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Sample records for apolipoprotein e-deficient mice

  1. Cardiovascular effects of uremia in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    of smooth muscle cell assigned genes indicates that besides intimal atherosclerosis, uremic vasculopathy in apoE-/- mice is characterized by a uremia-specific medial smooth muscle cell degeneration. Oxidative stress could also be important for the development of atherosclerotic lesions in uremia. In...... muscle cell degeneration. Furthermore, the studies suggested that vascular inflammation and systemic oxidative stress may explain some of the proatherogenic effects of uremia in mice. Interestingly, the accelerated atherosclerosis could be prevented by RAS inhibition, or markedly reduced by RAGE blockade......The purpose of this thesis work was to establish an experimental mouse model for studying the pathogenesis and therapy of accelerated atherosclerosis in uremia. Uremia was induced by surgical 5/6 nephrectomy in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice and led to development of severe aortic...

  2. IL-25 inhibits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni T Mantani

    Full Text Available IL-25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity and in the protection against autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have identified the novel innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s as an IL-25 target cell population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if IL-25 has any influence on atherosclerosis development in mice.Administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for one week to atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apoE deficient mice, had limited effect on the frequency of T cell populations, but resulted in a large expansion of ILC2s in the spleen. The expansion was accompanied by increased levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (PC natural IgM antibodies in plasma and elevated levels of IL-5 in plasma and spleen. Transfer of ILC2s to apoE deficient mice elevated the natural antibody-producing B1a cell population in the spleen. Treatment of apoE/Rag-1 deficient mice with IL-25 was also associated with extensive expansion of splenic ILC2s and increased plasma IL-5, suggesting ILC2s to be the source of IL-5. Administration of IL-25 in IL-5 deficient mice resulted in an expanded ILC2 population, but did not stimulate generation of anti-PC IgM, indicating that IL-5 is not required for ILC2 expansion but for the downstream production of natural antibodies. Additionally, administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for 4 weeks in apoE deficient mice reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta both during initiation and progression of the disease.The present findings demonstrate that IL-25 has a protective role in atherosclerosis mediated by innate responses, including ILC2 expansion, increased IL-5 secretion, B1a expansion and natural anti-PC IgM generation, rather than adaptive Th2 responses.

  3. Visfatin Destabilizes Atherosclerotic Plaques in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Although there is evidence that visfatin is associated with atherogenesis, the effect of visfatin on plaque stability has not yet been explored.In vivo, vulnerable plaques were established by carotid collar placement in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- mice, and lentivirus expressing visfatin (lenti-visfatin was locally infused in the carotid artery. The lipid, macrophage, smooth muscle cell (SMC and collagen levels were evaluated, and the vulnerability index was calculated. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with visfatin, and the MMPs expressions were assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence. And the mechanism that involved in visfatin-induced MMP-8 production was investigated.Transfection with lenti-visfatin significantly promoted the expression of visfatin which mainly expressed in macrophages in the plaque. Lenti-visfatin transfection significantly promoted the accumulation of lipids and macrophages, modulated the phenotypes of smooth muscle cells and decreased the collagen levels in the plaques, which significantly decreased the plaque stability. Simultaneously, transfection with lenti-visfatin significantly up-regulated the expression of MMP-8 in vivo, as well as MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Recombinant visfatin dose- and time-dependently up-regulated the in vitro expression of MMP-8 in macrophages. Visfatin promoted the translocation of NF-κB, and inhibition of NF-κB significantly reduced visfatin-induced MMP-8 production.Visfatin increased MMP-8 expression, promoted collagen degradation and increased the plaques vulnerability index.

  4. Endothelial surface layer degradation by chronic hyaluronidase infusion induces proteinuria in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Meuwese, Marijn C.; Broekhuizen, Lysette N.; Mayella Kuikhoven; Sylvia Heeneman; Esther Lutgens; Marion J J Gijbels; Max Nieuwdorp; Peutz, Carine J; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Hans Vink; van den Berg, Bernard M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Functional studies show that disruption of endothelial surface layer (ESL) is accompanied by enhanced sensitivity of the vasculature towards atherogenic stimuli. However, relevance of ESL disruption as causal mechanism for vascular dysfunction remains to be demonstrated. We examined if loss of ESL through enzymatic degradation would affect vascular barrier properties in an atherogenic model. METHODS: Eight week old male apolipoprotein E deficient mice on Western-type diet for 10 we...

  5. Effects of Simvastatin on adiponectin and endothelial function in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Liu; Donghua Yin; Ming Gui; Kejiang Cao

    2009-01-01

    0bjective:To investigate the effects of simvastatin,a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A(HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor,on adiponectin and markers of endothelial function in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice at an early stage of atherosclerosis.Methods:Twenty-four 6-week old male apoE-deficient mice were randomly divided into two groups:control group(normal saline) and treatment group[simvastatin(5 mg/(kg·d)].Simvastatin was administered to treatment group mice by gavage and the same volume of normal saline was administered to control group mice by the same method for 4 weeks.Total cholesterol(TC),superoxide dismutase(SOD),malondialdehyde (MDA),and nitric oxide(NO) were measured by biochemical analysis,and adiponectin was measured by an ABC-ELISA method.Results:There was no significant difference in serum TC between control and treatment groups.Compared with the control animals,simvastafin-treated animals exhibited a significant increase in serurn levels of adponectin,SOD and NO,and decrease in serum MDA(P <0.01).Conclusion:Simvastatin protects endothelial function by increasing serum adiponectin,which may increase serum SOD and NO,and decrease serum MDA.This study suggests that sirnvastatin has therapeutic advantages,unrelated to its cholesterol-lowering effect,that are mediated by adiponectin.

  6. Effects of simvastatin on early oxidative stress and endothelial function in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the mechanisms that Simvastatin,a 3-ydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A(HMG-CoA)reductase inhibitor,plays an important role in primary prevention of atherosclerosis independently of its lipid-lowering effect in Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice in the early stage of atherosclerosis.Methods:Twenty-four 6-week old male apoE-deficient mice were randomly divided into two groups:control group(normal saline)and treatment group[simvastatin(5 mg/(kg·d))].Simvastatin was administered to treatment group mice by gavage and the same volume of normal saline was administered to control group mice by the same method for 2 or 4 weeks.Total cholesterol(TC),super-oxide dismutase(SOD),malondialdehyde(MDA)and serum nitric oxide(NO)were measured by biochemical analysis.Results:There was no significant difference in serum TC between control and treatment groups.Compared with the control's,the effects of simvastatin were more signiticant in decreasing serum MDA level(P<0.01 vs control's at 2-week;P<0.006 vs control's at 4-week),increasing serum SOD level(P<0.03 vs control's at 2-week;P<0.003 vs control's at 4-week)and NO level (P<0.01 control's at 2-week;P<0.001 vs control's at 4-week)either at 2 or 4 weeks.Conclusion:Simvastatin attenuates oxidative stress and protects endothelial function by the mechanisms of decreasing serum MDA level,increasing serum SOD level and NO level,which were inconsistent with its cholesterol-lowering effect.It may play an important role in primary(if not all)prevention of atherosclerosis and might be independent of lipid-regulation mechanism.

  7. Deletion of sirtuin 6 accelerates endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiping; Wang, Jiaojiao; Huang, Xiaoyang; Li, Zhuoming; Liu, Peiqing

    2016-06-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a chromatin-associated deacetylase that plays a leading role in genomic stability and aging. However, the precise role of SIRT6 in atherosclerosis, an aging-associated cardiovascular disease, remains elusive. This study aims at defining the role of SIRT6 in atherosclerotic lesion development. SIRT6 messenger RNA and protein expression are markedly decreased in atherosclerotic aortas of apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. SIRT6 was knocked down in ApoE(-/-) mice using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) lentivirus injection. SIRT6-shRNA-treated ApoE(-/-) mice showed impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased plaque size (in aortic sinus, aortic root and en face aorta), and augmented plaque vulnerability (evidenced by increased necrotic core areas and macrophage accumulation and reduced collagen content). At the cellular level, SIRT6 depletion by RNA interference in human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by inducing the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1. Consistently, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 expression was significantly upregulated in aortic endothelium of SIRT6-shRNA-treated ApoE(-/-) mice compared with controls. In sum, the aforementioned findings suggest that SIRT6 is a primary negative regulation factor in endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis development. As a result, SIRT6 is a promising therapeutic target for treating atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular complications. PMID:26924042

  8. Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Hong-Bo, E-mail: xhbzhb@yahoo.com [College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Lu, Xiang-Yang; Sun, Zhi-Liang [Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Zhang, Heng-Bo [Furong District Red Cross Hospital, Changsha 410126 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Recent studies show that osteopontin (OPN) and its receptor cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) are two pro-inflammatory cytokines contributing to the development of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to explore the inhibitory effect of kaempferol, a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, on atherogenesis and the mechanisms involved. The experiments were performed in aorta and plasma from C57BL/6J control and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice treated or not with kaempferol (50 or 100 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 4 weeks. Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area, improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and increased the maximal relaxation value concomitantly with decrease in the half-maximum effective concentration, plasma OPN level, aortic OPN expression, and aortic CD44 expression in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. In addition, treatment with kaempferol also significantly decreased reactive oxygen species production in mice aorta. The present results suggest that kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE{sup -/-} mice. -- Graphical abstract: Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis of ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OPN-CD44 pathway plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine lesion area, OPN and CD44 changes after kaempferol treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol treatment decreased atherosclerotic lesion area in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol treatment decreased aortic OPN and CD44 expressions in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kaempferol regulates OPN-CD44 pathway to inhibit the atherogenesis.

  9. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, C.V. [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Lazzarotto, C.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Aquino, C.C.; Figueiredo, I.L.; Costa, T.B.; Oliveira Alves, L.A. de [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Laboratório da Inflamação e Câncer, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Bertolini, L.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Lima, A.A.M. [Laboratório de Doenças Infecciosas, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Brito, G.A.C. [Laboratório da Inflamação e Câncer, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Oriá, R.B. [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2015-04-28

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein) is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE{sup -/-}) and wild-type (APOE{sup +/+}) C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86) were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection). Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001) in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05) were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE{sup -/-} mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE{sup +/+} mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE{sup -/-}-challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU

  10. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE-/- and wild-type (APOE+/+ C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86 were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM or phosphate buffered saline (PBS by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection. Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001 in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05 were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE-/- mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE+/+ mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE-/--challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU challenge.

  11. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein) is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE-/-) and wild-type (APOE+/+) C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86) were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection). Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001) in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05) were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE-/- mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE+/+ mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE-/--challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU challenge

  12. Blocking TLR2 activity diminishes and stabilizes advanced atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-xing WANG; Xiao-xi LV; Jia-ping WANG; Hui-min YAN; Zi-yan WANG; Han-zhi LIU; Xiao-ming FU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling plays a critical role in the initiation of atherosclerosis.The aim of this study was to investigate whether blocking TLR2 activity could produce therapeutic effects on advanced atherosclerosis.Methods:Forty-week old apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice fed on a normal diet were intravenously injected with a TLR2-neutralizing antibody or with an isotype-matched IgG for 18 weeks.Double-knockout ApoE-/-Tlr2-/-mice were taken as a positive control.At the end of the treatments,the plasma lipid levels were measured,and the plaque morphology,pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and apoptosis in arteries were analyzed.In the second part of this study,6-week old ApoE-/-and ApoE-/-Tlr2-/-mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet for 12 to 24 weeks,the expression levels of TLR2 and apoptotic markers in arteries were examined.Results:Blockade of TLR2 activity with TLR2-neutralizing antibody or knockout of Tlr2 gene did not alter the plasma lipid levels in ApoE-/-mice.However,the pharmacologic and genetic manipulations significantly reduced the plaque size and vessel stenosis,and increased plaque stability in the brachiocephalic arteries.The protective effects of TLR2 antagonism were associated with the suppressed expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and the inactivation of transcription factors NF-KB and Stat3.In addition,blocking TLR2 activity attenuated ER stress-induced macrophage apoptosis in the brachiocephalic arteries,which could promote the resolution of necrotic cores in advanced atherosclerosis.Moreover,high-cholesterol diet more prominently accelerated atherosclerotic formation and increased the expression of pro-apoptotic protein CHOP and apoptosis in ApoE-/-mice than in ApoE-/-Tlr2-/-mice.Conclusion:The pharmacologic or genetic blockade of TLR2 activity diminishes and stabilizes advanced atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/-mice.Thus,targeting TLR2 signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy against

  13. Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Atherosclerosis by 2-Aminopurine in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Okoro; Zhong Mao Guo; Dong Fang Wu; Dezhi Yang; Lichun Zhou; Hong Yang

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the apolipoprotein (apo) B48-carrying lipoproteins obtained from apoE knockout (apoE −/− ) mice, so called E−/B48 lipoproteins, transformed mouse macrophages into foam cells and enhanced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α (eIF-2 α ). Furthermore, the eIF-2 α phosphorylation inhibitor, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), attenuated E−/B48 lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. The present report studied the effect of 2-AP on atherosclerosis in a...

  14. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J;

    2009-01-01

    < 0.001 vs. Ang II alone). Ang II increases macrophage content in lesions (P < 0.05), whereas salt likely increases collagen content. CONCLUSION: High-salt diet per se does not influence BP in ApoE-/- mice and is only moderately atherogenic. Possibly mediated via increased oxidative stress, a high...... atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice received standard or high-salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with fixed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.5 microg/kg per min). BP was measured using telemetry, and plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and innominate artery. We...... used urinary isoprostane as a marker for oxidative stress. RESULTS: Although high-salt diet per se did not affect plaque extension, high salt combined with Ang II increased plaque area significantly in both the aorta and the innominate artery as compared with Ang II or salt alone (P < 0.05 and P < 0...

  15. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and atherosclerosis by 2-aminopurine in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Dezhi; Wu, Dong Fang; Guo, Zhong Mao; Okoro, Emmanuel; Yang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the apolipoprotein (apo) B48-carrying lipoproteins obtained from apoE knockout (apoE (-/-) ) mice, so called E(-)/B48 lipoproteins, transformed mouse macrophages into foam cells and enhanced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α (eIF-2 α ). Furthermore, the eIF-2 α phosphorylation inhibitor, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), attenuated E(-)/B48 lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. The present report studied the effect of 2-AP on atherosclerosis in apoE (-/-) mice. Our results showed that the level of food intake, bodyweight, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides was comparable in apoE (-/-) mice treated with or without 2-AP. However, the mean size of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta sinus as well as the surface area of the entire aorta of 2-AP-treated apoE (-/-) mice were reduced by about 55% and 39%, respectively, compared to samples from untreated control apoE (-/-) mice. In addition, the 2-AP-treated apoE (-/-) mice showed a significant decrease in glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and phosphorylated eIF-2 α in their aortic samples as compared to levels in untreated control apoE (-/-) mice. These observations suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress is a causal mechanism for the development of atherosclerosis in apoE (-/-) mice and that therapeutic strategies can be developed for using eIF-2 α phosphorylation inhibitors, such as 2-AP, to prevent or treat atherosclerosis. PMID:23984090

  16. High-salt diet combined with elevated angiotensin II accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E; Bernberg, Evelina; Andersson, Irene J; Bie, Peter; Skøtt, Ole; Gan, Li-ming; Bergström, Göran

    2009-01-01

    atherosclerosis. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice received standard or high-salt diet (8%) alone or in combination with fixed angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.5 microg/kg per min). BP was measured using telemetry, and plaque burden was assessed in the thoracic aorta and innominate artery. We......OBJECTIVES: High-salt diet likely elevates blood pressure (BP), thus increasing the risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that a high-salt diet plays a critical role in subjects whose renin-angiotensin systems cannot adjust to variable salt intake, rendering them more susceptible to...... used urinary isoprostane as a marker for oxidative stress. RESULTS: Although high-salt diet per se did not affect plaque extension, high salt combined with Ang II increased plaque area significantly in both the aorta and the innominate artery as compared with Ang II or salt alone (P < 0.05 and P < 0...

  17. Proteomic and meatbolomic analysis of smooth muscle cells derived from the arterial media and adventitial progenitors of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayr, M; Zampetaki, A.; Sidibe, A.; Mayr, U.; Yin, X.; Souza, A.I. de; Chung, Y.L.; Madhu, B.; Quax, P.H.; Hu, Y.; Griffiths, J.R.; Xu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that stem cell antigen 1-positive (Sca-1(+)) progenitors exist in the vascular adventitia of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice and contribute to smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation in vein graft atherosclerosis. Using a combined proteomic and metabolomic app

  18. 17β-estradiol potentiates endothelium-dependent nitric oxide- and hyperpolarization-mediated relaxations in blood vessels of male but not female apolipoprotein-E deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Billy W C; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Man, Ricky Y K; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of gender on the changes underlying endothelial dysfunction in hyperlipidemia during aging. Isometric tension in rings (with endothelium) of the aortae and superior mesenteric arteries from apolipoprotein-E deficient mice was determined in wire myographs. Nitric oxide (NO)- and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated relaxations were smaller in the aortae and mesenteric arteries of 32weeks old males than eight weeks old males. In females, NO- and EDH-mediated relaxations were impaired only at 84weeks of age. The levels of reactive oxygen species were elevated in the blood vessels of 32weeks old males, but not females. Acute in vitro treatment with 17β-estradiol and apocynin improved NO- and EDH-mediated relaxations in 32weeks old males but not in 84weeks old males. Relaxations to SKA-31, activator of intermediate (IKCa) and small (SKCa) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, were attenuated in the mesenteric arteries of 32weeks old males. Such impairment was restored by acute treatment with apocynin. These findings suggest that male hyperlipidemic mice develop endothelial dysfunction at an earlier age than females. This endothelial dysfunction is associated with impaired NO bioavailability and reduced IKCa and SKCa activity. Apocynin and 17β-estradiol restore the endothelial function only in younger male animals but not in older male or female animals. PMID:25869512

  19. Nuclear microprobe investigation into the trace elemental contents of carotid artery walls of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease that causes lesions in large and medium-sized arteries. There is increasing evidence that the function of vascular endothelial cells is impaired by oxidation reactions, and that metal ions may participate in these processes. The nuclear microscopy facility in NUS, which has the ability to focus a 2 MeV proton beam down to sub micron spot sizes, was used to investigate the trace elemental changes (e.g. Zn and Fe) in atherosclerotic lesions in the common carotid artery of apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high fat diet. In this preliminary study, which is part of a larger study to investigate the effects of probucol on carotid artery atherosclerosis, two sets of mice were used; a test set fed a high fat diet +1% probucol, and a control set which was fed a high fat diet only. The results show that the Zn/Fe ratio was significantly higher in the media of arteries of probucol treated animals without overlying lesion (4.3) compared to the media with overlying lesion (1.3) (p = 0.004) for test mice. For the control mice, the arterial Zn/Fe ratio was 1.8 for media without overlying lesion, compared with 1.0 for media with overlying lesion (p = 0.1). Thus, for media without overlying lesion, the Zn/Fe ratio was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in probucol-treated (4.3) than control mice (1.8), whereas there was little difference in the ratios between the two groups in media with overlying lesion (1.3 compared with 1.0). These preliminary results are consistent with the idea that the levels of iron and zinc concentrations within the artery wall may influence the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid artery

  20. Protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinides Panayiotis P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to assess the effect of chronic administration of protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS on the plasma cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein (ApoE deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE deficient mice were divided into the following treatment groups: protonated NSAS 1.4% (w/w, untreated control and 2% (w/w stigmastanol mixed with high-cholesterol/high-fat diet. Animals were treated for 12 weeks, blood samples were withdrawn every 4 weeks for determination of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. At the end of the study the aortic roots were harvested for assessment of atherosclerotic lesions. NSAS at 1.4% (w/w and stigmastanol at 2% (w/w treatment groups showed significant decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations at all time points relative to the control animals. The lesion sum area in 1.4% (w/w NSAS and 2% (w/w stigmastanol groups were significantly less from the control animals. In conclusion, in this study, the effectiveness of chronic administration of protonated NSAS material in the reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and decrease in development of atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated in Apo-E deficient mice model.

  1. Influences of a-tocopherol on cholesterol metabolism and fatty streak development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed an atherogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peluzio M.C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of oxidized lipoproteins is well known in atherogenesis, the role of vitamin E supplementation is still controversial. There is also little information about cholesterol metabolism (hepatic concentration and fecal excretion in the new models of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of moderate vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E (apo E-deficient mice. Apo E-deficient mice were fed an atherogenic diet containing 40 or 400 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 6 weeks. Total cholesterol in serum and liver and 3-OH-alpha-sterols in feces, and fecal excretion of bile acids were determined and histological analyses of aortic lesion were performed. A vitamin E-rich diet did not affect body weight, food intake or serum cholesterol. Serum and hepatic concentrations of cholesterol as well as sterol concentration in feces were similar in both groups. However, when compared to controls, the alpha-tocopherol-treated mice showed a reduction of about 60% in the atherosclerotic lesions when both the sum of lesion areas and the average of the largest lesion area were considered. These results demonstrate that supplementation of moderate doses of alpha-tocopherol was able to slow atherogenesis in apo E-deficient mice and to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins without modifying the hepatic pool or fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids.

  2. Influence of environmental enrichment and depleted uranium on behaviour, cholesterol and acetylcholine in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestaevel, P; Airault, F; Racine, R; Bensoussan, H; Dhieux, B; Delissen, O; Manens, L; Aigueperse, J; Voisin, P; Souidi, M

    2014-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with genetic risk factors, of which the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the most prevalent, and is affected by environmental factors that include education early in life and exposure to metals. The industrial and military use of depleted uranium (DU) resulted in an increase of its deposition in some areas and led to a possible environmental factor. The present study aims to ascertain the effects on the behaviour and the metabolism of cholesterol and acetylcholine of ApoE-/- mice exposed to enriched environment (EE) and exposed to DU (20 mg/L) for 14 weeks. Here we show that ApoE-/- mice were unaffected by the EE and their learning and memory were similar to those of the non-enriched ApoE-/- mice. ApoE-/- mice showed a significant decrease in total (-16 %) and free (-16 %) cholesterol in the entorhinal cortex in comparison to control wild-type mice. Whatever the housing conditions, the exposure to DU of ApoE-/- mice impaired working memory, but had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, in comparison to control ApoE-/- mice. The exposure of ApoE-/- mice to DU also induced a trend toward higher total cholesterol content in the cerebral cortex (+15 %) compared to control ApoE-/- mice. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that enriched environment does not ameliorate neurobehaviour in ApoE-/- mice and that ApoE mutation induced specific effects on the brain cholesterol. These findings also suggested that DU exposure could modify the pathology in this ApoE model, with no influence of housing conditions. PMID:23749703

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) −/− mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE−/− mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 ± 6 vs 137 ± 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 ± 0.4 vs 0.9 ± 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: ► Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. ► PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis. ► PCB77 promotes Ang

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenescu, Violeta [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Arsenescu, Razvan [Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Zhang, Xuan [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Baker, Nicki [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Cassis, Lisa A., E-mail: lcassis@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments Ang

  5. Identification of aortic arch-specific quantitative trait loci for atherosclerosis by an intercross of DBA/2J and 129S6 apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Kayashima

    Full Text Available The genetic background of apolipoprotein E (apoE deficient mice influences atherosclerotic plaque development. We previously reported three quantitative trait loci (QTL, Aath1-Aath3, that affect aortic arch atherosclerosis independently of those in the aortic root in a cross between C57BL6 apoEKO mice (B6-apoE and 129S6 apoEKO mice (129-apoE. To gain further insight into genetic factors that influence atherosclerosis at different vascular locations, we analyzed 335 F2 mice from an intercross between 129-apoE and apoEKO mice on a DBA/2J genetic background (DBA-apoE. The extent of atherosclerosis in the aortic arch was very similar in the two parental strains. Nevertheless, a genome-wide scan identified two significant QTL for plaque size in the aortic arch: Aath4 on Chromosome (Chr 2 at 137 Mb and Aath5 on Chr 10 at 51 Mb. The DBA alleles of Aath4 and Aath5 respectively confer susceptibility and resistance to aortic arch atherosclerosis over 129 alleles. Both QTL are also independent of those affecting plaque size at the aortic root. Genome analysis suggests that athero-susceptibility of Aath4 in DBA may be contributed by multiple genes, including Mertk and Cd93, that play roles in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and modulate inflammation. A candidate gene for Aath5 is Stab2, the DBA allele of which is associated with 10 times higher plasma hyaluronan than the 129 allele. Overall, our identification of two new QTL that affect atherosclerosis in an aortic arch-specific manner further supports the involvement of distinct pathological processes at different vascular locations.

  6. Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor and MT1-MMP Involved in Development of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-zhen GUO; Andres J. Espinoza; Christian A. Espinoza; Terence M. Doherty; Xiao WANG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Genetic deficiency of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) in atherosclerosis-prone (apoE-/-) mice markedly reduces formation of atheroma. But Little is known about the potential effects of other colony stimulating factors(CSF), such as granulocyte CSF(G-CSF), on atherosclerosis. This study tested the hypothesis that G-CSF would be involved in development of atherosclerotic plaque. Methods apoE-/- mice fed with a Western-style diet (0.15% cholesterol) were injected subcutaneously with recombinant human G-CSF(10 mg/day) daily for 9 weeks then sacrificed. The matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)2 and MMP9 in serum of mice were measured by Gelatin Zymography analysis and c-kit and membrane type1-MMP(MT1-MMP) antigens were detected using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Meanwhile, complete blood counts (CBC) and serum cholesterol, relative fractions of VLDL,LDL, and HDL were evaluated by spectrophotometric techniques and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)respectively. Atherosclerotic Lesions of the aorta were also analyzed by histological methods. Results G-CSF treatment resulted in increased proportions of circulating monocytes (6.9±2.2% vs.3.8±0.3%;P<0.05), and decreased serum levels of total cholesterol (1225±594 vs.1991±1009;P<0.005) compared to control mice. A greater proportion of bone marrow cells from G-CSF treated mice expressed MT1-MMP (14.5±5.5% vs.6.2±5.0%, P<0.05) compared to bone marrow cells from vehicle treated mice. G-CSF treatment was also associated with smaller atheromatous plaque, and decreased oil red O staining. Conclusions G-CSF lowers serum cholesterol, increases circulating monocytes, increases bone marrow cell expression of MT1-MMP, inhibits plaque development, and decreases lipid and macrophage infiltration into developing plaque.

  7. Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Sydney N; Goergen, Craig J.; Blaize, A Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by a weakened vessel wall and a diameter 50% greater than normal. AAA are usually asymptomatic until they are near rupturing, which can be fatal if not treated immediately. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mice are commonly used as a model to study aneurysm growth. Our lab has created a similar model using rats, which are more similar to humans. This study focuses on the analysis of blood pressures collected from ApoE rats for comparison wi...

  8. Endothelial Dysfunction in the Apolipoprotein E-deficient Mouse: insights into the influence of diet, gender and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Meyrelles Silvana S; Peotta Veronica A; Pereira Thiago MC; Vasquez Elisardo C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Since the early 1990s, several strains of genetically modified mice have been developed as models for experimental atherosclerosis. Among the available models, the apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mouse is of particular relevance because of its propensity to spontaneously develop hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic lesions that are similar to those found in humans, even when the mice are fed a chow diet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the key achievements th...

  9. Genetic and pharmacological modifications of thrombin formation in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice determine atherosclerosis severity and atherothrombosis onset in a neutrophil-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian I Borissoff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variations in the blood coagulation activity, determined genetically or by medication, may alter atherosclerotic plaque progression, by influencing pleiotropic effects of coagulation proteases. Published experimental studies have yielded contradictory findings on the role of hypercoagulability in atherogenesis. We therefore sought to address this matter by extensively investigating the in vivo significance of genetic alterations and pharmacologic inhibition of thrombin formation for the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, and plaque phenotype determination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated transgenic atherosclerosis-prone mice with diminished coagulant or hypercoagulable phenotype and employed two distinct models of atherosclerosis. Gene-targeted 50% reduction in prothrombin (FII(-/WT:ApoE(-/- was remarkably effective in limiting disease compared to control ApoE(-/- mice, associated with significant qualitative benefits, including diminished leukocyte infiltration, altered collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell content. Genetically-imposed hypercoagulability in TM(Pro/Pro:ApoE(-/- mice resulted in severe atherosclerosis, plaque vulnerability and spontaneous atherothrombosis. Hypercoagulability was associated with a pronounced neutrophilia, neutrophil hyper-reactivity, markedly increased oxidative stress, neutrophil intraplaque infiltration and apoptosis. Administration of either the synthetic specific thrombin inhibitor Dabigatran etexilate, or recombinant activated protein C (APC, counteracted the pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic phenotype of pro-thrombotic TM(Pro/Pro:ApoE(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence highlighting the importance of neutrophils in the coagulation-inflammation interplay during atherogenesis. Our findings reveal that thrombin-mediated proteolysis is an unexpectedly powerful determinant of atherosclerosis in multiple distinct settings. These studies suggest that

  10. Impaired secretion of very low density lipoprotein-triglycerides by apolipoprotein E- deficient mouse hepatocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, F; M. C. De Jong; Lin, Y.; Eck, M; Havinga, R.; Bloks, V; Verkade , H.J.; Hofker, M H; Moshage, H; Berkel, T J; Vonk, R J; Havekes, L M

    1997-01-01

    To explore mechanisms underlying triglyceride (TG) accumulation in livers of chow-fed apo E-deficient mice (Kuipers, F., J.M. van Ree, M.H. Hofker, H. Wolters, G. In't Veld, R.J. Vonk, H.M.G. Princen, and L.M. Havekes. 1996. Hepatology. 24:241-247), we investigated the effects of apo E deficiency on secretion of VLDL-associated TG (a) in vivo in mice, (b) in isolated perfused mouse livers, and (c) in cultured mouse hepatocytes. (a) Hepatic VLDL-TG production rate in vivo, determined after Tri...

  11. Effects of moxa and cigarette smoke on behavioral changes and brainβamyloid deposition in apoli-poprotein E-deficient mice%艾烟与香烟对载脂蛋白E基因敲除小鼠学习记忆功能与海马β淀粉样蛋白沉淀的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钧天; 崔莹雪; 黄玉海; 黄畅; 黄剑; 赵百孝; 韩丽; 杨佳; 王磊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of moxa smoke and cigarette smoke on the apo-lipoprotein E-deficient ( ApoE-/-) male mice’ learning and memory ability andβamyloid deposition in brain hippocampus. Method 13 eight weeks old C57BL/6 mice were assigned to control group;27 eight weeks old ApoE-/- mice were randomly divided into 3 groups ( n=9/group): model group, moxa smoke group, cigarette smoke group. Mice in the two smoke groups were exposed to smoke, which concentration is con-trolled within 5~15 mg/m3;mice in model group and control group were exposed to normal air. The step-down test was conducted in the 13th week. Level ofβamyloid deposition was determined by congo red stai-ning. Results Compared with the model group, mice in control group, moxa smoke group and cigarette smoke group showed decreased learning latency, increased memory latency and made less mistakes in the step-down test (P< 0. 05). Compared with the model group,βamyloid deposition of control group, moxa smoke group and cigarette smoke group was significantly decreased ( P< 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Our find-ings suggest that moxa smoke may have effect on protecting nerve function and anti-aging by reducing the deposition of β amyloid in hippocampus.%目的:观察艾烟与香烟对载脂蛋白E基因敲除( apolipoprotein E-deficient,ApoE-/-)小鼠学习记忆能力与海马β淀粉样蛋白(β-Amyloid)沉淀的影响。方法将13只8周龄C57BL/6小鼠作为空白对照组,27只同龄ApoE-/-小鼠随机分为ApoE-/-模型组、艾烟组、香烟组。香烟与艾烟组小鼠分别暴露于5~15 mg/m3的香烟与艾烟环境。各组小鼠每天干预20分钟,每周6天,共干预12周。于第13周进行行为学测试,之后处死动物、取材,对其脑组织海马中Aβ沉淀进行刚果红染色。结果与模型组对比,空白对照组、艾烟组、香烟组小鼠均表现出学习潜伏期缩短,记忆潜伏期增长,记忆错误次数减少,差别有统计学意义( P<0.05)

  12. Involvement of toll-like receptor 2 and 4 in association between dyslipidemia and osteoclast differentiation in apolipoprotein E deficient rat periodontium

    OpenAIRE

    Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Irie, Koichiro; Endo, Yasumasa; Kasuyama, Kenta; Yoneda, Toshiki; Morita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia increases circulating levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and this may induce alveolar bone loss through toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dyslipidemia on osteoclast differentiation associated with TLR2 and TLR4 in periodontal tissues using a rat dyslipidemia (apolipoprotein E deficient) model. Methods Levels of plasma OxLDL, and the cholesterol and phospholipid profiles in plasma lipoproteins w...

  13. Overexpression of TGF-ß1 in macrophages reduces and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Reifenberg

    Full Text Available Although macrophages represent the hallmark of both human and murine atherosclerotic lesions and have been shown to express TGF-ß1 (transforming growth factor β1 and its receptors, it has so far not been experimentally addressed whether the pleiotropic cytokine TGF-ß1 may influence atherogenesis by a macrophage specific mechanism. We developed transgenic mice with macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression, crossed the transgenics to the atherosclerotic ApoE (apolipoprotein E knock-out strain and quantitatively analyzed both atherosclerotic lesion development and composition of the resulting double mutants. Compared with control ApoE(-/- mice, animals with macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression developed significantly less atherosclerosis after 24 weeks on the WTD (Western type diet as indicated by aortic plaque area en face (p<0.05. Reduced atherosclerotic lesion development was associated with significantly less macrophages (p<0.05 after both 8 and 24 weeks on the WTD, significantly more smooth muscle cells (SMCs; p<0.01 after 24 weeks on the WTD, significantly more collagen (p<0.01 and p<0.05 after 16 and 24 weeks on the WTD, respectively without significant differences of inner aortic arch intima thickness or the number of total macrophages in the mice pointing to a plaque stabilizing effect of macrophage-specific TGF-ß1 overexpression. Our data shows that macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression reduces and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice.

  14. Modulating the Gut Microbiota Improves Glucose Tolerance, Lipoprotein Profile and Atherosclerotic Plaque Development in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rune

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut microbiota (GM in disease development has recently received increased attention, and numerous approaches have been made to better understand this important interplay. For example, metabolites derived from the GM have been shown to promote atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and to increase CVD risk factors. Popular interest in the role of the intestine in a variety of disease states has now resulted in a significant proportion of individuals without coeliac disease switching to gluten-free diets. The effect of gluten-free diets on atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors is largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effect of a gluten-free high-fat cholesterol-rich diet, as compared to the same diet in which the gluten peptide gliadin had been added back, on atherosclerosis and several cardiovascular risk factors in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/- mice. The gluten-free diet transiently altered GM composition in these mice, as compared to the gliadin-supplemented diet, but did not alter body weights, glucose tolerance, insulin levels, plasma lipids, or atherosclerosis. In parallel, other Apoe-/- mice fed the same diets were treated with ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic known to affect GM composition. Ampicillin-treatment had a marked and sustained effect on GM composition, as expected. Furthermore, although ampicillin-treated mice were slightly heavier than controls, ampicillin-treatment transiently improved glucose tolerance both in the absence or presence of gliadin, reduced plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels, and reduced aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. These results demonstrate that a gluten-free diet does not seem to have beneficial effects on atherosclerosis or several CVD risk factors in this mouse model, but that sustained alteration of GM composition with a broad-spectrum antibiotic has beneficial effects on CVD risk factors and atherosclerosis

  15. Differentially expressed microRNAs at different stages of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Zhen; YAO Chen; LI Zi-lun; TENG Yuan; LI Wen; WANG Jin-song; YE Cai-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of cardiovascular disease,carotid artery disease,and peripheral vascular disease.However,it is hard to obtain human arterial tissue at different stages of atherosclerosis for a systematic study.The ApoE-deficient (ApoE 1-) mice predictably develop spontaneous atherosclerotic plaques with numerous features similar to the human lesions and contain nearly the entire spectrum of lesions observed during atherogenesis in humans.MicroRNA expression profiles at different stages of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice were screened to find out the differentially expressed microRNAs.Methods ApoE-deficient mice were euthanized at 4,8,and 20 weeks of age and divided into three groups according to the three time points,including groups A4 (fed a Western-type diet for 0 week),A8 (fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks),and A20 (fed a Western-type diet for 16 weeks).Atherosclerotic lesions were analyzed.Fifteen aortas were collected and combined into three pools (five aortas in one pool) in each group.MicroRNA microarray analysis was replicated thrice in each group.The threshold of fold change ≥2.0 was used to screen up or down-regulated microRNAs.Differentially expressed microRNAs were subsequently verified with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Those increasingly up or down-regulated microRNAs during the progression of atherosclerosis were selected.Results Atherosclerotic lesions first appeared in the aortic arch in group A8.Severe atherosclerotic lesions were observed in group A20.In group A8,seven MicroRNAs were up-regulated while two were down-regulated.In group A20,15 microRNAs were up-regulated while two were down-regulated.miR-34a-Sp and miR-497-5p were increasingly up-regulated,while miR-434-3p was progressively down-regulated when atherosclerosis progressed.Conclusions In this study,we described that microRNAs are differentially expressed at different stages of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice

  16. Effect of treatment with human apolipoprotein A-I on atherosclerosis in uremic apolipoprotein-E deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Bro, Susanne; Andersen, Mikkel H;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Uremia markedly increases the risk of atherosclerosis. Thus, effective anti-atherogenic treatments are needed for uremic patients. This study examined effects of non-lipidated recombinant human apoA-I (h-apoA-I) and a recombinant trimeric apoA-I molecule (TripA-I) on lipid metabolism a...

  17. Effect of Lowering Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA on Vascular Pathology in Atherosclerotic ApoE-Deficient Mice with Reduced Renal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Jacobi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the impact of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and its degrading enzyme, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH1, on atherosclerosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX ApoE-deficient mice. Male DDAH1 transgenic mice (TG, n = 39 and C57Bl/6J wild-type littermates (WT, n = 27 with or without the deletion of the ApoE gene underwent SNX at the age of eight weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 12 months of age, and blood chemistry, as well as the extent of atherosclerosis within the entire aorta were analyzed. Sham treated (no renal mass reduction ApoE-competent DDAH1 transgenic and wild-type littermates (n = 11 served as a control group. Overexpression of DDAH1 was associated with significantly lower ADMA levels in all treatment groups. Surprisingly, SNX mice did not exhibit higher ADMA levels compared to sham treated control mice. Furthermore, the degree of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice with SNX was similar in mice with or without overexpression of DDAH1. Overexpression of the ADMA degrading enzyme, DDAH1, did not ameliorate atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient SNX mice. Furthermore, SNX in mice had no impact on ADMA levels, suggesting a minor role of this molecule in chronic kidney disease (CKD in this mouse model.

  18. Cardiovascular changes in atherosclerotic ApoE-deficient mice exposed to Co60 (γ radiation.

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    Prem Kumarathasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a role of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular diseases. The goal of this work was to identify changes in oxidative and nitrative stress pathways and the status of the endothelinergic system during progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice after single and repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. METHODS AND RESULTS: B6.129P2-ApoE tmlUnc mice on a low-fat diet were acutely exposed (whole body to Co60 (γ (single dose 0, 0.5, and 2 Gy at a dose rate of 36.32 cGy/min, or repeatedly (cumulative dose 0 and 2 Gy at a dose-rate of 0.1 cGy/min for 5 d/wk, over a period of 4 weeks. Biological endpoints were investigated after 3-6 months of recovery post-radiation. The nitrative stress marker 3-nitrotyrosine and the vasoregulator peptides endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in plasma were increased (p<0.05 in a dose-dependent manner 3-6 months after acute or chronic exposure to radiation. The oxidative stress marker 8-isoprostane was not affected by radiation, while plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine decreased (p<0.05 after treatment. At 2Gy radiation dose, serum cholesterol was increased (p = 0.008 relative to controls. Percent lesion area increased (p = 0.005 with age of animal, but not with radiation treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations are consistent with persistent nitrative stress and activation of the endothelinergic system in ApoE-/- mice after low-level ionizing radiation exposures. These mechanisms are known factors in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Quantification of plaque lipids in the aortic root of ApoE-deficient mice by 3D DIXON magnetic resonance imaging in an ex vivo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish a dedicated protocol for the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of plaque lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice using ex vivo MRI. ApoE-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (n = 10) or normal food (n = 10) for 3 months. Subsequently, a 3D FLASH MRI sequence was used to view the anatomy of the aortic root in the isolated hearts, where a 3D double-echo two-excitation pulse sequence (DIXON sequence) was used to selectively image plaque lipids. The vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid volumes were quantified by MRI and histology for correlation analysis. DIXON MRI allowed visualisation and accurate quantification of plaque lipids. When comparing the vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid sizes in the aortic root, Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis revealed a close correlation between MRI results and the histological data both on a slice-by-slice basis and of the volumetric measurements (vessel wall: r2 = 0.775, p 2 = 0.875; p = 0.002; plaque lipid: r2 = 0.819, p = 0.003). The combination of 3D FLASH and DIXON-sequence MRI permits an accurate ex vivo assessment of the investigated plaque parameters in the aortic root of mice, particularly the lipid content. (orig.)

  20. Quantification of plaque lipids in the aortic root of ApoE-deficient mice by 3D DIXON magnetic resonance imaging in an ex vivo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietel, Barbara; Kuehn, Constanze; Achenbach, Stephan [University Hospital of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Erlangen (Germany); Budinsky, Lubos [Campus Science Support Facilities (CSF), Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Vienna (Austria); Uder, Michael [University Hospital of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hess, Andreas [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-31

    To establish a dedicated protocol for the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of plaque lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE{sup -/-}) mice using ex vivo MRI. ApoE{sup -/-} mice were fed a high-fat diet (n = 10) or normal food (n = 10) for 3 months. Subsequently, a 3D FLASH MRI sequence was used to view the anatomy of the aortic root in the isolated hearts, where a 3D double-echo two-excitation pulse sequence (DIXON sequence) was used to selectively image plaque lipids. The vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid volumes were quantified by MRI and histology for correlation analysis. DIXON MRI allowed visualisation and accurate quantification of plaque lipids. When comparing the vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid sizes in the aortic root, Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis revealed a close correlation between MRI results and the histological data both on a slice-by-slice basis and of the volumetric measurements (vessel wall: r{sup 2} = 0.775, p < 0.001; vessel lumen: r{sup 2} = 0.875; p = 0.002; plaque lipid: r{sup 2} = 0.819, p = 0.003). The combination of 3D FLASH and DIXON-sequence MRI permits an accurate ex vivo assessment of the investigated plaque parameters in the aortic root of mice, particularly the lipid content. (orig.)

  1. Lifelong vitamin E intake retards age-associated decline of spatial learning ability in apoE-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Shelley R.; Forster, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The potential for lifelong vitamin E supplementation to delay age-associated cognitive decline was tested in apoE-deficient and wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Beginning at eight weeks of age, the mice were maintained on a control diet or diets supplemented with dl-α-tocopheryl acetate yielding approximate daily intakes of either 20 or 200 mg/kg body weight. When 6 or 18 months of age, cognitive functioning of the mice was assessed using swim maze and discriminated avoidance testing procedures. For t...

  2. Endothelial surface layer degradation by chronic hyaluronidase infusion induces proteinuria in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Meuwese; L.N. Broekhuizen; M. Kuikhoven; S. Heeneman; E. Lutgens; M.J.J. Gijbels; M. Nieuwdorp; C.J. Peutz; E.S.G. Stroes; H. Vink; B.M. van den Berg

    2010-01-01

    Functional studies show that disruption of endothelial surface layer (ESL) is accompanied by enhanced sensitivity of the vasculature towards atherogenic stimuli. However, relevance of ESL disruption as causal mechanism for vascular dysfunction remains to be demonstrated. We examined if loss of ESL t

  3. Macrophage p53 controls macrophage death in atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.S.M.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Nieuwkoop, A. van; Hu, L.; Teunisse, A.F.A.S.; Jochemsen, A.G.; Evers, B.; Water, B. van de; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Havekes, L.M.; Winther, M.P.J. de

    2009-01-01

    The cellular composition of atherosclerotic lesions is determined by many factors including cell infiltration, proliferation and cell death. Tumor suppressor gene p53 has been shown to regulate both cell proliferation and cell death in many cell types. In the present study, we investigated the role

  4. Nitro-fatty acids reduce atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolph, T.K.; Rudolph, V.; Edreira, M.M.; Cole, M.P.; Bonacci, G.; Schopfer, F.J.; Woodcock, S.R.; Franek, A.; Pekarová, Michaela; Khoo, N.K.H.; Hasty, A.H.; Baldus, S.; Freeman, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2010), s. 938-945. ISSN 1079-5642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : nitro-fatty acids * atherosclerosis * foam cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 7.215, year: 2010

  5. Apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice mode for hypolipidaemic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Pearce, N.J.; Bergö, M.; Staels, B.; Yates, J.W.; Gribble, A.D.; Bond, B.C.; Hofker, M H; Havekes, L. M.; Groot, P H E

    1998-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice with impaired chylomicron and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) remnant metabolism display hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. In the present study, these mice were used for testing the hypolipidaemic effect of two marketed agents, lovastatin (CAS 75330-75-5) and gemfibrozil (CAS 25812-30-0) as well as a novel compound, SB 204990 (the 5- ring lactone of ±(3R*,5S*) 3-carboxy-11-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,5- dihydroxyundecanoic acid, CAS 154566-12-8), a poten...

  6. Antiatherogenic effects of oleanolic acid in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels Henrik; Hansson, Nicolaj Christopher; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia;

    2011-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) is a plant triterpenoid steroid with potentially antiatherogenic properties. We investigated whether OA affected atherosclerosis development and vascular function in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high cholesterol Western-type diet in...... combination with OA (100 mg/kg/day), fluvastatin (5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, with wild type (WT) mice serving as controls. After 8 weeks of treatment atherosclerotic plaque areas in the aortic arch and plasma lipid concentrations were determined. Vasoconstriction and relaxation of the proximal part of aorta...... were investigated in vitro. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was visualized using immunoblotting. As opposed to WT and fluvastatin- and vehicle-treated mice, OA-fed ApoE(-/-) mice gained no weight during the treatment period. Plasma concentrations of total-cholesterol and triglyceride were not...

  7. Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression by 9-cis-β-Carotene Rich Alga Dunaliella in apoE-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Harari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. β-Carotene-rich diet has been shown to be inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. However, clinical trials using synthetic all-trans-β-carotene failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect. We therefore sought to study the effect of natural source of β-carotene, the alga Dunaliella, containing both all-trans and 9-cis-β-carotene on atherosclerosis. In a previous study we showed that 9-cis-β-carotene-rich powder of the alga Dunaliella inhibits early atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice. Aims. The aims of the current work were to study whether diet enriched with Dunaliella powder would inhibit the progression of established atherosclerosis in old male apoE-deficient mice and to compare the effect of Dunaliella on lipid profile and atherosclerosis in a low-versus high-fat diet fed mice. Methods. In the first experiment, young mice (12 weeks old were allocated into 3 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella powder (8%; (3 low-fat diet + β-carotene-deficient Dunaliella. In the second experiment, old mice (7 months old with established atherosclerotic lesions were allocated into 4 groups: (1 low-fat diet; (2 low-fat diet + Dunaliella; (3 high fat-diet; (4 high-fat diet + Dunaliella. Results. In young mice fed a low-fat diet, a trend toward lower atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic sinus was found in the Dunaliella group compared with the control group. In old mice with established atherosclerotic lesion, Dunaliella inhibited significantly plasma cholesterol elevation and atherosclerosis progression in mice fed a high-fat diet. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that a diet containing natural carotenoids, rich in 9-cis-β-carotene, has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis progression, particularly in high-fat diet regime.

  8. RhoE deficiency produces postnatal lethality, profound motor deficits and neurodevelopmental delay in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Mocholí

    Full Text Available Rnd proteins are a subfamily of Rho GTPases involved in the control of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and other cell functions such as motility, proliferation and survival. Unlike other members of the Rho family, Rnd proteins lack GTPase activity and therefore remain constitutively active. We have recently described that RhoE/Rnd3 is expressed in the Central Nervous System and that it has a role in promoting neurite formation. Despite their possible relevance during development, the role of Rnd proteins in vivo is not known. To get insight into the in vivo function of RhoE we have generated mice lacking RhoE expression by an exon trapping cassette. RhoE null mice (RhoE gt/gt are smaller at birth, display growth retardation and early postnatal death since only half of RhoE gt/gt mice survive beyond postnatal day (PD 15 and 100% are dead by PD 29. RhoE gt/gt mice show an abnormal body position with profound motor impairment and impaired performance in most neurobehavioral tests. Null mutant mice are hypoactive, show an immature locomotor pattern and display a significant delay in the appearance of the hindlimb mature responses. Moreover, they perform worse than the control littermates in the wire suspension, vertical climbing and clinging, righting reflex and negative geotaxis tests. Also, RhoE ablation results in a delay of neuromuscular maturation and in a reduction in the number of spinal motor neurons. Finally, RhoE gt/gt mice lack the common peroneal nerve and, consequently, show a complete atrophy of the target muscles. This is the first model to study the in vivo functions of a member of the Rnd subfamily of proteins, revealing the important role of Rnd3/RhoE in the normal development and suggesting the possible involvement of this protein in neurological disorders.

  9. Clopidogrel significantly lowers the development of atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Christian; Gebhardt, Julia; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Jacobi, Johannes; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2016-05-01

    The anti-platelet drug clopidogrel has been shown to modulate adhesion molecule and cytokine expression, both playing an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of clopidogrel on the development and progression of atherosclerosis. ApoE(-/-) mice fed an atherogenic diet (cholesterol: 1 %) for 6 months received a daily dose of clopidogrel (1 mg/kg) by i.p. injection. Anti-platelet treatment was started immediately in one experimental group, and in another group clopidogrel was started 2 month after beginning of the atherogenic diet. Blood was analysed at days 30, 60 and 120 to monitor the lipid profile. After 6 months the aortic arch and brachiocephalic artery were analysed by Sudan IV staining for plaque size and by morphometry for luminal occlusion. Serum levels of various adhesion molecules were investigated by ELISA and the cellular infiltrate was analysed by immunofluorescence. After daily treatment with 1 mg/kg clopidogrel mice showed a significant reduction of atherosclerotic lesions in the thoracic aorta and within cross sections of the aortic arch [plaque formation 55.2 % (clopidogrel/start) vs. 76.5 % (untreated control) n = 8, P delay the development and progression of 'de-novo' atherosclerosis. However, once atherosclerotic lesions were already present, anti-platelet treatment alone did not result in reverse remodelling of these lesions. PMID:26062773

  10. Overexpression of apolipoprotein AII in transgenic mice converts high density lipoproteins to proinflammatory particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Castellani, L W; Navab, M; Van Lenten, B J; Hedrick, C. C.; Hama, S Y; Goto, A M; Fogelman, A M; Lusis, A J

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies showed that transgenic mice overexpressing either apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) or apolipoprotein AII (apoAII), the major proteins of HDL, exhibited elevated levels of HDL cholesterol, but, whereas the apoAI-transgenic mice were protected against atherosclerosis, the apoAII-transgenic mice had increased lesion development. We now examine the basis for this striking functional heterogeneity. HDL from apoAI transgenics exhibited an enhanced ability to promote cholesterol efflux fro...

  11. Abolished synthesis of cholic acid reduces atherosclerotic development in apolipoprotein E knockout mice[S

    OpenAIRE

    Slätis, Katharina; Gåfvels, Mats; Kannisto, Kristina; Ovchinnikova, Olga; Paulsson-Berne, Gabrielle; Parini, Paolo; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Eggertsen, Gösta

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of abolished cholic acid (CA) synthesis in the ApoE knockout model [apolipoprotein E (apoE) KO],a double-knockout (DKO) mouse model was created by crossbreeding Cyp8b1 knockout mice (Cyp8b1 KO), unable to synthesize the primary bile acid CA, with apoE KO mice. After 5 months of cholesterol feeding, the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the proximal aorta was 50% less in the DKO mice compared with the apoE KO mice. This effect was associated with reduced inte...

  12. Differential susceptibity of transgenic mice lacking one or both apolipoprotein alleles to folate and vitamin E deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Thomas B; Ortiz, Daniela; Rogers, Eugene

    2004-06-01

    The E4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is associated with neurodegeneration in part due to increased oxidative stress. Transgenic mice lacking ApoE (-/-) represent a model for the consequences of deficiencies in ApoE function. Dietary deficiency in folate and vitamin E has previously been shown to potentiate the impact of ApoE deficiency; ApoE-/- mice deprived of folate and vitamin E for 1 month demonstrated increased oxidative damage in brain tissue and impaired cognitive performance as compared to ApoE+/+ mice. Since individuals homozygous for E4 can demonstrate more increased risk for neurodegeneration and an earlier age of onset than individuals heterozygous for E4, we tested the impact of folate and vitamin E deprivation on ApoE+/- mice. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in brain tissue of ApoE+/- were significantly increased compared to ApoE+/+ mice, but this increase was less than that observed in ApoE-/- mice. By contrast, livers of ApoE+/- and -/- mice displayed an identical increase over that of +/+ mice. ApoE-/- mice, but not +/- or +/+ mice, exhibited impaired cognitive performance in maze trials when deprived of folate and vitamin E. These findings support the notion that homozygous deficiency of ApoE function can be more severe than heterozygous deficiency. They further suggest that the impact of partial deficiency in ApoE function may present a latent risk that may manifest only when compounded by other factors such as dietary deficiency. PMID:15201481

  13. Vitamin E deficiency enhances pulmonary inflammatory response and oxidative stress induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes in C57BL/6 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mice to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) induces an unusually robust pulmonary inflammatory response with an early onset of fibrosis, which is accompanied by oxidative stress and antioxidant depletion. The role of specific components of the antioxidant protective system, specifically vitamin E, the major lipid-soluble antioxidant, in the SWCNT-induced reactions has not been characterized. We used C57BL/6 mice, maintained on vitamin E-sufficient or vitamin E-deficient diets, to explore and compare the pulmonary inflammatory reactions to aspired SWCNTs. The vitamin E-deficient diet caused a 90-fold depletion of α-tocopherol in the lung tissue and resulted in a significant decline of other antioxidants (GSH, ascorbate) as well as accumulation of lipid peroxidation products. A greater decrease of pulmonary antioxidants was detected in SWCNT-treated vitamin E-deficient mice as compared to controls. Lowered levels of antioxidants in vitamin E-deficient mice were associated with a higher sensitivity to SWCNT-induced acute inflammation (total number of inflammatory cells, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, released LDH, total protein content and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6) and enhanced profibrotic responses (elevation of TGF-β and collagen deposition). Exposure to SWCNTs markedly shifted the ratio of cleaved to full-length extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD). Given that pulmonary levels of vitamin E can be manipulated through diet, its effects on SWCNT-induced inflammation may be of practical importance in optimizing protective strategies

  14. Reduced atherosclerosis and inflammatory cytokines in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice lacking bone marrow-derived interleukin-1alpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamari, Y.; Shaish, A.; Shemesh, S.; Vax, E.; Grosskopf, I.; Dotan, S.; White, M.; Voronov, E.; Dinarello, C.A.; Apte, R.N.; Harats, D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-1beta are products of macrophages, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells; moreover, each of these cell types is affected by the pro-inflammatory properties of both IL-1's. Whereas several studies demonstrate the proatherogenic properties of IL-1

  15. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R.; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe−/− mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe−/− mice s...

  16. Fucoidan alleviates high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE(shl) mice deficient in apolipoprotein E expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Takashi; Nomura, Koichi; Nagashima, Mikio; Kamimura, Naomi

    2016-06-01

    Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, possesses many biological activities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of fucoidan on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE(shl) mice) and to elucidate its molecular targets in the liver by using a transcriptomic approach. For 12weeks, ApoE(shl) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with either 1% or 5% fucoidan. Fucoidan supplementation significantly reduced tissue weight (liver and white adipose tissue), blood lipid, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and glucose levels in HFD-fed ApoE(shl) mice but increased plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and HDL-C levels. Fucoidan also reduced hepatic steatosis levels (liver size, TC and TG levels, and lipid peroxidation) and increased white adipose tissue LPL activity. DNA microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated differential expression of genes encoding proteins involved in lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, by activating Ppara and inactivating Srebf1. Fucoidan supplementation markedly reduced the thickness of the lipid-rich plaque, lipid peroxidation and foaming macrophage accumulation in the aorta in HFD-fed ApoE(shl) mice. Thus, fucoidan supplementation appears to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects by inducing LPL activity and inhibiting the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress in HFD-fed ApoE(shl) mice. PMID:27142736

  17. Additive effects of lupin protein and phytic acid on aortic calcification in ApoE deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schutkowski

    2015-03-01

    A two-factorial study with ApoE knockout mice was conducted in which mice received lupin protein isolate or casein with or without phytase. Phytic acid was added to the casein diets to a final concentration identical to the lupin protein diets. Here we show that the serum concentrations of cholesterol, lathosterol and desmosterol were lower and the faecal bile acid excretion was higher in the groups fed lupin proteins than in the groups fed casein (p < 0.05. Mice that received the lupin protein diet containing phytic acid were characterized by a lower aortic calcification than mice of the other three groups (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our results show that the cholesterol lowering properties of lupin protein isolate were not caused by phytic acid. However, the hypocalcific action of lupin proteins appears to depend on the combination of lupin proteins and phytic acid.

  18. Darbepoetin alpha reduces oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions of apo E deficient mice in experimental renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Arend

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is very important in patients with chronic renal failure. This occurs even in mild impairment of renal function and may be related to oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The nephrectomized apo E knockout mouse is an accepted model for evaluating atherosclerosis in renal dysfunction. Erythropoietin derivates showed anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of Darbepoetin on markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions in apo E knockout mice with renal dysfunction. METHODS: Apo E knockout mice underwent unilateral (Unx, n = 20 or subtotal (Snx, n = 26 nephrectomy or sham operation (Sham, n = 16. Mice of each group were either treated with Darbepoetin or saline solution, a part of Snx mice received a tenfold higher dose of Darbepoetin. The aortic plaques were measured and morphologically characterized. Additional immunhistochemical analyses were performed on tissue samples taken from the heart and the aorta. RESULTS: Both Unx and Snx mice showed increased expression of markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. While aortic plaque size was not different, Snx mice showed advanced plaque stages when compared to Unx mice. Darbepoetin treatment elevated hematocrit and lowered Nitrotyrosin as one marker of oxidative stress, inflammation in heart and aorta, plaque stage and in the high dose even plaque cholesterol content. In contrast, there was no influence of Darbepoetin on aortic plaque size; high dose Darbepoetin treatment resulted in elevated renal serum parameters. CONCLUSION: Darbepoetin showed some protective cardiovascular effects irrespective of renal function, i.e. it improved plaque structure and reduced some signs of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation without affecting plaque size. Nevertheless, the dose dependent adverse effects must be considered as high Darbepoetin treatment

  19. Onset of obesity in carboxypeptidase E-deficient mice and effect on airway responsiveness and pulmonary responses to ozone

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Richard A.; Zhu, Ming; Hernandez, Christopher B.; Williams, Erin S.; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    When compared with lean, wild-type mice, obese Cpefat mice, 14 wk of age and older, manifest innate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to intravenous methacholine and enhanced pulmonary inflammation following acute exposure to ozone (O3). The purpose of this study was to examine the onset of these augmented pulmonary responses during the onset of obesity. Thus airway responsiveness and O3-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury were examined in 7- and 10-wk-old Cpefat and age-matched, wild-ty...

