When VEGF and Ang-1 were tested in cultures of 14-day-old rings, which are quiescent and unable to spontaneously produce neovessels, only VEGF was capable of inducing an angiogenic response. Ang-1 failed to initiate angiogenesis in this system, but significantly potentiated VEGF-induced neovessel sprouting. Potential differences in cell signaling triggered by VEGF and Ang-1 were evaluated in cultures of quiescent rings. VEGF induced biphasic and prolonged (15 minutes and 4 to 24 hours) phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK and Akt, while the effect of Ang-1 was transient and monophasic (15 minutes). Both VEGF and Ang-1 induced rapid, monophasic (15 minutes) phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. When VEGF and Ang-1 were administered together, the second peak of VEGF-induced p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation was markedly reduced. The effect of the VEGF/Ang-1 combination on AKT phosphorylation was, instead, additive over time, and sustained over a 24-hour period. The VEGF/Ang-1 combination caused an additive effect also on p38 MAPK phosphorylation at 1 hour. Confocal microscopy of VEGF-, Ang-1, or VEGF/Ang-1-stimulated aortic rings double stained at time points of maximal phosphorylation for cell markers and signal transduction proteins demonstrated phosphorylated p44/42 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and Akt predominantly in endothelial cells. Experiments with specific inhibitors demonstrated that p44/42 MAPK and Akt, but not p38 MAPK, are necessary for neovessel sprouting. These results identify p44/42 MAPK and Akt as critical intracellular mediators of angiogenesis, whose transient phosphorylation is, however, not sufficient for the initiation of this process. The observation that sustained phosphorylation of these signaling pathways, particularly of Akt, correlates with induction of angiogenesis suggests that the duration of phosphorylation signals

  4. Role of the PKCβII/JNK signaling pathway in acute glucose fluctuation-induced apoptosis of rat vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Yanjun; He, Bing; Zhang, Yongyan; Bai, Yu; Du, Runyu; Du, Qiang; Han, Ping

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of vascular endothelial cell apoptosis induced by acute blood glucose fluctuation. Thirty rats were assigned to three groups: normal saline (SAL group), constant high glucose (CHG group) and acute blood glucose fluctuation (AFG) group. Other forty rats were assigned to SAL group, AFG group, LY group (PKCβ inhibitor LY333531 was injected intragastrically to the rats who were under acute blood glucose fluctuation) and SP group (JNK inhibitor SP600125 was injected intraperitoneally to the rats who were under acute blood glucose fluctuation). Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. TUNEL was performed to detect apoptosis. Pro-caspase-3, caspase-3 p17, JNK, PKC-βII and insulin signaling-related protein expression were tested by Western blotting. After administration of LY333531, AFG-induced membrane translocation of PKCβII protein was inhibited, but SP600125 failed to affect AFG-induced PKCβII membrane translocation. After administration of LY333531, the AFG-induced increase in JNK activity was significantly compromised. LY333531 inhibited AFG-induced oxidative stress. However, SP600125 only slightly inhibited AFG-induced oxidative stress reaction (P > 0.05). Both LY333531 and SP600125 can reverse AFG-induced endothelial cell apoptosis increase, inflammatory cytokines levels rise and insulin signaling impairment. It is necessary to actively control blood glucose and avoid significant glucose fluctuation. PKCβII/JNK may serve as a target, and inhibitors of PKCβII/JNK may be used to help prevent cardiovascular diseases in patients with poor glucose control or significant glucose fluctuation.

  5. [Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten/phosphatidyl Inositol 3-kinase/vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway changes in the rabbit Kawasaki disease model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, L; Fu, M Y; Tian, J; He, X H; Zhang, H N; Wang, Q W; Wang, Y; Li, C L; Wang, Z Z; An, X J

    2016-03-01

    To observe the changes of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten(PTEN)/ phosphatidyl Inositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/ vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)signaling pathway in a rabbit Kawasaki disease model. Model of Kawasaki disease was established in weanling Japanese big-eared rabbits with 10% bovine serum venous injection (2.5 ml/kg, 2 times, and 2 week's interval) through the ear. Twenty four rabbits were divided into 4 groups: control group (without injection of 10% bovine serum albumin, six rabbits); 1 day group (sacrificed a the second day after the establishment of Kawasaki disease models, six rabbits); 7 day group (sacrificed at the seventh day after establishment of Kawasaki disease model, six rabbits); 30 day group (sacrificed at the thirtieth day after establishment of Kawasaki disease model, six rabbits). Pathological analysis was performed on coronary artery tissue samples. The express of PTEN and PI3K were detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of VEGF and CK were also examined with ELISA and white blood cells were counted. (1) Coronary artery of model groups was thinner, distorted and had enlarged lumen. (2) PTEN expression in 1 d group, 7 d group and 30 d group were 58.5 ± 12.9, 73.2±9.9 and 109.6 ± 24.4, respectively, significantly higher than in the control group (25.5 ± 6.9, P0.05) and significantly lower than 1 d and 7 d group (both P0.05). (6)White blood cell count were significantly higher in 1 d group, 7 d group and 30 d group than in control group (all PKawasaki disease model and the signaling pathway might be involved in this model.

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) tyrosine kinase signaling facilitates granulation tissue formation with recruitment of VEGFR1+cells from bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keiichi; Amano, Hideki; Ito, Yoshiya; Mastui, Yoshio; Kamata, Mariko; Yamazaki, Yasuharu; Takeda, Akira; Shibuya, Masabumi; Majima, Masataka

    2017-12-18

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A facilitates wound healing. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2 and induces wound healing through the receptor's tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. During blood flow recovery and lung regeneration, expression of VEGFR1 is elevated. However, the precise mechanism of wound healing, especially granulation formation on VEGFR1, is not well understood. We hypothesized that VEGFR1-TK signaling induces wound healing by promoting granulation tissue formation. A surgical sponge implantation model was made by implanting a sponge disk into dorsal subcutaneous tissue of mice. Granulation formation was estimated from the weight of the sponge and the granulation area from the immunohistochemical analysis of collagen I. The expression of fibroblast markers was estimated from the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and cellular fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) using real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and from the immunohistochemical analysis of S100A4. VEGFR1 TK knockout (TK -/- ) mice exhibited suppressed granulation tissue formation compared to that in wild-type (WT) mice. Expression of FGF-2, TGF-β, and VEGF-A was significantly suppressed in VEGFR1 TK -/- mice, and the accumulation of VEGFR1 + cells in granulation tissue was reduced in VEGFR1 TK -/- mice compared to that in WT mice. The numbers of VEGFR1 + cells and S100A4 + cells derived from bone marrow (BM) were higher in WT mice transplanted with green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic WT BM than in VEGFR1 TK -/- mice transplanted with GFP transgenic VEGFR1 TK -/- BM. These results indicated that VEGFR1-TK signaling induced the accumulation of BM-derived VEGFR1 + cells expressing F4/80 and S100A4 and contributed to granulation formation around the surgically implanted sponge area in a mouse model.

  7. Apparent diffusion coefficient and vascular signal fraction measurements with magnetic resonance imaging: feasibility in metastatic ovarian cancer at 3 Tesla. Technical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Evis [Addenbrookes Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University Department of Radiology, Box 218, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Priest, Andrew N.; Kataoka, Masako; Graves, Martin J.; Joubert, Ilse; Lomas, David J. [Addenbrookes Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); McLean, Mary A.; Griffiths, John R. [Cambridge Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Crawford, Robin A.F. [Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Gynaeological Oncology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes [University of Cambridge, Department of Pathology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Earl, Helena M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Oncology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Brenton, James D. [Cambridge Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, Cambridge (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Oncology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    This prospective study aims to evaluate the feasibility of DWI at 3 Tesla in patients with advanced ovarian cancer and investigate the differences in vascular signal fraction (VSF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between primary ovarian mass and metastatic disease. Twenty patients with suspected advanced ovarian carcinoma were enrolled in the study. High-resolution T2W FRFSE images were used to confirm the position of three marker lesions: primary ovarian mass, omental cake and peritoneal deposit. Multislice DWI was acquired in a single breath-hold using multiple b-values. The three marker lesions were outlined by an experienced radiologist on ADC and VSF maps. Ovarian lesions showed the highest ADC values. The mean ADC value for peritoneal deposits was significantly lower than for both ovarian lesions (p = 0.03) and omental cake (p = 0.03). The VSF for omental cake was significantly higher than for ovarian lesions (p = 0.01) and peritoneal deposits (p = 0.04). There was a significant positive correlation between ADC and VSF for peritoneal deposits (p = 0.04). DWI in advanced ovarian cancer is feasible at 3 T. There are significant differences in baseline ADC and VSF values between ovarian cancer, omental cake and peritoneal deposits that may explain the mixed treatment response that occurs at different disease sites. (orig.)

  8. Apparent diffusion coefficient and vascular signal fraction measurements with magnetic resonance imaging: feasibility in metastatic ovarian cancer at 3 Tesla. Technical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, Evis; Priest, Andrew N.; Kataoka, Masako; Graves, Martin J.; Joubert, Ilse; Lomas, David J.; McLean, Mary A.; Griffiths, John R.; Crawford, Robin A.F.; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Earl, Helena M.; Brenton, James D.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective study aims to evaluate the feasibility of DWI at 3 Tesla in patients with advanced ovarian cancer and investigate the differences in vascular signal fraction (VSF) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between primary ovarian mass and metastatic disease. Twenty patients with suspected advanced ovarian carcinoma were enrolled in the study. High-resolution T2W FRFSE images were used to confirm the position of three marker lesions: primary ovarian mass, omental cake and peritoneal deposit. Multislice DWI was acquired in a single breath-hold using multiple b-values. The three marker lesions were outlined by an experienced radiologist on ADC and VSF maps. Ovarian lesions showed the highest ADC values. The mean ADC value for peritoneal deposits was significantly lower than for both ovarian lesions (p = 0.03) and omental cake (p = 0.03). The VSF for omental cake was significantly higher than for ovarian lesions (p = 0.01) and peritoneal deposits (p = 0.04). There was a significant positive correlation between ADC and VSF for peritoneal deposits (p = 0.04). DWI in advanced ovarian cancer is feasible at 3 T. There are significant differences in baseline ADC and VSF values between ovarian cancer, omental cake and peritoneal deposits that may explain the mixed treatment response that occurs at different disease sites. (orig.)

  9. Visible tumor surface response to physical plasma and apoptotic cell kill in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Matthias; Seebauer, Christian; Rutkowski, Rico; Hauschild, Anna; Podmelle, Fred; Metelmann, Camilla; Metelmann, Bibiana; von Woedtke, Thomas; Hasse, Sybille; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Metelmann, Hans-Robert

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to learn, whether clinical application of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is able to cause (i) visible tumor surface effects and (ii) apoptotic cell kill in squamous cell carcinoma and (iii) whether CAP-induced visible tumor surface response occurs as often as CAP-induced apoptotic cell kill. Twelve patients with advanced head and neck cancer and infected ulcerations received locally CAP followed by palliative treatment. Four of them revealed tumor surface response appearing 2 weeks after intervention. The tumor surface response expressed as a flat area with vascular stimulation (type 1) or a contraction of tumor ulceration rims forming recesses covered with scabs, in each case surrounded by tumor tissue in visible progress (type 2). In parallel, 9 patients with the same kind of cancer received CAP before radical tumor resection. Tissue specimens were analyzed for apoptotic cells. Apoptotic cells were detectable and occurred more frequently in tissue areas previously treated with CAP than in untreated areas. Bringing together both findings and placing side by side the frequency of clinical tumor surface response and the frequency of analytically proven apoptotic cell kill, detection of apoptotic cells is as common as clinical tumor surface response. There was no patient showing signs of an enhanced or stimulated tumor growth under influence of CAP. CAP was made applicable by a plasma jet, kINPen(®) MED (neoplas tools GmbH, Greifswald, Germany). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Apoptotic engulfment pathway and schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chen, Xiangning

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apoptosis has been speculated to be involved in schizophrenia. In a previously study, we reported the association of the MEGF10 gene with the disease. In this study, we followed the apoptotic engulfment pathway involving the MEGF10, GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes and tested their association with the disease. METHODOLOGY\\/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ten, eleven and five SNPs were genotyped in the GULP1, ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes respectively for the ISHDSF and ICCSS samples. In all 3 genes, we observed nominally significant associations. Rs2004888 at GULP1 was significant in both ISHDSF and ICCSS samples (p = 0.0083 and 0.0437 respectively). We sought replication in independent samples for this marker and found highly significant association (p = 0.0003) in 3 Caucasian replication samples. But it was not significant in the 2 Chinese replication samples. In addition, we found a significant 2-marker (rs2242436 * rs3858075) interaction between the ABCA1 and ABCA7 genes in the ISHDSF sample (p = 0.0022) and a 3-marker interaction (rs246896 * rs4522565 * rs3858075) amongst the MEGF10, GULP1 and ABCA1 genes in the ICCSS sample (p = 0.0120). Rs3858075 in the ABCA1 gene was involved in both 2- and 3-marker interactions in the two samples. CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: From these data, we concluded that the GULP1 gene and the apoptotic engulfment pathway are involved in schizophrenia in subjects of European ancestry and multiple genes in the pathway may interactively increase the risks to the disease.

  11. MiR-137 inhibited cell proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via targeting IGFBP-5 and modulating the mTOR/STAT3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jin; Li, Kai; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown the great impact of microRNAs (miRNAs) on the cell proliferation of VSMCs. This study examined the effects of miR-137 on the cell proliferation and migration of VSMCs and also explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. The mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR and western blot assays, respectively. The CCK-8 assay, wound healing assay and transwell migration assay were performed to measure cell proliferation and migration of VSMCs. The miR-137-targeted 3'untranslated region of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Platelet-derived growth factor-bb (PDGF-bb) treatment enhanced cell proliferation and suppressed the expression of miR-137 in VSMCs. The gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays showed that overexpression of miR-137 suppressed the cell proliferation and migration, and also inhibited the expression of matrix genes of VSMCs; down-regulation of miR-137 had the opposite effects on VSMCs. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase report assay results showed that IGFBP-5 was a direct target of miR-137, and miR-137 overexpression suppressed the IGFBP-5 expression and down-regulation of miR-137 increased the IGFBP-5 expression in VSMCs. PDGF-bb treatment also increased the IGFBP-5 mRNA expression. In addition, enforced expression of IGFBP-5 reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-137 on cell proliferation and migration of VSMCs. More importantly, overexpression of miR-137 also suppressed the activity of mTOR/STAT3 signaling in VSMCs. Taken together, the results suggest that miR-137 may suppress cell proliferation and migration of VSMCs via targeting IGFBP-5 and modulating mTOR/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  12. Microparticles from apoptotic monocytes enhance nitrosative stress in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Maria Letizia; Mostefai, Hadj Ahmed; Soleti, Raffaella; Agouni, Abdelali; Martínez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2011-12-01

    Microparticles are membrane vesicles with procoagulant and proinflammatory properties released during cell activation or apoptosis. Microparticles from monocytes have been implicated in atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation, but their direct effects on endothelial cells are not completely elucidated. The present study was designed to dissect the signaling pathways of monocytic microparticles in endothelial cells with respect to both NO pathway and reactive oxygen species. Microparticles were produced by treatment of human monocytic cell line THP-1 with the apoptotic agent VP-16. Human endothelial cells were treated with monocytic microparticles and then, we studied their effects on nitrosative and oxidative stresses. Incubation of human endothelial cells with microparticles enhanced the production of NO without affecting superoxide anions generation. Microparticles did not affect endothelial NO synthase expression and its phosphorylation. Interestingly, microparticles decreased caveolin-1 expression and increased its phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI-3-kinase or MEK1/2 reversed the effects of microparticles on caveolin-1 expression but not its phosphorylation. Moreover, microparticles increased nitration of several proteins, reflecting peroxynitrite production, which was prevented by blockade of PI-3-kinase pathway. In summary, monocyte microparticles active multiple pathways related to nitrosative stress in endothelial cells including both PI-3-kinase and ERK1/2 in the regulation of caveolin-1 expression. These data underscore the pleiotropic effect of microparticles on endothelial cells and suggest that they probably play a critical role on vascular function. 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology. 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  13. Andrographolide, a Novel NF-κB Inhibitor, Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Apoptosis via a Ceramide-p47phox-ROS Signaling Cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lee, Lin-Wen; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is linked with the development of many cardiovascular complications. Abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in the development of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, the apoptosis of VSMCs, which occurs in the progression of vascular proliferation, may provide a beneficial strategy for managing cardiovascular diseases. Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor- κ B inhibitor, is the most active and critical constituent isolated from the lea...

  14. Phagocytosis mechanism of apoptotic granulosa cells regulated by milk-fat globule-EGF factor 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naka, Mayumi; Kusakabe, Ken; Takeshita, Ai; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Ito, Yuko; Shibata, Masa-Aki; Otsuki, Yoshinori

    2009-09-01

    In the process of ovary sexual maturation, most immature ovarian follicles degrade into atretic follicles accompanied by apoptosis in granulosa cells. Macrophages can recognize apoptotic cells through specific binding with phosphatidylserine (PS), exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells, which is mediated by milk-fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8). In the present research, we examined the involvement of the MFG-E8-dependent phagocytosis system in the atretic follicles of developing mouse ovaries. The number of atretic follicles and DNA-fragmented granulosa cells significantly increased in B6C3F1 mice during 2 to 6 weeks. Chromatin-condensed granulosa cells were engulfed by macrophages, which existed in the stroma or atretic follicles, or by neighboring normal granulosa cells. MFG-E8 mRNA increased in ovaries during 2 to 6 weeks, and immunoreactivity of MFG-E8 was detected at the surface of apoptotic cells existing around the antrum. Immunoelectron microscopic study revealed MFG-E8-positive signals on the membrane of apoptotic cells near macrophages, but apoptotic cells engulfed by neighboring granulosa cells showed few signals. Anti-Fas antibody elevated the annexin-V-positive reaction in isolated granulosa cells from 3-week-old mouse ovaries. MFG-E8 seems to act on the phagocytosis of apoptotic granulosa cells via macrophages and contribute to the regression process of atretic follicles.

  15. ICAM-2 regulates vascular permeability and N-cadherin localization through ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins and Rac-1 signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Endothelial junctions control functions such as permeability, angiogenesis and contact inhibition. VE-Cadherin (VECad) is essential for the maintenance of intercellular contacts. In confluent endothelial monolayers, N-Cadherin (NCad) is mostly expressed on the apical and basal membrane, but in the absence of VECad it localizes at junctions. Both cadherins are required for vascular development. The intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-2, also localized at endothelial junctions, is involved in leukocyte recruitment and angiogenesis. Results In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), both VECad and NCad were found at nascent cell contacts of sub-confluent monolayers, but only VECad localized at the mature junctions of confluent monolayers. Inhibition of ICAM-2 expression by siRNA caused the appearance of small gaps at the junctions and a decrease in NCad junctional staining in sub-confluent monolayers. Endothelioma lines derived from WT or ICAM-2-deficient mice (IC2neg) lacked VECad and failed to form junctions, with loss of contact inhibition. Re-expression of full-length ICAM-2 (IC2 FL) in IC2neg cells restored contact inhibition through recruitment of NCad at the junctions. Mutant ICAM-2 lacking the binding site for ERM proteins (IC2 ΔERM) or the cytoplasmic tail (IC2 ΔTAIL) failed to restore junctions. ICAM-2-dependent Rac-1 activation was also decreased in these mutant cell lines. Barrier function, measured in vitro via transendothelial electrical resistance, was decreased in IC2neg cells, both in resting conditions and after thrombin stimulation. This was dependent on ICAM-2 signalling to the small GTPase Rac-1, since transendothelial electrical resistance of IC2neg cells was restored by constitutively active Rac-1. In vivo, thrombin-induced extravasation of FITC-labeled albumin measured by intravital fluorescence microscopy in the mouse cremaster muscle showed that permeability was increased in ICAM-2-deficient mice compared to controls

  16. The vascular endothelial specific IL-4 receptor alpha-ABL1 kinase signaling axis regulates the severity of IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Amnah; Wu, David; Waggoner, Lisa; Noah, Taeko; Koleske, Anthony J; Finkelman, Fred; Hogan, Simon P

    2017-11-17

    Severe IgE-mediated, food-induced anaphylactic reactions are characterized by pulmonary venous vasodilatation and fluid extravasation, which are thought to lead to the life-threatening anaphylactic phenotype. The underlying immunologic and cellular processes involved in driving fluid extravasation and the severe anaphylactic phenotype are not fully elucidated. We sought to define the interaction and requirement of IL-4 and vascular endothelial (VE) IL-4 receptor α chain (IL-4Rα) signaling in histamine-abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homology 1 (ABL1)-mediated VE dysfunction and fluid extravasation in the severity of IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions in mice. Mice deficient in VE IL-4Rα and models of passive and active oral antigen- and IgE-induced anaphylaxis were used to define the requirements of the VE IL-4Rα and ABL1 pathway in severe anaphylactic reactions. The human VE cell line (EA.hy926 cells) and pharmacologic (imatinib) and genetic (short hairpin RNA knockdown of IL4RA and ABL1) approaches were used to define the requirement of this pathway in VE barrier dysfunction. IL-4 exacerbation of histamine-induced hypovolemic shock in mice was dependent on VE expression of IL-4Rα. IL-4- and histamine-induced ABL1 activation in human VE cells and VE barrier dysfunction was ABL1-dependent. Development of severe IgE-mediated hypovolemia and shock required VE-restricted ABL1 expression. Treatment of mice with a history of food-induced anaphylaxis with the ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib protected the mice from severe IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. IL-4 amplifies IgE- and histamine-induced VE dysfunction, fluid extravasation, and the severity of anaphylaxis through a VE IL-4Rα/ABL1-dependent mechanism. These studies implicate an important contribution by the VE compartment in the severity of anaphylaxis and identify a new pathway for therapeutic intervention of IgE-mediated reactions. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  17. Vascular Vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Hashemilar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo is a common complaint in neurology and medicine. The most common causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Meniere’s disease, and vascular disorders. Vertigo of vascular origin is usually limited to migraine, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Vascular causes lead to various central or peripheral vestibular syndromes with vertigo. This review provides an overview of epidemiology and clinical syndromes of vascular vertigo. Vertigo is an illusion of movement caused by asymmetrical involvement of the vestibular system by various causes. Migraine is the most frequent vascular disorder that causes vertigo in all age groups. Vertigo may occur in up to 25% of patients with migraine. The lifetime prevalence of migrainous vertigo is almost 1%. Cerebrovascular disorders are estimated to account for 3% to 7% of patients with vertigo. Vestibular paroxysmia has been diagnosed in 1.8% to 4% of cases in various dizziness units. Vasculitic disorders are rare in the general population, but vertigo may be seen in almost up to 50% of patients with different vasculitic syndromes. Conclusions: Migraine, cerebrovascular disorders especially involving the vertebrobasilar territory, cardiocirculatory diseases, neurovascular compression of the eighth nerve, and vasculitis are vascular causes of vertigo syndromes.

  18. Apico-basal forces exerted by apoptotic cells drive epithelium folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Bruno; Gettings, Melanie; Gay, Guillaume; Mangeat, Thomas; Schott, Sonia; Guarner, Ana; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-02-12

    Epithelium folding is a basic morphogenetic event that is essential in transforming simple two-dimensional epithelial sheets into three-dimensional structures in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Folding has been shown to rely on apical constriction. The resulting cell-shape changes depend either on adherens junction basal shift or on a redistribution of myosin II, which could be driven by mechanical signals. Yet the initial cellular mechanisms that trigger and coordinate cell remodelling remain largely unknown. Here we unravel the active role of apoptotic cells in initiating morphogenesis, thus revealing a novel mechanism of epithelium folding. We show that, in a live developing tissue, apoptotic cells exert a transient pulling force upon the apical surface of the epithelium through a highly dynamic apico-basal myosin II cable. The apoptotic cells then induce a non-autonomous increase in tissue tension together with cortical myosin II apical stabilization in the surrounding tissue, eventually resulting in epithelium folding. Together our results, supported by a theoretical biophysical three-dimensional model, identify an apoptotic myosin-II-dependent signal as the initial signal leading to cell reorganization and tissue folding. This work further reveals that, far from being passively eliminated as generally assumed (for example, during digit individualization), apoptotic cells actively influence their surroundings and trigger tissue remodelling through regulation of tissue tension.

  19. Combined strategy of endothelial cells coating, Sertoli cells coculture and infusion improves vascularization and rejection protection of islet graft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    Full Text Available Improving islet graft revascularization and inhibiting rejection become crucial tasks for prolonging islet graft survival. Endothelial cells (ECs are the basis of islet vascularization and Sertoli cells (SCs have the talent to provide nutritional support and exert immunosuppressive effects. We construct a combined strategy of ECs coating in the presence of nutritious and immune factors supplied by SCs in a co-culture system to investigate the effect of vascularization and rejection inhibition for islet graft. In vivo, the combined strategy improved the survival and vascularization as well as inhibited lymphocytes and inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, we found the combinatorial strategy improved the function of islets and the effect of ECs-coating on islets. Combined strategy treated islets revealed higher levels of anti-apoptotic signal molecules (Bcl-2 and HSP-32, survival and function related molecules (PDX-1, Ki-67, ERK1/2 and Akt and demonstrated increased vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR and angiogenesis signal molecules (FAk and PLC-γ. SCs effectively inhibited the activation of lymphocyte stimulated by islets and ECs. Predominantly immunosuppressive cytokines could be detected in culture supernatants of the SCs coculture group. These results suggest that ECs-coating and Sertoli cells co-culture or infusion synergistically enhance islet survival and function after transplantation.

  20. Exploitation of Apoptotic Regulation in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Ucker

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Within an organism, environmental stresses can trigger cell death, particularly apoptotic cell death. Apoptotic cells, themselves, are potent regulators of their cellular environment, involved primarily in effecting homeostatic control. Tumors, especially, exist in a dynamic balance of cell proliferation and cell death. This special feature of the tumorous microenvironment—namely, the prominence and persistence of cell death—necessarily entails a magnification of the extrinsic, postmortem effects of dead cells. In both normal and malignant tissues, apoptotic regulation is exerted through immune as well as non-immune mechanisms. Apoptotic cells suppress the repertoire of immune reactivities, both by attenuating innate (especially inflammatory responses and by abrogating adaptive responses. In addition, apoptotic cells modulate multiple vital cell activities, including survival, proliferation (cell number, and growth (cell size. While the microenvironment of the tumor may contribute to apoptosis, the postmortem effects of apoptotic cells feature prominently in the reciprocal acclimatization between the tumor and its environment. In much the same way that pathogens evade the host’s defenses through exploitation of key aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, cancer cells subvert several normal homeostatic processes, in particular wound healing and organ regeneration, to transform and overtake their environment. In understanding this subversion, it is crucial to view a tumor not simply as a clone of malignant cells, but rather as a complex and highly organized structure in which there exists a multidirectional flow of information between the cancer cells themselves and the multiple other cell types and extracellular matrix components of which the tumor is comprised. Apoptotic cells, therefore, have the unfortunate consequence of facilitating tumorigenesis and tumor survival.

  1. Pro-apoptotic and pro-autophagic effects of the Aurora kinase A inhibitor alisertib (MLN8237 on human osteosarcoma U-2 OS and MG-63 cells through the activation of mitochondria-mediated pathway and inhibition of p38 MAPK/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu NK

    2015-03-01

    mesenchymal transition (EMT and the underlying mechanisms in two human OS cell lines U-2 OS and MG-63. The results showed that ALS had potent growth inhibitory, pro-apoptotic, pro-autophagic, and EMT inhibitory effects on U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS remarkably induced G2/M arrest and down-regulated the expression levels of cyclin-dependent kinases 1 and 2 and cyclin B1 in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS markedly induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with a significant increase in the expression of key pro-apoptotic proteins and a decrease in main anti-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, ALS promoted autophagic cell death via the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK signaling pathways, and activation of 5'-AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK signaling pathway. Inducers or inhibitors of apoptosis or autophagy simultaneously altered ALS-induced apoptotic and autophagic death in both U-2 OS and MG-63 cells, suggesting a crosstalk between these two primary modes of programmed cell death. Moreover, ALS suppressed EMT-like phenotypes with a marked increase in the expression of E-cadherin but a decrease in N-cadherin in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS treatment also induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation but inhibited the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 in both cell lines. Taken together, these findings show that ALS promotes apoptosis and autophagy but inhibits EMT via PI3K/Akt/mTOR, p38 MAPK, and AMPK signaling pathways with involvement of ROS- and sirtuin 1-associated pathways in U-2 OS and MG-63 cells. ALS is a promising anticancer agent in OS treatment and further studies are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety in OS chemotherapy. Keywords: ALS, autophagy, apoptosis, osteosarcoma, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, EMT

  2. Ligustrazine attenuates the platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells by interrupting extracellular signal-regulated kinase and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lifei; Huang, Xiaojing; Huang, Kai; Gui, Chun; Huang, Qiaojuan; Wei, Bin

    2015-07-01

    The abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) leads to intimal thickening of the aorta and is, therefore, important in the development of arteriosclerosis. As a result, the use of antiproliferative and antimigratory agents for VSMCs offers promise for the treatment of vascular disorders. Although several studies have demonstrated that ligustrazine may be used to treat heart and blood vessel diseases, the detailed mechanism underlying its actions remain to be elucidated. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of ligustrazine on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-stimulated VSMC proliferation and migration, and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. The findings demonstrated that ligustrazine significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMC proliferation. VSMCs dedifferentiated into a proliferative phenotype under PDGF-BB stimulation, which was effectively reversed by the administration of ligustrazine. In addition, ligustrazine also downregulated the production of nitric oxide and cyclic guanine monophosphate, induced by PDGF-BB. Additionally, ligustrazine significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated VSMC migration. Mechanistic investigation indicated that the upregulation of cell cycle-associated proteins and the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling induced by PDGF-BB was suppressed by the administration of ligustrazine. In conclusion, the present study, demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that ligustrazine downregulated PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation and migration partly, at least, through inhibiting the activation of the ERK and P38 MAPK signaling.

  3. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  4. Rapid NOS-1-derived nitric oxide and peroxynitrite formation act as signaling agents for inducible NOS-2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheschowitsch, Karin; de Moraes, João Alfredo; Sordi, Regina; Barja-Fidalgo, Christina; Assreuy, Jamil

    2015-10-01

    Septic vascular dysfunction is characterized by hypotension and hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors and nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species and peroxynitrite have a prominent role in this condition. However, the mechanism whereby the vascular dysfunction is initiated is poorly understood. Based on previous studies of our group and the literature,we hypothesize that constitutive nitric oxide synthases (c-NOS) and peroxynitrite may play a role in the development of septic vascular dysfunction. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN) were used to stimulate rat aorta smooth muscle cells (A7r5) and rat aorta slices. This stimulation led to a rapid (within minutes) production of NO and superoxide anion, which led to peroxynitrite formation. When this rapid initial burst was reduced, through the inhibition of c-NOS and NADPH oxidases (NOX) or the scavenging of NO and superoxide the NF-κB activation, NOS-2 expression and nitrite production were significantly attenuated. Although vascular smooth muscle cells express both c-NOS isoforms, gene knockdown revealed that only NOS-1-dependent NO and peroxynitrite formation are important for the later NOS-2 expression. Similar findings were obtained by knockdown NOX-1 gene, one source of superoxide for peroxynitrite formation. Taking together, we show that smooth muscle cell activation by LPS/IFN leads to a rapid formation of NOS-1-derived NO and NOX-1-derived superoxide, forming peroxynitrite; and that this species act as a trigger for NOS-2 expression through NF-κB activation. Therefore, our findings suggest a critical role for NOS-1 and NOX-1 in the initiation of the vascular dysfunction associated with sepsis and septic shock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chalepin: A Compound from Ruta angustifolia L. Pers Exhibits Cell Cycle Arrest at S phase, Suppresses Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway, Signal Transducer and Activation of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Phosphorylation and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Carcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jaime Stella Moses; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2017-10-01

    Plants have been a major source of inspiration in developing novel drug compounds in the treatment of various diseases that afflict human beings worldwide. Ruta angustifolia L. Pers known locally as Garuda has been conventionally used for various medicinal purposes such as in the treatment of cancer. A dihydrofuranocoumarin named chalepin, which was isolated from the chloroform extract of the plant, was tested on its ability to inhibit molecular pathways of human lung carcinoma (A549) cells. Cell cycle analysis and caspase 8 activation were conducted using a flow cytometer, and protein expressions in molecular pathways were determined using Western blot technique. Cell cycle analysis showed that cell cycle was arrested at the S phase. Further studies using Western blotting technique showed that cell cycle-related proteins such as cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and inhibitors of CDKs correspond to a cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Chalepin also showed inhibition in the expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT-3), cyclooxygenase-2, and c-myc were also downregulated upon treatment with chalepin. Chalepin was found to induce extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Death receptors 4 and 5 showed a dramatic upregulation at 24 h. Analysis of activation of caspase 8 with the flow cytometer showed an increase in activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Activation of caspase 8 induced cleavage of BH3-interacting domain death agonist, which initiated a mitochondrial-dependent or -independent apoptosis. Chalepin causes S phase cell cycle arrest, NF-κB pathway inhibition, and STAT-3 inhibition, induces extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and could be an excellent chemotherapeutic agent. This study reports the capacity of an isolated bioactive compound known as chalepin to suppress the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway, signal

  6. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of xanthohumol in cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Daniel; Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Sokolowski, Kevin; Clark, T Gamblin; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2017-10-20

    Cholangiocarcinoma remains the second most prevalent hepatic neoplasm in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. Currently, no systemic therapy has demonstrated efficacy. Therefore, an urgent need for the identification of molecularly targeted compound(s) remains. The Notch signaling pathway has been shown to be dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma, exhibiting hyperactivity while also possibly mediating chemotherapeutic resistance. We analyzed the effects of xanthohumol, a prenylated chalcone, on cholangiocarcinoma proliferation utilizing human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines CCLP1, SG-231 and CC-SW-1 while gaining insight into the associated mechanism. Xanthohumol potently reduced cellular proliferation, colony formation, and cell confluency in all three cell lines. Xanthohumol induced cell cycle arrest as well as apoptosis through the reduction of cell cycle regulatory proteins as well as an increase in pro-apoptotic markers (cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase, cleaved caspase-3) and a decrease in anti-apoptotic markers (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis and survivin). At the molecular level, xanthohumol reduced Notch1 and AKT expression in a step-wise and time-dependent fashion, with Notch1 reductions preceding AKT. Additionally, xanthohumol reduced cholangiocarcinoma growth in both CCLP-1 and SG-231 derived mice xenografts. In summary, we show that xanthohumol significantly reduced cholangiocarcinoma growth through the Notch1/AKT signaling axis. Furthermore, known pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of XN supports continued development of treatment for cholangiocarcinoma.

  7. Apoptotic cells can induce non-autonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garijo, Ainhoa; Fuchs, Yaron; Steller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cells can produce signals to instruct cells in their local environment, including ones that stimulate engulfment and proliferation. We identified a novel mode of communication by which apoptotic cells induce additional apoptosis in the same tissue. Strong induction of apoptosis in one compartment of the Drosophila wing disc causes apoptosis of cells in the other compartment, indicating that dying cells can release long-range death factors. We identified Eiger, the Drosophila tumor necrosis factor (TNF) homolog, as the signal responsible for apoptosis-induced apoptosis (AiA). Eiger is produced in apoptotic cells and, through activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, is able to propagate the initial apoptotic stimulus. We also show that during coordinated cell death of hair follicle cells in mice, TNF-α is expressed in apoptotic cells and is required for normal cell death. AiA provides a mechanism to explain cohort behavior of dying cells that is seen both in normal development and under pathological conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01004.001 PMID:24066226

  8. Antitumor and apoptotic effects of cucurbitacin a in A-549 lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The main aim of this study was to demonstrate the antitumor potential of cucurbitacin A on A-549 NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer cells). The effects of Cucurbitacin A on apoptotic induction, cell physic, cell cycle failure and m-TOR/PI3K/Akt signalling pathway were also investigated in the present study.

  9. Vascular dementia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2003-12-10

    Dec 10, 2003 ... ischaemic VaD includes multiple lacunes and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger's disease) and imaging shows multiple deep ... culitis, multiple sclerosis, acute demyelinating encephalomy- ... Table I. The NINDS-AIREN criteria for the diagnosis of Vascular Dementia. 12. Require both ...

  10. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  11. Ultrasound -- Vascular

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... waves from passing into your body. The sonographer (ultrasound technologist) or radiologist then places the transducer on the ... is specialized and is best performed by a technologist and physician with experience in vascular ultrasound imaging. top of page Additional Information and Resources ...

  12. Activation of Pro-apoptotic Caspases in Non-apoptotic Cells During Odontogenesis and Related Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Svandova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Caspases are well known proteases in the context of inflammation and apoptosis. Recently, novel roles of pro-apoptotic caspases have been reported, including findings related to the development of hard tissues. To further investigate these emerging functions of pro-apoptotic caspases, the in vivo localisation of key pro-apoptotic caspases (-3,-6,-7,-8, and -9 was assessed, concentrating on the development of two neighbouring hard tissues, cells participating in odontogenesis (represented by the first mouse molar and intramembranous osteogenesis (mandibular/alveolar bone. The expression of the different caspases within the developing tissues was correlated with the apoptotic status of the cells, to produce a picture of whether different caspases have potentially distinct, or overlapping non-apoptotic functions. The in vivo investigation was additionally supported by examination of caspases in an osteoblast-like cell line in vitro. Caspases-3,-7, and -9 were activated in apoptotic cells of the primary enamel knot of the first molar; however, caspase-7 and -8 activation was also associated with the non-apoptotic enamel epithelium at the same stage and later with differentiating/differentiated odontoblasts and ameloblasts. In the adjacent bone, active caspases-7 and -8 were present abundantly in the prenatal period, while the appearance of caspases-3,-6, and -9 was marginal. Perinatally, caspases-3 and -7 were evident in some osteoclasts and osteoblastic cells, and caspase-8 was abundant mostly in osteoclasts. In addition, postnatal activation of caspases-7 and -8 was retained in osteocytes. The results provide a comprehensive temporo-spatial pattern of pro-apoptotic caspase activation, and demonstrate both unique and overlapping activation in non-apoptotic cells during development of the molar tooth and mandibular/alveolar bone. The importance of caspases in osteogenic pathways is highlighted by caspase inhibition in osteoblast-like cells, which

  13. Apoptotic response of malignant rhabdoid tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nocentini Silvano

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs are extremely aggressive and resist current radio- and chemotherapic treatments. To gain insight into the dysfunctions of MRT cells, the apoptotic response of a model cell line, MON, was analyzed after exposure to several genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents employed separately or in association. Results Fluorescence microscopy of chromatin morphology and electrophoretic analysis of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation revealed that MON cells were, comparatively to HeLa cells, resistant to apoptosis after treatment with etoposide, cisplatin (CisPt or X-rays, but underwent some degree of apoptosis after ultraviolet (UV C irradiation. Concomitant treatment of MON cells with X-rays or vinblastine and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K inhibitor wortmannin resulted in synergistic induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that the p53 protein was upregulated in MON cells after exposure to all the different agents tested, singly or in combination. In treated cells, the p53 downstream effectors p21WAF1/CIP1, Mdm2 and Bax were induced with some inconsistency with regard to the accumulation of p53. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, indicative of ongoing apoptosis, occurred in UVC-irradiated cells and, especially, in cells treated with combinations of X-rays or vinblastine with wortmannin. However, there was moderate or no PARP cleavage in cells treated with CisPt, X-rays, vinblastine or wortmannin singly or with the combinations X-rays plus CisPt or vinblastine and CisPt plus vinblastine or wortmannin. The synergistic effect on the induction of apoptosis exerted by some agent combinations corresponded with synergy in respect of MON cell growth inhibition. Conclusion These results suggest abnormalities in the p53 pathway and apoptosis control in MRT cells. The Ras/PI3-K/AKT signaling pathway might also be deregulated in these cells by generating an excess of survival factors. These

  14. Detection of apoptotic cells using immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P.; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry is commonly used to show the presence of apoptotic cells in situ. In this protocol, B-cell lymphoma cells are injected into recipient mice and, on tumor formation, the mice are treated with the apoptosis inducer vorinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor). Tumor samples are

  15. Comparative Antioxidant, Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine and compare the antioxidant, antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of leaf infusions of Ilex laurina and Ilex paraguariensis in colon cancer cells. Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined by ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power). Cytotoxic ...

  16. Vascular neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H B

    1980-07-01

    Vascular neoplasms in the broad sense represent a very common group of tumors or hamartomas that show great variability in gross appearance, microscopic appearance, and clinical course. Generally, neoplasms are composed of one cell type, but vascular neoplasms are collections of endothelial-lined tubes or tubules with connective tissue walls that may contain smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and nerve elements according to the specific tissues of origin. The classification of vascular neoplasms as outlined in this article attempts to delineate each tumor or hamartoma according to its histologic appearance and clinical behavior. The clinical course ranges from completely benign, self-involuting malformations such as the strawberry hemangioma to highly malignant angiosarcomas with their rapid growth and frequent metastases. Defects in the lymphatic system show gradations from simple lymphangiomas through lymphedema and lymphangiectasia, which can probably be explained by faulty embryologic development. Management of these lesions has been discussed, including brief descriptions of most of the currently accepted treatment methods for these frequently encountered clinical problems.

  17. Non-apoptotic function of apoptotic proteins in the development of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    apoptotic roles such as immune function. (Stoven et al. 2003; Tanji and Ip 2005), cell proliferation. (Chun et al. 2002; Salmena and Hakem 2005), cell differentiation (Kang et al. 2004; Lamkanfi et al. 2006) spermatid individualization (Arama et al.

  18. Anti-apoptotic peptides protect against radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Kevin W.; Muenzer, Jared T.; Chang, Kathy C.; Davis, Chris G.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Hilliard, Carolyn A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Grigsby, Perry W.; Hunt, Clayton R.

    2007-01-01

    The risk of terrorist attacks utilizing either nuclear or radiological weapons has raised concerns about the current lack of effective radioprotectants. Here it is demonstrated that the BH4 peptide domain of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL can be delivered to cells by covalent attachment to the TAT peptide transduction domain (TAT-BH4) and provide protection in vitro and in vivo from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Isolated human lymphocytes treated with TAT-BH4 were protected against apoptosis following exposure to 15 Gy radiation. In mice exposed to 5 Gy radiation, TAT-BH4 treatment protected splenocytes and thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Most importantly, in vivo radiation protection was observed in mice whether TAT-BH4 treatment was given prior to or after irradiation. Thus, by targeting steps within the apoptosis signaling pathway it is possible to develop post-exposure treatments to protect radio-sensitive tissues

  19. DT-13 Ameliorates TNF-α-Induced Vascular Endothelial HyperpermeabilityviaNon-Muscle Myosin IIA and the Src/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Han, Yuwei; Zhao, Yazheng; Lv, Yanni; Hu, Yang; Tan, Yisha; Bi, Xueyuan; Yu, Boyang; Kou, Junping

    2017-01-01

    DT-13(25(R,S)-ruscogenin-1 -O- [β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)][β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-d-fucopyranoside) has been identified as an important factor in TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation. However, the effect of DT-13 on TNF-α-induced endothelial permeability and the potential molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Hence, this study was undertaken to elucidate the protective effect of DT-13 on TNF-α-induced endothelial permeability and the underlying mechanisms in vivo and in vitro . The in vivo results showed that DT-13 could ameliorate endothelial permeability in mustard oil-induced plasma leakage in the skin and modulate ZO-1 organization. In addition, the in vitro results showed that pretreatment with DT-13 could increase the transendothelial electrical resistance value and decrease the sodium fluorescein permeability coefficient. Moreover, DT-13 altered the mRNA and protein levels of ZO-1 as determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analyses. DT-13 treatment decreased the phosphorylations of Src, PI3K, and Akt in TNF-α-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Further analyses with PP2 (10 µM, inhibitor of Src) indicated that DT-13 modulated endothelial permeability in TNF-α-induced HUVECs in an Src-dependent manner. LY294002 (10 µM, PI3K inhibitor) also had the same effect on DT-13 but did not affect phosphorylation of Src. Following decreased expression of non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA), the effect of DT-13 on the phosphorylations of Src, PI3K, and Akt was abolished. This study provides pharmacological evidence showing that DT-13 significantly ameliorated the TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial hyperpermeability through modulation of the Src/PI3K/Akt pathway and NMIIA, which play an important role in this process.

  20. Exendin-4 Prevents Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Migration by Angiotensin II via the Inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Nagayama

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II is a main pathophysiological culprit peptide for hypertension and atherosclerosis by causing vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation and migration. Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist, is currently used for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, and is believed to have beneficial effects for cardiovascular diseases. However, the vascular protective mechanisms of GLP-1 receptor agonists remain largely unexplained. In the present study, we examined the effect of exendin-4 on Ang II-induced proliferation and migration of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC. The major findings of the present study are as follows: (1 Ang II caused a phenotypic switch of RASMC from contractile type to synthetic proliferative type cells; (2 Ang II caused concentration-dependent RASMC proliferation, which was significantly inhibited by the pretreatment with exendin-4; (3 Ang II caused concentration-dependent RASMC migration, which was effectively inhibited by the pretreatment with exendin-4; (4 exendin-4 inhibited Ang II-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK in a pre-incubation time-dependent manner; and (5 U0126 (an ERK1/2 kinase inhibitor and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor also inhibited both RASMC proliferation and migration induced by Ang II stimulation. These results suggest that exendin-4 prevented Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation and migration through the inhibition of ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation caused by Ang II stimulation. This indicates that GLP-1 receptor agonists should be considered for use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases in addition to their current use in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Safflower Extract and Aceglutamide Injection Promoting Recovery of Peripheral Innervations via Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-B Signaling in Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Chen, You-Gang; Zhang, Cui-Juan; Tian, Jing; Li, Xia

    2017-12-05

    Safflower extract and aceglutamide (SA) has been used clinically for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as cerebral embolism, hemorrhage, and mental deterioration. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of SA injection in the recovery of peripheral innervations of diabetic mice. The C57BL/6 male mice were divided into four groups: normal control group (n = 44), diabetic group (n = 44), diabetic + SA group (diabetic mice treated with SA injection, n = 44), and diabetic + SA + vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)1-BL group (diabetic mice treated with SA injection and VEGFR 1 blocking antibody n = 24). The streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice model and injured peripheral nerve mice model were built. The mice with injured peripheral nerves were intraperitonealy administered with SA injection for successive 21 days. The corneal sensitivity, number of corneal nerve fibers, and contents of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B and various neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in corneal tissue of four groups were observed. The diabetic group showed decreased number of corneal nerve fibers, compared with the control group (P = 0.002). And compared with the diabetic group, the diabetic + SA group showed a significant increase in the number of nerve fibers (P = 0.024) and the contents of VEGF-B, NGF, and GDNF in the cornea (all P < 0.05). However, when the diabetic mice were treated with the blocking antibodies specialized for VEGF-B receptor, the neutralization of VEGFR-1 completely abolished the increased expression of NGF and GDNF stimulated by SA injection. SA injection could reduce the nerve injury caused by diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and its protective effect might be associated with the promotion of the expressions of VEGF-B, NGF, and GDNF.

  2. Stabilization Of Apoptotic Cells: Generation Of Zombie Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Sánchez Alcázar

    2015-08-01

    Stabilization of apoptotic cells can be used for reliable detection and quantification of apoptosis in cultured cells and may allow a safer administration of apoptotic cells in clinical applications. Furthermore, it opens new avenues in the functional reconstruction of apoptotic cells for longer preservation.

  3. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  4. Cell-Centric View of Apoptosis and Apoptotic Cell Death-Inducing Antitumoral Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Boyano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death and especially apoptotic cell death, occurs under physiological conditions and is also desirable under pathological circumstances. However, the more we learn about cellular signaling cascades, the less plausible it becomes to find restricted and well-limited signaling pathways. In this context, an extensive description of pathway-connections is necessary in order to point out the main regulatory molecules as well as to select the most appropriate therapeutic targets. On the other hand, irregularities in programmed cell death pathways often lead to tumor development and cancer-related mortality is projected to continue increasing despite the effort to develop more active and selective antitumoral compounds. In fact, tumor cell plasticity represents a major challenge in chemotherapy and improvement on anticancer therapies seems to rely on appropriate drug combinations. An overview of the current status regarding apoptotic pathways as well as available chemotherapeutic compounds provides a new perspective of possible future anticancer strategies.

  5. Non-apoptotic function of apoptotic proteins in the development of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we show that in the Malpighian tubules expression of apoptotic proteins commences right from embryonic development and continues throughout the larval stages. Overexpression of these proteins in the Malpighian tubules causes larval lethality resulting in malformed tubules. The number and regular organization of.

  6. Non-apoptotic function of apoptotic proteins in the development of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... Here we show that in the Malpighian tubules expression of apoptotic proteins commences right from embryonic development and continues throughout the larval stages. Overexpression of these proteins in the Malpighian tubules causes larval lethality resulting in malformed tubules. The number and ...

  7. Terminalia Chebula provides protection against dual modes of necroptotic and apoptotic cell death upon death receptor ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjung; Byun, Hee Sun; Seok, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyeong Ah; Won, Minho; Seo, Wonhyoung; Lee, So-Ra; Kang, Kidong; Sohn, Kyung-Cheol; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Son, Chang Gue; Shen, Han-Ming; Hur, Gang Min

    2016-04-27

    Death receptor (DR) ligation elicits two different modes of cell death (necroptosis and apoptosis) depending on the cellular context. By screening a plant extract library from cells undergoing necroptosis or apoptosis, we identified a water extract of Terminalia chebula (WETC) as a novel and potent dual inhibitor of DR-mediated cell death. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of its anti-necroptotic and anti-apoptotic action revealed that WETC or its constituents (e.g., gallic acid) protected against tumor necrosis factor-induced necroptosis via the suppression of TNF-induced ROS without affecting the upstream signaling events. Surprisingly, WETC also provided protection against DR-mediated apoptosis by inhibition of the caspase cascade. Furthermore, it activated the autophagy pathway via suppression of mTOR. Of the WETC constituents, punicalagin and geraniin appeared to possess the most potent anti-apoptotic and autophagy activation effect. Importantly, blockage of autophagy with pharmacological inhibitors or genetic silencing of Atg5 selectively abolished the anti-apoptotic function of WETC. These results suggest that WETC protects against dual modes of cell death upon DR ligation. Therefore, WETC might serve as a potential treatment for diseases characterized by aberrantly sensitized apoptotic or non-apoptotic signaling cascades.

  8. VEGF-Induced Vascular Permeability Is Mediated by FAK

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao Lei; Nam, Ju-Ock; Jean, Christine; Lawson, Christine; Walsh, Colin T.; Goka, Erik; Lim, Ssang-Taek; Tomar, Alok; Tancioni, Isabelle; Uryu, Sean; Guan, Jun-Lin; Acevedo, Lisette M.; Weis, Sara M.; Cheresh, David A.; Schlaepfer, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) form cell-cell adhesive junctional structures maintaining vascular integrity. This barrier is dynamically regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor signaling. We created an inducible knockin mouse model to study the contribution of the integrin-associated focal adhesion tyrosine kinase (FAK) signaling on vascular function. Here we show that genetic or pharmacological FAK inhibition in ECs prevents VEGF-stimulated permeability downstream of VEGF re...

  9. Sulforaphane inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by targeting mTOR/p70S6kinase signaling independent of Nrf2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, Noha M; Segar, Lakshman

    2017-05-01

    Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a transcription factor) and/or inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are implicated in the suppression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. The present study has examined the likely regulatory effects of sulforaphane (SFN, an antioxidant) on Nrf2 activation and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced mTOR signaling in VSMCs. Using human aortic VSMCs, nuclear extraction and siRNA-mediated downregulation studies were performed to determine the role of Nrf2 on SFN regulation of PDGF-induced proliferative signaling. Immunoprecipitation and/or immunoblot studies were carried out to determine how SFN regulates PDGF-induced mTOR/p70S6K/S6 versus ERK and Akt signaling. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine SFN regulation of S6 phosphorylation in the injured mouse femoral artery. SFN (5μM) inhibits PDGF-induced activation of mTOR without affecting mTOR association with raptor in VSMCs. While SFN inhibits PDGF-induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1 (downstream targets of mTOR), it does not affect ERK or Akt phosphorylation. In addition, SFN diminishes exaggerated phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (a downstream target of p70S6K) in VSMCs in vitro and in the neointimal layer of injured artery in vivo. Although SFN promotes Nrf2 accumulation to upregulate cytoprotective genes (e.g., heme oxygenase-1 and thioredoxin-1), downregulation of endogenous Nrf2 by target-specific siRNA reveals an Nrf2-independent effect for SFN-mediated inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/S6 signaling and suppression of VSMC proliferation. Strategies that utilize local delivery of SFN at the lesion site may limit restenosis after angioplasty by targeting mTOR/p70S6K/S6 axis in VSMCs independent of Nrf2 activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The apoptotic effect of simvastatin via the upregulation of BIM in nonsmall cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, In Kyoung; Lee, Hye In; Mo, Jin Young; Yeo, Chang Dong; Kang, Hyeon Hui; Moon, Hwa Sik; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-01-01

    Statins are known to have pleiotropic effects that induce cell death in certain cancer cells. BIM is a member of the bcl-2 gene family, which promotes apoptotic cell death. This study investigated the hypothesis that simvastatin has pro-apoptotic effects in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated lung cancer cell lines via the upregulation of the expression of the BIM protein. The cytotoxic effects of simvastatin on gefitinib-sensitive (HCC827, E716-A750del) and -resistant (H1975, T790M + L858R) nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells were compared. Cell proliferation and expression of apoptosis-related and EGFR downstream signaling proteins were evaluated. Expression of BIM was compared in H1975 cells after treatment with simvastatin or gefitinib. SiRNA-mediated BIM depletion was performed to confirm whether the cytotoxicity of simvastatin was mediated by the expression of BIM. H1975 cells showed significantly reduced viability compared with HCC827 cells after treatment with simvastatin (2 μM) for 48 hours. In simvastatin-treated H1975 cells, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins was increased and the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 (p-ERK 1/2) was reduced. Expression of BIM was suppressed by gefitinib (1 μM) treatment in H1975 cells, but it was significantly increased by treatment with simvastatin. BIM depletion by siRNA transfection enhanced the viability of H1975 cells that received simvastatin treatment and increased their expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Simvastatin restored the expression of BIM to induce apoptotic cell death in NSCLC cells harboring an EGFR-resistant mutation. Our study suggests the potential utility of simvastatin as a BIM-targeted treatment for NSCLC.

  11. Microparticle-Induced Activation of the Vascular Endothelium Requires Caveolin-1/Caveolae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Andrews

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are small membrane fragments shed from normal as well as activated, apoptotic or injured cells. Emerging evidence implicates MPs as a causal and/or contributing factor in altering normal vascular cell phenotype through initiation of proinflammatory signal transduction events and paracrine delivery of proteins, mRNA and miRNA. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which MPs influence these events. Caveolae are important membrane microdomains that function as centers of signal transduction and endocytosis. Here, we tested the concept that the MP-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype shift in endothelial cells (ECs depends on caveolae. Consistent with previous reports, MP challenge activated ECs as evidenced by upregulation of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 expression. ICAM-1 upregulation was mediated by activation of NF-κB, Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP-1 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. This response was absent in ECs lacking caveolin-1/caveolae. To test whether caveolae-mediated endocytosis, a dynamin-2 dependent process, is a feature of the proinflammatory response, EC's were pretreated with the dynamin-2 inhibitor dynasore. Similar to observations in cells lacking caveolin-1, inhibition of endocytosis significantly attenuated MPs effects including, EGFR phosphorylation, activation of NF-κB and upregulation of ICAM-1 expression. Thus, our results indicate that caveolae play a role in mediating the pro-inflammatory signaling pathways which lead to EC activation in response to MPs.

  12. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, Michael J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease

  13. The N-terminus of CD14 acts to bind apoptotic cells and confers rapid-tethering capabilities on non-myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Thomas

    Full Text Available Cell death and removal of cell corpses in a timely manner is a key event in both physiological and pathological situations including tissue homeostasis and the resolution of inflammation. Phagocytic clearance of cells dying by apoptosis is a complex sequential process comprising attraction, recognition, tethering, signalling and ultimately phagocytosis and degradation of cell corpses. A wide range of molecules acting as apoptotic cell-associated ligands, phagocyte-associated receptors or soluble bridging molecules have been implicated within this process. The role of myeloid cell CD14 in mediating apoptotic cell interactions with macrophages has long been known though key molecules and residues involved have not been defined. Here we sought to further dissect the function of CD14 in apoptotic cell clearance. A novel panel of THP-1 cell-derived phagocytes was employed to demonstrate that CD14 mediates effective apoptotic cell interactions with macrophages in the absence of detectable TLR4 whilst binding and responsiveness to LPS requires TLR4. Using a targeted series of CD14 point mutants expressed in non-myeloid cells we reveal CD14 residue 11 as key in the binding of apoptotic cells whilst other residues are reported as key for LPS binding. Importantly we note that expression of CD14 in non-myeloid cells confers the ability to bind rapidly to apoptotic cells. Analysis of a panel of epithelial cells reveals that a number naturally express CD14 and that this is competent to mediate apoptotic cell clearance. Taken together these data suggest that CD14 relies on residue 11 for apoptotic cell tethering and it may be an important tethering molecule on so called 'non-professional' phagocytes thus contributing to apoptotic cell clearance in a non-myeloid setting. Furthermore these data establish CD14 as a rapid-acting tethering molecule, expressed in monocytes, which may thus confer responsiveness of circulating monocytes to apoptotic cell derived

  14. Modulation of Apoptotic Pathways by Human Papillomaviruses (HPV: Mechanisms and Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsiang Yuan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the host to trigger apoptosis in infected cells is perhaps the most powerful tool by which viruses can be cleared from the host organism. To avoid elimination by this mechanism, human papillomaviruses (HPV have developed several mechanisms that enable the cells they infect to elude both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis. In this manuscript, we review the current literature regarding how HPV-infected cells avoid apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms involved in these events. In particular, we will discuss the modifications in intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways caused by proteins encoded by HPV early genes. Many of the current efforts regarding anti-cancer drug development are focused on directing tumor cells to undergo apoptosis. However, the ability of HPV-infected cells to resist apoptotic signals renders such therapies ineffective. Possible mechanisms for overcoming the resistance of HPV-infected tumor cells to anticancer drugs will be discussed.

  15. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  16. Anti-apoptotic potential of several antidiabetic medicinal plants of the eastern James Bay Cree pharmacopeia in cultured kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shilin; Pasquin, Sarah; Eid, Hoda M; Gauchat, Jean-François; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre S

    2018-01-30

    Our team has identified 17 Boreal forest species from the traditional pharmacopeia of the Eastern James Bay Cree that presented promising in vitro and in vivo biological activities in the context of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We now screened the 17 plants extracts for potential anti-apoptotic activity in cultured kidney cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms. MDCK (Madin-Darnby Canine Kidney) cell damage was induced by hypertonic medium (700 mOsm/L) in the presence or absence of maximal nontoxic concentrations of each of the 17 plant extracts. After 18 h' treatment, cells were stained with Annexin V (AnnV) and Propidium iodide (PI) and subjected to flow cytometry to assess the cytoprotective (AnnV - /PI - ) and anti-apoptotic (AnnV + /PI - ) potential of the 17 plant extracts. We then selected a representative subset of species (most cytoprotective, moderately so or neutral) to measure the activity of caspases 3, 8 and 9. Gaultheria hispidula and Abies balsamea are amongst the most powerful cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic plants and appear to exert their modulatory effect primarily by inhibiting caspase 9 in the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway. We conclude that several Cree antidiabetic plants exert anti-apoptotic activity that may be relevant in the context of diabetic nephropathy (DN) that affects a significant proportion of Cree diabetics.

  17. Collagen vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001223.htm Collagen vascular disease To use the sharing features on ... were previously said to have "connective tissue" or "collagen vascular" disease. We now have names for many ...

  18. Vascular Anomalies in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Lisa S; Kulungowski, Ann M

    2015-08-01

    A standardized classification system allows improvements in diagnostic accuracy. Multidisciplinary vascular anomaly centers combine medical, surgical, radiologic, and pathologic expertise. This collaborative approach tailors treatment and management of vascular anomalies for affected individuals.

  19. Peripheral Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics FAQs Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) involves damage to or blockage in the blood ... the organs in and below your stomach area. PVD may also affect the arteries leading to your ...