  20. Vitamin E-deficiency did not exacerbate partial skin reactions in mice locally irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously showed that free radicals and oxidative stress are involved in radiation-induced skin reactions. Since vitamin E (VE) is a particularly important lipophilic antioxidant, VE-deficient mice were used to examine its effects on radiation-induced skin damage. The VE content of the skin was reduced to one fourth of levels of normal mice. Neither the time of onset nor the extent of the reactions quantified with a scoring system differed between normal and VE-deficient mice after local X-irradiation (50 Gy). Similarly, there was no difference in the levels of the ascorbyl radical between the groups, although they were higher in irradiated skin than non-irradiated skin. X-irradiation increased the amount of Bax protein in the skin of normal mice both in the latent and acute inflammatory stages, time- and dose-dependently. The increase was associated with an increase in cytochrome c in the cytosolic fraction, indicating that apoptosis was also promoted by the irradiation. The increase in Bax protein correlated well with the thickness of the skin. Although a deficiency in VE should lower resistance to free radicals in the mitochondrial membrane and thus enhance radiation-induced Bax expression and apoptosis, it actually attenuated the increase in Bax protein caused by irradiation. (author)

  1. Vitamin A-Deficient Diet Accelerated Atherogenesis in Apolipoprotein E−/− Mice and Dietary β-Carotene Prevents This Consequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Zolberg Relevy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A is involved in regulation of glucose concentrations, lipid metabolism, and inflammation, which are major risk factors for atherogenesis. However, the effect of vitamin A deficiency on atherogenesis has not been investigated. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to examine whether vitamin A deficiency accelerates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apoE−/−. ApoE−/− mice were allocated into the following groups: control, fed vitamin A-containing chow diet; BC, fed chow diet fortified with Dunaliella powder containing βc isomers; VAD, fed vitamin A-deficient diet; and VAD-BC group, fed vitamin A-deficient diet fortified with a Dunaliella powder. Following 15 weeks of treatment, liver retinol concentration had decreased significantly in the VAD group to about 30% that of control group. Vitamin A-deficient diet significantly increased both plasma cholesterol concentrations and the atherosclerotic lesion area at the aortic sinus (+61% compared to the control group. Dietary βc fortification inhibited the elevation in plasma cholesterol and retarded atherogenesis in mice fed the vitamin A-deficient diet. The results imply that dietary vitamin A deficiency should be examined as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and that dietary βc, as a sole source of retinoids, can compensate for vitamin A deficiency.

  2. FTY720 Attenuates Acute Pancreatitis in Hypertriglyceridemic Apolipoprotein CIII Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjiao; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Ling; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Wang, Yunan; Wang, Mengyu; Gao, Mingming; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George

    2015-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP) is often encountered clinically as a common form of recurrent acute pancreatitis (AP). It is important to evaluate the management of severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) or anti-inflammation in the prophylaxis of HTGP in the clinic. FTY720 (2-amino-2[2-(4-octylphenyl) ethyl]-1, 3-propanediol) is a new anti-inflammatory agent with low toxicity and reported to ameliorate lung injury with pancreatitis in rat. We evaluated its protective affection on AP induced by seven hourly intraperitoneal injection of cerulein in apolipoprotein CIII transgenic mice with severe HTG. FTY720 at 1.5 mg/kg was administered by gastric lavage daily for 3 days before induction of AP. The effects of FTY720 to protect against HTGP were assessed by serum amylase, pancreatic pathological scores, immunostaining, and the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes. As a result, injection of cerulein resulted in more severe pathological changes of AP and higher monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 expression in the pancreas in transgenic than in nontransgenic mice. FTY720 pretreatment improved the pathological severity of AP and decreased the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in the pancreas significantly, especially near fourfold reduction in transgenic mice. However, FTY720 did not affect plasma triglyceride levels, and other inflammatory factors and plasma amylase were not correlated with the extent of pancreatic damage in AP with or without FTY720 administration. In summary, our study in a new model, apolipoprotein CIII transgenic mice, demonstrated that HTG mice are susceptible to induction of AP. Prophylactic treatment of FTY720 can significantly attenuate cerulein-induced AP and hence warrant further investigation of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors agonist for potential clinical application in recurrent attacks of HTGP. PMID:25944794

  3. Mechanism of lipid lowering in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Bauge, Eric; Niculescu, Loredan-Stefan; Pham, Tatiana; Thomas, Benoit; Rommens, Corinne; Majd, Zouher; Brewer, Bryan; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-01-15

    Recently, we reported that apoAV plays key role in triglycerides lowering. Here, we attempted to determine the mechanism underlying this hypotriglyceridemic effect. We showed that triglyceride turnover is faster in hAPOA5 transgenic compared to wild type mice. Moreover, both apoB and apoCIII are decreased and LPL activity is increased in postheparin plasma of hAPOA5 transgenic mice. These data suggest a decrease in size and number of VLDL. To further investigate the mechanism of hAPOA5 in hyperlipidemic background, we intercrossed hAPOA5 and hAPOC3 transgenic mice. The effect resulted in a marked decreased of VLDL triglyceride, cholesterol, apolipoproteins B and CIII. In postprandial state, the triglyceride response is abolished in hAPOA5 transgenic mice. We demonstrated that in response to the fat load in hAPOA5XhAPOC3 mice, apoAV shifted from HDL to VLDL, probably to limit the elevation of triglycerides. In vitro, apoAV activates lipoprotein lipase. However, apoAV does not interact with LPL but interacts physically with apoCIII. This interaction does not seem to displace apoCIII from VLDL but may induce conformational change in apoCIII and consequently change in its function leading the activation of lipoprotein lipase.

  4. Vitamin D Deficiency and Exogenous Vitamin D Excess Similarly Increase Diffuse Atherosclerotic Calcification in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ellam, Timothy; Hameed, Abdul; ul Haque, Risat; Muthana, Munitta; Wilkie, Martin; Francis, Sheila E.; Chico, Timothy J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Observational data associate lower levels of serum vitamin D with coronary artery calcification, cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there is little interventional evidence demonstrating that moderate vitamin D deficiency plays a causative role in cardiovascular disease. This study examined the cardiovascular effects of dietary vitamin D deficiency and of vitamin D receptor agonist (paricalcitol) administration in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Methods Mice were fed athe...

  5. Apolipoprotein E Regulates the Integrity of Tight Junctions in an Isoform-dependent Manner in an in Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model*

    OpenAIRE

    Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Hosono, Takashi; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Bu, Guojun; Michikawa, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major apolipoprotein in the brain. The ϵ4 allele of apoE is a major risk factor for Alzheimer disease, and apoE deficiency in mice leads to blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. However, the effect of apoE isoforms on BBB properties are as yet unknown. Here, using an in vitro BBB model consisting of brain endothelial cells and pericytes prepared from wild-type (WT) mice, and primary astrocytes prepared from human apoE3- and apoE4-knock-in mice, we show that the barri...

  6. Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were f...

  7. Apolipoprotein A5: A newly identified gene impacting plasmatriglyceride levels in humans and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2002-09-15

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is a newly described member of theapolipoprotein gene family whose initial discovery arose from comparativesequence analysis of the mammalian APOA1/C3/A4 gene cluster. Functionalstudies in mice indicated that alteration in the level of APOA5significantly impacted plasma triglyceride concentrations. Miceover-expressing human APOA5 displayed significantly reducedtriglycerides, while mice lacking apoA5 had a large increase in thislipid parameter. Studies in humans have also suggested an important rolefor APOA5 in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations. In theseexperiments, polymorphisms in the human gene were found to define severalcommon haplotypes that were associated with significant changes intriglyceride concentrations in multiple populations. Several separateclinical studies have provided consistent and strong support for theeffect with 24 percent of Caucasians, 35 percent of African-Americans and53 percent of Hispanics carrying APOA5 haplotypes associated withincreased plasma triglyceride levels. In summary, APOA5 represents anewly discovered gene involved in triglyceride metabolism in both humansand mice whose mechanism of action remains to be deciphered.

  8. Recombinant human erythropoietin suppresses endothelial cell apoptosis and reduces the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 proteins in the aortas of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, Jeffrey S.; Zhao, Ying; Yung, Raymond; Desai, Anjali

    2011-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have raised concern that therapy with recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) may increase cardiovascular disease risk, event rate, and mortality. Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis has been implicated in both atherogenesis as well as in the destabilization and rupture of atheromatous plaques.

  9. Blue-Green Algae Inhibit the Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Wegner, Casey J; Park, Young-Ki; Balunas, Marcy; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia and inflammation contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective was to determine antiatherogenic effect of edible blue-green algae (BGA) species, that is, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Kützing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP), in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice, a well-established mouse model of atherosclerosis. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC, 15% fat and 0.2% cholesterol by wt) control diet or a HF/HC diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) of NO or SP powder for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured, and livers were analyzed for histology and gene expression. Morphometric analysis for lesions and immunohistochemical analysis for CD68 were conducted in the aorta and the aortic root. NO supplementation significantly decreased plasma TC and TG, and liver TC, compared to control and SP groups. In the livers of NO-fed mice, less lipid droplets were present with a concomitant decrease in fatty acid synthase protein levels than the other groups. There was a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein levels in SP-supplemented mice than in control and NO groups. Quantification of aortic lesions by en face analysis demonstrated that both NO and SP decreased aortic lesion development to a similar degree compared with control. While lesions in the aortic root were not significantly different between groups, the CD68-stained area in the aortic root was significantly lowered in BGA-fed mice than controls. In conclusion, both NO and SP supplementation decreased the development of atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that they may be used as a natural product for atheroprotection. PMID:26566121

  10. Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 Prevents Atherosclerosis via Inhibition of Intestinal Cholesterol Absorption in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying; WANG, Jinfeng; Quan, Guihua; Wang, Xiaojun; Yang, Longfei; Zhong, Lili

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Eight-week-old ApoE−/− mice were fed a Western diet with or without L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 daily for 16 weeks. L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 protected ApoE−/− mice from atherosclerosis by reducing their plasma cholesterol levels from 923 ± 44 to 581 ± 18 mg/dl, likely via a marked decrease in cholesterol absorption cau...

  11. Apolipoprotein E-specific innate immune response in astrocytes from targeted replacement mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montine Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inheritance of the three different alleles of the human apolipoprotein (apo E gene (APOE are associated with varying risk or clinical outcome from a variety of neurologic diseases. ApoE isoform-specific modulation of several pathogenic processes, in addition to amyloid β metabolism in Alzheimer's disease, have been proposed: one of these is innate immune response by glia. Previously we have shown that primary microglia cultures from targeted replacement (TR APOE mice have apoE isoform-dependent innate immune activation and paracrine damage to neurons that is greatest with TR by the ε4 allele (TR APOE4 and that derives from p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK activity. Methods Primary cultures of TR APOE2, TR APOE3 and TR APOE4 astrocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. ApoE secretion, cytokine production, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB subunit activity were measured and compared. Results Here we showed that activation of primary astrocytes from TR APOE mice with LPS led to TR APOE-dependent differences in cytokine secretion that were greatest in TR APOE2 and that were associated with differences in NF-κB subunit activity. Conclusion Our results suggest that LPS activation of innate immune response in TR APOE glia results in opposing outcomes from microglia and astrocytes as a result of TR APOE-dependent activation of p38MAPK or NF-κB signaling in these two cell types.

  12. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinmetz, Martin, E-mail: martin.steinmetz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Bonn, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Ponnuswamy, Padmapriya; Laurans, Ludivine; Esposito, Bruno; Tedgui, Alain [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Mallat, Ziad [INSERM, Unit 970, Paris Cardiovascular Research Center, 75015 Paris (France); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 2QQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-14

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 10{sup 7} OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen

  13. The intravenous injection of oxidized LDL- or Apolipoprotein B100 – Coupled splenocytes promotes Th1 polarization in wildtype and Apolipoprotein E – Deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Th1 responses in atherosclerosis are mainly associated with the aggravation of atherosclerotic plaques, whereas Th2 responses lead to a less pronounced disease in mouse models. The fixation of antigens on cells by means of ethylene carbodiimide (ECDI), and subsequent injection of these antigen-coupled splenocytes (Ag-SP) to induce tolerance against the attached antigens, has been successfully used to treat murine type 1 diabetes or encephalomyelitis in. We analyzed this approach in a mouse model for atherosclerosis. Methods and results: OTII-transgenic mice that were treated with a single dose of 5 × 107 OVA-coupled splenocytes (OVA-SP), had decreased splenocyte proliferation, and lower IFNγ production in vitro upon antigen recall. However, in vivo CD4 cell activation was increased. To try lipoprotein-derived, “atherosclerosis-associated” antigens, we first tested human oxidized LDL. In wild type mice, an increase of IFNγ production upon in vitro recall was detected in the oxLDL-SP group. In Apolipoprotein E − deficient (ApoE−/−) mice that received oxLDL-SP every 5 weeks for 20 weeks, we did not find any difference of atherosclerotic plaque burden, but again increased IFNγ production. To overcome xenogenous limitations, we then examined the effects of mouse Apolipoprotein B100 peptides P3 and P6. ApoB100-SP treatment again promoted a more IFNγ pronounced response upon in vitro recall. Flow cytometry analysis of cytokine secreting spleen cells revealed CD4 positive T cells to be mainly the source for IFNγ. In ApoE−/− mice that were administered ApoB100-SP during 20 weeks, the atherosclerotic plaque burden in aortic roots as well as total aorta was unchanged compared to PBS treated controls. Splenocyte proliferation upon antigen recall was not significantly altered in ApoB100-SP treated ApoE−/− mice. Conclusion: Although we did not observe a relevant anti-atherosclerotic benefit, the treatment with antigen-coupled splenocytes

  14. Hydrogen sulfide regulates vascular endoplasmic reticulum stress in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-fang; ZHAO Bin; TANG Xiu-ying; LI Wei; ZHU Lu-lu; TANG Chao-shu; DU Jun-bao; JIN Hong-fang

    2011-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is an important cardiovascular disease,becoming a major and increasing health problem in developed countries.However,the possible underlying mechanisms were not completely clear.In 2009,our research group first discovered that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a novel gastrotransmitter played an important anti-atherosclerotic role.The study was designed to examine the regulatory effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice fed a Western type diet.Methods C57BL/6 mice and homozygous apoE(-/-) mice were fed a Western type diet.C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with normal saline (5 ml/kg per day) as control group.The apoE+ mice were treated with the same dose of normal saline as the apoE(-/-) group,injected intraperitoneally with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS,an H2S donor,56μmol/kg per day) as the apoE(-/-)+NaHS group and injected intraperitoneally with DL-propargylglycine (PPG,a cystathionine-y-lyase inhibitor,50 mg/kg,per day) as the apoE/ +PPG group.After 10 weeks,the mice were sacrificed and the plasma lipids were detected.Sections of aortic root from these animals were examined for atherosclerotic lesions by HE and oil red O staining.The aortic ultrastructure and microstructure were analyzed with the help of light and electronic microscope.Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78),caspase-12,copper-andzinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) and Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein expression in aortic tissues were detected with immunohistochemistry.The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by using a commercial assay kit.Results Compared with control mice,apoE(-/-) mice showed increased plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL),decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL),increased aortic plaque size,destroyed ultra-structure of aortic tissue,and increased expression of GRP

  15. Susceptibility of Mice to Trypanosoma evansi Treated with Human Plasma Containing Different Concentrations of Apolipoprotein L-1

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Fanfa, Vinicius R.; Otto, Mateus A.; Gressler, Lucas T.; Tavares, Kaio C.S.; Lazzarotto, Cícera R.; Alexandre A Tonin; Miletti, Luiz C.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Silvia G. Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of mice to Trypanosoma evansi treated with human plasma containing different concentrations of apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1). For this experiment, a strain of T. evansi and human plasma (plasmas 1, 2, and 3) from 3 adult males clinically healthy were used. In vivo test used 50 mice divided in 5 groups (A to E) with 10 animals in each group. Animals of groups B to E were infected, and then treated with 0.2 ml of human plasma in the following ou...

  16. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Liaocheng People’s Hospital of Shandong University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252000 (China); Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com [Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lin, Huili [Cardiovascular Department, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lei, Zhenmin [Department of OB/GYN, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei [The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Li, Rongda [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lin, Ling, E-mail: qzlinl@163.com [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, The Second Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.

  17. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE−/− and Fas−/− mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE−/− and Fas−/− mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE−/− and Fas−/− mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE−/− mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE−/− mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE−/− mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE−/−, Fas−/− and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas−/− mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE−/− mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE−/− mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE−/− mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

  18. Quercetin stabilizes apolipoprotein E and reduces brain Aβ levels in amyloid model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xilin; Hu, Jin; Zhong, Li; Wang, Na; Yang, Longyu; Liu, Chia-Chen; Li, Huifang; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Yunwu; Xu, Huaxi; Bu, Guojun; Zhuang, Jiangxing

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major cholesterol carrier that regulates lipid homeostasis by mediating lipid transport from one tissue or cell type to another. In the central neural system (CNS), apoE is mainly produced by astrocytes, and transports cholesterol to neurons via apoE receptors, which are members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family. The APOEε4 gene is a strong genetic risk factor for late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), likely through its strong effect on the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. ApoE protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma are reduced in APOEε4 carriers and in patients with AD. Furthermore, altered cholesterol levels are also associated with the risk of AD. Aβ accumulation, oligomerization and deposition in the brain are central to the pathogenesis of AD. Mounting evidence demonstrates that apoE and apoE receptors play important roles in these processes. Astrocyte-derived apoE is pivotal for cerebral cholesterol metabolism and clearance of Aβ. Thus, we hypothesized that increased apoE in the brain may be an effective therapeutic strategy for AD. We report here that quercetin can significantly increase apoE levels by inhibiting apoE degradation in immortalized astrocytes. Importantly, we show that oral administration of quercetin significantly increased brain apoE and reduced insoluble Aβ levels in the cortex of 5xFAD amyloid model mice. Our results demonstrate that quercetin increases apoE levels through a novel mechanism and can be explored as a novel class of drug for AD therapy. PMID:27114256

  19. Smooth muscle cells healing atherosclerotic plaque disruptions are of local, not blood, origin in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon, Jacob F; Sondergaard, Claus S; Kassem, Mustafa;

    2007-01-01

    circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells. Here, we analyzed the contribution of this mechanism to plaque healing after spontaneous and mechanical plaque disruption in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine the origin of SMCs after spontaneous plaque disruption......GFP+ SMCs were detected. To examine the origin of healing SMCs in a model that recapitulates more features of human plaque rupture and healing, we developed a mechanical technique that produced consistent plaque disruption, superimposed thrombosis, and SMC-mediated plaque healing in apoE-/- mice. Mechanical...... originating from outside the local arterial segment were detected in healed plaques. CONCLUSIONS: Healing SMCs after atherosclerotic plaque disruption are derived entirely from the local arterial wall and not circulating progenitor cells in apoE-/- mice. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct-30...

  20. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Guan; Yan Lin; Liang Bai; Yingfeng An; Jianan Shang; Zhao Wang; Sihai Zhao; Jianglin Fan; Enqi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a ...

  1. Arginase activities and global arginine bioavailability in wild-type and ApoE-deficient mice: responses to high fat and high cholesterol diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Erdely

    Full Text Available Increased catabolism of arginine by arginase is increasingly viewed as an important pathophysiological factor in cardiovascular disease, including atherosclerosis induced by high cholesterol diets. Whereas previous studies have focused primarily on effects of high cholesterol diets on arginase expression and arginine metabolism in specific blood vessels, there is no information regarding the impact of lipid diets on arginase activity or arginine bioavailability at a systemic level. We, therefore, evaluated the effects of high fat (HF and high fat-high cholesterol (HC diets on arginase activity in plasma and tissues and on global arginine bioavailability (defined as the ratio of plasma arginine to ornithine + citrulline in apoE(-/- and wild-type C57BL/6J mice. HC and HF diets led to reduced global arginine bioavailability in both strains. The HC diet resulted in significantly elevated plasma arginase in both strains, but the HF diet increased plasma arginase only in apoE(-/- mice. Elevated plasma arginase activity correlated closely with increased alanine aminotransferase levels, indicating that liver damage was primarily responsible for elevated plasma arginase. The HC diet, which promotes atherogenesis, also resulted in increased arginase activity and expression of the type II isozyme of arginase in multiple tissues of apoE(-/- mice only. These results raise the possibility that systemic changes in arginase activity and global arginine bioavailability may be contributing factors in the initiation and/or progression of cardiovascular disease.

  2. Late inflammatory and thrombotic changes in irradiated hearts of C57BL/6 wild-type and atherosclerosis-prone ApoE-deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patties, I.; Glasow, A. [University of Leipzig, Department of Radiation Therapy, Leipzig (Germany); Haagen, J. [University of Technology, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [University of Technology, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany); CCC, Medical University/AKH, Department of Radiation Oncology and Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiooncology, Vienna (Austria); Hildebrandt, G. [University of Rostock, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Rostock (Germany)

    2014-09-09

    Radiation-induced heart disease represents a late complication of thoracic radiotherapy. We investigated the inflammatory and thrombotic response after local heart irradiation in wild-type and atherosclerosis-prone mice. Atherosclerosis-prone ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 wild-type mice were sacrificed 20, 40, and 60 weeks after irradiation with 0.2, 2, 8, or 16 Gy. The expression of CD31, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), thrombomodulin (TM), and CD45 were quantified by immunofluorescence staining of heart tissue sections. Microvascular density decreased at 40 weeks after 16 Gy in C57BL/6 but not in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. CD31 expression declined in C57BL/6 mice at 40 weeks (8 Gy), but increased in ApoE{sup -/-} mice at 20 (2/8/16 Gy) and 60 weeks (16 Gy). Capillary area decreased in C57BL/6 at 40 weeks (8/16 Gy) but increased in ApoE{sup -/-} mice at 20 weeks (16 Gy). Endocardial VCAM-1 expression remained unchanged. TM-positive capillaries decreased at 40 weeks (8/16 Gy) in C57BL/6 and at 60 weeks (2/16 Gy) in ApoE{sup -/-} mice. Leukocyte infiltration transiently rose 40 weeks after 8 Gy (only ApoE{sup -/-}) and 16 Gy. After receiving a low irradiation dose of 0.2 Gy, no significant changes were observed in any of the mouse models. This study demonstrated that local heart irradiation affects microvascular structure and induces inflammatory/thrombotic responses in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thereby, significant prothrombotic changes were found in both strains, although they were progressive in ApoE{sup -/-} mice only. Proinflammatory responses, like the increase of adhesion molecules and leukocyte infiltration, were more pronounced and occurred at lower doses in ApoE{sup -/-} vs. C57BL/6 mice. These findings indicate that metabolic risk factors, such as decreased ApoE lipoproteins, may lead to an enhanced proinflammatory and prothrombotic late response in locally irradiated hearts. (orig.) [German] Strahlungsinduzierte kardiovaskulaere

  3. Long-Term Effects of 56Fe Irradiation on Spatial Memory of Mice: Role of Sex and Apolipoprotein E Isoform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess whether the effects of cranial 56Fe irradiation on the spatial memory of mice in the water maze are sex and apolipoprotein E (apoE) isoform dependent and whether radiation-induced changes in spatial memory are associated with changes in the dendritic marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. Methods and Materials: Two-month-old male and female mice expressing human apoE3 or apoE4 received either a 3-Gy dose of cranial 56Fe irradiation (600 MeV/amu) or sham irradiation. Mice were tested in a water maze task 13 months later to assess effects of irradiation on spatial memory retention. After behavioral testing, the brain tissues of these mice were analyzed for synaptophysin and MAP-2 immunoreactivity. Results: After irradiation, spatial memory retention of apoE3 female, but not male, mice was impaired. A general genotype deficit in spatial memory was observed in sham-irradiated apoE4 mice. Strikingly, irradiation prevented this genotype deficit in apoE4 male mice. A similar but nonsignificant trend was observed in apoE4 female mice. Although there was no change in MAP-2 immunoreactivity after irradiation, synaptophysin immunoreactivity was increased in irradiated female mice, independent of genotype. Conclusions: The effects of 56Fe irradiation on the spatial memory retention of mice are critically influenced by sex, and the direction of these effects is influenced by apoE isoform. Although in female mice synaptophysin immunoreactivity provides a sensitive marker for effects of irradiation, it cannot explain the apoE genotype-dependent effects of irradiation on the spatial memory retention of the mice.

  4. Absence of Microbiota (Germ-Free Conditions) Accelerates the Atherosclerosis in ApoE-Deficient Mice Fed Standard Low Cholesterol Diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánková, Renata; Tonar, Z.; Bártová, J.; Nedorost, L.; Rossmann, Pavel; Poledne, R.; Schwarzer, Martin; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2010), s. 796-804. ISSN 1340-3478 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9775; GA ČR GA303/08/0367; GA ČR GA305/08/0535; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Germ-free mice * Commensal bacteria * Atherogenesis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.293, year: 2010

  5. Apolipoprotein E4 reduces evoked hippocampal acetylcholine release in adult mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolejší, Eva; Liraz, O.; Rudajev, Vladimír; Zimčík, Pavel; Doležal, Vladimír; Michaelson, D. M.

    Roč. 136, č. 3 ( 2016 ), s. 503-509. ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH13269 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : acetylcholine release * Alzheimer's disease (AD) * apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) * hippocampus Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.281, year: 2014

  6. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  7. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuehai [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Huang, Ziyang, E-mail: huangziyang666@126.com [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Lu, Huixia [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Huili; Wang, Zhenhua [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Ouyang, Qiufang [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Tang, Mengxiong; Hao, Panpan [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ni, Jingqin [Cardiovascular Department, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Xu, Dongming [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhang, Qunye [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lin, Ling [Department of Rheumatism and Immunology, Second Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); and others

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-} mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen tissue. The

  8. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE−/− than C57B6/L mice. ► Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE−/− than B6 mice. ► Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE−/− than B6 mice. ► The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. ► The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE−/− mice. The spleens of all ApoE−/− and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE−/− mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE−/− mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE−/− than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE−/− spleen tissue. The down-regulation of TLR4 signal molecules induced by LPS led to decreased expression of Bax and increased serum titers of ANA and anti

  9. Oxidative Stress Impairs Learning and Memory in apoE Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Evola, Marianne; Hall, Allyson; Wall, Trevor; Young, Alice; Grammas, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors, such as oxidative stress and elevated lipids, are linked to the development of cognitive impairment. A mediator common to both stressors is the apolipoprotein E (apoE). The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of apoE deficiency and diet-induced systemic oxidative stress in mice on vascular expression of inflammatory proteins and on cognitive function. Mice are placed on a diet enriched in homocysteine for fifteen weeks and then assessed for spati...

  10. Effects of Chronic Mild Stress on the Development of Atherosclerosis and Expression of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway in Adolescent Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Gu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we investigated the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS on the development of atherosclerosis as well as the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs signaling pathway in adolescent apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/- mice. Mice were subjected to daily CMS for 0, 4, and 12 weeks, respectively. To identify the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway in adolescent apolipoprotein E knockout mice subjected to CMS, we compared gene expression in aortas of stressed and unstressed mice using TLRs signaling pathway real-time PCR microarrays consisting of 87 genes. We found that atherosclerosis lesions both in aortic tress and sinuses of CMS mice were significantly increased linearly in response to duration of CMS exposure. Among 87 genes analyzed, 15 genes were upregulated in stressed mice, especially TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, and IL-1β, and 28 genes were downregulated compared with nonstressed mice. CMS mice demonstrated markedly increased aortic atherosclerosis that were associated with significant increases in levels of expression of TLR4, MyD88, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, MCP-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, and sICAM-1. Taken together, our results suggest an important role for TLR4 signaling pathway in atherosclerosis in a CMS mouse model.

  11. Receptor-selective IL-4 mutein modulates inflammatory vascular cell phenotypes and attenuates atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanhui; Chen, Zhiheng; Kato, Seiya

    2015-08-01

    The therapeutic potential of interleukin-4-mediated immunomodulation has not been proven in atherogenesis. Type I IL-4 receptor consists of IL-4Rα and a common γ chain, whereas type II IL-4R is a heterodimer of IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα1. Reportedly, the human IL-4 mutein IL-4/R121E is able to act as an IL-4RI-specific agonist. Here, we investigated the effect of receptor-specific IL-4 mutein on vascular cell phenotypes and atherogenesis. Initially, a plasmid expressing murine IL-4/Q116E, analogous to human IL-4/R121E, was transfected to vascular lineage cells in-vitro. IL-4/Q116E induced the activation of STAT6 in b.End3 endothelial cells, Mm1 macrophages, and splenocytes isolated from C57BL6/J (B6) mice, but it failed to activate STAT6 in SMC and J774.1 macrophages. IL-4/Q116E induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 in b.End3 cells but not in SMC. IL-4/Q116E did not exhibit pro-inflammatory actions in either macrophage cell line. Splenocytes were also infected with an adenovirus vector expressing IL-4/Q116E (AdIL-4/Q116E). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for interferon-γ, IL-10 and IL-13 revealed that AdIL-4/Q116E-infected splenocytes showed Th2 deviation. Th2 deviation and M2 marker up-regulation were further revealed in ex-vivo assays using the splenocytes isolated from AdIL-4/Q116E-infected apolipoprotein-E knockout (ApoEKO) mice. Finally, adenoviral induction of IL-4/Q116E, but not wild type IL-4, double mutein IL-4/Q116D/Y119D or control β-galactosidase, significantly attenuated in-vivo atherogenesis of ApoEKO mice. Our data suggest that IL-4 signaling plays a pivotal role in the regulation of vascular cell phenotypes, and atherogenesis. The IL-4RI-selective mutein IL-4/Q116E may have therapeutic potential in vascular diseases. PMID:26093164

  12. Bovine apolipoprotein B-100 is a dominant immunogen in therapeutic cell populations cultured in fetal calf serum in mice and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Norihisa; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Muul, Linda M.; Lawler, Ann M.; Petricoin, Emanuel F.; Candotti, Fabio; Metcalf, Julia A.; Tavel, Jorge A; Lane, H. Clifford; Urba, Walter J; Fox, Bernard A.; Varki, Ajit; Lunney, Joan K; Rosenberg, Amy S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that cell populations intended for therapeutic purposes that are cultured in heterologous animal products can acquire xenoantigens, potentially limiting their utility. In investigations of the immune response to murine embryonic stem cells, we found that a strong antibody response was generated after the second infusion. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibody responses, derived from immunized mice, were found to be specific for bovine apolipoprotein B-100, wh...

  13. Human apolipoprotein E genotypes differentially modify house dust mite-induced airway disease in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Xianglan; Dai, Cuilian; Fredriksson, Karin; Lam, Jonathan; Gao, Meixia; Keeran, Karen J; Nugent, Gayle Zywicke; Qu, Xuan; Yu, Zu-Xi; Jeffries, Neal; Lin, JingPing; Kaler, Maryann; Shamburek, Robert; Costello, Rene; Csako, Gyorgy; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Remaley, Alan T; Levine, Stewart J

    2012-01-01

    reductions in lung mRNA levels of Th2 and Th17 cytokines, as well as chemokines (CCL7, CCL11, CCL24). huApoE4 mice had an intermediate phenotype, with attenuated AHR and IgE production, compared with muApoE mice, whereas airway inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia were not reduced. In contrast, HDM...

  14. Transgenic mice expressing high levels of human apolipoprotein B develop severe atherosclerotic lesions in response to a high-fat diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell-Huynh, D A; Farese, R V; Johnson, D F; Flynn, L M; Pierotti, V; Newland, D. L.; Linton, M F; Sanan, D A; Young, S G

    1995-01-01

    We previously generated transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein (apo-) B and demonstrated that the plasma of chow-fed transgenic animals contained markedly increased amounts of LDL (Linton, M. F., R. V. Farese, Jr., G. Chiesa, D. S. Grass, P. Chin, R. E. Hammer, H. H. Hobbs, and S. G. Young 1992. J. Clin. Invest. 92:3029-3037). In this study, we fed groups of transgenic and nontransgenic mice either a chow diet or a diet high in fat (16%) and cholesterol (1.25%). Lipid and lipoprotein...

  15. Murine Norovirus Infection Variably Alters Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charlie C; Paik, Jisun; Brabb, Thea L; O'Brien, Kevin D; Kim, Jinkyu; Sullivan, Brittany G; Hudkins, Kelly L; Seamons, Audrey; Finley, Jennifer C; Meeker, Stacey M; Maggio-Price, Lillian

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Murine noroviruses (MNV) are highly prevalent in research mouse colonies and infect macrophages and dendritic cells. Our laboratory found that MNV4 infection in mice lacking the LDL receptor alters the development of atherosclerosis, potentially confounding research outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether MNV4 likewise altered atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. In the presence of oxidized LDL, MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) bone marrow-derived macrophages increased the gene expression of the inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and IL6. In addition, proteins involved in cholesterol transport were altered in MNV4-infected ApoE -/- bone marrow-derived macrophages and consisted of increased CD36 and decreased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. MNV4 infection of ApoE(-/-) mice at 12 wk of age (during the development of atherosclerosis) had a variable effect on atherosclerotic lesion size. In one study, MNV4 significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque area whereas in a second study, no effect was observed. Compared with controls, MNV4-infected mice had higher circulating Ly6C-positive monocytes, and viral RNA was detected in the aortas of some mice, suggesting potential mechanisms by which MNV4 alters disease progression. Plaque size did not differ when ApoE -/- mice were infected at 4 wk of age (early during disease development) or in ApoE -/- mice maintained on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. Therefore, these data show that MNV4 has the potential to exert a variable and unpredictable effect on atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. We therefore propose that performing experiments in MNV-free mouse colonies is warranted. PMID:26473341

  16. Genetics Home Reference: ataxia with vitamin E deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions ataxia with vitamin E deficiency ataxia with vitamin E deficiency Enable Javascript to view ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is a disorder that ...

  17. Vitamin D deficiency and exogenous vitamin D excess similarly increase diffuse atherosclerotic calcification in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ellam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Observational data associate lower levels of serum vitamin D with coronary artery calcification, cardiovascular events and mortality. However, there is little interventional evidence demonstrating that moderate vitamin D deficiency plays a causative role in cardiovascular disease. This study examined the cardiovascular effects of dietary vitamin D deficiency and of vitamin D receptor agonist (paricalcitol administration in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. METHODS: Mice were fed atherogenic diets with normal vitamin D content (1.5 IU/kg or without vitamin D. Paricalcitol, or matched vehicle, was administered 3× weekly by intraperitoneal injection. Following 20 weeks of these interventions cardiovascular phenotype was characterized by histological assessment of aortic sinus atheroma, soluble markers, blood pressure and echocardiography. To place the cardiovascular assessments in the context of intervention effects on bone, structural changes at the tibia were assessed by microtomography. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficient diet induced significant reductions in plasma vitamin D (p<0.001, trabecular bone volume (p<0.01 and bone mineral density (p<0.005. These changes were accompanied by an increase in calcification density (number of calcifications per mm(2 of von Kossa-stained aortic sinus atheroma (461 versus 200, p<0.01. Paricalcitol administration suppressed parathyroid hormone (p<0.001, elevated plasma calcium phosphate product (p<0.005 and induced an increase in calcification density (472 versus 200, p<0.005 similar to that seen with vitamin D deficiency. Atheroma burden, blood pressure, metabolic profile and measures of left ventricular hypertrophy were unaffected by the interventions. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency, as well as excess, increases atherosclerotic calcification. This phenotype is induced before other measures of cardiovascular pathology associated clinically with vitamin D deficiency. Thus, maintenance of an optimal

  18. Radiation effects on membranes. I. Vitamin E deficiency and lipid peroxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice which had received a vitamin E-deficient diet from weaning on, were more sensitive to x irradiation than were normal mice, LD/sub 50/30/ being decreased by 0.25 Gy. The vitamin E-deficient mice also showed an increased spleen shrinkage. The cellular membranes of the vitamin E-deficient mice were more vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. X irradiation in vivo shortened the lag period prior to rapid lipid peroxidation as measured in vitro. Injection of the mice with glutathione prior to x irradiation protected the membranes in the in vitro test of peroxidation capacity as was demonstrated by an extended lag period. The possible meaning of these results with respect to the concept that membranes may be important sites for radiation damage is discussed

  19. Radiation effects on membranes. I. Vitamin E deficiency and lipid peroxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, A.W.T.; Drijver, E.B.

    1979-12-01

    Mice which had received a vitamin E-deficient diet from weaning on, were more sensitive to x irradiation than were normal mice, LD/sub 50/30/ being decreased by 0.25 Gy. The vitamin E-deficient mice also showed an increased spleen shrinkage. The cellular membranes of the vitamin E-deficient mice were more vulnerable to lipid peroxidation. X irradiation in vivo shortened the lag period prior to rapid lipid peroxidation as measured in vitro. Injection of the mice with glutathione prior to x irradiation protected the membranes in the in vitro test of peroxidation capacity as was demonstrated by an extended lag period. The possible meaning of these results with respect to the concept that membranes may be important sites for radiation damage is discussed.

  20. Expression of human apolipoprotein A-I in transgenic mice results in reduced plasma levels of murine apolipoprotein A-I and the appearance of two new high density lipoprotein size subclasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Western societies high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels correlate inversely with the risk for coronary heart disease. The primary protein component of both human and mouse HDL is apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI), which comprises >70% of HDL protein and 30% of HDL mass. Human HDLs include particles of several distinct size subpopulations, wheras HDLs from inbred C57BL/6 mice contain a single population of particles. To study the regulation of apoAI expression and its role in HDL assembly, we created transgenic C57BL/6 mice containing the human apoAI gene. Two independent lines of transgenic mice with approximately twice the normal plasma levels of total apoAI were studied. The level of mouse apoAI is reduced >4-fold in both transgenic lines, comprising only 4% of total plasma apoAI levels in one transgenic line and 13% in the other. The authors demonstrate that the mechanism responsible for the decrease in mouse apoAI is posttranscriptional. Parallel to the replacement of mouse with human apoAI, the single HDL species normally present in the plasma of C57BL/6 is replaced by two HDL subclasses similar in size to human HDL2b and HDL3a. The changes in murine apolipoprotein levels and HDL subclass size are inherited by all transgenic offspring of the two founder animals. These results suggest a dominant role of apoAI in determining the HDL particle size distribution and a mechanism involving expression of human apoAI transgenes that alters the plasma levels of mouse apoAI

  1. Proteomic data show an increase in autoantibodies and alpha-fetoprotein and a decrease in apolipoprotein A-II with time in sera from senescence-accelerated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated changes in levels by comparing serum proteins in senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice at 2, 6, 12, and 15 months of age (SAMP8-2 m, -6 m, -12 m, -15 m) to age-matched SAM-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Mice were sacrificed, and blood was analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry. Five protein spots were present in all SAMP8 serum samples, but only appeared in SAMR1 samples at 15 months of age except for spot 3, which also showed a slight expression in SAMR1-12 m sera. Two proteins decreased in the sera from SAMP8-2 m, -6 m, and -12 m mice, and divided into 2 spots each in SAMP8-15 m sera. Thus, the total number of altered spots in SAMP8 sera was 7; of these, 4 were identified as Ig kappa chain V region (M-T413), chain A of an activity suppressing Fab fragment to cytochrome P450 aromatase (32C2-A), alpha-fetoprotein, and apolipoprotein A-II. M-T413 is a monoclonal CD4 antibody, which inhibits T cell proliferation. We found that M-T413 RNA level was significantly enhanced in splenocytes from SAMP8-2 m mice. This agreed with serum M-T413 protein alterations and a strikingly lower blood CD4+ T cell count in SAMP8 mice when compared to the age-matched SAMR1 mice, with the latter negatively correlating with serum M-T413 protein volume. Age-related changes in serum proteins favored an increase in autoantibodies and alpha-fetoprotein and a decrease of apolipoprotein A-II, which occurred in SAMP8 mice at 2 months of age and onwards. These proteins may serve as candidate biomarkers for early aging

  2. Aorta Atherosclerosis Lesion Analysis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Sarajo; Yin, Changjun; Weber, Christian; Hu, Desheng; Habenicht, Andreas JR

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice are used as experimental models to study human atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice are constitutively hyperlipidemic and develop intima plaques that resemble human plaques. Various issues including experimental design for lesion analysis, dietary conditions, isolation of the aorta, staining methods, morphometry, group size, age, the location within the arterial tree, and statistical analyses are important parameters that need to be addressed to obtain robust data. Here, we provide detailed methods to quantify aorta atherosclerosis. PMID:27366759

  3. A Proteoliposome Containing Apolipoprotein A-I Mutant (V156K) Enhances Rapid Tumor Regression Activity of Human Origin Oncolytic Adenovirus in Tumor-Bearing Zebrafish and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Juyi; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Choi, Eun-Jin; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported that the efficiency of adenoviral gene delivery and virus stability are significantly enhanced when a proteoliposome (PL) containing apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is used in an animal model. In the current study, we tested tumor removal activity of oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) using PL-containing wildtype (WT) or V156K. Oncolytic Ad with or without PL was injected into tumors of zebrafish and nude mice as a Hep3B tumor xenograft model. The V156K-PL-Ad-injected zebrafish, group sh...

  4. Lifetime correction of genetic deficiency in mice with a single injection of helper-dependent adenoviral vector

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, In-Hoo; Józkowicz, Alicja; Piedra, Pedro A.; Oka, Kazuhiro; Chan, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    Ideally, somatic gene therapy should result in lifetime reversal of genetic deficiencies. However, to date, phenotypic correction of monogenic hyperlipidemia in mouse models by in vivo gene therapy has been short-lived and associated with substantial toxicity. We have developed a helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HD-Ad) containing the apolipoprotein (apo) E gene. A single i.v. injection of this vector completely and stably corrected the hypercholesterolemia in apoE-deficient mice, an effect...

  5. Modest vasomotor dysfunction induced by low doses of C60 fullerenes in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with different degree of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdal, Lise K; Folkmann, Janne K; Jacobsen, Nicklas R;

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Exposure to small size particulate matter in urban air is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular effects, whereas there is little information about the impact on the cardiovascular system by exposure to pure carbonaceous materials in the nano-size range. C60 fullerenes...... are nano-sized particles that are expected to have a widespread use, including cosmetics and medicines. METHODS: We investigated the association between intraperitoneal injection of pristine C60 fullerenes and vasomotor dysfunction in the aorta of 11-13 and 40-42 weeks old apolipoprotein E knockout...... intraperitoneal injection of 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg of C60 fullerenes, the young apoE-/- mice had slightly reduced maximal endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. A similar tendency was observed in the old apoE-/- mice. Hampered endothelium-independent vasorelaxation was also observed as slightly increased EC50 of...

  6. Mast cell degranulator compound 48-80 promotes atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with perivascular common carotid collar placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ya-ling; YANG Yong-zong; WANG Shuang; HUANG Tao; TANG Chao-ke; XU Zeng-xiang; SUN Yu-hui

    2009-01-01

    Background Study of the relationship between mast cells and atherosclerosis is mostly dependent on pathological observation and cytology experiments. To investigate the effects of mast cells degranulation on plaque and their possible mechanisms we used apolipoprotein E knockout mice which had been placed perivascular common carotid collar with mast cells degranulator compound 48-80.Methods Forty apolipoprotein E knockout mice were fed a western-type diet and operated on with placement of perivascular right common carotid collar. Four weeks after surgery, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with compound 48-80 (0.5 mg/kg) or D-Hanks every other day for 4 times. The serum lipids and activity of tryptase were measured. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Corresponding sections were stained with toluidine blue and immunohistochemically with antibodies against macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β and van Willebrand factor. Simultaneously, basic fibroblast growth factor was detected by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence.Results No pathological change was observed in common carotid non-collar placement but atherogenesis in common carotid collar placement of both groups. There was a significant increase in plaque area ((5.85±0.75)×104 vs (0.86±0.28)×104 μm2, P<0.05), the degree of lumen stenosis ((81±15)% vs (41±12)%, P <0.05), the activity of tryptase in serum ((0.57±0.13) U/L vs (0.36±0.10) U/L, P <0.05), and the percentage of degranulated mast cells ((80.6±17.8)% vs (13.5±4.1)%, P <0.05). The expressions of macrophage-specific antigen, α-smooth muscle actin, interleukin-1β, basic fibroblast growth factor and the density of neovessel in plaque were more in the compound 48-80 group than in the control group.Conclusions Perivascular common carotid collar placement can promote atherosclerotic plaque formation in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Compound 48-80 increases plaque area and the degree

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide D-4F Reduces Cardiac Hypertrophy and Improves Apolipoprotein A-I-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport From Cardiac Tissue in LDL Receptor-null Mice Fed a Western Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Zhang, Song; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yong-Xue; Qin, Yan-Wen; Miao, Dong-Mei

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that hypercholesterolemia is an independent determinant of increased left ventricular (LV) mass. Because high-density lipoprotein and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and have cardiac protective effects, we hypothesized that the apoA-I mimetic peptide D-4F could promote RCT in cardiac tissue and decrease cardiac hypertrophy induced by hypercholesterolemia. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice were fed by a Western diet for 18 weeks and then randomized to receive water, or D-4F 0.3 mg/mL, or D-4F 0.5 mg/mL added to drinking water for 6 weeks. After D-4F administration, an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in a trend toward dose-responsivity were found in cardiac tissue. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a reduction in LV posterior wall end-diastolic dimension, and an increase in mitral valve E/A ratio and LV ejection fraction. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed reduced LV wall thickness and myocardial cell diameter. The protein levels of ABCA1 and LXRα were elevated in cardiac tissue of D-4F treated mice compared with the controls (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that D-4F treatment reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved cardiac performance in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice fed a Western diet, presumably through the LXRα-ABCA1 pathway associated with enhanced myocardial RCT. PMID:26828321

  8. Modest vasomotor dysfunction induced by low doses of C60 fullerenes in apolipoprotein E knockout mice with different degree of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loft Steffen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to small size particulate matter in urban air is regarded as a risk factor for cardiovascular effects, whereas there is little information about the impact on the cardiovascular system by exposure to pure carbonaceous materials in the nano-size range. C60 fullerenes are nano-sized particles that are expected to have a widespread use, including cosmetics and medicines. Methods We investigated the association between intraperitoneal injection of pristine C60 fullerenes and vasomotor dysfunction in the aorta of 11–13 and 40–42 weeks old apolipoprotein E knockout mice (apoE-/- with different degree of atherosclerosis. Results The aged apoE-/-mice had lower endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation elicited by acetylcholine in aorta segments mounted in myographs and the phenylephrine-dependent vasoconstriction response was increased. One hour after an intraperitoneal injection of 0.05 or 0.5 mg/kg of C60 fullerenes, the young apoE-/- mice had slightly reduced maximal endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. A similar tendency was observed in the old apoE-/- mice. Hampered endothelium-independent vasorelaxation was also observed as slightly increased EC50 of sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxation response in young apoE-/- mice. Conclusion Treatment with C60 fullerenes affected mainly the response to vasorelaxation in young apoE-/- mice, whereas the vasomotor dysfunction in old apoE-/- mice with more advanced atherosclerosis was less affected by acute C60 fullerene treatment. These findings represent an important step in the hazard characterization of C60 fullerenes by showing that intraperitoneal administration is associated with a moderate decrease in the vascular function of mice with atherosclerosis.

  9. Left ventricular dysfunction with reduced functional cardiac reserve in diabetic and non-diabetic LDL-receptor deficient apolipoprotein B100-only mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Fatima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of suitable mouse models has hindered the studying of diabetic macrovascular complications. We examined the effects of type 2 diabetes on coronary artery disease and cardiac function in hypercholesterolemic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient apolipoprotein B100-only mice (LDLR-/-ApoB100/100. Methods and results 18-month-old LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 (n = 12, diabetic LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II in pancreatic beta cells (IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100, n = 14 and age-matched C57Bl/6 mice (n = 15 were studied after three months of high-fat Western diet. Compared to LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice, diabetic IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice demonstrated more calcified atherosclerotic lesions in aorta. However, compensatory vascular enlargement was similar in both diabetic and non-diabetic mice with equal atherosclerosis (cross-sectional lesion area ~60% and consequently the lumen area was preserved. In coronary arteries, both hypercholesterolemic models showed significant stenosis (~80% despite positive remodeling. Echocardiography revealed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and anteroapical akinesia in both LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 and IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice. Myocardial scarring was not detected, cardiac reserve after dobutamine challenge was preserved and ultrasructural changes revealed ischemic yet viable myocardium, which together with coronary artery stenosis and slightly impaired myocardial perfusion suggest myocardial hibernation resulting from chronic hypoperfusion. Conclusions LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice develop significant coronary atherosclerosis, severe left ventricular dysfunction with preserved but diminished cardiac reserve and signs of chronic myocardial hibernation. However, the cardiac outcome is not worsened by type 2 diabetes, despite more advanced aortic atherosclerosis in diabetic animals.

  10. Folate and S-adenosylmethionine modulate synaptic activity in cultured cortical neurons: acute differential impact on normal and apolipoprotein-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folate deficiency is accompanied by a decline in the cognitive neurotransmitter acetylcholine and a decline in cognitive performance in mice lacking apolipoprotein E (ApoE−/− mice), a low-density lipoprotein that regulates aspects of lipid metabolism. One direct consequence of folate deficiency is a decline in S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Since dietary SAM supplementation maintains acetylcholine levels and cognitive performance in the absence of folate, we examined herein the impact of folate and SAM on neuronal synaptic activity. Embryonic cortical neurons from mice expressing or lacking ApoE (ApoE+/+ or −/−, respectively) were cultured for 1 month on multi-electrode arrays, and signaling was recorded. ApoE+/+ cultures displayed significantly more frequent spontaneous signals than ApoE−/− cultures. Supplementation with 166 µm SAM (not normally present in culture medium) increased signal frequency and decreased signal amplitude in ApoE+/+ cultures. SAM also increased the frequency of tightly clustered signal bursts. Folate deprivation reversibly reduced signal frequency in ApoE+/+ cultures; SAM supplementation maintained signal frequency despite folate deprivation. These findings support the importance of dietary supplementation with folate and SAM on neuronal health. Supplementation with 166 µm SAM did not alter signaling in ApoE−/− cultures, which may be a reflection of the reduced SAM levels in ApoE−/− mice. The differential impact of SAM on ApoE+/+ and −/− neurons underscores the combined impact of nutritional and genetic deficiencies on neuronal homeostasis. (communication)

  11. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and the pesticide chlorpyrifos modulate attention, motivation and impulsivity in female mice in the 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Reverte, Ingrid; Basaure, Pia; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphate pesticides - and chlorpyrifos (CPF) in particular - contribute to a wide range of neurobehavioural disorders. Most experimental research focuses on learning and memory processes, while other behaviours remain understudied. The isoforms of the human apolipoprotein E (apoE) confer different cognitive skills on their carriers, but data on this topic are still limited. The current study was performed to assess whether the APOE genotypic variability differently modulates the effects of CPF on attentional performance, inhibitory control and motivation. Human apoE targeted replacement adult female mice (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) were trained to stably perform the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT). Animals were then subjected to daily dietary CPF (3.75 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. After CPF exposure, we established a 4-week CPF-free period to assess recovery. All individuals acquired the task, apoE2 mice showed enhanced learning, while apoE4 mice displayed increased premature and perseverative responding. This genotype-dependent lack of inhibitory control was reversed by CPF. Overall, the pesticide induced protracted impairments in sustained attention and motivation, and it reduced anticipatory responding. ApoE3 mice exhibited delayed attentional disruptions throughout the wash-out period. Taken together, these findings provide notable evidence on the emergence of CPF-related attentional and motivational deficits. PMID:27106138

  12. Antioxidant effects of vitamins C and E, multivitamin-mineral complex and flavonoids in a model of retinal oxidative stress: the ApoE-deficient mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sádaba, Luis M; Fernández-Robredo, Patricia; Rodríguez, José Antonio; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the biochemical changes in the plasma and retina of apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice supplemented with various antioxidants. Ten wild type (WT-Con, C57BL/6) and 10 apoE-/- (AE-Con) mice received drinking water. Another 40 apoE-/- animals were divided into four groups of 10 mice each and received either chromocarbe diethylamine (AE-CD, 50mg/kg), cyaninosides chloride (AE-CC, 50mg/kg), multivitamin complex (AE-MC, 50mg/kg), or vitamins C and E (AE-CE, 100mg/kg and 200IU/kg). Cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS]) were measured in plasma, and TBARS and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) concentration were determined in retinal homogenates. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to examine the retinal ultrastructure. AE-Con mice had significantly (Poxidative stress in the plasma and retina with augmented production of retinal NOx compared with WT-Con mice. Retinal TBARS decreased in the AE-MC and AE-CE animals compared with the AE-Con group (Pchanges in the AE-Con group decreased in the AE-CE and AE-MC groups. There were no significant changes in the biochemical and structural parameters in the AE-CD and AE-CC groups. AE-Con mice had increased systemic and retinal oxidative stress compared with WT-Con animals. Vitamins C and E and the multivitamin-mineral complex reduced oxidative stress and ultrastructural retinal changes in this murine model of hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18243175

  13. Effect of Cyp27A1 gene dosage on atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zurkinden, Line; Solcà, Curzio; Vögeli, Isabelle A.; Vogt, Bruno; Ackermann, Daniel; Erickson, Sandra K.; Frey, Felix J; Sviridov, Dmitri; Escher, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    In humans, sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) deficiency leads to cholesterol deposition in tendons and vasculature. Thus, in addition to its role in bile acid synthesis, where it converts cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC), CYP27A1 may also be atheroprotective. Cyp27A1-deficient (Cyp27A1−/−) mice were crossed with apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient mice. Cyp27A1+/+/apoE−/− [ApoE-knockout (KO)], Cyp27A1+/−/apoE−/− heterozygous (het), and Cyp27A1−/−/apoE−/− [double-knockout (DKO)] mice ...

  14. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice have accentuated malnutrition with mucosal disruption and blunted insulin-like growth factor I responses to refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriá, Reinaldo B; Vieira, Carlos Meton G; Pinkerton, Relana C; de Castro Costa, Carlos M; Lopes, Maria Beatriz; Hussaini, Isa; Shi, Weibin; Brito, Gerly A C; Lima, Aldo A M; Guerrant, Richard L

    2006-08-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is synthesized mainly in the liver and in the brain and is critical for cholesterol metabolism and recovery from brain injury. However, although apoE mRNA increases at birth, during suckling, and after fasting in rat liver, little is known about its role in early postnatal development. Using an established postnatal malnutrition model and apoE knock-out (ko) mice, we examined the role of apoE in intestinal adaptation responses to early postnatal malnutrition. Wild-type and apoE-ko mice were separated from their lactating dams for defined periods each day (4 hours on day 1, 8 hours on day 2, and 12 hours thereafter). We found significant growth deficits, as measured by weight gain or tail length, in the apoE-ko mice submitted to a malnutrition challenge, as compared with malnourished wild type, especially during the second week of postnatal development (P animals failed to show growth catch-up after refeeding, compared with wild-type malnourished controls. Furthermore, we found shorter crypts and reduced villus height and area in the apoE-ko malnourished mice, compared with controls, after refeeding. Insulinlike growth factor 1 expression was also blunted in the ileum in apoE-ko mice after refeeding, compared with wild-type controls, which exhibited full insulinlike growth factor 1 expression along the intestinal crypts, villi, and in the muscular layer. Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of apoE in coping with a malnutrition challenge and during the intestinal adaptation after refeeding. PMID:25210213

  15. Apolipoprotein M

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson-Ehle Peter; Zhang Xiaoying; Luo Guanghua; Xu Ning

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is a 26-kDa protein that is mainly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in human plasma, with a small proportion present in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLP) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Human apoM gene is located in p21.31 on chromosome 6 (chromosome 17, in mouse). Human apoM cDNA (734 base pairs) encodes 188-amino acid residue-long protein. It belongs to lipocalin protein superfamily. Human tissue expression array study indicates that a...

  16. Rubidium transport in irradiated vitamin-E-deficient bone marrow cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, K.I.; Muehlensiepen, H.; Wolters, R.; Muzik, O.; Feinendegen, L.E. (Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizin)

    1993-01-01

    We showed previously that the Rb[sup +] transport rate in bone marrow cells (BMC) of vitamin-E-deficient mice is significantly lower than that in BMC of euvitaminotic mice. It is now evident that 4 h after whole-body, low-dose (0.01-1.0 Gy) gamma-irradiation of avitaminotic mice, there is an increase in the rate of Rb[sup +] transport. This increase is quite pronounced, exceeding at all dose levels the rate of Rb[sup +] transport in euvitaminotic mice exposed to the same radiation dose. (orig.).

  17. Apolipoprotein E4 causes age- and sex-dependent impairments of hilar GABAergic interneurons and learning and memory deficits in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Leung

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein (apo E4 is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD. ApoE4 has sex-dependent effects, whereby the risk of developing AD is higher in apoE4-expressing females than males. However, the mechanism underlying the sex difference, in relation to apoE4, is unknown. Previous findings indicate that apoE4 causes age-dependent impairments of hilar GABAergic interneurons in female mice, leading to learning and memory deficits. Here, we investigate whether the detrimental effects of apoE4 on hilar GABAergic interneurons are sex-dependent using apoE knock-in (KI mice across different ages. We found that in female apoE-KI mice, there was an age-dependent depletion of hilar GABAergic interneurons, whereby GAD67- or somatostatin-positive--but not NPY- or parvalbumin-positive-interneuron loss was exacerbated by apoE4. Loss of these neuronal populations was correlated with the severity of spatial learning deficits at 16 months of age in female apoE4-KI mice; however, this effect was not observed in female apoE3-KI mice. In contrast, we found an increase in the numbers of hilar GABAergic interneurons with advancing age in male apoE-KI mice, regardless of apoE genotype. Moreover, male apoE-KI mice showed a consistent ratio of hilar inhibitory GABAergic interneurons to excitatory mossy cells approximating 1.5 that is independent of apoE genotype and age, whereas female apoE-KI mice exhibited an age-dependent decrease in this ratio, which was exacerbated by apoE4. Interestingly, there are no apoE genotype effects on GABAergic interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subregions of the hippocampus as well as the entorhinal and auditory cortexes. These findings suggest that the sex-dependent effects of apoE4 on developing AD is in part attributable to inherent sex-based differences in the numbers of hilar GABAergic interneurons, which is further modulated by apoE genotype.