  20. NF1 Signal Transduction and Vascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    malformations, aneurysms, and hypertension . Consequently there is a markedly elevated risk of cerbrovascular accidents(Friedman et al., 2002). NF1...the endothelium seems to trigger a rapid leukemic crisis . This observation is quite unexpected but consistent with the notion that the endothelial

  1. Copper induced immunotoxicity promote differential apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Soham; Keswani, Tarun; Ghosh, Nabanita; Goswami, Suranjana; Datta, Anuradha; Das, Salomie; Maity, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Copper-induced ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes result in different consequences in spleen and thymus. ► Inflammation appeared in both the spleen and thymus after to copper treatment. ► Apoptosis in the spleen appears to follow a p53-independent pathway. ► Apoptosis in the thymus appears to follow a p53-dependent intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. ► In both the spleen and thymus, the CD4+ T cell population decreased and CD8+ T cell population increased after copper treatment. - Abstract: Inorganic copper, such as that in drinking water and copper supplements, largely bypasses the liver and enters the free copper pool of the blood directly and that promote immunosuppression. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways underlying copper-induced immune cell death remains largely unclear. According to our previous in vivo report, to evaluate the further details of the apoptotic mechanism, we have investigated how copper regulates apoptotic pathways in spleen and thymus. We have analyzed different protein expression by western blotting and immunohistochemistry and mRNA expression by RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis. We also have measured mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, ROS and CD4 + and CD8 + population by flow cytometry. Sub lethal doses of copper in spleen and thymus of in vivo Swiss albino mice promote different apoptotic pathways. In case of spleen, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes promotes intrinsic pathway of apoptosis that was p53 independent, ultimately leads to decrease in CD4 + T cell population and increase in CD8 + T cell population. However in case of thymus, ROS generation and mitochondrial trans-membrane potential changes lead to death receptor that regulate extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and the apoptotic mechanism which was p53 dependent. Due to copper treatment, thymic CD4 + T cell population decreased and CD8 + T cell population was increased or

  2. Nicorandil attenuates monocrotaline-induced vascular endothelial damage and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An antianginal K(ATP channel opener nicorandil has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems; however, its effects on pulmonary vasculature under pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether nicorandil can attenuate monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT were randomized to receive either vehicle; nicorandil (5.0 mg·kg(-1·day(-1 alone; or nicorandil as well as either a K(ATP channel blocker glibenclamide or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, from immediately or 21 days after MCT injection. Four or five weeks later, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured, and lung tissue was harvested. Also, we evaluated the nicorandil-induced anti-apoptotic effects and activation status of several molecules in cell survival signaling pathway in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Four weeks after MCT injection, RVSP was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group (51.0±4.7 mm Hg, whereas it was attenuated by nicorandil treatment (33.2±3.9 mm Hg; P<0.01. Nicorandil protected pulmonary endothelium from the MCT-induced thromboemboli formation and induction of apoptosis, accompanied with both upregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS expression and downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Late treatment with nicorandil for the established PAH was also effective in suppressing the additional progression of PAH. These beneficial effects of nicorandil were blocked similarly by glibenclamide and l-NAME. Next, HUVECs were incubated in serum-free medium and then exhibited apoptotic morphology, while these changes were significantly attenuated by nicorandil administration. Nicorandil activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  3. Inhibition of Rho - ROCK signaling induces apoptotic and non-apoptotic PS exposure in cardiomyocytes via inhibition of flippase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Paul A. J.; Sipkens, Jessica A.; Molling, Johan W.; Rauwerda, Jan A.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Muller, Alice; Paulus, Walter J.; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P.; Hack, C. Erik; Verhoeven, Arthur J.; van Hinsbergh, Victor W. M.; Niessen, Hans W. M.

    2010-01-01

    Subsequent to myocardial infarction, cardiomyocytes within the infarcted areas and border zones expose phosphatidylserine (PS) in the outer plasma membrane leaflet (flip-flop). We showed earlier that in addition to apoptosis, this flip-flop can be reversible in cardiomyocytes. We now investigated a

  4. Intrinsic, pro-apoptotic effects of IGFBP-3 on breast cancer cells are reversible: Involvement of PKA, Rho and ceramide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Perks

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We established previously that IGFBP-3 could exert positive or negative effects on cell function depending upon the extracellular matrix composition and by interacting with integrin signalling. To elicit its pro-apoptotic effects IGFBP-3 bound to caveolin-1 and the beta 1 integrin receptor and increased their association culminating in MAPK activation. Disruption of these complexes or blocking the beta 1 integrin receptor reversed these intrinsic actions of IGFBP-3. In this study we have examined the signalling pathway between integrin receptor binding and MAPK activation that mediates the intrinsic, pro-apoptotic actions of IGFBP-3. We found on inhibiting protein kinase A(PKA, Rho associated kinase (ROCK and ceramide, the accentuating effects of IGFBP-3 on apoptotic triggers were reversed, such that IGFBP-3 then conferred cell survival. We established that IGFBP-3 activated Rho, the upstream regulator of ROCK and that beta1 integrin and PKA were upstream of Rho activation, whereas the involvement of ceramide was downstream. The beta 1 integrin, PKA, Rho and ceramide were all upstream of MAPK activation. These data highlight key components involved in the pro-apoptotic effects of IGFBP-3 and that inhibiting them leads to a reversal in the action of IGFBP-3.

  5. Antitumor effects of traditional Chinese medicine targeting the cellular apoptotic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu HL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Huanli Xu,1 Xin Zhao,2 Xiaohui Liu,1 Pingxiang Xu,1 Keming Zhang,2 Xiukun Lin11Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, 2Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 302 Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Defects in apoptosis are common phenomena in many types of cancer and are also a critical step in tumorigenesis. Targeting the apoptotic pathway has been considered an intriguing strategy for cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used in the People’s Republic of China for thousands of years, and many of the medicines have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a number of tumors. With increasing cancer rates worldwide, the antitumor effects of TCMs have attracted more and more attention globally. Many of the TCMs have been shown to have antitumor activity through multiple targets, and apoptosis pathway-related targets have been extensively studied and defined to be promising. This review focuses on several antitumor TCMs, especially those with clinical efficacy, based on their effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway. The problems with and prospects of development of TCMs as anticancer agents are also presented.Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine, antitumor effects, apoptotic pathway

  6. Vascular function in health, hypertension, and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann, Lasse; Hellsten, Ylva

    2015-01-01

    , the increase in muscle blood flow required for oxygen supply during exercise is achieved through a substantial increase in vasodilators locally formed in the active muscle tissue that overcome the vasoconstrictor signals. Most of the vasodilator signals are mediated via endothelial cells, which lead...... to the formation of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. In essential hypertension and type II diabetes, the endothelial function and regulation of vascular tone is impaired with consequent increases in peripheral vascular resistance and inadequate regulation of oxygen supply to the skeletal...

  7. Cigarette smoke regulates VEGFR2-mediated survival signaling in rat lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Christopher S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2-mediated survival signaling is critical to endothelial cell survival, maintenance of the vasculature and alveolar structure and regeneration of lung tissue. Reduced VEGF and VEGFR2 expression in emphysematous lungs has been linked to increased endothelial cell death and vascular regression. Previously, we have shown that CS down-regulated the VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling in mouse lungs. However, the VEGFR2-mediated survival signaling in response to oxidants/cigarette smoke (CS is not known. We hypothesized that CS exposure leads to disruption of VEGFR2-mediated endothelial survival signaling in rat lungs. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed CS for 3 days, 8 weeks and 6 months to investigate the effect of CS on VEGFR2-mediated survival signaling by measuring the Akt/PI3-kinase/eNOS downstream signaling in rat lungs. Results and Discussion We show that CS disrupts VEGFR2/PI3-kinase association leading to decreased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. This may further alter the phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bad and increase the Bad/Bcl-xl association. However, this was not associated with a significant lung cell death as evidenced by active caspase-3 levels. These data suggest that although CS altered the VEGFR2-mediated survival signaling in the rat lungs, but it was not sufficient to cause lung cell death. Conclusion The rat lungs exposed to CS in acute, sub-chronic and chronic levels may be representative of smokers where survival signaling is altered but was not associated with lung cell death whereas emphysema is known to be associated with lung cell apoptosis.

  8. Cytostatic and apoptotic effects of paclitaxel in human ovarian tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millenbaugh, N J; Gan, Y; Au, J L

    1998-01-01

    The present study evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects of a 24-hr paclitaxel treatment in ovarian tumors. Three-dimensional histocultures of surgical specimens from patients (n = 17) were used. The cytostatic effect was measured by inhibition of 96-hr cumulative DNA precursor incorporation and induction of apoptosis was determined by morphological changes. Paclitaxel produced partial inhibition of DNA precursor incorporation in about 40% of tumors (maximum inhibition of approximately 30%) and induced apoptosis in about 90% of tumors (maximum apoptotic index of approximately 15%). In responsive tumors, maximum cytostatic and apoptotic effects were achieved at < or = 1 microM with no further enhancement by increasing the drug concentration to 10 microM. In individual tumors, the apoptotic effect inversely correlated with cytostatic effect (r2 = 0.27, p = 0.031), and the maximal apoptotic index correlated with the LI for the untreated controls (r2 = 0.38, p < 0.01). More than 95% of apoptotic cells after paclitaxel treatment were labeled with DNA precursor. The incomplete cytostatic and apoptotic effects of paclitaxel and the link between DNA synthesis and apoptosis in ovarian tumors are similar to our previous findings in other human solid tumors. These findings suggest that (a) apoptosis is the major paclitaxel effect in advanced ovarian tumors, (b) tumor sensitivity to drug-induced cytostatic effect is opposite to sensitivity to apoptotic effect, (c) paclitaxel-induced apoptosis increases with increased cell proliferation and is completed after DNA synthesis, and (d) further increasing the dose to elevate plasma concentration beyond 1 microM may not improve treatment outcome.

  9. Harnessing Apoptotic Cell Clearance to Treat Autoimmune Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Saas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early-stage apoptotic cells possess immunomodulatory properties. Proper apoptotic cell clearance during homeostasis has been shown to limit subsequent immune responses. Based on these observations, early-stage apoptotic cell infusion has been used to prevent unwanted inflammatory responses in different experimental models of autoimmune diseases or transplantation. Moreover, this approach has been shown to be feasible without any toxicity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to prevent graft-versus-host disease. However, whether early-stage apoptotic cell infusion can be used to treat ongoing inflammatory disorders has not been reported extensively. Recently, we have provided evidence that early-stage apoptotic cell infusion is able to control, at least transiently, ongoing collagen-induced arthritis. This beneficial therapeutic effect is associated with the modulation of antigen-presenting cell functions mainly of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, as well as the induction of collagen-specific regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg. Furthermore, the efficacy of this approach is not altered by the association with two standard treatments of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, methotrexate and tumor necrosis factor (TNF inhibition. Here, in the light of these observations and recent data of the literature, we discuss the mechanisms of early-stage apoptotic cell infusion and how this therapeutic approach can be transposed to patients with RA.

  10. The role of PGC-1alpha on mitochondrial function and apoptotic susceptibility in muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhihetty, Peter J; Uguccioni, Giulia; Leick, Lotte

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are critical for cellular bioenergetics, and they mediate apoptosis within cells. We used whole body peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) knockout (KO) animals to investigate its role on organelle function, apoptotic signaling, and cytochrome......-c oxidase activity, an indicator of mitochondrial content, in muscle and other tissues (brain, liver, and pancreas). Lack of PGC-1alpha reduced mitochondrial content in all muscles (17-44%; P liver, and pancreas. However, the tissue expression of proteins involved...

  11. Thiamine deficiency activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α to facilitate pro-apoptotic responses in mouse primary astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Zera

    Full Text Available Thiamine is an essential enzyme cofactor required for proper metabolic function and maintenance of metabolism and energy production in the brain. In developed countries, thiamine deficiency (TD is most often manifested following chronic alcohol consumption leading to impaired mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, inflammation and excitotoxicity. These biochemical lesions result in apoptotic cell death in both neurons and astrocytes. Comparable histological injuries in patients with hypoxia/ischemia and TD have been described in the thalamus and mammillary bodies, suggesting a congruency between the cellular responses to these stresses. Consistent with hypoxia/ischemia, TD stabilizes and activates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α under physiological oxygen levels. However, the role of TD-induced HIF-1α in neurological injury is currently unknown. Using Western blot analysis and RT-PCR, we have demonstrated that TD induces HIF-1α expression and activity in primary mouse astrocytes. We observed a time-dependent increase in mRNA and protein expression of the pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory HIF-1α target genes MCP1, BNIP3, Nix and Noxa during TD. We also observed apoptotic cell death in TD as demonstrated by PI/Annexin V staining, TUNEL assay, and Cell Death ELISA. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1α activity using YC1 and thiamine repletion both reduced expression of pro-apoptotic HIF-1α target genes and apoptotic cell death in TD. These results demonstrate that induction of HIF-1α mediated transcriptional up-regulation of pro-apoptotic/inflammatory signaling contributes to astrocyte cell death during thiamine deficiency.

  12. Curcumin inhibits neuronal and vascular degeneration in retina after ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang

    Full Text Available Neuron loss, glial activation and vascular degeneration are common sequelae of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury in ocular diseases. The present study was conducted to explore the ability of curcumin to inhibit retinal I/R injury, and to investigate underlying mechanisms of the drug effects.Different dosages of curcumin were administered. I/R injury was induced by elevating the intraocular pressure for 60 min followed by reperfusion. Cell bodies, brn3a stained cells and TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL were quantitated, and the number of degenerate capillaries was assessed. The activation of glial cells was measured by the expression level of GFAP. Signaling pathways including IKK-IκBα, JAK-STAT1/3, ERK/MAPK and the expression levels of β-tubulin III and MCP-1 were measured by western blot analysis. Pre-treatment using 0.01%-0.25% curcumin in diets significantly inhibited I/R-induced cell loss in GCL. 0.05% curcumin pre-treatment inhibited I/R-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries, TUNEL-positive apoptotic cell death in the GCL, brn3a stained cell loss, the I/R-induced up-regulation of MCP-1, IKKα, p-IκBα and p-STAT3 (Tyr, and down-regulation of β-tubulin III. This dose showed no effect on injury-induced GFAP overexpression. Moreover, 0.05% curcumin administered 2 days after the injury also showed a vaso-protective effect.Curcumin protects retinal neurons and microvessels against I/R injury. The beneficial effects of curcumin on neurovascular degeneration may occur through its inhibitory effects on injury-induced activation of NF-κB and STAT3, and on over-expression of MCP-1. Curcumin may therefore serve as a promising candidate for retinal ischemic diseases.

  13. Cytoskeleton, cytoskeletal interactions, and vascular endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jingli Wang,1 Michael E Widlansky1,21Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, 2Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: Far from being inert, the vascular endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular function. While the endothelium participates in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signaling, it also transduces mechanical signals from the cell surface involving key cell structural elements. In this review, we discuss the structure of the vascular endothelium and its relationship to traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical cardiovascular events. Further, we review the emerging evidence that cell structural elements, including the glycocalyx, intercellular junctions, and cytoskeleton elements, help the endothelium to communicate with its environment to regulate vascular function, including vessel permeability and signal transduction via nitric oxide bioavailability. Further work is necessary to better delineate the regulatory relationships between known key regulators of vascular function and endothelial cell structural elements.Keywords: endothelium, shear stress, eNOS, cardiovascular risk factors, glycocalyx

  14. Multinephron dynamics on the renal vascular network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Donald J; Wexler, Anthony S; Brazhe, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) and the myogenic mechanism combine in each nephron to regulate blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. Both mechanisms are non-linear, generate self-sustained oscillations, and interact as their signals converge on arteriolar smooth muscle, forming a regulatory...... ensemble. Ensembles may synchronize. Smooth muscle cells in the ensemble depolarize periodically, generating electrical signals that propagate along the vascular network. We developed a mathematical model of a nephron-vascular network, with 16 versions of a single nephron model containing representations...... of both mechanisms in the regulatory ensemble, to examine the effects of network structure on nephron synchronization. Symmetry, as a property of a network, facilitates synchronization. Nephrons received blood from a symmetric electrically conductive vascular tree. Symmetry was created by using identical...

  15. Vascularity in thyroid neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjaer; Andersen, Niels Frost; Melsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of four different methods (vascular grading, Chalkley count, microvessel density (MVD) and stereological estimation) for quantifying intratumoral microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms, by comparing the variability within and between...... count should be the preferred method for assessing microvascularity in thyroid neoplasms. The diagnostic evaluation revealed a tendency towards higher degree of vascularity in FA compared to both FC and PC for all methods. No statistically significant association was seen between vascular density...

  16. Vascular cemeteries formed by biological nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Andrei P.; Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki

    2013-04-01

    We report the discovery of dense colonies of globular structures ranging from 100 nm to 5 μm in the tunica media of the femoral artery of an 89-year-old female cadaver. Systematic analysis using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy reveals that the globular structures are surrounded by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and consist predominantly of calcium phosphate. Inspection of the images suggests the action of two complementary growth processes. The structures may grow both in size and in number locally by Ostwald ripening and a replicative route, respectively. Morphology in conjunction with the quality of their native growth niche suggests that they are different from nanocrystals released from apoptotic bodies. Their tendency to fill VSMC pockets leads to the speculation that they could represent an effort of the VSMC system to wall off cytotoxic nanocrystals liberated from apoptotic bodies. Alternatively, the structures may be equivalent with nanobacteria (NB)—a nomenclature which caused confusion. This is reflected by the multitude of names used by different authors for the nanoentities (living nanovesicles, nanobionta, calcifying nanoparticles, and nanons). Indeed, there is no clear definition in the literature as to what NB are. Considering that the calcium phosphate nanoparticles have been identified in the human body, we used in our study the descriptive name biological nanoparticles—the world's first nanoparticles.

  17. Induction of Non-Apoptotic Cell Death by Activated Ras Requires Inverse Regulation of Rac1 and Arf6

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanot, Haymanti; Young, Ashley M.; Overmeyer, Jean H.; Maltese, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Methuosis is a unique form of non-apoptotic cell death triggered by alterations in the trafficking of clathrin-independent endosomes, ultimately leading to extreme vacuolization and rupture of the cell. Methuosis can be induced in glioblastoma cells by expression of constitutively active Ras. This study identifies the small GTPases, Rac1 and Arf6, and the Arf6 GTPase-activating-protein, GIT1, as key downstream components of the signaling pathway underlying Ras-induced methuosis. The extent to...

  18. Adult neurogenesis and the vascular Nietzsche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Theo D

    2002-06-13

    Adult neurogenesis is mediated by immature neural precursors that divide within the residual germinal matrices of the brain. In the paper by in this issue of Neuron, the "cause and effect" of adult neurogenesis takes a major step forward with the description of a vascular signaling network that influences neuronal precursor migration and fate.

  19. Rho kinase regulates fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, Kelly A.; Stone, Nicole L.; Pittman, Randall N.

    2006-01-01

    During the execution phase of apoptosis, a cell undergoes cytoplasmic and nuclear changes that prepare it for death and phagocytosis. The end-point of the execution phase is condensation into a single apoptotic body or fragmentation into multiple apoptotic bodies. Fragmentation is thought to facilitate phagocytosis; however, mechanisms regulating fragmentation are unknown. An isoform of Rho kinase, ROCK-I, drives membrane blebbing through its activation of actin-myosin contraction; this raises the possibility that ROCK-I may regulate other execution phase events, such as cellular fragmentation. Here, we show that COS-7 cells fragment into a number of small apoptotic bodies during apoptosis; treating with ROCK inhibitors (Y-27632 or H-1152) prevents fragmentation. Latrunculin B and blebbistatin, drugs that interfere with actin-myosin contraction, also inhibit fragmentation. During apoptosis, ROCK-I is cleaved and activated by caspases, while ROCK-II is not activated, but rather translocates to a cytoskeletal fraction. siRNA knock-down of ROCK-I but not ROCK-II inhibits fragmentation of dying cells, consistent with ROCK-I being required for apoptotic fragmentation. Finally, cells dying in the presence of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 are not efficiently phagocytized. These data show that ROCK plays an essential role in fragmentation and phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

  20. Scrambled Eggs: Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Non-Professional Phagocytes in the Drosophila Ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy B. Serizier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells. Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled. Moreover, the signaling networks involved in cell corpse recognition, engulfment, and phagosome maturation are only partially understood. The Drosophila ovary provides an excellent system to investigate the regulation of phagocytic activity by epithelial cells, a major class of non-professional phagocytes. During Drosophila oogenesis, mid-stage egg chambers undergo apoptosis of the germline in response to nutrient deprivation. Epithelial follicle cells then undergo major cell shape changes and concomitantly engulf the germline material. Our previous work has established that Draper and the integrin α-PS3/β-PS heterodimer are required in follicle cells for germline cell clearance. In addition, we have characterized phagosome maturation pathways, and found that the JNK pathway amplifies the engulfment response. In this review, we discuss recent advances on the interplay between engulfment pathways in the follicular epithelium for cell clearance in the Drosophila ovary. We also provide a comparison to apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms in C. elegans and mammals, illustrating strong conservation of efferocytosis mechanisms by non-professional phagocytes.

  1. Scrambled Eggs: Apoptotic Cell Clearance by Non-Professional Phagocytes in the Drosophila Ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizier, Sandy B; McCall, Kimberly

    2017-01-01

    For half of a century, it has been known that non-professional phagocytes, such as fibroblasts, endothelial, and epithelial cells, are capable of efferocytosis (engulfment of apoptotic cells). Non-professional phagocytes differ from professional phagocytes in the range and efficiency of engulfment. Much of the recognition and underlying signaling machinery between non-professional and professional phagocytes is the same, but it is not known how the engulfment capacity of non-professional phagocytes is controlled. Moreover, the signaling networks involved in cell corpse recognition, engulfment, and phagosome maturation are only partially understood. The Drosophila ovary provides an excellent system to investigate the regulation of phagocytic activity by epithelial cells, a major class of non-professional phagocytes. During Drosophila oogenesis, mid-stage egg chambers undergo apoptosis of the germline in response to nutrient deprivation. Epithelial follicle cells then undergo major cell shape changes and concomitantly engulf the germline material. Our previous work has established that Draper and the integrin α-PS3/β-PS heterodimer are required in follicle cells for germline cell clearance. In addition, we have characterized phagosome maturation pathways, and found that the JNK pathway amplifies the engulfment response. In this review, we discuss recent advances on the interplay between engulfment pathways in the follicular epithelium for cell clearance in the Drosophila ovary. We also provide a comparison to apoptotic cell clearance mechanisms in C. elegans and mammals, illustrating strong conservation of efferocytosis mechanisms by non-professional phagocytes.

  2. Vascular disease: Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of the role of magnetic resonance (MR) in detection and characterization of vascular lesions is evolving. Improvements in spatial detail suggest great promise in delineation of structural vascular lesions, and insights into the appearance of evolving intraparenchymal hematoma have broadened the applications

  3. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  4. Opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via promotion of pro-apoptotic and inhibition of anti-apoptotic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the important molecules involved in apoptosis induction by opium in Jurkat cell line. Jurkat cells were incubated 48 hrs with 2.86×10(-5) g/ml concentration of opium and apoptosis as well as expression levels of related molecules were measured. Our results demonstrated that 50.3±0.2 percent of opium treated Jurkat cells were revealed apoptotic features. The levels of mRNA of several pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules were increased and decreased, respectively, in the opium treated cells. The results also demonstrated that expression levels of BCL2, DFFA and NOL3 as anti-apoptotic molecules were increased in the opium treated cells. It seems that opium induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Although opium induces apoptosis in the cells but increased expression of some anti-apoptotic molecules may be a normal resistance of the cell for death.

  5. FPGA controlled artificial vascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laqua D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the oxygen saturation of an unborn child is an invasive procedure, so far. Transabdominal fetal pulse oximetry is a promising method under research, used to estimate the oxygen saturation of a fetus noninvasively. Due to the nature of the method, the fetal information needs to be extracted from a mixed signal. To properly evaluate signal processing algorithms, a phantom modeling fetal and maternal blood circuits and tissue layers is necessary. This paper presents an improved hardware concept for an artificial vascular system, utilizing an FPGA based CompactRIO System from National Instruments. The experimental model to simulate the maternal and fetal blood pressure curve consists of two identical hydraulic circuits. Each of these circuits consists of a pre-pressure system and an artificial vascular system. Pulse curves are generated by proportional valves, separating these two systems. The dilation of the fetal and maternal artificial vessels in tissue substitutes is measured by transmissive and reflective photoplethysmography. The measurement results from the pressure sensors and the transmissive optical sensors are visualized to show the functionality of the pulse generating systems. The trigger frequency for the maternal valve was set to 1 per second, the fetal valve was actuated at 0.7 per second for validation. The reflective curve, capturing pulsations of the fetal and maternal circuit, was obtained with a high power LED (905 nm as light source. The results show that the system generates pulse curves, similar to its physiological equivalent. Further, the acquired reflective optical signal is modulated by the alternating diameter of the tubes of both circuits, allowing for tests of signal processing algorithms.

  6. A Role for the Endothelium in Vascular Calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yucheng; Jumabay, Medet; Ly, Albert; Radparvar, Melina; Cubberly, Mark R.; Boström, Kristina I.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Vascular calcification is a regulated process that involves osteoprogenitor cells and frequently complicates common vascular disease such as atherosclerosis and diabetic vasculopathy. However, it is not clear if the vascular endothelium has a role in contributing osteoprogenitor cells to the calcific lesions. Objective To determine if the vascular endothelium contributes osteoprogenitor cells to vascular calcification. Methods and Results In this study, we use two mouse models of vascular calcification, mice with gene deletion of matrix Gla protein (MGP), a BMP-inhibitor, and Ins2Akita/+ mice, a diabetes model. We show that enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in both types of mice stimulates the vascular endothelium to contribute osteoprogenitor cells to the vascular calcification. The enhanced BMP signaling results in endothelial-mesenchymal transitions and the emergence of multipotent cells, followed by osteoinduction. Endothelial markers co-localize with multipotent and osteogenic markers in calcified arteries by immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Lineage tracing using Tie2-Gfp transgenic mice supports an endothelial origin of the osteogenic cells. Enhancement of MGP expression in Ins2Akita/+ mice, as mediated by an Mgp transgene limits the generation of multipotent cells. Moreover, MGP-depleted human aortic endothelial cells in vitro acquire multipotency rendering the cells susceptible to osteoinduction by BMP and high glucose. Conclusions Our data suggest that the endothelium is a source of osteoprogenitor cells in vascular calcification that occurs in disorders with high BMP activation such as deficiency of BMP inhibitors and diabetes. PMID:23852538

  7. Autotaxin overexpression causes embryonic lethality and vascular defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yukiura

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX is a secretory protein, which converts lysophospholipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and is essential for embryonic vascular formation. ATX is abundantly detected in various biological fluids and its level is elevated in some pathophysiological conditions. However, the roles of elevated ATX levels remain to be elucidated. In this study, we generated conditional transgenic (Tg mice overexpressing ATX and examined the effects of excess LPA signalling. We found that ATX overexpression in the embryonic period caused severe vascular defects and was lethal around E9.5. ATX was conditionally overexpressed in the neonatal period using the Cre/loxP system, which resulted in a marked increase in the plasma LPA level. This resulted in retinal vascular defects including abnormal vascular plexus and increased vascular regression. Our findings indicate that the ATX level must be carefully regulated to ensure coordinated vascular formation.

  8. Autotaxin Overexpression Causes Embryonic Lethality and Vascular Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukiura, Hiroshi; Kano, Kuniyuki; Kise, Ryoji; Inoue, Asuka; Aoki, Junken

    2015-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secretory protein, which converts lysophospholipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is essential for embryonic vascular formation. ATX is abundantly detected in various biological fluids and its level is elevated in some pathophysiological conditions. However, the roles of elevated ATX levels remain to be elucidated. In this study, we generated conditional transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing ATX and examined the effects of excess LPA signalling. We found that ATX overexpression in the embryonic period caused severe vascular defects and was lethal around E9.5. ATX was conditionally overexpressed in the neonatal period using the Cre/loxP system, which resulted in a marked increase in the plasma LPA level. This resulted in retinal vascular defects including abnormal vascular plexus and increased vascular regression. Our findings indicate that the ATX level must be carefully regulated to ensure coordinated vascular formation PMID:25992708

  9. Cell based therapeutic approach in vascular surgery: application and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocca Aldo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent stem cells - such as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells and stem cells derived from different sources like vascular wall are intensely studied to try to rapidly translate their discovered features from bench to bedside. Vascular wall resident stem cells recruitment, differentiation, survival, proliferation, growth factor production, and signaling pathways transduced were analyzed. We studied biological properties of vascular resident stem cells and explored the relationship from several factors as Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs and regulations of biological, translational and clinical features of these cells. In this review we described a translational and clinical approach to Adult Vascular Wall Resident Multipotent Vascular Stem Cells (VW-SCs and reported their involvement in alternative clinical approach as cells based therapy in vascular disease like arterial aneurysms or peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

  10. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  11. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  12. The role of baculovirus apoptotic suppressors in AcMNPV-mediated translation arrest in Ld652Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Suzanne M.; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2004-01-01

    Infecting the insect cell line IPLB-Ld652Y with the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) results in global translation arrest, which correlates with the presence of the AcMNPV apoptotic suppressor, p35. In this study, we investigated the role of apoptotic suppression on AcMNPV-induced translation arrest. Infecting cells with AcMNPV bearing nonfunctional mutant p35 did not result in global translation arrest. In contrast, global translation arrest was observed in cells infected with AcMNPV in which p35 was replaced with Opiap, Cpiap, or p49, baculovirus apoptotic suppressors that block apoptosis by different mechanisms than p35. These results indicated that suppressing apoptosis triggered translation arrest in AcMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells. Experiments using the DNA synthesis inhibitor aphidicolin and temperature shift experiments, using the AcMNPV replication mutants ts8 and ts8Δp35, indicated that translation arrest initiated during the early phase of infection, but events during the late phase were required for global translation arrest. Peptide caspase inhibitors could not substitute for baculovirus apoptotic suppressors to induce translation arrest in Ld652Y cells infected with a p35-null virus. However, if the p35-null-AcMNPV also carried hrf-1, a novel baculovirus host range gene, progeny virus was produced and treatment with peptide caspase inhibitors enhanced translation of a late viral gene transcript. Together, these results indicate that translation arrest in AcMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells is due to the anti-apoptotic function of p35, but suggests that rather than simply preventing caspase activation, its activity enhances signaling to a separate translation arrest pathway, possibly by stimulating the late stages of the baculovirus infection cycle

  13. Salvianolic acid A attenuates vascular remodeling in a pulmonary arterial hypertension rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Cai; Yuan, Tian-Yi; Zhang, Hui-Fang; Wang, Dan-Shu; Yan, Yu; Niu, Zi-Ran; Lin, Yi-Huang; Fang, Lian-Hua; Du, Guan-Hua

    2016-06-01

    The current therapeutic approaches have a limited effect on the dysregulated pulmonary vascular remodeling, which is characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this study we examined whether salvianolic acid A (SAA) extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine 'Dan Shen' attenuated vascular remodeling in a PAH rat model, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. PAH was induced in rats by injecting a single dose of monocrotaline (MCT 60 mg/kg, sc). The rats were orally treated with either SAA (0.3, 1, 3 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) or a positive control bosentan (30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 4 weeks. Echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements were performed on d 28. Then the hearts and lungs were harvested, the organ indices and pulmonary artery wall thickness were calculated, and biochemical and histochemical analysis were conducted. The levels of apoptotic and signaling proteins in the lungs were measured using immunoblotting. Treatment with SAA or bosentan effectively ameliorated MCT-induced pulmonary artery remodeling, pulmonary hemodynamic abnormalities and the subsequent increases of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). Furthermore, the treatments significantly attenuated MCT-induced hypertrophic damage of myocardium, parenchymal injury and collagen deposition in the lungs. Moreover, the treatments attenuated MCT-induced apoptosis and fibrosis in the lungs. The treatments partially restored MCT-induced reductions of bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPRII) and phosphorylated Smad1/5 in the lungs. SAA ameliorates the pulmonary arterial remodeling in MCT-induced PAH rats most likely via activating the BMPRII-Smad pathway and inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, SAA may have therapeutic potential for the patients at high risk of PAH.