  18. Synthetic liver X receptor agonist T0901317 inhibits semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase gene expression and activity in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Dai; Xiang Ou; Xinrui Hao; Dongli Cao; Yaling Tang; Yanwei Hu; Xiaoxu Li; Chaoke Tang

    2008-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase(SSAO)catalyzes oxidative deamination of primary aromatic and aliphatic amines.Increased SSAO activity has been found in atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus.We hypothesize that the anti-atherogenic effect of liver X receptors(LXRs)might be related to the inhibition of SSAD gene expression and its activity.In this study,we investigated the effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on SSAO gene expression and its activity in apolipoprotein E knockout(apoE-/-)mice.Male apoE-/-mice(8 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups:basal control group;vehicle group;prevention group;and treatment group.SSAO gene expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and its activity was determined.The activity of superoxide dismutase and content of malondialdehy de in the aorta and liver were also determined.In T0901317-treated mice,SSAO gene expression was significantly decreased in the aorta,liver,small intestine,and brain.SSAO activities in serum and in these tissues were also inhibited.The amount of superoxide dismutase in the aorta and liver of the prevention group and treatment group was significantly higher compared with the vehicle group(P<0.05).Malondialdehyde in the tissues of these two groups was significantly lower compared with the vehicle group(P<0.05).Our results showed that T0901317 inhibits SSAO gene expression and its activity in atherogenic apoE-/-mice.The atheroprotective effect of LXR agonist T0901317 is related to the inhibition of SSAO gene expression and its activity.

  19. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits LPS-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE-/-mice possibly via activated STAT3-mediated upregulation of tristetraprolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai YIN; Shi-lin TANG; Xiao-hua YU; Guang-hui TU; Rong-fang HE; Jin-feng LI; Di XIE

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of the major component of high-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) on the development of atherosclerosis in LPS-challenged ApoE-/-mice and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:Male ApoE-KO mice were daily injected with LPS (25 μg,sc) or PBS for 4 weeks.The LPS-challenged mice were intravenously injected with rAAV-apoA-I-GFP or rAAV-GFP.After the animals were killed,blood,livers and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses.For ex vivo experiments,the abdominal cavity macrophages were harvested from each treatment group of mice,and cultured with autologous serum,then treated with LPS.Results:Chronic administration of LPS in ApoE-/-mice significantly increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6,and MCP-1),increased infiltration of inflammatory cells,and enhanced the development of atherosclerosis.In LPS-challenged mice injected with rAAV-apoA-I-GFP,viral particles and human apoA-I were detected in the livers,total plasma human apoA-I levels were grammatically increased; HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased,TG and TC were slightly increased.Furthermore,overexpression of apoA-l significantly suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines,reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells,and decreased the extent of atherosclerotic lesions.Moreover,overexpression of apoA-I significantly increased the expression of the cytokine mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP),and phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in aortas.In ex vivo mouse macrophages,the serum from mice overexpressing apoA-I significantly increased the expression of TTP,accompanied by accelerated decay of mRNAs of the inflammatory cytokines.Conclusion:ApoA-I potently suppresses LPS-induced atherosclerosis by inhibiting the inflammatory response possibly via activation of STAT3 and upregulation of TTP.

  20. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej Elkamil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy. Methods We made an inquiry to our colleagues in Norway, we included information from a prevalence study published southern Norway and added data from our own known case. Results A newly published prevalence study of hereditary ataxias (total of 171 subjects found only one subject with AVED in Southeast Norway. We describe two more patients, one from the Central part and one from the Northern part of Norway. All 3 cases had age of onset in early childhood (age of 4–5 years and all experienced gait ataxia and dysarthria. The genetic testing confirmed that they had pathogenic mutations in the α-tocopherol transfer protein gene (TTPA. All were carriers of the non-sense c.400C > T mutation, one was homozygous for that mutation and the others were compound heterozygous, either with c.358G > A or c.513_514insTT. The homozygous carrier was by far the most severely affected case. Conclusions We estimate the occurrence of AVED in Norway to be at least 0.6 per million inhabitants. We emphasize that all patients who develop ataxia in childhood should be routinely tested for AVED to make an early diagnosis for initiating treatment with high dose vitamin E to avoid severe neurological deficits.

  1. Apolipoprotein E expression and behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a lipid binding protein that plays an important role in tissue repair following brain injury. In the present studies, we have investigated whether apoE affects the behavioral toxicity of high charge, high energy (HZE) particle radiation. Sixteen male apoE knockout (KO) mice and sixteen genetically matched wild-type (WT) C57BL mice were used in this experiment. Half of the KO and half of the WT animals were irradiated with 600 MeV/amu iron particles (2 Gy whole body). The effect of irradiation on motor coordination and stamina (Rotarod test), exploratory behavior (open field test), and spatial working and reference memory (Morris water maze) was assessed. Rotarod test: Performance was adversely affected by radiation exposure in both KO and WT groups at 30 d after irradiation. By 60 d after radiation, the radiation effect was lost in WT, but still apparent in irradiated KO mice. Open field test: Radiation reduced open field exploratory activity 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 d after irradiation of KO mice, but had no effect on WT mice. Morris water maze: Radiation adversely affected spatial working memory in the KO mice, but had no discernible effect in the WT mice as assessed 180 d after irradiation. In contrast, irradiated WT mice showed marked impairment of spatial reference memory in comparison to non-irradiated mice, while no effect of radiation was observed in KO mice. These studies show that apoE expression influences the behavioral toxicity of HZE particle radiation and suggest that apoE plays a role in the repair/recovery from radiation injury of the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE deficiency may exacerbate the previously reported effects of HZE particle radiation in accelerating the brain aging process. (author)

  2. The apolipoprotein-AI mimetic peptide L4F at a modest dose does not attenuate weight gain, inflammation, or atherosclerosis in LDLR-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Averill

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease risk and associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I; major HDL protein mimetics have been reported to reduce atherosclerosis and decrease adiposity. This study investigated the effect of L4F mimetic peptide and apoA-I overexpression on weight gain, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis in an LDL receptor deficient (Ldlr-/- model fed a high fat high sucrose with cholesterol (HFHSC diet.Studies in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes tested whether L4F could inhibit palmitate-induced adipocyte inflammation. In vivo studies used male Ldlr-/- mice fed a HFHSC diet for 12 weeks and were injected daily with L4F (100 µg/mouse subcutaneously during the last 8 weeks. Wild-type and apoA-I overexpressing Ldlr-/- mice were fed HFHSC diet for 16 weeks.Neither L4F administration nor apoA-I overexpression affected weight gain, total plasma cholesterol or triglycerides in our studies. While pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with either L4F or HDL abolished palmitate-induced cytokine expression in vitro, L4F treatment did not affect circulating or adipose tissue inflammatory markers in vivo. Neither L4F administration nor apoA-I overexpression affected glucose tolerance. ApoA-I overexpression significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion size, yet L4F treatment did not affect atherosclerosis.Our results suggest that neither L4F (100 µg/day/mouse nor apoA-I overexpression affects adiposity or insulin resistance in this model. We also were unable to confirm a reduction in atherosclerosis with L4F in our particular model. Further studies on the effect of apoA-I mimetics on atherosclerosis and insulin resistance in a variety of dietary contexts are warranted.

  3. MicroRNA-27 Prevents Atherosclerosis by Suppressing Lipoprotein Lipase-Induced Lipid Accumulation and Inflammatory Response in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Peng; Gong, Duo; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Yao, Feng; He, Ping-Ping; Ouyang, Xin-Ping; Lan, Gang; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Zhen-Wang; Tan, Yu-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Yin, Wei-Dong; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are lipometabolic disorder characterized by chronic progressive inflammation in arterial walls. Previous studies have shown that macrophage-derived lipoprotein lipase (LPL) might be a key factor that promotes atherosclerosis by accelerating lipid accumulation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. Increasing evidence indicates that microRNA-27 (miR-27) has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism and inflammatory response. However, it has not been fully understood whether miR-27 affects the expression of LPL and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE KO) mice. To address these questions and its potential mechanisms, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated THP-1 macrophages were transfected with the miR-27 mimics/inhibitors and apoE KO mice fed high-fat diet were given a tail vein injection with miR-27 agomir/antagomir, followed by exploring the potential roles of miR-27. MiR-27 agomir significantly down-regulated LPL expression in aorta and peritoneal macrophages by western blot and real-time PCR analyses. We performed LPL activity assay in the culture media and found that miR-27 reduced LPL activity. ELISA showed that miR-27 reduced inflammatory response as analyzed in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that miR-27 had an inhibitory effect on the levels of lipid both in plasma and in peritoneal macrophages of apoE KO mice as examined by HPLC. Consistently, miR-27 suppressed the expression of scavenger receptors associated with lipid uptake in ox-LDL-treated THP-1 macrophages. In addition, transfection with LPL siRNA inhibited the miR-27 inhibitor-induced lipid accumulation and proinflammatory cytokines secretion in ox-LDL-treated THP-1 macrophages. Finally, systemic treatment revealed that miR-27 decreased aortic plaque size and lipid content in apoE KO mice. The present results provide evidence that a novel antiatherogenic role of miR-27 was closely related to reducing lipid

  4. Apolipoprotein M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson-Ehle Peter

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apolipoprotein M (apoM is a 26-kDa protein that is mainly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL in human plasma, with a small proportion present in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLP and low-density lipoproteins (LDL. Human apoM gene is located in p21.31 on chromosome 6 (chromosome 17, in mouse. Human apoM cDNA (734 base pairs encodes 188-amino acid residue-long protein. It belongs to lipocalin protein superfamily. Human tissue expression array study indicates that apoM is only expressed in liver and in kidney and small amounts are found in fetal liver and kidney. In situ apoM mRNA hybridization demonstrates that apoM is exclusively expressed in the hepatocytes and in the tubule epithelial cells in kidney. Expression of apoM could be regulated by platelet activating factor (PAF, transforming growth factors (TGF, insulin-like growth factor (IGF and leptin in vivo and/or in vitro. It has been demonstrated that apoM expression is dramatically decreased in apoA-I deficient mouse. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α (HNF-1α is an activator of apoM gene promoter. Deficiency of HNF-1α mouse shows lack of apoM expression. Mutations in HNF-1α (MODY3 have reduced serum apoM levels. Expression of apoM is significantly decreased in leptin deficient (ob/ob mouse or leptin receptor deficient (db/db mouse. ApoM concentration in plasma is positively correlated to leptin level in obese subjects. These may suggest that apoM is related to the initiation and progression of MODY3 and/or obesity.

  5. Effect of hyperlipidemia on the expression of circadian genes in apolipoprotein E knock-out atherosclerotic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sifeng

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circadian patterns of cardiovascular vulnerability were well characterized, with a peak incidence of acute myocardial infarction and stroke secondary to atherosclerosis in the morning, which showed the circadian clock may take part in the pathological process of atherosclerosis induced by hyperlipidemia. Hence, the effect of hyperlipidemia on the expression of circadian genes was investigated in atherosclerotic mouse model. Results In apoE-/-mice on regular chow or high-fat diet, an atherosclerotic mouse model induced by heperlipidemia, we found that the peak concentration of serum lipids was showed four or eight hours later in apoE-/- mice, compared to C57BL/6J mice. During the artificial light period, a reduce in circulating level of serum lipids corresponded with the observed increase of the expression levels of some the transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as PPARα and RXRα. Meanwhile, the expression of circadian genes was changed following with amplitude reduced or the peak mRNA level delayed. Conclusions Our studies indicated that heperlipidemia altered both the rhythmicity and expression of circadian genes. Diet-induced circadian disruption may affect the process of atherosclerosis and some acute cardiovascular disease.

  6. Apolipoprotein M promotes mobilization of cellular cholesterol in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Sara; Christoffersen, Christina; Luchoomun, Jayraz;

    2013-01-01

    The HDL associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects against experimental atherosclerosis but the mechanism is unknown. ApoM increases prebeta-HDL formation. We explored whether plasma apoM affects mobilization of cholesterol from peripheral cells in mice.......The HDL associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects against experimental atherosclerosis but the mechanism is unknown. ApoM increases prebeta-HDL formation. We explored whether plasma apoM affects mobilization of cholesterol from peripheral cells in mice....

  7. Irbesartan increased PPARγ activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. → Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. → DNA-binding for PPARγ was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. → Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. → Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPARγ agonistic action of an AT1 receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPARγ in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPARγ in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPARγ and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  8. Irbesartan increased PPAR{gamma} activity in vivo in white adipose tissue of atherosclerotic mice and improved adipose tissue dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Masaru; Kanno, Harumi; Senba, Izumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Moritani, Tomozo [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan); Horiuchi, Masatsugu, E-mail: horiuchi@m.ehime-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Cardiovascular Biology and Pharmacology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Tohon, Ehime 791-0295 (Japan)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice were treated with irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan decreased white adipose tissue weight without affecting body weight. {yields} DNA-binding for PPAR{gamma} was increased in white adipose tissue in vivo by irbesartan. {yields} Irbesartan increased adipocyte number in white adipose tissue. {yields} Irbesatan increased the expression of adiponectin and leptin in white adipose tissue. -- Abstract: The effect of the PPAR{gamma} agonistic action of an AT{sub 1} receptor blocker, irbesartan, on adipose tissue dysfunction was explored using atherosclerotic model mice. Adult male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoEKO) mice at 9 weeks of age were treated with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) with or without irbesartan at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. The weight of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was decreased by irbesartan without changing food intake or body weight. Treatment with irbesartan increased the expression of PPAR{gamma} in white adipose tissue and the DNA-binding activity of PPAR{gamma} in nuclear extract prepared from adipose tissue. The expression of adiponectin, leptin and insulin receptor was also increased by irbesartan. These results suggest that irbesartan induced activation of PPAR{gamma} and improved adipose tissue dysfunction including insulin resistance.

  9. Western-type diet modulates inflammatory responses and impairs functional outcome following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in aged mice expressing the human apolipoprotein E4 allele

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungana, Hiramani; Rolova, Taisia; Savchenko, Ekaterina; Wojciechowski, Sara; Savolainen, Kaisa; Ruotsalainen, Anna-Kaisa; Sullivan, Patrick M.; Koistinaho, Jari; Malm, Tarja

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous clinical trials in stroke have failed, most probably partially due to preclinical studies using young, healthy male rodents with little relevance to the heterogenic conditions of human stroke. Co-morbid conditions such as atherosclerosis and infections coupled with advanced age are known to contribute to increased risk of cerebrovascular diseases. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that the E4 allele of human apolipoprotein (ApoE4) is linked to poorer outcome in v...

  10. An Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide Designed with a Reductionist Approach Stimulates Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Reduces Atherosclerosis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ditiatkovski, Michael; D’Souza, Wilissa; Kesani, Rajitha; Chin-Dusting, Jaye; de Haan, Judy B; Remaley, Alan; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are considered a promising novel therapeutic approach to prevent and/or treat atherosclerosis. An apoA-I mimetic peptide ELK-2A2K2E was designed with a reductionist approach and has shown exceptional activity in supporting cholesterol efflux but modest anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in vitro. In this study we compared these in vitro properties with the capacity of this peptide to modify rates of reverse cholesterol transport and deve...

  11. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency May Present with Cervical Dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Andrew E.; Vargas, Wendy; Pearson, Toni S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disorder that usually presents with ataxia, areflexia, and proprioceptive and vibratory sensory loss. Dystonia has been reported rarely. Case Report An 11-year-old female presented with dystonic head tremor and cervical and bilateral arm dystonia. Her 14-year-old older brother had dystonic head tremor and generalized dystonia. One year later, the brother developed dysarthria, limb dysmetria, and gait ataxia. Compound heterozygous mutations in TTPA were detected, confirming the diagnosis of AVED. Discussion AVED may present with dystonia rather than ataxia, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive dystonia.

  12. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting Apo

  13. Delivery of negatively charged liposomes into the atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse aortic tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Sood, Anil K.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Walton, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes have been used to diagnose and treat cancer and, to a lesser extent, cardiovascular disease. We previously showed the uptake of anionic liposomes into the atheromas of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits within lipid pools. However, the cellular distribution of anionic liposomes in atherosclerotic plaque remains undescribed. In addition, how anionic liposomes are absorbed into atherosclerotic plaque is unclear. We investigated the uptake and distribution of anionic liposomes i...

  14. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B;

    2004-01-01

    Supply of lipids from the mother is essential for fetal growth and development. In mice, disruption of yolk sac cell secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins results in embryonic lethality. In humans, the yolk sac is vestigial. Nutritional functions are instead established very...... of lipid transfer from the mother to the developing fetus....

  15. Spontaneous decidualization in pseudopregnant rats with vitamin E deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nan; Wu, Bin; He, Bin; Wang, Lili; Wang, Jiedong

    2016-05-13

    Successful implantation of an embryo requires adequate depth of invasion in the endometrium, which depends upon decidualization. The aim of the present study was to elucidate why humans experience spontaneous decidualization and menstruation while most other mammals do not. We established a spontaneous decidualization model in pseudopregnant rats with vitamin E deficiency (VED) to investigate mechanisms associated with spontaneous decidualization. Vaginal smears were used to monitor bleeding while vitamin E levels were analyzed with a commercial vitamin E assay kit. Trypan blue staining was used to observe the implantation site at 5.5 days post-coitum (dpc). Uterine morphology, estradiol (E2) and progesterone levels, and the anti-oxidation system were evaluated at 5.5, 7.5, and 9.5 dpc. The proportion of rats in the VED group exhibiting endometrial bleeding gradually increased (5.9%, 32.3%, and 50%) over three consecutive cycles of pseudopregnancy. Vitamin E levels in the VED group were markedly lower compared to the control group in both the plasma and uterus, while the level of vitamin E in the liver did not differ between the control and VED groups. Spontaneous decidualization in the VED group was validated by histological examination and immunohistochemistry. At 5.5 dpc, the mean serum E2 level in the VED group was more than twice that of the control group. The mean total anti-oxidizing capability, catalase level, and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly reduced in the decidualized portion of the VED group compared to controls, while the malondialdehyde level was also significantly higher in the decidualized portion of the VED group. We hypothesize that the E2 surge at 5.5 dpc and increasing levels of reactive oxygen species are responsible for spontaneous decidualization in VED rats. PMID:27033606

  16. Role of Apolipoprotein E in Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Raber

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is most common among Alzheimer's disease (AD patients with an age at onset under age 65. Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4 is a risk factor for developing AD at an earlier age and might contribute to this effect. In mice, apoE plays a role in the regulation of anxiety, which might involve histamine receptor-mediated signaling and steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. In addition, human apoE isoforms have differential effects on anxiety in adult mice lacking apoE and probable AD patients. Compared to wild-type mice, mice lacking apoE and apoE4 mice showed pathological alterations in the central nucleus of the amygdala, which is involved in regulation of anxiety. ApoE4, but not mice lacking apoE, or apoE3 mice showed impaired dexamethasone suppression of plasma corticosterone. Understanding how apoE modulates measures of anxiety might help the developments of therapeutic targets to reduce or even prevent measures of anxiety in health and in dementing illnesses.

  17. Hypolipidemic effect of young persimmon fruit in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of young persimmon fruit (YP) on apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. These mice exhibited higher plasma cholesterols, except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma HDL cholesterol than C57BL/6.Cr mice that had the same genetic background as the C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. Male C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice (n=5) were fed a diet supplemented with dry YP, Hachiya-kaki, at a concentration of 5% (w/w) for 10 weeks. YP treatment significantly lowered plasma chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and triglyceride, and this response was accompanied by an elevation of fecal bile acid excretion. In the liver, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 gene expression was significantly higher in mice fed YP, while the mRNA and protein levels of the LDL receptor did not change. These results indicate that acceleration of fecal bile acid excretion is a major mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect induced by YP in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. PMID:18838807

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Atherosclerosis Using CD81-Targeted Microparticles of Iron Oxide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using CD81- (Cluster of Differentiation 81 protein- targeted microparticles of iron oxide (CD81-MPIO for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the murine atherosclerosis. CD81-MPIO and IgG- (Immunoglobulin G- MPIO were prepared by covalently conjugating, respectively, with anti-CD81 monoclonal and IgG antibodies to the surface of the tosyl activated MPIO. The relevant binding capability of the MPIO was examined by incubating them with murine bEnd.3 cells stimulated with phenazine methosulfate (PMS and its effect in shortening T2 relaxation time was also examined. MRI in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice was studied in vivo. Our results show that CD81-MPIO, but not IgG-MPIO, can bind to the PMS-stimulated bEnd.3 cells. The T2 relaxation time was significantly shortened for stimulated bEnd.3 cells when compared with IgG-MPIO. In vivo MRI in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice showed highly conspicuous areas of low signal after CD81-MPIO injection. Quantitative analysis of the area of CD81-MPIO contrast effects showed 8.96- and 6.98-fold increase in comparison with IgG-MPIO or plain MPIO, respectively (P<0.01. Histological assay confirmed the expression of CD81 and CD81-MPIO binding onto atherosclerotic lesions. In conclusion, CD81-MPIO allows molecular assessment of murine atherosclerotic lesions by magnetic resonance imaging.

  19. Oral P. gingivalis infection alters the vascular reactivity in healthy and spontaneously atherosclerotic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanon Ivanita

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that recent studies have demonstrated endothelial dysfunction in subjects with periodontitis and that there is no information about vascular function in coexistence of periodontitis and atherosclerosis, we assessed the impact of oral inoculation with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis on vascular reactivity in healthy and hypercholesterolemic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE mice. In vitro preparations of mesenteric arteriolar bed were used to determine the vascular responses to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine (PE. Results Alveolar bone resorption, an evidence of periodontitis, was assessed and confirmed in all infected mice. Acetylcholine- and sodium nitroprusside-induced vasorelaxations were similar among all groups. Non-infected ApoE mice were hyperreactive to PE when compared to non-infected healthy mice. P gingivalis infection significantly enhanced the vasoconstriction to PE in both healthy and spontaneous atherosclerotic mice, when compared to their respective controls. Conclusions This study demonstrates that oral P gingivalis affects the alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular responsiveness in both healthy and spontaneous atherosclerotic mice, reinforcing the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Effect of Aerobic Exercise and Dietary Fat on the Formation of Atherosclerotic Plaque in ApoE-Deficient Mice%有氧运动和膳食脂肪对ApoE基因缺陷小鼠动脉粥样硬化斑块形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈近利; 陈吉棣

    2001-01-01

    为了探讨有氧运动和膳食因素在动脉粥样硬化斑块形成过程中的作用,研究了在跑台上进行的有氧运动和低脂膳食对ApoE基因缺陷小鼠动脉粥样硬化斑块形成过程的影响。结果表明:10周中等强度的有氧运动组和低脂膳食组ApoE基因缺陷小鼠主动脉窦处形成的动脉粥样硬化斑块面积均较对照组减少(P<0.05);有氧运动结合低脂膳食组ApoE基因缺陷小鼠的斑块面积分别低于单独的运动组和低脂膳食组(P<0.05)。研究提示有氧运动和低脂膳食均有利于并有效减轻动脉粥样硬化斑块的形成,有氧运动和低脂膳食两种因素结合的作用大于单独的有氧运动和低脂膳食的作用,二者在预防动脉粥样硬化斑块的形成上可能存在协同加强作用。%To approach the effects of aerobic exercise anddietary fat on the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, we have adopted the ApoE-gene knockout mice as the model to study the effects on an animal treadmill. The results show that the plaque area at the aortic sinuses of the exercised and low fat diet fed mice group were significantly reduced as comparing with the control group respectively. Mice of aerobic exercise and low fat diet combined treated group have the least lesion area of plaque as compared with the other groups. These results have indicated that either aerobic exercise or low fat diet is beneficial and effective to alleviate the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. However, aerobic combined with exercise can provide the greatest benefit in the alleviation of the formation of atherosclerotic plaque as compared with the single factor of either exercise or low fat diet.

  1. Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: A New Approach for the Treatment of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglan eYao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New treatments are needed for severe asthmatics to improve disease control and avoid severe toxicities associated with oral corticosteroids. We have used a murine model of house dust mite (HDM-induced asthma to identify steroid-unresponsive genes that might represent targets for new therapeutic approaches for severe asthma. This strategy identified apolipoprotein E as a steroid-unresponsive gene with increased mRNA expression in the lungs of HDM-challenged mice. Furthermore, apolipoprotein E functioned as an endogenous negative regulator of airway hyperreactivity and goblet cell hyperplasia in experimental HDM-induced asthma. The ability of apolipoprotein E, which is expressed by lung macrophages, to attenuate AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia is mediated by low density lipoprotein (LDL receptors expressed by airway epithelial cells. Consistent with this, administration of an apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide, corresponding to amino acids 130 to 149 of the LDL receptor-binding domain of the holo-apoE protein, significantly reduced AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia in HDM-challenged apoE-/- mice. These findings identified the apolipoprotein E - LDL receptor pathway as a new druggable target for asthma that can be activated by administration of apoE mimetic peptides. Similarly, apolipoprotein A-I may have therapeutic potential in asthma based upon its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic properties. Furthermore, administration of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides has attenuated airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperreactivity in murine models of experimental asthma. Thus, site-directed delivery of inhaled apolipoprotein E or apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides may represent novel treatment approaches that can be developed for asthma, including severe disease.

  2. Emphysema is associated with increased inflammation in lungs of atherosclerosis-prone mice by cigarette smoke: implications in comorbidities of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Hongwei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with numerous vascular effects including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness and atherogenesis. It is also known that a decline in lung function is associated with increased cardiovascular comorbidity in smokers. The mechanism of this cardiopulmonary dual risk by cigarette smoke (CS is not known. We studied the molecular mechanisms involved in development of emphysema in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- mice in response to CS exposure. Methods Adult male and female wild-type (WT mice of genetic background C57BL/6J and ApoE-/- mice were exposed to CS, and lung inflammatory responses, oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation products, mechanical properties as well as airspace enlargement were assessed. Results and Discussion The lungs of ApoE-/- mice showed augmented inflammatory response and increased oxidative stress with development of distal airspace enlargement which was accompanied with decline in lung function. Interestingly, the levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-12 were increased, whereas the level of eNOS was decreased in lungs of CS-exposed ApoE-/- mice as compared to air-exposed ApoE-/- mice or CS-exposed WT mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that CS causes premature emphysema and a decline of lung function in mice susceptible to cardiovascular abnormalities via abnormal lung inflammation, increased oxidative stress and alterations in levels of MMPs and eNOS.

  3. Bisphenol A Increases Atherosclerosis in Pregnane X Receptor‐Humanized ApoE Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sui, Yipeng; Park, Se‐Hyung; Helsley, Robert N.; Sunkara, Manjula; Frank J. Gonzalez; Morris, Andrew J.; Zhou, Changcheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA) is a base chemical used extensively in many consumer products. BPA has recently been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in multiple large‐scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We previously reported that BPA activates the pregnane X receptor (PXR), which acts as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism and has pro‐atherogenic effects in animal models upon activation. Interestingly, BP...

  4. Thrombin inhibition by dabigatran attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pingel, Simon; Tiyerili, Vedat; Mueller, Jens; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Mueller, Cornelius

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by endothelial cell damage, infiltration, proliferation and accumulation of macrophages, lymphocytes and transformed vascular smooth muscle cells within the vascular wall and procoagulation processes involving activation of plasmatic coagulation events and platelets. Numerous studies suggested a close interaction between thrombin action and atherogenesis, but possibly underlying mechanisms are multiple and specific t...

  5. Dietary rice protein isolate attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice-based diets may have been reported to protect against the development of atherosclerosis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) for this protection remains unknown. In this report, the mechanism(s) contributing to the atheroprotective effects of rice-based diet was addressed using the apolipopro...

  6. Apolipoprotein E genotype in schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joober, R.; Lal, S.; Bloom, D.; Benkelfat, C. [McGill Research Centre for Schizophrenia, Douglas Hospital, Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1996-04-09

    We investigated the association between schizophrenia and the allelic polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) gene in 51 schizophrenic patients and 35 controls. The Apo E4 allele was equally represented in the schizophrenic group (16%) and the control group (20%) suggesting no association between schizophrenia and the Apo E4 allele. The apolipoprotein E (Apo E) is a polymorphic (E2, E3, and E4) lipoprotein involved in the transmembrane transport of cholesterol and is thought to play an important role in neuronal growth and in the central nervous system response to injury, particularly in the hippocampal region. Recent findings strongly suggest that the Apo E4 allele is associated with cognitive deficits in normal and pathological aging, e.g., Alzheimer`s disease. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Apolipoprotein E and familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schupf, Nicole; Barral, Sandra; Perls, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Exceptional longevity is associated with substantial heritability. The ε4 allele in apolipoprotein E and the linked G allele in rs2075650 of TOMM40 have been associated with increased mortality and the ε2 allele with decreased mortality, although inconsistently. Offspring from long-lived families...... findings support the hypothesis that both reduction in the frequency of the ε4 allele and increase in the frequency of the ε2 allele contribute to longevity....

  8. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of 14C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked

  9. LXRα is uniquely required for maximal reverse cholesterol transport and atheroprotection in ApoE-deficient mice[S

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Cynthia; Bradley, Michele N.; Rong, Xin; Wang, Xuping; Wagner, Alan; Grijalva, Victor; Castellani, Lawrence W.; Salazar, Jon; Realegeno, Susan; Boyadjian, Rima; Fogelman, Alan M; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Lusis, Aldons J.; Tangirala, Rajendra K.

    2012-01-01

    The liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathway is an important modulator of atherosclerosis, but the relative importance of the two LXRs in atheroprotection is incompletely understood. We show here that LXRα, the dominant LXR isotype expressed in liver, plays a particularly important role in whole-body sterol homeostasis. In the context of the ApoE−/− background, deletion of LXRα, but not LXRβ, led to prominent increases in atherosclerosis and peripheral cholesterol accumulation. However, combi...

  10. Role of apolipoprotein E in febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Ozlem; Ulgenalp, Ayfer; Bora, Elçin; Uran, Nedret; Yilmaz, Ebru; Unalp, Aycan; Erçal, Derya

    2008-10-01

    Apolipoprotein E is consistently associated with the progression of some common human neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., epilepsy. We hypothesized that genetic variations in the apolipoprotein E gene have implications for susceptibility to, and prognoses in, febrile convulsion, which plays an apparent role in the development of epilepsy. We used the polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion to characterize variations of the apolipoprotein E gene. Sixty-nine patients with febrile convulsion (simple/complex) and a corresponding cohort of healthy patients (n = 75) were used. There was no significant difference in genotypic distribution and allelic frequencies of the apolipoprotein E gene between the febrile convulsion and control groups. Comparing subpopulations of the febrile convulsion group (patients with simple and complex febrile convulsion), we noted that no patients with the epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype had complex febrile convulsions. The apolipoprotein E epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype was more frequently seen in the simple febrile than in the complicated febrile convulsion group (9 versus 0 patients, respectively). The data indicate an association with the epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype of the apolipoprotein E gene with a milder phenotype. Although apolipoprotein E4 is not a vulnerability factor regarding febrile convulsions, it seems effective in regard to prognoses. PMID:18805361

  11. Identification of apolipoprotein using feature selection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hua; Zou, Ping; Zhang, Chunmei; Chen, Rong; Chen, Wei; Lin, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein is a kind of protein which can transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. The abnormal expression level of apolipoprotein always causes angiocardiopathy. Thus, correct recognition of apolipoprotein from proteomic data is very crucial to the comprehension of cardiovascular system and drug design. This study is to develop a computational model to predict apolipoproteins. In the model, the apolipoproteins and non-apolipoproteins were collected to form benchmark dataset. On the basis of the dataset, we extracted the g-gap dipeptide composition information from residue sequences to formulate protein samples. To exclude redundant information or noise, the analysis of various (ANOVA)-based feature selection technique was proposed to find out the best feature subset. The support vector machine (SVM) was selected as discrimination algorithm. Results show that 96.2% of sensitivity and 99.3% of specificity were achieved in five-fold cross-validation. These findings open new perspectives to improve apolipoproteins prediction by considering the specific dipeptides. We expect that these findings will help to improve drug development in anti-angiocardiopathy disease. PMID:27443605

  12. Effect of endotoxin on lipid peroxidation in vivo in selenium and vitamin E deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sword, J.T.; Pope, A.L.; Hoekstra, W.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have used respiratory ethane production by selenium (Se) and vitamin E (E) deficient rats, an index of lipid peroxidation, to identify oxidant stressors which might precipitate sudden tissue degeneration in deficient animals. Other studies have suggested that endotoxin (gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-LPS) might be such an oxidant stressor, especially in the lungs. Male weanling rats were fed a Se and E deficient diet for about 80 days. Rats were injected ip with Salmonella typhimurium LPS (.25, .5, or 1.0 mg/kg) or saline, and respiratory ethane was collected for 16 hr. In a representative experiment, mean rate of ethane production (nm/100g/hr) was increased (p < .01) by LPS: saline, .48 +/- .04 (SEM); .25 mg LPS/kg, 1.30 +/- .17; .5, 1.47 +/- .18 and 1.0, 1.68 +/- .18. E. coli and S. minnesota LPS gave similar results. Rats fed a supplemented diet (.2 ppm Se and 200 IU E/kg diet) produced less (p < .01) ethane: saline, .068 +/- .009 and .5 mg LPS/kg, .114 +/- .01. Over all experiments LPS produced a small yet significant increase in ethane in rats receiving Se or E supplementation but produced a marked increase in unsupplemented rats. In further studies with LPS treated rats, Se supplementation alone was 73%, and E supplementation alone 99% as effective as Se + E. These results showed that LPS stimulates lipid peroxidation in Se and E deficient rats and that infections may initiate oxidative cell damage in deficient animals. E was more protective than Se against LPS-induced peroxidation.

  13. Treatment with sulphated galactan inhibits macrophage chemotaxis and reduces intraplaque macrophage content in atherosclerotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Quinderé, Ana Luíza; Barros Benevides, Norma Maria; Pelli, Graziano; Lenglet, Sébastien; Burger, Fabienne; Carbone, Federico; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Pagano, Sabrina; Bertolotto, Maria; Dallegri, Franco; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Mach, François; Montecucco, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    Experimental data from animal models and clinical studies support connections between the haemostasis and inflammation in atherogenesis. These interfaces among inflammation and thrombogenesis have been suggested as targets for pharmacological intervention to reduce disease progression. We hypothesize that the recently discovered antithrombotic drug Sulphated Galactan (SG) (isolated from the red marine alga Acanthophora muscoides) might reduce atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability and inflammatory gene expression in 10-week aged apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE-/-) mice under high-cholesterol diet for additional 11weeks. Then, the underlying cellular mechanisms were investigated in vitro. SG (10mg/kg) or Vehicle was subcutaneously injected from week 6 until week 11 of the diet. Treatment with SG reduced intraplaque macrophage and Tissue Factor (TF) content as compared to Vehicle-treated animals. Intraplaque TF co-localized and positively correlated with macrophage rich-areas. No changes on atherosclerotic plaque size, and other intraplaque features of vulnerability (such as lipid, neutrophil, MMP-9 and collagen contents) were observed. Moreover, mRNA expression of MMPs, chemokines and genetic markers of Th1/2/reg/17 lymphocyte polarization within mouse aortic arches and spleens was not affected by SG treatment. In vitro, treatment with SG dose-dependently reduced macrophage chemotaxis without affecting TF production. Overall, the chronic SG treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, our results indicate that SG treatment reduced intraplaque macrophage content (by impacting on cell recruitment) and, concomitantly, intraplaque TF content of potential macrophage origin in atherosclerotic mice. PMID:25869506

  14. Molecular Analysis of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Gene in Immunoglobulin-E Deficient Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Roa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how class switch recombination (CSR is regulated to produce immunoglobulin E (IgE has become fundamental because of the dramatic increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. CSR requires the induction of the enzyme AICDA in B cells. Mutations in AICDA have been linked to Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2, which shows absence of switching to IgE as well as to IgG and IgA. Although isolated IgE deficiency is a rare entity, here we show some individuals with normal serum IgM, IgG, and IgA levels that had undetectable total serum IgE levels. We have analyzed the AICDA gene in these individuals to determine if there are mutations in AICDA that could lead to selective IgE deficiency. Conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE and sequencing analysis of AICDA coding sequences demonstrated sequence heterogeneity due to 5923A/G and 7888C/T polymorphisms, but did not reveal any novel mutation that might explain the selective IgE deficit.

  15. Skeletal muscle apolipoprotein B expression reduces muscular triglyceride accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Emil D; Ploug, Thorkil; Størling, Joachim;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background. Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. In cardiac myocytes, lipoprotein secretion controlled by apolipoproteinB (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) affects lipid homeostasis. Design....... In this study, we investigated whether expression of a human apoB transgene affects triglyceride accumulation and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in fat fed obese mice. Results. Expression of apoB and MTP mRNA and the human apoB transgene was seen in skeletal muscle of the transgene mice. Human apo......B transgenic mice accumulated 28% less triglycerides in skeletal myocytes after one year of fat-feeding as compared with WT mice (32 ± 5, n = 10 vs. 44 ± 4 nmol/mg ww, n = 13, p = 0.04). Moreover, expression of human apoB in fat-fed mice was associated with 32% (p = 0.02) and 37% (p = 0.01) lower plasma...

  16. Influence of corticosteroids and vitamin E deficiency on onset of radiation-induced cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junk, A. K.; Worgul, B. W.

    Cataracts characteristic of those arising from radiation exposure have been reported among the astronaut and cosmonaut corps. This being the case it is critical to appreciate how radiogenic cataracts relate to those arising from other exogenous causes such as therapeutics, which may, one day, have to be administered on an extended mission. Because they produce precisely the same clinical picture, corticosteroids are examples of a class of drugs that potentially can exacerbate damage to the lens from radiation. On the other hand, Vitamin E, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage as caused by ionizing radiation and evidence is accumulating that it may constitute protection from radiogenic damage. An experimental study was conducted to understand if corticosteroids with, and in the absence of Vitamin E deficiency modulate the onset of cataract induced by ionizing radiation. The right eyes of seventy-two 28-day-old Brown-Norway rats were irradiated with 6 Gy of 240 kV X-rays, the shielded left eyes served as controls. Half of the animals were maintained on a Vitamin E free diet after irradiation, the others were kept on standard chow. Fifty per cent of the animals in each nutritional group received dexamethasone. The initial daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight injected subcutaneously was reduced to 0.5 mg/kg over the course of six months. Cataract onset and development were followed by weekly slit-lamp exam. After six month the lenses were harvested for microscopic analyses. Irradiated eyes in all treatment subgroups showed early cataract onset [5 wks vs. 11 wks in controls ( p < 0.0001)]. Corticosteroids accounted for accelerated cataract development in both irradiated ( p < 0.0005) and non-irradiated eyes ( p < 0.0001) relative to respective control eyes. Vitamin E deficiency did not affect cataract incidence in combination with radiation or steroids alone. Unexpectedly, when compared to irradiated controls, cataract development was

  17. Influence of Corticosteroids and Vitamin E Deficiency on Onset and Cytopathology of Radiation-Induced Cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junk, A. K.; Worgul, B. V.

    Cataracts characteristic of those arising from radiation exposure have been reported among the astronaut and cosmonaut corps. This being the case it is critical to appreciate how radiogenic cataracts relate to those arising from other exogenous causes such as therapeutics, which may, one day, have to be administered on an extended mission. Because they produce precisely the same clinical picture, corticosteroids are examples of a class of drugs that potentially can exacerbate damage to the lens from radiation. On the other hand, Vitamin E, a free radical scavenger, has been shown to ameliorate oxidative damage as caused by ionizing radiation and evidence is accumulating that it may constitute protection from radiogenic damage. An experimental study was conducted to understand if corticosteroids with and in the absence of Vitamin E deficiency modulate the onset of cataract induced by ionizing radiation. The right eyes of 72 28-day-old Brown-Norway rats were irradiated with 6 Gy of 240 kV X-rays, the shielded left eyes served as controls. Half of the animals were maintained on a Vitamin E free diet after irradiation, the others were kept on regular chow. In each nutritional group 18 rats additionally received dexamethasone. The initial daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight injected subcutaneously was reduced to 0.5 mg/kg over the course of 6 months. Cataract onset and development were followed by weekly slit-lamp exam. After 6 month the lenses were harvested for microscopic analyses. Irradiated eyes in all treatment subgroups showed early cataract onset [5 wks versus 11 wks in controls (p<0.0001)]. Corticosteroids accounted for accelerated cataract development in both irradiated (p<0.0005) and non-irradiated eyes (p<0.0001) relative to respective control eyes. Vitamin E deficiency did not affect cataract incidence in combination with radiation or steroids alone. Unexpectedly, when compared to irradiated controls, cataract development was inhibited in the group that

  18. A Case of Ataxia with Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency Initially Diagnosed as Friedreich’s Ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bonello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is caused by a mutation in the alpha tocopherol transfer protein gene. It is almost indistinguishable clinically from Friedreich’s ataxia but with appropriate treatment its devastating neurological features can be prevented. Patients can present with a progressive cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal spasticity, and evidence of a neuropathy with absent deep tendon reflexes. It is important to screen for this condition on initial evaluation of a young patient presenting with progressive ataxia and it should be considered in patients with a long standing ataxia without any diagnosis in view of the potential therapeutics and genetic counselling. In this case report we present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Friedreich’s ataxia but was later found to have AVED.

  19. A Case of Ataxia with Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency Initially Diagnosed as Friedreich's Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, Michael; Ray, Partha

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is caused by a mutation in the alpha tocopherol transfer protein gene. It is almost indistinguishable clinically from Friedreich's ataxia but with appropriate treatment its devastating neurological features can be prevented. Patients can present with a progressive cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal spasticity, and evidence of a neuropathy with absent deep tendon reflexes. It is important to screen for this condition on initial evaluation of a young patient presenting with progressive ataxia and it should be considered in patients with a long standing ataxia without any diagnosis in view of the potential therapeutics and genetic counselling. In this case report we present a patient who was initially diagnosed with Friedreich's ataxia but was later found to have AVED. PMID:26989534

  20. Regional in vivo transit time measurements of aortic pulse wave velocity in mice with high-field CMR at 17.6 Tesla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel Eberhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transgenic mouse models are increasingly used to study the pathophysiology of human cardiovascular diseases. The aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV is an indirect measure for vascular stiffness and a marker for cardiovascular risk. Results This study presents a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR transit time (TT method that allows the determination of the PWV in the descending murine aorta by analyzing blood flow waveforms. Systolic flow pulses were recorded with a temporal resolution of 1 ms applying phase velocity encoding. In a first step, the CMR method was validated by pressure waveform measurements on a pulsatile elastic vessel phantom. In a second step, the CMR method was applied to measure PWVs in a group of five eight-month-old apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/- mice and an age matched group of four C57Bl/6J mice. The ApoE(-/- group had a higher mean PWV (PWV = 3.0 ± 0.6 m/s than the C57Bl/6J group (PWV = 2.4 ± 0.4 m/s. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.014. Conclusions The findings of this study demonstrate that high field CMR is applicable to non-invasively determine and distinguish PWVs in the arterial system of healthy and diseased groups of mice.

  1. Effect of selenium supplementation on histopathology of vitamin E deficiency in the syrian golden hamster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, D.E.; Banks, M.A.; Martin, W.G.

    1986-03-01

    Male hamsters (N-40) were placed on a semi-purified torula yeast diet (< 0.05 ppm Se) containing 0.1 ppm added Se (as Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/) at age 6-8 weeks, then assigned to either vitamin E deficient (< 1 I.U./100 g, DS) or sufficient (1.5 I.U./100 g CS) diets and pair-fed. Body weights were recorded at 3 week intervals. At 65, 92, 120 and 180 days on diet (dod) two pairs of hamsters were sacrificed by injection of 10 cc/kg Brevital sodium. Blood samples were obtained from the inferior vena cava. Organs were removed, weighted, fixed, routinely processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. DS began to lose weight relative to CS at 75 dod. At 92 dod DS plasma ..cap alpha..-tocopherol decreased (DS = 4.3 +/- 1.2, CS = 36.7 +/- 4.4 ..mu..g/ml, p < 0.01), while at 180 dod, RBC hemolysis did not significantly differ (DS = 19.2 +/- 11.3, CS = 3.9 +/-2.7%, p < 0.10). A previous study indicated that dietary vitamin E plus Se deficiencies resulted in depressed growth (70 dod), increased RBC hemolysis (90 dod), muscle degeneration (120 dod), hepatocellular hypertrophy (180 dod) and acinar cell atrophy of the pancreas (170 dod). At 180 dod, Se-supplemented vitamin E deficient hamsters did not display muscle degeneration, hypertrophy of the liver or atrophy of the pancreas, but did have testicular atrophy. None of the DS animals died.

  2. Apolipoprotein M binds oxidized phospholipids and increases the antioxidant effect of HDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsøe, Sara; Ahnström, Josefin; Christoffersen, Christina;

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of LDL plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. HDL may, in part, protect against atherosclerosis by inhibiting LDL oxidation. Overexpression of HDL-associated apolipoprotein M (apoM) protects mice against atherosclerosis through a not yet clarified mechanism. Being a lip...... lipocalin, apoM contains a binding pocket for small lipophilic molecules. Here, we report that apoM likely serves as an antioxidant in HDL by binding oxidized phospholipids, thus enhancing the antioxidant potential of HDL....

  3. Membrane effects of Vitamin E deficiency: bioenergetic and surface-charge-density studies of skeletal muscle and liver mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintanilha, A.T.; Packer, L.; Szyszlo Davies, J.M.; Racanelli, T.L.; Davies, K.J.A.

    1981-12-01

    Vitamin E (dl-..cap alpha..-tocopherol) deficiency in rats increased the sensitivity of liver and muscle mitochondria to damage during incubation at various temperatures, irradiation with visible light, or steady state respiration with substrates. In all cases, vitamin E deficient mitochondria exhibited increased lipid peroxidation, reduced transmembrane potential, decreased respiratory coupling, and lower rates of electron transport, compared to control mitochondria. Muscle mitochondria always showed greater negative inner membrane surface charge density, and were also more sensitive to damage than were liver mitochondria. Vitamin E deficient mitochondria also showed slightly more negative inner membrane surface charge density compared to controls. The relationship between greater negative surface potential and increased sensitivity to damage observed, provides for a new and sensitive method to further probe the role of surface charge in membrane structure and function. Implications of these new findings for the well known human muscle myopathies and those experimentally induced by Vitamin E deficiency in animals, are discussed.

  4. Comparison of Carbohydrate Compositions of Total Apolipoproteins in Lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Güldür, Tayfun; OZAN, Sema; İLERİ, Tülay

    1998-01-01

    Terminal carbohydrate moieties of apolipoproteins of lipoproteins in human and goat serum were ascertained and compared. Apolipoproteins of b+pre-b (apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins) and a lipoproteins separated by phosphotungstic acid/MgCl2 precipitation method were applied to SDS-PAGE and blotted onto nitrocellulose membrane. Digoxigenin labelled lectins, each of which recognizes a specific sugar sequence, were incubated with apolipoproteins immobilized on a western blot membrane to...

  5. Human placenta secretes apolipoprotein B-100-containing lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva; Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Andersen, Claus B;

    2004-01-01

    Supply of lipids from the mother is essential for fetal growth and development. In mice, disruption of yolk sac cell secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins results in embryonic lethality. In humans, the yolk sac is vestigial. Nutritional functions are instead established very...... early during pregnancy in the placenta. To examine whether the human placenta produces lipoproteins, we examined apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) mRNA expression in placental biopsies. ApoB and MTP are mandatory for assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Both...... lipoproteins secreted from placental tissue showed spherical particles with a diameter of 47 +/- 10 nm. These results demonstrate that human placenta expresses both apoB and MTP and consequently synthesize and secrete apoB-100-containing lipoproteins. Placental lipoprotein formation constitutes a novel pathway...

  6. Investigations of the Connection between Vitamin E Deficiency and the Selenium Content in Animal Organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The highly toxic effects of selenium have been well known for a long time. Just ten years ago, however, the important role of Se in the prophylaxis of certain pathological symptoms, e.g. in the exudative diathesis of chickens, was recognized. In particular, the connection between Se and vitamin E has attracted considerable attention. Detailed feeding experiments with laboratory animals have shown some relation between the symptoms of vitamin E deficiency and Se, but up to now the underlying mechanisms have remained obscure. To contribute to clearing up these questions we have used activation analysis to determine whether a deficiency of vitamin E alters the Se content of certain typical organs. For this purpose 40 Cobb's one-day-old chicks were bred in batteries. One group was fed with vitamin-E-free standard diet; the other group was given the same diet but with an additive of 30 ppm of vitamin E. The Se content was 5 ppm in both cases. At an age of three weeks the chicks were killed and preparations of blood, plasma, cerebrum, cerebellum, pectoral muscle, liver, kidney and gonads were taken. In order to assay the Se content of some 600 preparations in a reasonable time a fast method of analysis was chosen using the 17. 5-s 77mSe. In this way the following advantages were obtained: (i) the short half-life and high activation cross-section made possible a high sensitivity even after very short irradiation times (20 s); (ii) problems arising from the matrix activity (mainly 24Na) were minimized and a chemical separation was unnecessary. To eliminate the critical influence of the half-life, each sample was irradiated and measured simultaneously with a Se standard using a multichannel analyser with an input facility for two detectors. The statistical evaluation of the measurements showed various interesting results. It was established that the Se content of certain organs is influenced by the vitamin E supply. Thus, the muscle preparations from vitamin-E deficient

  7. A comparative study on radiation sensitivity of preparations from normal and dystrophic (vitamin E deficient) muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of homogenates prepared from striated muscles of normal rabbits increases on the effect of low dose 60Co γ irradiation while it decreases on the effect of high doses. However, no activity increase can be observed in homogenates from muscle of vitamin E deficient rabbits even with low dose irradiation. Nevertheless, activity increase in the homogenates prepared by addition of a non-ionic detergent (Triton-X-100) continuously decreases, irrespective of the fact whether the homogenates originate from normal or dystrophic muscle. The activity increase occurring on low dose irradiation can also be observed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The difference between the preparations from normal and dystrophic muscle is manifested by the lower activating effect of irradiation in dystrophic than in normal muscle, activity increase may be even absent. The ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum will not grow on the effect of preparations. The different behavior to irradiation of AChE in normal and dystrophic muscle preparations was discussed with special reference to the role of vitamin E in stabilizing membrane structures. (author)

  8. Comparative study on radiation sensitivity of preparations from normal and dystrophic (vitamin E deficient) muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, G.; Szekessy-Hermann, V. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary)); Szabo, L.D. (Orszagos Frederic Joliot-Curie Sugarbiologiai es Sugaregeszseguegyi Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1983-11-22

    The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of homogenates prepared from striated muscles of normal rabbits increases on the effect of low dose /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. irradiation while it decreases on the effect of high doses. However, no activity increase can be observed in homogenates from muscle of vitamin E deficient rabbits even with low dose irradiation. Nevertheless, activity increase in the homogenates prepared by addition of a non-ionic detergent (Triton-X-100) continuously decreases, irrespective of the fact whether the homogenates originate from normal or dystrophic muscle. The activity increase occurring on low dose irradiation can also be observed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The difference between the preparations from normal and dystrophic muscle is manifested by the lower activating effect of irradiation in dystrophic than in normal muscle, activity increase may be even absent. The ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum will not grow on the effect of preparations. The different behavior to irradiation of AChE in normal and dystrophic muscle preparations was discussed with special reference to the role of vitamin E in stabilizing membrane structures.

  9. Comparative study on radiation sensitivity of preparations from normal and dystrophic (Vitamin-E deficient) muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, G.; Szabo, L.D.; Szekessy-Hermann, V.

    1983-01-01

    The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of homogenates prepared from the cross-striated muscles of normal rabbits increases with low dose /sup 60/Co-..gamma..-irradiation while it decreases with high doses. However, no activity increase can be observed in homogenates from muscles of vitamin-E deficient rabbits even with low dose irradiation. Nonetheless, activity increases in the homogenates prepared by addition of a non-ionic detergent (Triton-X-100) continuously decreases, irrespective of whether or not the homogenates originate from normal or dystrophic muscles. The activity increases occurring at low dose irradiation can also be observed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The difference between the preparations for normal and dystrophic muscles is manifested by the lower activating effect of irradiation in dystrophic rather than in normal muscle, and activity increases may even be absent. The ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum does not increase with the efffect of preparations. The different behaviour to irradiation of AChE in normal and dystrophic muscle preparations was discussed with special reference to the role of vitamin-E in stabilizing membrane structure. 34 references, 6 figures.

  10. Apolipoprotein M - a new biomarker in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    Care Kumaraswamy and colleagues have investigated whether plasma apolipoprotein M (apoM) is affected during different grades of sepsis, septic shock and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Interestingly, plasma apoM was significantly decreased in all groups of patients with a relationship to...

  11. Acai Juice Attenuates Atherosclerosis Through Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in ApoE Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) has been shown to exhibit extremely high antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory effects of acai pulp or acai juices have been studied in human, animal and cell culture models. However, their potential effects on atheroscl...

  12. Additive effects of lupin protein and phytic acid on aortic calcification in ApoE deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Schutkowski; Frank Hirche; Stefanie Geissler; Juliane Radtke; Stangl, Gabriele I.

    2015-01-01

    Lupin proteins have repeatedly been shown to exhibit lipid lowering properties and reduce aortic calcification in atherosclerosis models. Despite many efforts on its identification, the component which is responsible for the observed effects is still under debate. Phytic acid which is generally associated with lupin protein isolates has currently been described as bioactive plant compound. The objective of the study was to determine the role of associated phytic acid for the described lupin p...

  13. The Effect of a High-Fat Diet on Brain Plasticity, Inflammation and Cognition in Female ApoE4-Knockin and ApoE-Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Carola I F; Jansen, Diane; Mutsaers, Martina P C; Dederen, Pieter J W C; Geenen, Bram; Mulder, Monique T; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), one of three common isoforms of ApoE, is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). ApoE-deficient mice, as well as mice expressing human ApoE4, display impaired learning and memory functions and signs of neurodegeneration. Moreover, ApoE protects against high-fat (HF) diet induced neurodegeneration by its role in the maintenance of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The influence of a HF diet on the progression of AD-like cognitive and neuropathological changes was assessed in wild-type (WT), human ApoE4 and ApoE-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to evaluate the modulatory role of ApoE in this process. From 12 months of age, female WT, ApoE4, and ApoE-/- mice were fed either a standard or a HF diet (19% butter, 0.5% cholate, 1.25% cholesterol) throughout life. At 15 months of age mice performed the Morris water maze, evaluating spatial learning and memory. ApoE-/- showed increased spatial learning compared to WT mice (p = 0.009). HF diet improved spatial learning in WT mice (p = 0.045), but did not affect ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampus demonstrated increased neuroinflammation (CD68) in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region in ApoE4 (p = 0.001) and in ApoE-/- (p = 0.032) mice on standard diet. HF diet tended to increase CD68 in the CA1 in WT mice (p = 0.052), while it decreased in ApoE4 (p = 0.009), but ApoE-/- remained unaffected. A trend towards increased neurogenesis (DCX) was found in both ApoE4 (p = 0.052) and ApoE-/- mice (p = 0.068). In conclusion, these data suggest that HF intake induces different effects in WT mice compared to ApoE4 and ApoE-/- with respect to markers for cognition and neurodegeneration. We propose that HF intake inhibits the compensatory mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in aged female ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. PMID:27171180

  14. The Effect of a High-Fat Diet on Brain Plasticity, Inflammation and Cognition in Female ApoE4-Knockin and ApoE-Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola I F Janssen

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4, one of three common isoforms of ApoE, is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD. ApoE-deficient mice, as well as mice expressing human ApoE4, display impaired learning and memory functions and signs of neurodegeneration. Moreover, ApoE protects against high-fat (HF diet induced neurodegeneration by its role in the maintenance of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The influence of a HF diet on the progression of AD-like cognitive and neuropathological changes was assessed in wild-type (WT, human ApoE4 and ApoE-knockout (ApoE-/- mice to evaluate the modulatory role of ApoE in this process. From 12 months of age, female WT, ApoE4, and ApoE-/- mice were fed either a standard or a HF diet (19% butter, 0.5% cholate, 1.25% cholesterol throughout life. At 15 months of age mice performed the Morris water maze, evaluating spatial learning and memory. ApoE-/- showed increased spatial learning compared to WT mice (p = 0.009. HF diet improved spatial learning in WT mice (p = 0.045, but did not affect ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampus demonstrated increased neuroinflammation (CD68 in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1 region in ApoE4 (p = 0.001 and in ApoE-/- (p = 0.032 mice on standard diet. HF diet tended to increase CD68 in the CA1 in WT mice (p = 0.052, while it decreased in ApoE4 (p = 0.009, but ApoE-/- remained unaffected. A trend towards increased neurogenesis (DCX was found in both ApoE4 (p = 0.052 and ApoE-/- mice (p = 0.068. In conclusion, these data suggest that HF intake induces different effects in WT mice compared to ApoE4 and ApoE-/- with respect to markers for cognition and neurodegeneration. We propose that HF intake inhibits the compensatory mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in aged female ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice.

  15. Effect of selenium and vitamin E deficiencies on the fate of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of exogenous 14C-arachidonic acid (14C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of 14C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused 14C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted of unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of 14C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of 14C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of 14C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols

  16. Lung, aorta, and platelet metabolism of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in vitamin E deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentovic, M.A.; Gairola, C.; Lubawy, W.C.

    1982-08-01

    /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid metabolism was determined in aortas, platelets, and perfused lungs from rats pair fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 or 100 ppm vitamin E for 11 weeks. Spontaneous erythrocyte hemolysis tests showed 92% and 8% hemolysis for the 0 and 100 ppm vitamin E groups, respectively. Elevated lung homogenate levels of malonaldehyde in the 0 ppm group confirmed its deficient vitamin E status. Aortas from the vitamin E deficient group synthesized 54% less prostacyclin than aortas from the supplemented group (p less than 0.05). Although thromboxane generation by platelets from the vitamin E deficient group exhibited a 37% increase, this difference was not statistically significant compared to the supplemented animals. Greater amounts of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha were obtained in albumin buffer perfusates from lungs of vitamin E deficient rats than in those from supplemented rats. Significant differences (p less than 0.05) were noticed, however, only for PGE2 and PGF2 alpha. These studies indicate that vitamin E quantitatively alters arachidonic acid metabolism in aortic and lung tissue but its effect on thromboxane synthesis by platelets is less marked.

  17. Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism in Tuberculosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Sharifi Moud, Batool; Sargazi, Mansur; Moeenrezakhanlou, Alireza

    In this study, we aimed to determine the significance of association between Tuberculosis and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. The apolipoprotein E genotypes were assayed in 250 tuberculosis patients by polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion with Hha I. The results were compared with the results of the same experiments on 250 sex and age matched control peoples. Present results showed that in studied populations, prevalence of E4 genotype was lower in controls than in patients (8 v. 13.2%; OR = 1.75, pStatistically significant difference was found between patients and controls with respect to ɛ2 allele frequencies, while ɛ2 allele frequency was found to be much less prevalent in controls (6%) than in patients (35.8%; OR = 8.72, p<0.05). Also, our study revealed that there is an association between apolipoprotein E genotypes and amplitude to tuberculosis in studied populations. However, large population-based studies are needed to understand the exact role played by the locus in causing the condition.

  18. Notoginsenoside R1 attenuates atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE deficient mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Jia

    Full Text Available AIMS: Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The current study evaluated the interventional effects of a naturally occurring compound Notoginsenoside R1 (NR1 on atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: The atherosclerotic lesion was significantly alleviated by NR1 treatment and this attenuation was marked by reduction in lipid deposition, fibrosis and oxidative stress. Increased serum levels of GSH and SOD and decreased level of MDH were observed in NR1-treated ApoE-/- mice. NR1 treatment also significantly decreased the levels of CHO, TG, ox-LDL and increased the level of HDL. Additionally, the levels of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and γ-IFN were markedly reduced in NR1-treated ApoE-/- mice. Furthermore, significantly increased aortic expression of miR-26a, miR-21, miR-126a, miR-132, miR-146 and miR-155 and decreased expression of miR-20a and miR-92a were observed in the vehicle-treated ApoE-/- mice. While NR1 treatment led to a significant reduction in the expression of miR-21, miR-26a, miR-126 and increased expression of miR-20a. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our results demonstrated for the first time the anti-atherosclerotic effects of NR1, which could be in part mediated through its multiple targeting effects on inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism and microRNA expression. These results therefore justify further evaluation of NR1 as a therapeutic agent treating atherosclerosis.

  19. Apolipoprotein E4 Domain Interaction Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Impairs Astrocyte Function*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Ning; Ramaswamy, Gayathri; Weisgraber, Karl H.

    2009-01-01

    Domain interaction, a structural property of apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), is predicted to contribute to the association of apoE4 with Alzheimer disease. Arg-61 apoE mice, a gene-targeted mouse model specific for domain interaction, have lower brain apoE levels and synaptic, functional, and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that domain interaction elicits an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in astrocytes and an unfolded protein response that targets Arg-61 apoE for degradation. Primary Arg-61...

  20. Apolipoprotein E allele-dependent pathogenesis: A model for age-related retinal degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Malek, G; Johnson, L V; Mace, B E; Saloupis, P.; Schmechel, D E; Rickman, D. W.; Toth, C. A.; Sullivan, P. M.; Rickman, C. Bowes

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a late-onset, multifactorial, neurodegenerative disease of the retina and the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly in the Western world. We describe here a murine model that combines three known AMD risk factors: advanced age, high fat cholesterol-rich (HF-C) diet, and apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotype. Eyes of aged, targeted replacement mice expressing human apoE2, apoE3, or apoE4 and maintained on a HF-C diet show apoE isoform-dep...

  1. Effect of selenium and vitamin E deficiencies on the fate of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uotila, P.; Puustinen, T.

    1985-06-01

    The fate of exogenous /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid (/sup 14/C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of /sup 14/C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused /sup 14/C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted of unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of /sup 14/C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of /sup 14/C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols.

  2. Apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide protects against diffuse brain injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaning Zhao; Jianmin Li; Qiqun Tang; Junling Gao; Changxiang Chen; Liwei Jing; Pan Zhang; Shuxing Li

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E plays a crucial role in inhibiting chronic neurodegenerative processes. Howev-er, its impact on neurological function following diffuse brain injury is still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of action of apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide on diffuse brain injury. Apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide was administered into the caudal vein of rats with diffuse brain injury before and after injury. We found that apo-lipoprotein E mimetic peptide signiifcantly decreased the number of apoptotic neurons, reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 phosphorylation, down-regulated Bax and cytochrome c expression, decreased malondialdehyde content, and increased superoxide dismutase activity in a dose-dependent manner. These experimental ifndings demonstrate that apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide improves learning and memory function and protects against diffuse brain injury-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2-Bax mito-chondrial apoptotic pathway.

  3. Apolipoproteins, lipids and risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Talha; Almgren, Peter; Shiffman, Dov; Stocks, Tanja; Orho-Melander, Marju; Manjer, Jonas; Melander, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiological evidence for an obesity-cancer association is solid, whereas the association between obesity-associated lipoprotein levels and cancer is less evident. We investigated circulating levels of Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and association to risk of overall cancer and common cancer forms. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, enrolled 17,035 women and 11,063 men (1991-1996). Incident cancer cases were ascertained by record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry until end of follow-up, January 1, 2012. Baseline serum levels of ApoA1 and ApoB were analyzed for the entire cohort and HDL-C and LDL-C levels in 5,281 participants. Hazard ratios, with 95% confidence interval, were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards analysis. In the entire cohort, none of the exposures were related to overall cancer risk (HRadj ApoA1 = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.95,1.01; HRadj ApoB = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.98-1.04). Among men, ApoB was positively associated with cancer risk (HRadj ApoB = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.01,1.10). Female breast cancer risk was inversely associated with ApoB (HRadj = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86,0.99). Among both genders, ApoA1 was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HRadj = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.80,0.97), whereas high ApoB increased lung cancer risk (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.99,1.18). Colorectal cancer risk was increased with high ApoB (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01,1.16) among both genders. Apolipoprotein levels were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. Circulating levels of apolipoproteins are associated with overall cancer risk in men and across both genders with breast, lung and colorectal cancer risk. Validation of these findings may facilitate future primary prevention strategies for cancer. PMID:26804063

  4. Apical secretion of apolipoproteins from enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge; Poulsen, Mona Dam

    1993-01-01

    soluble fraction, suggesting a basolateral secretion into the intercellular space, and both this accumulation and the release to the medium was prevented by culture at 20 degrees C. The specific radioactivity of apo A-1 and apo B-48 released to the medium was significantly higher than that of the...... corresponding apolipoproteins remaining associated with the intestinal tissue. Furthermore, during culture periods of up to 5 h, the enterocytes and their tight junctions largely remained intact as evidenced by the inaccessibility of the nonpermeable surface marker Ruthenium red. We therefore propose that...

  5. Glucose Regulates the Expression of the Apolipoprotein A5 Gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruchart, Jamila; Nowak, Maxime; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Moitrot, Emmanuelle; Rommens, Corinne; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2008-04-07

    The apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) is a key player in determining triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. Since diabetes is often associated with hypertriglyceridemia, this study explores whether APOA5 gene expression is regulated by alteration in glucose homeostasis and the related pathways. D-glucose activates APOA5 gene expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes, and the glycolytic pathway involved was determined using D-glucose analogs and metabolites. Together, transient transfections, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that this regulation occurs at the transcriptional level through an increase of USF1/2 binding to an E-box in the APOA5 promoter. We show that this phenomenon is not due to an increase of mRNA or protein expression levels of USF. Using protein phosphatases 1 and 2A inhibitor, we demonstrate that D-glucose regulates APOA5 gene via a dephosphorylation mechanism, thereby resulting in an enhanced USF1/2-promoter binding. Last, subsequent suppressions of USF1/2 and phosphatases mRNA through siRNA gene silencing abolished the regulation. We demonstrate that APOA5 gene is up regulated by D-glucose and USF through phosphatase activation. These findings may provide a new cross talk between glucose and lipid metabolism.

  6. Cloning and characterization of an apolipoprotein C2 promoter in the mouse central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoyang Li; Bing Du; Shengyang Li; Xiangchuan Lv; Shenglai Zhou; Yang Yu; Wei Wang; Zhihong Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C2 is an important member of the apolipoprotein C family, and is a potent activator of lipoprotein lipase. In the central nervous system, apolipoprotein C2 plays an important role in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Studies into the exact regulatory mechanism of mouse apolipoprotein C2 expression have not been reported. In this study, seven luciferase expression vectors, which contained potential mouse apolipoprotein C2 gene promoters, were constructed and co-transfected with pRL-TK into HEK293T cells to investigate apolipoprotein C2 promoter activity. Luciferase assays indicated that the apolipoprotein C2 promoter region was mainly located in the +104 bp to +470 bp region. The activity of the different lengths of apolipoprotein C2 promoter region varied. This staggered negative-positive-negative arrangement indicates the complex regulation of apolipoprotein C2 expression and provides important clues for elucidating the regulatory mechanism of apolipoprotein C2 gene transcription.

  7. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasrich, Dorothee; Bartelt, Alexander [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Grewal, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.grewal@sydney.edu.au [Faculty of Pharmacy A15, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Heeren, Joerg, E-mail: heeren@uke.de [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-09-10

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  8. Apolipoprotein E promotes lipid accumulation and differentiation in human adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma (PPARG), in particular the PPARG2 isoform. Similarly, differentiation of murine Apoe-deficient adipocytes was characterized by reduced gene expression of Adipoq, Fabp4 and Pparg. Interestingly, incubation of APOE-deficient hMSC-Tert adipocytes with conditioned media from APOE3-overexpressing adipocytes or APOE-containing Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) partially restored triglyceride accumulation, but were unable to induce adipocyte differentiation, as judged by expression of adipocyte markers. Taken together, depletion of endogenous APOE in human adipocytes severely impairs lipid accumulation, which is associated with an inability to initiate differentiation. - Highlights: • Immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells were used to study adipocyte development. • Knockdown of endogenous APOE lead to impaired lipid accumulation and adipogenesis. • APOE supplementation partially restored lipid accumulation but not differentiation.

  9. Apolipoprotein E isoform-specific effects on lipoprotein receptor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmeier, Corbin; Shackleton, Ben; Ojo, Joseph; Paris, Daniel; Mullan, Michael; Crawford, Fiona

    2014-12-01

    Recent findings indicate an isoform-specific role for apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the elimination of beta-amyloid (Aβ) from the brain. ApoE is closely associated with various lipoprotein receptors, which contribute to Aβ brain removal via metabolic clearance or transit across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). These receptors are subject to ectodomain shedding at the cell surface, which alters endocytic transport and mitigates Aβ elimination. To further understand the manner in which apoE influences Aβ brain clearance, these studies investigated the effect of apoE on lipoprotein receptor shedding. Consistent with prior reports, we observed an increased shedding of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1) following Aβ exposure in human brain endothelial cells. When Aβ was co-treated with each apoE isoform, there was a reduction in Aβ-induced shedding with apoE2 and apoE3, while lipoprotein receptor shedding in the presence of apoE4 remained increased. Likewise, intracranial administration of Aβ to apoE-targeted replacement mice (expressing the human apoE isoforms) resulted in an isoform-dependent effect on lipoprotein receptor shedding in the brain (apoE4 > apoE3 > apoE2). Moreover, these results show a strong inverse correlation with our prior work in apoE transgenic mice in which apoE4 animals showed reduced Aβ clearance across the BBB compared to apoE3 animals. Based on these results, apoE4 appears less efficient than other apoE isoforms in regulating lipoprotein receptor shedding, which may explain the differential effects of these isoforms in removing Aβ from the brain. PMID:25015123

  10. Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Control Multilayered Territorialized Atherosclerosis B-Cell Responses in Aged ApoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikakulapu, Prasad; Hu, Desheng; Yin, Changjun; Mohanta, Sarajo K.; Bontha, Sai Vineela; Peng, Li; Beer, Michael; Weber, Christian; McNamara, Coleen A.; Grassia, Gianluca; Maffia, Pasquale; Manz, Rudolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Explore aorta B-cell immunity in aged apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. Approach and Results— Transcript maps, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, immunofluorescence analyses, cell transfers, and Ig-ELISPOT (enzyme-linked immunospot) assays showed multilayered atherosclerosis B-cell responses in artery tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs). Aging-associated aorta B-cell–related transcriptomes were identified, and transcript atlases revealed highly territorialized B-cell responses in ATLOs versus atherosclerotic lesions: ATLOs showed upregulation of bona fide B-cell genes, including Cd19, Ms4a1 (Cd20), Cd79a/b, and Ighm although intima plaques preferentially expressed molecules involved in non–B effector responses toward B-cell–derived mediators, that is, Fcgr3 (Cd16), Fcer1g (Cd23), and the C1q family. ATLOs promoted B-cell recruitment. ATLO B-2 B cells included naive, transitional, follicular, germinal center, switched IgG1+, IgA+, and IgE+ memory cells, plasmablasts, and long-lived plasma cells. ATLOs recruited large numbers of B-1 cells whose subtypes were skewed toward interleukin-10+ B-1b cells versus interleukin-10− B-1a cells. ATLO B-1 cells and plasma cells constitutively produced IgM and IgG and a fraction of plasma cells expressed interleukin-10. Moreover, ApoE−/− mice showed increased germinal center B cells in renal lymph nodes, IgM-producing plasma cells in the bone marrow, and higher IgM and anti–MDA-LDL (malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein) IgG serum titers. Conclusions— ATLOs orchestrate dichotomic, territorialized, and multilayered B-cell responses in the diseased aorta; germinal center reactions indicate generation of autoimmune B cells within the diseased arterial wall during aging. PMID:27102965

  11. The effect of X-irradiation on vitamin E deficient rat liver mitochondrial ATPase and cytochrome c oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male albino rats were fed for 3 weeks on standard diets or on diets either deficient in or supplemented by vitamin E, whole-body X-irradiated and then immediately decapitated. Liver mitochondrial ATPase activity was stimulated and cytochrome c oxidase inhibited in the irradiated vitamin E deficient group. These activities were not influenced by irradiation in the rats fed on vitamin E supplemented and standard diets. The live mitochondrial vitamin E level was decreased in rats fed on the deficient diet. No differences in liver mitochondrial vitamin E levels were observed after X-irradiation of rats fed on any of the diets. The results suggest that the liver mitochondrial inner-membrane structure may be altered by a diet deficient in vitamin E. (U.K.)

  12. Protective effect of acupuncture on heart in mice with hyperlipemia and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申洪波

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the inhibiting effect of acupuncture on blood lipid,myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice with hyperlipemia,and explore its possible action mechanism.Methods Ten inbred mice(C57)were applied.Forty ApoE(-/-)mice removed gene of apolipoprotein E were randomly divided into a control

  13. Resolving the Relationship between Apolipoprotein E and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Slifer, Michael A; Martin, Eden R.; Gilbert, John R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between the ApolipoproteinE-ε4 (APOE4) allele and depression among elders. However others have failed to find an association. Since APOE4 is a well recognized risk factor for Alzheimer dementia, cognitive status may represent an important confounder between APOE4 and depression. In this investigation, we examined the relationship between the ApolipoproteinE-ε4 allele and depression among elders accounting for cognitive status.

  14. Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein (α-TTP): Insights from Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Yunsook; Traber, Maret G.

    2007-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) is a liver cytosolic transport protein that faciliates α-tocopherol (α-T) transfer into liver secreted plasma lipoproteins. Genetic defects in α-TTP, like dietary vitamin E deficiency, are associated with infertility, muscular weakness and neurological disorders. Both human and α-TTP deficient (α-TTP-/-) mice exhibit severe plasma and tissue vitamin E deficiency that can be attenuated by sufficient dietary α-T supplementations. In this review, we summ...

  15. Probucol prevents early coronary heart disease and death in the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI/apolipoprotein E double knockout mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Anne; Zhang, Songwen; Miettinen, Helena E.; Ebrahim, Shamsah; Holm, Teresa M.; Vasile, Eliza; Mark J Post; Yoerger, Danita M.; Picard, Michael H.; Joshua L. Krieger; Andrews, Nancy C.; Simons, Michael; Krieger, Monty

    2003-01-01

    Mice with homozygous null mutations in the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI (scavenger receptor class B, type I) and apolipoprotein E genes fed a low-fat diet exhibit a constellation of pathologies shared with human atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD): hypercholesterolemia, occlusive coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial infarctions, cardiac dysfunction (heart enlargement, reduced systolic function and ejection fraction, and ECG abnormalities), and premature death (mean a...

  16. Synergistic effects of high fat feeding and apolipoprotein E deletion on enterocytic amyloid-beta abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β (Aβ, a key protein found in amyloid plaques of subjects with Alzheimer's disease is expressed in the absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine. Ingestion of saturated fat significantly enhances enterocytic Aβ abundance whereas fasting abolishes expression. Apolipoprotein (apo E has been shown to directly modulate Aβ biogenesis in liver and neuronal cells but it's effect in enterocytes is not known. In addition, apo E modulates villi length, which may indirectly modulate Aβ as a consequence of differences in lipid absorption. This study compared Aβ abundance and villi length in wild-type (WT and apo E knockout (KO mice maintained on either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Wild-type C57BL/6J and apo E KO mice were randomised for six-months to a diet containing either 4% (w/w unsaturated fats, or chow comprising 16% saturated fats and 1% cholesterol. Quantitative immunohistochemistry was used to assess Aβ abundance in small intestinal enterocytes. Apo E KO mice given the low-fat diet had similar enterocytic Aβ abundance compared to WT controls. Results The saturated fat diet substantially increased enterocytic Aβ in WT and in apo E KO mice, however the effect was greater in the latter. Villi height was significantly greater in apo E KO mice than for WT controls when given the low-fat diet. However, WT mice had comparable villi length to apo E KO when fed the saturated fat and cholesterol enriched diet. There was no effect of the high-fat diet on villi length in apo E KO mice. Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the notion that lipid substrate availability modulates enterocytic Aβ. Apo E may influence enterocytic lipid availability by modulating absorptive capacity.

  17. DMPD: Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18388328 Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. Kockx ...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. PubmedID 18388...328 Title Regulation of endogenous apolipoprotein E secretion by macrophages. Aut

  18. The role of apolipoprotein A-IV in regulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Qing; Huesman, Sarah; Xu, Min; Li, Xiaoming; Lou, Danwen; Woods, Stephen C; Marziano, Corina; Tso, Patrick

    2015-10-15

    Both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) are produced from the gut and enhance postprandial insulin secretion. This study investigated whether apoA-IV regulates nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion and whether apoA-IV knockout causes compensatory GLP-1 release. Using lymph-fistula-mice, we first determined lymphatic GLP-1 secretion by administering apoA-IV before an intraduodenal Ensure infusion. apoA-IV changed neither basal nor Ensure-induced GLP-1 secretion relative to saline administration. We then assessed GLP-1 in apoA-IV-/- and wild-type (WT) mice administered intraduodenal Ensure. apoA-IV-/- mice had comparable lymph flow, lymphatic triglyceride, glucose, and protein outputs as WT mice. Intriguingly, apoA-IV-/- mice had higher lymphatic GLP-1 concentration and output than WT mice 30 min after Ensure administration. Increased GLP-1 was also observed in plasma of apoA-IV-/- mice at 30 min. apoA-IV-/- mice had comparable total gut GLP-1 content relative to WT mice under fasting, but a lower GLP-1 content 30 min after Ensure administration, suggesting that more GLP-1 was secreted. Moreover, an injection of apoA-IV protein did not reverse the increased GLP-1 secretion in apoA-IV-/- mice. Finally, we assessed gene expression of GLUT-2 and the lipid receptors, including G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40, GPR119, and GPR120 in intestinal segments. GLUT-2, GPR40 and GPR120 mRNAs were unaltered by apoA-IV knockout. However, ileal GPR119 mRNA was significantly increased in apoA-IV-/- mice. GPR119 colocalizes with GLP-1 in ileum and stimulates GLP-1 secretion by sensing OEA, lysophosphatidylcholine, and 2-monoacylglycerols. We suggest that increased ileal GPR119 is a potential mechanism by which GLP-1 secretion is enhanced in apoA-IV-/- mice. PMID:26294669

  19. Roles of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) in Inflammation and Apoptosis in Preeclampsia Pathogenesis and Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Luyi Mao; Qiongjie Zhou; Shufeng Zhou; Wilbur, Rhonda R.; Xiaotian Li

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential roles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and apolipoprotein (apoE) in inflammation and apoptosis promoting pathological changes in preeclampsia in pregnant mice with apoE and/or iNOS knock out. METHODS: B6.129 mice were crossed to produce WT, apoE(-/-), apoE(+/-), iNOS(-/-), iNOS(+/-) and apoE(-/-)iNOS(-/-) groups. Variants were confirmed by PCR. Serum lipid parameters (triglycerides, TG; total cholesterol, TC; high density lipoprotein, HDL; and low...

  20. Plasma apolipoprotein A5 and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga-Thie, GM; Van Tol, A; Hattori, H; van Vark-van de Zee, LC; Jansen, H; Sijbrands, EJG

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Variation in the human apolipoprotein (APO) A5 gene (APOA5) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides. However, data on the exact role of plasma concentrations of APOA5 in human triglyceride homeostasis are lacking. In the present study, we estimated plasma APOA5 levels in pa

  1. Apolipoprotein a5 and hypertriglyceridemia in prague hypertriglyceridemic rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlecová, Michaela; Hojná, Silvie; Bohuslavová, R.; Hubáček, J. A.; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2006), s. 373-379. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/03/0769 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : metabolic syndrome * apolipoprotein A5 * rat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  2. Apolipoprotein E genotype, cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Tauseef A; Shah, Tina; Prieto, David;

    2013-01-01

    At the APOE gene, encoding apolipoprotein E, genotypes of the ε2/ε3/ε4 alleles associated with higher LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are also associated with higher coronary risk. However, the association of APOE genotype with other cardiovascular biomarkers and risk of ischaemic stroke is less c...

  3. Effects of apolipoproteins on the kinetics of cholesterol exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letizia, J.Y.; Phillips, M.C. (Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1991-01-22

    The effects of apolipoproteins on the kinetics of cholesterol exchange have been investigated by monitoring the transfer of ({sup 14}C)cholesterol from donor phospholipid/cholesterol complexes containing human apolipoproteins A, B, or C. Negatively charged discoidal and vesicular particles containing purified apolipoproteins complexed with lipid and a trace of ({sup 14}C)cholesterol were incubated with a 10-fold excess of neutral, acceptor, small unilamellar vesicles. The donor and acceptor particles were separated by chromatogrphy of DEAE-Sepharose, and the rate of movement of labeled cholesterol was analyzed as a first-order exchange process. The kinetics of exchange of cholesterol from both vesicular and discoidal complexes that contain apoproteins are consistent with an aqueous diffusion mechanism, as has been established previously for PC/cholesterol SUV. Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, reduced and carboxymethylated A-11, and B-100 present in SUV at the same lipid/protein (w/w) ratio all enhance the rate of cholesterol exchange to about the same degree. Cholesterol molecules exchange more rapidly from discoidal complexes. Generally, as the diameter of apoprotein/phospholipid/cholesterol discs decreases, t{sub 1/2} for cholesterol exchange decreases. Since small bilayer discs have a relatively high ratio of boundary to face surface area, cholesterol molecules desorb more rapidly than from larger discs. The modulation of lipid packing by the apoprotein molecules present at the surface of lipoprotein particles affects the rate of cholesterol exchange from such particles.

  4. The gender-specific apolipoprotein E genotype influence on the distribution of plasma lipids and apolipoproteins in the population of Rochester, Minnesota. II. Regression relationships with concomitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, S.L.; Sing, C.F. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States)); Ferrell, R.E. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Kottke, B.A. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The influence of the apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism and gender on the regression relationships between each of nine plasma lipid and apolipoprotein traits (total cholesterol; ln triglycerides; high-density-lipoprotein chloesterol; apolipoproteins AI, AII, B, and CII; ln CIII; and ln E) and four concomitants (age, weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and smoking) was studied in 507 unrelated individuals representative of the adult population of Rochester, MN. Analyses are presented separately for females and males. Each lipid and apolipoprotein trait exhibited at least one Apo E genotype-specific regression relationship with the concomitants investigated in this study. In most cases the heterogeneity of regression was associated with differences between the [var epsilon]32 and [var epsilon]33 genotype. This study documents that the influence of Apo E genotype on average levels of plasma lipids and apolipoproteins varies among subdivisions of the population defined by age, body size, and smoking status. 61 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Association between a specific apolipoprotein B mutation and familial defective apolipoprotein B-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Familial defective apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 is a genetic disease that leads to hypercholesterolemia and to an increased serum concentration of low density lipoproteins that bind defectively to the apoB,E(LDL) receptor. The disorder appears to result from a mutation in the gene for apoB-100. Extensive sequence analysis of the two alleles of one subject heterozygous for the disorder has revealed a previously unreported mutation in the codon for amino acid 3500 that results in the substitution of glutamine for arginine. This same mutant allele occurs in six other, unrelated subjects and in eight affected relatives in two of these families. A partial haplotype of this mutant apoB-100 allele was constructed by sequence analysis and restriction enzyme digestion at positions where variations in the apoB-100 are known to occur. This haplotype is the same in three probands and four affected members of one family and lacks a polymorphic Xba I site whose presence has been correlated with high cholesterol levels. Thus, it appears that the mutation in the codon for amino acid 3500 (CGG → CAG), a CG mutational hot spot, defines a minor apoB-100 allele associated with defective low density lipoproteins and hypercholesterolemia

  6. Apolipoprotein L-I Promotes Trypanosome Lysis by Forming Pores in Lysosomal Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Morga, David; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Paturiaux-Hanocq, Françoise; Nolan, Derek P.; Lins, Laurence; Homblé, Fabrice; Vanhamme, Luc; Tebabi, Patricia; Pays, Annette; Poelvoorde, Philippe; Jacquet, Alain; Brasseur, Robert; Pays, Etienne

    2005-07-01

    Apolipoprotein L-I is the trypanolytic factor of human serum. Here we show that this protein contains a membrane pore-forming domain functionally similar to that of bacterial colicins, flanked by a membrane-addressing domain. In lipid bilayer membranes, apolipoprotein L-I formed anion channels. In Trypanosoma brucei, apolipoprotein L-I was targeted to the lysosomal membrane and triggered depolarization of this membrane, continuous influx of chloride, and subsequent osmotic swelling of the lysosome until the trypanosome lysed.

  7. Cholestasis and hypercholesterolemia in SCD1-deficient mice fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.T. Flowers; A.K. Groen; A.T. Oler; M.P. Keller; Y. Choi; K.L. Schueler; O.C. Richards; H. Lan; M. Miyazaki; F. Kuipers; C.M. Kendziorski; J.M. Ntambi; A.D. Attie

    2006-01-01

    Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1-deficient (SCD1(-/-)) mice have impaired MUFA synthesis. When maintained on a very low-fat (VLF) diet, SCD1(-/-) mice developed severe hypercholesterolemia, characterized by an increase in apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins and the appearance of lipoprot

  8. Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collaboration, Emerging Risk Factors; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Sarwar, Nadeem;

    2009-01-01

    initial vascular disease from 68 long-term prospective studies, mostly in Europe and North America. During 2.79 million person-years of follow-up, there were 8857 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, 3928 coronary heart disease [CHD] deaths, 2534 ischemic strokes, 513 hemorrhagic strokes, and 2536......CONTEXT: Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. OBJECTIVE: To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual records were supplied on 302,430 people without...... mg/dL directly measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Within-study regression analyses were adjusted for within-person variation and combined using meta-analysis. RESULTS: The rates of CHD per 1000 person-years in the bottom and top thirds of baseline lipid distributions, respectively...

  9. Effect of vitamin E deficiency on pancreatic tumors induced by N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP) in the syrian golden hamster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, M.A.; Martin, W.G.; Hinton, D.E.

    1986-03-05

    Male hamsters (N=100) were injected i.p. with 40 mg/kg BOP at 8 wk, then assigned to a vitamin E deficient (< 1 I.U./100g, D) or sufficient (150 I.U./100g, C) semi-purified diet and pair-fed. To prevent interaction with Se, diets were torula yeast based (< 0.05 ppm Se). After 120 d on diet (dod), the hamsters were fed the C diet for the remainder of the trial. A previous study indicated that this dietary regimine prevented mortality due to vitamin E depletion to at least 420 dod. At 90 dod two pairs of hamsters were sacrificed to confirm E deficiency. RBC hemolysis increased in D (D=87.1 +/- 6.5%, C=43.9 +/- 4.4%, p < 0.05) and plasma ..cap alpha..-tocopherol decreased (D=22.5 +/- 3.8, C=43.9 +/- 4.7 ..mu..g/ml, p < 0.05). D hamsters lost weight relative to C from 60-185 dod only. Moribund hamsters were sacrificed. Gross examination revealed nodules in liver and pancreas of animals dying at greater than or equal to 33 wk post-injection. At 52 wk, 50% of D had died and the remaining D hamsters were sacrificed. Mortality (50%) was delayed by 8 wk in C. From 33-52 wk, D:C mortality was 1.6. This suggests that dietary vitamin E deficiency decreased the latency period for onset of tumors. Histological examination showed pancreatic tumors and associated lesions, including cystic foci, cystadenomas and adenocarcinomas.

  10. Solubility engineering and crystallization of human apolipoprotein D

    OpenAIRE

    Nasreen, Amber; Vogt, Martin; Kim, Hyun Jin; Eichinger, Andreas; Skerra, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a physiologically important member of the lipocalin protein family that was discovered as a peripheral subunit of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) but is also abundant in other body fluids and organs, including neuronal tissue. Although it has been possible to produce functional ApoD in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and to demonstrate its ligand-binding activity for progesterone and arachidonic acid, the recombinant protein suffers from a pronounced tend...

  11. The Apolipoprotein E Antagonistic Pleiotropy Hypothesis: Review and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; S Duke Han

    2011-01-01

    Research on apolipoprotein E (APOE) has consistently revealed a relationship between the gene's ε 4 allele and risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, research with younger populations of ε 4 carriers has suggested that the APOE ε 4 allele may in fact be beneficial in earlier ages and may only confer risk of cognitive decline later in life. Accordingly, we and others have proposed that APOE may represent an example of antagonistic pleiotropy. Antagonistic pleiotropy is an e...

  12. The role of apolipoprotein AI domains in lipid binding

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, W. Sean; Hazlett, Theodore; Mantulin, William W.; Jonas, Ana

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) is the principal protein constituent of high density lipoproteins and it plays a key role in human cholesterol homeostasis; however, the structure of apoAI is not clearly understood. To test the hypothesis that apoAI is organized into domains, three deletion mutants of human apoAI expressed in Escherichia coli were studied in solution and in reconstituted high density lipoprotein particles. Each mutant lacked one of three specific regions ...

  13. Serum lipid and apolipoprotein distributions in Hong Kong Chinese.

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, P C; Tam, S C; Tai, Y. T.; Lau, C P; Lee, J.; Sha, Y Y

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to describe the distribution of lipids and apolipoproteins in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. DESIGN--This was a prospective, cross sectional, population based survey. SETTINGS--The study was conducted in a single, self referred, out patient screening centre. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 825 Chinese adults aged > or = 20 years were screened. One hundred subjects who had previously had lipid measurement and 29 who were taking lipid modifying drugs were excluded bu...

  14. Oligonucleotide-mediated gene editing of Apolipoprotein A-I.

    OpenAIRE

    Disterer, P

    2008-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein constituent of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and controls reverse cholesterol transport, an important process in preventing atherosclerosis. A natural point mutation, ApoA-lMiiano (ApoA-Im) enhances the atheroprotective potential of HDL. Here, I attempt to introduce this specific modification into the genome of mammalian cells using the gene therapy strategy of oligonucleotide-mediated gene editing. I showed successful APOA-I gene editing in r...

  15. Hereditary Amyloid Cardiomyopathy Caused by a Variant Apolipoprotein A1

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi Asl, Ladan; Liepnieks, Juris J.; Hamidi Asl, Kamran; Uemichi, Tomoyuki; Moulin, Georges; Desjoyaux, Emmanuel; Loire, Robert; Delpech, Marc; Grateau, Gilles; Benson, Merrill D.

    1999-01-01

    Autosomal dominant hereditary amyloidosis with a unique cutaneous and cardiac presentation and death from heart failure by the sixth or seventh decade was found to be associated with a previously unreported point mutation (thymine to cytosine, nt 1389) in exon 4 of the apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) gene. The predicted substitution of proline for leucine at amino acid position 90 was confirmed by structural analysis of amyloid protein isolated from cardiac deposits of amyloid. The subunit protein ...

  16. Effect of fatty acids on the synthesis and secretion of apolipoprotein B by rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modulation of apolipoprotein B synthesis and secretion by fatty acids in rat hepatocytes was studied. Maximum apolipoprotein B production was obtained in the case of oleic acid followed by linoleic, stearic and palmitic/linolenic acid when compared to control which was not supplemented with any fatty acids. Oleic acid was found to exert a concentration dependent increase in the secretion of [3H] apolipoprotein B into the medium while that associated with the cell layer was not affected. Pulse chase experiments in the presence of oleic acid showed that it caused an increase in the secretion of apolipoprotein B into the medium. 14C-acetate incorporation into cholesterol and cholesteryl ester associated with the cell layer and secreted very low density lipoproteins also showed an increase in the presence of oleic acid indicating an increase in cholesterogenesis. The effect of oleic acid on [3H] apolipoprotein B and very low density lipoprotein secretion appeared to be mediated through cholesterol as (i)ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis caused significant reduction in the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on apolipoprotein secretion and (ii) mevinolin, another inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis also reversed the stimulatory effect of oleic acid on apolipoprotein B secretion. These results indicated that oleic acid may influence apolipoprotein B synthesis and secretion in hepatocytes probably by affecting cholesterol/cholesteryl ester formation which may be a critical component in the secretion of apolipoprotein B as lipoproteins. (author). 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Apolipoprotein E isoform-dependent dendritic recovery of hippocampal neurons following activation of innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maezawa Izumi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innate immune activation, including a role for cluster of differentiation 14/toll-like receptor 4 co-receptors (CD14/TLR-4 co-receptors, has been implicated in paracrine damage to neurons in several neurodegenerative diseases that also display stratification of risk or clinical outcome with the common alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE: APOE2, APOE3, and APOE4. Previously, we have shown that specific stimulation of CD14/TLR-4 with lipopolysaccharide (LPS leads to greatest innate immune response by primary microglial cultures from targeted replacement (TR APOE4 mice and greatest p38MAPK-dependent paracrine damage to neurons in mixed primary cultures and hippocampal slice cultures derived from TR APOE4 mice. In contrast, TR APOE2 astrocytes had the highest NF-kappaB activity and no neurotoxicity. Here we tested the hypothesis that direct activation of CD14/TLR-4 in vivo would yield different amounts of paracrine damage to hippocampal sector CA1 pyramidal neurons in TR APOE mice. Methods We measured in vivo changes in dendrite length in hippocampal CA1 neurons using Golgi staining and determined hippocampal apoE levels by Western blot. Neurite outgrowth of cultured primary neurons in response to astrocyte conditioned medium was assessed by measuring neuron length and branch number. Results Our results showed that TR APOE4 mice had slightly but significantly shorter dendrites at 6 weeks of age. Following exposure to intracerebroventricular LPS, there was comparable loss of dendrite length at 24 hr among the three TR APOE mice. Recovery of dendrite length over the next 48 hr was greater in TR APOE2 than TR APOE3 mice, while TR APOE4 mice had failure of dendrite regeneration. Cell culture experiments indicated that the enhanced neurotrophic effect of TR APOE2 was LDL related protein-dependent. Conclusion The data indicate that the environment within TR APOE2 mouse hippocampus was most supportive of dendrite regeneration

  18. Plaque Size Is Decreased but M1 Macrophage Polarization and Rupture Related Metalloproteinase Expression Are Maintained after Deleting T-Bet in ApoE Null Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaousi, Aikaterini; Hayes, Elaine M.; Di Gregoli, Karina; Bond, Andrew R.; Bevan, Laura; Thomas, Anita C.; Newby, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thelper1 (Th1) lymphocytes have been previously implicated in atherosclerotic plaque growth but their role in plaque vulnerability to rupture is less clear. We investigated whether T-bet knockout that prevents Th1 lymphocyte differentiation modulates classical (M1) macrophage activation or production of matrix degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors, TIMPs. Methods & Results We studied the effect of T-bet deletion in apolipoproteinE (ApoE) knockout mice fed ...

  19. Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency: refinement of genetic localization and analysis of linkage disequilibrium by using new markers in 14 families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerflinger, N.; Linder, C.; Ouahchi, K.; Mandel, J.L.; Koenig, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Strasbourg (France); Gyapay, G.; Weissenbach, J. [Genethon, Evry (France); Le Paslier, D.; Rigault, P.; Landrieu, P. [Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    1995-05-01

    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by neurological symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. This disorder has been reported previously as familial isolated vitamin E deficiency. We have mapped recently the AVED locus to a 5-cM confidence interval on chromosome 8q by homozygosity mapping in six Mediterranean families. We have now analyzed six new and two previously described families and demonstrate genetic homgeneity despite important clinical variability and wide geographic origins. Analysis of nine new tightly linked microsatellite markers, including four characterized in this study, revealed a predominant but not unique mutation in northern African populations, where this condition is more frequent. Haplotype analysis but also classical recombinations allowed us to refine the AVED position to a 1-cM interval. A YAC contig over this interval was constructed from marker STSs and YAC fingerprint data, in order to facilitate the search of the AVED gene. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Clusterin/apolipoprotein J attenuates angiotensin II-induced renal fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwon-Soo Jung

    Full Text Available The blockade of angiotensin II (Ang II is a major therapeutic strategy for diabetic nephropathy. The main roles of Ang II in renal disease are mediated via the Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R. Upregulation of clusterin/apolipoprotein J has been reported in nephropathy models, suggesting it has a protective role in nephropathogenesis. Here, we studied how clusterin acts against Ang II-induced renal fibrosis. Levels of AT1R and fibrotic markers in clusterin-/- mice and Ang II infused rats transfected with an adenovirus encoding clusterin were evaluated by immunoblot analysis, real time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining. The effect of clusterin on renal fibrosis was evaluated in NRK-52E cells, a cultured renal tubular epithelial cell line, using immunoblot analysis and real time RT-PCR. Nuclear localization of NF-κB was evaluated using immunofluorecence and co-immunoprecipitation. Renal fibrosis and expression of AT1R was higher in the kidneys of clusterin-/- mice than in those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, loss of clusterin accelerated Ang II-stimulated renal fibrosis and AT1R expression. Overexpression of clusterin in proximal tubular epithelial cells decreased the levels of Ang II-stimulated fibrotic markers and AT1R. Moreover, intrarenal delivery of clusterin attenuated Ang II-mediated expression of fibrotic markers and AT1R in rats. Fluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation in conjunction with western blot revealed that clusterin inhibited Ang II-stimulated nuclear localization of p-NF-κB via a direct physical interaction and subsequently decreased the AT1R level in proximal tubular epithelial cells. These data suggest that clusterin attenuates Ang II-induced renal fibrosis by inhibition of NF-κB activation and subsequent downregulation of AT1R. This study raises the possibility that clusterin could be used as a therapeutic target for Ang II-induced renal diseases.

  1. Apolipoprotein A-I possesses an anti-obesity effect associated with increase of energy expenditure and up-regulation of UCP1 in brown fat

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Xiangbo; Li, Zhenghu; Zhang, Yixuan; Yang, Ling; Pan, Yi; Wang, Zhenzhen; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Chen, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the most abundant protein constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Reduced plasma HDL and ApoA-I levels have been found to be associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in human beings. However, whether or not ApoA-I has a direct effect on obesity is largely unknown. Here we analysed the anti-obesity effect of ApoA-I using two mouse models, a transgenic mouse with overexpression of ApoA-I and the mice administered with an ApoA-I mimetic peptid...

  2. Effects of intra-abdominal sepsis on atherosclerosis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynar, Ata Murat; Yende, Sachin; Zhu, Lin; Frederick, Daniel R; Chambers, Robin; Burton, Christine L; Carter, Melinda; Stolz, Donna Beer; Agostini, Brittani; Gregory, Alyssa D.; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Shapiro, Steven D; Angus, Derek C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis and other infections are associated with late cardiovascular events. Although persistent inflammation is implicated, a causal relationship has not been established. We tested whether sepsis causes vascular inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis. Methods We performed prospective, randomized animal studies at a university research laboratory involving adult male ApoE-deficient (ApoE−/−) and young C57B/L6 wild-type (WT) mice. In the primary study conducted to determine ...

  3. Specificity determinants in the interaction of apolipoprotein(a) kringles with tetranectin and LDL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterer, Nigel R; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Jacobsen, Christian;

    2002-01-01

    Lipoprotein(a) is composed of low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein(a). Apolipoprotein(a) has evolved from plasminogen and contains 10 different plasminogen kringle 4 homologous domains [KIV(1-110)]. Previous studies indicated that lipoprotein(a) non-covalently binds the N-terminal region of...

  4. The Effects of Ginger on Fasting Blood Sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Hosseini, Payam; Mir Taheri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, causes many complications such as micro- and macro-vascular diseases. Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidative properties of ginger have been noticed in several researches. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical tria...

  5. Reduced apolipoprotein glycosylation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Savinova

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls.Very low density (VLDL, intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL, and high density lipoproteins (HDL fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays.Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1 total plasma--apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2 VLDL--apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3 LDL--apoC3 was increased, (4 HDL--associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4 was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all. In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001.Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined.

  6. An abundant dysfunctional apolipoprotein A1 in human atheroma

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Levison, Bruce S.; Schmitt, Dave; Li, Lin; Wu, Yuping; Buffa, Jennifer; Kim, Timothy; Gerstenecker, Gary; Gu, Xiaodong; Kadiyala, Chandra; Wang, Zeneng; Culley, Miranda K.; Hazen, Jennie E.; DiDonato, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate high density lipoproteins (HDL) and their major structural protein, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), recovered from human atheroma, are dysfunctional and extensively oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO), while in vitro oxidation of apoA1/HDL by MPO impairs its cholesterol acceptor function. We developed a high affinity monoclonal antibody (mAb) that specifically recognizes apoA1/HDL modified by the MPO/H2O2/Cl-system using phage display affinity maturation. An oxindolyl alanine...

  7. Apolipoprotein E COG 133 mimetic peptide improves 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Orleâncio Gomes R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal mucositis is one of the major troublesome side effects of anticancer chemotherapy leading to poor patient compliance. In this study we addressed the role of the novel apolipoprotein E (ApoE COG 133 mimetic peptide in 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-challenged Swiss mice and IEC-6 cell monolayers. Experiments were also conducted in C57BL6J ApoE knock-out mice to assess the effects of apoE peptide treatment. Methods Experimental groups were as follows: unchallenged controls, 5-FU-challenged mice (450 mg/kg, i.p with or without the ApoE peptide (0.3, 1, and 3 μM, given twice daily i.p. for 4 days. Mice were sacrificed 3 days after 5-FU challenge. Proximal small intestinal samples were harvested for molecular biology and histological processing. We conducted ELISA assays and RT-PCR to target IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10, iNOS, and myeloperoxidase (MPO to assess intestinal inflammation. Cell death and NF-κB assays were also conducted in apoE knock-out mice. In our in vitro models, IEC-6 cells were exposed to 1 mM of 5-FU in glutamine free media with or without the ApoE peptide (0.02, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20 μM. We investigated IEC-6 cell proliferation and migration, 24 h after the 5-FU challenge. Additionally, apoptotic IEC-6 cells were measured by Tunel and flow cytometry. Equimolar doses of the ApoA-I (D4-F peptide were also used in some experiments for comparative studies. Results Villus blunting and heavy inflammatory infiltrates were seen in the 5-FU-challenged group, findings that were partially ameliorated by the ApoE peptide. We found increased intestinal MPO and pro-inflammatory IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and TNF-α and iNOS transcripts, and reduction of IL-10 following 5-FU treatment, each of which were partially abrogated by the peptide. Improvements were also found in IEC-6 cell apoptosis and migration following ApoE and D-4F treatment. Conclusion Altogether, these findings suggest that the novel ApoE COG 133 mimetic peptide

  8. Apolipoprotein E isotype-dependent modulation of microRNA-146a in plasma and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, Bruce; LaDu, Mary Jo; Sullivan, Patrick M; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2016-08-01

    The Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) isotype ApoE4 is a prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) that can modulate systemic and central inflammation, independent of amyloid accumulation. Although disruption of innate immune toll receptor signaling is modulated by ApoE and observed in AD, ApoE isotype-specific effects remain poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of the ApoE isotype on the brain levels of major regulators of TLR signaling including miR146a, a microRNA enriched in the brain. We used 6-month-old ApoE3 or ApoE4 targeted replacement mice with and without mutant familial AD transgenes. ApoE4 reduced the levels of miR146a compared with ApoE3, both in the brain (29%; Pimmune stimuli (including Aβ) in ApoE4 carriers. Thus, ApoE4 causes early dysregulation of a central controller of the innate immune system both centrally and systemically. This defect persists with familial AD pathology and may be relevant to ApoE4 AD risk. PMID:27281274

  9. A new HDL mimetic peptide that stimulates cellular cholesterol efflux with high efficiency greatly reduces atherosclerosis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bielicki, John K.; Zhang, Haiyan; Cortez, Yuan; Zheng, Ying; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Patel, Arti; Johansson, Jan; Azhar, Salman

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the creation of a single-helix peptide (ATI-5261) that stimulates cellular cholesterol efflux with Km molar efficiency approximating native apolipoproteins. Anti-atherosclerosis activity of ATI-5261 was evaluated in LDLR−/− and apolipoprotein (apo)E−/− mice ∼5–7 months of age, following 13–18 weeks on a high-fat Western diet (HFWD). Treatment of fat-fed LDLR−/− mice with daily intraperitoneal injections of ATI-5261 (30 mg/kg) for 6 weeks reduced atherosclerosis by 30%, as judg...

  10. Both serum apolipoprotein B and the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio are associated with carotid intima-media thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicated that apolipoprotein measurements predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk; however, associations between apolipoproteins and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT were less explored. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cross-sectional study included 6069 participants aged 40 years or older with NGT from Shanghai, China. Serum fasting traditional lipids (total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C] and triglycerides [TG], apoA-I and apoB were assessed. A high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography was performed to measure CIMT. We found CIMT increased progressively across the quartiles of serum apoB (p for trend <0.0001. In logistic regression, concentrations of apoB (odds ratio [OR] 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.36, TC (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.32, LDL-C (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.16-1.34 and TG (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.20 were significantly related to elevated CIMT after adjusted for age and sex. Meanwhile, the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.17-1.34 related to elevated CIMT. ApoB (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.00-1.51 and the apoB/apoA-I ratio (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.36 remained significantly associated with elevated CIMT, after adjusted for the traditional CVD risk factors including traditional lipids. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: There were significant associations between serum apoB, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and elevated CIMT. Serum apoB and the apoB/apoA-I ratio might be independent predictors of early atherosclerosis in NGT.

  11. Intracellular and extracellular processing of human apolipoprotein A-I: secreted apolipoprotein A-I isoprotein 2 is a propeptide.

    OpenAIRE

    Zannis, V I; Karathanasis, S K; Keutmann, H. T.; Goldberger, G; Breslow, J L

    1983-01-01

    We have recently proposed that the major secreted isoprotein form of human apolipoprotein A-I (designated apo A-I2) is modified extracellularly to become the predominant apo A-I form seen in plasma (designated apo A-I4). In the current report we demonstrate that the primary translation product of human apo A-I (designated apo A-I2p) has a 24-amino-acid NH2-terminal extension with a sequence of Met-Lys-Ala-Ala-Val-Leu-Thr-Leu-Ala-Val-Leu-Phe- Leu-Thr-Gly-Ser-Gln-Ala-Arg-His-Phe-Trp-Gln-Gln. Th...

  12. Amphotericin B induced interdigitation of apolipoprotein stabilized nanodisk bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T; Weers, P M; Sulchek, T; Hoeprich, P D; Ryan, R O

    2006-12-07

    Amphotericin B nanodisks (AMB-ND) are ternary complexes of AMB, phospholipid (PL) and apolipoprotein organized as discrete nanometer scale disk-shaped bilayers. In gel filtration chromatography experiments, empty ND lacking AMB elute as a single population of particles with a molecular weight in the range of 200 kDa. AMB-ND formulated at a 4:1 PL:AMB weight ratio, separated into two peaks. Peak 1 eluted at the position of control ND lacking AMB while the second peak, containing all of the AMB present in the original sample, eluted in the void volume. When ND prepared with increased AMB (1:1 phospholipid:AMB molar ratio) were subjected to gel filtration chromatography, an increased proportion of phospholipid and apolipoprotein were recovered in the void volume with the AMB. Prior to gel filtration the AMB-ND sample could be passed through a 0.22 {micro}m filter without loss of AMB while the voided material was lost. Native gel electrophoresis studies corroborated the gel permeation chromatography data. Far UV circular dichroism analyses revealed that apoA-I associated with AMB-ND denatures at a lower guanidine HCl concentration than apoA-I associated with ND lacking AMB. Atomic force microscopy revealed that AMB induces compression of the ND bilayer thickness consistent with bilayer interdigitation, a phenomenon that is likely related to the ability of AMB to induce pore formation in susceptible membranes.

  13. Apolipoprotein E Related Co-Morbidities and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhrao, Sim K; Harding, Alice; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Olsen, Ingar; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya; Crean, StJohn

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of advancement in clinical services is to provide a health care system that enhances an individual's quality of life. Incidence of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and associated dementia coupled with the advancing age of the population, have led to an increase in the worldwide challenge to the healthcare system. In order to overcome these challenges, prior knowledge of common, reliable risk factors and their effectors is essential. Oral health constitutes one such relatively unexplored but indispensable risk factor for aforementioned co-morbidities, in the form of poor oral hygiene and tooth loss during aging. Behavioral traits such as low education, smoking, poor diet, neglect of oral health, lack of exercise, and hypertension are few of the risk factors that are shared commonly among these conditions. In addition, common genetic susceptibility traits such as the apolipoprotein E gene, together with an individual's lifestyle can also influence the development of co-morbidities such as periodontitis, atherosclerosis/stroke, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. This review specifically addresses the susceptibility of apolipoprotein E gene allele 4 as the plausible commonality for the etiology of co-morbidities that eventually result from periodontal diseases and ultimately progress to dementia. PMID:26923007

  14. Relationship between depression and apolipoproteins A and B: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease. INTRODUCTION: Little evidence is available indicating a relationship between major depressive disorder and metabolic risk factors of coronary heart disease such as lipoprotein and apolipoprotein. METHODS: This case-control study included 153 patients with major depressive disorder who fulfilled the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV, and 147 healthy individuals. All participants completed a demographic questionnaire and Hamilton rating scale for depression. Anthropometric characteristics were recorded. Blood samples were taken and total cholesterol, high-and low-density lipoproteins and apolipoproteins A and B were measured. To analyze the data, t-test, χ2 test, Pearson correlation test and linear regression were applied. RESULTS: Depression was a negative predictor of apolipoprotein A (β = -0.328, p<0.01 and positive predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.290, p<0.05. Apolipoprotein A was inversely predicted by total cholesterol (β = -0.269, p<0.05 and positively predicted by high-density lipoprotein (β = 0.401, p<0.01. Also, low-density lipoprotein was a predictor of apolipoprotein B (β = 0.340, p<0.01. The severity of depression was correlated with the increment in serum apolipoprotein B levels and the decrement in serum apolipoprotein A level. CONCLUSION: In view of the relationship between apolipoproteins A and B and depression, it would seem that screening of these metabolic risk factors besides psychological interventions is necessary in depressed patients

  15. Characterization of the metabolic syndrome by apolipoproteins in the Oklahoma Cherokee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaupovic, Petar; Blackett, Piers; Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    Native Americans are susceptible to type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular risk that precedes the diabetes. Nondiabetic Cherokee adolescents and young adults were studied for association of apolipoproteins A-I, B, and C-III with the metabolic syndrome, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and body mass index. Apolipoproteins, lipids, selected ratios, and HOMA-IR changed adversely according to the number of metabolic syndrome criteria present (PCherokee have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, which is associated with atherosclerotic lipoprotein particles containing apolipoprotein C-III and B. PMID:19040586

  16. ApoA-I deficiency in mice is associated with redistribution of apoA-II and aggravated AApoAII amyloidosis[S

    OpenAIRE

    Wang王耀勇, Yaoyong,; Sawashita澤下仁子, Jinko,; Qian钱金泽, Jinze,; Zhang张蓓茹, Beiru,; Fu付笑影, Xiaoying,; Tian田耕, Geng,; Chen陈磊, Lei,; Mori森 政之, Masayuki,; Higuchi樋口京一, Keiichi,

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) is the second major apolipoprotein following apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in HDL. ApoA-II has multiple physiological functions and can form senile amyloid fibrils (AApoAII) in mice. Most circulating apoA-II is present in lipoprotein A-I/A-II. To study the influence of apoA-I on apoA-II and AApoAII amyloidosis, apoA-I-deficient (C57BL/6J.Apoa1−/−) mice were used. Apoa1−/− mice showed the expected significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL...

  17. Function and Comorbidities of Apolipoprotein E in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Leduc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD—the most common type of dementia among the elderly—represents one of the most challenging and urgent medical mysteries affecting our aging population. Although dominant inherited mutation in genes involved in the amyloid metabolism can elicit familial AD, the overwhelming majority of AD cases, dubbed sporadic AD, do not display this Mendelian inheritance pattern. Apolipoprotein E (APOE, the main lipid carrier protein in the central nervous system, is the only gene that has been robustly and consistently associated with AD risk. The purpose of the current paper is thus to highlight the pleiotropic roles and the structure-function relationship of APOE to stimulate both the functional characterization and the identification of novel lipid homeostasis-related molecular targets involved in AD.

  18. Apolipoprotein B100 analysis in microchip with electrochemical detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Cheng Liu; Yun Liu; Hui Xiang Wang; Yan Bo Qi; Peng Yuan Yang; Bao Hong Liu

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB-100) is a major protein of the cholesterol-rich low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and reflects a better assessment of total atherogenic burden to the vascular system than LDL. In this work, a simple and sensitive method has been developed to determine picoliter apoB-100s using the PMMA microfluidic chip coupled with electrochemical detection system. This method performs very well with a detectable linear range of 1-800 pg/mL and a detection limit of 1 pg/mL. A real serum sample has further been detected by this microchip-based biosensor. The results show that this kind of method is practicable and has the potential application in clinical analysis and diagnosis.

  19. Hepatosteatosis and estrogen increase apolipoprotein O production in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidinger, Barbara; Weijler, Anna M; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Hermann, Marcela

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein O (ApoO) is a recently discovered plasma apolipoprotein that may also play a role in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Possibly due to this complexity, its physiological functions have not been elucidated yet. To gain insight from a non-mammalian experimental system, we have investigated the regulation of ApoO levels in an alternative, well-suited model for studies on lipid metabolism, the chicken. qPCR using specific primer pairs and Western blot analysis with our rabbit anti-chicken ApoO antiserum demonstrated ApoO in the liver of chickens fed a control or a fat-enriched diet, as well as in 2 chicken hepatoma cell lines, LMH cells and the estrogen-responsive LMH-2A cells, under conditions of lipid loading by incubation with BSA-complexed oleic acid. Induced triglyceride accumulation in both the liver and the hepatic cells was associated with significantly increased levels of ApoO mRNA and protein. Furthermore, upon treatment for 24 h with estrogen of the estrogen receptor-expressing LMH-2A cells, quantitative analysis of ApoO transcripts and Western blotting revealed increases of ApoO expression. Finally, upon a single administration of estrogen to roosters that leads to hyperlipidemia, higher hepatic levels of both ApoO transcript and protein were observed within 24 h. Based on these data, we propose that hepatic expression of ApoO is tightly linked not only to diet-induced hepatosteatosis, but also to increased lipoprotein-production induced by, e.g., hormones. The findings support a role of ApoO as an effector of compromised mitochondrial function that likely accompanies the onset of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27126072

  20. Apolipoprotein and lipid abnormalities in chronic liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spósito A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Total serum lipids, as well as apolipoproteins A-I (apo A-I and B (apo B, were determined in 74 patients with chronic liver failure without cholestasis and in 82 normal subjects. The VLDL, LDL and HDL lipid fractions were reduced in the liver failure group by 36%, 24% and 46%, respectively (P<0.001. Apolipoproteins A-I and B were also reduced by 26% and 25%, respectively (P<0.001. However, the reduction of HDL cholesterol (HDLc was more pronounced than that of apo A-I and the HDLc:apo A-I ratio was significantly lower in the liver failure group. After separating these patients into groups with plasma albumin lower than 3.0, between 3.0 and 3.5, and higher than 3.5 g/dl, the HDLc:apo A-I ratio was proportional to plasma albumin, but the correlation was not statistically significant. When these patients were separated by the Child classification of liver function, there was a correlation between the HDLc:apo A-I ratio and liver function. The differences in the HDLc:apo A-I ratio between the Child groups B and C, and A and C were statistically significant (P<0.05. We conclude that there is a more pronounced reduction in HDL cholesterol than in apo A-I in liver failure patients. Therefore, the HDLc:apo A-I ratio is a marker of liver function, probably because there is a decreased lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase production by the diseased liver

  1. A mathematically defined motif for the radial distribution of charged residues on apolipoprotein amphipathic alpha helixes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazelrig, J B; Jones, M. K.; Segrest, J P

    1993-01-01

    Multiple amphipathic alpha-helical candidate domains have been identified in exchangeable apolipoproteins by sequence analysis and indirect experimental evidence. The distribution of charged residues can differ within and between these apolipoproteins. Segrest et al. (Segrest, J. P., H. DeLoof, J. G. Dohlman, C. G. Brouillette, and G. M. Anantharamaiah. 1990. Proteins. 8:103-117.) argued that these differences are correlated with lipid affinity. A mathematically defined motif for the particul...

  2. Enhanced Diabetes Susceptibility in Community Dwelling Han Elders Carrying the Apolipoprotein E 3/3 Genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Chun-Xia; Zhong, Li; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Min-jie; Wang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-lian; Wang, Zhe; Su, Ning; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Yan-chen; Xiao, Shi-fu; Xia LI

    2016-01-01

    Despite Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) being one of the main apolipoproteins in the blood, the association between its genotype and the high cholesterol or blood glucose levels commonly seen in clinical practice is inconclusive. Such research is also lacking in the Han population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between APOE genotype, diabetes, and plasma glucose and lipid levels. We included 243 community-dwelling elderly residents in this study. Participant APOE genotypes ...