  14. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Different apoptotic responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether the apoptotic responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in spleen and liver via mRNA expression of three genes involved in apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2 and. Caspase-3) are similar or not and to detect if these genes could be a good marker for apoptosis due to.

  16. In vitro Anti-proliferative and Apoptotic Activities of Eurycoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative, apoptotic and differentiating activities of Eurycoma longifolia root extracts on HL-60 leukemic cells. Methods: HL-60 cells were treated with different partially purified sub-fractions (F1 – F3) derived from the resin chromatography of the crude methanol root extract of E. longifolia ...

  17. Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mice. Collectively, these results suggest that CEMB is a very potent anti-tumour compound. [Ravanan P, Singh SK, Subba Rao GSR and Kondaiah P 2011 Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities displayed by a novel modified triterpenoid, cyano enone of methyl boswellates. J. Biosci. 36 297–307] DOI ...

  18. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zodwa Dlamini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets.

  19. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Activity of Ficus pseudopalma Blanco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of terpenoid lupeol and flavonoid quercetin was determined through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of different concentrations of FP extracts on PRST2 cells and on non-cancerous human foreskin surface epithelial (hFSE) cells were determined by 3-[4, ...

  20. Antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of Cola lepidota against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stem bark, seed, roots and leaves of Cola lepidota have been used for various health conditions in Nigeria folk medicine including treatment of cancer related ailments. The study evaluated the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of extracts of the leaves and stem bark on breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. Powdered ...

  1. Detection of apoptotic cells using propidium iodide staining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newbold, Andrea; Martin, Ben P.; Cullinane, Carleen; Bots, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry assays are often used to detect apoptotic cells in in vitro cultures. Depending on the experimental model, these assays can also be useful in evaluating apoptosis in vivo. In this protocol, we describe a propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry assay to evaluate B-cell lymphomas that have

  2. Elimination of apoptotic boar spermatozoa using magnetic activated cell sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Mrkun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of apoptosis is the externalization of phosphatidylserine which could be used to remove apoptotic cells from semen preparations. Magnetic-activated cell sorting using annexin V-conjugated microbeads which bind to phosphatidylserine could be used to enhance semen quality. Twelve boar semen samples after 3 days of liquid storage at 16­­–17 °C were subjected to magnetic-activated cell sorting. Bound and unbound fractions and control samples were subjected to flow cytometry following the staining of spermatozoa with Annexin V conjugated with Alexa Fluor 488 and propidium iodide. Four subpopulations were obtained: live, early apoptotic live, late apoptotic, early necrotic dead and late necrotic dead. The frequency of early apoptotic and late necrotic spermatozoa was significantly higher (P P P P < 0.05 lower proportion of morphologically normal spermatozoa was observed in both fractions compared to control (67.2 ± 17.0%. Boar spermatozoa were separated by the above method for the first time, however, the results showed this method to be inappropriate for boar semen separation under the tested conditions.

  3. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 Contributes to Escherichia coli K1 Invasion of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling Pathway▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Wei-Dong; Liu, Wei; Fang, Wen-Gang; Kim, Kwang Sik; Chen, Yu-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative organism causing neonatal meningitis. Previous studies demonstrated that E. coli K1 invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) is required for penetration into the central nervous system, but the microbe-host interactions that are involved in this process remain incompletely understood. Here we report the involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) expressed on human brain microvascular endothelial cells...

  4. Congenital Vascular Malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery or less invasive therapy of the enlarged superficial veins can also be helpful. T he V ascular D isease F oundation Established in 1998, t he Vascular Disease Foundation (VDF) develops educational information and initiatives for patients, ...

  5. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  6. Heart and vascular services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain body temperature, among other things. CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE Cardiovascular medicine refers to the branch of health care that specializes in the treatment of diseases or conditions dealing with the heart and vascular systems. Common ...

  7. Vascular Access Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vascular access catheters: A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) is a long catheter that extends from an ... central catheter may be larger caliber than a PICC, and is designed to be placed via a ...

  8. Critical role of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members in andrographolide-induced apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Siyuan; Ong, Choon-Nam; Shen, Han-Ming

    2006-07-14

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess potent anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, Andro induced apoptosis in human cancer cells via activation of caspase 8 in the extrinsic death receptor pathway and subsequently with the participation of mitochondria. Andro triggered a caspase 8-dependent Bid cleavage, followed by a series of sequential events including Bax conformational change and mitochondrial translocation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and activation of caspase 9 and 3. Inhibition of caspase 8 blocked Bid cleavage and Bax conformational change. Consistently, knockdown of Bid protein using small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique suppressed Andro-induced Bax conformational change and apoptosis. In conclusion, the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (Bid and Bax) are the key mediators in relaying the cell death signaling initiated by Andro from caspase 8 to mitochondria and then to downstream effector caspases, and eventually leading to apoptotic cell death.

  9. Anti-apoptotic effects of tamarind leaves against ethanol-induced rat liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Asser I; Eldahshan, Omayma A

    2012-03-01

    The leaf decoctions of Tamarindus indica (TI) have long been traditionally used in liver ailments. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic activity of TI leaf extract against acute ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury. The major constituents of the extract were also examined for standardization purposes. Rats (n = 5-7) were orally pretreated with TI leaf extract (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for seven days. Silymarin was used as a positive control. Liver tissue biochemical assays included key markers of apoptosis and its redox signalling. Serum enzyme levels were also determined. All graded doses of TI leaf extract mitigated the EtOH-induced liver caspase-3 activation (42, 57 and 64%) as well as DNA fragmentation (32, 47 and 50%), respectively. The highest dose of the extract demonstrated membrane-stabilizing (38%) in addition to glutathione-replenishing (88%) effects. Also, the leaves improved the liver histopathological alterations. Moreover, major plant bioactive polyphenolics, that might be responsible for the extract's observed effects, were isolated and identified. TI leaf extract demonstrated promising anti-apoptotic hepatoprotective effects in rats. The use of TI leaves in different liver diseases, having apoptosis as the underlying pathology, hence warrants further clinical investigation. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Curcumin Anti-Apoptotic Action in a Model of Intestinal Epithelial Inflammatory Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganes, Claudia; Lega, Sara; Bramuzzo, Matteo; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Tommasini, Alberto; Marcuzzi, Annalisa

    2017-06-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine if a preventive treatment with curcumin can protect intestinal epithelial cells from inflammatory damage induced by IFNγ. To achieve this goal we have used a human intestinal epithelial cell line (HT29) treated with IFNγ to undergo apoptotic changes that can reproduce the damage of intestinal epithelia exposed to inflammatory cytokines. In this model, we measured the effect of curcumin (curcuminoid from Curcuma Longa ) added as a pre-treatment at different time intervals before stimulation with IFNγ. Curcumin administration to HT29 culture before the inflammatory stimulus IFNγ reduced the cell apoptosis rate. This effect gradually declined with the reduction of the curcumin pre-incubation time. This anti-apoptotic action by curcumin pre-treatment was paralleled by a reduction of secreted IL7 in the HT29 culture media, while there was no relevant change in the other cytokine levels. Even though curcumin pre-administration did not impact the activation of the NF-κB pathway, a slight effect on the phosphorylation of proteins in this inflammatory signaling pathway was observed. In conclusion, curcumin pre-treatment can protect intestinal cells from inflammatory damage. These results can be the basis for studying the preventive role of curcumin in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  11. Apoptotic effect of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract on T47D breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathivadhani, Panneerselvam; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2007-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying potent cancer-preventive and therapeutic agents against breast cancer. A great number of reports have in recent years dealt with anticancer characteristics of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract (SA). The majority of these studies has been targeted on the protective effect rendered to the living system rather than the preventive effect on cancer cells. SA was tested for its inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells (T47D). Cytotoxicity analyses suggested that these cells had become apoptotic. SA was discovered to induce rapid Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores of T47D cell line, and its cytotoxicity against T47D was well correlated with altered mitochondrial transmembrane potential. At the molecular level, these changes are accompanied by decrease in bcl(2) and increase in bax, cytochrome c, caspases and PARP cleavage, and ultimately by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Taken together, our results provide unprecedented evidence that SA triggers apoptotic signals in T47D cells.

  12. Subcellular localization of PUMA regulates its pro-apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroise, Gorbatchev; Portier, Alain; Roders, Nathalie; Arnoult, Damien; Vazquez, Aimé

    2015-11-10

    The BH3-only protein PUMA (p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis) is a major regulator of apoptosis. It belongs to the Bcl-2 family of proteins responsible for maintaining mitochondrial outer membrane integrity by controlling the intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathway. We describe here a new pathway regulating PUMA activation through the control of its subcellular distribution. Surprisingly, neither PUMA upregulation in normal activated human B lymphocytes nor high levels of PUMA in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) were associated with cell death. We show that PUMA is localized to the cytosol in these cells. By contrast, various apoptosis-triggering signals were found to promote the translocation of PUMA to the mitochondria in these cells, leading to their death by apoptosis. This apoptosis was associated with the binding of mitochondrial PUMA to anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, such as Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. This translocation was caspase-independent but was prevented by inhibiting or knocking down the expression of the MAPK kinase p38. Our data suggest that the accumulation of PUMA in the cytosol may be important for the participation of this protein in apoptosis without the need for prior transcription. This regulatory pathway may be an important feature of differentiation and tumorigenic processes.

  13. Hypothesis for thermal activation of the caspase cascade in apoptotic cell death at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John A.

    2013-02-01

    Apoptosis is an especially important process affecting disease states from HIV-AIDS to auto-immune disease to cancer. A cascade of initiator and executioner capsase functional proteins is the hallmark of apoptosis. When activated the various caspases activate other caspases or cleave structural proteins of the cytoskeleton, resulting in "blebbing" of the plasma membrane forming apoptotic bodies that completely enclose the disassembled cellular components. Containment of the cytosolic components within the apoptotic bodies differentiates apoptosis from necroptosis and necrosis, both of which release fragmented cytosol and other cellular constituents into the intracellular space. Biochemical models of caspase activation reveal the extensive feedback loops characteristic of apoptosis. They clearly explain the failure of Arrhenius models to give accurate predictions of cell survival curves in hyperthermic heating protocols. Nevertheless, each of the individual reaction velocities can reasonably be assumed to follow Arrhenius kinetics. If so, the thermal sensitivity of the reaction velocity to temperature elevation is: ∂k/∂T = Ea [k/RT2]. Particular reaction steps described by higher activation energies, Ea, are likely more thermally-sensitive than lower energy reactions and may initiate apoptosis in the absence of other stress signals. Additionally, while the classical irreversible Arrhenius formulation fails to accurately represent many cell survival and/or dye uptake curves - those that display an early stage shoulder region - an expanded reversible model of the law of mass action equation seems to prove effective and is directly based on a firm theoretical thermodynamic foundation.

  14. Involvement of caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway in ionic radiocontrast urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Tien [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Weng, Te I. [Department of Forensic Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Li Ping [Department of Dentistry, Chang Gang Memorial Hospital, Chang Gang University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Chih Kang [Department of Integrated Diagnostics and Therapeutics, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liu, Shing Hwa, E-mail: shinghwaliu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-01-01

    Contrast medium (CM) induces a direct toxic effect on renal tubular cells. This toxic effect subjects in the disorder of CM-induced nephropathy. Our previous work has demonstrated that CM shows to activate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related adaptive unfolding protein response (UPR) activators. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α)-related pathways play a protective role during the urografin (an ionic CM)-induced renal tubular injury. However, the involvement of ER stress-related apoptotic signals in the urografin-induced renal tubular cell injury remains unclear. Here, we examined by the in vivo and in vitro experiments to explore whether ER stress-regulated pro-apoptotic activators participate in urografin-induced renal injury. Urografin induced renal tubular dilation, tubular cells detachment, and necrosis in the kidneys of rats. The tubular apoptosis, ER stress-related pro-apoptotic transcriptional factors, and kidney injury marker-1 (kim-1) were also conspicuously up-regulated in urografin-treated rats. Furthermore, treatment of normal rat kidney (NRK)-52E tubular cells with urografin augmented the expressions of activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), Bax, caspase-12, JNK, and inositol-requiring enzyme (IRE) 1 signals. Urografin-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis was not reversed by the inhibitors of ATF-6, JNK signals or CHOP siRNA transfection, but it could be partially reversed by the inhibitor of caspase-12. Taken together, the present results and our previous findings suggest that exposure of CM/urografin activates the ER stress-regulated survival- and apoptosis-related signaling pathways in renal tubular cells. Caspase-12-dependent apoptotic pathway may be partially involved in the urografin-induced nephropathy. -- Highlights: ► Ionic contrast medium-urografin induces renal tubular cell apoptosis. ► Urografin induces the ER stress-regulated survival and apoptosis

  15. Blood and Wall Signal Simulator for Doppler Ultrasound Signal Analysis Algorithm Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fish, P

    2001-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound instruments, used for the detection and monitoring of vascular disease, require a means of separating the large, low frequency Doppler signal from the vessel wall from the signal...

  16. Antioxidants and vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Mazzaglia, Donatella; Doldo, Elena; Orlandi, Augusto

    2015-12-15

    Oxygen free radicals and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common products of normal aerobic cellular metabolism, but high levels of ROS lead to oxidative stress and cellular damage. Increased production of ROS favors vascular dysfunction, inducing altered vascular permeability and inflammation, accompanied by the loss of vascular modulatory function, the imbalance between vasorelaxation and vasoconstriction, and the aberrant expression of inflammatory adhesion molecules. Inflammatory stimuli promote oxidative stress generated from the increased activity of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, particularly of the Nox4 isoform, with the consequent impairment of mitochondrial β-oxidation. Vascular dysfunction due to the increase in Nox4 activity and ROS overproduction leads to the progression of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and neurological disorders. Considerable research into the development of effective antioxidant therapies using natural derivatives or new synthetic molecules has been conducted. Antioxidants may prevent cellular damage by reducing ROS overproduction or interfering in reactions that involve ROS. Vitamin E and ascorbic acid are well known as natural antioxidants that counteract lipid peroxidative damage by scavenging oxygen-derived free radicals, thus restoring vascular function. Recently, preliminary studies on natural antioxidants such as goji berries, thymus, rosemary, green tea ginseng, and garlic have been conducted for their efficacy in preventing vascular damage. N-acetyl-cysteine and propionyl-L-carnitine are synthetic compounds that regulate ROS production by replacing endogenous antioxidants in both endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In this review, we consider the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction as well as the beneficial effects of antioxidant therapies.

  17. Transcription factor cAMP response element modulator (Crem) restrains Pdgf-dependent proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, M D; Steingräber, A K; Wolf, C T; Sur, T M H; Hildebrandt, I; Witten, A; Stoll, M; Fischer, J W; Schmitz, W; Müller, F U

    2015-10-01

    Transcription factors of the cAMP response element-binding protein (Creb)/cAMP response element modulator (Crem) family were linked to the switch from a contractile to a proliferating phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Here, we analyzed the vascular function of Crem in mice with a global inactivation of Crem (Crem(-/-)). CRE-mediated transcriptional activity was enhanced in primary Crem(-/-) VSMCs under nonstimulated conditions and under stimulation with Forskolin and platelet-derived growth factor (Pdgf) whereas stimulation with nitric oxide or cGMP showed no effect. This elevated CRE-mediated transcriptional activity as a result of Crem inactivation did not alter aortic contractility or fractions of proliferating or apoptotic aortic VSMCs in situ, and no impact of Crem inactivation on the development of atherosclerotic plaques was observed. Crem(-/-) mice exhibited an increased neointima formation after carotid ligation associated with an increased proliferation of VSMCs in the carotid media. Pdgf-stimulated proliferation of primary aortic Crem(-/-) VSMCs was increased along with an upregulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Pdgf receptor, alpha polypeptide (Pdgfra), cyclophilin A (Ppia), the regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (Rgs5), and Rho GTPase-activating protein 12 (Arhgap12). Taken together, our data reveal the inhibition of Pdgf-stimulated proliferation of VSMCs by repressing the Pdgf-stimulated CRE-mediated transcriptional activation as the predominant function of Crem in mouse vasculature suggesting an important role of Crem in vasculoproliferative diseases.

  18. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induces apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A expression in developing Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, B.H.; Bello, S.; Hahn, M.E.; Cantrell, S.; Wright, P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2001-01-01

    Fundulus heteroclitus embryos were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during early development using nanoinjection or water bath exposure. TCDD caused developmental abnormalities that included hemorrhaging, loss of vascular integrity, edema, stunted development and death. The LC50 and LD50 of TCDD for Fundulus embryos were ???19.7??9.5 pg TCDD/??l (water bath) and 0.25??0.09 ng TCDD/g embryo (nanoinjection). To identify a possible cause for these developmental abnormalities we analyzed the effects of TCDD on apoptotic cell death and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression in the embryos. TCDD exposure increased apoptotic cell death in several tissues including brain, eye, gill, kidney, tail, intestine, heart, and vascular tissue. CYP1A expression was also increased in the TCDD-exposed embryos predominantly in liver, kidney, gill, heart, intestine, and in vascular tissues throughout the embryo. There was co-occurrence of TCDD-induced apoptosis and CYP1A expression in some, but not all, cell types. In addition the dose response relationships for apoptosis and mortality were similar, while CYP1A expression appeared more sensitive to TCDD induction. Copyright ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. Altered Expression of Signaling Genes in Jurkat Cells upon FTY720 Induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoheng He

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available FTY720, a novel immunosuppressant, has a marked activity in decreasing peripheral blood T lymphocytes upon oral administration. Recent investigations suggest that the action of FTY720 on lymphocytes may result from its ability to induce cell apoptosis. However, the cell signaling mechanism involved in the FTY720-induced cell apoptosis remains unclear. Here we examined the apoptotic signal pathways mediated by FTY720 in Jurkat cells using microarray analysis. The results showed that FTY720 can induce Jurkat cell apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner as assessed by cell viability, Hoechst 33258 staining, Annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation tests. cDNA microarray analysis showed that 10 µM of FTY720 up-regulated 54 and down-regulated 10 genes in Jurkat cells among the 458 apoptotic genes examined following the 6 h incubation period. At least five-fold increased expression of modulator of apoptosis-1 (MOAP-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAF 6, Caspase 2 (CASP 2, E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F 1 and Casapse 5 (CASP 5 genes was observed in microarray analyses; these results were confirmed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR examination. Our findings suggest that the mitochondria related signaling pathways are the key pathways involved in the FTY720-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. And our results provide a new insight into the mechanism of FTY720, which allows us to draw the first simple diagram showing the potential pathways mediated by FTY720.

  20. Altered expression of signaling genes in Jurkat cells upon FTY720 induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Tan, Wenfeng; Guo, Dunming; Zhu, Xiaomin; Qian, Keqing; He, Shaoheng

    2010-09-02

    FTY720, a novel immunosuppressant, has a marked activity in decreasing peripheral blood T lymphocytes upon oral administration. Recent investigations suggest that the action of FTY720 on lymphocytes may result from its ability to induce cell apoptosis. However, the cell signaling mechanism involved in the FTY720-induced cell apoptosis remains unclear. Here we examined the apoptotic signal pathways mediated by FTY720 in Jurkat cells using microarray analysis. The results showed that FTY720 can induce Jurkat cell apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner as assessed by cell viability, Hoechst 33258 staining, Annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation tests. cDNA microarray analysis showed that 10 μM of FTY720 up-regulated 54 and down-regulated 10 genes in Jurkat cells among the 458 apoptotic genes examined following the 6 h incubation period. At least five-fold increased expression of modulator of apoptosis-1 (MOAP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAF 6), Caspase 2 (CASP 2), E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F 1) and Casapse 5 (CASP 5) genes was observed in microarray analyses; these results were confirmed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) examination. Our findings suggest that the mitochondria related signaling pathways are the key pathways involved in the FTY720-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. And our results provide a new insight into the mechanism of FTY720, which allows us to draw the first simple diagram showing the potential pathways mediated by FTY720.

  1. Temporal assessment of vascular reactivity and functionality using MRI during postischemic proangiogenenic vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsiang; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Siow, Tiing-Yee; Hsu, Yi-Hua; Chen, Chiao-Chi V; Lin, Teng-Nan; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Chang, Chen

    2015-09-01

    Postischemic angiogenesis is an important recovery mechanism. Both arteries and veins are upregulated during angiogenesis, but eventually there are more angiogenic veins than arteries in terms of number and length. It is critical to understand how the veins are modulated after ischemia and then transitioned into angiogenic vessels during the proangiogenic stage to finally serve as a restorative strength to the injured area. Using a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia, the hypercapnic blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was used to evaluate vascular reactivity, while the hyperoxic BOLD and tissue oxygen level-dependent (TOLD) responses were used to evaluate the vascular functionality at 1, 3, and 7days after ischemia. Vessel-like venous signals appeared on R2* maps on days 3 and 7, but not on day 1. The large hypercapnic BOLD responses on days 3 and 7 indicated that these areas have high vascular reactivity. The temporal correlation between vascular reactivity and the immunoreactivity to desmin and VEGF further indicates that the integrity of vascular reactivity is associated with the pericyte coverage as regulated by the VEGF level. Vascular functionality remained low on days 1, 3, and 7, as reflected by the small hyperoxic BOLD and large hyperoxic TOLD responses, indicating the low oxygen consumption of the ischemic tissues. These functional changes in proangiogenic veins may be critical for angiogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrastructural apoptotic lesions induced in rat thymocytes after borax ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvain, I C; Berry, J P; Galle, P

    1998-01-01

    Apoptosis has gained increasing attention in recent years. Several chemical compounds induce apoptotic lesions in the thymus. Male Wistar rats received 2000 ppm of borax (Na2B4O7.10H2O) in their food for 16 days. The rats were sacrificed 2, 5, 9, 12, 19, 21, 26 and 28 days after the beginning of treatment. Thymus samples of all rats were taken. A Philips EM 300 electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural morphology. Serious nuclear and cytoplasmic lesions were observed. Moreover, numerous macrophages containing apoptotic cells were present in the thymus. The alterations were observed from the 2nd to the 28th day. The extent of damage was much more important in the rats sacrificed 21, 26 and 28 days after borax ingestion.

  3. Macrophage Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamon Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the body continues to grow and age, it becomes essential to maintain a balance between living and dying cells. Macrophages and dendritic cells play a central role in discriminating among viable, apoptotic, and necrotic cells, as selective and efficient phagocytes, without inducing inappropriate inflammation or immune responses. A great deal has been learnt concerning clearance receptors for modified and non-self-ligands on potential targets, mediating their eventual uptake, disposal, and replacement. In this essay, we assess current understanding of the phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells within their tissue environment; we conclude that efferocytosis constitutes a more complex process than simply removal of corpses, with regulatory interactions between the target and effector cells, which determine the outcome of this homeostatic process.

  4. Methadone as an inducer of apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stępień

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Methadone is an opioid medication which can reduce withdrawal symptoms in people addicted to heroin and other drugs. Methadone is used also as a pain reliever and as part of drug addiction detoxification program. Apoptosis is the physiological process that plays a critical role in development and tissue homeostasis. The progress of apoptosis is regulated by signal cascades. The aim of this study was to asses how methadone induces apoptotic process in cheek mucosae cells in rats. Forty albino rats wares divided into two parts and five subgroups each. The biggest histological changes of cheek mucosae was observed in the groups with methadone. There is no indication of ability to regeneration in short time after treatment.

  5. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, António; Duarte, Ana M.; Azevedo, Flávio; Sousa, Maria J.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Chaves, Susana R.

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria. PMID:28357256

  6. PDT-treated apoptotic cells induce macrophage synthesis NO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, S.; Xing, D.; Zhou, F. F.; Chen, W. R.

    2009-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologically active molecule which has multi-functional in different species. As a second messenger and neurotransmitter, NO is not only an important regulatory factor between cells' information transmission, but also an important messenger in cell-mediated immunity and cytotoxicity. On the other side, NO is involving in some diseases' pathological process. In pathological conditions, the macrophages are activated to produce a large quantity of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which can use L-arginine to produce an excessive amount of NO, thereby killing bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, tumor cells, as well as in other series of the immune process. In this paper, photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was used to treat EMT6 mammary tumors in vitro to induce apoptotic cells, and then co-incubation both apoptotic cells and macrophages, which could activate macrophage to induce a series of cytotoxic factors, especially NO. This, in turn, utilizes macrophages to activate a cytotoxic response towards neighboring tumor cells. These results provided a new idea for us to further study the immunological mechanism involved in damaging effects of PDT, also revealed the important function of the immune effect of apoptotic cells in PDT.

  7. A role for muscle LIM protein (MLP) in vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Qinglu; Adhikari, Neeta; Hall, Jennifer L

    2006-04-01

    Given the well-defined role of LIM-motif containing proteins in cytoskeletal organization, cell fate, and differentiation, we hypothesized that the regulation of LIM proteins played an integral role in vascular remodeling. We screened a compendium of cDNA microarray data from rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) for novel LIM-containing targets and identified muscle LIM protein (MLP), a gene previously thought to be only in striated muscle. Sequence analysis, RTQPCR and Western blotting reconfirmed expression of MLP in VSMC. MLP was elevated>10-fold 7 days following balloon injury in the rat carotid artery. Wire injury led to a significantly increased intima/media ratio in MLP -/- mice compared to wild-type controls (PMLP deficient VSMC (n=6, PMLP significantly restored apoptotic response (N=6, PMLP in vascular smooth muscle and demonstrate that it plays a critical role in vascular remodeling. This is consistent with earlier findings demonstrating a role for MLP in striated muscle remodeling in response to load and stretch.

  8. Titanium dioxide induces apoptotic cell death through reactive oxygen species-mediated Fas upregulation and Bax activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon TH

    2012-03-01

    , Bax. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which nanosized particles induce activation of cell death signaling pathways would be critical for the development of prevention strategies to minimize the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials.Keywords: TiO2, reactive oxygen species, apoptotic cell death, Fas upregulation, Bax activation, mitochondrial membrane potential loss, caspase activation

  9. Inflammatory and apoptotic remodeling in autonomic nervous system following myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available Chronic myocardial infarction (MI triggers pathological remodeling in the heart and cardiac nervous system. Abnormal function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS, including stellate ganglia (SG and dorsal root ganglia (DRG contribute to increased sympathoexcitation, cardiac dysfunction and arrythmogenesis. ANS modulation is a therapeutic target for arrhythmia associated with cardiac injury. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the pathological remodeling in ANS following cardiac injury remains to be established.In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing in thoracic SG and (T1-T4 DRG obtained from Yorkshire pigs following either acute (3 to 5 hours or chronic (8 weeks myocardial infarction. By differential expression and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA, we identified significant transcriptome changes and specific gene modules in the ANS tissues in response to myocardial infarction at either acute or chronic phases. Both differential expressed genes and the member genes of the WGCNA gene module associated with post-infarct condition were significantly enriched for inflammatory signaling and apoptotic cell death. Targeted validation analysis supported a significant induction of inflammatory and apoptotic signal in both SG and DRG following myocardial infarction, along with cellular evidence of apoptosis induction based on TUNEL analysis. Importantly, these molecular changes were observed specifically in the thoracic segments but not in their counterparts obtained from lumbar sections.Myocardial injury leads to time-dependent global changes in gene expression in the innervating ANS. Induction of inflammatory gene expression and loss of neuron cell viability in SG and DRG are potential novel mechanisms contributing to abnormal ANS function which can promote cardiac arrhythmia and pathological remodeling in myocardium.

  10. Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is considered a critical pathogenic process in inflammatory vascular diseases. We have previously demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A)-mediated NF-κB dephosphorylation contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of andrographolide, a novel NF-κB inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether andrographolide causes apoptosis, and characterized its apoptotic mechanisms in rat VSMCs. Andrographolide activated the p38 ...

  11. Regulation of T lymphocyte apoptotic markers is associated to cell activation during the acute phase of dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentes-Carvalho, Amanda; Marinho, Cintia Ferreira; de Oliveira-Pinto, Luzia Maria; de Oliveira, Débora Batista; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio; de Souza, Luiz José; de Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes

    2014-05-01

    Dengue fever, a public health problem in Brazil, may present severe clinical manifestations as result of an increased vascular permeability and coagulation disorders. T cell activation is a critical event for an effective immune response against infection, including the production of cytokines. We aim to reveal mechanisms that modulate the virus-cell interaction, with an emphasis on cell death. Apoptosis is involved in lymphocyte homeostasis, contributes to the clearance of virus-infected cells but also may play a role in the pathogenesis. Phosphatidylserine exposure on CD8T lymphocytes from dengue patients support early apoptotic processes and loss of genomic integrity, observed by DNA fragmentation in T lymphocytes and indicating late apoptosis. These T cells express activation and cytotoxic phenotypes as revealed by CD29 and CD107a upregulation. Higher frequencies of CD95 were detected in T lymphocytes mainly in those with the cytotoxic profile (CD107a+) and lower levels of anti-apoptotic molecule Bcl-2, suggesting that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets are more susceptible to apoptosis during acute dengue. The analysis of apoptosis-related protein expression profile showed that not only molecules with pro- but also those with anti-apoptotic functions are overexpressed, indicating that survival mechanisms could be possibly protecting cells against apoptosis caused by viral, immune, oxidative and/or genotoxic stresses. These observations led us to propose that in dengue patients there is an association between T cell susceptibility to apoptosis and the activation state. The mechanisms for understanding the immunopathogenesis during dengue infection are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Adenovirus type 12 E1B 55-kilodalton oncoprotein promotes p53-mediated apoptotic response of ovarian cancer to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junnai; Gao, Qinglei; Li, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    The tumor suppressor p53-mediated apoptotic response plays an important role in cisplatin resistant in ovarian cancer. The adenovirus (Ad) type 12 E1B 55-kDa protein binds to p53 and inactivates its transcriptional transactivation function. In this study, we test the hypothesis that Ad12 E1B 55-kDa oncoprotein promotes p53-mediated apoptotic response of ovarian cancer to cisplatin. First, we observed the upregulation protein level of p53 target genes in cisplatin-resistant or cisplatin-sensitive ovarian cancer by Western blotting. Second, after transfection of Ad12 E1b 55-kDa expression plasmid, the expressions of p53 target genes in A2780 cells were further enhanced. Co-IP experiment demonstrated Ad12 E1b 55 kDa associated with p53. MTT assay confirmed that the cell proliferation was enhanced after transfection, as well as the enhanced cell inhibitory rate in the presence of cisplatin. Using flow cytometry, transfection of Ad12 E1B 55-kDa protein induced apoptosis and promoted S-phase transition in proliferation. Finally, results showed that all these changes promoted by Ad12 E1b 55 kDa were attenuated by the exposure of specific inhibitor of p53 signaling, pifithrin-α. Taken together, we concluded that Ad E1B 55-kDa oncoprotein promotes p53-mediated apoptotic response of ovarian cancer to cisplatin.