  3. Mass spectral analyses of the two major apolipoproteins of great ape high density lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Puppione, Donald L.; Della Donna, Lorenza; Laganowsky, Arthur D.; Bassilian, Sara; Souda, Puneet; Ryder, Oliver A.; Whitelegge, Julian P.

    2009-01-01

    The two major apolipoproteins associated with human and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) high density lipoproteins (HDL) are apoA-I and dimeric apoA-II. Although humans are closely related to great apes, apolipoprotein data do not exist for bonobos (Pan paniscus), western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and the Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii). In the absence of any data, other great apes simply have been assumed to have dimeric apoA-II while other primates and most other mammals hav...

  4. Apolipoprotein A-V interaction with members of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Stefan K; Lookene, Aivar; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Gliemann, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low densit...... to receptor-covered sensor chips. Our results indicate that apolipoprotein A-V may influence plasma lipid homeostasis by enhancing receptor-mediated endocytosis of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-27......Apolipoprotein A-V is a potent modulator of plasma triacylglycerol levels. To investigate the molecular basis for this phenomenon we explored the ability of apolipoprotein A-V, in most experiments complexed to disks of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, to interact with two members of the low density...... lipoprotein receptor family, the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and the mosaic type-1 receptor, SorLA. Experiments using surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of both free and lipid-bound apolipoprotein A-V to both receptors. The binding was calcium dependent and was inhibited by...

  5. Microarray Expression Profiling Identifies Genes with Altered Expression in HDL-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Callow, Matthew J.; Dudoit, Sandrine; Gong, Elaine L.; Speed, Terence P.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism may affect the expression of other genes, we screened an array of >5000 mouse expressed sequence tags for altered gene expression in the livers of two lines of mice with dramatic decreases in HDL plasma concentrations. Labeled cDNA from livers of apolipoprotein AI (apoAI)-knockout mice, scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) transgenic mice, and control mice were...

  6. Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Dependent Paradoxical Short-Term Effects of 56Fe Irradiation on the Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles (ε2, ε3, and ε4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of 56Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk. Methods and Materials: We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after 56Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis. Results: In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice. Conclusions: The short-term effects of 56Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.

  7. Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Dependent Paradoxical Short-Term Effects of {sup 56}Fe Irradiation on the Brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, Gwendolen E. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Villasana, Laura; Dayger, Catherine; Davis, Matthew J. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Raber, Jacob, E-mail: raberj@ohsu.edu [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles ({epsilon}2, {epsilon}3, and {epsilon}4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of {sup 56}Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk. Methods and Materials: We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after {sup 56}Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis. Results: In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice. Conclusions: The short-term effects of {sup 56}Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.

  8. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  9. Impaired gait pattern as a sensitive tool to assess hypoxic brain damage in a novel mouse model of atherosclerotic plaque rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, Lynn; Van Dam, Debby; Van der Donckt, Carole; Schrijvers, Dorien M.; Lemmens, Katrien; Van Brussel, Ilse; De Deyn, Peter P.; Martinet, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice with abeterozygous mutation in the flbrillin-1 gene (Fbn1(C1039G+/-) show spontaneous atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, disturbances in cerebral flow and sudden death when fed a Western-type diet (WD). The present study focused on motor coordination and spa

  10. Changes in plasma apolipoproteins following whole-body irradiation in rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliste, R. (INSERM, Toulouse, France); Dousset, N.; Carton, M.; Douste-Blazy, L.

    1981-09-01

    Male New Zealand white rabbits were whole-body-irradiated with a linear electron accelerator at 800 rad (LD/sub 50/ in 30 days). This treatment induced a pronounced hypertriglyceridemia. The apoprotein composition of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, d < 1.006 g/ml) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL, d = 1.063 - 1.21 g/ml) from irradiated rabbits was studied and compared to those of normal rabbits. Significant changes were observed in both very low density apolipoproteins and high-density apolipoproteins. (1) In the VLDL fraction from irradiated rabbits, there appeared in high proportion two apolipoproteins with electrophoretic mobility in urea/polyacrylamide gels similar to apoA-I and A-II but which were distinctly different in their apparent molecular weights, their isoelectric points, and their amino acid composition from these latter proteins. These proteins had apparent molecular weights of about 10,000. They focused into three bands with pI values of 6.1, 6.4, and 6.6. Their amino acid composition was characterized by a very low content of threonine and serine and a high content of aspartic acid, glycine, alanine, and arginine. In addition, a marked increase of an apolipoprotein with an apparent molecular weight of about 43,000 and with an amino acid composition similar to rat apoA-IV was also observed in rabbit VLDL after irradiation. Apolipoprotein C constituents with slowmobility decreased significantly. (2) The irradiated rabbit HDL apolipoproteins showed an important increase of the proteins with molecular weight 10,000 and isoelectric points 6.1, 6.4, and 6.6. Compared to normal rabbit HDL apolipoproteins, a significant decrease of apoA-IV occurred. These modifications were also observed with lower radiation doses (200 and 400 rad).

  11. Baixa temperatura noturna e deficiência hídrica na fotossíntese de cana‑de‑açúcar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Favero São Pedro Machado

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as respostas fotossintéticas da cana‑de‑açúcar aos efeitos simultâneos e isolados de baixa temperatura noturna (TN e deficiência hídrica (DH. Após 128 dias do plantio, as plantas da cultivar IACSP94-2094 foram submetidas aos tratamentos: controle, sem DH e com TN de 20°C (TN20; com DH e TN de 20°C (DH/TN20; sem DH e com TN de 12°C (TN12; e com DH e TN de 12°C (DH/TN12 por cinco dias. Após o período de tratamento, as plantas foram irrigadas e submetidas à TN de 20°C por mais quatro dias, para recuperação. Houve decréscimos na assimilação de CO2 em todos os tratamentos. A recuperação total da assimilação de CO2 foi observada apenas nas plantas do tratamento TN12. A ocorrência simultânea da baixa temperatura noturna e da deficiência hídrica causou dano acentuado e persistente na condutância estomática, na capacidade máxima da ribulose‑1,5‑bisfosfato carboxilase, no transporte aparente de elétrons, no fator de eficiência e na eficiência operacional do fotossistema II, o que resultou em limitações difusivas, bioquímicas e fotoquímicas da fotossíntese das plantas de cana‑de‑açúcar.

  12. Gender and age specific differences in the kinetic behavior of TRL, IDL and LDL apolipoprotein B-100 and HDL apolipoprotein A-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender specific differences in lipid and lipoprotein profile, predominantly higher LDL-C, VLDL-C and TG, and lower HDL-C levels have been observed in males compared to females. These differences are influenced by menopausal status and age. To investigate mechanism(s) involved, apolipoprotein (apo) B...

  13. Apolipoprotein A-II Influences Apolipoprotein E-Linked Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women with High Levels of HDL Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsetti, James P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Sparks, Charles E.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects) and high (designated as

  14. Solubility engineering and crystallization of human apolipoprotein D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Amber; Vogt, Martin; Kim, Hyun Jin; Eichinger, Andreas; Skerra, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a physiologically important member of the lipocalin protein family that was discovered as a peripheral subunit of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) but is also abundant in other body fluids and organs, including neuronal tissue. Although it has been possible to produce functional ApoD in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and to demonstrate its ligand-binding activity for progesterone and arachidonic acid, the recombinant protein suffers from a pronounced tendency to aggregate and to adsorb to vessel surfaces as well as chromatography matrices, thus hampering further structural investigation. Here, we describe a systematic mutagenesis study directed at presumably exposed hydrophobic side chains of the unglycosylated recombinant protein. As a result, one ApoD mutant with just three new amino acid substitutions—W99H, I118S, and L120S—was identified, which exhibits the following features: (1) improved yield upon periplasmic biosynthesis in E. coli, (2) elution as a monomeric protein from a gel permeation chromatography column, and (3) unchanged binding activity for its physiological ligands. In addition, the engineered ApoD was successfully crystallized (space group I4 with unit cell parameters a = 75.1 Å, b = 75.1 Å, c = 166.0 Å, α = β = γ = 90°), thus demonstrating its conformationally homogeneous behavior and providing a basis for the future X-ray structural analysis of this functionally still puzzling protein. PMID:16322568

  15. Apolipoprotein AV Accelerates Plasma Hydrolysis OfTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins By Interaction With Proteoglycan BoundLipoprotein Lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

    2005-02-22

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences intriglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasmatriglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In hAPOA5 transgenic mice(hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL).Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by crossbreeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knockout, and the hAPOA5tr to an LPL deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5 deficient mice,however, over expression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr HDL, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line.A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting.It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycans bound LPL for lipolysis.

  16. Optimisation and evaluation of restriction fragment length polimorfism method for apolipoprotein E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drljević Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism is characterized by the presence of three common alleles, e2, e3 and e4, which encode three isoforms of apolipoprotein E in plasma E2, E3 and E4. Genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E gene are predictive markers for the development of numerous disorders of lipid metabolism, already proven in a large number of clinical trials. This study was aimed at assessing the success rate of restriction fragment length polymorphism method for the detections of genes coding for isoenzymes E2, E3 and E4. Material and Methods. Deoxyribonucleic acid, used in this study, was extracted from blood by standard procedure using chloroform and phenol. The polymerase chain reaction method was used to amplify the coding sequence of fourth exon of the apolipoprotein E gene. Amplification products were digested with HhaI. The fragments obtained were separated by electrophoresis and visualized with ultraviolet light. Results. Our results showed that the restriction fragment length polymorphism method is optimal for detection of apolipoprotein E polymorphisms. The restriction enzyme HhaI achieved the cleavage of the gene on the specific loci, directly depend of presence or absence of mutations at positions 112 and 158, of different alleles. Conclusion. This method enables simple, rapid and efficient analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, directly determining the patient’s genotype.

  17. Deficiency of Glycine N-Methyltransferase Aggravates Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E–Null Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Ching, Li-Chieh; Liao, Yi-Jen; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tsou, Chia-Yuan; Shyue, Song-Kun; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism and inflammation in atherogenesis is not understood fully. Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) has been implicated in hepatic lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. However, little is known about the significance of GNMT in atherosclerosis. We showed the predominant expression of GNMT in foamy macrophages of mouse atherosclerotic aortas. Genetic deletion of GNMT exacerbated the hyperlipidemia, inflammation a...

  18. Apolipoprotein A1 in channel catfish: Transcriptional analysis, antimicrobial activity, and efficacy as plasmid DNA immunostimulant against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine transcriptional profiles of apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) in collected channel catfish tissues after infection with A. hydrophila by bath immersion; 2) investigate whether recombinant channel catfish apolipoprotein A1 produced in E. coli expression syst...

  19. Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency due to a codon 84 nonsense mutation of the apolipoprotein A-I gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular genetic defect of a female patient with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency and premature atherosclerosis was examined. Her parents were first cousins. Her plasma density fraction from 1.063 to 1.21 g/ml contained no apoA-I on SDS/PAGE and no measurable high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Southern blot hybridization showed no gross abnormality to be present in the patient's apoA-I gene and homozygosity for a haplotype of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the apoA-I gene region. Sequencing after amplification by PCR revealed a codon 84 nonsense mutation (CAG → TAG, Gln → stop) of exon 4 and a codon 37 missense mutation (GCC→ ACC, Ala → Thr) of exon 3 in the patient's apoA-I gene. The data from dot-blot hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes indicated that she was homozygous for the apoA-I gene with regard to the two mutations. The codon 37 missense mutation was also detected in the apoA-I gene of 6 out of 60 controls, who all had normal levels of apoA-I and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, suggesting that the missense mutation is polymorphic and not associated with apoA-I deficiency. These finding indicate that homozygosity for the apoA-I gene with codon 84 nonsense mutation causes the deficiency of apoA-I and of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the patient

  20. Conformational and aggregation properties of the 1-93 fragment of apolipoprotein A-I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrlova, Jitka; Bhattacherjee, Arnab; Boomsma, Wouter Krogh;

    2014-01-01

    Several disease-linked mutations of apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), are known to be amyloidogenic, and the fibrils often contain N-terminal fragments of the protein. Here, we present a combined computational and experimental study of the fibril-associated ......Several disease-linked mutations of apolipoprotein A-I, the major protein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), are known to be amyloidogenic, and the fibrils often contain N-terminal fragments of the protein. Here, we present a combined computational and experimental study of the fibril...... these conformational shifts match well with the effects of these mutations in thioflavin T fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy experiments. Together, our results point to molecular mechanisms that may have a key role in disease-linked aggregation of apolipoprotein A-I....

  1. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and apolipoprotein E interactions as mechanisms in cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Therese S; Rhea, Elizabeth M; Banks, William A; Hanson, Angela J

    2016-09-01

    An increased risk for Alzheimer's disease is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. A separate literature shows the genetic risk for developing Alzheimer's disease is strongly correlated to the presence of the E4 isoform of the apolipoprotein E carrier protein. Understanding how apolipoprotein E carrier protein, lipids, amyloid β peptides, glucose, central nervous system insulin, and peripheral insulin interact with one another in Alzheimer's disease is an area of increasing interest. Here, we will review the evidence relating apolipoprotein E carrier protein, lipids, and insulin action to Alzheimer's disease and Aβ peptides and then propose mechanisms as to how these factors might interact with one another to impair cognition and promote Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27470930

  2. Young APOE[subscript 4] Targeted Replacement Mice Exhibit Poor Spatial Learning and Memory, with Reduced Dendritic Spine Density in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gustavo A.; Burns, Mark P.; Weeber, Edwin J.; Rebeck, G. William

    2013-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 ("APOE-[epsilon]4") allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, and may predispose individuals to Alzheimer's-related cognitive decline by affecting normal brain function early in life. To investigate the impact of human APOE alleles on cognitive performance in mice, we trained…

  3. Accelerated atherogenesis and neointima formation in heparin cofactor II–deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente, Cristina P; Li HE; Tollefsen, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    Heparin cofactor II (HCII) is a plasma protein that inhibits thrombin when bound to dermatan sulfate or heparin. HCII-deficient mice are viable and fertile but rapidly develop thrombosis of the carotid artery after endothelial injury. We now report the effects of HCII deficiency on atherogenesis and neointima formation. HCII-null or wild-type mice, both on an apolipoprotein E–null background, were fed an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks. HCII-null mice developed plaque areas in the aortic arch a...

  4. Apolipoprotein E: from cardiovascular disease to neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahley, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E was initially described as a lipid transport protein and major ligand for low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors with a role in cholesterol metabolism and cardiovascular disease. It has since emerged as a major risk factor (causative gene) for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Detailed understanding of the structural features of the three isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4), which differ by only a single amino acid interchange, has elucidated their unique functions. ApoE2 and apoE4 increase the risk for heart disease: apoE2 increases atherogenic lipoprotein levels (it binds poorly to LDL receptors), and apoE4 increases LDL levels (it binds preferentially to triglyceride-rich, very low density lipoproteins, leading to downregulation of LDL receptors). ApoE4 also increases the risk for neurodegenerative diseases, decreases their age of onset, or alters their progression. ApoE4 likely causes neurodegeneration secondary to its abnormal structure, caused by an interaction between its carboxyl- and amino-terminal domains, called domain interaction. When neurons are stressed or injured, they synthesize apoE to redistribute cholesterol for neuronal repair or remodeling. However, because of its altered structure, neuronal apoE4 undergoes neuron-specific proteolysis, generating neurotoxic fragments (12-29 kDa) that escape the secretory pathway and cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cytoskeletal alterations, including tau phosphorylation. ApoE4-associated pathology can be prevented by small-molecule structure correctors that block domain interaction by converting apoE4 to a molecule that resembles apoE3 both structurally and functionally. Structure correctors are a potential therapeutic approach to reduce apoE4 pathology in both cardiovascular and neurological disorders. PMID:27277824

  5. An abundant dysfunctional apolipoprotein A1 in human atheroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; DiDonato, Joseph A; Levison, Bruce S; Schmitt, Dave; Li, Lin; Wu, Yuping; Buffa, Jennifer; Kim, Timothy; Gerstenecker, Gary S; Gu, Xiaodong; Kadiyala, Chandra S; Wang, Zeneng; Culley, Miranda K; Hazen, Jennie E; Didonato, Anthony J; Fu, Xiaoming; Berisha, Stela Z; Peng, Daoquan; Nguyen, Truc T; Liang, Shaohong; Chuang, Chia-Chi; Cho, Leslie; Plow, Edward F; Fox, Paul L; Gogonea, Valentin; Tang, W H Wilson; Parks, John S; Fisher, Edward A; Smith, Jonathan D; Hazen, Stanley L

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have indicated that high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and their major structural protein, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), recovered from human atheroma are dysfunctional and are extensively oxidized by myeloperoxidase (MPO). In vitro oxidation of either apoA1 or HDL particles by MPO impairs their cholesterol acceptor function. Here, using phage display affinity maturation, we developed a high-affinity monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes both apoA1 and HDL that have been modified by the MPO-H2O2-Cl(-) system. An oxindolyl alanine (2-OH-Trp) moiety at Trp72 of apoA1 is the immunogenic epitope. Mutagenesis studies confirmed a critical role for apoA1 Trp72 in MPO-mediated inhibition of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-dependent cholesterol acceptor activity of apoA1 in vitro and in vivo. ApoA1 containing a 2-OH-Trp72 group (oxTrp72-apoA1) is in low abundance within the circulation but accounts for 20% of the apoA1 in atherosclerosis-laden arteries. OxTrp72-apoA1 recovered from human atheroma or plasma is lipid poor, virtually devoid of cholesterol acceptor activity and demonstrated both a potent proinflammatory activity on endothelial cells and an impaired HDL biogenesis activity in vivo. Elevated oxTrp72-apoA1 levels in subjects presenting to a cardiology clinic (n = 627) were associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Circulating oxTrp72-apoA1 levels may serve as a way to monitor a proatherogenic process in the artery wall. PMID:24464187

  6. Plasma Apolipoprotein-M (ApoM) Response to a Circuit Resistance Training Program

    OpenAIRE

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein M (Apo-M) is a human novel protein of apolipoprotein classes and highly expressed in liver and kidney tissues. ApoM is mainly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and act as a chaperone for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), promotes mobilization of cellular cholesterol, formation of larger-size of pre β-HDL, and a new biomarker in sepsis. The level of apoM in plasma/serum is affected by several factors such as pregnancy, hyperglycemia, plasma leptin concentration, obe...

  7. Membrane curvature induction and tubulation are common features of synucleins and apolipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varkey, Jobin; Isas, Jose Mario; Mizuno, Naoko;

    2010-01-01

    Synucleins and apolipoproteins have been implicated in a number of membrane and lipid trafficking events. Lipid interaction for both types of proteins is mediated by 11 amino acid repeats that form amphipathic helices. This similarity suggests that synucleins and apolipoproteins might have...... amphipathic helices alone. Moreover, we frequently observed that a-synuclein caused membrane structures that had the appearance of nascent budding vesicles. The ability to function as a minimal machinery for vesicle budding agrees well with recent findings that a-synuclein plays a role in vesicle trafficking...

  8. Selective proteolysis of apolipoprotein B-100 by Arg-gingipain mediates atherosclerosis progression accelerated by bacterial exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Munetaka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Tsukuba, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest the association of periodontal infections with atherosclerosis, however, the mechanism underlying this association remains poorly understood. Porphyromonas gingivalis is the primary etiologic agent of adult periodontitis and produces a unique class of cysteine proteinases consisting of Arg-gingipain (Rgp) and Lys-gingipain (Kgp). To elucidate key mechanisms for progression of atherosclerosis by P. gingivalis infection, we tested the effects of the disruption of genes encoding Rgp and/or Kgp and inhibitors specific for the respective enzymes on atherosclerosis progression in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Repeated intravenous injection of wild-type P. gingivalis resulted in an increase in atherosclerotic lesions as well as an increase in the serum LDL cholesterol and a decrease of HDL cholesterol in these animals. LDL particles in P. gingivalis-injected animals were modified as a result of selective proteolysis of apoB-100 in LDL particles. This modification of LDL by P. gingivalis resulted in an increase in LDL uptake by macrophages and consequent foam cell formation in vitro. The atherosclerotic changes induced by P. gingivalis infection were attenuated by disruption of Rgp-encoding genes or by an Rgp-specific inhibitor. Our results indicate that degradation of apoB-100 by Rgp plays a crucial role in the promotion of atherosclerosis by P. gingivalis infection. PMID:17030507

  9. Voluntary exercise decreases atherosclerosis in nephrectomised ApoE knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M Shing

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney disease. The effectiveness of exercise for cardiovascular disease that is accelerated by the presence of chronic kidney disease remains unknown. The present study utilized apolipoprotein E knockout mice with 5/6 nephrectomy as a model of combined kidney disease and cardiovascular disease to investigate the effect of exercise on aortic plaque formation, vascular function and systemic inflammation. Animals were randomly assigned to nephrectomy or control and then to either voluntary wheel running exercise or sedentary. Following 12-weeks, aortic plaque area was significantly (p0.05. Nephrectomy increased IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations compared with control mice (p0.05. Exercise was an effective non-pharmacologic approach to slow cardiovascular disease in the presence of kidney disease in the apolipoprotein E knockout mouse.

  10. D25V apolipoprotein C-III variant causes dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis and confers cardiovascular protective lipoprotein profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleix, Sophie; Verona, Guglielmo; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Nédelec, Brigitte; Mangione, P. Patrizia; Bridoux, Frank; Mangé, Alain; Dogan, Ahmet; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Chabert, Michèle; Porcari, Riccardo; Waudby, Christopher A.; Relini, Annalisa; Talmud, Philippa J.; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stoppini, Monica; Christodoulou, John; Hawkins, Philip N.; Grateau, Gilles; Delpech, Marc; Kontush, Anatol; Gillmore, Julian D.; Kalopissis, Athina D.; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III deficiency provides cardiovascular protection, but apolipoprotein C-III is not known to be associated with human amyloidosis. Here we report a form of amyloidosis characterized by renal insufficiency caused by a new apolipoprotein C-III variant, D25V. Despite their uremic state, the D25V-carriers exhibit low triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein C-III levels, and low very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) profile. Amyloid fibrils comprise the D25V-variant only, showing that wild-type apolipoprotein C-III does not contribute to amyloid deposition in vivo. The mutation profoundly impacts helical structure stability of D25V-variant, which is remarkably fibrillogenic under physiological conditions in vitro producing typical amyloid fibrils in its lipid-free form. D25V apolipoprotein C-III is a new human amyloidogenic protein and the first conferring cardioprotection even in the unfavourable context of renal failure, extending the evidence for an important cardiovascular protective role of apolipoprotein C-III deficiency. Thus, fibrate therapy, which reduces hepatic APOC3 transcription, may delay amyloid deposition in affected patients. PMID:26790392

  11. D25V apolipoprotein C-III variant causes dominant hereditary systemic amyloidosis and confers cardiovascular protective lipoprotein profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleix, Sophie; Verona, Guglielmo; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Nédelec, Brigitte; Mangione, P Patrizia; Bridoux, Frank; Mangé, Alain; Dogan, Ahmet; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Chabert, Michèle; Porcari, Riccardo; Waudby, Christopher A; Relini, Annalisa; Talmud, Philippa J; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Stoppini, Monica; Christodoulou, John; Hawkins, Philip N; Grateau, Gilles; Delpech, Marc; Kontush, Anatol; Gillmore, Julian D; Kalopissis, Athina D; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-III deficiency provides cardiovascular protection, but apolipoprotein C-III is not known to be associated with human amyloidosis. Here we report a form of amyloidosis characterized by renal insufficiency caused by a new apolipoprotein C-III variant, D25V. Despite their uremic state, the D25V-carriers exhibit low triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein C-III levels, and low very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/high high-density lipoprotein (HDL) profile. Amyloid fibrils comprise the D25V-variant only, showing that wild-type apolipoprotein C-III does not contribute to amyloid deposition in vivo. The mutation profoundly impacts helical structure stability of D25V-variant, which is remarkably fibrillogenic under physiological conditions in vitro producing typical amyloid fibrils in its lipid-free form. D25V apolipoprotein C-III is a new human amyloidogenic protein and the first conferring cardioprotection even in the unfavourable context of renal failure, extending the evidence for an important cardiovascular protective role of apolipoprotein C-III deficiency. Thus, fibrate therapy, which reduces hepatic APOC3 transcription, may delay amyloid deposition in affected patients. PMID:26790392

  12. Hyperglycemia-induced hyperinsulinemia acutely lowers plasma apolipoprotein B but not lipoprotein (a) in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Ligtenberg, JJM; Dullaart, RPF

    1997-01-01

    Acute hyperinsulinemia lowers plasma apolipoprotein B (apo B) and triglycerides by suppressing hepatic lipoprotein secretion and probably by enhancing catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, but the effect of acute hyperinsulinemia on the plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) level is unclear. We meas

  13. Trimerization of apolipoprotein A-I retards plasma clearance and preserves antiatherosclerotic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Laurberg, Jacob Marsvin; Andersen, Mikkel Holmen;

    2008-01-01

    An increased plasma level of the major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) component, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the aim of several therapeutic strategies for combating atherosclerotic disease. HDL therapy by direct intravenous administration of apoA-I is a plausible way; however, a fast renal...

  14. Mutation in apolipoprotein B associated with hypobetalipoproteinemia despite decreased binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Jan Skov;

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in apolipoprotein B (APOB) may reduce binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the LDL receptor and cause hypercholesterolemia. We showed that heterozygotes for a new mutation in APOB have hypobetalipoproteinemia, despite a reduced binding of LDL to the LDL receptor. APOB R3480P...

  15. Apolipoprotein D is associated with long-term outcome in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T; Hemmingsen, R P; Wang, A G;

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates deficiencies in apolipoprotein D (ApoD) function and arachidonic acid signaling in schizophrenic disorders. We addressed two hypotheses in relation to ApoD: first, polymorphisms in the ApoD gene confer susceptibility to or are markers of disease, and, second, gene...

  16. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Joan; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan; Fenger, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI R...... five polymorphisms was seen in the dizygotic twins. The effect of the polymorphisms on lipid and glucose parameters could be mediated through linkage to genes with known effect on glucose metabolism or through free fatty acids exerting their effect on glucose metabolism.......The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco......RI RFLP) were established using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digests. The effect of genotypes on lipid levels and on glucose, insulin, and HOMA (i.e., calculated parameters of beta-cell function and insulin resistance) was assessed by multivariate analyses of variance correcting for...

  17. The Apolipoprotein E/CI/CII Gene Cluster and Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chang-En; Payami, Haydeh; Olson, Jane M.; Boehnke, Michael; Wijsman, Ellen M; Orr, Harry T.; Kukull, Walter A.; Goddard, Katrina A B; Nemens, Ellen; White, June A.; Alonso, M. Elisa; Taylor, Todd D.; Ball, Melvyn J.; Kaye, Jeffrey; Morris, John

    1994-01-01

    The chromosome 19 apolipoprotein E/CI/CII gene cluster was examined for evidence of linkage to a familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) locus. The family groups studied were Volga German (VG), early-onset non-VG (ENVG; mean age at onset

  18. Transcriptional Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression by the Nuclear Receptor ROR alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apolipoprotein A5 has recently been identified as a crucial determinant of plasma triglyceride levels. Our results showed that RORa up-regulates human APOA5 but has no effect on mouse apoa5 promoter. These data suggest an additional important physiological role for RORa in the regulation of genes involved in plasma triglyceride homeostasis in human and probably in the development of atherosclerosis

  19. Plasma apolipoprotein M responses to statin and fibrate administration in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Ahnstrom, Josefin; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; de Vries, Rindert; Sluiter, Wim J.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; van Tol, Arie; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Dahlback, Bjorn; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Plasma apolipoprotein M (apoM) is potentially anti-atherogenic, and has been found to be associated positively with plasma total, LDL and HDL cholesterol in humans. ApoM may, therefore, be intricately related to cholesterol metabolism. Here, we determined whether plasma apoM is affected by

  20. Improving prediction of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population using apolipoprotein B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm Boje;

    2007-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels predict fatal myocardial infarction. Whether apoB also predicts nonfatal ischemic cardiovascular events is unclear. We tested the following hypotheses: apoB predicts ischemic cardiovascular events, and apoB is a better predictor of ischemic cardiovascular events tha...

  1. PLASMA-LIPOPROTEINS AND RENAL APOLIPOPROTEINS IN RATS WITH CHRONIC ADRIAMYCIN NEPHROSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JOLES, JA; VANTOL, A; JANSEN, EHJM; KOOMANS, HA; RABELINK, TJ; VANGOOR, H

    1993-01-01

    The relation between plasma lipoprotein composition and renal apolipoprotein deposition was studied in nephrotic rats in which stable renal function had been monitored for 7 months after a single low dose of adriamycin (ADR, 3 mg/kg). Proteinuria was observed 3 weeks after ADR and increased progress

  2. Apolipoprotein B genetic variants modify the response to fenofibrate: a GOLDN study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertriglyceridemia, defined as a triglyceride measurement > 150 mg/dl, occurs in up to 34% of adults. Fenofibrate is a commonly used drug to treat hypertriglyceridemia, but response to fenofibrate varies considerably among individuals. We sought to determine if genetic variation in apolipoprotein...

  3. Transcriptional Regulation of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene Expression by the Nuclear Receptor ROR alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genoux, Annelise; Dehondt, Helene; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Duhem, Christian; Hum, Dean W.; Martin, Genevieve; Pennacchio, Len; Staels, Bart; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-10-01

    Apolipoprotein A5 has recently been identified as a crucial determinant of plasma triglyceride levels. Our results showed that RORa up-regulates human APOA5 but has no effect on mouse apoa5 promoter. These data suggest an additional important physiological role for RORa in the regulation of genes involved in plasma triglyceride homeostasis in human and probably in the development of atherosclerosis

  4. APOLIPOPROTEIN E GENE POLYMORPHISMS ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: THE ATHEROSCLEROSIS RISK IN COMMUNITIES STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE: Polymorphism of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has been associated with dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. This study examines the association of APOE polymorphisms and diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: We studied 1,398 people aged 49 to ...

  5. Atherosclerosis in aged mice over-expressing the reverse cholesterol transport genes

    OpenAIRE

    J.A. Berti; de Faria, E.C.; H.C.F. Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    We determined whether over-expression of one of the three genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, apolipoprotein (apo) AI, lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), or of their combinations influenced the development of diet-induced atherosclerosis. Eight genotypic groups of mice were studied (AI, LCAT, CETP, LCAT/AI, CETP/AI, LCAT/CETP, LCAT/AI/CETP, and non-transgenic) after four months on an atherogenic diet. The extent of atherosc...

  6. Voluntary Exercise Decreases Atherosclerosis in Nephrectomised ApoE Knockout Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shing, Cecilia M.; Fassett, Robert G.; Peake, Jonathan M.; Coombes, Jeff S.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with kidney disease. The effectiveness of exercise for cardiovascular disease that is accelerated by the presence of chronic kidney disease remains unknown. The present study utilized apolipoprotein E knockout mice with 5/6 nephrectomy as a model of combined kidney disease and cardiovascular disease to investigate the effect of exercise on aortic plaque formation, vascular function and systemic inflammation. Anima...

  7. Protective Effects of PARP-1 Knockout on Dyslipidemia-Induced Autonomic and Vascular Dysfunction in ApoE−/− Mice: Effects on eNOS and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hans, Chetan P.; Feng, Yumei; Naura, Amarjit S; Zerfaoui, Mourad; Rezk, Bashir M.; Xia, Huijing; Kaye, Alan D.; Matrougui, Khalid; Lazartigues, Eric; Boulares, A Hamid

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 in dyslipidemia-associated vascular dysfunction as well as autonomic nervous system dysregulation. Apolipoprotein (ApoE) −/− mice fed a high-fat diet were used as a model of atherosclerosis. Vascular and autonomic functions were measured in conscious mice using telemetry. The study revealed that PARP-1 plays an important role in dyslipidemia-associated vascular and autonomic dysfunction. Inhibition of ...

  8. Effect of apolipoprotein a-I complex with tetrahydrocortisone on protein biosynthesis and glucose absorption by rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumenkova, D V; Knyazev, R A; Guschya, R S; Polyakov, L M; Panin, L E

    2009-08-01

    We studied the effect of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex on (14)C glucose absorption and lactate accumulation and on the rate of protein biosynthesis in isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex in the incubation medium increased absorption of labeled glucose by hepatocytes by 52%, while lactate content in the conditioning medium increased 4-fold. The rate of protein biosynthesis increased by 80% in comparison with control cells. It is hypothesized that the increase in protein biosynthesis rate in hepatocytes under the effect of apolipoprotein A-I-tetrahydrocortisone complex is due to stimulation of energy metabolism, specifically, of its glycolytic component. PMID:20027330

  9. Plasma proteome changes in cardiovascular disease patients: novel isoforms of apolipoprotein A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oravec Milan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this proteomic study was to look for changes taking place in plasma proteomes of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI, unstable angina pectoris (UAP, and stable angina pectoris (SAP. Methods Depleted plasma proteins were separated by 2D SDS-PAGE (pI 4-7, and proteomes were compared using Progenesis SameSpots statistical software. Proteins were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS. Proteins were quantified using commercial kits. Apolipoprotein A1 was studied using 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE, together with western blotting. Results Reciprocal comparison revealed 46 unique, significantly different spots; proteins in 34 spots were successfully identified and corresponded to 38 different proteins. Discrete comparisons of patient groups showed 45, 41, and 8 significantly different spots when AMI, UAP, and SAP were compared with the control group. On the basis of our proteomic data, plasma levels of two of them, alpha-1 microglobulin and vitamin D-binding protein, were determined. The data, however, failed to prove the proteins to be suitable markers or risk factors in the studied groups. The plasma level and isoform representation of apolipoprotein A1 were also estimated. Using 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE, together with western blotting, we observed extra high-molecular weight apolipoprotein A1 fractions presented only in the patient groups, indicating that the novel high-molecular weight isoforms of apolipoprotein A1 may be potential new markers or possible risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Conclusion The reported data show plasma proteome changes in patients with AMI, UAP, and SAP. We propose some apolipoprotein A1 fractions as a possible new disease-associated marker of cardiovascular disorders.

  10. Metabolism and Modification of Apolipoprotein B-Containing Lipoproteins Involved in Dyslipidemia and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shin-ya

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, such as low density lipoproteins (LDL) and chylomicron remnants, are associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Chylomicrons containing apoB-48 are secreted from the intestine during the postprandial state, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) containing apoB-100 are constitutively formed in the liver. Chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants are produced by the lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis of triglycerides, which is activated by apolipoprotein C-II bound on the particle surfaces. The hepatic uptake of these remnants is facilitated by apolipoprotein E (apoE), but is inhibited by apolipoproteins C-I, C-II and C-III. In the plasma, VLDL remnants are further converted into LDL by the hydrolysis of triglycerides. ApoB-100 is responsible for the hepatic uptake of LDL. LDL receptor, LDL receptor-related protein and heparan sulfate proteoglycans are involved in the hepatic clearance of lipoproteins containing apoB-100 and/or apoE. The subendothelial retention and modification of apoB-containing lipoproteins are crucial events in the initiation of atherosclerosis. In the subendothelium, the uptake of modified lipoproteins by macrophages leads to the formation of foam cells storing excess amounts of cholesteryl esters and subsequently to apoptosis. This review describes the current knowledge about the metabolism and modification of apoB-containing lipoproteins involved in dyslipidemia and atherogenesis. In particular, I focus on the effects of apolipoproteins, lipid composition and particle size on lipoprotein metabolism and on the roles of cholesterol, sphingomyelinase and apoB denaturation in macrophage foam cell formation and apoptosis. A detailed understanding of these mechanisms will help to develop new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26725424

  11. Comparative Characterization of Hepatic Distribution and mRNA Reduction of Antisense Oligonucleotides Conjugated with Triantennary N-Acetyl Galactosamine and Lipophilic Ligands Targeting Apolipoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ayahisa; Nakajima, Mado; Kasuya, Takeshi; Onishi, Reina; Kitade, Naohisa; Mayumi, Kei; Ikehara, Tatsuya; Kugimiya, Akira

    2016-05-01

    TriantennaryN-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc, GN3) and lipophilic ligands such as cholesterol andα-tocopherol conjugations dramatically improve the distribution and efficacy of second-generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in the whole liver. To characterize ligands for delivery to liver cells based on pharmacokinetics and efficacy, we used a locked nucleic acid gapmer of ASO targeting apolipoprotein B as a model compound and evaluated the amount of ASO and apolipoprotein B mRNA in the whole liver, hepatocytes, and nonparenchymal (NP) cells as well as plasma total cholesterol after administration of ASO conjugated with these ligands to mice. Compared with unconjugated ASO, GN3 conjugation increased the amount (7-fold) and efficacy (more than 10-fold) of ASO in hepatocytes only and showed higher efficacy than the increased rate of the amount of ASO. On the other hand, lipophilic ligand conjugations led to increased delivery (3- to 5-fold) and efficacy (5-fold) of ASO to both hepatocytes and NP cells. GN3 and lipophilic ligand conjugations increased the area under the curve of ASOs and the pharmacodynamic duration but did not change the half-life in hepatocytes and NP cells compared with unconjugated ASO. In the liver, the phosphodiester bond between ASO and these ligands was promptly cleaved to liberate unconjugated ASO. These ligand conjugations reduced plasma total cholesterol compared with unconjugated ASO, although these ASOs were well tolerated with no elevation in plasma transaminases. These findings could facilitate ligand selection tailored to liver cells expressed in disease-related genes and could contribute to the discovery and development of RNA interference-based therapy. PMID:26907624

  12. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer;

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  13. Overexpression of LolCDE Allows Deletion of the Escherichia coli Gene Encoding Apolipoprotein N-Acyltransferase ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Narita, Shin-ichiro; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins represent a subset of membrane-associated proteins that are covalently modified with lipids at the N-terminal cysteine. The final step of lipoprotein modification, N-acylation of apolipoproteins, is mediated by apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (Lnt). Examinations with reconstituted proteoliposomes and a conditional mutant previously indicated that N-acylation of lipoproteins is required for their efficient release from the inner membrane catalyzed by LolA and LolCDE, th...

  14. Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and malondialdehyde level are independent risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    López-Riquelme, Natividad; Alom-Poveda, Jordi; Viciano-Morote, Nuria; Llinares-Ibor, Isabel; Tormo-Díaz, Consuelo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ε4 allele of Apolipoprotein E is involved in lipid metabolism. Oxidative stress produces an increase in lipid peroxidation that has been implicated in the pathogenic cascade in Alzheimer’s disease. This study estimated the effect of the ε4 allele, malondialdehyde and lipid levels on the risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: A total of 41 control subjects and 73 patients with Alzheimer’s disease were recruited. The Apolipoprotein E genotype was determined by amplification of e...

  15. Apolipoprotein E4 influences growth and cognitive responses to micronutrient supplementation in shantytown children from northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sumeet S Mitter; Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Kvalsund, Michelle P.; Paula Pamplona; Emanuella Silva Joventino; Rosa M. S. Mota; Davi C Gonçalves; Patrick, Peter D.; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lima, Aldo A. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E4 may benefit children during early periods of life when the body is challenged by infection and nutritional decline. We examined whether apolipoprotein E4 affects intestinal barrier function, thereby improving short-term growth and long-term cognitive outcomes in Brazilian shantytown children. METHODS: A total of 213 Brazilian shantytown children with below-median height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) received 200,000 IU of retinol (every four months), zinc (40 mg twice we...

  16. Mice lacking α-tocopherol transfer protein gene have severe α-tocopherol deficiency in multiple regions of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Gohil, Kishorchandra; Oommen, Saji; Quach, Hung T.; Vasu, Vihas T.; AUNG, HNIN HNIN; Schock, Bettina; Cross, Carroll E.; Vatassery, Govind T.

    2008-01-01

    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency is caused by mutations in α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP) gene and it can be experimentally generated in mice by α-TTP gene inactivation (α-TTP-KO). This study compared α-tocopherol (α-T) concentrations of five brain regions and of four peripheral organs from 5 months old, male and female, wild-type (WT) and α-TTP-KO mice. All brain regions of female WT mice contained significantly higher α-T than those from WT males. α-T concentration in the cerebellum ...

  17. CD59 Underlines the Antiatherosclerotic Effects of C-Phycocyanin on Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Li; Xian-Ming Chu; Ying-Jie Xu; Fan Yang; Cong-Yi Lv; Shu-min Nie

    2013-01-01

    The effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) on atherosclerosis and the regulatory effects of CD59 gene on anti-atherosclerotic roles of C-PC were investigated. Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(−/−)) mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group, C-PC treatment group, CD59 transfection group and C-PC+CD59 synergy group. The mice were fed with high-fat-diet and treated with drug intervention at the same time. Results showed the atherosclerotic mouse model was successfully established. CD59 ...

  18. Further studies of the influence of apolipoprotein B alleles on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Joan; Poulsen, Pernille; Vaag, Allan;

    2003-01-01

    The effect of five genetic polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism was assessed in 564 Danish mono- and dizygotic twins. Genotypes in apolipoprotein B T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), L2712P (MvaI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (Eco...... on the insulin-to-glucose ratio (p = 0.04), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) influenced HOMAbeta (p = 0.04). Significant interactions were observed between genotype in T71I (ApaLI RFLP), A591V (AluI RFLP), R3611Q (MspI RFLP), and E4154K (EcoRI RFLP) and glucose tolerance on lipid-related parameters (0.03 < p...

  19. Expression analysis of apolipoprotein E and its associated genes in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xiumin; Xu, Jianting; Wang, Jihan; CUI, MEIZI; Gao, Yushun; Niu, Haitao; Jin, Haofan

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a common type of cancer worldwide, and has a poor prognosis, in part due to the low rates of early diagnosis and the limited treatment methods available. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is involved in exogenous cholesterol transport and may be important in enabling tumor cells to fulfill their high cholesterol requirements. A number of reports have indicated that ApoE affects the development and prognosis of gastric cancer. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate ...

  20. The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Richard M.; Wade, David P.; Garvin, Michael R.; Wang, Xingbo; Schwartz, Karen; Porter, J. Gordon; Seilhamer, Jeffrey J.; Ashley M Vaughan; Oram, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The ABC1 transporter was identified as the defect in Tangier disease by a combined strategy of gene expression microarray analysis, genetic mapping, and biochemical studies. Patients with Tangier disease have a defect in cellular cholesterol removal, which results in near zero plasma levels of HDL and in massive tissue deposition of cholesteryl esters. Blocking the expression or activity of ABC1 reduces apolipoprotein-mediated lipid efflux from cultured cells, and increasing expression of ABC...

  1. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism influences aggressive behavior in prostate cancer cells by deregulating cholesterol homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    IFERE, GODWIN O.; Desmond, Renee; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Nagy, Tim R.

    2013-01-01

    High circulating cholesterol and its deregulated homeostasis may facilitate prostate cancer progression. Genetic polymorphism in Apolipoprotein (Apo) E, a key cholesterol regulatory protein may effect changes in systemic cholesterol levels. In this investigation, we determined whether variants of the Apo E gene can trigger defective intracellular cholesterol efflux, which could promote aggressive prostate cancer. ApoE genotypes of weakly (non-aggressive), moderate and highly tumorigenic (aggr...

  2. Apolipoprotein A-I and its mimetics for the treatment of atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Although statin treatment leads consistently to a reduction in major adverse coronary events and death in clinical trials, approximately 60 to 70% residual risk of these outcomes still remains. One frontier of investigational drug research is treatment to increase HDL, the ‘good cholesterol’ that is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. HDL and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) are protective against atherosclerosis through several mechanisms, including the abi...

  3. Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; David, F.; Berriche, S. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Reims (France)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls for {epsilon}4 allele frequencies). These data support the involvement of ApoE {epsilon}4 allele as a very important risk factor for the clinical expression of AD. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Mutation in apolipoprotein B associated with hypobetalipoproteinemia despite decreased binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Jan Skov; Nilausen, Karin Skov; Meinertz, Hans; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in apolipoprotein B (APOB) may reduce binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the LDL receptor and cause hypercholesterolemia. We showed that heterozygotes for a new mutation in APOB have hypobetalipoproteinemia, despite a reduced binding of LDL to the LDL receptor. APOB R3480P hete...... in vitro studies with both human in vivo and population-based studies, as in vitro studies often have focused on very limited aspects of complex mechanisms taken out of their natural context....

  5. Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Colorectal Neoplasm: Results from a Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Yun; Wang, Jirong; Ye, Ying; Sun, Liqun; Fan, Yingrui; Wang, Li; Juan LI; Wang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Keming

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism to colorectal neoplasia (CRN), we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eligible studies were identified through a systematic literature review from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Science Citation Index up to February 2014. A combined analysis was performed, followed by a subgroup analyses stratified by the study design. We used data collected from 8 prospective studies involving respectively a total of 9243 part...

  6. Perbedaan Kadar Apolipoprotein-B pada Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 Terkontrol dan Tidak terkontrol

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Budi Darmanta

    2015-01-01

    Background : Apolipoprotein-B (apo-B) is the major protein component of atherogenic lipoproteins such as VLDL, IDL, LDL. Type 2 DM apo-B act a better indicator of the progression of coronary artery disease compared with other lipids and lipoproteins . Objective : To determine differences in levels of apo-B in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus controlled and uncontrolled blood sugar levels then for further can estimate the magnitude of the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patien...

  7. The Apolipoprotein E Gene and Taq1A Polymorphisms in Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Karaoguz, Meral Yirmibes; Koc, Altug; Camurdan, Orhun; Bideci, Aysun; Yazici, A. Canan; Cinaz, Peyami

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The apolipoprotein E (Apo E) polymorphism has been reported to influence some lipid profile abnormalities associated with obesity in childhood. In this study, the relationship between the Apo E gene and Taq1A polymorphisms with childhood obesity has been studied. Regarding the Apo E genotypes, e3/4 was the most frequent in both the patient and control groups. Further, there was a significance between ...

  8. Association of hepatic nuclear factor-4 in the apolipoprotein B promoter: a preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Nóvak E.M.; Dantas K.C.; Charbel C.E.; Bydlowski S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the arrangement of regulatory elements along the apolipoprotein B (apoB) promoter region (-3067 to +940) and a promoter fragment extending from nucleotides -150 to +124 has been demonstrated to be essential for transcriptional activation of the apoB gene in hepatic and intestinal cells. It has also been shown that transcriptional activation of apoB requires a synergistic interaction between hepatic nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein a (C...

  9. Guanosine effect on cholesterol efflux and apolipoprotein E expression in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Patrizia; Ciccarelli, Renata; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Buccella, Silvana; D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Giuliani, Patricia; Masciulli, Arianna; Nargi, Eleonora; Beraudi, Alina; Rathbone, Michel P; Caciagli, Francesco

    2006-11-01

    The main source of cholesterol in the central nervous system (CNS) is represented by glial cells, mainly astrocytes, which also synthesise and secrete apolipoproteins, in particular apolipoprotein E (ApoE), the major apolipoprotein in the brain, thus generating cholesterol-rich high density lipoproteins (HDLs). This cholesterol trafficking, even though still poorly known, is considered to play a key role in different aspects of neuronal plasticity and in the stabilisation of synaptic transmission. Moreover, cell cholesterol depletion has recently been linked to a reduction in amyloid beta formation. Here we demonstrate that guanosine, which we previously reported to exert several neuroprotective effects, was able to increase cholesterol efflux from astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells in the absence of exogenously added acceptors. In this effect the phosphoinositide 3 kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (PI3K/ERK1/2) pathway seems to play a pivotal role. Guanosine was also able to increase the expression of ApoE in astrocytes, whereas it did not modify the levels of ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1), considered the main cholesterol transporter in the CNS. Given the emerging role of cholesterol balance in neuronal repair, these effects provide evidence for a role of guanosine as a potential pharmacological tool in the modulation of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. PMID:18404467

  10. Altered plasma apolipoprotein modifications in patients with pancreatic cancer: protein characterization and multi-institutional validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Honda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the more common human malignancies, invasive ductal carcinoma of the pancreas has the worst prognosis. The poor outcome seems to be attributable to difficulty in early detection. METHODS: We compared the plasma protein profiles of 112 pancreatic cancer patients with those of 103 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (Cohort 1 using a newly developed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (oMALDI QqTOF (quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS system. RESULTS: We found that hemi-truncated apolipoprotein AII dimer (ApoAII-2; 17252 m/z, unglycosylated apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII-0; 8766 m/z, and their summed value were significantly decreased in the pancreatic cancer patients [P = 1.36×10(-21, P = 4.35×10(-14, and P = 1.83×10(-24 (Mann-Whitney U-test; area-under-curve values of 0.877, 0.798, and 0.903, respectively]. The significance was further validated in a total of 1099 plasma/serum samples, consisting of 2 retrospective cohorts [Cohort 2 (n = 103 and Cohort 3 (n = 163] and a prospective cohort [Cohort 4 (n = 833] collected from 8 medical institutions in Japan and Germany. CONCLUSIONS: We have constructed a robust quantitative MS profiling system and used it to validate alterations of modified apolipoproteins in multiple cohorts of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  11. Apolipoproteins: Good Markers for Cardiovacular Risk in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Mirela - Nicoleta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Dyslipidemia (DLP is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD and may accelerate its progression. Circulating lipoproteins and their constituent proteins, apolipoproteins, are risk factors for CKD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a correlation between apolipoproteins and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR or between apolipoproteins and anthropometrical and laboratory parameters or between evaluated cardiovascular risk (CV and dyslipidemia/CKD. Material and methods. We performed a study on 51 subjects from the Nephrology Department of Emergency Clinical County Hospital of Craiova, from November 2011 to July 2013. Results. We found statistically significant correlations between eGFR and Apo A1. Also we found a linear correlation between C-reactive protein (CRP and Apo B. When we evaluated the CV risk using CRP, we found statistically significant differences between the groups (CKD and DLP, only CKD, only DLP and control group, patients with CKD and DLP showing the highest levels of CRP. Conclusions. Elevated levels of Apo A1 are associated with a low rate of CKD. DLP and chronic inflammation play an important role in the progression of CKD. Patients with CKD and DLP had a high cardiovascular risk.

  12. Genetic variation of apolipoproteins, diet and other environmental interactions: an updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Sotos-Prieto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the recent findings from studies investigating the potential environmental modulation of the genetic variation of apolipoprotein genes on metabolic traits. We reviewed nutrigenetic studies evaluating variations on apolipoproteins-related genes and its associated response to nutrients (mostly dietary fatty acids or any other dietary or environmental component. Most revised research studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and specific nutrients through small intervention studies, and only few interactions have been replicated in large and independent populations (as in the case of -265T > C SNP in APOA2 gene. Although current knowledge shows that variations on apolipoprotein genes may contribute to the different response on metabolic traits due to dietary interventions, evidence is still scarce and results are inconsistent. Success in this area will require going beyond the limitations of current experimental designs and explore the hypotheses within large populations. Some of these limitations are being covered by the rapidly advance in high-throughput technologies and large scale-genome wide association studies.

  13. Amyloid-β colocalizes with apolipoprotein B in absorptive cells of the small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaliwal Satvinder S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-β is recognized as the major constituent of senile plaque found in subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, there is increasing evidence that in a physiological context amyloid-β may serve as regulating apolipoprotein, primarily of the triglyceride enriched lipoproteins. To consider this hypothesis further, this study utilized an in vivo immunological approach to explore in lipogenic tissue whether amyloid-β colocalizes with nascent triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Results In murine absorptive epithelial cells of the small intestine, amyloid-β had remarkable colocalization with chylomicrons (Manders overlap coefficient = 0.73 ± 0.03 (SEM, the latter identified as immunoreactive apolipoprotein B. A diet enriched in saturated fats doubled the abundance of both amyloid-β and apo B and increased the overlap coefficient of the two proteins (0.87 ± 0.02. However, there was no evidence that abundance of the two proteins was interdependent within the enterocytes (Pearson's Coefficient Conclusion The findings of this study are consistent with the possibility that amyloid-β is secreted by enterocytes as an apolipoprotein component of chylomicrons. However, secretion of amyloid-β appears to be independent of chylomicron biogenesis.

  14. Acute effects of moderate exercise on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, H; Katagiri, S; Uchid, K; Miyamoto, N; Nakano, H; Shirota, T

    2000-12-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of moderate exercise on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in seven sedentary young women under controlled conditions. 2. The subjects exercised on separate days for 30 or 60 min at an intensity of 60% of maximal oxygen uptake on a cycle ergometer. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL2-C, HDL3-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and B were measured in the serum at the end of the 60 min rest period before each exercise, immediately after the performance of each exercise and at 30 min and 1, 2 and 24 h after each exercise. 3. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the pre- and postexercise samples for any of the parameters tested. 4. The results of the present study suggest that a single bout of exercise designed to simulate a typical training workout has no noticeable effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in normal sedentary young women who have normal lipid profiles, are in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and who consume a relatively low-fat diet. PMID:11117233

  15. Activation of farnesoid X receptor prevents atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDLR−/− and apoE−/− mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Helen B.; Gardell, Stephen J.; Petucci, Chris J.; Wang, Shuguang; Krueger, Julie A.; Evans, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The role of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the development of atherosclerosis has been unclear. Here, LDL receptor (LDLR−/−) or apolipoprotein E (apoE−/−) female or male mice were fed a Western diet and treated with a potent synthetic FXR agonist, WAY-362450. Activation of FXR blocked diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia and elevations of non-HDL cholesterol and produced a near complete inhibition of aortic lesion formation. WAY-362450 also induced small heterodimer partner (SHP) expression and r...

  16. Effects of red grape juice consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B and homocysteine in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Ansari, Mohammad H; Rasmi, Yousef; Ramezani, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    It has suggested that grape juice consumption has lipid- lowering effect and it is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease. We aimed to evaluate the effects of red grape juice (RGj) consumption on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels in healthy human volunteers. Twenty six healthy and nonsmoking males, aged between 25-60 years, who were under no medication asked to consume 150 ml of RGj twice per day for one month. Serum HDL-C, apoAI, apoB and plasma Hcy levels were measured before and after one month RGj consumption. HDL-C levels after RGj consumption were significantly higher than the corresponding levels before the RGj consumption (41.44 ± 4.50 and 44.37 ± 4.30 mg/dl; P0.05). Hcy levels were decreased after RGj consumption (7.70 ± 2.80 and 6.20 ± 2.30 µmol/l; P<0.001). The present study demonstrates that RGj consumption can significantly increase serum HDL-C levels and decrease Hcy levels. These findings may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals. PMID:21633724

  17. Lipoprotein lipase activity and mass, apolipoprotein C-II mass and polymorphisms of apolipoproteins E and A5 in subjects with prior acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Arias Carlota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe hypertriglyceridaemia due to chylomicronemia may trigger an acute pancreatitis. However, the basic underlying mechanism is usually not well understood. We decided to analyze some proteins involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Methods Twenty-four survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis (cases and 31 patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (controls were included. Clinical and anthropometrical data, chylomicronaemia, lipoprotein profile, postheparin lipoprotein lipase mass and activity, hepatic lipase activity, apolipoprotein C II and CIII mass, apo E and A5 polymorphisms were assessed. Results Only five cases were found to have LPL mass and activity deficiency, all of them thin and having the first episode in childhood. No cases had apolipoprotein CII deficiency. No significant differences were found between the non-deficient LPL cases and the controls in terms of obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, drug therapy, gender distribution, evidence of fasting chylomicronaemia, lipid levels, LPL activity and mass, hepatic lipase activity, CII and CIII mass or apo E polymorphisms. However, the SNP S19W of apo A5 tended to be more prevalent in cases than controls (40% vs. 23%, NS. Conclusion Primary defects in LPL and C-II are rare in survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis; lipase activity measurements should be restricted to those having their first episode during chilhood.

  18. Megalin is a receptor for apolipoprotein M, and kidney-specific megalin-deficiency confers urinary excretion of apolipoprotein M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Kirsten; Hvidberg, Vibeke; Moestrup, Søren K; Dahlbäck, Björn; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    addition, apoM is expressed at high levels in the kidney tubule cells. In this study, we show that the multiligand receptor megalin, which is expressed in kidney proximal tubule cells, is a receptor for apoM and mediates its uptake in the kidney. To examine apoM binding to megalin, a recombinant apoM was...... examine the importance of apoM binding by megalin in vivo, we analyzed mice with a tissue-specific deficiency of megalin in the kidney. Megalin deficiency was associated with pronounced urinary excretion of apoM, whereas apoM was not detected in normal mouse, human, or rat urine. Gel filtration analysis...... showed that the urinary apoM-containing particles were small and devoid of apoA-I. The results suggest that apoM binds to megalin and that megalin-mediated endocytosis in kidney proximal tubules prevents apoM excretion in the urine....

  19. Roles of apolipoprotein E (ApoE and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in inflammation and apoptosis in preeclampsia pathogenesis and progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyi Mao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate potential roles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and apolipoprotein (apoE in inflammation and apoptosis promoting pathological changes in preeclampsia in pregnant mice with apoE and/or iNOS knock out. METHODS: B6.129 mice were crossed to produce WT, apoE(-/-, apoE(+/-, iNOS(-/-, iNOS(+/- and apoE(-/-iNOS(-/- groups. Variants were confirmed by PCR. Serum lipid parameters (triglycerides, TG; total cholesterol, TC; high density lipoprotein, HDL; and low density lipoprotein, LDL, NO levels and placental electronic microscopic ultrastructures were evaluated, and blood pressure (BP, 24-hour urine protein and pregnancy outcomes were recorded for pregnant F1 generation mice. Placental expressions of inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α, TNF-α; interleukin-6, IL-6; nuclear factor-κB, NF-κb and apoptotic markers (Bcl-2 associated X protein, Bax, B-cell lymphoma/leukemia-2, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 were evaluated via Western blot. RESULTS: Serum lipids, BP and 24-hour urine protein levels were shown to be significantly higher and parturition and placenta weights were lower in apoE(-/- and apoE(-/-iNOS(-/- groups (p0.05 showed no differences. In addition, placenta vascular endothelial and trophoblast cell morphological changes were demonstrated in both the apoE(-/-iNOS(-/- and apoE(-/- groups. CONCLUSION: Elevated lipid metabolism and inflammatory/apoptosis parameters suggest a potentially significant role of apoE in preeclampsia pathology, as well as a relationship between iNOS and preeclampsia progression.