  13. Lipid constituents in oligodendroglial cells alter susceptibility to H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death via ERK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, A; Gil, S; Seger, R; Yavin, E

    2001-02-01

    The present work examines the effect of membrane lipid composition on activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) and cell death following oxidative stress. When subjected to 50 microM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 : 6 n-3), cellular phospholipids of OLN 93 cells, a clonal line of oligodendroglia origin low in DHA, were enriched with this polyunsaturated fatty acid. In the presence of 1 mM N,N-dimethylethanolamine (dEa) a new phospholipid species analog was formed in lieu of phosphatidylcholine. Exposure of DHA-enriched cells to 0.5 mM H2O2, caused sustained activation of ERK up to 24 h. At this time massive apoptotic cell death was demonstrated by ladder and TUNEL techniques. H2O2-induced stress applied to dEa or DHA/dEa co-supplemented cells showed only a transient ERK activation and no cell death after 24 h. Moreover, while ERK was rapidly translocated into the nucleus in DHA-enriched cells, dEa supplements completely blocked ERK nuclear translocation. This study suggests that H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death is associated with prolonged ERK activation and nuclear translocation in DHA-enriched OLN 93 cells, while both phenomena are prevented by dEa supplements. Thus, the membrane lipid composition ultimately modulates ERK activation and translocation and therefore can promote or prevent apoptotic cell death.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of Activin A on endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic and autophagic PC12 cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long-xing Xue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, plays a neuroprotective role in multiple neurological diseases. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cell death is implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. Thapsigargin was used to induce PC12 cell death, and Activin A was used for intervention. Our results showed that Activin A significantly inhibited morphological changes in thapsigargin-induced apoptotic cells, and the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins [cleaved-caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and cleaved-caspase-3] and biomarkers of autophagy (Beclin-1 and light chain 3, and downregulated the expression of thapsigargin-induced ER stress-associated proteins [inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38]. The inhibition of thapsigargin-induced cell death was concentration-dependent. These findings suggest that administration of Activin A protects PC12 cells against ER stress-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cell death by inhibiting the activation of the IRE1-TRAF2-ASK1-JNK/p38 cascade.

  15. Allicin protects against cisplatin-induced vestibular dysfunction by inhibiting the apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianmin; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiaofei; Li, He; Li, Jianfeng; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Wenwen; Han, Yuechen; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Daogong; Wang, Haibo; Fan, Zhaomin

    2017-06-15

    Cisplatin is an anticancer drug that causes the impairment of inner ear function as side effects, including hearing loss and balance dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin against cisplatin-induced vestibular dysfunction in mice and to make clear the mechanism underlying the protective effects of allicin on oto-vestibulotoxicity. Mice intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin exhibited vestibular dysfunction in swimming test, which agreed with impairment in vestibule. However, these impairments were significantly prevented by pre-treatment with allicin. Allicin markedly reduced cisplatin-activated expression of cleaved-caspase-3 in hair cells and vascular layer cells of utricule, saccule and ampulla, but also decreased AIF nuclear translocation of hair cells in utricule, saccule and ampulla. These results showed that allicin played an effective role in protecting vestibular dysfunction induced by cisplatin via inhibiting caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, allicin may be useful in preventing oto-vestibulotoxicity mediated by cisplatin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Mechanisms of andrographolide-induced platelet apoptosis in human platelets: regulatory roles of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Li-Ming; Su, Cheng-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hsien; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chung, Chi-Li; Yen, Ting-Lin; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2013-11-01

    Andrographolide, a novel nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, is isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Platelet activation is relevant to a variety of coronary heart diseases. Our recent studies revealed that andrographolide possesses potent antiplatelet activity by inhibition of the p38 MAPK/(●) HO-NF-κB-ERK2 cascade. Although platelets are anucleated cells, apoptotic machinery apparatus recently has been found to regulate platelet activation and limit platelet lifespan. Therefore, we further investigated the regulatory effects of andrographolide on platelet apoptotic events. In this study, apoptotic signaling events for caspase-3, -8, and Bid were time (10-60 min)- and dose (25-100 μΜ)-dependently activated by andrographolide in human platelets. Andrographolide could also disrupt mitrochondrial membrane potential. In addition, caspase-8 inhibitor (z-IETD-fmk, 50 μΜ) was found to reverse andrographolide-induced caspase-8 activation, whereas the antagonistic anti-Fas receptor (ZB4, 500 ng/mL) and anti-tumor necrosis factor-R1 (H398, 10 µg/mL) monoclonal antibodies did not. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrated that andrographolide might limit platelet lifespan by initiating the caspase-8-dependent extrinsic apoptotic pathway, in spite of no direct evidence that death receptors are involved in this process proved. Overall, the various medicinal properties of andrographolide suggest its potential value in treating patients with thromboembolic disorders. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Phosphatidylserine-Liposomes Promote Tolerogenic Features on Dendritic Cells in Human Type 1 Diabetes by Apoptotic Mimicry

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    Silvia Rodriguez-Fernandez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a metabolic disease caused by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells. With its incidence increasing worldwide, to find a safe approach to permanently cease autoimmunity and allow β-cell recovery has become vital. Relying on the inherent ability of apoptotic cells to induce immunological tolerance, we demonstrated that liposomes mimicking apoptotic β-cells arrested autoimmunity to β-cells and prevented experimental T1D through tolerogenic dendritic cell (DC generation. These liposomes contained phosphatidylserine (PS—the main signal of the apoptotic cell membrane—and β-cell autoantigens. To move toward a clinical application, PS-liposomes with optimum size and composition for phagocytosis were loaded with human insulin peptides and tested on DCs from patients with T1D and control age-related subjects. PS accelerated phagocytosis of liposomes with a dynamic typical of apoptotic cell clearance, preserving DCs viability. After PS-liposomes phagocytosis, the expression pattern of molecules involved in efferocytosis, antigen presentation, immunoregulation, and activation in DCs concurred with a tolerogenic functionality, both in patients and control subjects. Furthermore, DCs exposed to PS-liposomes displayed decreased ability to stimulate autologous T cell proliferation. Moreover, transcriptional changes in DCs from patients with T1D after PS-liposomes phagocytosis pointed to an immunoregulatory prolife. Bioinformatics analysis showed 233 differentially expressed genes. Genes involved in antigen presentation were downregulated, whereas genes pertaining to tolerogenic/anti-inflammatory pathways were mostly upregulated. In conclusion, PS-liposomes phagocytosis mimics efferocytosis and leads to phenotypic and functional changes in human DCs, which are accountable for tolerance induction. The herein reported results reinforce the potential of this novel immunotherapy to re-establish immunological

  18. Chronic MDMA induces neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of adolescent and young adult rats: Down-regulation of apoptotic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2015-07-01

    While hippocampus is a brain region particularly susceptible to the effects of MDMA, the cellular and molecular changes induced by MDMA are still to be fully elucidated, being the dosage regimen, the species and the developmental stage under study great variables. This study compared the effects of one and four days of MDMA administration following a binge paradigm (3×5 mg/kg, i.p., every 2 h) on inducing hippocampal neurochemical changes in adolescent (PND 37) and young adult (PND 58) rats. The results showed that chronic MDMA caused hippocampal protein deficits in adolescent and young adult rats at different levels: (1) impaired serotonergic (5-HT2A and 5-HT2C post-synaptic receptors) and GABAergic (GAD2 enzyme) signaling, and (2) decreased structural cytoskeletal neurofilament proteins (NF-H, NF-M and NF-L). Interestingly, these effects were not accompanied by an increase in apoptotic markers. In fact, chronic MDMA inhibited proteins of the apoptotic pathway (i.e., pro-apoptotic FADD, Bax and cytochrome c) leading to an inhibition of cell death markers (i.e., p-JNK1/2, cleavage of PARP-1) and suggesting regulatory mechanisms in response to the neurochemical changes caused by the drug. The data, together with the observed lack of GFAP activation, support the view that chronic MDMA effects, regardless of the rat developmental age, extends beyond neurotransmitter systems to impair other hippocampal structural cell markers. Interestingly, inhibitory changes in proteins from the apoptotic pathway might be taking place to overcome the protein deficits caused by MDMA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Necroptosis: Molecular Signalling and Translational Implications

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    Claudia Giampietri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis whose molecular players are partially shared with apoptotic cell death. Here we summarize what is known about molecular signalling of necroptosis, particularly focusing on fine tuning of FLIP and IAP proteins in the apoptosis/necroptosis balance. We also emphasize necroptosis involvement in physiological and pathological conditions, particularly in the regulation of immune homeostasis.

  20. Ultrasound for vascular access in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Ehrenfried; Schears, Gregory J; Hall, Stuart R; Yamamoto, Tomohiro

    2012-10-01

    In pediatric patients vascular access is often more difficult than in adults because of the smaller size of the vessels and the inability of the patient to cooperate without deep sedation or general anesthesia. Therefore Ultrasound has already become an invaluable tool for vascular access, but the full potential of ultrasound has yet to be fully realized. Improvements in image quality and a better understanding of optimal insertion techniques continue to help clinicians safely and efficiently place catheters with fewer complications. The probes used for the vascular access are mainly linear and convex type. Higher- frequency ultrasound provides a vivid image; however, the signals are remarkably attenuated. Therefore, the choice of the probe with appropriate frequency is essential. As blood vessels are relatively easily identified with ultrasound, ultrasound-guided vascular access does not require as sharp images as ultrasound-guided nerve block. For pediatric vascular access, the linear probe with 5-15 MHz, 2-5 cm depth is ideal and adequate for almost all cases. Ultrasound-guided vascular access has two main approaches: 'long-axis' or 'in-plane approach' and 'short-axis' or 'transverse approach'. The long-axis approach visualizes the vessel along the insertion pathway and is commonly used to monitor the entire approach of the needle into the vessel. The short-axis approach is easier to show the positional relationship and depth of target vessels, but it is much harder to follow the needle tip within the tissues. The use of 'real-time' ultrasound has been shown to increase first insertion success, reduce access time, have a higher overall success, and reduce arterial puncture. As the technology continues to improve the use of ultrasound will become as ubiquitous as the lines themselves. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. tion of vascular malformations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imaging is only required in cases where there is diag- nostic uncertainty or where interven- tion is required. Ultrasound (with doppler) will rapidly distinguish solid haemangiomas from vascular malfor- mations. Computed tomography. (CT) and magnetic resonance imag- ing (MRI) will help to assess the depth and extent of ...

  2. Acupuncture for vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W N; Zhao, H; Liu, Z S; Wang, S

    2007-04-18

    Dementia is a widespread condition characterized by acquired global impairment of intellect, memory and personality, but with no impairment of consciousness. There is no definitive medical or surgical treatment for vascular dementia. Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese method which has been used for both the prevention and treatment of diseases for over three thousand years. Preliminary searches revealed more than 105 studies of acupuncture for treating vascular dementia. Benefit was reported in up to 70-91% of the treatment group. Body acupuncture and electroacupuncture were the most commonly used techniques. A comparison of electroacupuncture and acupuncture therapy alone suggested that the former was more effective in promoting the recovery of cognitive function. The objective is to assess the efficacy and possible adverse effects of acupuncture therapy for treating vascular dementia. The trials were identified from a search of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement group's Specialized Register on 2 February 2007 which contains records from all major health care databases and many ongoing trials databases. In addition the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database was searched and the web was searched using the search engine Copernic. Randomized controlled trials testing acupuncture therapy in the treatment of vascular dementia were included regardless of language and publication types. The intervention and control group had to receive identical treatment apart from the acupuncture intervention. In view of possible confounding, studies in which acupuncture was combined with other treatments were subjected to subgroup analyses. Titles and abstracts identified from the searches were checked by two reviewers. If it was clear that the study did not refer to a randomized controlled trial in vascular dementia, it was excluded. If it was not clear from the abstract and title, then the full text of study was obtained for an independent assessment by two reviewers

  3. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

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    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  4. Eclalbasaponin II induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human ovarian cancer cells

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    Yoon Jin Cho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenoids echinocystic acid and its glycosides, isolated from several Eclipta prostrata, have been reported to possess various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-diabetic activity. However, the cytotoxicity of the triterpenoids in human cancer cells and their molecular mechanism of action are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that eclalbasaponin II with one glucose moiety has potent cytotoxicity in three ovarian cancer cells and two endometrial cancer cells compared to an aglycone echinocystic acid and eclalbasaponin I with two glucose moiety. Eclalbasaponin II treatment dose-dependently increased sub G1 population. Annexin V staining revealed that eclalbasaponin II induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. In addition, eclalbasaponin II-induced cell death was associated with characteristics of autophagy; an increase in acidic vesicular organelle content and elevation of the levels of LC3-II. Interestingly, autophagy inhibitor BaF1 suppressed the eclalbasaponin II-induced apoptosis. Moreover, eclalbasaponin II activated JNK and p38 signaling and inhibited the mTOR signaling. We further demonstrated that pre-treatment with a JNK and p38 inhibitor and mTOR activator attenuated the eclalbasaponin II-induced autophagy. This suggests that eclalbasaponin II induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death through the regulation of JNK, p38, and mTOR signaling in human ovarian cancer cells.

  5. Anti-apoptotic effect of Shudipingchan granule in the substantia nigra of rat models of Parkinson′s disease

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    Qing Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Levodopa is the gold-standard treatment for Parkinson′s disease. However, although it alleviates the clinical symptoms, it cannot delay the progressive apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons or prevent motor complications in the long term. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Shudipingchan granule on neuronal apoptosis in a rat model of Parkinson′s disease, established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine into the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area. We then administered levodopa (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally, twice daily with or without Shudipingchan granule (7.5 mL/kg intragastrically, twice daily, for 4 weeks. The long-term use of levodopa accelerated apoptosis of nigral cells and worsened behavioral symptoms by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and downstream apoptotic factors. However, administration of Shudipingchan granule with levodopa reduced expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Bax, increased tyrosine hydroxylase and Bcl-2, reduced apoptosis in the substantia nigra, and markedly improved dyskinesia. These findings suggest that Shudipingchan granule suppresses neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting the hyperphosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and downregulating expression of anti-apoptotic genes. Shudipingchan granule, used in combination with levodopa, can effectively reduce the symptoms of Parkinson′s disease.

  6. β3 integrin promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in MDA-MB-231 through repression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Madhumathy G.; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S.; Hari, P.S.; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to anthracycline based chemotherapy is a major limitation in the treatment of breast cancer, particularly of the triple negative sub-type that lacks targeted therapies. Resistance that arises from tumor-stromal interaction facilitated by integrins provides the possibility of targeted disruption. In the present study, we demonstrate that integrin β3 signaling inhibits apoptosis induced by a DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent, epirubicin, in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug efflux based mechanisms do not contribute to this effect. We show that integrin β3 employs the PI3K-Akt and the MAPK pathway for enabling cell survival and proliferation. Further, our results indicate that integrin β3 helps inhibit epirubicin induced cytotoxicity by repression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, thus promoting an anti-apoptotic response. Myristoylated RGT peptide and a monoclonal antibody against integrin β3 brought about a reversal of this effect and chemosensitized the cells. These results identify β3 integrin signaling via repression of BAD as an important survival pathway used by breast cancer cells to evade chemotherapy induced stress. - Highlights: • Integrin β3 signaling promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in breast cancer cells. • Integrin β3 promotes cell survival and proliferation in drug treated cells through the PI3K and MAPK pathways. • Integrin signaling helps evade drug induced cytotoxicity by repression of pro-apoptotic molecule; BAD.

  7. β3 integrin promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in MDA-MB-231 through repression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Madhumathy G.; Desai, Krisha; Prabhu, Jyothi S.; Hari, P.S.; Remacle, Jose; Sridhar, T.S., E-mail: tssridhar@sjri.res.in

    2016-08-01

    Resistance to anthracycline based chemotherapy is a major limitation in the treatment of breast cancer, particularly of the triple negative sub-type that lacks targeted therapies. Resistance that arises from tumor-stromal interaction facilitated by integrins provides the possibility of targeted disruption. In the present study, we demonstrate that integrin β3 signaling inhibits apoptosis induced by a DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agent, epirubicin, in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Drug efflux based mechanisms do not contribute to this effect. We show that integrin β3 employs the PI3K-Akt and the MAPK pathway for enabling cell survival and proliferation. Further, our results indicate that integrin β3 helps inhibit epirubicin induced cytotoxicity by repression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, thus promoting an anti-apoptotic response. Myristoylated RGT peptide and a monoclonal antibody against integrin β3 brought about a reversal of this effect and chemosensitized the cells. These results identify β3 integrin signaling via repression of BAD as an important survival pathway used by breast cancer cells to evade chemotherapy induced stress. - Highlights: • Integrin β3 signaling promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in breast cancer cells. • Integrin β3 promotes cell survival and proliferation in drug treated cells through the PI3K and MAPK pathways. • Integrin signaling helps evade drug induced cytotoxicity by repression of pro-apoptotic molecule; BAD.

  8. Vascular inflammatory cells in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Harrison

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease.

  9. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces vascular leakage via autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular leakage is an important feature of acute inflammatory shock, which currently has no effective treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce vascular leakage and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. However, the mechanism of MIF-induced vascular leakage is still unclear. In this study, using recombinant MIF (rMIF, we demonstrated that MIF induced disorganization and degradation of junction proteins and increased the permeability of human endothelial cells in vitro. Western blotting analysis showed that rMIF treatment induced LC3 conversion and p62 degradation. Inhibition of autophagy with a PI3K inhibitor (3-MA, a ROS scavenger (NAC or autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine rescued rMIF-induced vascular leakage, suggesting that autophagy mediates MIF-induced vascular leakage. The potential involvement of other signaling pathways was also studied using different inhibitors, and the results suggested that MIF-induced vascular leakage may occur through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, we showed that MIF triggered autophagic degradation of endothelial cells, resulting in vascular leakage. Inhibition of MIF-induced autophagy may provide therapeutic targets against vascular leakage in inflammatory shock.

  10. Reactive Oxygen Species in Vascular Formation and Development

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    Yijiang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are derived from the metabolism of oxygen and are traditionally viewed as toxic byproducts that cause damage to biomolecules. It is now becoming widely acknowledged that ROS are key modulators in a variety of biological processes and pathological states. ROS mediate key signaling transduction pathways by reversible oxidation of certain signaling components and are involved in the signaling of growth factors, G-protein-coupled receptors, Notch, and Wnt and its downstream cascades including MAPK, JAK-STAT, NF-κB, and PI3K/AKT. Vascular formation and development is one of the most important events during embryogenesis and is vital for postnasal tissue repair. In this paper, we will discuss how ROS regulate different steps in vascular development, including smooth muscle cell differentiation, angiogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells recruitment, and vascular cell migration.

  11. Humanin is expressed in human vascular walls and has a cytoprotective effect against oxidized LDL-induced oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Adi R.; Scheffer, Lea; Schroeder, Andreas S.; Nakamura, Hiromi K.; Cobb, Laura J.; Oh, Yun K.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Pagano, Richard E.; Cohen, Pinchas; Lerman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Aims Humanin (HN) is a 24-amino acid peptide that has been shown to have an anti-apoptotic function against neuronal cell death caused by Alzheimer's disease. Increased oxidative stress, one of the major factors contributing to this cell death, also plays an important role in the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that HN is expressed in the human vascular wall and may protect against oxidative stress. Methods and results HN expression in the vascular wall was detected by immunostaining in the endothelial cell layer of human internal mammary arteries (n = 5), atherosclerotic coronary arteries (n = 17), and sections of the greater saphenous vein (n = 3). HN mRNA was expressed in the human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Cytoprotective effects of HN against oxidative stress were tested in vitro in HAECs. Pre-treatment with 0.1 µM HN reduced oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL)-induced (i) formation of reactive oxygen species by 50%, (ii) apoptosis by ∼50% as determined by TUNEL staining, and (iii) formation of ceramide, a lipid second messenger involved in the apoptosis signalling cascade, by ∼20%. Conclusion The current study demonstrates for the first time the expression of HN in the endothelial cell layer of human blood vessels. Exogenous addition of HN to endothelial cell cultures was shown to be effective against Ox-LDL-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that HN may play a role and may have a protective effect in early atherosclerosis in humans. PMID:20562421

  12. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  13. Protein Kinase C Inhibitors as Modulators of Vascular Function and Their Application in Vascular Disease

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    Raouf A. Khalil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is regulated by multiple neuronal, hormonal, renal and vascular control mechanisms. Changes in signaling mechanisms in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle (VSM and extracellular matrix cause alterations in vascular tone and blood vessel remodeling and may lead to persistent increases in vascular resistance and hypertension (HTN. In VSM, activation of surface receptors by vasoconstrictor stimuli causes an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, which forms a complex with calmodulin, activates myosin light chain (MLC kinase and leads to MLC phosphorylation, actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. Vasoconstrictor agonists could also increase the production of diacylglycerol which activates protein kinase C (PKC. PKC is a family of Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent isozymes that have different distributions in various blood vessels, and undergo translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, cytoskeleton or the nucleus during cell activation. In VSM, PKC translocation to the cell surface may trigger a cascade of biochemical events leading to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and MAPK kinase (MEK, a pathway that ultimately increases the myofilament force sensitivity to [Ca2+]i, and enhances actin-myosin interaction and VSM contraction. PKC translocation to the nucleus may induce transactivation of various genes and promote VSM growth and proliferation. PKC could also affect endothelium-derived relaxing and contracting factors as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in the extracellular matrix further affecting vascular reactivity and remodeling. In addition to vasoactive factors, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic factors could affect PKC activity. Increased PKC expression and activity have been observed in vascular disease and in certain forms of experimental and human HTN. Targeting of vascular PKC using PKC inhibitors may function in

  14. Neuroprotection with metformin and thymoquinone against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in prenatal rat cortical neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Ikram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to ethanol during early development triggers severe neuronal death by activating multiple stress pathways and causes neurological disorders, such as fetal alcohol effects or fetal alcohol syndrome. This study investigated the effect of ethanol on intracellular events that predispose developing neurons for apoptosis via calcium-mediated signaling. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, mitochondrial dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis and apoptosis-related proteins have been implicated in ethanol neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective mechanisms of metformin (Met and thymoquinone (TQ during ethanol toxicity in rat prenatal cortical neurons at gestational day (GD 17.5. Results We found that Met and TQ, separately and synergistically, increased cell viability after ethanol (100 mM exposure for 12 hours and attenuated the elevation of cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]c. Furthermore, Met and TQ maintained normal physiological mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔψM, which is typically lowered by ethanol exposure. Increased cytosolic free [Ca2+]c and lowered mitochondrial transmembrane potential after ethanol exposure significantly decreased the expression of a key anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2, increased expression of Bax, and stimulated the release of cytochrome-c from mitochondria. Met and TQ treatment inhibited the apoptotic cascade by increasing Bcl-2 expression. These compounds also repressed the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and reduced the cleavage of PARP-1. Morphological conformation of cell death was assessed by TUNEL, Fluoro-Jade-B, and PI staining. These staining methods demonstrated more cell death after ethanol treatment, while Met, TQ or Met plus TQ prevented ethanol-induced apoptotic cell death. Conclusion These findings suggested that Met and TQ are strong protective agents against ethanol

  15. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  16. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  17. Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mohamad Anas; Aljabri, Badr; Al-Omran, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct terms are used to describe vascular thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) depending on which structure is predominantly affected: venous TOS (due to subclavian vein compression) and arterial TOS (due to subclavian artery compression). Although the venous and arterial subtypes of TOS affect only 3% and <1% of all TOS patients respectively, the diagnostic and management approaches to venous and arterial TOS have undergone considerable evolution due to the recent emergence of minimally invasive endovascular techniques such as catheter-directed arterial and venous thrombolysis, and balloon angioplasty. In this review, we discuss the anatomical factors, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of vascular TOS patients. In addition, we use the most up to date observational evidence available to provide a contemporary approach to the diagnosis and management of venous TOS and arterial TOS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Blockade of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 Prevents Inflammation and Vascular Leakage in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a leading cause of blindness in working age adults. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1 blockade on the complications of DR. Experimental models of diabetes were induced with streptozotocin (STZ treatment or Insulin2 gene mutation (Akita in mice. Protein expression and localization were examined by western blots (WB and immunofluorescence (IF. mRNA expression was quantified by PCR array and real-time PCR. The activity of VEGFR1 signaling was blocked by a neutralizing antibody called MF1. Vascular leakage was evaluated by measuring the leakage of [3H]-mannitol tracer into the retina and the IF staining of albumin. VEGFR1 blockade significantly inhibited diabetes-related vascular leakage, leukocytes-endothelial cell (EC adhesion (or retinal leukostasis, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule- (ICAM- 1 protein, abnormal localization and degeneration of the tight junction protein zonula occludens- (ZO- 1, and the cell adhesion protein vascular endothelial (VE cadherin. In addition, VEGFR1 blockade interfered with the gene expression of 10 new cytokines and chemokines: cxcl10, il10, ccl8, il1f6, cxcl15, ccl4, il13, ccl6, casp1, and ccr5. These results suggest that VEGFR1 mediates complications of DR and targeting this signaling pathway represents a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention and treatment of DR.

  19. Engineered vascularized bone grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsigkou, Olga; Pomerantseva, Irina; Spencer, Joel A.; Redondo, Patricia A.; Hart, Alison R.; O’Doherty, Elisabeth; Lin, Yunfeng; Friedrich, Claudia C.; Daheron, Laurence; Lin, Charles P.; Sundback, Cathryn A.; Vacanti, Joseph P.; Neville, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Clinical protocols utilize bone marrow to seed synthetic and decellularized allogeneic bone grafts for enhancement of scaffold remodeling and fusion. Marrow-derived cytokines induce host neovascularization at the graft surface, but hypoxic conditions cause cell death at the core. Addition of cellular components that generate an extensive primitive plexus-like vascular network that would perfuse the entire scaffold upon anastomosis could potentially yield significantly higher-quality grafts. W...

  20. SIRT3-SOD2-ROS pathway is involved in linalool-induced glioma cell apoptotic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yanhao; Dai, Chao; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Glioma is the most prevalent type of adult primary brain tumor and chemotherapy of glioma was limited by drug-resistance. Linalool is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol possessing various pharmacological activities. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of linalool on glioma cell growth. The effect of linalool on cell viability in U87-MG cells was investigated and the results showed that linalool significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In addition, exposure of the cells to linalool resulted in a concentration-dependent increase of TUNEL-stained cells, indicating the occurrence of apoptotic cell death. Linalool decreased mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate, increased the expression of Bax and Bak, reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, and increased the activities of caspase 3 and caspase 9, leading to increase of apoptosis. Linalool resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease of SOD activity but had no significant effect on mRNA and protein expression of SOD2. Moreover, linalool resulted in a significant increase of the expression of acetylated SOD2. The mRNA and protein expression of SIRT3 was significantly inhibited by linalool. Immunoblot analysis showed that there was an evident protein/protein interaction between SOD2 and SIRT3 under normal condition. Linalool treatment significantly decreased the interaction between SOD2 and SIRT3. Overexpression of SIRT3 significantly inhibited linalool-induced increase of mitochondrial ROS production and apoptotic cell death, and decrease of cell viability. In summary, the data demonstrated that linalool exhibited inhibitory effect on glioma cells through regulation of SIRT3-SOD2-ROS signaling.

  1. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-03-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques.

  2. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  3. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  4. Upregulation of BAG3 with apoptotic and autophagic activities in maggot extract‑promoted rat skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian-Li; Dong, Hai-Cao; Yang, Liang; Qiu, Zhe-Wen; Liu, Jia; Li, Hong; Zhong, Li-Xia; Song, Xue; Zhang, Peng; Li, Pei-Nan; Zheng, Lian-Jie

    2018-03-01

    Maggot extract (ME) accelerates rat skin wound healing, however its effect on cell maintenance in wound tissues remains unclear. B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl) 2‑associated athanogene (BAG)3 inhibits apoptosis and promotes autophagy by associating with Bcl‑2 or Beclin 1. Bcl‑2, the downstream effector of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling, is enhanced in ME‑treated wound tissues, which may reinforce the Bcl‑2 anti‑apoptotic activity and/or cooperate with Beclin 1 to regulate autophagy during wound healing. The present study investigated expression levels of BAG3, Bcl‑2, Beclin 1 and light chain (LC)3 levels in rat skin wound tissues in the presence and absence of ME treatment. The results revealed frequent TUNEL‑negative cell death in the wound tissues in the early three days following injury, irrespective to ME treatment. TUNEL‑positive cells appeared in the wound tissues following 4 days of injury and 150 µg/ml ME efficiently reduced apoptotic rate and enhanced BAG3 and Bcl‑2 expression. Elevated Beclin 1 and LC3 levels and an increased LC3 II ratio were revealed in the ME‑treated tissues during the wound healing. The results of the present study demonstrate the anti‑apoptotic effects of BAG3 and Bcl‑2 in ME‑promoted wound healing. Beclin 1/LC3 mediated autophagy may be favorable in maintaining cell survival in the damaged tissues and ME‑upregulated BAG3 may enhance its activity.