  20. Apolipoprotein A-II influences apolipoprotein E-linked cardiovascular disease risk in women with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Corsetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects and high (designated as HR2 subjects levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. To assess whether apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II plays a role in apoE-associated risk in the two female groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Outcome event mapping, a graphical data exploratory tool; Cox proportional hazards multivariable regression; and curve-fitting modeling were used to examine apoA-II influence on apoE-associated risk focusing on HDL particles with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I without apoA-II (LpA-I and HDL particles with both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I:A-II. Results of outcome mappings as a function of apoE levels and the ratio of apoA-II to apoA-I revealed within each of the two populations, a high-risk subgroup characterized in each situation by high levels of apoE and additionally: in HR1, by a low value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio; and in HR2, by a moderate value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio. Furthermore, derived estimates of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II levels revealed for high-risk versus remaining subjects: in HR1, higher levels of LpA-I and lower levels of LpA-I:A-II; and in HR2 the reverse, lower levels of LpA-I and higher levels of LpA-I:A-II. Results of multivariable risk modeling as a function of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II (dichotomized as highest quartile versus combined three lower quartiles revealed association of risk only for high levels of LpA-I:A-II in the HR2 subgroup (hazard ratio 5.31, 95% CI 1.12-25.17, p = 0.036. Furthermore, high LpA-I:A-II levels interacted with high apoE levels in establishing subgroup risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that apoA-II plays a significant role in apoE-associated risk of incident CVD in women with high levels of HDL-C and CRP.

  1. Polymorphism of apolipoprotein E gene and post-stroke vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjing Lin; Changlin Hu; Yunlan Xie; Xin Zhang; Xiangping Liu; Ge Yan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that the more certain etiological factors of vascular dementia are the sites, size and number of cerebrovascular lesions, but there are arguments all the time in the relationship of genetic factors, especially apolipoprotein E gene, with the occurrence and development of vascular dementia. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between the polymorphism of apolipoprotein E gene and vascular dementia in stroke patients. DESIGN: A non-randomized grouped comparative observation at the same time. SETTING: The Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 121 inpatients with stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences from January 2000 to December 2001. All the patients were accorded with the diagnostic standards for cerebrovascular diseases set by the Second National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease, and confirmed by cranial CT or MRI. According to with vascular dementia or not, they were divided into vascular dementia group (n =58) and non-vascular dementia group (n =63). In the vascular dementia group, there were 37 males and 21 females, the average age was (59±8) years. They were all in accordance with the standard of the third edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DMS-Ⅲ), without conscious disturbance and language disorder; hospitalized within 3 days after the attack of cerebrovascular disease. In the non-vascular dementia group, there were 37 males and 26 females, the average age was (59±9.5) years. They all had no intellectual disturbance within 3 months after the attack of cerebrovascular disease. All the subjects agreed to supply blood samples for the experiment. METHODS: ①Fasting venous blood (2 mL) was drawn from each patient in the morning to extract DNA. The frequencies of apolipoprotein E genotypes and alleles were

  2. Quercetin represses apolipoprotein B expression by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of C/EBPβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Shimizu

    Full Text Available Quercetin is one of the most abundant polyphenolic flavonoids found in fruits and vegetables and has anti-oxidative and anti-obesity effects. Because the small intestine is a major absorptive organ of dietary nutrients, it is likely that highly concentrated food constituents, including polyphenols, are present in the small intestinal epithelial cells, suggesting that food factors may have a profound effect in this tissue. To identify novel targets of quercetin in the intestinal enterocytes, mRNA profiling using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells was performed. We found that mRNA levels of some apolipoproteins, particularly apolipoprotein B (apoB, are downregulated in the presence of quercetin. On the exposure of Caco-2 cells to quercetin, both mRNA and protein levels of apoB were decreased. Promoter analysis of the human apoB revealed that quercetin response element is localized at the 5'-proximal promoter region, which contains a conserved CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP-response element. We found that quercetin reduces the promoter activity of apoB, driven by the enforced expression of C/EBPβ. Quercetin had no effect on either mRNA or protein levels of C/EBPβ. In contrast, we found that quercetin inhibits the transcriptional activity of C/EBPβ but not its recruitment to the apoB promoter. On the exposure of Caco-2 cells to quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, which is in a cell-impermeable form, no notable change in apoB mRNA was observed, suggesting an intracellular action of quercetin. In vitro interaction experiments using quercetin-conjugated beads revealed that quercetin binds to C/EBPβ. Our results describe a novel regulatory mechanism of transcription of apolipoprotein genes by quercetin in the intestinal enterocytes.

  3. Selenoprotein P and apolipoprotein E receptor-2 interact at the blood-brain barrier and also within the brain to maintain an essential selenium pool that protects against neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Raymond F.; Hill, Kristina E.; Motley, Amy K.; Winfrey, Virginia P.; Kurokawa, Suguru; Mitchell, Stuart L.; Zhang, Wanqi

    2014-01-01

    Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) and its receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2), account for brain retaining selenium better than other tissues. The primary sources of Sepp1 in plasma and brain are hepatocytes and astrocytes, respectively. ApoER2 is expressed in varying amounts by tissues; within the brain it is expressed primarily by neurons. Knockout of Sepp1 or apoER2 lowers brain selenium from ∼120 to ∼50 ng/g and leads to severe neurodegeneration and death in mild selenium deficiency. Interactions of Sepp1 and apoER2 that protect against this injury have not been characterized. We studied Sepp1, apoER2, and brain selenium in knockout mice. Immunocytochemistry showed that apoER2 mediates Sepp1 uptake at the blood-brain barrier. When Sepp1−/− or apoER2−/− mice developed severe neurodegeneration caused by mild selenium deficiency, brain selenium was ∼35 ng/g. In extreme selenium deficiency, however, brain selenium of ∼12 ng/g was tolerated when both Sepp1 and apoER2 were intact in the brain. These findings indicate that tandem Sepp1-apoER2 interactions supply selenium for maintenance of brain neurons. One interaction is at the blood-brain barrier, and the other is within the brain. We postulate that Sepp1 inside the blood-brain barrier is taken up by neurons via apoER2, concentrating brain selenium in them.—Burk, R. F., Hill, K. E., Motley, A. K., Winfrey, V. P., Kurokawa, S., Mitchell, S. L., Zhang, W. Selenoprotein P and apolipoprotein E receptor-2 interact at the blood-brain barrier and also within the brain to maintain an essential selenium pool that protects against neurodegeneration. PMID:24760755

  4. Immunolocalization of an Amino-Terminal Fragment of Apolipoprotein E in the Pick's Disease Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Rohn, Troy T.; Day, Ryan J; Catlin, Lindsey W; Brown, Raquel J.; Rajic, Alexander J.; Poon, Wayne W.

    2013-01-01

    Although the risk factor for apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been well described, the role that apoE plays in other neurodegenerative diseases, including Pick's disease, is not well established. To examine a possible role of apoE in Pick's disease, an immunohistochemical analysis was performed utilizing a novel site-directed antibody that is specific for an amino-terminal fragment of apoE. Application of this antibody, termed the amino-terminal apoE cleava...

  5. Bioenergetic programming of macrophages by the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Geeta; Kramer, Philip A.; Johnson, Michelle S.; Sawada, Hirotaka; Smythies, Lesley E.; Crossman, David K.; Chacko, Balu; Ballinger, Scott W.; Westbrook, David G.; Mayakonda, Palgunachari; Anantharamaiah, G.M.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; White, C. Roger

    2015-01-01

    The apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mimetic peptide 4F favours the differentiation of human monocytes to an alternatively activated M2 phenotype. The goal of the present study was to test whether the 4F-mediated differentiation of MDMs (monocyte-derived macrophages) requires the induction of an oxidative metabolic programme. 4F treatment induced several genes in MDMs that play an important role in lipid metabolism, including PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) and CD36. Addition ...

  6. Effect of Biliary Diversion on Rat Mesenteric Lymph Apolipoprotein-I and High Density Lipoprotein

    OpenAIRE

    Bearnot, H. Robert; Glickman, Robert M.; Weinberg, Lee; Green, Peter H.R.; Tall, Alan R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of biliary diversion on intestinal apolipoprotein (apoA)-I and high density lipoprotein formation was studied in mesenteric lymph fistula rats. Bile diversion was produced by an exteriorized catheter that allowed interruption and reconstitution of the enterohepatic circulation. Bile diversion reduced lymph cholesterol output from 0.47±0.05 μmol/h to 0.17±0.03 μmol/h (P < 0.025), and lymph triglyceride output from 3.6±0.3μmol/h to 0.6±0.05 μmol/h (P < 0.025) after 24 h. This was due...

  7. Apolipoprotein E4 and a change in episodic memory functioning among normal aging Norwegian adults

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is a known risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease and may also affect cognitive performance in normal aging. The data presented in the current study represent the first two time points of an ongoing longitudinal study examining cognitive changes in genetically at-risk individuals with much emphasis on test of episodic recall as measured by the California Verbal Learning Test. A total of 110 of 139 people who participated in the first phase of the...

  8. The impact of plasma triglyceride and apolipoproteins concentrations on high-density lipoprotein subclasses distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of triglyceride (TG integrates with plasma major components of apolipoproteins in HDL subclasses distribution and further elicited the TG-apolipoproteins (apos interaction in the processes of high density lipoprotein (HDL mature metabolic and atherosclerosis related diseases. Methods Contents of plasma HDL subclasses were quantities by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with immunodetection in 500 Chinese subjects. Results Contents of preβ1-HDL, HDL3a, and apoB-100 level along with apoB-100/A-I ratio were significantly increased, whereas there was a significant reduction in the contents of HDL2, apoA-I level as well as apoC-III/C-II ratio with increased TG concentration. Moreover, preβ1-HDL contents is elevated about 9 mg/L and HDL2b contents can be reduced 21 mg/L for 0.5 mmol/L increment in TG concentration. Moreover, with increase of apoA-I levels, HDL2b contents were marginally elevated in any TG concentration group. Furthermore, despite of in the apoB-100/A-I 1-HDL increased, and those of HDL2b decreased significantly for subjects in both high and very high TG levels compared to that in normal TG levels. Similarly, in the apoB-100/A-I ≥ 0.9 group, the distribution of HDL subclasses also showed abnormality for subjects with normal TG levels. Conclusions The particle size of HDL subclasses tend to small with TG levels increased which indicated that HDL maturation might be impeded and efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT might be weakened. These data suggest that TG levels were not only significantly associated with but liner with the contents of preβ1-HDL and HDL2b. They also raise the possibility that the TG levels effect on HDL maturation metabolism are subjected to plasma apolipoproteins and apolipoproteins ratios.

  9. Interactions of Apolipoprotein A-I with High-Density Lipoprotein Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, David; Nickel, Margaret; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Saito, Hiroyuki; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Although the partitioning of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) molecules in plasma between high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound and -unbound states is an integral part of HDL metabolism, the factors that control binding of apoA-I to HDL particles are poorly understood. To address this gap in knowledge, we investigated how the properties of the apoA-I tertiary structure domains and surface characteristics of spherical HDL particles influence apoA-I binding. The abilities of 14C-labeled human and mou...

  10. Surface behavior of apolipoprotein A-I and its deletion mutants at model lipoprotein interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Libo; Mei, Xiaohu; Atkinson, David; Small, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has a great conformational flexibility to exist in lipid-free, lipid-poor, and lipid-bound states during lipid metabolism. To address the lipid binding and the dynamic desorption behavior of apoA-I at lipoprotein surfaces, apoA-I, Δ(185-243)apoA-I, and Δ(1-59)(185-243)apoA-I were studied at triolein/water and phosphatidylcholine/triolein/water interfaces with special attention to surface pressure. All three proteins are surface active to both interfaces lowering th...

  11. The apolipoprotein A-I gene is actively expressed in the rapidly myelinating avian peripheral nerve

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) gene was investigated in the myelinating sciatic nerve. Hybridization analysis with an apo A-I cDNA probe obtained from a cDNA library of mRNA isolated from rapidly myelinating chick sciatic nerve indicated that apo A-I coding transcripts increase during development in the chick sciatic nerve in parallel with the increase of myelin lamellae. Substantial apo A-I-like immunoreactivity in chick sciatic nerve homogenates was detected by Western b...

  12. No severe bottleneck during human evolution: evidence from two apolipoprotein C-II deficiency alleles.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, W J; Li, W. H.; Posner, I; Yamamura, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Gotto, A M; Chan, L

    1991-01-01

    The DNA sequences of a Japanese and a Venezuelan apolipoprotein (apo) C-II deficiency allele, of a normal Japanese apo C-II gene, and of a chimpanzee apo C-II gene were amplified by PCR, and their nucleotide sequences were determined on multiple clones of the PCR products. The normal Japanese sequence is identical to--and the chimpanzee sequence differs by only three nucleotides from--a previously published normal Caucasian sequence. In contrast, the two human mutant sequences each differ fro...

  13. Crystal structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I suggests a lipid-bound conformation

    OpenAIRE

    Borhani, David W.; Rogers, Danise P.; Engler, Jeffrey A.; Brouillette, Christie G

    1997-01-01

    The structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high density lipoprotein, has been determined at 4-Å resolution. The crystals comprise residues 44–243 (exon 4) of apo A-I, a fragment that binds to lipid similarly to intact apo A-I and that retains the lipid-bound conformation even in the absence of lipid. The molecule consists almost entirely of a pseudo-continuous, amphipathic α-helix that is punctuated by kinks at regularly spaced proline residu...

  14. Human apolipoprotein C-II: complete nucleic acid sequence of preapolipoprotein C-II.

    OpenAIRE

    Fojo, S S; Law, S W; Brewer, H B

    1984-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides on plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The complete coding sequence of apoC-II mRNA has been determined from an apoC-II clone isolated from a human liver cDNA library. A 17-base-long synthetic oligonucleotide based on amino acid residues 5-10 of apoC-II was utilized as a hybridization probe to select recombinant plasmids containing the apoC-II sequence. Two thousand fou...

  15. Erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B in relation to atherosclerosis, serum lipids and ABO blood group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Klop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Erythrocytes carry apolipoprotein B on their membrane, but the determining factors of erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B (ery-apoB are unknown. We aimed to explore the determinants of ery-apoB to gain more insight into potential mechanisms. METHODS: Subjects with and without CVD were included (N = 398. Ery-apoB was measured on fresh whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Subjects with ery-apoB levels ≤ 0.20 a.u. were considered deficient. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT was determined as a measure of (subclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Mean ery-apoB value was 23.2% lower in subjects with increased CIMT (0.80 ± 0.09 mm, N = 140 compared to subjects with a normal CIMT (0.57 ± 0.08 mm, N = 258 (P = 0.007, adjusted P<0.001. CIMT and ery-apoB were inversely correlated (Spearman's r: -0.116, P = 0.021. A total of 55 subjects (13.6% were considered ery-apoB deficient, which was associated with a medical history of CVD (OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.04-3.33; adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI 0.85-2.82. Discontinuation of statins in 54 subjects did not influence ery-apoB values despite a 58.4% increase in serum apolipoprotein B. Subjects with blood group O had significantly higher ery-apoB values (1.56 ± 0.94 a.u. when compared to subjects with blood group A (0.89 ± 1.15 a.u, blood group B (0.73 ± 0.1.12 a.u. or blood group AB (0.69 ± 0.69 a.u. (P-ANOVA = 0.002. CONCLUSION: Absence or very low values of ery-apoB are associated with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. While serum apolipoprotein B is not associated with ery-apoB, the ABO blood group seems to be a significant determinant.

  16. Apolipoprotein E gene and age-related macular degeneration in a Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Erdan; Lim, Apiradee; Liu, Xipu; Snellingen, Torkel; Wang, Ningli; Liu, Ningpu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Chinese population. Methods The study consisted of 712 subjects, including 201 controls, 363 cases with early AMD, and 148 cases with exudative AMD. Genomic DNA was extracted from venous blood leukocytes. Common allelic variants of APOE (ε2, ε3, and ε4) were analyzed by PCR and direct sequencing. Results APOE ε3ε3 was the most frequent genotype, with a frequency of ...

  17. Apolipoprotein E genotypes do not influence the age of onset in Huntington's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Saft, C.; Andrich, J; Brune, N; Gencik, M; Kraus, P; Przuntek, H; Epplen, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene has been defined as a critical factor for early onset neurodegeneration in Pick's, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's disease. Unexpectedly, the ε4 allele appeared to delay the age of onset in Huntington's disease (HD) patients. Furthermore, sex specific effects were reported on earlier age of onset due to the ApoE ε2ε3 genotype in males with HD. The age of onset of HD is known to be negatively correlated with increasing lengths of pathog...

  18. The allelic modulation of apolipoprotein E expression by oestrogen: potential relevance for Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, J; Coyle, N; Lendon, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease but appears to be associated with greater risk in women than in men. Some studies suggest that the level of APOE may of its own modulate the risk for Alzheimer's disease. Sex differences and an apparent benefit of oestrogen therapy suggest a role for oestrogen. APOE expression is influenced by oestrogen and oestrogen therapy may not benefit women bearing an APOE ε4 allele. Thes...

  19. Beneficial Effect of Glucose Control on Atherosclerosis Progression in Diabetic ApoE−/− Mice: Shown by Rage Directed Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yared Tekabe; Maria Kollaros; Qing Li; Geping Zhang; Chong Li; Ann Marie Schmidt; Johnson, Lynne L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Receptor for advanced glycated endproducts (RAGE) plays an important role in atherogenesis in diabetes. We imaged RAGE to investigate the effect of glucose control to suppress RAGE and reduce atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null (apoE−/−) diabetic mice. Methods and Results. Thirty-three apoE−/− mice received streptozotocin and 6 weeks later 15 began treatment with insulin implants. Blood glucose measurements during study averaged: 140 ± 23 mg/dL (treated) and 354 ± 14 mg/dL (un...

  20. The influence of selenium, vitamin E, and oestrogen on the development of tumours in mice exposed to {sup 90}Sr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierke, P. [National Defence Research Inst., Umeaa (Sweden). Unit of Experimental Pathology and Risk Research; Svedenstaal, B.M. [Dept. of Radioecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The primary object of this experiment was to evaluate the potential role of the antioxidants, selenium and vitamin E, in the anti-tumour defence of mice internally irradiated with {sup 90}Sr. Comparison in terms of neoplastic response was made between mice kept on a selenium and vitamin E deficient diet and mice given the same deficient diet but administered selenium and/or vitamin E in a controlled manner. The influence of simultaneous oestrogen treatment, known to promote radiogenic osteosarcoma induction, was also investigated. Non-irradiated mice were used as controls. Results are presented as crude and actuarial tumour incidence. No significant difference in tumour yield or actuarial tumour incidence was found when the differently treated mouse groups were compared, and accordingly no support was gained for the theory that the antioxidants selenium and vitamin E constitute a critical part of the complex defence system against neoplasms. (orig.).

  1. The influence of selenium, vitamin E, and oestrogen on the development of tumours in mice exposed to 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary object of this experiment was to evaluate the potential role of the antioxidants, selenium and vitamin E, in the anti-tumour defence of mice internally irradiated with 90Sr. Comparison in terms of neoplastic response was made between mice kept on a selenium and vitamin E deficient diet and mice given the same deficient diet but administered selenium and/or vitamin E in a controlled manner. The influence of simultaneous oestrogen treatment, known to promote radiogenic osteosarcoma induction, was also investigated. Non-irradiated mice were used as controls. Results are presented as crude and actuarial tumour incidence. No significant difference in tumour yield or actuarial tumour incidence was found when the differently treated mouse groups were compared, and accordingly no support was gained for the theory that the antioxidants selenium and vitamin E constitute a critical part of the complex defence system against neoplasms. (orig.)

  2. Apolipoprotein E4 influences growth and cognitive responses to micronutrient supplementation in shantytown children from northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet S Mitter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E4 may benefit children during early periods of life when the body is challenged by infection and nutritional decline. We examined whether apolipoprotein E4 affects intestinal barrier function, improving short-term growth and long-term cognitive outcomes in Brazilian shantytown children. METHODS: A total of 213 Brazilian shantytown children with below-median height-for-age z-scores (HAZ received 200,000 IU of retinol (every four months, zinc (40 mg twice weekly, or both for one year, with half of each group receiving glutamine supplementation for 10 days. Height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, weight-forheight z-scores, and lactulose:mannitol ratios were assessed during the initial four months of treatment. An average of four years (range 1.4-6.6 later, the children underwent cognitive testing to evaluate non-verbal intelligence, coding, verbal fluency, verbal learning, and delayed verbal learning. Apolipoprotein E4 carriage was determined by PCR analysis for 144 children. RESULTS: Thirty-seven children were apolipoprotein E4(+, with an allele frequency of 13.9%. Significant associations were found for vitamin A and glutamine with intestinal barrier function. Apolipoprotein E4(+ children receiving glutamine presented significant positive Pearson correlations between the change in height-for-age z-scores over four months and delayed verbal learning, along with correlated changes over the same period in weight-for-age z-scores and weight-for-height z-scores associated with non-verbal intelligence quotients. There was a significant correlation between vitamin A supplementation of apolipoprotein E4(+ children and improved delta lactulose/mannitol. Apolipoprotein E4(- children, regardless of intervention, exhibited negative Pearson correlations between the change in lactulose-to-mannitol ratio over four months and verbal learning and non-verbal intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: During development, apolipoprotein E4 may

  3. Activation of TRPV1 Prevents OxLDL-Induced Lipid Accumulation and TNF-α-Induced Inflammation in Macrophages: Role of Liver X Receptor α

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Kun Shyue; Tzong-Shyuan Lee; Jeng Wei; Shing-Jong Lin; Jin-Feng Zhao; Li-Chieh Ching; Yu Ru Kou

    2013-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is crucial in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; yet its role and underlying mechanism in the formation of macrophage foam cells remain unclear. Here, we show increased TRPV1 expression in the area of foamy macrophages in atherosclerotic aortas of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Exposure of mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) upregulated the expression of TRPV1. In addition, oxLDL activa...

  4. HDLs in apoA-I transgenic Abca1 knockout mice are remodelednormally in plasma but are hypercatabolized by the kidney.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Timmins, Jenelle M.; Mulya, Anny; Smith, ThomasL.; Zhu, Yiwen; Rubin, Edward M.; Chisholm, Jeffrey W.; Colvin, Perry L.; Parks, John S.

    2005-07-05

    Patients homozygous for Tangier disease have a near absence of plasma HDL as a result of mutations in ABCA1 and hypercatabolize normal HDL particles. To determine the relationship between ABCA1 expression and HDL catabolism, we investigated intravascular remodeling, plasma clearance, and organ-specific uptake of HDL in mice expressing the human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) transgene in the Abca1 knockout background. Small HDL particles (7.5 nm), radiolabeled with 125I-tyramine cellobiose, were injected into recipient mice to quantify plasma turnover and the organ uptake of tracer. Small HDL tracer was remodeled to 8.2 nm diameter particles within 5 min in human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic (hA-ITg) mice (control) and knockout mice. Decay of tracer from plasma was 1.6-fold more rapid in knockout mice (P<0.05) and kidney uptake was twice that of controls, with no difference in liver uptake. We also observed 2-fold greater hepatic expression of ABCA1 protein in hA-ITg mice compared with nontransgenic mice, suggesting that overexpression of human apoA-I stabilized hepatic ABCA1 protein in vivo.

  5. Insights into the requirement of phosphatidylcholine synthesis for liver function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noga, Anna A; Vance, Dennis E

    2003-10-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is made in the liver by the CDP-choline pathway and via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT), which catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PC. Unexpectedly, hepatic apolipoprotein B-100 secretion is inhibited in male, but not female, Pemt-/- mice (Noga, A. A., Y. Zhao, and D. E. Vance. 2002. J. Biol. Chem. 277: 42358-42365; Noga, A. A., and D. E. Vance. 2003. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 21851-21859). To gain further insight into this process, we compared PC metabolism in male and female mice fed chow or a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC) diet. Immunoblot analyses demonstrated that twice as much PEMT2 was present in livers from female compared with male mice. In contrast, assays of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase from livers of Pemt+/+ mice demonstrated more active cytidylyltransferase in male than in female mice. Secretion of PEMT-derived PC into lipoproteins was examined in vivo by injection of mice with [methyl-3H]methionine in the presence of Triton WR1339. The PEMT-derived PC shifts to smaller-sized particles in response to a HF/HC diet, but only in male mice. Secretion of PEMT-derived PC into bile was enhanced in mice fed a HF/HC diet. These results demonstrate that the synthesis and targeting of PC produced by the PEMT pathway in the livers of mice differs in a gender- and diet-specific manner. PMID:12837848

  6. Plasma Apolipoprotein-M (ApoM Response to a Circuit Resistance Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein M (Apo-M is a human novel protein of apolipoprotein classes and highly expressed in liver and kidney tissues. ApoM is mainly associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and act as a chaperone for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, promotes mobilization of cellular cholesterol, formation of larger-size of pre β-HDL, and a new biomarker in sepsis. The level of apoM in plasma/serum is affected by several factors such as pregnancy, hyperglycemia, plasma leptin concentration, obesity, diabetes, insulin concentration and physical exercise. It has been shown that the level of plasma ApoM was significantly lower in strenuous exercise group when compared with the non-exercise group. In the present study a reduction was observed after the 4 weeks of circuit resistance training program. This reduction might be due to a decrease in ApoM expression in liver and kidney or an increase in ApoM clearance, degradation and excretion in urine.

  7. Familial defective apolipoprotein B-100: low density lipoproteins with abnormal receptor binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous in vivo turnover studies suggested that retarded clearance of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from the plasma of some hypercholesterolemic patients is due to LDL with defective receptor binding. The present study examined this postulate directly by receptor binding experiments. The LDL from a hypercholesterolemic patient (G.R.) displayed a reduced ability to bind to the LDL receptors on normal human fibroblasts. The G.R. LDL possessed 32% of normal receptor binding activity. Likewise, the G.R. LDL were much less effective than normal LDL in competing with 125I-labeled normal LDL for cellular uptake and degradation and in stimulating intracellular cholesteryl ester synthesis. The defect in LDL binding appears to be due to a genetic abnormality of apolipoprotein B-100: two brothers of the proband possess LDL defective in receptor binding, whereas a third brother and the proband's son have normally binding LDL. Further, the defect in receptor binding does not appear to be associated wit an abnormal lipid composition or structure of the LDL. Normal and abnormal LDL subpopulations were partially separated from plasma of two subjects by density-gradient ultracentrifugation, a finding consistent with the presence of a normal and a mutant allele. The affected family members appear to be heterozygous for this disorder, which has been designated familial defective apolipoprotein B-100. These studies indicate that the defective receptor binding results in inefficient clearance of LDL and the hypercholesterolemia observed in these patients

  8. Rapid radioimmunoassay of human apolipoproteins C-II and C-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, S.; Oestlund-Lindqvist, A.M.; Vessby, B. (Uppsala Univ. (Sweden))

    1984-06-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) C-II is an activator of lipoprotein lipase, while apo C-III has the ability to inhibit apo C-II activated lipolysis. In order to study further the relationship between lipoprotein lipase mediated hydrolysis and the serum concentrations of apo C-II and apo C-III radioimmunoassays for these apolipoproteins have been developed. Formalin-treated Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I was used for immunoprecipitation and were shown to give rapid uptake of immune complexes that could easily be harvested by centrifugation. The assays were shown to be sensitive (10 ..mu..g/1), specific, precise (inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation below 10%), rapid (completed in less than 6 h) and simple to perform. Delipidation of serum and lipoproteins had no effect on the results, indicating that the immunologically active sites of apo C-II and apo C-III are exposed to the aqueous environment under assay conditions. Serum apo C-II and apo C-III levels of normolipidaemic subjects were approximately 25 mg/1 and 110 mg/1, respectively. Highly significant positive correlations were found between VLDL apo C-II and VLDL apo C-III, respectively, and VLDL triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and total serum TG. There was also a highly significant correlation between the HDL cholesterol concentration and the HDL apo C-III concentration.

  9. The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide, ETC-642, reduces chronic vascular inflammation in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and their main apolipoprotein, apoA-I, exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. The development of peptides that mimic HDL apolipoproteins offers a promising strategy to reduce inflammatory disease. This study aimed to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of ETC-642, an apoA-I mimetic peptide, with that of discoidal reconstituted HDL (rHDL), consisting of full-length apoA-I complexed with phosphatidylcholine, in rabbits with chronic vascular inflammation. Results New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10/group) were placed on chow supplemented with 0.2% (w/w) cholesterol for 6-weeks. The animals received two infusions of saline, rHDL (8 mg/kg apoA-I) or ETC-642 (30 mg/kg peptide) on the third and fifth days of the final week. The infusions of rHDL and ETC-642 were able to significantly reduce cholesterol-induced expression of intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the thoracic aorta (p ETC-642 treated rabbits were more effective at inhibiting the TNF-α-induced increase in ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and p65 than HDL isolated from saline treated rabbits (p ETC-642 causes anti-inflammatory effects that are comparable to rHDL in an animal model of chronic vascular inflammation and highlights that apoA-I mimetic peptides present a viable strategy for the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:22128776

  10. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism in late-onset Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia in Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.S. Souza

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic basis for dementias is complex. A common polymorphism in the apolipoprotein E (APOE gene is considered to be the major risk factor in families with sporadic and late-onset Alzheimer's disease as well as in the general population. The distribution of alleles and genotypes of the APOE gene in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (N = 68, other late-life dementias (N = 39, and in cognitively normal controls (N = 58 was determined, as also was the risk for Alzheimer's disease associated with the epsilon4 allele. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from a total of 165 individuals living in Brazil aged 65-82 years. Genomic DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and the products were digested with HhaI restriction enzyme. APOE epsilon2 frequency was considerably lower in the Alzheimer's disease group (1%, and the epsilon3 allele and epsilon3/epsilon3 genotype frequencies were higher in the controls (84 and 72%, respectively as were the epsilon4 allele and epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype frequencies in Alzheimer's disease (25 and 41%, respectively. The higher frequency of the epsilon4 allele in Alzheimer's disease confirmed its role as a risk factor, while epsilon2 provided a weak protection against development of the disease. However, in view of the unexpectedly low frequency of the epsilon4 allele, additional analyses in a more varied Brazilian sample are needed to clarify the real contribution of apolipoprotein E to the development of Alzheimer's disease in this population.

  11. Protective Effect of Irisin on Atherosclerosis via Suppressing Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein Induced Vascular Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Mu, Qian; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Haibo; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Wen; Li, Liang; Shao, Lei; Wang, Xingli; Li, Shiwu; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Mingxiang; Tang, Dongqi

    2016-01-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered myokine, is considered as a promising candidate for the treatment of metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we used two animal models, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet and a mouse carotid partial ligation model to test the anti-atherosclerotic effect of irisin. Irisin treatment (0.5 μg/g body weight/day) significantly reduced the severity of aortic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed on a high-cholesterol diet and suppressed carotid neointima formation in a carotid partial ligation model. It was associated with decreased inflammation and cell apoptosis in aortic tissues. In addition, in a cell culture model, irisin restored ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell dysfunction by reducing the levels of inflammatory genes via inhibiting the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/ p38 MAPK/ NF-κB signaling pathway activation and inhibiting cell apoptosis via up-regulating Bcl-2 and down-regulating Bax and caspase-3 expression. Our study demonstrated that irisin significantly reduced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice via suppressing ox-LDL-induced cell inflammation and apoptosis, which might have a direct therapeutic effect on atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:27355581

  12. The concentration of apolipoprotein A-I decreases during experimentally induced acute-phase processes in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, R.; Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.;

    2005-01-01

    In this work, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was purified from pig sera. The responses of this protein after sterile inflammation and in animals infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Streptococcus suis were investigated. Decreases in the concentrations of ApoA-I, two to five times lower...

  13. 9-CIS-RETINOIC ACID REPRESSES ESTROGEN-INDUCED EXPRESSION OF THE VERY-LOW-DENSITY APOLIPOPROTEIN-II GENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPERS, IJ; KLOPPENBURG, M; SNIPPE, L; AB, G

    1994-01-01

    The chicken very low density apolipoprotein II (apoVLDLII) gene is estrogen-inducible and specifically expressed in liver. We examined the possible involvement of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and its ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) in the activation of the apoVLDLII promoter. We first concent

  14. Apolipoprotein E genotype status affects habitual human blood mononuclear cell gene expression and its response to fish oil intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matualatupauw, J.C.; Radonjic, M.; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, O.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Müller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Scope
    People who carry the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) single nucleotide polymorphism have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Fish-oil supplementation may help in the prevention of CVD, though interindividual differences in the response to n-3 PUFAs have been observed. We aimed to

  15. Apolipoprotein E-mimetics inhibit neurodegeneration and restore cognitive functions in a transgenic Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sarantseva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations of the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP are found in familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD and some lead to the elevated production of amyloid-beta-protein (Abeta. While Abeta has been implicated in the causation of AD, the exact role played by Abeta and its APP precursor are still unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our study, Drosophila melanogaster transgenics were established as a model to analyze AD-like pathology caused by APP overexpression. We demonstrated that age related changes in the levels and pattern of synaptic proteins accompanied progressive neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive functions in APP transgenic flies, but that these changes may be independent from the generation of Abeta. Using novel peptide mimetics of Apolipoprotein-E, COG112 or COG133 proved to be neuroprotective and significantly improved the learning and memory of APP transgenic flies. CONCLUSIONS: The development of neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits was corrected by injections of COG112 or COG133, novel mimetics of apolipoprotein-E (apoE with neuroprotective activities.

  16. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  17. The apolipoprotein E epsilon4-allele and antihypertensive treatment are associated with increased risk of cerebral MRI white matter hyperintensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, P; Garde, Ellen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 (APOE-epsilon4) is a potential risk factor for cerebral vascular disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the relative importance of APOE-epsilon4 and other relevant risk factors for the extent of cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in a...

  18. Metabolism of apolipoproteins C-II, C-III, and B in hypertriglyceridemic men. Changes after heparin-induced lipolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C apolipoproteins are normally transferred to high density lipoproteins (HDL) after lipolysis of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride. In previous studies, a loss of plasma C apolipoproteins was documented after heparin-induced lipolysis in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. The present studies were designed to determine if this decline in plasma C apolipoproteins was due to their clearance with VLDL remnants. Five Type IV hypertriglyceridemic and two normal subjects were injected with 125I-VLDL and 131I-low density lipoproteins (LDL) to document kinetically an excess of VLDL apolipoprotein (apo) B flux relative to LDL apo B flux in the Type IV subjects. A mean of 46% VLDL apo B was cleared from the circulation, without conversion to intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) or LDL. Heparin was then infused (9000 IU over 4 hours) to generate an excess of VLDL remnants that were not converted to IDL or LDL. VLDL triglyceride, apo B, and apo C concentrations fell at a similar rate. VLDL apo B declined by 42% (p less than 0.01). However, no increases were observed in IDL or LDL apo B in the Type IV subjects. This resulted in a 14% (p less than 0.01) decline in plasma apo B concentrations, indicating a clearance of VLDL remnants. VLDL apo C-II and C-III concentrations fell by 42% (p less than 0.025) and 52% (p less than 0.01), respectively. During the first 2.5 hours of infusion, they were almost quantitatively recovered in HDL. Thereafter, the C apolipoproteins declined in HDL during which time VLDL apo C concentrations continued to decline

  19. Metabolism of apolipoproteins C-II, C-III, and B in hypertriglyceridemic men. Changes after heparin-induced lipolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, M.W.; Breckenridge, W.C.; Strong, W.L.; Wolfe, B.M.

    1988-09-01

    The C apolipoproteins are normally transferred to high density lipoproteins (HDL) after lipolysis of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride. In previous studies, a loss of plasma C apolipoproteins was documented after heparin-induced lipolysis in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. The present studies were designed to determine if this decline in plasma C apolipoproteins was due to their clearance with VLDL remnants. Five Type IV hypertriglyceridemic and two normal subjects were injected with 125I-VLDL and 131I-low density lipoproteins (LDL) to document kinetically an excess of VLDL apolipoprotein (apo) B flux relative to LDL apo B flux in the Type IV subjects. A mean of 46% VLDL apo B was cleared from the circulation, without conversion to intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) or LDL. Heparin was then infused (9000 IU over 4 hours) to generate an excess of VLDL remnants that were not converted to IDL or LDL. VLDL triglyceride, apo B, and apo C concentrations fell at a similar rate. VLDL apo B declined by 42% (p less than 0.01). However, no increases were observed in IDL or LDL apo B in the Type IV subjects. This resulted in a 14% (p less than 0.01) decline in plasma apo B concentrations, indicating a clearance of VLDL remnants. VLDL apo C-II and C-III concentrations fell by 42% (p less than 0.025) and 52% (p less than 0.01), respectively. During the first 2.5 hours of infusion, they were almost quantitatively recovered in HDL. Thereafter, the C apolipoproteins declined in HDL during which time VLDL apo C concentrations continued to decline.

  20. Human apolipoprotein E4 targeted replacement in mice reveals increased susceptibility to sleep disruption and intermittent hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushal, Navita; Ramesh, Vijay; Gozal, David

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF) are major manifestations of sleep apnea, a frequent condition in aging humans. Sleep perturbations are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may underlie the progression of disease. We hypothesized that acute short-term IH, SF, and their combination (IH+SF) may reveal unique susceptibility in sleep integrity in a murine model of AD. The effects of acute IH, SF, and IH+SF on sleep architecture, delta power, sleep latency, and core body ...

  1. Levels of Circulating MMCN-151, a Degradation Product of Mimecan, Reflect Pathological Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, N; Vassiliadis, E; Zheng, Qiuju; Wang, Yu; Wang, W; Larsen, L; Rasmussen, L M; Karsdal, M A

    2011-01-01

    Arterial extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is one of the major hallmarks of atherosclerosis. Mimecan, also known as osteoglycin has been implicated in the integrity of the ECM. This study assessed the validity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA...

  2. Vascular effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in dyslipidemic ApoE-/- mice and cultured endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh;

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidences indicate that pulmonary exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is associated with increased risk of lung diseases, whereas the effect on the vascular system is less studied. We investigated vascular effects of 2 types of multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) in apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice......, wild-type mice, and cultured cells. The ApoE(-/-) mice had accelerated plaque progression in aorta after 5 intracheal instillations of MWCNT (25.6 μg/mouse weekly for 5 weeks). The exposure was associated with pulmonary inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and increased expression of inflammatory......, oxidative stress, DNA repair, and vascular activation response genes. The level of oxidatively damaged DNA in lung tissue was unaltered, probably due to increased DNA repair capacities. Despite upregulation of inflammatory genes in the liver, effects on systemic cytokines and lipid peroxidation were minimal...

  3. Apolipoprotein B-100 Hopkins (arginine4019 → tryptophan): A new apolipoprotein B-100 variant in a family with premature atherosclerosis and hyperapobetalipoproteinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 43-year-old woman with severe coronary artery disease and hyperapobetalipoproteinemia was heterozygous for an abnormal Msp I apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene fragment because of the absence of the Msp I site around codon 4046 in exon 29 of the APOB gene. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, 134 base pairs containing the mutant Msp I site were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The mutation was a C to T transition, substituting tryptophan for arginine at amino acid position 4019 of the mature ApoB-100 protein. Seven relatives of the proband has the same mutation, which has been called ApoB-100 Hopkins. Only three of seven relatives with the mutation had hyperapobetalipoproteinemia. Mutant low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was bound and degraded to a greater extent than normal LDL in cultured human fibroblasts. In conclusion, a new mutation, ApoB-100 Hopkins, was not linked to the hyperapobetalipoproteinemia phenotype, which also was segregating in this family. The increased affinity of this mutant LDL for the LDL receptor may be due to a specific effect of ApoB-100 Hopkins or to altered LDL size and composition

  4. Apolipoprotein B-100 Hopkins (arginine sub 4019 yields tryptophan): A new apolipoprotein B-100 variant in a family with premature atherosclerosis and hyperapobetalipoproteinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladias, J.A.A.; Kwiterovich, P.O. Jr.; Smith, H.H.; Miller, M.; Bachorik, P.S.; Antonarakis, S.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA)); Forte, T. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Lusis, A.J. (Donner Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1989-10-13

    A 43-year-old woman with severe coronary artery disease and hyperapobetalipoproteinemia was heterozygous for an abnormal Msp I apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene fragment because of the absence of the Msp I site around codon 4046 in exon 29 of the APOB gene. Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, 134 base pairs containing the mutant Msp I site were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. The mutation was a C to T transition, substituting tryptophan for arginine at amino acid position 4019 of the mature ApoB-100 protein. Seven relatives of the proband has the same mutation, which has been called ApoB-100 Hopkins. Only three of seven relatives with the mutation had hyperapobetalipoproteinemia. Mutant low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was bound and degraded to a greater extent than normal LDL in cultured human fibroblasts. In conclusion, a new mutation, ApoB-100 Hopkins, was not linked to the hyperapobetalipoproteinemia phenotype, which also was segregating in this family. The increased affinity of this mutant LDL for the LDL receptor may be due to a specific effect of ApoB-100 Hopkins or to altered LDL size and composition.

  5. Selective oxidation of methionine residues in apolipoprotein A-I and its potential biological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The earliest stages of HDL oxidation are accompanied by the oxidation of specific Met residues in apolipoprotein AI and AII and the formation of Met sulfoxides (Met(O)) has been proposed to play a significant role in the reduction and hence detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides associated with HDL. Oxidation of HDL may generally decrease the anti-atherogenic properties of this lipoprotein, although both, the inhibition and the enhancement of cholesterol removal from cells has been reported for different types of oxidation. In light of these findings we have investigated the secondary structure, lipid affinity, LCAT activation and cholesterol-efflux promoting properties of native and selectively oxidized apo A-I(apo A-I+32, containing Met(O) at Metl12 and Metl48) in purified or reconstituted forms. Data obtained by circular dichroism revealed that selective oxidation of Met residues 112 and 148 does not alter alpha helicity of the protein in solution, indicating that this oxidation is not sufficient to influence significantly this type of secondary structure of apo A-I in its 'lipid-free' form. The lipid affinity of native apo A-I and apo A-I+32 was determined as the rate of clearance of DMPC multilamellar to small unilamellar vesicles. Compared with the native protein, apo A-I+32 induced a 2-3 fold faster rate of clearance, suggesting that the increased hydrophilicity due Met(O) increased the rate for protein-lipid interactions. Met residues 112 and 148 reside in the hydrophobic faces of helices 5 and 7, and both these regions have been suggested to be important for both, LCAT activation and cholesterol efflux. Kinetic experiments have revealed that the affinity for LCAT is comparable for HDL reconstituted with either apo A-I or apo A-I+32. Efflux of [3H]-cholesterol from lipid-laden human monocytederived macrophages to isolated apolipoproteins was enhanced for apo A-I+32 compared with apo A-I, consistent with the DMPC clearance data. Together these findings

  6. High doses of bifendate elevate serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in rabbits and mice: animal models of acute hypertriglyceridemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-yuan PAN; Rong YANG; Yi-fan HAN; Hang DONG; Xu-dong FENG; Na LI; Wei GENG; Kam-ming KO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of bifendate on serum and hepatic lipids level in rabbits and mice. Methods: Animals were administered bifendate [powdered pill suspended in 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)] at increasing doses (0.25-1 g/kg, ig). Blood lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured using commercially available assay kits. Results: The treatment of rabbits with a single dose of bifendate (0.3 g/kg) caused a time-dependent and biphasic change in serum triglyceride (TG) levels, with the value reaching a maximum (3-fold increase compared to the baseline value) between 24 and 36 h post-dosing. When mice were orally treated with bifendate (0.25-1 g/kg), serum TG levels increased by 39%-76% and 14%-39% at 24 and 48 h post-dosing, respectively. When given at daily doses of 0.25 and 1 g/kg for 4 d, bifendate increased serum TG levels (56%-79%), with concomitant elevations in apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B levels at 24 h after the last dosing. TG levels were also increased (11%-43%) in liver samples of mice receiving single or multiple doses of bifendate. However, bifendate treatment caused slight reductions in serum and hepatic total cholesterol levels (9%-13%). The hypertriglyceridemia induced by bifendate was ameliorated by fenofibrate but not inositol nicotinate treatment in mice. Conclusion: The findings suggest that bifendate treatment at high oral doses can cause an acute elevation in serum and hepatic TG levels.

  7. Apolipoprotein M

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    chaperone for S1P. S1P is a bioactive lipid with effects on angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking, endothelial cell migration, and inflammation. A drug targeting the S1P-system (fingolimod) is now used for treatment of multiple sclerosis. It improves the blood–brain barrier and inhibits migration of...

  8. Association of Serum Apolipoprotein B with the Increased Risk of Diabetes in Korean Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Hee

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) with the risk of diabetes in Koreans. Korean men (n = 790, 40-79 years) who had been never diagnosed for diabetes before participating were enrolled. Subjects were categorized into normal fasting glucose (NFG, n = 519), impaired fasting glucose (IFG, n = 188) and newly-onset diabetes (n = 83) according to fasting glucose levels. Age was not significantly different among the subgroups. Mean values of BMI, waist circumference, Blood pressure(BP), triglyceride, non-HDL cholesterol were significantly higher in IFG or newly-onset diabetic subjects compared to NFG subjects. The levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, insulin resistance and ApoB were highest in diabetic patients and lowest in NFG subjects. According to ApoB level, subjects were divided into two groups (high-ApoB group: ≥ 87.0 mg/dL vs. low-ApoB group: Korean men.

  9. Study on relationship of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and genetic susceptibility of stress urinary incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Jia-li; Lang Jing-he; Zhu lan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene polymorphism and susceptibility of stress urinary incontinence (SUI).Methods: ApoE genotypes were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique in 99 patients with SUI and 101 asymptomatic controls. Results: The frequency of allele e3 of ApoE was slightly lower in patients with anatomic SUI than that in controls (79.44% vs. 81.68%), while the frequency of allele e4 of ApoE was slightly higher in patients with anatomic SUI than that in controls (10.00% vs. 9.90%). No significant difference was found in frequency of allele e3 or e4 between SUI patients and controls (χ2=0.523, P=0.770).Conclusion: The gene polymorphism of ApoE is not independently involved in the development of SUI.

  10. Production and Analysis of Biological Properties of Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchenko, A V; Kotova, M V; Tverdohleb, N V; Knyazev, R A; Polyakov, L M

    2015-11-01

    Production of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in E. coli cells is described and its biological properties are compared with those of natural protein. Recombinant apoA-I was isolated as a chimeric polypeptide and then processed to a mature form apoA-I (rapo-I). We studied the ability of the resulting protein to penetrate into hepatocyte nuclei and regulate the rate of DNA biosynthesis in complex with estriol. Penetration of rapoA-I conjugated with FITC into hepatocyte nuclei was demonstrated. rapoA-I-estriol and apoA-I-estriol complexes induced similar increase in DNA biosynthesis rate in isolated hepatocytes, which confi rms functional similarity of the obtained recombinant mature protein (rapoA-I) and native human apoA-I. PMID:26612626

  11. Crystal structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I suggests a lipid-bound conformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, David W.; Rogers, Danise P.; Engler, Jeffrey A.; Brouillette, Christie G.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of truncated human apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high density lipoprotein, has been determined at 4-Å resolution. The crystals comprise residues 44–243 (exon 4) of apo A-I, a fragment that binds to lipid similarly to intact apo A-I and that retains the lipid-bound conformation even in the absence of lipid. The molecule consists almost entirely of a pseudo-continuous, amphipathic α-helix that is punctuated by kinks at regularly spaced proline residues; it adopts a shape similar to a horseshoe of dimensions 125 × 80 × 40 Å. Four molecules in the asymmetric unit associate via their hydrophobic faces to form an antiparallel four-helix bundle with an elliptical ring shape. Based on this structure, we propose a model for the structure of apo A-I bound to high density lipoprotein. PMID:9356442

  12. Sex, but not Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism, Differences in Spatial Performance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasen, Alia L; Raber, Jacob; Miller, Jeremy K; Piper, Brian J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sex and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype contribute to individual differences in spatial learning and memory. The associations of APOE genotype with neurocognitive function have been well studied among the elderly but less is known at earlier ages. Young adults (n = 169, 88 females) completed three neurocognitive tasks: mental rotation, spatial span, and Memory Island, a spatial navigation test. Males outperformed females on all three tasks: finding the hidden targets more quickly on Memory Island (Cohen's d = 0.62) and obtaining higher scores on mental rotation (d = 0.54) and spatial span (d = 0.37). In contrast, no significant effects of APOE were observed. The identified sex differences elaborate upon past literature documenting sexually dimorphic performance on specific neurobehavioral tasks. PMID:25750133

  13. Identification of liver receptor homolog-1 as a novel regulator of apolipoprotein AI gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerive, Philippe; Galardi, Cristin M; Bisi, John E; Nicodeme, Edwige; Goodwin, Bryan

    2004-10-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has been reported to play a role in bile acid biosynthesis and reverse cholesterol transport. In this study, we examined the role of LRH-1 in the regulation of the apolipoprotein AI (APOAI) gene. Using RNA interference and adenovirus-mediated overexpression, we show that LRH-1 directly regulates APOAI gene transcription. Transient transfection experiments and EMSAs revealed that LRH-1 directly regulates APOAI transcription by binding to an LRH-1 response element located in the proximal APOAI promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that LRH-1 binds to the human APO AI promoter in vivo. Finally, we show that the transcriptional repressor SHP (small heterodimer partner) suppressed APOAI gene expression by inhibiting LRH-1 transcriptional activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that LRH-1 is a novel regulator of APOAI transcription and underscore the role of this receptor in cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:15218078

  14. Impact of psychological stress on the associations between apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in an American sample of caregivers and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Iqbal; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John;

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population ...

  15. A strategy for solubilizing delipidated apolipoprotein with lysophosphatidylcholine and reconstitution with phosphatidylcholine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apolipoproteins of insect lipophorin were dissociated in guanidinium chloride and isolated by gel permeation chromatography. Over 98% of the total lipid in lipophorin was associated with apolipophorin I (apoLp-I), thus suggesting this apolipoprotein to be the lipid binding component of the particle. ApoLp-I was delipidated with ethanol/ether and solubilized in buffer that contained radioactive lysophosphatidylcholine ([3H]LPC) above the critical micellar concentration. Sonic irradiation of radioactive phosphatidylcholine ([14C]PC) with [3H]LPC-solubilized apoLp-I at a molar ratio of 318 resulted in reconstituted lipophorin I (RLp-I). [3H]LPC was bound to fatty acid free bovine serum albumin and was separated from RLp-I by density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel permeation chromatography. Negatively stained RLp-I particles were quasispherical with an average radius of 55 angstrom, and their overall morphology and secondary structure were similar to those of native hemolymph lipophorin. The RLp-I particle had a ρ = 1.137 g/mL, a Mr ∼ 5.2 x 105, and a [14C]PC:apoLp-I molar ratio of 308. From the compositional analysis, molecular size, trypsinization, and lipolysis with phospholipase A2, the authors concluded that each RLp-I particle contained one molecule of apoLp-I and a monomolecular layer of [14C]PC. When injected into the hemolymph of adult moths in vivo, RLp-I was loaded with lipid, as judged by a decrease in its density both in the presence and in the absence of adipokinetic hormone. The similarities in morphology and immunology of RLp-I and native lipophorin, together with the ability of RLp-I to load lipid, suggest that reconstituted lipophorins may serve as models to probe lipophorin structure and function

  16. A strategy for solubilizing delipidated apolipoprotein with lysophosphatidylcholine and reconstitution with phosphatidylcholine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawooya, J.K.; Wells, M.A.; Law, J.H. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1989-08-08

    The apolipoproteins of insect lipophorin were dissociated in guanidinium chloride and isolated by gel permeation chromatography. Over 98% of the total lipid in lipophorin was associated with apolipophorin I (apoLp-I), thus suggesting this apolipoprotein to be the lipid binding component of the particle. ApoLp-I was delipidated with ethanol/ether and solubilized in buffer that contained radioactive lysophosphatidylcholine (({sup 3}H)LPC) above the critical micellar concentration. Sonic irradiation of radioactive phosphatidylcholine (({sup 14}C)PC) with ({sup 3}H)LPC-solubilized apoLp-I at a molar ratio of 318 resulted in reconstituted lipophorin I (RLp-I). ({sup 3}H)LPC was bound to fatty acid free bovine serum albumin and was separated from RLp-I by density gradient ultracentrifugation and gel permeation chromatography. Negatively stained RLp-I particles were quasispherical with an average radius of 55{angstrom}, and their overall morphology and secondary structure were similar to those of native hemolymph lipophorin. The RLp-I particle had a {rho} = 1.137 g/mL, a M{sub r} {approx} 5.2 x 10{sup 5}, and a ({sup 14}C)PC:apoLp-I molar ratio of 308. From the compositional analysis, molecular size, trypsinization, and lipolysis with phospholipase A{sub 2}, the authors concluded that each RLp-I particle contained one molecule of apoLp-I and a monomolecular layer of ({sup 14}C)PC. When injected into the hemolymph of adult moths in vivo, RLp-I was loaded with lipid, as judged by a decrease in its density both in the presence and in the absence of adipokinetic hormone. The similarities in morphology and immunology of RLp-I and native lipophorin, together with the ability of RLp-I to load lipid, suggest that reconstituted lipophorins may serve as models to probe lipophorin structure and function.

  17. Elevated hepatic apolipoprotein A-I transcription is associated with diet-induced hyperalphalipoproteinemia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, D A; Rea, T J; Hanselman, J C; Bisgaier, C L; Krause, B R; Pape, M E

    2000-03-24

    Past studies have shown that a high saturated fatty acid diet containing coconut oil elevates plasma HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-1) in rabbits through a mechanism involving increased synthesis. We have extended those studies by investigating expression of the hepatic apolipoprotein A-I gene and other lipid related genes in that model. Rabbits fed a diet containing 14% coconut oil for 4 weeks showed HDL-C elevations of 170% to 250% over chow-fed controls with peak differences occurring at 1 week. Plasma apoA-I levels were also increased over this time frame (160% to 180%) reflecting the HDL-C changes. After 4 weeks, there were no differences in plasma VLDL-C or LDL-C levels in chow versus coconut oil-fed rabbits. Hepatic levels of apoA-I mRNA in coconut oil-fed animals were elevated 150% after 4 weeks compared to chow-fed controls; hepatic mRNA levels for ten other genes either decreased slightly (apoB, LCAT, hepatic lipase, albumin, ACAT, and HMG CoA reductase) or were unchanged (CETP, apoE, LDL-receptor, and acyl CoA oxidase). Nuclear run-on transcription assays revealed that coconut oil feeding for 4 weeks caused a 220% increase in hepatic apoA-I transcription rate compared to controls; no change was observed for CETP and apoE. Treatment of cultured rabbit liver cells with various saturated fatty acids and sera from chow-fed and coconut oil-fed rabbits did not alter apoA-I mRNA levels as observed in vivo. These data demonstrate that coconut oil elevates plasma HDL-C and apoA-I by increasing hepatic apoA-I transcription while expression of other genes involved in lipid metabolism are reduced or unchanged in response to coconut oil feeding. PMID:10809165

  18. A cDNA-dependent scintillation proximity assay for quantifying apolipoprotein A-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanselman, J C; Schwab, D A; Rea, T J; Bisgaier, C L; Pape, M E

    1997-11-01

    We have developed a cDNA-dependent scintillation proximity assay (SPA) for rabbit apolipoprotein A-I that follows a classic radioimmunoassay scheme, in that antiserum and radiolabeled ligand are used in a process to quantify a source containing unlabeled ligand. To synthesize radiolabeled ligand we isolated a full-length rabbit apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) cDNA, transcribed the corresponding RNA in vitro, and synthesized radiolabeled apoA-I by including tritiated leucine in an in vitro translation reaction. Assay conditions were established which allowed quantification of unlabeled apoA-I over a range of 0.2 to 4 nanograms with intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of 5% and 10%, respectively. Purified rabbit apoA-I, apoA-I in rabbit liver parenchymal cell conditioned media, and apoA-I contained in rabbit plasma all generated parallel titration curves. Quantification of rabbit plasma apoA-I was not affected when sheep anti-rabbit apoA-I serum was mixed with sheep anti-rabbit apoB or apoE serum; thus, the antibody need not be specific to quantify the ligand of interest. To show utility of the assay, apoA-I mass was quantified in in vitro and in vivo models displaying altered apoA-I levels. In each model apoA-I values from the cDNA-dependent SPA and the established methodologies of Western blotting and electroimmunodiffusion were highly correlated. The approach outlined in this report should permit rapid development of scintillation proximity assays for other proteins given the widespread availability of full-length cDNAs. PMID:9392434

  19. Clinical, biopsy, and mass spectrometry characteristics of renal apolipoprotein A-IV amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Amin, Md Shahrier; Kurtin, Paul J; Vrana, Julie A; Theis, Jason D; Grogg, Karen L; Alexander, Mariam P; Nasr, Samih H; Fervenza, Fernando C; Leung, Nelson; Sethi, Sanjeev

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-IV associated amyloidosis (AApoAIV amyloidosis) is a rare cause of amyloidosis with only a single reported case. Here we describe the clinical, biopsy, and mass spectrometry characteristics of 11 cases of renal AApoAIV amyloidosis encompassing 9 men and 2 women with a mean age at diagnosis of 63.5 years. Progressive chronic kidney disease (mean serum creatinine 2.9 mg/dl) was the most common cause for biopsy with proteinuria absent or minimal in all except one. Hematological and serological evaluation was negative in 9 patients, while 2 had a monoclonal gammopathy. The renal biopsy findings were striking and showed large amounts of eosinophilic Congo-red positive amyloid deposits restricted to the renal medulla with sparing of the renal cortex. In 6 cases, peritubular amyloid was noted in addition to the interstitial involvement. Immunofluorescence studies were negative for immunoglobulins. Electron microscopy showed nonbranching fibrils measuring 7 to 10 nm in diameter. Laser microdissection of the amyloid deposits followed by mass spectrometry showed large spectra number (a semiquantitative measure of abundance) for AApoAIV protein ranging from 49 to 169 (average 85), serum amyloid protein (average 19), and apolipoprotein E (average 48). Importantly, no peptides were detected for any other forms of known amyloidogenic precursor proteins. Thus, renal AApoAIV amyloidosis typically presents with progressive chronic kidney disease and histologically exhibits extensive medullary involvement with sparing of the cortex. The diagnosis is best established by mass spectrometry. Hence, a high degree of suspicion and examination of the renal medulla is required to make the diagnosis. PMID:27262366

  20. Enhanced Diabetes Susceptibility in Community Dwelling Han Elders Carrying the Apolipoprotein E 3/3 Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chun-Xia; Zhong, Li; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Min-Jie; Wang, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Lian; Wang, Zhe; Su, Ning; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Yan-Chen; Xiao, Shi-Fu; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Despite Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) being one of the main apolipoproteins in the blood, the association between its genotype and the high cholesterol or blood glucose levels commonly seen in clinical practice is inconclusive. Such research is also lacking in the Han population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between APOE genotype, diabetes, and plasma glucose and lipid levels. We included 243 community-dwelling elderly residents in this study. Participant APOE genotypes were assessed and were simultaneously tested for weight, height, blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and high- and low-density lipoprotein. In addition, gender, age, years of education, cognitive function, and medical history was recorded. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on APOE genotype: APOE ε2 group (ε2/ε2 and ε2/ε3), APOE ε3 group (ε3/ε3), and APOE ε4 group (ε2/ε4, ε3/ε4 and ε4/ε4). Comparisons between groups were conducted for the incidence of diabetes, high blood pressure, and dementia, as well as for differences in body-mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and blood lipids. The APOE ε3/ε3 genotype exhibited the highest frequency (70.4%) among the subjects. Participants in the APOE ε3 group demonstrated significantly higher levels of fasting plasma glucose than those in the APOE ε2 and APOE ε4 groups (Pfasting plasma glucose values than did the APOE ε2 group (P = 0.065). Furthermore, the APOE3 genotype was significantly correlated with both fasting plasma glucose level and glucose abnormality (P< 0.05) and trended toward statistically significant correlation with diabetes (P = 0.082). The correlation between APOE2 and low low-density lipoprotein levels also approached statistical significance (P = 0.052). Thus, elderly community dwelling residents of Han ethnicity carrying the APOE ε3/ε3 genotype might have higher plasma glucose levels and a higher occurrence of diabetes. PMID:26998902

  1. Characterization of the apolipoprotein AI and CIII genes in the domestic pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchbauer, A.; Knipping, G.; Juritsch, B.; Zechner, R. (Univ. of Graz (Austria)); Aschauer, H. (Sandoz-Forschungs Institut Ges.m.b.H., Vienna (Austria))

    1993-03-01

    The apolipoproteins (apo) AI and CIII are important constituents of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins. In humans, apo AI is believed to play an important protective role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis, whereas apo CIII might be involved in the development of hypertriglyceridemia. Both human genes are located within a gene cluster on chromosome 11. Although the domestic pig has been widely used as an animal model in arteriosclerosis and lipid research, the porcine apolipoproteins genes are poorly characterized. In this report, the complete nucleotide sequences of the porcine apo AI and CIII genes are presented and the authors demonstrate, for the first time, apo CIII expression in the pig. Both genes are composed of four exons and three introns and resemble closely their human counterparts with regard to the transcriptional start sites, exon sizes, intron sizes, exon-intron borders, and the size of the intergenic region. The predicted pig apo AI is a protein of 241 amino acids, which is 2 amino acids shorter than human apo AI. The protein sequence was found to be very homologous to apo AI sequences in other mammalian species. Apo AI expression was detected on the mRNA level in porcine liver and intestine. The apo CIII gene encodes a protein with 73 amino acids, which is 6 amino acids shorter than human apo CIII. In contrast to the three isoforms of apo CIII found in humans, only one major isoform was detected in the pig. Presumably this isoform is unglycosylated. In addition to apo CIII expression in the liver and the intestine, a truncated form of apo CIII mRNA was also found in porcine kidney. The studies demonstrate the presence of an apo CIII gene, an apo CIII mRNA, and an apo CIII protein in the pig and, therefore, exclude a hypothesized apo CIII deficiency in these animals. 53 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Serum apolipoproteins in relation to intakes of fish in population of Arkhangelsk County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenya Natalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids and low in saturated fat were found beneficially associated with blood lipids and cardio-vascular health. Lean reindeer meet and local cold water white-fish species high in omega-3 are among the main sources of nutrients in the rural area of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO in Russia and are not normally consumed by the urban population from the same region. The aims of the study were firstly, to compare serum lipid profiles of residents of urban (Arkhangelsk city and rural (NAO regions of Arkhangelsk County, and secondly, to investigate the effects of fish consumption on the predictor of cardiovascular events apolipoprotein (Apo B/ApoA-I ratio in these populations. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in Arkhangelsk County, Russia. Sample size of 249 adults: 132 subjects from Arkhangelsk city, aged 21–70 and 117 subject (87% Ethnic Nenets from NAO, aged 18–69. Results We observed more favorable lipid levels in NAO compared to Arkhangelsk participants. Age-adjusted geometric means of ApoB/ApoA-I ratio were 1.02 and 0.98 in men and women from Arkhangelsk; 0.84 and 0.91 in men and women from NAO respectively. Age and consumption of animal fat were positively associated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in women (pooled samples from Arkhangelsk and NAO. Body mass index and low levels of physical activity were positively associated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio in men (pooled samples from Arkhangelsk and NAO. Reported oily fish consumption was not significantly correlated with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio. Conclusion The population sample from rural NAO, consisting largely of the indigenous Arctic population Nenets with healthier dietary sources, had a relatively less atherogenic lipid profile compared to the urban Arkhangelsk group. Fish consumption had no effect on apolipoproteins profile.