  5. Inorganic mercury causes pancreatic β-cell death via the oxidative stress-induced apoptotic and necrotic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yawen; Huang Chunfa; Yang Chingyao; Yen Chengchieh; Tsai Kehsung; Liu Shinghwa

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is a well-known highly toxic metal. In this study, we characterize and investigate the cytotoxicity and its possible mechanisms of inorganic mercury in pancreatic β-cells. Mercury chloride (HgCl 2 ) dose-dependently decreased the function of insulin secretion and cell viability in pancreatic β-cell-derived HIT-T15 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. HgCl 2 significantly increased ROS formation in HIT-T15 cells. Antioxidant N-acetylcysteine effectively reversed HgCl 2 -induced insulin secretion dysfunction in HIT-T15 cells and isolated mouse pancreatic islets. Moreover, HgCl 2 increased sub-G1 hypodiploids and annexin-V binding in HIT-T15 cells, indicating that HgCl 2 possessed ability in apoptosis induction. HgCl 2 also displayed several features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals including disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activations of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase 3. Exposure of HIT-T15 cells to HgCl 2 could significantly increase both apoptotic and necrotic cell populations by acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining. Meanwhile, HgCl 2 could also trigger the depletion of intracellular ATP levels and increase the LDH release from HIT-T15 cells. These HgCl 2 -induced cell death-related signals could be significantly reversed by N-acetylcysteine. The intracellular mercury levels were markedly elevated in HgCl 2 -treated HIT-T15 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that HgCl 2 -induced oxidative stress causes pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and cytotoxicity involved the co-existence of apoptotic and necrotic cell death.

  6. A stapled BIM peptide overcomes apoptotic resistance in hematologic cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, James L.; Katz, Samuel G.; Bird, Gregory H.; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Stewart, Michelle L.; Lawrence, Chelsea; Fisher, Jill K.; Godes, Marina; Pitter, Kenneth; Kung, Andrew L.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells subvert the natural balance between cellular life and death, achieving immortality through pathologic enforcement of survival pathways and blockade of cell death mechanisms. Pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins are frequently disarmed in relapsed and refractory cancer through genetic deletion or interaction-based neutralization by overexpressed antiapoptotic proteins, resulting in resistance to chemotherapy and radiation treatments. New pharmacologic strategies are urgently needed to overcome these formidable apoptotic blockades. We harnessed the natural killing activity of BCL-2–interacting mediator of cell death (BIM), which contains one of the most potent BH3 death domains of the BCL-2 protein family, to restore BH3-dependent cell death in resistant hematologic cancers. A hydrocarbon-stapled peptide modeled after the BIM BH3 helix broadly targeted BCL-2 family proteins with high affinity, blocked inhibitory antiapoptotic interactions, directly triggered proapoptotic activity, and induced dose-responsive and BH3 sequence–specific cell death of hematologic cancer cells. The therapeutic potential of stapled BIM BH3 was highlighted by the selective activation of cell death in the aberrant lymphoid infiltrates of mice reconstituted with BIM-deficient bone marrow and in a human AML xenograft model. Thus, we found that broad and multimodal targeting of the BCL-2 family pathway can overcome pathologic barriers to cell death. PMID:22622039

  7. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reape, Theresa J; McCabe, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is now accepted as a fundamental cellular process in plants. It is involved in defence, development and response to stress, and our understanding of these processes would be greatly improved through a greater knowledge of the regulation of plant PCD. However, there may be several types of PCD that operate in plants, and PCD research findings can be confusing if they are not assigned to a specific type of PCD. The various cell-death mechanisms need therefore to be carefully described and defined. This review describes one of these plant cell death processes, namely the apoptotic-like PCD (AL-PCD). We begin by examining the hallmark 'apoptotic-like' features (protoplast condensation, DNA degradation) of the cell's destruction that are characteristic of AL-PCD, and include examples of AL-PCD during the plant life cycle. The review explores the possible cellular 'executioners' (caspase-like molecules; mitochondria; de novo protein synthesis) that are responsible for the hallmark features of the cellular destruction. Finally, senescence is used as a case study to show that a rigorous definition of cell-death processes in plant cells can help to resolve arguments that occur in the scientific literature regarding the timing and control of plant cell death.

  8. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Apoptotic Responses Induced by Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes) Aqueous Extract against a Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finimundy, Tiane C; Scola, Gustavo; Scariot, Fernando J; Dillon, Aldo J P; Moura, Sidnei; Echeverrigaray, Sérgio; Henriques, João Pegas; Roesch-Ely, Mariana

    2018-01-01

    Cumulative evidence from research studies has shown that the shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is an excellent source of natural antitumor agents and is capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. However, the cell signaling pathway that leads tumor cells to apoptosis is not well understood because many chemical compounds may be acting. This study investigated the chemopreventive effects of an L. edodes aqueous extract on human HEp-2 epithelial larynx carcinoma cells and normal human MRC-5 lung fibroblasts by identifying proliferative and apoptotic pathways. The chemical characterization of the dry powder was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects induced by the extract were evaluated by assessing proliferative markers, cell sorting through flow cytometry, and expression levels of apoptotic proteins with Western blotting. The results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation was more prominent in HEp-2 than in MRC-5 cells. Cell death analysis showed the appearance of cell populations in the sub-G1 phase, with late apoptotic signal increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the aqueous extract induced depolarization of mitochondria, activating the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in HEp-2 cells. These observations suggest that L. edodes extract may exert a chemopreventive effect, regulating mitotic induction of apoptogenic signals. These findings highlight the mushroom's pharmacological potential in cancer treatment.

  9. Apoptotic potential and cell sensitivity to fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupnow, Brent A.; Murtha, Albert D.; Alarcon, Rodolfo M.; Giaccia, Amato J.; Knox, Susan J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: At present, the relationship between sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis and overall cellular radiosensitivity remains unclear. In particular, the relationship of apoptotic sensitivity to the survival of cells following fractionated irradiation has not been well studied. The purpose of the present study was to determine if increasing cell sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis would result in decreased clonogenic survival following single dose and fractionated irradiation in vitro. Materials and Methods: To address this, we chose a cell line (Rat-1MycER) in which the sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis could be altered by switching on or off the activity of a conditional c-Myc allele (c-MycER). The c-MycER construct expresses a full length c-Myc protein fused to a modified hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor. Only in the presence of the estrogen analog 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT), does the conditional c-MycER become active. Apoptosis following irradiation in these cells (with and without c-MycER activation) was analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis following various radiation doses and at different times after irradiation. Additionally, clonogenic survival analysis was performed following single radiation doses from 0 to 10 Gy and following five fractions of 2 or 4 Gy each. Survival of cells with and without c-MycER activation was compared. Furthermore, the effect of overexpressing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene on apoptosis induction and clonogenic survival of these cells was examined. Results: Rat-1MycER cells were strongly sensitized to radiation-induced apoptosis in a dose and time dependent manner when MycER was activated relative to cells treated without c-MycER activation. This c-Myc-mediated sensitivity to radiation-induced apoptosis was suppressed by overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition to increasing apoptosis, activating c-MycER prior to

  10. Mesoderm/mesenchyme homeobox gene l promotes vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yun-He; Zhang, You-En; Zheng, Fei; Yang, Jian-Ye; Guo, Ling-Yun; Li, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Tang, Jun-Ming; Chen, Shi-You; Wang, Jia-Ning

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the role of mesoderm/mesenchyme homeobox gene l (Meox1) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) phenotypic modulation during vascular remodeling. By using immunostaining, Western blot, and histological analyses, we found that Meox1 was up-regulated in PDGF-BB-treated SMCs in vitro and balloon injury-induced arterial SMCs in vivo. Meox1 knockdown by shRNA restored the expression of contractile SMCs phenotype markers including smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and calponin. In contrast, overexpression of Moex1 inhibited α-SMA and calponin expressions while inducing the expressions of synthetic SMCs phenotype markers such as matrix gla protein, osteopontin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Mechanistically, Meox1 mediated the SMCs phenotypic modulation through FAK-ERK1/2 signaling, which appears to induce autophagy in SMCs. In vivo, knockdown of Meox1 attenuated injury-induced neointima formation and promoted SMCs contractile proteins expressions. Meox1 knockdown also reduced the number of proliferating SMCs, suggesting that Meox1 was important for SMCs proliferation in vivo. Moreover, knockdown of Meox1 attenuated ERK1/2 signaling and autophagy markers expressions, suggesting that Meox1 may promote SMCs phenotypic modulation via ERK1/2 signaling-autophagy in vivo. Our data indicated that Meox1 promotes SMCs phenotypic modulation and injury-induced vascular remodeling by regulating the FAK-ERK1/2-autophagy signaling cascade. Thus, targeting Meox1 may be an attractive approach for treating proliferating vascular diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Aerobic Exercise Promotes a Decrease in Right Ventricle Apoptotic Proteins in Experimental Cor Pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Rafael; Siqueira, Rafaela; Conzatti, Adriana; Fernandes, Tânia Regina Gattelli; Tavares, Angela Maria Vicente; Araújo, Alex Sander da Rosa; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by progressive increases in resistance and pressure in the pulmonary artery and Cor pulmonale. The effect of exercise on hydrogen peroxide-dependent signaling in the right ventricle (RV) of Cor pulmonale rats was analyzed. Rats were divided into sedentary control (SC), sedentary monocrotaline (SM), trained control (TC), and trained monocrotaline (TM) groups. Rats underwent exercise training (60% of VO2 max) for 5 weeks, with 3 weeks after monocrotaline injection (60 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Pulmonary resistance was enhanced in SM (2.0-fold) compared with SC. Pulmonary artery pressure was increased in SM (2.7-fold) and TM (2.6-fold) compared with their respective controls (SC and TC). RV hypertrophy indexes increased in SM compared with SC. Hydrogen peroxide was higher in SM (1.7-fold) than SC and was reduced by 47% in TM compared with SM. p-Akt was increased in TM (2.98-fold) compared with SM. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 were also increased (2.9-fold and 3.9-fold, respectively) in SM compared with SC. Caspase 3 was decreased in TM compared with SM (P < 0.05). Therefore, exercise training promoted a beneficial response by decreasing hydrogen peroxide concentrations, and consequently, apoptotic signaling in RV.

  12. High-Content Analysis of Pro-Apoptotic EphA4 Dependence Receptor Functions using Small Molecule Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelersa, Claudiu M.; Barreras, Henry; Runko, Erik; Ricard, Jerome; Shi, Yan; Bixby, John L.; Lemmon, Vance P.; Liebl, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule compounds (SMCs) can provide an inexpensive and selective approach to modifying biological responses. High-content analysis (HCA) of SMC libraries can help identify candidate molecules that inhibit or activate cellular responses. In particular, regulation of cell death has important implications for many pathological conditions. Dependence receptors are a new classification of pro-apoptotic membrane receptors that, unlike classic death receptors, initiate apoptotic signals in the absence of their ligands. EphA4 has recently been identified as a dependence receptor that may have important functions in conditions as disparate as cancer biology and CNS injury and disease. To screen potential candidate SMCs that inhibit or activate EphA4-induced cell death, HCA of a SMC library was performed using stable EphA4-expressing NIH3T3 cells. Our results describe a high-content method for screening dependence receptor-signaling pathways, and demonstrate that several candidate SMCs can inhibit EphA4-mediated cell death. PMID:22492230

  13. GTSE1 expression represses apoptotic signaling and confers cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Tan, Shi Hui; Tan, Woei Loon; Yeo, Mei Shi; Xie, Chen; Wong, Foong Ying; Kiat, Zee Ying; Lim, Robert; Yong, Wei Peng

    2015-01-01

    Platinum based therapy is commonly used in the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. However, resistance to chemotherapy is a major challenge that causes marked variation in individual response rate and survival rate. In this study, we aimed to identify the expression of GTSE1 and its correlation with cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells. Methylation profiling was carried out in tissue samples from gastric cancer patients before undergoing neoadjuvent therapy using docetaxel, cisplatin and 5FU (DCX) and in gastric cancer cell lines. The correlation between GTSE1 expression and methylation in gastric cancer cells was determined by RT-PCR and MSP respectively. GTSE1 expression was knocked-down using shRNA’s and its effects on cisplatin cytotoxicity and cell survival were detected by MTS, proliferation and clonogenic survival assays. Additionally, the effect of GTSE1 knock down in drug induced apoptosis was determined by western blotting and apoptosis assays. GTSE1 exhibited a differential methylation index in gastric cancer patients and in cell lines that correlated with DCX treatment response and cisplatin sensitivity, respectively. In-vitro, GTSE1 expression showed a direct correlation with hypomethylation. Interestingly, Cisplatin treatment induced a dose dependent up regulation as well as nuclear translocation of GTSE1 expression in gastric cancer cells. Knock down of GTSE1 enhanced cisplatin cytotoxity and led to a significant reduction in cell proliferation and clonogenic survival. Also, loss of GTSE1 expression caused a significant increase in P53 mediated apoptosis in cisplatin treated cells. Our study identifies GTSE1 as a biomarker for cisplatin resistance in gastric cancer cells. This study also suggests the repressive role of GTSE1 in cisplatin induced apoptosis and signifies its potential utility as a therapeutic target for better clinical management of gastric cancer patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1550-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  14. Involvement of plasmalogens in post-natal retinal vascular development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Saab

    Full Text Available Proper development of retinal blood vessels is essential to ensure sufficient oxygen and nutrient supplies to the retina. It was shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs could modulate factors involved in tissue vascularization. A congenital deficiency in ether-phospholipids, also termed "plasmalogens", was shown to lead to abnormal ocular vascularization. Because plasmalogens are considered to be reservoirs of PUFAs, we wished to improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which plasmalogens regulate retinal vascular development and whether the release of PUFAs by calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2 could be involved.By characterizing the cellular and molecular steps of retinal vascular development in a mouse model of plasmalogen deficiency, we demonstrated that plasmalogens modulate angiogenic processes during the early phases of retinal vascularization. They influence glial activity and primary astrocyte template formation, endothelial cell proliferation and retinal vessel outgrowth, and impact the expression of the genes involved in angiogenesis in the retina. These early defects led to a disorganized and dysfunctional retinal vascular network at adult age. By comparing these data to those obtained on a mouse model of retinal iPLA2 inhibition, we suggest that these processes may be mediated by PUFAs released from plasmalogens and further signalling through the angiopoietin/tie pathways.These data suggest that plasmalogens play a crucial role in retinal vascularization processes.

  15. PEGylated apoptotic protein-loaded PLGA microspheres for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeon HJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyeong Jun Byeon,1 Insoo Kim,1 Ji Su Choi,1 Eun Seong Lee,2 Beom Soo Shin,3 Yu Seok Youn11Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2Division of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon-si, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan-si, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The aim of the current study was to investigate the antitumor potential of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres (PLGA MSs containing polyethylene glycol (PEG-conjugated (PEGylated tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (PEG-TRAIL. PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs were prepared by using a water-in-oil-in-water double-emulsion method, and the apoptotic activities of supernatants released from the PLGA MSs at days 1, 3, and 7 were examined. The antitumor effect caused by PEG-TRAIL PLGA MSs was evaluated in pancreatic Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice. PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS was found to be spherical and 14.4±1.06 µm in size, and its encapsulation efficiency was significantly greater than that of TRAIL MS (85.7%±4.1% vs 43.3%±10.9%, respectively. The PLGA MS gradually released PEG-TRAIL for 14 days, and the released PEG-TRAIL was shown to have clear apoptotic activity in Mia Paca-2 cells, whereas TRAIL released after 1 day had a negligible activity. Finally, PEG-TRAIL PLGA MS displayed remarkably greater antitumor efficacy than blank or TRAIL PLGA MS in Mia Paca-2 cell-xenografted mice in terms of tumor volume and weight, apparently due to increased stability and well-retained apoptotic activity of PEG-TRAIL in PLGA MS. We believe that this PLGA MS system, combined with PEG-TRAIL, should be considered a promising candidate for treating pancreatic cancer.Keywords: Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid, controlled release, PEGylation, TRAIL, pancreatic cancer

  16. JNK Controls the Onset of Mitosis in Planarian Stem Cells and Triggers Apoptotic Cell Death Required for Regeneration and Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuedo-Castillo, María; Crespo, Xenia; Seebeck, Florian; Bartscherer, Kerstin; Salò, Emili; Adell, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Regeneration of lost tissues depends on the precise interpretation of molecular signals that control and coordinate the onset of proliferation, cellular differentiation and cell death. However, the nature of those molecular signals and the mechanisms that integrate the cellular responses remain largely unknown. The planarian flatworm is a unique model in which regeneration and tissue renewal can be comprehensively studied in vivo. The presence of a population of adult pluripotent stem cells combined with the ability to decode signaling after wounding enable planarians to regenerate a complete, correctly proportioned animal within a few days after any kind of amputation, and to adapt their size to nutritional changes without compromising functionality. Here, we demonstrate that the stress-activated c-jun–NH2–kinase (JNK) links wound-induced apoptosis to the stem cell response during planarian regeneration. We show that JNK modulates the expression of wound-related genes, triggers apoptosis and attenuates the onset of mitosis in stem cells specifically after tissue loss. Furthermore, in pre-existing body regions, JNK activity is required to establish a positive balance between cell death and stem cell proliferation to enable tissue renewal, remodeling and the maintenance of proportionality. During homeostatic degrowth, JNK RNAi blocks apoptosis, resulting in impaired organ remodeling and rescaling. Our findings indicate that JNK-dependent apoptotic cell death is crucial to coordinate tissue renewal and remodeling required to regenerate and to maintain a correctly proportioned animal. Hence, JNK might act as a hub, translating wound signals into apoptotic cell death, controlled stem cell proliferation and differentiation, all of which are required to coordinate regeneration and tissue renewal. PMID:24922054

  17. JNK controls the onset of mitosis in planarian stem cells and triggers apoptotic cell death required for regeneration and remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Almuedo-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of lost tissues depends on the precise interpretation of molecular signals that control and coordinate the onset of proliferation, cellular differentiation and cell death. However, the nature of those molecular signals and the mechanisms that integrate the cellular responses remain largely unknown. The planarian flatworm is a unique model in which regeneration and tissue renewal can be comprehensively studied in vivo. The presence of a population of adult pluripotent stem cells combined with the ability to decode signaling after wounding enable planarians to regenerate a complete, correctly proportioned animal within a few days after any kind of amputation, and to adapt their size to nutritional changes without compromising functionality. Here, we demonstrate that the stress-activated c-jun-NH2-kinase (JNK links wound-induced apoptosis to the stem cell response during planarian regeneration. We show that JNK modulates the expression of wound-related genes, triggers apoptosis and attenuates the onset of mitosis in stem cells specifically after tissue loss. Furthermore, in pre-existing body regions, JNK activity is required to establish a positive balance between cell death and stem cell proliferation to enable tissue renewal, remodeling and the maintenance of proportionality. During homeostatic degrowth, JNK RNAi blocks apoptosis, resulting in impaired organ remodeling and rescaling. Our findings indicate that JNK-dependent apoptotic cell death is crucial to coordinate tissue renewal and remodeling required to regenerate and to maintain a correctly proportioned animal. Hence, JNK might act as a hub, translating wound signals into apoptotic cell death, controlled stem cell proliferation and differentiation, all of which are required to coordinate regeneration and tissue renewal.

  18. JNK controls the onset of mitosis in planarian stem cells and triggers apoptotic cell death required for regeneration and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuedo-Castillo, María; Crespo-Yanez, Xenia; Crespo, Xenia; Seebeck, Florian; Bartscherer, Kerstin; Salò, Emili; Adell, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    Regeneration of lost tissues depends on the precise interpretation of molecular signals that control and coordinate the onset of proliferation, cellular differentiation and cell death. However, the nature of those molecular signals and the mechanisms that integrate the cellular responses remain largely unknown. The planarian flatworm is a unique model in which regeneration and tissue renewal can be comprehensively studied in vivo. The presence of a population of adult pluripotent stem cells combined with the ability to decode signaling after wounding enable planarians to regenerate a complete, correctly proportioned animal within a few days after any kind of amputation, and to adapt their size to nutritional changes without compromising functionality. Here, we demonstrate that the stress-activated c-jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) links wound-induced apoptosis to the stem cell response during planarian regeneration. We show that JNK modulates the expression of wound-related genes, triggers apoptosis and attenuates the onset of mitosis in stem cells specifically after tissue loss. Furthermore, in pre-existing body regions, JNK activity is required to establish a positive balance between cell death and stem cell proliferation to enable tissue renewal, remodeling and the maintenance of proportionality. During homeostatic degrowth, JNK RNAi blocks apoptosis, resulting in impaired organ remodeling and rescaling. Our findings indicate that JNK-dependent apoptotic cell death is crucial to coordinate tissue renewal and remodeling required to regenerate and to maintain a correctly proportioned animal. Hence, JNK might act as a hub, translating wound signals into apoptotic cell death, controlled stem cell proliferation and differentiation, all of which are required to coordinate regeneration and tissue renewal.

  19. Effects of Glucocorticoids on Apoptosis and Clearance of Apoptotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisleen McColl

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The glucocorticoid (GC drugs are one of the most commonly prescribed and effective anti-inflammatory agents used for the treatment of many inflammatory disorders through their ability to attenuate phlogistic responses. The glucocorticoid receptor (GCR primarily mediates GC actions via activation or repression of gene expression. GCs directly induce the expression of proteins displaying anti-inflammatory activities. However, the likely predominant effect of GCs is the repression of multiple inflammatory genes that invariably are overexpressed during nonresolving chronic inflammation. Although most GC actions are mediated through regulation of transcription, rapid nongenomic actions have also been reported. In addition, GCs modulate inflammatory cell survival, inducing apoptosis in immature thymocytes and eosinophils, while delaying constitutive neutrophil apoptosis. Importantly, GCs promote noninflammatory phagocytosis of apoptotic cell targets, a process important for the successful resolution of inflammation. Here, the effects and mechanisms of action of GC on inflammatory cell apoptosis and phagocytosis will be discussed.

  20. The Procoagulant Activity of Apoptotic Cells Is Mediated by Interaction with Factor XII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizhen Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Apoptotic cells, by externalizing phosphatidylserine (PS as a hallmark feature, are procoagulant. However, the mechanism by which apoptotic cells activate coagulation system remains unknown. Intrinsic coagulation pathway is initiated by coagulation factor XII (FXII of contact activation system. The purpose of this study was to determine whether FXII is involved in procoagulant activity of apoptotic cells. Using western blotting and chromogenic substrate assay, we found that incubation with apoptotic cells, but not with viable cells, resulted in rapid cleavage and activation of FXII in the presence of prekallikrein and high molecular weight kininogen (HK, other two components of contact activation system. As detected by flow cytometry, FXII bound to apoptotic cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by annexin V and PS liposome. Direct association of FXII with PS was confirmed in a surface plasmon resonance assay. Clotting time of FXII-deficient plasma induced by apoptotic cells was significantly prolonged, which was fully reversed by replenishment with FXII. Corn trypsin inhibitor, a FXII inhibitor, completely prevented apoptotic cells-induced intrinsic tenase complex formation. Consistently, apoptotic cells significantly increased thrombin production in normal plasma, which was not affected by an inhibitory anti-tissue factor antibody. However, blocking of PS by annexin V, inhibition of FXII, or the deficiency of FXII suppressed apoptotic cells-induced thrombin generation. Addition of purified FXII to FXII-deficient plasma recovered thrombin generation to the normal plasma level. In conclusion, FXII binds to apoptotic cells via PS and becomes activated, thereby constituting a novel mechanism mediating the procoagulant activity of apoptotic cells.

  1. PARP Inhibition Restores Extrinsic Apoptotic Sensitivity in Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpel-Massler, Georg; Pareja, Fresia; Aimé, Pascaline; Shu, Chang; Chau, Lily; Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Halatsch, Marc-Eric; Crary, John F.; Canoll, Peter; Siegelin, Markus D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance to apoptosis is a paramount issue in the treatment of Glioblastoma (GBM). We show that targeting PARP by the small molecule inhibitors, Olaparib (AZD-2281) or PJ34, reduces proliferation and lowers the apoptotic threshold of GBM cells in vitro and in vivo. Methods The sensitizing effects of PARP inhibition on TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and potential toxicity were analyzed using viability assays and flow cytometry in established GBM cell lines, low-passage neurospheres and astrocytes in vitro. Molecular analyses included western blots and gene silencing. In vivo, effects on tumor growth were examined in a murine subcutaneous xenograft model. Results The combination treatment of PARP inhibitors and TRAIL led to an increased cell death with activation of caspases and inhibition of formation of neurospheres when compared to single-agent treatment. Mechanistically, pharmacological PARP inhibition elicited a nuclear stress response with up-regulation of down-stream DNA-stress response proteins, e.g., CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homology protein (CHOP). Furthermore, Olaparib and PJ34 increased protein levels of DR5 in a concentration and time-dependent manner. In turn, siRNA-mediated suppression of DR5 mitigated the effects of TRAIL/PARP inhibitor-mediated apoptosis. In addition, suppression of PARP-1 levels enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in malignant glioma cells. Treatment of human astrocytes with the combination of TRAIL/PARP inhibitors did not cause toxicity. Finally, the combination treatment of TRAIL and PJ34 significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo when compared to treatment with each agent alone. Conclusions PARP inhibition represents a promising avenue to overcome apoptotic resistance in GBM. PMID:25531448

  2. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  3. Spinal vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Timo [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Mull, Michael; Thron, Armin [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Gilsbach, Joachim M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Spinal vascular malformations are rare diseases that consist of true inborn cavernomas and arteriovenous malformations (including perimedullary fistulae, glomerular and juvenile AVMs) and presumably acquired dural arteriovenous fistulae. This review article gives an overview of the imaging features both on MRI and angiography, the differential diagnoses, the clinical symptomatology and the potential therapeutic approaches to these diseases. It is concluded that MRI is the diagnostic modality of first choice in suspected spinal vascular malformation and should be complemented by selective spinal angiography. Treatment in symptomatic patients offers an improvement in the prognosis, but should be performed in specialized centers. Patients with spinal cord cavernomas and perimedullary fistulae type I are surgical candidates. Dural arteriovenous fistulae can either be operated upon or can be treated by an endovascular approach, the former being a simple, quick and secure approach to obliterate the fistula, while the latter is technically demanding. In spinal arteriovenous malformations, the endovascular approach is the method of first choice; in selected cases, a combined therapy might be sensible. (orig.)

  4. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Strategies to Replicate Biocomplexity of Vascular Elastic Matrix Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Bashur, Chris A.; Venkataraman, Lavanya; Ramamurthi, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissues exhibit architecturally complex extracellular matrices, of which the elastic matrix forms a major component. The elastic matrix critically maintains native structural configurations of vascular tissues, determines their ability to recoil after stretch, and regulates cell signaling pathways involved in morphogenesis, injury response, and inflammation via biomechanical transduction. The ability to tissue engineer vascular replacements that incorporate elastic matrix super...

  5. Andrographolide induces apoptotic and non-apoptotic death and enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sung-Chul; Jeon, Ho Jong; Kee, Keun Hong; Lee, Mi Ja; Hong, Ran; Han, Song Iy

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide, a natural compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to possess antitumor activity. In the present study, the effect of andrographolide in human gastric cancer (GC) cells was investigated. Andrographolide induced cell death with apoptotic and non-apoptotic features. At a low concentration, andrographolide potentiated apoptosis and reduction of clonogenicity triggered by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL)....

  6. Potential Therapeutics for Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao-Kun

    2017-10-16

    As the human lifespan increases, the number of people affected by age-related dementia is growing at an epidemic pace. Vascular pathology dramatically affects cognitive profiles, resulting in dementia and cognitive impairment. While vascular dementia itself constitutes a medical challenge, hypoperfusion/vascular risk factors enhance amyloid toxicity and other memory-damaging factors and hasten Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other memory disorders' progression, as well as negatively affect treatment outcome. Few therapeutic options are, however, currently available to improve the prognosis of patients with vascular dementia and cognitive impairment, mixed AD dementia with vascular pathology, or other memory disorders. Emerging evidence, however, indicates that, like AD and other memory disorders, synaptic impairment underlies much of the memory impairment in the cognitive decline of vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia. Effective rescues of the memory functions might be achieved through synaptic and memory therapeutics, targeting distinct molecular signaling pathways that support the formation of new synapses and maintaining their connections. Potential therapeutic agents include: 1) memory therapeutic agents that rescue synaptic and memory functions after the brain insults; 2) anti-pathologic therapeutics and an effective management of vascular risk factors; and 3) preventative therapeutic agents that achieve memory therapy through functional enhancement. Their development and potential as clinically effective memory therapeutics for vascular cognitive impairment and dementia are discussed in this review. These therapeutic agents are also likely to benefit patients with AD and/or other types of memory disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Transforming growth factor β family members in regulation of vascular function: in the light of vascular conditional knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lars; van Meeteren, Laurens A

    2013-05-15

    Blood vessels are composed of endothelial cells, mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) and their shared basement membrane. During embryonic development a multitude of signaling components orchestrate the formation of new vessels. The process is highly dependent on correct dosage, spacing and timing of these signaling molecules. As vessels mature some cascades remain active, albeit at very low levels, and may be reactivated upon demand. Members of the Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) protein family are strongly engaged in developmental angiogenesis but are also regulators of vascular integrity in the adult. In humans various genetic alterations within this protein family cause vascular disorders, involving disintegration of vascular integrity. Here we summarize and discuss recent data gathered from conditional and endothelial cell specific genetic loss-of-function of members of the TGF-β family in the mouse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporary vascular shunting in vascular trauma: A 10-year review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five patients with non-viable limbs had the vessel ligated. Conclusions. A TIVS in the damage control setting is both life- and limb-saving. These shunts can be inserted safely in a facility without access to a surgeon with vascular surgery experience if there is uncontrollable bleeding or the delay to definitive vascular surgery ...

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitor upregulates peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibits apoptotic cell death in abcd1-deficient glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Pujol, Aurora; Baarine, Mauhamad; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-01-01

    In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1) and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal β-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs) (1 and 3) in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVL's in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2) proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid) leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD.

  11. Histone deacetylase inhibitor upregulates peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and inhibits apoptotic cell death in abcd1-deficient glial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Singh

    Full Text Available In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1 and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD. The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal β-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs (1 and 3 in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVL's in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2 proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD.