  3. Apolipoprotein C3 polymorphisms, cognitive function and diabetes in Caribbean origin Hispanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren E Smith

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 modulates triglyceride metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, but is itself regulated by insulin, so that APOC3 represents a potential mechanism by which glucose metabolism may affect lipid metabolism. Unfavorable lipoprotein profiles and impaired glucose metabolism are linked to cognitive decline, and all three conditions may decrease lifespan. Associations between apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3 gene polymorphisms and impaired lipid and glucose metabolism are well-established, but potential connections between APOC3 polymorphisms, cognitive decline and diabetes deserve further attention.We examined whether APOC3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs m482 (rs2854117 and 3u386 (rs5128 were related to cognitive measures, whether the associations between cognitive differences and genotype were related to metabolic differences, and how diabetes status affected these associations. Study subjects were Hispanics of Caribbean origin (n = 991, aged 45-74 living in the Boston metropolitan area.Cognitive and metabolic measures differed substantially by type II diabetes status. In multivariate regression models, APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited lower executive function (P = 0.009, Stroop color naming score (P = 0.014 and Stroop color-word score (P = 0.022 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 m482 AA subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher glucose (P = 0.032 and total cholesterol (P = 0.028 compared to AG/GG subjects. APOC3 3u386 GC/GG subjects with diabetes exhibited significantly higher triglyceride (P = 0.004, total cholesterol (P = 0.003 and glucose (P = 0.016 compared to CC subjects.In summary, we identified significant associations between APOC3 polymorphisms, impaired cognition and metabolic dysregulation in Caribbean Hispanics with diabetes. Further research investigating these relationships in other populations is warranted.

  4. Apolipoprotein J: A New Predictor and Therapeutic Target in Cardiovascular Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the functional mechanism of apolipoprotein J (apoJ in the process of atherosclerosis and the feasibility of apoJ as a therapeutic endpoint. Data Sources: Relevant articles published in English from 1983 to present were selected from PubMed. The terms of "atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein J, clusterin (CLU, oxidative stress, and inflammation" were used for searching. Study Selection: Articles studying the role of apoJ with atherosclerosis and restenosis after injury were reviewed. Articles focusing on the intrinsic determinants of atherosclerosis were selected. The exclusion criteria of articles were that the studies on immunologic vasculitis. Results: ApoJ, involved in numerous physiological process important for lipid transportation and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, including apoptotic cell death, cell-cycle regulation, cell adhesion, tissue remodeling, immune system regulation, and oxidative stress, plays a role in the development of clinical atherosclerosis. In the process of relieving atherosclerosis, apoJ can promote cholesterol and phospholipid export from macrophage-foam cells, and exhibit cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions by interacting with lots of known inflammatory proteins which may predict the onset of clinical cardiovascular events and may actually play a causal role in mediating atherosclerotic disease such as C-reactive protein, paraoxonase, and leptin. As known as CLU, apoJ has been identified to play central roles in the process of vascular smooth cells migration, adhesion, and proliferation, which can contribute significantly to restenosis after vascular injury. Conclusions: Intense effort and substantial progress have been made to identify the apoJ that relieves atherosclerosis and vascular restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. More work is needed to elucidate the exact mechanisms of and the interrelationship between the actions of apoJ and to successfully achieve

  5. Rapid and safe determination of human apolipoprotein E genotypes by miniaturised SDS-PAGE in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    C Clavel; Durlach, A.; Durlach, V; Birembaut, P

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To present a non-isotopic procedure for the analysis of the different apolipoprotein E genotypes in normal subjects and patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. METHODS--Apolipoprotein E genotypes were detected following polymerase chain reaction and miniaturised sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) (PhastSystem Pharmacia). RESULTS--The time taken from extraction of DNA from 6 microliters whole blood to the final result was eight hours. The...

  6. Carotid intima-media thickness and apolipoproteins in patients of ischemic stroke in a rural hospital setting in central India: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Jain; Tejal Lathia; Om Prakash Gupta; Vishakha Jain

    2012-01-01

    Context: Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and apolipoproteins have been found as a risk factor for ischemic stroke . Objective: The objective was to study the carotid intima-media thickness, apolipoproteins, and their relation in patients of ischemic stroke in central rural India. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was performed in a rural hospital in central India. Materials and Methods: In all patients of ischemic stroke proven by computerized tomography (CT), CIMT, apolipopr...

  7. Appreciation of concentration of lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in serum of male rats under the influence of diet change composition and its supplementation with group B vitamins

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzanna Goluch-Koniuszy; Aldona Wierzbicka

    2011-01-01

      Background. This study was aimed at exploring, on animal model, how the diet changes, which results in exceeding 5 times the amount of deficit of group B vitamins after diet change, which up to a certain extent imitates supplementation method in people, influences the concentration of apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B – the components of lipoprotein HDL-C and LDL-C. Material and methods. The research was conducted on 24 WISTAR male rats, aged ca 5 mo...

  8. Effects of Restoration of Blood Flow on the Development of Aortic Atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− Mice With Unilateral Renal Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Alokkumar S.; Huang, Jianhua; Rojas, Mauricio; Bazemore, Taylor C.; Zhou, Ruihai; Stouffer, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic unilateral renal artery stenosis (RAS) causes accelerated atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient (ApoE−/−) mice, but effects of restoration of renal blood flow on aortic atherosclerosis are unknown. Methods and Results Male ApoE−/− mice underwent sham surgery (n=16) or had partial ligation of the right renal artery (n=41) with the ligature being removed 4 days later (D4LR; n=6), 8 days later (D8LR; n=11), or left in place for 90 days (chronic RAS; n=24). Ligature rem...

  9. Apolipoprotein AIF gene variant S347 is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and lower apolipoprotein AIV plasma concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Wai-man R.; Hawe, Emma; Li, Lai K.; Miller, George J.; Nicaud, Viviane; Pennacchio, Len A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2003-01-30

    The impact of common variants in the apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOC3-A4-A5) on prospective CHD risk was examined in healthy UK men. Of the 2808 men followed over nine years, 187 had a clinically defined CHD event. Examination of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this group revealed that homozygotes for APOA4 S347 had significantly increased risk of CHD [Hazard ratio (HR) of 2.07 (95%CI 1.04-4.12)] while men homozygous for APOC3 1100T were protected (HR 0.28 (95%CI 0.09-0.87)). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, after entering all the variants and adjusting for established risk factors APOA4 T347S alone remained in the model. Using nine-SNP haplotype analysis, highest risk-estimate haplotypes carried APOA4 S347 and rare alleles of the two flanking intergenic markers. The protective effect of APOC31100T could be explained by negative linkage disequilibrium with these alleles. To determine the association of APOA4 T347S with apoAIVlevels, the relationship was examined in over 1600 healthy young European men and women. S347 homozygotes had significantly lower apoAIV plasma levels (13.48 + 0.6mg/dl) compared to carriers of the T347 allele (14.85 + 0.12 mg/dl) (p=0.025). These results demonstrate that genetic variation in and around APOA4, independent of effects of TG, is associated with risk of CHD and apoAIV levels, supporting an anti-atherogenic role for apoAIV.

  10. Expression of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r), an apolipoprotein-E receptor, in the central nervous system and in Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, R.H.; Chung, Haeyong; Rebeck, G.W.; Hyman, B.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r) is a cell-surface molecule specialized for the internalization of multiple diverse ligands, including apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing lipoprotein particles, via clathrin-coated pits. Its structure is similar to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-r), although the two have substantially different systemic distributions and regulatory pathways. The present work examines the distribution of VLDL-r in the central nervous system (CNS) and in relation to senile plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). VLDL-r is present on resting and activated microglia, particularly those associated with senile plaques (SPs). VLDL-r immunoreactivity is also found in cortical neurons. Two exons of VLDL-r mRNA are differentially spliced in the mature receptor mRNA. One set of splice forms gives rise to receptors containing (or lacking) an extracellular O-linked glycosylation domain near the transmembrane portion of the molecule. The other set of splice forms appears to be brain-specific, and is responsible for the presence or absence of one of the cysteine-rich repeat regions in the binding region of the molecule. Ratios of the receptor variants generated from these splice forms do not differ substantially across different cortical areas or in AD. We hypothesize that VLDL-r might contribute to metabolism of apoE and apoE/A{beta} complexes in the brain. Further characterization of apoE receptors in Alzheimer brain may help lay the groundwork for understanding the role of apoE in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of AD. 43 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Humanized mice

    OpenAIRE

    Macchiarini, Francesca; Manz, Markus G.; Palucka, A Karolina; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been instrumental in increasing the understanding of human physiology, particularly immunity. However, these animal models have been limited by practical considerations and genetic diversity. The creation of humanized mice that carry partial or complete human physiological systems may help overcome these obstacles. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop on humanized mouse models for immunity in Bethesda, MD, on June 13–14, 2005, during...

  12. MICE Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Coney, L

    2009-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling provides the only practical solution for preparing high brightness beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It comprises a dedicated beam line designed to generate a range of input emittances and momenta with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to select a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance is performed in the upstream magnetic...

  13. Myeloid Deletion of α1AMPK Exacerbates Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Knockout (LDLRKO) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qiang; Cui, Xin; Wu, Rui; Zha, Lin; Wang, Xianfeng; Parks, John S; Yu, Liqing; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-06-01

    Macrophage inflammation marks all stages of atherogenesis, and AMPK is a regulator of macrophage inflammation. We therefore generated myeloid α1AMPK knockout (MAKO) mice on the LDL receptor knockout (LDLRKO) background to investigate whether myeloid deletion of α1AMPK exacerbates atherosclerosis. When fed an atherogenic diet, MAKO/LDLRKO mice displayed exacerbated atherosclerosis compared with LDLRKO mice. To determine the underlying pathophysiological pathways, we characterized macrophage inflammation/chemotaxis and lipid/cholesterol metabolism in MAKO/LDLRKO mice. Myeloid deletion of α1AMPK increased macrophage inflammatory gene expression and enhanced macrophage migration and adhesion to endothelial cells. Remarkably, MAKO/LDLRKO mice also displayed higher composition of circulating chemotaxically active Ly-6C(high) monocytes, enhanced atherosclerotic plaque chemokine expression, and monocyte recruitment into plaques, leading to increased atherosclerotic plaque macrophage content and inflammation. MAKO/LDLRKO mice also exhibited higher plasma LDL and VLDL cholesterol content, increased circulating apolipoprotein B (apoB) levels, and higher liver apoB expression. We conclude that macrophage α1AMPK deficiency promotes atherogenesis in LDLRKO mice and is associated with enhanced macrophage inflammation and hypercholesterolemia and that macrophage α1AMPK may serve as a therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:26822081

  14. The protective role of tacrine and donepezil in the retina of acetylcholinesterase knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Min Yi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine the effect of different concentrations of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors tacrine and donepezil on retinal protection in AChE+/- mice (AChE knockout mice of various ages.METHODS:Cultured ARPE-19 cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 μmol/L and protein levels were measured using Western blot. Intraperitoneal injections of tacrine and donepezil (0.1 mg/mL, 0.2 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL were respectively given to AChE+/- mice aged 2mo and 4mo and wild-type S129 mice for 7d; phosphate buffered saline (PBS was administered to the control group. The mice were sacrificed after 30d by in vitro cardiac perfusion and retinal samples were taken. AChE-deficient mice were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis using specific genotyping protocols obtained from the Jackson Laboratory website. H&E staining, immunofluorescence and Western blot were performed to observe AChE protein expression changes in the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell layer.RESULTS:Different concentrations of H2O2 induced AChE expression during RPE cell apoptosis. AChE+/- mice retina were thinner than those in wild-type mice (P<0.05; the retinal structure was still intact at 2mo but became thinner with increasing age (P<0.05; furthermore, AChE+/- mice developed more slowly than wild-type mice (P<0.05. Increased concentrations of tacrine and donepezil did not significantly improve the protection of the retina function and morphology (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:In vivo, tacrine and donepezil can inhibit the expression of AChE; the decrease of AChE expression in the retina is beneficial for the development of the retina.

  15. Fasting and nonfasting lipid levels: influence of normal food intake on lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and cardiovascular risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, A.; Freiberg, J.J.; Nordestgaard, Børge

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipid profiles are usually measured after fasting. We tested the hypotheses that these levels change only minimally in response to normal food intake and that nonfasting levels predict cardiovascular events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We cross-sectionally studied 33 391 individuals 20 to 95...... HDL cholesterol, and ratio of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 did not change in response to normal food intake. The maximum changes after normal food and fluid intake from fasting levels were -0.2 mmol/L for total cholesterol, -0.2 mmol/L for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, -0.1 mmol/L for...... years of age from the Copenhagen General Population Study. We also studied 9319 individuals 20 to 93 years of age from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1166 of whom developed cardiovascular events during 14 years of follow-up. Compared with fasting levels, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein...

  16. Dietary deficiency increases presenilin expression, gamma-secretase activity and Abeta levels: potentiation by ApoE genotype and alleviation by S-adenosyl methionine

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Amy; Tchantchou, Flaubert; Eugene J. Rogers; Shea, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether this risk arises from a deficient function of E4 or the lack of protection provided by E2 ir E3 is unclear. Previous studies demonstrate that deprivation of folate and vitamin E, coupled with dietary iron as a pro-oxidant, for 1 month displayed increased PS-1 expression, gamma-secretase and Abeta generation in mice lacking ApoE (ApoE-/- mice). While ApoE-/- mice are a model for ApoE deficiency, they may not refle...

  17. TO901317 regulating apolipoprotein M expression mediates via the farnesoid X receptor pathway in Caco-2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren-Söderlund Maria; Shi Yuanping; Wei Jiang; Wang Zongchun; Luo Guanghua; Zhang Xiaoying; Di Dongmei; Zhu Chunhua; Nilsson-Ehle Peter; Xu Ning

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Apolipoprotein M (apoM) may have potential antiatherosclerotic properties. It has been reported that apoM expression could be regulated by many intracellar and extracellar factors. In the present study we further investigated regulation of apoM expression in Caco-2 cells stimulated by a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, TO901317. Materials and methods Caco-2 cells were cultured in the presence of either TO901317, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist guggulsterone or TO90131...

  18. The influence of the polymorphism in apolipoprotein B codon 2488 on insulin and lipid levels in a Danish twin population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J; Poulsen, P; Vaag, A; Beck-Nielsen, H; Fenger, M

    2002-01-01

    parameters associated with the insulin resistance syndrome in Danish twins. METHODS: The effect of the polymorphism on lipid, glucose and insulin measures was studied in 548 same sex twins aged 55-74 years. RESULTS: The codon 2488 polymorphism influenced fasting triglyceride levels, as well as insulin, as....... As the polymorphism is silent, these effects must be mediated through linkage to other polymorphisms in apolipoprotein B or other genes on chromosome 2....

  19. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtashami, Alireaz; Mahaki, Behzad; Azadbakht, Leila; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  20. Biological Monitoring of Hexavalent Chromium and Serum Levels of the Senescence Biomarker Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin in Welders

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilios Makropoulos; Gonos, Efstathios S.; Magda Lourda; Trougakos, Ioannis P.; Xenophon Cominos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

    2008-01-01

    Welding fumes contain metals and other toxic substances known or strongly suspected to be related with oxidative stress and premature cellular senescence. Apolipoprotein J/Clusterin (ApoJ/CLU) is a glycoprotein that is differentially regulated in various physiological and disease states including ageing and age-related diseases. In vitro data showed that exposure of human diploid fibroblasts to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) resulted in premature senescence and significant upregulation of the A...

  1. The influence of parental history of Alzheimer's disease and apolipoprotein E ε4 on the BOLD signal during recognition memory

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Guofan; McLaren, Donald G.; Ries, Michele L.; Fitzgerald, Michele E.; Barbara B. Bendlin; Howard A. Rowley; Sager, Mark A.; Atwood, Craig; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2008-01-01

    First-degree family history (FH) of sporadic Alzheimer's disease and the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE4) are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease that may affect brain function prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In this functional MRI (fMRI) study, we used an episodic recognition task that required discrimination of previously viewed (PV) and novel (NV) faces to examine differences in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal due to risk factors in 74 middle-aged cognitively normal indi...

  2. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  3. Role of apolipoprotein E4 in protecting children against early childhood diarrhea outcomes and implications for later development

    OpenAIRE

    Oriá, Reinaldo B.; Patrick, Peter D.; Blackman, James A.; Lima, Aldo A.M.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2006-01-01

    Our group and others have reported a series of studies showing that heavy burdens of diarrheal diseases in the formative first two years of life in children in urban shantytowns have profound consequences of impaired physical and cognitive development lasting into later childhood and schooling. Based on these previous studies showing that apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) is relatively common in favela children, we review recent data suggesting a protective role for the APOE4 allele in the cognitive ...

  4. Frequency of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele in a case-control study of early onset Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, A S; Bertrandy, S.; Finnan, F; Butler, A; G. D. Smith(Edinburgh University); Ben-Shlomo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease may share a common or at least overlapping aetiology. The prevalence of dementia among cases of Parkinson's disease is known to be greater than expected in the general population. The frequency of the apolipoprotein epsilon 4 allele in a large case-control study of early onset Parkinson's disease has been examined. METHODS: 215 patients and 212 population based controls were recruited from the Republic of Irela...

  5. Apolipoprotein E4 Genotype and Depressive Symptoms as Risk Factors for Dementia in an Older Korean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Seon-Young; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yang, Su-Jin; Song, Young-Heon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Objective Growing evidence suggests the separate associations of apolipoprotein E e4 allele (apo E4) and depression with incident dementia. This study investigated the separate and combined effects of apo E4 and depression on the incidence of dementia in both men and women. Methods Of 625 elderly without dementia at baseline, 518 (83%) were followed over a 2.4-year period and were assessed clinically for incident dementia. The apo E polymorphism was ascertained, and depression was identified ...

  6. Solid lipid nanoparticles as a vehicle for brain-targeted drug delivery: two new strategies of functionalization with apolipoprotein E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rute Neves, Ana; Fontes Queiroz, Joana; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio A.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Reis, Salette

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology can be an important tool to improve the permeability of some drugs for the blood-brain barrier. In this work we created a new system to enter the brain by functionalizing solid lipid nanoparticles with apolipoprotein E, aiming to enhance their binding to low-density lipoprotein receptors on the blood-brain barrier endothelial cells. Solid lipid nanoparticles were successfully functionalized with apolipoprotein E using two distinct strategies that took advantage of the strong interaction between biotin and avidin. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed spherical nanoparticles, and dynamic light scattering gave a Z-average under 200 nm, a polydispersity index below 0.2, and a zeta potential between -10 mV and -15 mV. The functionalization of solid lipid nanoparticles with apolipoprotein E was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy and fluorimetric assays. In vitro cytotoxic effects were evaluated by MTT and LDH assays in the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) cell line, a human blood-brain barrier model, and revealed no toxicity up to 1.5 mg ml-1 over 4 h of incubation. The brain permeability was evaluated in transwell devices with hCMEC/D3 monolayers, and a 1.5-fold increment in barrier transit was verified for functionalized nanoparticles when compared with non-functionalized ones. The results suggested that these novel apolipoprotein E-functionalized nanoparticles resulted in dynamic stable systems capable of being used for an improved and specialized brain delivery of drugs through the blood-brain barrier.

  7. Estimation of plasma apolipoprotein B concentration using routinely measured lipid biochemical tests in apparently healthy Asian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Dong-Sik

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL concentration is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD but a substantial risk of cardiovascular disease often remains after LDL concentrations have been treated to target. Apolipoprotein B (apo B is the major apolipoprotein contained within atherogenic lipoproteins such as LDL, and apo B is a more reliable indicator of cardiovascular risk than LDL concentration. Aim and methods Our aim was to develop a formula for calculating apo B using lipid biochemistry measurements that are commonly available in clinical practice. We examined the clinical and laboratory data from 73,047 Koreans who underwent a medical health check that included apolipoprotein B concentration. The study sample was randomly divided into a training set for prediction model building and a validation set of equal size. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to develop a prediction model equation for estimating apo B and to validate the developed model. Results The best results for estimating apo B were derived from an equation utilising LDL and triglyceride (TG concentrations [ApoB = −33.12 + 0.675*LDL + 11.95*ln(tg]. This equation predicted the apo B result with a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and 95%CIs = 0.936 (0.935,0.937. Conclusion Our equation for predicting apo B concentrations from routine analytical lipid biochemistry provides a simple method for obtaining precise information about an important cardiovascular risk marker.

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I localization and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine dynamics in reconstituted high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergunov, A D; Dobretsov, G E

    2000-02-01

    The structure and molecular dynamics of recombinant high density lipoproteins (rHDL) were studied by non-radiative energy transfer (NRET), fluorescence anisotropy and intensity measurements. The rHDL particles contained human plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Fluorescent cis- and trans-parinaric acids were used both as probes of molecular motion in the particle lipid phase and as acceptors in the Forster's energy transfer from apo A-I tryptophan residues to determine particle dimensions, apolipoprotein localization and lipid dynamics. The probes are sensitive to thermal wobbling (macromobility) and conformational deformations (micromobility) of phospholipid acyl chains. The experimental data fitted to various models of the particle structure are compatible with the following: (a) at T DPPC molecules in rHDL were more rapid due to a significant disorder of the boundary lipid molecules close to the apo A-I molecule. This disorder led to the increase of the specific surface area per one lipid molecule, S(o). The lipid phase can be divided into three regions: (i) zone I of the most tightly packed lipid (0-1.7 nm from the disc axis) with a S(o) value small as 0.5 nm2; (ii) intermediate zone II (from 1.7 to 4.0 nm); and (iii) boundary lipid zone III (4-5 nm) of significantly disordered lipid with a S(o) value large as 0.65 nm2. (b) at T> Tt the S(o) heterogeneity disappeared, the radius of the lipid phase did not increase significantly, not exceeding 5.2-5.4 nm, but protein-induced immobilization of lipid molecules which affected about half or more of the total lipid, became remarkable. The overall effect was the suppression of the transition amplitude in rHDL compared to liposomes. The structural inhomogeneity might underlie the function of the native plasma HDL as the key component of the transport and metabolism of plasma lipids. PMID:10669308

  9. Enhanced Diabetes Susceptibility in Community Dwelling Han Elders Carrying the Apolipoprotein E 3/3 Genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Ban

    Full Text Available Despite Apolipoprotein E (ApoE being one of the main apolipoproteins in the blood, the association between its genotype and the high cholesterol or blood glucose levels commonly seen in clinical practice is inconclusive. Such research is also lacking in the Han population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between APOE genotype, diabetes, and plasma glucose and lipid levels. We included 243 community-dwelling elderly residents in this study. Participant APOE genotypes were assessed and were simultaneously tested for weight, height, blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and high- and low-density lipoprotein. In addition, gender, age, years of education, cognitive function, and medical history was recorded. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on APOE genotype: APOE ε2 group (ε2/ε2 and ε2/ε3, APOE ε3 group (ε3/ε3, and APOE ε4 group (ε2/ε4, ε3/ε4 and ε4/ε4. Comparisons between groups were conducted for the incidence of diabetes, high blood pressure, and dementia, as well as for differences in body-mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and blood lipids. The APOE ε3/ε3 genotype exhibited the highest frequency (70.4% among the subjects. Participants in the APOE ε3 group demonstrated significantly higher levels of fasting plasma glucose than those in the APOE ε2 and APOE ε4 groups (P<0.05. The APOE ε3 group had slightly higher abnormal fasting plasma glucose values than did the APOE ε2 group (P = 0.065. Furthermore, the APOE3 genotype was significantly correlated with both fasting plasma glucose level and glucose abnormality (P< 0.05 and trended toward statistically significant correlation with diabetes (P = 0.082. The correlation between APOE2 and low low-density lipoprotein levels also approached statistical significance (P = 0.052. Thus, elderly community dwelling residents of Han ethnicity carrying the APOE ε3/ε3 genotype might have higher plasma glucose levels and a higher occurrence of

  10. ApolipoproteinE ε4 allelic variant, cognitive decline and psychosis in Alzheimer disease: a review of the literature and suggestions for upcoming studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Spoletini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (ApoE ε4 allele represents a well known vascular risk factor for developing Alzheimer disease (AD and differences in ApoE genotypes may explain a part of the variability in AD phenotypes. In fact, ApoE ε4 allele possession seems to be associated with a more precocious age of onset, greater episodic memory impairment, and psychotic symptoms. The first question we discuss regards the role of ApoE ε4 on cognitive progression of AD. In fact, while a general agreement exists about the role played by ApoE ε4 on the precocious onset of AD, cognitive decline has been differently associated with ApoE ε4 allele possession in AD patients in a continuum of faster decline, no effect, and slower decline. An attemptable interpretation is that the biological processes leading to the onset of AD are different from those involved in determining its clinical course. The second question regards the possible relationship between the presence of the degenerative pathological hallmarks of the disease in specific cerebral areas and different cognitive or behavioural symptoms. In fact, there is evidence that degenerative pathology in hippocampal formation and frontal cortex reflects the progression of cognitive deficits in brain aging and AD and that hypometabolism in right frontal lobe and greater frontal neuropsychological deficits occur in AD patients with psychosis in comparison to those without. The third question regards, specifically, the relationship between ApoE ε4 variant and behavioural symptoms. In fact, there is evidence supporting the link between being carriers of ApoE ε4 allele and severity of delusions, mostly at the early stage of the illness. In an interpretative challenge, we suggest that the link between being carriers of ApoE ε4 allele and suffering from delusions in AD may be explained by frontal lobe dysfunctions. Finally, we hypothesize that the most precocious onset of AD illness, described in carriers of ApoE ε4

  11. Humoral immune response of mice injected with tocopherol after exposure to X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum haemagglutination (HA) titers have been determined for irradiated and non-irradiated mice responding to injection of two different concentrations of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) 24 to 48 hours after irradiation and immediate intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mg DL alpha-tocopherol, the emulsifying vehicle, or saline. Mice maintained on tocopherol-deficient diets for 8 weeks post-weaning and those on regular diets exhibited increased IgG titers during peak response when injected with vitamin E. This partially alleviated the radiation-depression of the primary immune response induced by the smaller SRBC injection. This stimulatory effect was most significant in mice maintained on vitamin E-deficient diets. The HA titers of irradiated and non-irradiated mice maintained on normal rations were determined following a 10-fold increase in the SRBC inoculation. Antibody titer was greater following injection of the higher concentration of SRBC but post-irradiation injection of tocopherol immediately or 24 hours after irradiation did not enhance immune response. At the higher SRBC concentration maximum observed HA titers decreased with increasing dose of radiation; however, tocopherol had no significant dose-reducing effect. Tocopherol toxicity as manifested by depressed HA titers was observed occasionally in non-irradiated mice challenged with the higher concentration of SRBC

  12. Effects and related mechanism of retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene on atherosclerosis progression in diabetic apoE-/- mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝江

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of retinoid X receptor(RXR)agonist bexarotene on atherosclerosis and the potential mechanism in streptozotocin(STZ)induced diabetic apolipoprotein E knockout(apo E-/-)mice.Methods Eight C57BL/6 mice served as control,46apo E-/-mice were randomized into 4 groups:apo E-/-group(n=10),STZ+apo E-/-group(n=12),STZ+apo E-/-+Bex 10(10 mg·kg-1·d-1)group(n=12),STZ+apo E-/-+Bex 30(30 mg·kg-1·d-1)group(n=12).Diabetic apo E-/-animal model was established by intraperitoneal injection of STZ.Blood glucose was determined by glucose oxidase method.Patch

  13. A diet rich in green and yellow vegetables inhibits atherosclerosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael R; Golden, Deborah L; Chen, Haiying; Register, Thomas C; Gugger, Eric T

    2006-07-01

    Although dietary patterns characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease, the mechanisms involved are uncertain. We determined the effects of a diet rich in green and yellow vegetables on the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary heart disease, in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, the LDL receptor -/-, apolipoprotein B transgenic mouse. The mice were randomized into 2 diet groups: 1) a vegetable-free control diet (n = 53) and 2) the same diet with 30% (w:w) replaced by an equal-parts mixture of freeze-dried peas, green beans, broccoli, corn, and carrots (n = 54). Mice were fed these diets for 16 wk. Aortic atherosclerosis, as estimated by cholesteryl ester content, was reduced 38% (P yellow vegetables inhibits the development of atherosclerosis and may therefore lead to a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:16772454

  14. Expression of the human apolipoprotein E gene suppresses steroidogenesis in mouse Y1 adrenal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. To investigate the role of apoE in adrenal cholesterol homeostasis, the authors have expressed a human apoE genomic clone in the Y1 mouse adrenocortical cell line. Y1 cells do not express endogenous apoE mRNA or protein. Expression of apoE in Y1 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in basal steroidogenesis; secretion of fluorogenic steroid was reduced 7- to >100-fold relative to Y1 parent cells. Addition of 5-cholesten-3β,25-idol failed to overcome the suppression of steroidogenesis in these cells. Cholesterol esterification under basal conditions, as measured by the production of cholesteryl [14C]oleate, was similar in the Y1 parent and the apoE-transfected cell lines. Upon incubation with adrenocorticotropin or dibutyryl cAMP, production of cholesteryl [14C]oleate decreased 5-fold in the Y1 parent cells but was unchanged in the apoE-transfected cell lines. These results suggest that apoE may be an important modulator of cholesterol utilization and steroidogenesis in adrenal cells

  15. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with plasma lipids and Alzheimer's disease in a Southern Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Andrade F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (protein: apo E; gene: APOE plays an important role in the multifactorial etiology of both Alzheimer's disease (AD and lipid level concentrations. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate the APOE gene polymorphism in 446 unrelated Caucasians, among them 23 AD patients, and 100 Afro-Brazilians living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The frequencies of the APOE*2, APOE*3 and APOE*4 alleles were 0.075, 0.810 and 0.115 in Caucasians and 0.075, 0.700 and 0.225 in Afro-Brazilians, respectively (c2 = 8.72, P = 0.013. A highly significant association was observed between the APOE*4 allele and AD in this population-based sample. The APOE*4 frequency in AD patients (39% was about four times higher than in the general Caucasian population (11.5%. The influence of each of the three common APOE alleles on lipid traits was evaluated by the use of the average excess statistic. The E*2 allele is associated with lower levels of triglycerides and of total and non-HDL cholesterol in both men and women. Conversely, the E*4 allele is associated with higher levels of these traits in women only. The effect of APOE alleles was of greater magnitude in women.

  16. Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphisms in Saudi Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rayes, Hannan; Huraib, Ghaleb; Julkhuf, Saeed; Arfin, Misbahul; Tariq, Mohammad; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a glycosylated protein with multiple biological properties. APOE gene polymorphism plays a central role in lipid metabolism and has recently been suggested to regulate inflammation. Our objective is to evaluate whether APOE polymorphism affects susceptibility to SLE. APOE genotyping was performed using ApoE StripAssay™ kit. Results indicated significantly higher frequencies of allele ε4 and genotype ε3/ε4 and lower frequencies of allele ε3 and genotype ε3/ε3 in SLE patients than controls. APOE ε2 allele was found in three patients, whereas it was absent in controls. The frequencies of allele ε4 and genotype ε3/ε4 were significantly higher in SLE patients with renal involvement and those of alleles ε2, ε4 and genotypes ε2/ε3, ε3/ε4 were higher in patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is concluded that APOE allele ε4 is associated with susceptibility risk/clinical manifestations of SLE and ε2 may increase its severity while ε3 is protective for SLE in Saudis. PMID:27257397

  17. Screening for the familial defective apolipoprotein B-100 R3500W by mutagenic primers PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯纪安; 冯铮

    2002-01-01

    Objective A method combining the mutagenic primers PCR and restriction enzyme digestion was designed to facilitate the detection of gene mutation in familial defective apolipoprotein B-1O0 R3500W. Methods A pair of primer was designed and a mismatch nucleotide was introduced in its upstream primer. A segment of target DNA including the possibly mutated nucleotide was amplified by PCR and the products were digested by restriction enzyme Nco 1. To overcome the potential false negative results due to improper digestion conditions, a segment of DNA with Ncol cut size was added as reference.Results The target sequence was successfully amplified by PCR, producing a 144 bp DNA fragment as expected. When incubated with Ncol, the enzyme could digest the DNA, producing a 114 bp segment,only if it was amplified from the mutated gene, but not from the normal allele. This difference in length of DNA could be separated by electrophoresis on a 2 %agarose gel. Thus we successfully detected two carriers of heterozygous FDB R3500W in 162 hypercholesterolemic patients. Conclusions Mutagenic primers PCR can be used to detect the gene mutation of apo B-100 R3500W, two cases were detected among 162patients with hypercholesterolemia. It suggests that this mutation is not rare in mainland China.

  18. Correlation between haplotype of apolipoprotein B gene and natural longevity persons in Uygur Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG WenXi; QIU ChangChun; CHENG ZuHeng; ZHOU WenYu; GU MingLiang; XU Qun; FANG MingWu; NIU WenQuan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated the correlation between polymorphisms and haplotypes in the apolipoprotein B (apoB) gene (SP-I/D, XbaI-RFLP, VNTR) and natural longevity persons among the Uygur people in Xinjiang. For this purpose, 191 healthy Uygur individuals aged above 90 from Hetian area of Xinjiang were recruited, and another 53 persons aged 65-70 from the same nationality, the same region and with the same gender ratio, served as the control group. Genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP, PCR-RFLP and PCR-sequencing methods. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the frequencies of X+X+ genotype, M and L alleles and the genetypes composed of M and L were significantly higher in the longevity group than in the control group. In haplotype analyses, we found that, in the long-lived people, the frequency of haplotypes composed of the X+ and M alleles was significantly higher whereas the frequency of haplotypes composed of the X- and S alleles was significantly lower (both P<0.05) I than those of their controls. These results indicated that the S allele, SS genotype and X+-S, D-S, D-X+-S haplotypes were the possible adverse factors, whereas the M, L alleles, X+X+, MM, ML, LL genotypes and I-X+-M, X+-M haplotypes were the possibe protective factors for the naturally long-lived Uygur people in China.

  19. Correlation between haplotype of apolipoprotein B gene and natural longevity persons in Uygur Nationality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated the correlation between polymorphisms and haplotypes in the apolipoprotein B (apoB) gene (SP-I/D, XbaI-RFLP, VNTR) and natural longevity persons among the Uygur people in Xin-jiang. For this purpose, 191 healthy Uygur individuals aged above 90 from Hetian area of Xinjiang were recruited, and another 53 persons aged 65—70 from the same nationality, the same region and with the same gender ratio, served as the control group. Genotyping was performed by PCR-SSP, PCR-RFLP and PCR-sequencing methods. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the frequencies of X+X+ genotype, M and L alleles and the genetypes composed of M and L were significantly higher in the longevity group than in the control group. In haplotype analyses, we found that, in the long-lived people, the frequency of haplotypes composed of the X+ and M alleles was significantly higher whereas the frequency of haplotypes composed of the X- and S alleles was significantly lower (both P<0.05) I than those of their controls. These results indicated that the S allele, SS genotype and X+-S, D-S, D-X+-S haplotypes were the possible adverse factors, whereas the M, L alleles, X+X+, MM, ML, LL genotypes and I-X+-M, X+-M haplotypes were the possibe protective factors for the naturally long-lived Uygur people in China.

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cholesterol from Midlife through Late Life according to Apolipoprotein E Allele Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Downer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE, a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life. Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed models and mixed-effects regression models. Results: APOE e2+ subjects had lower total cholesterol levels, higher HDL cholesterol levels, and lower total: HDL cholesterol ratios from midlife to late life compared to APOE e3 and APOE e4+ subjects. Statistically significant differences in life span cholesterol trajectories according to gender and use of cholesterol-lowering medications were also detected. Conclusion: The findings from this research provide evidence that variations in APOE modify trajectories of serum cholesterol from midlife to late life. In order to efficiently modify cholesterol through the life span, it is important to take into account APOE allele status.

  1. Taurine reduces the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells

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    Nagao Koji

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB are major individual risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Therefore ameliorative effects of food components against the diseases are being paid attention in the affluent countries. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of taurine on apoB secretion and lipid metabolism in human liver model HepG2 cells. Results The results demonstrated that an addition of taurine to the culture media reduces triacylglycerol (TG-mass in the cells and the medium. Similarly, cellular cholesterol-mass was decreased. Taurine inhibited the incorporation of [14C] oleate into cellular and medium TG, suggesting the inhibition of TG synthesis. In addition, taurine reduced the synthesis of cellular cholesterol ester and its secretion, suggesting the inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity. Furthermore, taurine reduced the secretion of apoB, which is a major protein component of very low-density lipoprotein. Conclusion This is a first report to demonstrate that taurine inhibits the secretion of apoB from HepG2 cells.

  2. Influences of apolipoprotein E on soluble and heparin-immobilized hepatic lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landis, B.A.; Rotolo, F.S.; Meyers, W.C.; Clark, A.B.; Quarfordt, S.H.

    1987-06-01

    The effect of human apolipoprotein E (apoE), either alone or in combination with apoC, on the lipolysis of a radiolabeled triglyceride emulsion was studied with hepatic lipase in solution and immobilized on heparin-Sepharose. The soluble hepatic lipase was inhibited, whereas the heparin-immobilized lipase was stimulated by apoE. This stimulation was attenuated by combining apoE with either apoC-II or C-III. The heparin-immobilized lipase demonstrated much less lipolysis of the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine-stabilized triglyceride emulsion than did the soluble enzyme. This difference was less when the emulsion was stabilized by a nonionic detergent. apoE inhibited lipase activity when assayed under conditions (0.4 M NaCl) of bound enzyme and unbound substrate. Increasing the emulsion apoE content beyond optimum inhibited lipolysis by the immobilized enzyme. Kinetic analysis of phosphatidylcholine-stabilized triglyceride emulsions revealed a significant decrease in immobilized enzyme K/sub m/ and an increase in V/sub max/ when the emulsion was supplemented with apoE. Distributing the immobilized lipase in clustered aggregates produced more lipolysis than when the same enzyme content was uniformly bound.

  3. Apolipoprotein E in the genetics and epidemiology of Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1995-10-09

    The role of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) alleles and isoforms in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer`s disease is discussed. The possibility that ApoE itself is not involved in the disease pathogenesis but is merely in genetic disequilibrium with the real locus is discussed and dismissed. The data showing that the {epsilon}4 allele is associated with an increased risk of developing the disease and with an earlier onset age are reviewed. The data showing that, at least in some circumstances, the {epsilon}2 allele is associated with a decrease in the risk of developing the disease, and with a later onset age are also reviewed. Data from the genetic analysis of other disorders are reviewed and presented, and it is suggested that the genetic data support the notion that the role of ApoE in the etiology of the disease directly relates to {beta}-amyloid deposition and plaque formation. This suggestion is in concordance with the most likely mechanism for the role of P-amyloid precursor protein gene mutations as other risk factors for the disease. 68 refs.

  4. Possible role of apolipoprotein A1 in healing and cell death after neuronal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mohor B; Mukhopadhyay, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Limited axonal regeneration after traumatic injuries to the CNS presents a challenge in neuroscience. Investigation of CSF from subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) has found that the lipid catabolism pathway is implicated in the post injury scenario. Sequestration of the CNS by the blood brain barrier ensures a mechanism of cholesterol metabolism and recycling distinct from that in the peripheral tissues. Apolipoprotein A1, the protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL), is an abundant protein in the mammalian cerebrospinal fluid. Interaction of ApoA1 with its cellular receptor, ABCA1, gives rise to several signaling events, such as the activation of Cdc42 protein leading to actin polymerisation. Emerging evidences suggest that ApoA1 mediates anti-inflammatory effects and conversely, is negatively regulated by inflammatory cytokines. Collating these findings, added to the clinical evidences of using HDL as a therapeutic target for cardio vascular diseases, we hypothesize that ApoA1 could be useful in neurite outgrowth after mechanical injury by 1) mediating polymerisation of actin and 2) restricting inflammatory responses after injury which are deleterious to healing. PMID:27100352

  5. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of dementia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine L; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and dementia. However, it remains unclear whether plasma levels of apoE confer additional risk. We tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Using 75,708 participants from the general population, we tested...... whether low plasma levels of apoE at study enrollment were associated with increased risk of future Alzheimer disease and all dementia, and whether this association was independent of ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia...... increased from the highest to the lowest apoE tertile (p for trends < 1 × 10(-6) ). Multifactorially adjusted HRs for lowest versus highest tertile were 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.04-3.52) and 1.80 (95% CI = 1.52-2.13) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia, respectively. After further...

  6. The Hsp110 molecular chaperone stabilizes apolipoprotein B from endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrizo, Stacy L; Gusarova, Viktoria; Habiel, David M; Goeckeler, Jennifer L; Fisher, Edward A; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2007-11-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the most abundant protein in low density lipoproteins and plays key roles in cholesterol homeostasis. The co-translational degradation of apoB is controlled by fatty acid levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is mediated by the proteasome. To define the mechanism of apoB degradation, we employed a cell-free system in which proteasome-dependent degradation is recapitulated with yeast cytosol, and we developed an apoB yeast expression system. We discovered that a yeast Hsp110, Sse1p, associates with and stabilizes apoB, which contrasts with data indicating that select Hsp70s and Hsp90s facilitate apoB degradation. However, the Ssb Hsp70 chaperones have no effect on apoB turnover. To determine whether our results are relevant in mammalian cells, Hsp110 was overexpressed in hepatocytes, and enhanced apoB secretion was observed. This study indicates that chaperones within distinct complexes can play unique roles during ER-associated degradation (ERAD), establishes a role for Sse1/Hsp110 in ERAD, and identifies Hsp110 as a target to lower cholesterol. PMID:17823116

  7. Apolipoprotein e genotype, plasma cholesterol, and cancer: a Mendelian randomization study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Trompet, Stella

    2009-12-01

    Observational studies have shown an association between low plasma cholesterol levels and increased risk of cancer, whereas most randomized clinical trials involving cholesterol-lowering medications have not shown this association. Between 1997 and 2002, the authors assessed the association between plasma cholesterol levels and cancer risk, free from confounding and reverse causality, in a Mendelian randomization study using apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. ApoE genotype, plasma cholesterol levels, and cancer incidence and mortality were measured during a 3-year follow-up period among 2,913 participants in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk. Subjects within the lowest third of plasma cholesterol level at baseline had increased risks of cancer incidence (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 2.70) and cancer mortality (HR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.34) relative to subjects within the highest third of plasma cholesterol. However, carriers of the ApoE2 genotype (n = 332), who had 9% lower plasma cholesterol levels than carriers of the ApoE4 genotype (n = 635), did not have increased risk of cancer incidence (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.47) or cancer mortality (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.60) compared with ApoE4 carriers. These findings suggest that low cholesterol levels are not causally related to increased cancer risk.

  8. Mammalian embryonic cerebrospinal fluid proteome has greater apolipoprotein and enzyme pattern complexity than the avian proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, Carolina; Gato, Angel; Bueno, David

    2005-01-01

    During early stages of embryo development, the brain cavity is filled with Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid, which has an essential role in the survival, proliferation and neurogenesis of the neuroectodermal stem cells. We identified and analyzed the proteome of Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid from rat embryos (Rattus norvegicus), which includes proteins involved in the regulation of Central Nervous System development. The comparison between mammalian and avian Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid proteomes reveals great similarity, but also greater complexity in some protein groups. The pattern of apolipoproteins and enzymes in CSF is more complex in the mammals than in birds. This difference may underlie the greater neural complexity and synaptic plasticity found in mammals. Fourteen Embryonic Cerebro-Spinal Fluid gene products were previously identified in adult human Cerebro-Spinal Fluid proteome, and interestingly they are altered in patients with neurodegenerative diseases and/or neurological disorders. Understanding these molecules and the mechanisms they control during embryonic neurogenesis may contribute to our understanding of Central Nervous System development and evolution, and these human diseases. PMID:16335996

  9. Homozygous familial hypobetalipoproteinemia: A Turkish case carrying a missense mutation in apolipoprotein B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Berna Seker; Mungan, Neslihan Onenli; Di Leo, Enza; Magnolo, Lucia; Artuso, Lucia; Bernardis, Isabella; Tumgor, Gokhan; Kor, Deniz; Tarugi, Patrizia

    2016-01-15

    The autosomal co-dominant disorder familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) may be due to mutations in the APOB gene encoding apolipoprotein B (apoB), the main constituent peptide of chylomicrons, very low and low density lipoproteins. We describe an 11month-old child with failure to thrive, intestinal lipid malabsorption, hepatic steatosis and severe hypobetalipoproteinemia, suggesting the diagnosis of homozygous FHBL, abetalipoproteinemia (ABL) or chylomicron retention disease (CMRD). The analysis of candidate genes showed that patient was homozygous for a variant (c.1594 C>T) in the APOB gene causing arginine to tryptophan conversion at position 505 of mature apoB (Arg505Trp). No mutations were found in a panel of other potential candidate genes for hypobetalipoproteinemia. In vitro studies showed a reduced secretion of mutant apoB-48 with respect to the wild-type apoB-48 in transfected McA-RH7777 cells. The Arg505Trp substitution is located in the βα1 domain of apoB involved in the lipidation of apoB mediated by microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), the first step in VLDL and chylomicron formation. The patient's condition improved in response to a low fat diet supplemented with fat-soluble vitamins. Homozygosity for a rare missense mutation in the βα1 domain of apoB may be the cause of both severe hypobetalipoproteinemia and intestinal lipid malabsorption. PMID:26612772

  10. Substituted Benzamides Containing Azaspiro Rings as Upregulators of Apolipoprotein A-I Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I is the principal protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL, which is generally considered as a potential therapeutic target against atherosclerosis. The understanding of the Apo A-I regulation mechanism has fuelled the development of novel HDL targeted therapeutic approaches. To identify novel agents that can upregulate Apo A-I expression, we performed a cell-based reporter assay to screen 25,600 small molecules. Based on the dataset obtained from screening, a series of novel analogs of substituted benzamides containing azaspiro rings were assessed for their ability to induce the transcription of the Apo A-I gene, and the structure-activity relationship (SAR around these analogs was also proposed. The results indicated that the trifluoromethyl substituted benzamide containing an azaspiro ring is a promising backbone for designing Apo A-I transcriptional upregulator and could be viable leads for development of new drugs to prevent and treat atherosclerosis in the future.

  11. Determination of lipoprotein(a) concentrations and apolipoprotein(a) molecular weights in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, A; Durou, M R; Letellier, C; Wojcik, F; Poirier, J Y; Ruelland, A

    2000-04-01

    Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) with atherogenic and thrombotic properties has been frequently studied in diabetes, because a high cardiovascular risk has been reported both in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Few studies have considered genetic factors, especially the isoforms of apolipoprotein(a). The aim of this work is to determine the distribution of apo(a) phenotypes in the serum of 148 diabetic patients (59 type 1, 89 type 2) with or without vascular complications. Apo(a) phenotypes are determined using 4-15% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting (PhastSystem - Pharmacia). An inverse relationship is observed between Lp(a) serum concentration and the apparent molecular mass of apo(a) isoforms: type 1 r=- 0.61, p<0.01; type 2 r=- 0.55, p<0.01. The frequency of apo(a) isoforms is significantly different between type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A higher prevalence of isoforms of low molecular weight was observed in the type 2 diabetic population. PMID:10804324

  12. Production of a soluble and functional recombinant apolipoproteinD in the Pichia pastoris expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanmehr, Shiva; Kalhor, Hamid Reza; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2016-05-01

    ApolipoproteinD (ApoD) is a human glycoprotein from the lipocalin family. ApoD contains a conserved central motif of an 8-stranded antiparallel β-sheet, which forms a beta-barrel that can be used for transport and storage of diverse hydrophobic ligands. Due to hydrophobic nature of ApoD, it has been difficult to generate a recombinant version of this protein. In the present work, we aimed at the production of ApoD in the robust Pichia pastoris expression system. To this end, the ApoD gene sequence was synthesized and subcloned for expression in the yeast host cells. Following integration of the ApoD gene into the yeast genomic region using homologous recombination, the ApoD recombinant protein was induced using methanol, reaching its maximum induction at 96 h. Having purified the ApoD recombinant protein by affinity chromatography, we measured the dissociation constant (KD) using its natural ligands: progesterone and arachidonic acid. Our results provide a viable solution to the production of recombinant ApoD protein in lieu of previous obstacles in generating soluble and functional ApoD protein. PMID:26826316

  13. Psyllium husk. II: Effect on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B in African green monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, M R; Mehta, T; Leathers, C W; Foster, D M

    1992-08-01

    Dietary psyllium's ability to reduce low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is presumably mediated by increased LDL catabolism and/or reduced LDL synthesis. To distinguish between these possibilities, apolipoprotein B (apo B) metabolism was studied in adult male African green monkeys consuming one of three semipurified diets: low-cholesterol cellulose (LCC), high-cholesterol cellulose (HCC), or high-cholesterol psyllium (HCP). 131I-labeled LDL and 125I-labeled VLDL were injected simultaneously into animals; blood samples were drawn at selected times and apo B specific activity determined in VLDL, IDL, and LDL. Based on a multicompartmental model, LDL apo B pool size and de novo apo B transport were elevated significantly in HCC animals compared with HCP and LCC animals. Differences in LDL transport, although not significant, paralleled differences observed in LDL apo B pool size. Fractional catabolic rates were similar among groups (HCC 0.040 +/- 0.010; HCP 0.042 +/- 0.009, and LCC 0.043 +/- 0.004 pools/h). These data suggest that dietary psyllium reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations by decreasing LDL synthesis. PMID:1322033

  14. Evaluation of Apolipoprotein A5 Polymorphism in Coronary- Heart Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Haqparast

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5 gene is important in determining plasma triglyceride levels, a major cardiovascular disease risk factor. Mutation in this gene affected plasma triglyceride level. We looked for possible associations of the APOA5 gene polymorphism S19W with coronary heart disease (CHD in a sample of Iranian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 73 CHD patients and 55 controls were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP for this single nucleotide polymorphism. Serum lipids and Fast Blood Sugar concentrations were measured in all subjects with enzymatic method. Results: Allele frequencies observed in our population were 0.041 for the W allele and 0.959 for the S allele which are similar to other populations (p>0.05. There is no evidence that APOA5 S19W, is a risk factor of CHD in our sample (p>0.05. In addition, we observed no association between the APOA5 W allele and elevated plasma TG levels (p>0.05 in the CHD group. This result was also present in the control group (p>0.05. Conclusion: The APO A5 gene polymorphism in S19W gene has no association with the high susceptibility to CHD.

  15. Capture and concentration of viral and bacterial foodborne pathogens using apolipoprotein H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand, Erin A; Goulter, Rebecca M; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2016-09-01

    The need for improved pathogen separation and concentration methods to reduce time-to-detection for foodborne pathogens is well recognized. Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is an acute phase human plasma protein that has been previously shown to interact with viruses, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and bacterial proteins. The purpose of this study was to determine if ApoH was capable of binding and efficiently capturing two representative human norovirus strains (GI.1 and GII.4), a cultivable surrogate, and four bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Experiments were carried out using an ApoH-conjugated magnetic bead-based capture followed by pathogen detection using nucleic acid amplification. For all three viruses studied, >10% capture efficiency (microflora. A complementary plate-based capture assay showed that ApoH bound to a variety of human norovirus virus-like particles. ApoH has the potential to be a broadly reactive ligand for separating and concentrating representative foodborne pathogens, both bacteria and viruses. PMID:27439140

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the promoter region of the porcine apolipoprotein E gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jihan; Hu, Bingjun; Mu, Yulian; Xin, Leilei; Yang, Shulin; Li, Kui

    2014-05-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE), a component of lipoproteins plays an important role in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol, and is associated with hyperlipoproteinemia and Alzheimer's disease. In order to further understand the characterization of APOE gene, the promoter of APOE gene of Landrace pigs was analyzed in the present study. The genomic structure and amino acid sequence in pigs were analyzed and found to share high similarity in those of human but low similarity in promoter region. Real-time PCR revealed the APOE gene expression pattern of pigs in diverse tissues. The highest expression level was observed in liver, relatively low expression in other tissues, especially in stomach and muscle. Furthermore, the promoter expressing in Hepa 1-6 was significantly better at driving luciferase expression compared with C2C12 cell. After analysis of porcine APOE gene promoter regions, potential transcription factor binding sites were predicted and two GC signals, a TATA box were indicated. Results of promoter activity analysis indicated that one of potential regulatory elements was located in the region -669 to -259, which was essential for a high expression of the APOE gene. Promoter mutation and deletion analysis further suggested that the C/EBPA binding site within the APOE promoter was responsible for the regulation of APOE transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays also showed the binding site of the transcription factor C/EBPA. This study advances our knowledge of the promoter of the porcine APOE gene. PMID:24464129

  17. Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele modulates the immediate impact of acute exercise on prefrontal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Matteo; Clough, Peter J; Dyer, Charlotte E; Vince, Rebecca V; Waby, Jennifer S; Midgley, Adrian W; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-01-01

    The difference between Apolipoprotein E ε4 carriers and non-carriers in response to single exercise sessions was tested. Stroop and Posner tasks were administered to young untrained women immediately after walking sessions or moderately heavy exercise. Exercise had a significantly more profound impact on the Stroop effect than on the Posner effect, suggesting selective involvement of prefrontal function. A significant genotype-by-exercise interaction indicated differences in response to exercise between ε4 carriers and non-carriers. Carriers showed facilitation triggered by exercise. The transient executive down-regulation was construed as due to exercise-dependent hypofrontality. The facilitation observed in carriers was interpreted as better management of prefrontal metabolic resources, and explained within the antagonistic pleiotropy hypothesis framework. The findings have implications for the interpretation of differences between ε4 carriers and non-carriers in the benefits triggered by long-term exercise that might depend, at least partially, on mechanisms of metabolic response to physical activity. PMID:25218559

  18. Apolipoprotein E Genotype Linked to Spatial Gait Characteristics: Predictors of Cognitive Dual Task Gait Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAulay, Rebecca K.; Allaire, Ted; Brouillette, Robert; Foil, Heather; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Developing measures to detect preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease is vital, as prodromal stage interventions may prove more efficacious in altering the disease’s trajectory. Gait changes may serve as a useful clinical heuristic that precedes cognitive decline. This study provides the first systematic investigation of gait characteristics relationship with relevant demographic, physical, genetic (Apolipoprotein E genotype), and health risk factors in non-demented older adults during a cognitive-load dual task walking condition. Methods The GAITRite system provided objective measurement of gait characteristics in APOE-e4 “carriers” (n = 75) and “non-carriers” (n = 224). Analyses examined stride length and step time gait characteristics during simple and dual-task (spelling five-letter words backwards) conditions in relation to demographic, physical, genetic, and health risk factors. Results Slower step time and shorter stride length associated with older age, greater health risk, and worse physical performance (ps attention decrements and structural brain changes in older adults. Our results indicate that stride length is a useful behavioral marker of cognitive change that is associated with genetic risk for AD. Sex disparities in motor decline may be a function of health risk factors. PMID:27486898

  19. Phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of apolipoprotein A5 by insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Maxine; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Rommens, Corinne; Martin, Genevieve; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-02-15

    The apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene has been shown to be important in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 gene is regulated by insulin. We show here that cell and mouse treatments with insulin down-regulated APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that insulin decreases APOA5 promoter activity and subsequent deletion analyses revealed an E-box-containing fragment. We showed that Upstream Stimulatory Factors, USF1/USF2, bind to the identified E-box in the APOA5 promoter. Moreover, in cotransfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity. The treatment with insulin reduces the binding of USF1/USF2 to APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the insulin s effect on APOA5 gene transcription. Using oligoprecipitation method of USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrated that phosphorylated USF1 failed to bind to APOA5 promoter. This indicates that the APOA5 gene transrepression by insulin involves a phosphorylation of USF through PI3K, that modulate their binding to APOA5 promoter and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in healthy men shows a decrease of the plasma ApoAV level. These data suggest a potential mechanism involving APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia.