  12. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in manganese toxicity in rat astrocytoma C6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Kotler, Mónica L

    2011-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a trace element known to be essential for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. However, chronic exposure to high levels of Mn in occupational or environmental settings can lead to its accumulation in the brain resulting in a degenerative brain disorder referred to as Manganism. Astrocytes are the main Mn store in the central nervous system and several lines of evidence implicate these cells as major players in the role of Manganism development. In the present study, we employed rat astrocytoma C6 cells as a sensitive experimental model for investigating molecular mechanisms involved in Mn neurotoxicity. Our results show that C6 cells undergo reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptotic cell death involving caspase-8 and mitochondrial-mediated pathways in response to Mn. Exposed cells exhibit typical apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, caspase-3 activation and caspase-specific cleavage of the endogenous substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Participation of the caspase-8 dependent pathway was assessed by increased levels of FasL, caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway was demonstrated by the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation and the increased mitochondrial levels of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In addition, our data also shows for the first time that mitochondrial fragmentation plays a relevant role in Mn-induced apoptosis. Taking together, these findings contribute to a deeper elucidation of the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying Mn-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Luteolin Ameliorates Hypertensive Vascular Remodeling through Inhibiting the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Preliminary researches showed that luteolin was used to treat hypertension. However, it is still unclear whether luteolin has effect on the hypertensive complication such as vascular remodeling. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of luteolin on the hypertensive vascular remodeling and its molecular mechanism. Method and Results. We evaluated the effect of luteolin on aorta thickening of hypertension in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs and found that luteolin could significantly decrease the blood pressure and media thickness of aorta in vivo. Luteolin could inhibit angiotensin II- (Ang II- induced proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA staining result showed that luteolin reduced Ang II-stimulated ROS production in VSMCs. Furthermore, western blot and gelatin zymography results showed that luteolin treatment leaded to a decrease in ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p-p38, MMP2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA protein level. Conclusion. These data support that luteolin can ameliorate hypertensive vascular remodeling by inhibiting the proliferation and migration of Ang II-induced VSMCs. Its mechanism is mediated by the regulation of MAPK signaling pathway and the production of ROS.

  14. Peripheral vascular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine etiology and management in patients with peripheral vascular trauma.Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2006 with a diagnosis of peripheral artery injury, 69 cases admitted to Diyarbakır State Hospital Department of Cardiovascular surgery.Results: These cases have been respectively reviewed. The causes of injuries were; penetrating injuries in 60 cases (87%, blunt trauma in seven cases (10% and gunshot injuries in two cases (3%. In 53 cases (74% upper extremity, in 15 cases (21% lower extremity was involved. As a surgical procedure, in 34 cases (47% end-to-end anastomosis, in 28 cases (39% lateral suture, in five cases (7% venous graft interposition, in five cases (7% ligation was performed.Conclusion: Early intervention, transfusion of fluid and blood, systemic anticoagulation, preoperative and postoperative detailed debridement decreased the morbidity and mortality rates.

  15. The vascular secret of Klotho

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Ewa; Olgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein related to longevity. Increasing evidence of a vascular protecting effect of the Klotho protein has emerged and might be important for future treatments of uremic vascular calcification. It is still disputed whether Klotho is locally expressed ...

  16. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  17. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  18. Advanced Glycation End-Products Induce Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: A Mechanism for Vascular Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayo Koike

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification, especially medial artery calcification, is associated with cardiovascular death in patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD. To determine the underlying mechanism of vascular calcification, we have demonstrated in our previous report that advanced glycation end-products (AGEs stimulated calcium deposition in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs through excessive oxidative stress and phenotypic transition into osteoblastic cells. Since AGEs can induce apoptosis, in this study we investigated its role on VSMC apoptosis, focusing mainly on the underlying mechanisms. A rat VSMC line (A7r5 was cultured, and treated with glycolaldehyde-derived AGE-bovine serum albumin (AGE3-BSA. Apoptotic cells were identified by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. To quantify apoptosis, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for histone-complexed DNA fragments was employed. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the mRNA levels. Treatment of A7r5 cells with AGE3-BSA from 100 µg/mL concentration markedly increased apoptosis, which was suppressed by Nox inhibitors. AGE3-BSA significantly increased the mRNA expression of NAD(PH oxidase components including Nox4 and p22phox, and these findings were confirmed by protein levels using immunofluorescence. Dihydroethidisum assay showed that compared with cBSA, AGE3-BSA increased reactive oxygen species level in A7r5 cells. Furthermore, AGE3-induced apoptosis was significantly inhibited by siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nox4 or p22phox. Double knockdown of Nox4 and p22phox showed a similar inhibitory effect on apoptosis as single gene silencing. Thus, our results demonstrated that NAD(PH oxidase-derived oxidative stress are involved in AGEs-induced apoptosis of VSMCs. These findings might be important to understand the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in diabetes and CKD.

  19. Social media in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Echeverri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial.

  1. Incretin-Based Therapy for Prevention of Diabetic Vascular Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic vascular complications are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with numbers of affected individuals steadily increasing. Diabetic vascular complications can be divided into two categories: macrovascular and microvascular complications. Macrovascular complications include coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease, while microvascular complications include retinopathy and chronic kidney disease. These complications result from metabolic abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, elevated levels of free fatty acids, and insulin resistance. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to mediate the adverse effects of these metabolic disorders on vascular tissues, including stimulation of protein kinase C signaling and activation of the polyol pathway by oxidative stress and inflammation. Additionally, the loss of tissue-specific insulin signaling induced by hyperglycemia and toxic metabolites can induce cellular dysfunction and both macro- and microvascular complications characteristic of diabetes. Despite these insights, few therapeutic methods are available for the management of diabetic complications. Recently, incretin-based therapeutic agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, have been reported to elicit vasotropic actions, suggesting a potential for effecting an actual reduction in diabetic vascular complications. The present review will summarize the relationship between multiple adverse biological mechanisms in diabetes and putative incretin-based therapeutic interventions intended to prevent diabetic vascular complications.

  2. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-08-28

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

  3. Nogo-B (Reticulon-4B) functions as a negative regulator of the apoptotic pathway through the interaction with c-FLIP in colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Nao; Tashiro, Keitaro; Taniguchi, Kohei; Kawai, Masaru; Tanaka, Keitaro; Okuda, Junji; Hayashi, Michihiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2018-04-20

    Nogo-B is a member of the Nogo/Reticulon-4 family and has been reported to be an inducer of apoptosis in certain types of cancer cells. However, the role of Nogo-B in human cancer remains less understood. Here, we demonstrated the functions of Nogo-B in colorectal cancer cells. In clinical colorectal cancer specimens, Nogo-B was obviously overexpressed, as determined by immunohistochemistry; and Western blot analysis showed its expression level to be significantly up-regulated. Furthermore, knockdown of Nogo-B in two colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480 and DLD-1, by transfection with si-RNA (siR) resulted in significantly reduced cell viability and a dramatic increase in apoptosis with insistent overexpression of cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved PARP. The transfection with Nogo-B plasmid cancelled that apoptosis induced by siRNogoB in SW480 cells. Besides, combinatory treatment with siR-Nogo-B/staurosporine (STS) or siR-Nogo-B/Fas ligand (FasL) synergistically reduced cell viability and increased the expression of apoptotic signaling proteins in colorectal cancer cells. These results strongly support our contention that Nogo-B most likely played an oncogenic role in colorectal cancer cells, mainly by negatively regulating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in them. Finally, we revealed that suppression of Nogo-B caused down-regulation of c-FLIP, known as a major anti-apoptotic protein, and activation of caspase-8 in the death receptor pathway. Interaction between Nogo-B and c-FLIP was shown by immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies. In conclusion, Nogo-B was shown to play an important negative role in apoptotic signaling through its interaction with c-FLIP in colorectal cancer cells, and may thus become a novel therapeutic target for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S.; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S.; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26056043

  5. Davunetide (NAP) protects the retina against early diabetic injury by reducing apoptotic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuderi, Soraya; D'Amico, Agata Grazia; Castorina, Alessandro; Federico, Concetta; Marrazzo, Giuseppina; Drago, Filippo; Bucolo, Claudio; D'Agata, Velia

    2014-11-01

    Davunetide (NAP) is an eight amino acid peptide that has been shown to provide potent neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of NAP in diabetic retinopathy using an in vivo streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model. A single intraocular injection of NAP (100 μg/mL) or vehicle was administered 1 week after STZ injection. Three weeks after diabetes induction, we assessed the retinal expression and distribution of apoptosis markers, cleaved caspase-3, and Bcl2, by Western blot and immunofluorescent analysis. Furthermore, we evaluated the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK) and/or phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathways by measuring the protein levels of p-ERK and p-AKT with or without NAP treatment. Results demonstrated that NAP treatment reduced apoptotic event in diabetic retina, and it restored cleaved caspase-3 expression levels in the retina of STZ-injected rats as well as the decreased Bcl2. NAP treatment improved cellular survival through the activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Taken together, these findings suggested that NAP might be useful to treat retinal degenerative diseases.

  6. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

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    Rim Osman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Calreticulin (CRT is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell.

  7. Calreticulin Release at an Early Stage of Death Modulates the Clearance by Macrophages of Apoptotic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Rim; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Kleman, Jean-Philippe; Millet, Arnaud; Frachet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a well-known “eat-me” signal harbored by dying cells participating in their recognition by phagocytes. CRT is also recognized to deeply impact the immune response to altered self-cells. In this study, we focus on the role of the newly exposed CRT following cell death induction. We show that if CRT increases at the outer face of the plasma membrane and is well recognized by C1q even when phosphatidylserine is not yet detected, CRT is also released in the surrounding milieu and is able to interact with phagocytes. We observed that exogenous CRT is endocytosed by THP1 macrophages through macropinocytosis and that internalization is associated with a particular phenotype characterized by an increase of cell spreading and migration, an upregulation of CD14, an increase of interleukin-8 release, and a decrease of early apoptotic cell uptake. Importantly, CRT-induced pro-inflammatory phenotype was confirmed on human monocytes-derived macrophages by the overexpression of CD40 and CD274, and we found that monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to CRT display a peculiar polarization notably associated with a downregulation of the histocompatibility complex of class II molecules hampering its description through the classical M1/M2 dichotomy. Altogether our results highlight the role of soluble CRT with strong possible consequences on the macrophage-mediated immune response to dying cell. PMID:28878781

  8. The apoptotic effect and the plausible mechanism of microwave radiation on rat myocardial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenhe; Cui, Yan; Feng, Xianmin; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Huiyan; Lv, Shijie

    2016-08-01

    Microwaves may exert adverse biological effects on the cardiovascular system at the integrated system and cellular levels. However, the mechanism underlying such effects remains poorly understood. Here, we report a previously uncharacterized mechanism through which microwaves damage myocardial cells. Rats were treated with 2450 MHz microwave radiation at 50, 100, 150, or 200 mW/cm(2) for 6 min. Microwave treatment significantly enhanced the levels of various enzymes in serum. In addition, it increased the malondialdehyde content while decreasing the levels of antioxidative stress enzymes, activities of enzyme complexes I-IV, and ATP in myocardial tissues. Notably, irradiated myocardial cells exhibited structural damage and underwent apoptosis. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed significant changes in expression levels of proteins involved in oxidative stress regulation and apoptotic signaling pathways, indicating that microwave irradiation could induce myocardial cell apoptosis by interfering with oxidative stress and cardiac energy metabolism. Our findings provide useful insights into the mechanism of microwave-induced damage to the cardiovascular system.

  9. Skilled Movements Require Non-apoptotic Bax/Bak Pathway-Mediated Corticospinal Circuit Reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zirong; Serradj, Najet; Ueno, Masaki; Liang, Mishi; Li, Jie; Baccei, Mark L; Martin, John H; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2017-05-03

    Early postnatal mammals, including human babies, can perform only basic motor tasks. The acquisition of skilled behaviors occurs later, requiring anatomical changes in neural circuitry to support the development of coordinated activation or suppression of functionally related muscle groups. How this circuit reorganization occurs during postnatal development remains poorly understood. Here we explore the connectivity between corticospinal (CS) neurons in the motor cortex and muscles in mice. Using trans-synaptic viral and electrophysiological assays, we identify the early postnatal reorganization of CS circuitry for antagonistic muscle pairs. We further show that this synaptic rearrangement requires the activity-dependent, non-apoptotic Bax/Bak-caspase signaling cascade. Adult Bax/Bak mutant mice exhibit aberrant co-activation of antagonistic muscle pairs and skilled grasping deficits but normal reaching and retrieval behaviors. Our findings reveal key cellular and molecular mechanisms driving postnatal motor circuit reorganization and the resulting impacts on muscle activation patterns and the execution of skilled movements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radiation and inhibition of angiogenesis by canstatin synergize to induce HIF-1α–mediated tumor apoptotic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnon, Claire; Opolon, Paule; Ricard, Marcel; Connault, Elisabeth; Ardouin, Patrice; Galaup, Ariane; Métivier, Didier; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Germain, Stéphane; Perricaudet, Michel; Schlumberger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Tumor radioresponsiveness depends on endothelial cell death, which leads in turn to tumor hypoxia. Radiation-induced hypoxia was recently shown to trigger tumor radioresistance by activating angiogenesis through hypoxia-inducible factor 1–regulated (HIF-1–regulated) cytokines. We show here that combining targeted radioiodide therapy with angiogenic inhibitors, such as canstatin, enhances direct tumor cell apoptosis, thereby overcoming radio-induced HIF-1–dependent tumor survival pathways in vitro and in vivo. We found that following dual therapy, HIF-1α increases the activity of the canstatin-induced αvβ5 signaling tumor apoptotic pathway and concomitantly abrogates mitotic checkpoint and tetraploidy triggered by radiation. Apoptosis in conjunction with mitotic catastrophe leads to lethal tumor damage. We discovered that HIF-1 displays a radiosensitizing activity that is highly dependent on treatment modalities by regulating key apoptotic molecular pathways. Our findings therefore support a crucial role for angiogenesis inhibitors in shifting the fate of radiation-induced HIF-1α activity from hypoxia-induced tumor radioresistance to hypoxia-induced tumor apoptosis. This study provides a basis for developing new biology-based clinically relevant strategies to improve the efficacy of radiation oncology, using HIF-1 as an ally for cancer therapy. PMID:17557121

  11. Angiopoietin-2 is critical for cytokine-induced vascular leakage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew V Benest

    Full Text Available Genetic experiments (loss-of-function and gain-of-function have established the role of Angiopoietin/Tie ligand/receptor tyrosine kinase system as a regulator of vessel maturation and quiescence. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2 acts on Tie2-expressing resting endothelial cells as an antagonistic ligand to negatively interfere with the vessel stabilizing effects of constitutive Ang-1/Tie-2 signaling. Ang-2 thereby controls the vascular response to inflammation-inducing as well as angiogenesis-inducing cytokines. This study was aimed at assessing the role of Ang-2 as an autocrine (i.e. endothelial-derived regulator of rapid vascular responses (within minutes caused by permeability-inducing agents. Employing two independent in vivo assays to quantitatively assess vascular leakage (tracheal microsphere assay, 1-5 min and Miles assay, 20 min, the immediate vascular response to histamine, bradykinin and VEGF was analyzed in Ang-2-deficient (Ang-2(-/- mice. In comparison to the wild type control mice, the Ang2(-/- mice demonstrated a significantly attenuated response. The Ang-2(-/- phenotype was rescued by systemic administration (paracrine of an adenovirus encoding Ang-2. Furthermore, cytokine-induced intracellular calcium influx was impaired in Ang-2(-/- endothelioma cells, consistent with reduced phospholipase activation in vivo. Additionally, recombinant human Ang-2 (rhAng-2 alone was unable to induce vascular leakage. In summary, we report here in a definite genetic setting that Ang-2 is critical for multiple vascular permeability-inducing cytokines.

  12. Vascular Remodelling and Mesenchymal Transition in Systemic Sclerosis

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    Pier Andrea Nicolosi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrosis of the skin and of internal organs, autoimmunity, and vascular inflammation are hallmarks of Systemic Sclerosis (SSc. The injury and activation of endothelial cells, with hyperplasia of the intima and eventual obliteration of the vascular lumen, are early features of SSc. Reduced capillary blood flow coupled with deficient angiogenesis leads to chronic hypoxia and tissue ischemia, enforcing a positive feed-forward loop sustaining vascular remodelling, further exacerbated by extracellular matrix accumulation due to fibrosis. Despite numerous developments and a growing number of controlled clinical trials no treatment has been shown so far to alter SSc natural history, outlining the need of further investigation in the molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. We review some processes potentially involved in SSc vasculopathy, with attention to the possible effect of sustained vascular inflammation on the plasticity of vascular cells. Specifically we focus on mesenchymal transition, a key phenomenon in the cardiac and vascular development as well as in the remodelling of injured vessels. Recent work supports the role of transforming growth factor-beta, Wnt, and Notch signaling in these processes. Importantly, endothelial-mesenchymal transition may be reversible, possibly offering novel cues for treatment.

  13. Molecular mechanisms for vascular development and secondary cell wall formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vascular tissues are important for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant and as physical support of upright growth. The primary constituents of vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, are derived from the meristematic vascular procambium and cambium. Xylem cells develop secondary cell walls that form the largest part of plant lignocellulosic biomass that serve as a renewable feedstock for biofuel production. For the last decade, research on vascular development and secondary cell wall biosynthesis has seen rapid progress due to the importance of these processes to plant biology and to the biofuel industry. Plant hormones, transcriptional regulators and peptide signaling regulate procambium/cambium proliferation, vascular patterning, and xylem differentiation. Transcriptional regulatory pathways play a pivot role in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Although most of these discoveries are derived from research in Arabidopsis, many genes have shown conserved functions in biofuel feedstock species. Here, we review the recent advances in our understanding of vascular development and secondary cell wall formation and discuss potential biotechnological uses.

  14. Mechanisms for suppressing NADPH oxidase in the vascular wall

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    Gregory J Dusting

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress underlies many forms of vascular disease as well as tissue injury following ischemia and reperfusion. The major source of oxidative stress in the artery wall is an NADPH oxidase. This enzyme complex as expressed in vascular cells differs from that in phagocytic leucocytes both in biochemical structure and functions. The crucial flavin-containing catalytic subunits, Nox1 and Nox4, are not found in leucocytes, but are highly expressed in vascular cells and upregulated with vascular remodeling, such as that found in hypertension and atherosclerosis. The difference in catalytic subunits offers the opportunity to develop "vascular specific" NADPH oxidase inhibitors that do not compromise the essential physiological signaling and phagocytic functions carried out by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Nitric oxide and targeted inhibitors of NADPH oxidase that block the source of oxidative stress in the vasculature are more likely to prevent the deterioration of vascular function that leads to stroke and heart attack, than are conventional antioxidants. The roles of Nox isoforms in other inflammatory conditions are yet to be explored.

  15. Adiponectin as a potential biomarker of vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mehrangiz Ebrahimi-Mamaeghani,1 Somayeh Mohammadi,2 Seyed Rafie Arefhosseini,3 Parviz Fallah,4 Zahra Bazi5 1Nutrition Research Center, 2Department of Nutrition, 3Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, 4Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, 5Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: The increasing prevalence of diabetes and its complications heralds an alarming situation worldwide. Obesity-associated changes in circulating adiponectin concentrations have the capacity to predict insulin sensitivity and are a link between obesity and a number of vascular diseases. One obvious consequence of obesity is a decrease in circulating levels of adiponectin, which are associated with cardiovascular disorders and associated vascular comorbidities. Human and animal studies have demonstrated decreased adiponectin to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, in animal studies, increased circulating adiponectin alleviates obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction and hypertension, and also prevents atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and diabetic cardiac tissue disorders. Further, metabolism of a number of foods and medications are affected by induction of adiponectin. Adiponectin has beneficial effects on cardiovascular cells via its antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic, antiatherogenic, vasodilatory, and antithrombotic activity, and consequently has a favorable effect on cardiac and vascular health. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of adiponectin secretion and signaling is critical for designing new therapeutic strategies. This review summarizes the recent evidence for the physiological role and clinical significance of adiponectin in vascular health, identification of

  16. Cordycepin enhances cisplatin apoptotic effect through caspase/MAPK pathways in human head and neck tumor cells

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    Chen YH

    2013-07-01

    -Jun NH2-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 protein phosphorylations. Moreover, cordycepin plus cisplatin cotreatment significantly activated those proteins with much better effects among three cell lines. Conclusion: Cordycepin plus cisplatin have better apoptotic effect by activating caspase activation with possible MAPK pathway involvement in HNSCC cells. Keywords: cordycepin, cisplatin, apoptosis, caspase, MAPK, HNSCC

  17. Apoptotic abscess imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-rh-Annexin-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, David L.; Kim, Christopher; Zhang, Kaijun; Mukherjee, Archana; Devakumar, Devadhas; Jungkind, Donald [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Thakur, Mathew L. [Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)], E-mail: mathew.thakur@jefferson.edu

    2010-01-15

    Abscess formation causes systemic and localized up-regulation of neutrophil [polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)] signaling pathways. In the abscess, following bacterial ingestion or PMN activation by inflammatory mediators, PMN apoptosis is elevated and leads to the externalization of phosphatidylserine. Annexin-V (AnxV) has been shown to have high affinity to externalized phosphatidylserine. We hypothesized that {sup 99m}Tc-AnxV will target high densities of apoptotic PMNs and image abscesses. AnxV, conjugated with hydrazinenicaotinamide (HYNIC), was labeled with reduced {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} and its purity was determined by instant thin-layer chromatography. Apoptosis was induced in isolated human PMNs by incubation in 2% saline for 17 and 22 h at 37 deg. C. PMNs were then incubated with {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-AnxV and associated {sup 99m}Tc was determined. Abscesses were induced in mice by intramuscular injection of bacteria or turpentine. Following intravenous administration of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-AnxV, mice were imaged and tissue distribution studied at 4 and 24 h. Radiochemical purity of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-AnxV was 84.9{+-}8.11%. At 17 h, {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-AnxV bound to apoptotic PMNs was 71.6{+-}0.01% and 48.6{+-}0.01% for experimental and control cells, respectively (P=.002). At 22 h, experimental cells retained 74.9{+-}0.02% and control cells retained 47.2{+-}0.02% (P=.005). {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-AnxV associated with bacterial abscesses was 1.25{+-}0.09 and 3.75{+-}0.83 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 4 and 24 h compared to turpentine abscesses which was 1.02{+-}0.16 and 0.72{+-}0.17 %ID/g at 4 (P{<=}.05) and 24 h (P{<=}.01). {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-AnxV represents a minimally invasive and promising agent to image and potentially distinguish between infectious and inflammatory abscesses.

  18. Tetraarsenic oxide and cisplatin induce apoptotic synergism in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Lee, Dae Sim; Kim, Joo Ran; Park, Sae Gwang; Kang, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Nam; Lee, Kyung Bok; Sung, Moon Su; Kim, Ki Tae

    2013-04-01

    Tetraarsenic oxide (As4O6, TAO) is a new arsenic compound that inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell lines. In the present study, we report that the growth of tumor cells (CaSki) was inhibited by treatment with TAO alone or in combination with cisplatin or paclitaxel in vitro and in vivo. Proliferation was assessed by WST-1 assay, and apoptosis was assessed by Annexin-V/PI FACS analysis in the CaSki cell line treated with a single agent or with the combinations of two agents. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was analyzed by western blot analysis. A mouse xenograft model using CaSki cells was used to determine the in vivo activity of tetraarsenic oxide alone and in combination with cisplatin or paclitaxel by estimation of tumor size. At the end of the experiment, tumor tissue from each mouse was removed and processed for TUNEL analysis for confirmation of apoptotic cells. TAO was able to inhibit cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. A combination of TAO and cisplatin effectively induced apoptosis by activating caspase-3. Using a mouse xenograft model, the sizes of tumors which were treated with a single agent and with a combination of agents decreased in a time-dependent manner. A combination of TAO and cisplatin resulted in a significantly reduced tumor size (Pcisplatin. Thus, TAO is a good candidate for use in a combined regimen with cisplatin for patients with cervical cancer.

  19. Genotoxic and apoptotic effects of Goeckerman therapy for psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borska, L.; Andrys, C.; Krejsek, J.; Hamakova, K.; Kremlacek, J.; Palicka, V.; Ranna, D.; Fiala, Z. [Charles University Prague, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Medicine

    2010-03-15

    Goeckerman therapy (GT) for psoriasis is based on cutaneous application of crude coal tar (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) and exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). PAH and UVR are mutagenic, carcinogenic and immunotoxic agents that promote apoptosis. We evaluated dermal absorption of PAH as well as the genotoxic and apoptotic effects of GT in 20 patients with psoriasis, by determining numbers of chromosomal abnormalities in peripheral lymphocytes, and levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), p53 protein and soluble FasL (sFasL) in urine and/or blood, before and after GT. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score was used to evaluate clinical efficacy of GT. Compared with pre-treatment levels, there was a significant increase in urine 1-OHP, indicating a high degree of dermal absorption of PAH (P <0.01). We also found a significant increase in the number of chromosomal abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes (P <0.001), suggesting that GT is genotoxic; significantly increased p53 protein in plasma (P <0.05), an indicator of cell response to DNA damage; and significantly increased sFasL in serum (P <0.01), an indicator of apoptosis. The PASI score was significantly decreased after GT (P <0.001), confirming clinical benefit of this treatment. Our results demonstrate high dermal absorption of PAH during GT and provide evidence that GT promotes genotoxicity and apoptosis.

  20. Non-apoptotic cell death associated with perturbations of macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, William A; Overmeyer, Jean H

    2015-01-01

    Although macropinocytosis is widely recognized as a distinct form of fluid-phase endocytosis in antigen-presenting dendritic cells, it also occurs constitutively in many other normal and transformed cell types. Recent studies have established that various genetic or pharmacological manipulations can hyperstimulate macropinocytosis or disrupt normal macropinosome trafficking pathways, leading to accumulation of greatly enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles. In some cases, this extreme vacuolization is associated with a unique form of non-apoptotic cell death termed "methuosis," from the Greek methuo (to drink to intoxication). It remains unclear whether cell death related to dysfunctional macropinocytosis occurs in normal physiological contexts. However, the finding that some types of cancer cells are particularly vulnerable to this unusual form of cell death has raised the possibility that small molecules capable of altering macropinosome trafficking or function might be useful as therapeutic agents against cancers that are resistant to drugs that work by inducing apoptosis. Herein we review examples of cell death associated with dysfunctional macropinocytosis and summarize what is known about the underlying mechanisms.

  1. Non-apoptotic cell death associated with perturbations of macropinocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Maltese

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although macropinocytosis is widely recognized as a distinct form of fluid-phase endocytosis in antigen-presenting dendritic cells, it also occurs constitutively in many other normal and transformed cell types. Recent studies have established that various genetic or pharmacological manipulations can hyperstimulate macropinocytosis or disrupt normal macropinosome trafficking pathways, leading to accumulation of greatly enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles. In some cases, this extreme vacuolization is associated with a unique form of non-apoptotic cell death termed ‘methuosis’, from the Greek methuo (to drink to intoxication. It remains unclear whether cell death related to dysfunctional macropinocytosis occurs in normal physiological contexts. However, the finding that some types of cancer cells are particularly vulnerable to this unusual form of cell death has raised the possibility that small molecules capable of altering macropinosome trafficking or function might be useful as therapeutic agents against cancers that are resistant to drugs that work by inducing apoptosis. Herein we review examples of cell death associated with dysfunctional macropinocytosis and summarize what is known about the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Genes of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Estévez-Calvar

    Full Text Available Bivalves play vital roles in marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial habitats. In recent years, these ecosystems have become affected through anthropogenic activities. The ecological success of marine bivalves is based on the ability to modify their physiological functions in response to environmental changes. One of the most important mechanisms involved in adaptive responses to environmental and biological stresses is apoptosis, which has been scarcely studied in mollusks, although the final consequence of this process, DNA fragmentation, has been frequently used for pollution monitoring. Environmental stressors induce apoptosis in molluscan cells via an intrinsic pathway. Many of the proteins involved in vertebrate apoptosis have been recognized in model invertebrates; however, this process might not be universally conserved. Mytilus galloprovincialis is presented here as a new model to study the linkage between molecular mechanisms that mediate apoptosis and marine bivalve ecological adaptations. Therefore, it is strictly necessary to identify the key elements involved in bivalve apoptosis. In the present study, six mitochondrial apoptotic-related genes were characterized, and their gene expression profiles following UV irradiation were evaluated. This is the first step for the development of potential biomarkers to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress. The results confirmed that apoptosis and, more specifically, the expression of the genes involved in this process can be used to assess the biological responses of marine organisms to stress.

  3. Apoptotic study in Graves disease treated with thyroid arterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wei; Gao Bulang; Yi Genfa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate apoptosis in the thyroid of Graves disease (GD) induced by thyroid arterial embolization. Forty one patients with clinically and laboratorily ascertained GD were treated with thyroid arterial embolization and followed up for 3-54 months following embolization. Prior to embolization and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 36 months following embolization, thyroid autoimmune antibodies were tested respectively, including thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb) and thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb). Thyroid biopsy was performed under the guidance of computed tomography for immunohistochemistry examination using semi-quantity analysis. The positive staining of Fas and FasL was mostly in the cytoplasma and cell membrane, the positive expression of Bax was mainly in the cytoplasma, and no positive expression of P53 was detected in the thyroid cells before embolization. After arterial embolziation, the positive cell number and staining degree of these genes were both greater than before embolization. The treatment method of thyroid arterial embolization can effectively enhance the positive expression of pro-apoptotic genes of Fas, FasL, Bax, Bcl-2 and P53 in GD thyroid, thus promoting apoptosis of GD thyroid and helping restore the thyroid size and function to normal conditions. (author)

  4. VEGF-induced vascular permeability is mediated by FAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Lei; Nam, Ju-Ock; Jean, Christine; Lawson, Christine; Walsh, Colin T; Goka, Erik; Lim, Ssang-Taek; Tomar, Alok; Tancioni, Isabelle; Uryu, Sean; Guan, Jun-Lin; Acevedo, Lisette M; Weis, Sara M; Cheresh, David A; Schlaepfer, David D

    2012-01-17

    Endothelial cells (ECs) form cell-cell adhesive junctional structures maintaining vascular integrity. This barrier is dynamically regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor signaling. We created an inducible knockin mouse model to study the contribution of the integrin-associated focal adhesion tyrosine kinase (FAK) signaling on vascular function. Here we show that genetic or pharmacological FAK inhibition in ECs prevents VEGF-stimulated permeability downstream of VEGF receptor or Src tyrosine kinase activation in vivo. VEGF promotes tension-independent FAK activation, rapid FAK localization to cell-cell junctions, binding of the FAK FERM domain to the vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) cytoplasmic tail, and direct FAK phosphorylation of β-catenin at tyrosine-142 (Y142) facilitating VE-cadherin-β-catenin dissociation and EC junctional breakdown. Kinase inhibited FAK is in a closed conformation that prevents VE-cadherin association and limits VEGF-stimulated β-catenin Y142 phosphorylation. Our studies establish a role for FAK as an essential signaling switch within ECs regulating adherens junction dynamics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vascular disease in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren; Mani, Venkatesh; Jeyachandran, Devi; Fayad, Zahi A; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best. We review major postmortem and in vitro studies documenting cocaine-induced vascular toxicity. PubMed and Academic Search Complete were used with relevant terms. Findings consist of the major mechanisms of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine. The etiology underlying cocaine's acute and chronic vascular effects is multifactorial, spanning hypertension, impaired homeostasis and platelet function, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and alterations in blood flow. Early detection of vascular disease in cocaine addiction by multimodality imaging is discussed. Treatment may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions such as enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers. Given the vascular toxicity cocaine induces, further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity, and interacting with aging of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction and employ preventive treatment to reduce silent disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The future of vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B

    2014-10-01

    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to deal with the growing multi-morbidity of the patient, to perform complex therapies even in an acute emergency and due to sufficient number of cases to present with well-trained and experienced teams. These requirements are mandatory to decrease patients' mortality step by step. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. [Aspects of vascular physiology in clinical and vascular surgical practice: basic principles of vascular mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocke, H; Meyer, F; Lessmann, V

    2014-10-01

    To be able to evaluate properly a vascular problem, basic concepts of vascular physiology need to be considered, as they have been taught in physiology for a long time. This article deals with selected definitions and laws of passive vascular mechanics, subdivided into parameters of vascular filling and parameters of vascular flow. PARAMETERS OF VASCULAR FILLING: During vascular filling the transmural pressure distends the vascular wall until it is balanced by the wall tension. The extent of this distension up to the point of balance depends on the elasticity of the wall. Transmural pressure, wall tension and elasticity are defined, and their respective importance is described by clinical examples, e.g. aneurysm and varix. PARAMETERS OF VASCULAR FLOW: The vascular flow can be divided into stationary and pulsating components. Both components are relevant for the bloodstream. Since the blood flow is directed in the circuit, it can be understood in first approximation as stationary ("direct current").The direct current model uses only the average values of the pulsating variables. The great advantage of the direct current model is that it can be described with simple laws, which are not valid without reservation, but often allow a first theoretical approach to a vascular problem: Ohm's law, driving pressure, flow resistance, Hagen-Poiseuille law, wall shear stress, law of continuity, Bernoulli's equation and Reynold's number are described and associated with clinical examples.The heart is a pressure-suction pump and produces a pulsating flow, the pulse. The pulse runs with pulse wave velocity, which is much larger than the blood flow velocity, through the arterial vascular system. During propagation, the pulse has to overcome the wave resistance (impedance). Wherever the wave resistance changes, e.g., at vascular bifurcations and in the periphery, it comes to reflections. The incident (forward) and reflected (backward) waves are superimposed to yield the resulting

  9. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity: findings on MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.Y.; Ahn, J.M.; Yoon, H.K.; Do, Y.S.; Kim, S.H.; Choo, S.W.; Choo, I.W.; Suh, Y.L.; Kim, S.M.; Kang, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the findings of intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity on MR imaging and to correlate these findings with histopathologic examination.Design and patients. The findings on MR imaging and the medical records of 14 patients with an intramuscular vascular malformation of the extremity were retrospectively studied. All patients underwent surgical excision. Diagnoses were based on the results of pathologic examination. Findings on MR imaging were noted and correlated with the histopathologic findings.Results. Intramuscular vascular malformations of an extremity showed multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance on MR imaging. Multi-septate areas correlated with dilated and communicating vascular spaces with flattened endothelium. Honeycomb areas corresponded to vascular spaces with inconspicuous small lumina and thickened vascular walls. Areas of increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images were found in all intramuscular vascular malformations. Infiltrative margins were more commonly seen in intramuscular lymphaticovenous malformations. Adherence to neurovascular structures and orientation of the lesion along the long axis of the affected muscle were more commonly seen in intramuscular venous malformations.Conclusions. Intramuscular vascular malformations showed either a multi-septate, honeycomb, or mixed appearance, reflecting the size of the vascular spaces and the thickness of the smooth muscles of the vessel walls. Prediction of the subtype of an intramuscular vascular malformation of an extremity on MR imaging seems to be difficult, although there are associated findings that may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of each subtype. (orig.)

  10. Role of preoperative vascular ultrasonography in hemodialysis vascular access operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Tomtitchong, Prakitpunthu; Kanpirom, Kitti

    2010-12-01

    Preoperative vascular mapping increase rate of successful hemodialysis vascular access operation. Several studies recommend using this procedure routinely. But some studies recommend using this procedure in selected patients. So this study aims to determine the impacts of preoperative vascular mapping in unfavorable-examined patients. 55 patients were studied retrospectively from August 2006 to October 2009. Before April 2008, the operative plans were based on physical examination (group 1). After April 2008, the surgeon did preoperative vascular mapping prior to the operation in unfavorable-examined patients (group 2). The results were compared. There were high maturation rates in favorable-examined patients. In unfavorable-examined patients, preoperative vascular mapping can identified nonpalpable favorable vein which successful maturation of 18.75%. Complementary duplex scan decrease rate of unsuccessful operation significantly (p = 0.037) but does not increase maturation rate. Careful physical examination is important part before operation. Preoperative vascular mapping has benefit only in patients with unfavorable-examined patients. It finds some nonpalpable favorable vein and decrease unsuccessful exploration.

  11. Trauma vascular, visión del cirujano vascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. D. Cristián Salas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El 3% de todas las lesiones en trauma tiene un componente vascular. Con los conflictos armados del siglo pasado se lograron grandes avances en este campo. A partir de la Guerra de Vietnam gracias a las mejoras en el manejo prehospitalario, traslado de pacientes, y avances en técnica quirúrgica se lograron tasas de sobrevida y de amputaciones que se han mantenido estables hasta la fecha. El diagnóstico de lesiones vasculares en extremidades se realiza con el examen físico, sin embargo las lesiones de vasos torácicos y abdominales requieren de imágenes de apoyo, siempre que el paciente se encuentre estabilizado, generalmente tomografía axial computada. La mayoría de las lesiones vasculares son por trauma penetrante, comprometiendo principalmente las extremidades. Con el desarrollo de los procedimientos invasivos vasculares en los últimos años se ha observado un aumento de lesiones vasculares iatrogénicas. Hoy en día muchos pacientes con trauma vascular son manejados por vía endovascular.

  12. Vascular injuries during gynecological laparoscopy: the vascular surgeon's advice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Barbosa Barros

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Iatrogenic vascular problems due to laparoscopy are a well recognized problem and lead to significant repercussions. In this context, a ten-year review of cases topic is presented, based on experience gained while heading two important vascular surgery services. CASES: Five patients with vascular injuries during elective laparoscopy are described. These patients presented with seven lesions of iliac vessels. All cases were evaluated immediately and required laparotomy, provisional hemostasis and urgent attendance by a vascular surgeon. Direct suturing was performed in three cases. One aortoiliac bypass and one ilioiliac reversed venous graft were made. Venous lesions were sutured. One case of a point-like perforation of the small bowel was found. There were no deaths and no complications during the postoperative period. DISCUSSION: Important points on this subject are made, and advice is given. There needs to be immediate recognition of the vascular injury, and expert repair by a vascular surgeon is recommended, in order to significantly reduce the degree of complications.

  13. Expression of conserved signalling pathway genes during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCHU

    Notch signalling during embryonic develop- ment in mouse regulates vascular morphogenesis and remodelling (Krebs et al 2000). Aberrant Notch signalling is also implicated in many cancers and diseases including. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), multiple sclerosis (MS), Alagille syndrome and Alzheimer's ...

  14. Expression of conserved signalling pathway genes during

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hence, we analysed the expression of Notch, Wnt and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway genes during differentiation of R1 cells into early vascular lineages. Notch-, Wnt-and Shh-mediated signalling is important during embryonic development. Regulation of gene expression through these signalling molecules is a frequently ...

  15. Extracellular Vesicle Subtypes Released From Activated or Apoptotic T-Lymphocytes Carry a Specific and Stimulus-Dependent Protein Cargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tucher

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are released from nearly all mammalian cells and different EV populations have been described. Microvesicles represent large EVs (LEVs released from the cellular surface, while exosomes are small EVs (SEVs released from an intracellular compartment. As it is likely that different stimuli promote the release of distinct EV populations, we analyzed EVs from human lymphocytes considering the respective release stimuli (activation Vs. apoptosis induction. We could clearly separate two EV populations, namely SEVs (average diameter <200 nm and LEVs (diameter range between 200 and 1000 nm. Morphology and size were analyzed by electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Apoptosis induction caused a massive release of LEVs, while activated T-cells released SEVs and LEVs in considerably lower amounts. The release of SEVs from apoptotic T-cells was comparable with LEV release from activated ones. LEVs contained signaling proteins and proteins of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton. SEVs carried cytoplasmic/endosomal proteins like the 70-kDa heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 or tumor susceptibility 101 (TSG101, microtubule-associated proteins, and ubiquitinated proteins. The protein expression profile of SEVs and LEVs changed substantially after the induction of apoptosis. After apoptosis induction, HSP70 and TSG101 (often used as exosome markers were highly expressed within LEVs. Interestingly, in contrast to HSP70 and TSG101, gelsolin and eps15 homology domain-containing protein 3 (EHD3 turned out to be specific for SEVs irrespective of the stimulus causing the EV release. Finally, we detected several subunits of the proteasome (PSMB9, PSMB10 as well as the danger signal HMGB1 exclusively within apoptotic cell-released LEVs. Thus, we were able to identify new marker proteins that can be useful to discriminate between distinct LEV subpopulations. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with

  16. ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effet de la jachére sur l'expérimentation de la fusariose vasculaire du palmier à huile ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) : Effects of the fallow in the expression of oil-palm ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq ) vascular wilt.

  17. Microparticles from apoptotic platelets promote resident macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasina, E M; Cauwenberghs, S; Feijge, M A H; Heemskerk, J W M; Weber, C; Koenen, R R

    2011-09-29

    Platelets shed microparticles not only upon activation, but also upon ageing by an apoptosis-like process (apoptosis-induced platelet microparticles, PM(ap)). While the activation-induced microparticles have widely been studied, not much is known about the (patho)physiological consequences of PM(ap) formation. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that PM(ap) display activated integrins and interact to form microparticle aggregates. PM(ap) were chemotactic for monocytic cells, bound to these cells, an furthermore stimulated cell adhesion and spreading on a fibronectin surface. After prolonged incubation, PM(ap) promoted cell differentiation, but inhibited proliferation. Monocyte membrane receptor analysis revealed increased expression levels of CD11b (integrin α(M)β(2)), CD14 and CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1), and the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, but not of CCR2. This indicated that PM(ap) polarized the cells into resident M2 monocytes. Cells treated with PM(ap) actively consumed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and released matrix metalloproteinases and hydrogen peroxide. Further confirmation for the differentiation towards resident professional phagocytes came from the finding that PM(ap) stimulated the expression of the (ox)LDL receptors, CD36 and CD68, and the production of proinflammatory and immunomodulating cytokines by monocytes. In conclusion, interaction of PM(ap) with monocytic cells has an immunomodulating potential. The apoptotic microparticles polarize the cells into a resident M2 subset, and induce differentiation to resident professional phagocytes.

  18. Apoptotic activity of frog Bombina maxima skin albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xia; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Zhang, Yun

    2006-02-01

    Albumin, the most abundant protein components of blood plasma, is synthesized and secreted by liver cells in vertebrates. Recently, it was demonstrated that frog Bombina maxima albumin is also expressed in skin. Both B. maxima albumins from skin and serum (BmA-skin and BmA-serum) have similar biochemical characteristics except that the former contains haem b. Present studies showed that BmA-skin exhibited cytotoxic activity on H9 and C8166 cells. Pretreated with hemin to induce erythroid differentiation, K562 cells lost their resistance to cytotoxicity of BmA-skin. After treating cells with BmA-skin for 48 h, 50 percentage cytotoxic concentrations (CC(50)) of BmA-skin on H9, C8166 and hemin-treated K562 cells were 1.31+/-0.09, 1.59+/-0.08 and 2.28+/-0.06 microM, respectively. The cell death induced by BmA-skin was mediated by apoptosis of the tested cell lines, as demonstrated by nuclear morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and DNA hypodiploidy of apoptosis cells. At BmA-skin concentration of 2 microM, 27.3%, 19.7% and 17.8% of H9, C8166 and hemin-treated K562 cells were found to be apoptotic. In contrast, BmA-serum possessed no cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activity on all the cell lines tested, even with concentration used up to 15 microM. These results indicated that bound haem b in BmA-skin contributed significantly to its cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activity on the cell lines assayed.

  19. Atractylenolide-I Protects Human SH-SY5Y Cells from 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Vasant More

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and apoptosis are the major mechanisms that induce dopaminergic cell death. Our study investigates the protective effects of atractylenolide-I (ATR-I on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+-induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, as well as its underlying mechanism. Our experimental data indicates that ATR-I significantly inhibits the loss of cell viability induced by MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells. To further unravel the mechanism, we examined the effect of ATR-I on MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death characterized by an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA ratio, the release of cytochrome-c, and the activation of caspase-3 leading to elevated levels of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP resulting in SH-SY5Y cell death. Our results demonstrated that ATR-I decreases the level of pro-apoptotic proteins induced by MPP+ and also restored Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA levels, which are critical for inducing apoptosis. In addition, ATR-I demonstrated a significant increase in the protein expression of heme-oxygenase in MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that the pharmacological effect of ATR-I may be, at least in part, caused by the reduction in pro-apoptotic signals and also by induction of anti-oxidant protein.

  20. Bee venom protects SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced apoptotic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Ah-Reum; Kim, Seung-Nam; Kim, Seung-Tae; Park, Ji-Yeun; Chung, Sung-Hyun; Choe, Bo-Young; Chae, Younbyoung; Lee, Hyejung; Yin, Chang-Shik; Park, Hi-Joon

    2012-01-06

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Recently, bee venom was reported to protect dopaminergic neurons in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine induced mice PD model, however, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. The objective of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of bee venom against Parkinsonian toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)), in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Our results revealed that bee venom pretreatment (1-100 ng/ml) increased the cell viability and decreased apoptosis assessed by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assays in MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Bee venom increased the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 expression and decreased the pro-apoptotic Bax, cleaved PARP expressions. In addition, bee venom prevented the MPP(+)-induced suppression of Akt phosphorylation, and the neuroprotective effect of bee venom against MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, LY294002. These results suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of bee venom is mediated by the cell survival signaling, the PI3K/Akt pathway. These results provide new evidence for elucidating the mechanism of neuroprotection of bee venom against PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Caffeic Acid Phenylethyl Ester and MG-132 Have Apoptotic and Antiproliferative Effects on Leukemic Cells But Not on Normal Mononuclear Cells12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Victoria; Papademetrio, Daniela L; Lorenzetti, Mario; Valva, Pamela; Preciado, María Victoria; Gargallo, Patricia; Larripa, Irene; Monreal, Mariela B; Pardo, María Laura; Hajos, Silvia E; Blanco, Guillermo AC; Álvarez, Élida MC

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapy aims to limit proliferation and induce apoptotic cell death in tumor cells. Owing to blockade of signaling pathways involved in cell survival and proliferation, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitors can induce apoptosis in a number of hematological malignancies. The efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutic drugs, such as vincristine (VCR) and doxorubicine (DOX), may be enhanced with combined therapy based on NF-κB modulation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) and MG-132, two nonspecific NF-κB inhibitors, and conventional chemotherapeutics drugs DOX and VCR on cell proliferation and apoptosis induction on a lymphoblastoid B-cell line, PL104, established and characterized in our laboratory. CAPE and MG-132 treatment showed a strong antiproliferative effect accompanied by clear cell cycle deregulation and apoptosis induction. Doxorubicine and VCR showed antiproliferative effects similar to those of CAPE and MG-132, although the latter drugs showed an apoptotic rate two-fold higher than DOX and VCR. None of the four compounds showed cytotoxic effect on peripheral mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers. CAPE- and MG-132-treated bone marrow cells from patients with myeloid and lymphoid leukemias showed 69% (P < .001) and 25% decrease (P < .01) in cell proliferation and 42% and 34% (P < .01) apoptosis induction, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that CAPE and MG-132 had a strong and selective apoptotic effect on tumor cells that may be useful in future treatment of hematological neoplasias. PMID:19252751

  2. Vascular lesions of the hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drape, Jean-Luc [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, APHP, Universite Paris, 27 rue du Fbg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris (France)]. E-mail: jean-luc.drape@cch.ap-hop-paris.fr; Feydy, Antoine [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, APHP, Universite Paris, 27 rue du Fbg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Guerini, Henri [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, APHP, Universite Paris, 27 rue du Fbg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Desmarais, Eric [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, APHP, Universite Paris, 27 rue du Fbg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Godefroy, Didier [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, APHP, Universite Paris, 27 rue du Fbg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Viet, Dominique Le [Institut de la main, Paris (France); Chevrot, Alain [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, APHP, Universite Paris, 27 rue du Fbg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris (France)

    2005-12-15

    The vascular malformations are not uncommon on the hand and offer diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Enjolras and Mulliken's classification is exposed. Their depiction and pretreatment assessment may benefit from non-invasive imaging as color-Doppler ultrasound and MRI combined with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Some chronic traumatic vascular injuries as the hypothenar hammer syndrome may also take advantage of these imaging modalities.

  3. Hemimegalencephaly, hemihypertrophy and vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaldi, A; Vigevano, F; Antoniazzi, G; di Capua, M; Andreuzzi, A; Morselli, G; Iorio, F; Fariello, G; Trasimeni, G; Gualdi, G F

    1995-02-01

    We report on two children with hemihypertrophy and ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly. Vascular lesions in one were consistent with a diagnosis of the Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber Syndrome. MRI performed in the first days of life and at 1 month of age revealed the presence of the neuronal anomaly. The occurrence of hemimegalencephaly in our patients indicates that hemihypertrophy and vascular dysplasia are pathogenetically related phenomena of a continuous spectrum in which this brain disorder may appear.

  4. Facial vascular malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelle, F.O.; Lallemand, D.; Chaumont, P.; Teillac, D.; Manach, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present their experience with conventional and digital angiography of vascular malformations of the head and neck in children. 22 hemangioendotheliomas, 8 venous angiomas, and 3 arteriovenous fistula were studied. 22 patients were embolised. DSA offers many advantages during the diagnostic as well as during the therapeutic phase of angiography. Embolization appears to have a major role in treatment of such vascular malformations. (orig.)

  5. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the genetic contribution to the pattern of retinal vascular branching expressed by its fractal dimension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 50 monozygotic and 49 dizygotic, same-sex twin pairs aged 20 to 46 years. In 50°, disc-centered fundus photographs, the reti...... vasculature may affect the retinal response to potential vascular disease in later life....

  6. High-field MR imaging of spinal cord vascular lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas, C.; Halimi, P.; Sigal, R.; Doyon, D.; Hurth, M.

    1986-01-01

    MR imaging (1.5T) was performed in 20 patients with spinal cord vascular malformations and hemangioblastomas. MR imaging findings were correlated with data obtained by other imaging modalities (myelography, CT and selective angiography). A diagnosis of vascular legions was suspected or established in 15 patients. Seven had a history of embolization or surgery prior to MR imaging. Six of seven hemangioblastomas were detected on MR imaging. The diagnosis was incorrect in one case because of the small size of the hemangioblastoma nodule, although the cystic part of the lesion was correctly identified. In three cases, the diagnosis was made first on MR imaging and then confirmed on angiography and surgery. Eleven vascular malformations were studied. Malformative thrombosis was found in four of the 11, as suggested by high-intensity signals on T1- and T2-weighted images

  7. Angiogenesis, Cancer, and Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Moriya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have revealed that the angiogenic response to ischemic injury declines with age, which might account for the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD among the elderly. While impairment of angiogenesis with aging leads to delayed wound healing or exacerbation of atherosclerotic ischemic diseases, it also inhibits the progression of cancer. Age-related changes of angiogenesis have been considered to at least partly result from vascular aging or endothelial cell senescence. There is considerable evidence supporting the hypothesis that vascular cell senescence contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related CVD, suggesting that vascular aging could be an important therapeutic target. Since therapeutic angiogenesis is now regarded as a promising concept for patients with ischemic CVD, it has become even more important to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of angiogenesis in older patients. To improve the usefulness of therapeutic angiogenesis, approaches are needed that can compensate for impaired angiogenic capacity in the elderly while not promoting the development or progression of malignancy. In this review, we briefly outline the mechanisms of angiogenesis and vascular aging, followed by a description of how vascular aging leads to impairment of angiogenesis. We also examine potential therapeutic approaches that could enhance angiogenesis and/or vascular function in the elderly, as well as discussing the possibility of anti-senescence therapy or reversal of endothelial cell senescence.

  8. HSP27 Inhibits Homocysteine-Induced Endothelial Apoptosis by Modulation of ROS Production and Mitochondrial Caspase-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy could lead to endothelial dysfunction and is viewed as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27, a small heat shock protein, is reported to exert protective effect against atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of HSP27 against Hcy-induced endothelial cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Methods. Apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP of normal or HSP27-overexpressing HUVECs in the presence of Hcy were analyzed by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and western blot. Results. We found that Hcy could induce cell apoptosis with corresponding decrease of nitric oxide (NO level, increase of endothelin-1 (ET-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 levels, elevation of ROS, and dissipation of MMP. In addition, HSP27 could protect the cell against Hcy-induced apoptosis and inhibit the effect of Hcy on HUVECs. Furthermore, HSP27 could increase the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibit caspase-3 activity. Conclusions. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27 played a protective role against Hcy-induced endothelial apoptosis through modulation of ROS production and the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway.

  9. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effect of the Decoction of the Aerial Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effect of the Decoction of the Aerial Parts of Flueggea leucopyrus on Human Endometrial Carcinoma (AN3CA) Cells. SR Samarakoon, SB Kotigala, I Gammana-Liyanage, I Thabrew, KH Tennekoon, A Siriwardana, PB Galhena ...

  10. A Novel Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptotic Pathway (MAP) in Prostate Cancer (Pca) Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandra, Dhyan

    2004-01-01

    ...) are also up-regulated (Chandra et al., J. Biol. Chem., 277, 50842-54; 2002). Later, when the apoptotic machinery is activated, I notice that there is prominent localization of active caspase-9 and -3 in the mitochondria...

  11. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effect of the Decoction of the Aerial Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , respectively. The decoction also enhanced apoptosis as shown by enhanced DNA fragmentation, microscopic observation of nuclear condensation, fragmentation and apoptotic bodies and enhanced caspase 3 and. 9 activities, as well as ...

  12. Rasagiline and selegiline suppress calcium efflux from mitochondria by PK11195-induced opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a novel anti-apoptotic function for neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqiu; Kazumura, Kimiko; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Rasagiline and selegiline, inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B), protect neurons from cell death in cellular and animal models. Suppression of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and subsequent activation of apoptosis cascade, and induction of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival genes are proposed to contribute the anti-apoptotic function. Rasagiline suppresses neurotoxin- and oxidative stress-induced membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, but the mechanism has been not fully clarified. In this paper, regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by rasagiline and selegiline was examined in apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of the outer membrane translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in SH-SY5Y cells. The pore opening was quantitatively measured using a simultaneous monitoring system for calcium (Ca(2+)) and superoxide (O2(-)) (Ishibashi et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:571-580, 2006). The association of the pore opening with Ca(2+) efflux and ROS increase was proved by the inhibition of Bcl-2 overexpression and cyclosporine A treatment. Potency to release Ca(2+) was correlated with the cytotoxicity of TSPO antagonists, PK11195, FGIN-1-27 and protoporphyrin IX, whereas a TSPO agonist, 4-chloro-diazepamine, did not significantly increase Ca(2+) or cause cell death. Rasagiline and selegiline inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore dose dependently. Ca(2+) efflux was confirmed as the initial signal in mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, and the suppression of Ca(2+) efflux may account for the neuroprotective function of rasagiline and selegiline. The quantitative measurement of Ca(2+) efflux can be applied to determine anti-apoptotic activity of neuroprotective compounds. The role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) release in neuronal death and also in neuroprotection by MAO-B inhibitors is discussed.

  13. The Anti-Apoptotic Properties of APEX1 in the Endothelium Require the First 20 Amino Acids and Converge on Thioredoxin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyballa-Rukes, Nadine; Jakobs, Philipp; Eckers, Anna; Ale-Agha, Niloofar; Serbulea, Vlad; Aufenvenne, Karin; Zschauer, Tim-Christian; Rabanter, Lothar L; Jakob, Sascha; von Ameln, Florian; Eckermann, Olaf; Leitinger, Norbert; Goy, Christine; Altschmied, Joachim; Haendeler, Judith

    2017-04-20

    The APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1 (APEX1) has a disordered N-terminus, a redox, and a DNA repair domain. APEX1 has anti-apoptotic properties, which have been linked to both domains depending on cell type and experimental conditions. As protection against apoptosis is a hallmark of vessel integrity, we wanted to elucidate whether APEX1 acts anti-apoptotic in primary human endothelial cells and, if so, what the underlying mechanisms are. APEX1 inhibits apoptosis in endothelial cells by reducing Cathepsin D (CatD) cleavage, potentially by binding to the unprocessed form. Diminished CatD activation results in increased Thioredoxin-1 protein levels leading to reduced Caspase 3 activation. Consequently, apoptosis rates are decreased. This depends on the first twenty amino acids in APEX1, because APEX1 (21-318) induces CatD activity, decreases Thioredoxin-1 protein levels, and, thus, increases Caspase 3 activity and apoptosis. Along the same lines, APEX1 (1-20) inhibits Caspase 3 cleavage and apoptosis. Furthermore, re-expression of Thioredoxin-1 via lentiviral transduction rescues endothelial cells from APEX1 (21-318)-induced apoptosis. In an in vivo model of restenosis, which is characterized by oxidative stress, endothelial activation, and smooth muscle cell proliferation, Thioredoxin-1 protein levels are reduced in the endothelium of the carotids. APEX1 acts anti-apoptotic in endothelial cells. This anti-apoptotic effect depends on the first 20 amino acids of APEX1. As proper function of the endothelium during life span is a hallmark for individual health span, a detailed characterization of the functions of the APEX1N-terminus is required to understand all its cellular properties. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 616-629.

  14. Host cell killing by the West Nile Virus NS2B-NS3 proteolytic complex: NS3 alone is sufficient to recruit caspase-8-based apoptotic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, Mathura P.; Chambers, Jerome A.; Pankhong, Panyupa; Chattergoon, Michael; Attatippaholkun, Watcharee; Dang, Kesen; Shah, Neelima; Weiner, David B.

    2006-01-01

    The West Nile Virus (WNV) non-structural proteins 2B and 3 (NS2B-NS3) constitute the proteolytic complex that mediates the cleavage and processing of the viral polyprotein. NS3 recruits NS2B and NS5 proteins to direct protease and replication activities. In an effort to investigate the biology of the viral protease, we cloned cDNA encoding the NS2B-NS3 proteolytic complex from brain tissue of a WNV-infected dead crow, collected from the Lower Merion area (Merion strain). Expression of the NS2B-NS3 gene cassette induced apoptosis within 48 h of transfection. Electron microscopic analysis of NS2B-NS3-transfected cells revealed ultra-structural changes that are typical of apoptotic cells including membrane blebbing, nuclear disintegration and cytoplasmic vacuolations. The role of NS3 or NS2B in contributing to host cell apoptosis was examined. NS3 alone triggers the apoptotic pathways involving caspases-8 and -3. Experimental results from the use of caspase-specific inhibitors and caspase-8 siRNA demonstrated that the activation of caspase-8 was essential to initiate apoptotic signaling in NS3-expressing cells. Downstream of caspase-3 activation, we observed nuclear membrane ruptures and cleavage of the DNA-repair enzyme, PARP in NS3-expressing cells. Nuclear herniations due to NS3 expression were absent in the cells treated with a caspase-3 inhibitor. Expression of protease and helicase domains themselves was sufficient to trigger apoptosis generating insight into the apoptotic pathways triggered by NS3 from WNV

  15. Hemorrhage and vascular abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    While many brain lesions have a similar appearance on MRI and CT, this is not true of hemorrhage. On CT, acute hemorrhage becomes hyperdense within an hour as the clot forms. This lasts for several days and then fades to isodensity and eventually hypodensity. On MRI, hemorrhage less than 12 to 24 hours old may not be distinguishable from vasogenic edema. Its appearance subsequently is an evolving pattern of variable signal intensity which depends on the specific form of hemoglobin which is present, or whether the red cells are intact or lysed, on the operating field strength, on the type of signal (that is, spin echo or gradient echo), and on contrast (that is, T 1 - or T 2 -weighing). The appearance of hemorrhage also depends on the compartment of the brain involved---subarachnoid, subdural, or intraparenchymal. Finally, for parenchymal hematomas, different zones may be defined from the inner core to the outer rim which all vary in appearance depending on field strength and imaging technique

  16. Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of diffractaic acid in A549 and AGS cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızıl, Hamit Emre; Aǧar, Güleray

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we determined the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of diffractaic acid by measuring the gene expression changes of topo II α, caspase-3 and p53 on A549 and AGS cancer cells. Real time PCR assay was used to measure the change folds. It was determined that concentrations of 12,5, 50 and 100 µg / ml were antiproliferative and apoptotic for the A549 cancer cell line and 50 µg / ml for the AGS cell line.

  17. BRCA1 expression, proliferative and apoptotic activities in ovarian epithelial inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yiying; Wang, Yue; Wei, Li; Hong, Shuhui; Zhao, Miaoqing; Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine proliferative and apoptotic activity in relation with BRCA1 expression in ovarian epithelial inclusions (OEIs), the putative precursor lesions of ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC). Methods Benign ovaries from 95 patients were examined. Dual immunohistochemical staining for both BRCA1 and MIB-1 were performed to examine the relationship between BRCA1 and MIB-1 in OEI cells. Apoptotic activity was assessed on the parallel tissue sections by usin...

  18. Changes in tumor oxygen tension during radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer: relationships to changes in vascular density, cell density, and frequency of mitosis and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyng, Heidi; Sundfoer, Kolbein; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Changes in oxygen tension (pO 2 ) during the early phase of fractionated radiotherapy were studied in 22 patients with uterine cervical cancer. The aims were to investigate (a) whether possible changes in pO 2 differed among and within tumors and (b) whether the changes could be attributed to changes in vascular density, cell density, and frequency of mitosis and apoptosis. Methods and Materials: The pO 2 was measured polarographically in four regions of the tumors before treatment and after 2 weeks of radiotherapy. The vascular density, cell density, and frequency of mitosis and apoptosis were determined from biopsies taken from the tumor regions after each pO 2 measurement. Results: The changes in pO 2 during therapy differed among the tumors and were correlated to pO 2 before treatment (p 2 and vice versa. The tumors with increased pO