  20. Influences of apolipoprotein E on soluble and heparin-immobilized hepatic lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of human apolipoprotein E (apoE), either alone or in combination with apoC, on the lipolysis of a radiolabeled triglyceride emulsion was studied with hepatic lipase in solution and immobilized on heparin-Sepharose. The soluble hepatic lipase was inhibited, whereas the heparin-immobilized lipase was stimulated by apoE. This stimulation was attenuated by combining apoE with either apoC-II or C-III. The heparin-immobilized lipase demonstrated much less lipolysis of the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine-stabilized triglyceride emulsion than did the soluble enzyme. This difference was less when the emulsion was stabilized by a nonionic detergent. apoE inhibited lipase activity when assayed under conditions (0.4 M NaCl) of bound enzyme and unbound substrate. Increasing the emulsion apoE content beyond optimum inhibited lipolysis by the immobilized enzyme. Kinetic analysis of phosphatidylcholine-stabilized triglyceride emulsions revealed a significant decrease in immobilized enzyme K/sub m/ and an increase in V/sub max/ when the emulsion was supplemented with apoE. Distributing the immobilized lipase in clustered aggregates produced more lipolysis than when the same enzyme content was uniformly bound

  1. Intracellular trafficking of recycling apolipoprotein E in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Nicole A; Mohler, Peter J; Weisgraber, Karl H; Hasty, Alyssa H; Linton, MacRae F; Yancey, Patricia G; Su, Yan Ru; Fazio, Sergio; Swift, Larry L

    2006-06-01

    We have investigated apolipoprotein E (apoE) recycling in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a peripheral cell that does not produce lipoproteins or express apoE. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cells were pulsed with 125I-apoE-VLDL and chased for different periods, approximately 30% of the apoE internalized during the pulse was resecreted within a 4 h chase in a relatively lipid-free state. The addition of lysosomotropic agents or brefeldin A had no effect on apoE recycling. Unlike previous results with hepatocytes and macrophages, neither apoA-I nor upregulation of ABCA1 stimulated apoE recycling. However, cyclodextrin, which extracts cholesterol from plasma membrane lipid rafts, increased recycling. Confocal studies revealed that apoE, internalized during a 1 h pulse, colocalizes with early endosomal antigen-1, Rab5, Rab11a, and lysobisphosphatidic acid but not with lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1. Colocalization of apoE and Rab11a persisted even after cells had been chased for 1 h, suggesting a pool of apoE within the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC). Our data suggest that apoE recycling in CHO cells is linked to cellular cholesterol removal via the ERC and phospholipid-containing acceptors in a pathway alternative to the ABCA1-apoA-I axis. PMID:16534141

  2. Relationship Between Plasma Insulin Level and Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphysm in Alzheimer′s Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhuming; Yuan Qiang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study relationship between plasma insulin level and apolipoprotein E Gene polymorphysm in Alzheimcr′s Disease. Background: Recent researches have shown that there was a close relationship between ApoE- ε 4 allele and AD. Because of the discovery of hyperinsulineamia in AD patients, the study of insulin on the pathogenesis of AD become a hot point of AD reseearch. Methods: We apply PCR-RFLP to the ApoE genotype study of 45 AD paticnts and 32 normal controls. At the same time, plasma insulin and glucose level was measured in the abovc objects. Results and Discussion: The frequency of ApoE- ε 4 in AD (32.2%) is much higher than in controls (10.9%). On the contrary, the frequency of ApeE- ε 4 is relatively lower in AD than in thc controls. The resistence of hyperinsulineamia in AD. Insulin sensitivity decreased in AD. Conclusion: When gene dose of ApoE- ε 4 increases, the prcvalance of AD increase, while the on-set ages of AD decrease (P<0.05). These findings indicatc that AD patients may have insulin resistance anbd insulin probably play a role in AD pathogenesis. In addition, the s 4 homozygote AD patients seem to have loweer plasma insulin level that the non- ε 4 homozygote AD patients (P<0.05). But this situation need to be replicated in studies of larger sample.

  3. Meta-analysis of peripheral blood apolipoprotein E levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood Apolipoprotein E (ApoE levels have been proposed as biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD, but previous studies on levels of ApoE in blood remain inconsistent. This meta-analysis was designed to re-examine the potential role of peripheral ApoE in AD diagnosis and its potential value as a candidate biomarker. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and BIOSIS previews for case-control studies measuring ApoE levels in serum or plasma from AD subjects and healthy controls. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD and 95% confidence interval (CI were used to estimate the association between ApoE levels and AD risk. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 2250 controls and 1498 AD cases were identified and analyzed. The pooled WMD from a random-effect model of AD participants compared with the healthy controls was -5.59 mg/l (95% CI: [-8.12, -3.06]. The overall pattern in WMD was not varied by characteristics of study, including age, country, assay method, publication year, and sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports a lowered level of blood ApoE in AD patients, and indicates its potential value as an important risk factor for AD. Further investigation employing standardized assay for ApoE measurement are still warranted to uncover the precise role of ApoE in the pathophysiology of AD.

  4. MICE Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Coney, L

    2009-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling provides the only practical solution for preparing high brightness beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It comprises a dedicated beam line designed to generate a range of input emittances and momenta with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to select a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance is performed in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in liquid hydrogen and acceleration by RF cavities. A second spectrometer identical to the first and another particle identification system provide a measurement of the outgoing emittance. In late 2009, it is expected that the beam and many of the particle identification detectors will be in the final commissioning phase, and the first measurement of input beam emittance will take place in 2010. The steps of commissi...

  5. The pro-inflammatory effect of uraemia overrules the anti-atherogenic potential of immunization with oxidized LDL in apoE-/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja X; Binder, Christoph J; Fredrikson, Gunilla N;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uraemia increases oxidative stress, plasma titres of antibodies recognizing oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and development of atherosclerosis. Immunization with oxLDL prevents classical, non-uraemic atherosclerosis. We have investigated whether immunization with oxLDL might...... also prevent uraemia-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. METHODS: ApoE-/- mice were immunized with either native LDL (n = 25), Cu(2+)-oxidized LDL (n = 25), PBS (n = 25), the apolipoprotein B-derived peptide P45 (apoB-peptide P45) conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA...... anti-oxLDL antibodies as well as pro-atherogenic cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12)] in native mouse LDL (nLDL)-, oxLDL- and PBS-immunized mice. Even though nLDL- and oxLDL-immunized mice displayed higher anti-MDA-LDL IgG titres than the PBS group, aortic atherosclerosis lesion...

  6. Apolipoprotein E Knockout as the Basis for Mouse Models of Dyslipidemia-Induced Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinder, Lucy M.; Vincent, Andrea M.; Hayes, John M; McLean, Lisa L.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been identified as an important pathogenic risk factor for diabetic neuropathy, but current animal models do not adequately reproduce the lipid profile observed in human diabetics (increased triglycerides with an elevated LDL-cholesterol and reduced HDL-cholesterol). High fat feeding of mice produces hyperlipidemia, but mice are resistant to increases in the LDL to HDL ratio, reducing the potential for peripheral lipid deposits to impact neuropathy, as is postulated to occur ...

  7. Cardiac and vascular changes in elderly atherosclerotic mice: the influence of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Thiago MC

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although advanced age is considered a risk factor for several diseases, the impact of gender on age-associated cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerotic processes and valvular diseases, remains not completely clarified. The present study was designed to assess aortic valve morphology and function and vascular damage in elderly using the apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO mouse. Our hypothesis was that advanced age-related cardiovascular changes are aggravated in atherosclerotic male mice. Methods The grade (0 to 4 of aortic regurgitation was evaluated through angiography. In addition, vascular lipid deposition and senescence were evaluated through histochemical analyses in aged male and female ApoE KO mice, and the results were compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (C57 mice. Results Aortic regurgitation was observed in 92% of the male ApoE KO mice and 100% of the male C57 mice. Comparatively, in age-matched female ApoE KO and C57 mice, aortic regurgitation was observed in a proportion of 58% and 53%, respectively. Histological analysis of the aorta showed an outward (positive remodeling in ApoE KO mice (female: 1.86 ± 0.15; male: 1.89 ± 0.68 using C57 groups as reference values. Histochemical evaluation of the aorta showed lipid deposition and vascular senescence only in the ApoE KO group, which were more pronounced in male mice. Conclusion The data show that male gender contributes to the progression of aortic regurgitation and that hypercholesterolemia and male gender additively contribute to the occurrence of lipid deposition and vascular senescence in elderly mice.

  8. Prevalence of the apolipoprotein E Arg145Cys dyslipidemia at-risk polymorphism in African-derived populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Ziki, Maen D; Strulovici-Barel, Yael; Hackett, Neil R; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L; Mezey, Jason G; Salit, Jacqueline; Radisch, Sharon; Hollmann, Charleen; Chouchane, Lotfi; Malek, Joel; Zirie, Mahmoud A; Jayyuosi, Amin; Gotto, Antonio M; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-01-15

    Apolipoprotein E, a protein component of blood lipid particles, plays an important role in lipid transport. Different mutations in the apolipoprotein E gene have been associated with various clinical phenotypes. In an initiated study of Qataris, we observed that 17% of the African-derived genetic subgroup were heterozygotes for a rare Arg145Cys (R145C) variant that functions as a dominant trait with incomplete penetrance associated with type III hyperlipoproteinemia. On the basis of this observation, we hypothesized that the R145C polymorphism might be common in African-derived populations. The prevalence of the R145C variant was assessed worldwide in the "1000 Genomes Project" and in 1,012 whites and 1,226 African-Americans in New York, New York. The 1000 Genomes Project data demonstrated that the R145C polymorphism is rare in non-African-derived populations but present in 5% to 12% of Sub-Saharan African-derived populations. The R145C polymorphism was also rare in New York whites (1 of 1,012, 0.1%); however, strikingly, 53 of the 1,226 New York African-Americans (4.3%) were R145C heterozygotes. The lipid profiles of the Qatari and New York R145C heterozygotes were compared with those of controls. The Qatari R145C subjects had higher triglyceride levels than the Qatari controls (p worldwide derived from Sub-Saharan Africans are apolipoprotein E R145C. In conclusion, although larger epidemiologic studies are necessary to determine the long-term consequences of this polymorphism, the available evidence suggests it is a common cause of a mild triglyceride dyslipidemia. PMID:24239320

  9. Comparison of deuterated leucine, valine, and lysine in the measurement of human apolipoprotein A-I and B-100 kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production rates of apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 in very low density lipoprotein and in low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I in high density lipoprotein were determined using a primed-constant infusion of [5,5,5,-2H3]leucine, [4,4,4,-2H3]valine, and [6,6-2H2,1,2-13C2]lysine. The three stable isotope-labeled amino acids were administered simultaneously to determine whether absolute production rates calculated using a stochastic model were independent of the tracer species utilized. Three normolipidemic adult males were studied in the constantly fed state over a 15-h period. The absolute production rates of very low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were 11.4 +/- 5.8 (leucine), 11.2 +/- 6.8 (valine), and 11.1 +/- 5.4 (lysine) mg per kg per day (mean +/- SDM). The absolute production rates for low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were 8.0 +/- 4.7 (leucine), 7.5 +/- 3.8 (valine), and 7.5 +/- 4.2 (lysine) mg per kg per day. The absolute production rates for high density lipoprotein apoA-I were 9.7 +/- 0.2 (leucine), 9.4 +/- 1.7 (valine), and 9.1 +/- 1.3 (lysine) mg per kg per day. There were no statistically significant differences in absolute synthetic rates of the three apolipoproteins when the plateau isotopic enrichment values of very low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were used to define the isotopic enrichment of the intracellular precursor pool. Our data indicate that deuterated leucine, valine, or lysine provided similar results when used for the determination of apoA-I and apoB-100 absolute production rates within plasma lipoproteins as part of a primed-constant infusion protocol

  10. Disruption of Nrf2, a key inducer of antioxidant defenses, attenuates ApoE-mediated atherosclerosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Sussan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and inflammation are two critical factors that drive the formation of plaques in atherosclerosis. Nrf2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that upregulates a battery of antioxidative genes and cytoprotective enzymes that constitute the cellular response to oxidative stress. Our previous studies have shown that disruption of Nrf2 in mice (Nrf2(-/- causes increased susceptibility to pulmonary emphysema, asthma and sepsis due to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Here we have tested the hypothesis that disruption of Nrf2 in mice causes increased atherosclerosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To investigate the role of Nrf2 in the development of atherosclerosis, we crossed Nrf2(-/- mice with apoliporotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/- mice. ApoE(-/- and ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 20 weeks, and plaque area was assessed in the aortas. Surprisingly, ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice exhibited significantly smaller plaque area than ApoE(-/- controls (11.5% vs 29.5%. This decrease in plaque area observed in ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice was associated with a significant decrease in uptake of modified low density lipoproteins (AcLDL by isolated macrophages from ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice. Furthermore, atherosclerotic plaques and isolated macrophages from ApoE(-/-Nrf2(-/- mice exhibited decreased expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. CONCLUSIONS: Nrf2 is pro-atherogenic in mice, despite its antioxidative function. The net pro-atherogenic effect of Nrf2 may be mediated via positive regulation of CD36. Our data demonstrates that the potential effects of Nrf2-targeted therapies on cardiovascular disease need to be investigated.

  11. Relevance of apolipoprotein E4 for the lipid profile of Brazilian patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R.S. Souza

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (apoE - e2, e3, e4 alleles plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, with the e4 considered to be a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. We aimed to evaluate the apoE polymorphisms in Brazilians with CAD and their influence on the lipid profile and other risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking. Two hundred individuals were examined: 100 patients with atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography and 100 controls. Blood samples were drawn to determine apoE polymorphisms and lipid profile. As expected, the e3 allele was prevalent in the CAD (0.87 and non-CAD groups (0.81; P = 0.099, followed by the e4 allele (0.09 and 0.14, respectively; P = 0.158. The e3/3 (76 and 78% and e3/4 (16 and 23% were the most common genotypes for patients and controls, respectively. The lipid profile was altered in patients compared to controls (P < 0.05, independently of the e4 allele. However, in the controls this allele was prevalent in individuals with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels only (odds ratio = 2.531; 95% CI = 1.028-6.232. The frequency of risk factors was higher in the CAD group (P < 0.05, but their association with the lipid profile was not demonstrable in e4 carriers. In conclusion, the e4 allele is not associated with CAD or lipid profile in patients with atherosclerosis. However, its frequency in the non-CAD group is associated with increased levels of LDL-cholesterol, suggesting an independent effect of the e4 allele on lipid profile when the low frequency of other risk factors in this group is taken into account.

  12. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism influences postprandial retinyl palmitate but not triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerwinkle, E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX (United States)); Brown, S.; Patsch, W. (Methodist Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Sharrett, A.R. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Heiss, G. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1994-02-01

    To quantify the effect of the apolipoprotein (apo) E polymorphism on the magnitude of postprandial lipemia, the authors have defined its role in determining the response to a single high-fat meal in a large sample of (N = 474) individuals taking part in the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. The profile of postprandial response in plasma was monitored over 8 h by triglyceride, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TGRL)-triglyceride, apo B-48/apo B-100 ratio, and retinyl palmitate concentrations, and the apo E polymorphism was determined by DNA amplification and digestion. The frequency of the apo E alleles and their effects on fasting lipid levels in this sample with vitamin A was significantly different among apo E genotypes, with delayed clearance in individuals with an [var epsilon]2 allele, compared with [var epsilon]3/3 and [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. In the sample of 397 Caucasians, average retinyl palmitate response was 1,489 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]2/3 individuals, compared with 1,037 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/3 individuals and 1,108 [mu]g/dl in [var epsilon]3/4 individuals. The apo E polymorphism accounted for 7.1% of the interindividual variation in postprandial retinyl palmitate response, a contribution proportionally greater than its well-known effect on fasting LDL-cholesterol. However, despite this effect on postprandial retinyl palmitate, the profile of postprandial triglyceride response was not significantly different among apo E genotypes. The profile of postprandial response was consistent between the sample of Caucasians and a smaller sample of black subjects. While these data indicate that the removal of remnant particles from circulation is delayed in subjects with the [var epsilon]2/3 genotype, there is no reported evidence that the [var epsilon]2 allele predisposes to coronary artery disease (CAD). 82 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. p53 family members regulate the expression of the apolipoprotein D gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yasushi; Negishi, Hideaki; Koyama, Ryota; Anbo, Naoki; Ohori, Kanae; Idogawa, Masashi; Mita, Hiroaki; Toyota, Minoru; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Tokino, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    p73 and p63 are members of the p53 gene family that play an important role in development and homeostasis, mainly by regulating transcription of a variety of genes. We report here that apolipoprotein D (apoD), a member of the lipocalin superfamily of lipid transport proteins, is a direct transcriptional target of the p53 family member genes. We found that the expression of apoD was specifically up-regulated by either TAp73 or TAp63 but not significantly by p53. In addition, apoD transcription is activated in response to cisplatin in a manner dependent on endogenous p73. By using small interference RNA designed to target p73, we demonstrated that silencing endogenous p73 abolishes induction of apoD transcription following cisplatin treatment. We also identified a p73/p63-binding site in the promoter of the apoD gene that is responsive to the p53 family members. The ectopic expression of TAp73 as well as the addition of recombinant human apoD to culture medium induced the osteoblastic differentiation of the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2, as assessed by alkaline phosphatase activity. Importantly, apoD knockdown abrogated p73-mediated alkaline phosphatase induction. Moreover, TAp73-mediated apoD expression was able to induce morphological differentiation, as well as expression of neuronal markers, in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. These results suggest that apoD induction may mediate the activity of p73 in normal development. PMID:19001418

  14. Apolipoprotein A-I Helsinki promotes intracellular acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) protein accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Juan D; Garda, Horacio A; Cabaleiro, Laura V; Cuellar, Angela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R; Gonzalez, Marina C

    2013-05-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport is a process of high antiatherogenic relevance in which apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) plays an important role. The interaction of apoA-I with peripheral cells produces through mechanisms that are still poorly understood the mobilization of intracellular cholesterol depots toward plasma membrane. In macrophages, these mechanisms seem to be related to the modulation of the activity of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular cholesterol ester biosynthesis that is stored in lipid droplets. The activation of ACAT and the accumulation of lipid droplets play a key role in the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, leading to the formation of atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque. ApoA-I Helsinki (or ∆K107) is a natural apoA-I variant with a lysine deletion in the central protein region, carriers of which have increased atherosclerosis risk. We herein show that treatment of cultured RAW macrophages or CHOK1 cells with ∆K107, but not with wild-type apoA-I or a variant containing a similar deletion at the C-terminal region (∆K226), lead to a marked increase (more than 10 times) in the intracellular ACAT1 protein level as detected by western blot analysis. However, we could only detect a slight increase in cholesteryl ester produced by ∆K107 mainly when Chol loading was supplied by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although a similar choline-phospholipid efflux is evoked by these apoA-I variants, the change in phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin distribution produced by wild-type apoA-I is not observed with either ∆K107 or ∆K226. PMID:23456478

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I metabolism in cynomolgus monkey. Identification and characterization of beta-migrating pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh plasma from control (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HC) cynomolgus monkeys was analyzed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting with antibody to cynomolgus monkey apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Two bands were evident on the autoradiogram: an alpha-migrating band (high density lipoprotein) and a beta-migrating band that comigrated exactly with cynomolgus monkey low density lipoprotein (LDL). The presence of beta-migrating apo A-I in the plasma of these monkeys was confirmed by Geon-Pevikon preparative electrophoresis, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and isotope dilution studies in which radiolabeled apo A-I was found to equilibrate also with alpha- and beta-migrating pools of apo A-I in the plasma. Subfractionation of C and HC plasma by agarose column chromatography (Bio-Gel A-0.5M and A-15M) followed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting indicated that the beta-migrating apo A-I in C was relatively homogeneous and eluted with proteins of Mr approximately 50 kD [apo A-I(50 kD)], whereas two beta-migrating fractions were identified in HC, one that eluted with the 50-kD proteins, and the other that eluted in the LDL Mr range [apo A-I(LDL)]. The apo A-I(LDL) was precipitated by antibody to cynomolgus monkey apo B. The apo A-I(50 kD) accounted for 5 +/- 1% (mean +/- SD) of the plasma apo A-I in C plasma, and 15 +/- 7% in HC plasma. No apo A-I(LDL) was detected in C plasma, but that fraction accounted for 9 +/- 7% of the apo A-I in HC plasma. These data establish the presence of multiple pools of apo A-I in the cynomolgus monkey, which must be taken into consideration in any comprehensive model of apo A-I metabolism in this species

  16. CHRNA7 Polymorphisms and Dementia Risk: Interactions with Apolipoprotein ε4 and Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Pei-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chen, Ta-Fu; Sun, Yu; Wen, Li-Li; Yip, Ping-Keung; Chu, Yi-Min; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR, encoded by CHRNA7) is involved in dementia pathogenesis through cholinergic neurotransmission, neuroprotection and interactions with amyloid-β. Smoking promotes atherosclerosis and increases dementia risk, but nicotine exerts neuroprotective effect via α7nAChR in preclinical studies. No studies explored the gene-gene, gene-environment interactions between CHRNA7 polymorphism, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 status and smoking on dementia risk. This case-control study recruited 254 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and 115 vascular dementia (VaD) cases (age ≥65) from the neurology clinics of three teaching hospitals in Taiwan during 2007-2010. Controls (N = 435) were recruited from health checkup programs and volunteers during the same period. Nine CHRNA7 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms representative for Taiwanese were genotyped. Among APOE ε4 non-carriers, CHRNA7 rs7179008 variant carriers had significantly decreased LOAD risk after correction for multiple tests (GG + AG vs. AA: adjusted odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.64, P = 0.002). Similar findings were observed for carriers of GT haplotype in CHRNA7 block4. A significant interaction was found between rs7179008, GT haplotype in block4 and APOE ε4 on LOAD risk. rs7179008 variant also reduced the detrimental effect of smoking on LOAD risk. No significant association was found between CHRNA7 and VaD. These findings help to understand dementia pathogenesis. PMID:27249957

  17. Leptospiral LruA is required for virulence and modulates an interaction with mammalian apolipoprotein AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunkun; Murray, Gerald L; Seemann, Torsten; Srikram, Amporn; Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Sermswan, Rasana W; Adler, Ben; Hoke, David E

    2013-10-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. While understanding of pathogenesis remains limited, the development of mutagenesis in Leptospira has provided a powerful tool for identifying novel virulence factors. LruA is a lipoprotein that has been implicated in leptospiral uveitis as a target of the immune response. In this study, two lruA mutants, M754 and M765, generated by transposon mutagenesis from Leptospira interrogans serovar Manilae, were characterized. In M754, the transposon inserted in the middle of lruA, resulting in no detectable expression of LruA. In M765, the transposon inserted toward the 3' end of the gene, resulting in expression of a truncated protein. LruA was demonstrated to be on the cell surface in M765 and the wild type (WT). M754, but not M765, was attenuated in a hamster model of acute infection. A search for differential binding to human serum proteins identified a serum protein of around 30 kDa bound to the wild type and the LruA deletion mutant (M754), but not to the LruA truncation mutant (M765). Two-dimensional separation of proteins from leptospiral cells incubated with guinea pig serum identified the 28-kDa apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) as a major mammalian serum protein that binds Leptospira in vitro. Interestingly, M754 (with no detectable LruA) bound more ApoA-I than did the LruA-expressing strains Manilae wild type and M765. Our data thus identify LruA as a surface-exposed leptospiral virulence factor that contributes to leptospiral pathogenesis, possibly by modulating cellular interactions with serum protein ApoA-I. PMID:23918777

  18. Liver expression of steroid hormones and Apolipoprotein D receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FJ Vizoso; L Rodrigo; M Rodriguez; A Altadill; ML González-Diéguez; A Linares; LO González; S Junquera; F Fresno-Forcelledo; MD Corte

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the tissular expression of Androgen (A), Estrogen (E) and Progesterone (Pg) receptors, and Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), in liver tumors from resected hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases in order to assess their possible relationship to prognosis.METHODS We performed an immunohistochemical study using tissue microarrays (containing more than 260 cancer specimens, from 31 HCC patients and controls)to determine the presence of specific antibodies against AR, ER, PgR and ApoD, correlating their findings with several clinico-pathological and biological variables. The staining results were categorized using a semi-quantitive score based on their intensity, and the percentage of immunostained cells was measured.RESULTS: A total of 21 liver tumors (67.7%) were positive for AR; 16 (51.6%) for ER; 26 (83.9%) for PgR and 12 (38.7%) stained for ApoD. We have found a wide variability in the immunostaining score values for each protein, with a median (range) of 11.5 (11.5-229.5) for AR; 11.1 (8.5-65) for ER; 14.2 (4-61) for PgR; and 37.7 (13.8-81.1) for ApoD. A history of heavy ethanol consumption, correlated positively with AR and PgR and negatively with ER status. HCV chronic infection also correlated positively with AR and PgR status. However,the presence of ApoD immunostaining did not correlate with any of these variables. Tumors with a positive immuno-staining for PgR showed a better prognosis.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate a moderate clinical value of the steroid receptor status in HCC, emphasizing the need to perform further studies in order to evaluate the possible role of new hormonal-based therapies.

  19. Functional network endophenotypes unravel the effects of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 in middle-aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Goveas

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4 accentuates memory decline, structural volume loss and cerebral amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy adults. We investigated whether APOE-ε4 carriers will show disruptions in the intrinsic cognitive networks, including the default mode (DMN, executive control (ECN and salience (SN networks, relative to noncarriers in middle-aged healthy adults; and the extent to which episodic-memory performance is related to the altered functional connectivity (Fc in these networks. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI was used to measure the differences in the DMN, ECN and SN Fc between 20 APOE-ε4 carriers and 26 noncarriers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between episodic-memory performance and Fc differences in the three resting-state networks across all subjects. There were no significant differences in the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics and the gray-matter volumes in the carriers and noncarriers. While mostly diminished DMN and ECN functional connectivities were seen, enhanced connections to the DMN structures were found in the SN in ε4 carriers. Altered DMN and ECN were associated with episodic memory performance. Significant Fc differences in the brain networks implicated in cognition were seen in middle-aged individuals with a genetic risk for AD, in the absence of cognitive decline and gray-matter atrophy. Prospective studies are essential to elucidate the potential of R-fMRI technique as a biomarker for predicting conversion from normal to early AD in healthy APOE-ε4 carriers.

  20. Radiative-SPR platform for the detection of apolipoprotein E for use in medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacca, Beniamino; Francois, Alexandre; Penno, Megan A. S.; Brazzatti, Julie A.; Klingler-Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Peter; Monro, Tanya M.

    2012-03-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based sensors enable the rapid, label-free and highly sensitive detection of a large range of biomolecules. We have previously shown that, using silver coated optical fibres with an high surface roughness, a re-scattering of the surface plasmons is possible, turning SPR into a radiative process. This approach overcomes limitations associated with current SPR technologies such as the tight tolerance on the metallic coating thickness, and results in a more compact, versatile, robust and cost-effective approach. However, the specific detection of small molecules is a challenge in SPR systems, regardless of the SPR architecture that is used. This new sensing platform, which has proved effective for the detection of large molecules such as viruses, is now demonstrated to be able to detect small proteins thanks to an improved surface functionalization procedure, a key point for reliable and robust immunosensors. Avidin, a tetrameric biotin-binding protein, was used to link biotinylated antibodies to the biotinylated surface, with a given orientation, to enable efficient sensing of the analyte. This approach may offer significant advantages compared to protein A surface functionalization strategies such as a limited cross reactivity with free IgG antibodies in clinical samples. We demonstrate that by bringing together this novel emission-based fibre SPR platform, with an improved surface functionalization process, is possible to rapidly and specifically detect human apolipoprotein E, a low molecular weight protein (~39kDa) known to be involved in cardiovascular diseases, in Alzheimer's disease and in gastric cancer. The results obtained clearly show that this new sensing platform has the potential to serve as a tool for point-of-decision medical diagnostics.

  1. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Is Associated with Serum Chemerin and Irisin but Not with Apolipoprotein M Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağlayan, Emel Kıyak; Göçmen, Ayşe Yeşim; Polat, Muhammed Fevzi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the levels of chemerin, irisin and apolipoprotein M (apoM) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods The study included 88 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Based on World Health Organization criteria, women with a T-score of ≤ –2.5 were defined as osteoporotic. In this case-control study, postmenopausal women with T-score > –1 were selected as controls (n = 88) and case-matched in a 1:1 ratio based on age (within 2 years) and body mass index (BMI) (within 1.0 kg/m2). ApoM, irisin and chemerin levels were determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results There were no significant differences in age, BMI, parity, cholesterol and apoM levels between the two groups. C-reactive protein levels were significantly increased in women with osteoporosis. Serum chemerin levels (240.1 ± 46.1 vs. 261.5 ± 50.8 ng/mL) were significantly lower in the women with osteoporosis, as compared to the controls (P = 0.004). Serum irisin levels were also decreased in women with osteoporosis (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.007). Conclusion In the present study, osteoporosis was associated with decreased levels of circulating chemerin and irisin. These findings suggested that adipokines might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

  2. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein assembly in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein-deficient McA-RH7777 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanwen; Manchekar, Medha; Sun, Zhihuan; Richardson, Paul E.; Dashti, Nassrin

    2010-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is required for the assembly and secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins. Previously, we demonstrated that the N-terminal 1,000 residues of apoB (apoB:1000) are necessary for the initiation of apoB-containing lipoprotein assembly in rat hepatoma McA-RH7777 cells and that these particles are phospholipid (PL) rich. To determine if the PL transfer activity of MTP is sufficient for the assembly and secretion of primordial apoB:10...

  3. Apolipoprotein E Variation at the Sequence Haplotype Level: Implications for the Origin and Maintenance of a Major Human Polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Clark, Andrew G.; Weiss, Kenneth M.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Taylor, Scott L.; Stengård, Jari H.; Salomaa, Veikko; Vartiainen, Erkki; Perola, Markus; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2000-01-01

    Three common protein isoforms of apolipoprotein E (apoE), encoded by the ε2, ε3, and ε4 alleles of the APOE gene, differ in their association with cardiovascular and Alzheimer's disease risk. To gain a better understanding of the genetic variation underlying this important polymorphism, we identified sequence haplotype variation in 5.5 kb of genomic DNA encompassing the whole of the APOE locus and adjoining flanking regions in 96 individuals from four populations: blacks from Jackson, MS (n=4...

  4. High 99mTc-DPD myocardial uptake in a patient with apolipoprotein AI-related amyloidotic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarta, Candida Cristina; Obici, Laura; Guidalotti, Pier Luigi; Pieroni, Maurizio; Longhi, Simone; Perlini, Stefano; Verga, Laura; Merlini, Giampaolo; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    Amyloidotic cardiomyopathy is still a widely underdiagnosed condition that usually requires endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) for a definite diagnosis. 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (99mTc-DPD) has proven highly sensitive for detecting amyloidotic cardiomyopathy due to transthyretin-related amyloid deposition. Herein we report the first description of the (99mTc-DPD scintigraphy profile in a patient with suspected amyloidotic cardiomyopathy and a final EMB- and genetically-proven diagnosis of familial apolipoprotein AI amyloidosis due to Leu174Ser variant. PMID:23231421

  5. Depression and Plasma Amyloid β Peptides in the Elderly with and without the Apolipoprotein E4 Allele

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Chiu, Chi Chia; Liebson, Elizabeth; Crivello, Natalia A.; Wang, Lixia; Caunch, Joshua; Folstein, Marshal; Rosenberg, Irwin; Mwamburi, D. Mkaya; Peter, Inga; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2009-01-01

    Depression associated with low plasma Amyloid-β peptide 42 (Aβ42) leading to a high ratio of Aβ40/Aβ42, a biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), may represent a unique depression subtype. The relationship between low plasma Aβ42 in depression and the major risk factor of AD, Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), is unknown. With the goal of clarifying this relationship, we analyzed 1060 homebound elders with ApoE characterization and depression status in a cross-sectional study. Plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 wer...

  6. Kringle-containing fragments of apolipoprotein(a) circulate in human plasma and are excreted into the urine.

    OpenAIRE

    Mooser, V.; Marcovina, S. M.; A L White; Hobbs, H H

    1996-01-01

    Apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] contains multiple kringle 4 repeats and circulates as part of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Apo(a) is synthesized by the liver but its clearance mechanism is unknown. Previously, we showed that kringle 4-containing fragments of apo(a) are present in human urine. To probe their origin, human plasma was examined and a series of apo(a) immunoreactive peptides larger in size than urinary fragments was identified. The concentration of apo(a) fragments in plasma was directly re...

  7. A gel-based method for purification of apolipoprotein A-I from small volumes of plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Brace, Rachel J.; Sorrenson, Brie; Sviridov, Dmitri; McCormick, Sally P. A.

    2010-01-01

    We present here a gel-based method for rapid purification of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) from small volumes of human plasma. After isolation of high density lipoprotein from plasma, the apoA-I protein was separated by electrophoresis and the apoA-I band excised from the gel. The apoA-I was then eluted from the gel strip, concentrated, and delipidated ready for use. The structure and function of the gel-purified apoA-I protein was compared against apoA-I purified by the traditional size-exclus...

  8. Apolipoprotein B Is Related to Metabolic Syndrome Independently of Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Younghyup; Yoo, Soyeon; Lee, Sang Ah; Chin, Sang Ouk; Heo, Dahee; Moon, Jae Cheol; Moon, Shinhang; Boo, Kiyoung; Kim, Seong Taeg; Seo, Hye Mi; Jwa, Hyeyoung; Koh, Gwanpyo

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent studies demonstrated apolipoprotein B (apoB), a protein mainly located in LDL-C, was an independent predictor of the development of CVD especially in patients with T2DM. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between apoB and MetS in T2DM patients. Methods W...

  9. Comparison of immunoturbidimetric and Lowry methods for measuring concentration of very low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B-100 in plasma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, M H; Watts, G F; Lumb, P J; Slavin, B M

    1994-01-01

    To assess whether the Lowry-tetramethylurea method for measuring apolipoprotein B-100 (apo-B) in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) could be replaced by direct assay of VLDL apo-B using a highly practicable immunological method. Seventy five fasting blood samples were collected from patients attending the lipid clinic at this hospital. Plasma was separated immediately and VLDL isolated by preparative ultracentrifugation at solution density 0.93-1.006 kg/l. Apo-B was precipitated from an aliq...

  10. Apolipoprotein B is conformationally flexible but anchored at a triolein/water interface: A possible model for lipoprotein surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Libo; Walsh, Mary T.; Small, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is one of a unique group of proteins that form and bind to fat droplets, stabilize the emulsified fat, and direct their metabolism. ApoB, secreted on lipoproteins (emulsions), remains bound during lipid metabolism yet exhibits conformational flexibility. It has amphipathic β-strand (AβS)-rich domains and amphipathic α-helix (AαH)-rich domains. We showed that two consensus AβS peptides of apoB bound strongly to hydrophobic interfaces [triolein/water (TO/W) and dodecane/...

  11. Regeneration-associated high level expression of apolipoprotein D mRNA in endoneurial fibroblasts of peripheral nerve.

    OpenAIRE

    Spreyer, P; Schaal, H; Kuhn, G.; Rothe, T; Unterbeck, A; Olek, K; Müller, H. W.

    1990-01-01

    A cDNA clone containing the entire coding region of rat apolipoprotein D (Apo D) was isolated from a cDNA library of regenerating sciatic nerve by differential hybridization. Only small amounts of Apo D mRNA were detected in noninjured mature nerve. Moderately increased levels of Apo D transcripts were found in transected nerves, which were prevented from regeneration by ligation. In contrast, in regenerating crushed nerve, the steady-state level of Apo D mRNA transiently increased at least 4...

  12. Transcriptional regulation of the apolipoprotein B100 gene: purification and characterization of trans-acting factor BRF-2.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, H.; Chuang, S S; Das, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B100 (apoB), the only protein of low-density lipoprotein, is produced primarily in the liver and serves as a ligand for the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Hepatic cell-specific expression of the human apoB gene is controlled by at least two cis-acting positive elements located between positions-128 and -70 (H. K. Das, T. Leff, and J.L. Breslow, J. Biol. Chem. 263:11452-11458, 1988). The distal element (-128 to -85) appears to be liver specific since it shows positive activit...

  13. Immunotherapeutic and toxic effects of a triple fusion protein encompassing apolipoprotein A-I, IL-15 and IL-15Rα sushi domain

    OpenAIRE

    María C Ochoa; Inmaculada Rodriguez; Guillermo Mazzolini

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) effects on CD8 T and NK lymphocytes hold promise to treat cancer. Fusion proteins have been engineered to provide IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα) mediated trans-presentation to lymphocytes and extend the plasma half-life of the cytokine. In this study, we report on a triple fusion protein combining apolipoprotein A-I, IL-15 and IL-15Rα’s sushi domain. Apolipoprotein A-I conveys IL-15 to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), from which the cytokine is trans-presented by the IL...

  14. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P. Otis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH. The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4–6 days post-fertilization (dpf. Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish

  15. Visualization of Complex Flow Patterns in Angiotensin II-Induced Dissecting Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms with High Frequency Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Hilary D.; Yrineo, Alexa A.; Bogucki, Amy E; Goergen, Craig J.

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is a common cause of mortality in the United States. Current treatments are only employed once the risk of rupture outweighs the risks associated with surgery. Murine models have been developed to characterize AAA pathogenesis in the hope that new treatments will be developed. For this study, angiotensin II (AngII) was infused subcutaneously into apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice using an osmotic mini-pump over 28 days. ApoE-/- mice (16-week-old...

  16. Bacillus-produced surfactin attenuates chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ping; Jin, Dong; Zhao, Xiuyun; Gao, Zhenqiu; Wang, Shengying; Du, Peng; Qi, Gaofu

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus-produced surfactin can inhibit acute inflammation in vitro and in vivo. However, there is no report whether surfactin could inhibit chronic inflammation in the atherosclerotic lesions. Apoliprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice (fed on atherogenic diet) were intragastrically administered with surfactin for 9 doses, then the athero-protective effect of surfactin was determined in vivo. The results showed surfactin could induce anti-inflammatory factors such as IgA, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and interleukin (IL)-10 in the intestine. Further investigation discovered that surfactin also systemically induced CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs in spleen, which could inhibit T cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ. The IgG subclass pattern with high titer of IgG1 (Th2-type) but low titer of IgG2a (Th1-type) was also found in the surfactin-treated mice. As a result, the attenuation of chronic inflammation was observed in the surfactin-treated groups accompanying with less TNF-α but more IL-10 in the atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, surfactin could reduce serum total cholesterol and cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein, and increase serum cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein in mice. Collectively, surfactin could significantly attenuate atherosclerotic lesions on the aorta by restoration of the delicate balance of Th1/Th2 response in mice. PMID:27082998

  17. Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein disruption confers resistance to malarial infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Motohiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various factors impact the severity of malaria, including the nutritional status of the host. Vitamin E, an intra and extracellular anti-oxidant, is one such nutrient whose absence was shown previously to negatively affect Plasmodium development. However, mechanisms of this Plasmodium inhibition, in addition to means by which to exploit this finding as a therapeutic strategy, remain unclear. Methods α-TTP knockout mice were infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65 or Plasmodium yoelii XL-17, parasitaemia, survival rate were monitored. In one part of the experiments mice were fed with a supplemented diet of vitamin E and then infected. In addition, parasite DNA damage was monitored by means of comet assay and 8-OHdG test. Moreover, infected mice were treated with chloroquine and parasitaemia and survival rate were monitored. Results Inhibition of α-tocopherol transfer protein (α-TTP, a determinant of vitamin E concentration in circulation, confers resistance to malarial infection as a result of oxidative damage to the parasites. Furthermore, in combination with the anti-malarial drug chloroquine results were even more dramatic. Conclusion Considering that these knockout mice lack observable negative impacts typical of vitamin E deficiency, these results suggest that inhibition of α-TTP activity in the liver may be a useful strategy in the prevention and treatment of malaria infection. Moreover, a combined strategy of α-TTP inhibition and chloroquine treatment might be effective against drug resistant parasites.

  18. Mice with Dab1 or Vldlr insufficiency exhibit abnormal neonatal vocalization patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, E. R.; Burkett, Z. D.; Day, N. F.; Schwartz, B. A.; Phelps, P. E.; White, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes in components of the Reelin-signaling pathway (RELN, DAB1) are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. Social communication deficits are a key component of the ASD diagnostic criteria, but the underlying neurogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Reln insufficient mice exhibit ASD-like behavioral phenotypes including altered neonatal vocalization patterns. Reelin affects multiple pathways including through the receptors, Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (Vldlr), Apolipoprotein receptor 2 (Apoer2), and intracellular signaling molecule Disabled-1 (Dab1). As Vldlr was previously implicated in avian vocalization, here we investigate vocalizations of neonatal mice with a reduction or absence of these components of the Reelin-signaling pathway. Mice with low or no Dab1 expression exhibited reduced calling rates, altered call-type usage, and differential vocal development trajectories. Mice lacking Vldlr expression also had altered call repertoires, and this effect was exacerbated by deficiency in Apoer2. Together with previous findings, these observations 1) solidify a role for Reelin in vocal communication of multiple species, 2) point to the canonical Reelin-signaling pathway as critical for development of normal neonatal calling patterns in mice, and 3) suggest that mutants in this pathway could be used as murine models for Reelin-associated vocal deficits in humans. PMID:27184477

  19. Severe Brown Fat Lipoatrophy Aggravates Atherosclerotic Process in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Hernández, Almudena; Beneit, Nuria; Escribano, Óscar; Díaz-Castroverde, Sabela; García-Gómez, Gema; Fernández, Silvia; Benito, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases and is characterized by abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). However, brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation reduces visceral adiposity. To demonstrate that severe brown fat lipoatrophy might accelerate atherosclerotic process, we generated a new mouse model without insulin receptor (IR) in BAT and without apolipoprotein (Apo)E (BAT-specific IR knockout [BATIRKO];ApoE(-/-) mice) and assessed vascular and metabolic alterations associated to obesity. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of the adipose organ to vascular inflammation. Brown fat lipoatrophy induces visceral adiposity, mainly in gonadal depot (gonadal white adipose tissue [gWAT]), severe glucose intolerance, high postprandial glucose levels, and a severe defect in acute insulin secretion. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice showed greater hypertriglyceridemia than the obtained in ApoE(-/-) and hypercholesterolemia similar to ApoE(-/-) mice. BATIRKO;ApoE(-/-) mice, in addition to primary insulin resistance in BAT, also showed a significant decrease in insulin signaling in liver, gWAT, heart, aorta artery, and thoracic PVAT. More importantly, our results suggest that severe brown fat lipoatrophy aggravates the atherosclerotic process, characterized by a significant increase of lipid depots, atherosclerotic coverage, lesion size and complexity, increased macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory markers expression. Finally, an increase of TNF-α and leptin as well as a decrease of adiponectin by BAT, gWAT, and thoracic PVAT might also be responsible of vascular damage. Our results suggest that severe brown lipoatrophy aggravates atherosclerotic process. Thus, BAT activation might protect against obesity and its associated metabolic alterations. PMID:27414981

  20. Apolipoprotein B of low-density lipoprotein impairs nitric oxide-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yaping; Zhang, Wei; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) causes endothelial dysfunction in the initial stage of atherogenesis. The present study was designed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. Rat mesenteric arteries were organ cultured in the presence of different concentra......Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) causes endothelial dysfunction in the initial stage of atherogenesis. The present study was designed to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. Rat mesenteric arteries were organ cultured in the presence of different...... concentrations of ApoB or LDL. Vasodilation induced by acetylcholine was monitored by a sensitive myograph. Nitric oxide (NO), endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and prostacyclin (PGI2) pathways were characterized by using specific pathway inhibitors. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry with......-dependently attenuated the endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Immunohistochemistry staining of endothelial cell marker CD31 was weaker in the presence of LDL, indicating that LDL induced damage to the endothelium. Using the pathway specific inhibitors demonstrated that LDL-induced impairing vasodilation was mainly due...

  1. Apolipoproteins C-I and C-III Inhibit Lipoprotein Lipase Activity by Displacement of the Enzyme from Lipid Droplets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Mikael; Vorrsjö, Evelina; Talmud, Philippa; Lookene, Aivar; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoproteins (apo) C-I and C-III are known to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, but the molecular mechanisms for this remain obscure. We present evidence that either apoC-I or apoC-III, when bound to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, prevent binding of LPL to the lipid/water interface. This results in decreased lipolytic activity of the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that hydrophobic amino acid residues centrally located in the apoC-III molecule are critical for attachment to lipid emulsion particles and consequently inhibition of LPL activity. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins stabilize LPL and protect the enzyme from inactivating factors such as angiopoietin-like protein 4 (angptl4). The addition of either apoC-I or apoC-III to triglyceride-rich particles severely diminished their protective effect on LPL and rendered the enzyme more susceptible to inactivation by angptl4. These observations were seen using chylomicrons as well as the synthetic lipid emulsion Intralipid. In the presence of the LPL activator protein apoC-II, more of apoC-I or apoC-III was needed for displacement of LPL from the lipid/water interface. In conclusion, we show that apoC-I and apoC-III inhibit lipolysis by displacing LPL from lipid emulsion particles. We also propose a role for these apolipoproteins in the irreversible inactivation of LPL by factors such as angptl4. PMID:24121499

  2. Apolipoproteins C-I and C-III inhibit lipoprotein lipase activity by displacement of the enzyme from lipid droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Mikael; Vorrsjö, Evelina; Talmud, Philippa; Lookene, Aivar; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2013-11-22

    Apolipoproteins (apo) C-I and C-III are known to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, but the molecular mechanisms for this remain obscure. We present evidence that either apoC-I or apoC-III, when bound to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, prevent binding of LPL to the lipid/water interface. This results in decreased lipolytic activity of the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that hydrophobic amino acid residues centrally located in the apoC-III molecule are critical for attachment to lipid emulsion particles and consequently inhibition of LPL activity. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins stabilize LPL and protect the enzyme from inactivating factors such as angiopoietin-like protein 4 (angptl4). The addition of either apoC-I or apoC-III to triglyceride-rich particles severely diminished their protective effect on LPL and rendered the enzyme more susceptible to inactivation by angptl4. These observations were seen using chylomicrons as well as the synthetic lipid emulsion Intralipid. In the presence of the LPL activator protein apoC-II, more of apoC-I or apoC-III was needed for displacement of LPL from the lipid/water interface. In conclusion, we show that apoC-I and apoC-III inhibit lipolysis by displacing LPL from lipid emulsion particles. We also propose a role for these apolipoproteins in the irreversible inactivation of LPL by factors such as angptl4. PMID:24121499

  3. Reduction of Risk Factor Coagulation Oxidative Apolipoprotein and Development of Atherosclerosis by Apple Cider Vinegar in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbubeh Setorki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apple cider vinegar is an antioxidant compound and it has many medical uses. In this research we have investigated effects of apple cider vinegar on some risk factors of atherosclerosis and on the development of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbit. Methods: Thirty two male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet group high cholesterol diet group (%1cholesterol %1 cholesterol with 5ml apple cider vinegar group and %1 cholesterol with 10ml apple cider vinegar group .The malondialdehyde (MDA oxidized-LDL (oxLDL fibrinogen factor VII apolipoprotein A (ApoA and apolipoprotein B (ApoB were measured before the experiment and at the end period (2month. At the end of study using Chekanov method fatty streak formation in aorta artery was determined in all groups. Results: Using both doses of apple cider vinegar significantly decreased fibrinogen oxLDL MDA ApoB ApoB/ApoA VIIlevels in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet (P0.05. Also consumption of apple cider vinegar induced significant decrease in atherosclerotic lesions in aorta artery compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet. Conclusion: This study suggests that apple cider vinegar (as an antioxidant might have some protective effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis.

  4. Biophysical analysis of apolipoprotein E3 variants linked with development of type III hyperlipoproteinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Georgiadou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (apoE is a major protein of the lipoprotein transport system that plays important roles in lipid homeostasis and protection from atherosclerosis. ApoE is characterized by structural plasticity and thermodynamic instability and can undergo significant structural rearrangements as part of its biological function. Mutations in the 136-150 region of the N-terminal domain of apoE, reduce its low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor binding capacity and have been linked with lipoprotein disorders, such as type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP in humans. However, the LDL-receptor binding defects for these apoE variants do not correlate well with the severity of dyslipidemia, indicating that these variants may carry additional properties that contribute to their pathogenic potential. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we examined whether three type III HLP predisposing apoE3 variants, namely R136S, R145C and K146E affect the biophysical properties of the protein. Circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy revealed that these mutations do not significantly alter the secondary structure of the protein. Thermal and chemical unfolding analysis revealed small thermodynamic alterations in each variant compared to wild-type apoE3, as well as effects in the reversibility of the unfolding transition. All variants were able to remodel multillamelar 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC vesicles, but R136S and R145C had reduced kinetics. Dynamic light scattering analysis indicated that the variant R136S exists in a higher-order oligomerization state in solution. Finally, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS binding suggested that the variant R145C exposes a larger amount of hydrophobic surface to the solvent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, our findings suggest that single amino acid changes in the functionally important region 136-150 of apoE3 can affect the molecule's stability and conformation in solution and may

  5. Apolipoprotein B synthesis in rat small intestine: regulation by dietary triglyceride and biliary lipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apolipoprotein B (apoB) synthesis rates have been determined, in vivo, in rat enterocytes. Following intralumenal administration of a pulse of [3H]leucine, newly synthesized apoB was quantitated by specific immunoprecipitation and compared to [3H]leucine incorporation into total, trichloroacetic acid-insoluble protein. ApoB synthesis rates were determined after acute administration of either 0.1 or 1 g of triglyceride to fasting animals. No differences were found at any time from 90 min to 6 hr after challenge and values were not different from the basal values established in fasted controls. Animals rechallenged with triglyceride after 8 days' intake of fat-free chow also failed to demonstrate a change in intestinal apoB synthesis rate. By contrast, enterocyte content of apoB appeared to fall, temporarily, with the onset of active triglyceride flux. Groups of animals were then subjected to external bile diversion for 48 hr, a maneuver designed to remove all lumenal sources of lipid. Jejunal apoB synthesis rates fell by 43% (from 0.76% +/- 0.14 to 0.43% +/- 0.12, P less than 0.001), a change that was completely prevented by continuous replacement with 10 mM Na taurocholate. The suppression of jejunal apoB synthesis, induced by prolonged bile diversion, was reversed after 14 hr, but not 8 hr, of intralumenal perfusion with 10 mM Na taurocholate. The addition of micellar fatty acid-monoolein to the perfusate for 4 hr produced no further change in apoB synthesis. Ileal apoB synthesis rates fell by 70% (from 0.61% +/- 0.15 to 0.18% +/- 0.10, P less than 0.001) following 48 hr external bile diversion, a change that was only partially prevented by continuous bile salt replacement. These results suggest that jejunal apoB synthesis demonstrates bile salt dependence but not regulation by acute triglyceride flux

  6. Sex differences in apolipoprotein A1 and nevirapine-induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marinho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nevirapine (NVP is associated with severe liver and skin toxicity through sulfotransferase (SULT bioactivation of the phase I metabolite 12-hydroxy-NVP [1–3]. The female sex, a well-known risk factor for NVP-induced toxicity, is associated with higher SULT expression (4 and lower plasma levels of 12-hydroxy-NVP [3]. Interestingly, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1 increases SULT2B1 activity and ApoA1 synthesis is increased by NVP [5, 6]. Herein, we explore the effect of ApoA1 levels on NVP metabolism and liver function. The study protocol was firstly approved by the hospitals’ Ethics Committees. All included individuals were HIV-infected patients treated with NVP for at least one month. The plasma concentrations of NVP and its phase I metabolites were quantified by HPLC [7]. ApoA1 levels were assessed by an immunoturbidimetric assay. Forty-nine HIV-infected patients on NVP were included (53% men, 59% Caucasian. NVP plasma levels were correlated with HDL-cholesterol (Spearman r=0.2631; p=0.0441 and ApoA1 (Spearman r=0.3907; p=0.0115. Women had higher ApoA1 levels than men (Student's t Test; p=0.0051. In both sexes, 12-hydroxy-NVP levels were negatively correlated with ApoA1 (male: Spearman r=−0.3810; p=0.0499 female: Spearman r=−0.5944; p=0.0415. In men, ApoA1 was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase (AST, Spearman r=0.5507; p=0.0413, while in women ApoA1 was associated (Spearman r=0.6408; p=0.0056 with alanine aminotransferase (ALT. These results show sex differences in NVP-induced ApoA1 synthesis. The higher ApoA1 levels in women might stabilize SULT2B1 [6]. This would explain the lower levels of 12-hydroxy-NVP [3] and the higher hepatotoxicity found in women, due to increased sulfonation of this metabolite. These data support a role for ApoA1 in the sex dimorphic mechanism leading to NVP-induced toxicity.

  7. Plasma level and genetic variation of apolipoprotein E in patients with lipoprotein glomerulopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; LIU Zhi-hong; ZENG Cai-hong; ZHENG Jing-min; CHEN Hui-ping; ZHOU Hong; LI Lei-shi

    2005-01-01

    Background Lipoprotein glomerulopathy (LPG) is a renal disease characterized by thrombus-like lipoproteins in the glomerular capillaries and its abnormal lipoprotein profiles with marked elevation of apolipoprotein E (apoE). In this study, 15 Chinese patients with LPG were involed in exploring the association of the genetic variation and its plasma level in the pathogenesis of LPG.Methods A retrospective analysis of the clinical and pathological features was made in 15 patients with LPG. Plasma concentrations of apoE were measured with radial immunodiffusion assay. Genetic variations of apoE gene were detected using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Glomerular deposition of apoA, apoB and apoE in these patients were detected by immunofluorescence staining using monoclonal antibodies. Results Biochemical profiles of lipids and lipoproteins revealed markedly elevated levels of triglyceride, apoB and apoE, but approximately normal levels of total cholesterol, apoA1 and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], which resembled familial hypertriglyceridemia. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the genotype distribution of apoE were 7 cases with ε3/ε 4, 4 cases with ε3/ε 3 and 2 cases with ε2/ε 3. The other 2 cases (a mother and her son) showed a same distinct band. The band pattern of later 2 cases was quite similar to the apoE variant of Tokyo type. The calculated allele frequency of ε 4 was relatively high in cases with LPG in comparison with that in the normal controls. We further divided the 13 patients into three groups according to their genotypes of apoE. Patients with the genotype of apoE ε2/ε3 showed a lower level of plasma apoE as compared to those with apoE ε3/ε4 (P<0.05). The serum level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was the lowest in patients with the genotype of apoE ε3/ε4. No difference was found among the patients with different apoE genotype in the other clinical and pathological characteristics. Conclusions The

  8. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzaz J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Setting and Design: Samples were obtained from subjects who participated in a study based on the WHO-designed MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease study for coronary artery disease risk assessment in Zone 17 of Tehran. The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in this study. Materials and Methods: Subjects (n=320 were recruited. The level of triglyceride (TG and total serum cholesterol was tested for all subjects in this study. Genotyping for APOE was carried using polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLPtechnique. Statistical Analysis: Levels of significance were determined using contingency tables by either Chi-square or Fisher exact analysis using the STATA (v8 software. The analysis of regression and significance of differences for level of cholesterol and TG was established by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS software Version 11.5. Results: The frequency of allele E2 was significantly higher in patients with total serum cholesterol level <200 mg/dl (P 0.01 OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2. Conclusion: The association found in this study between allele E2 and lower total cholesterol level had been reported in previous studies. We have also observed that the frequency of genotype E2/E3 and E2/E4 was significantly higher in patients with normal total serum cholesterol level compared to patients with

  9. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphisms are associated with primary hyperuricemia in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperuricemia, an excess of uric acid in the blood, is a major public health problem. In addition to the morbidity that is attributable to gout, hyperuricemia is also associated with metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. This study aims to assess the genetic associations between Apolipoprotein E (APOE polymorphisms and hyperuricemia in a Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 770 subjects (356 hyperuricemic cases and 414 normouricemic controls were recruited from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. A physical examination was performed and fasting blood was collected for biochemical tests, including determination of the levels of serum lipid, creatinine, and uric acid. Multi-ARMS PCR was applied to determine the APOE genotypes, followed by an investigation of the distribution of APOE genotypes and alleles frequencies in the controls and cases. RESULTS: The frequencies of the APOE-ε2ε3 genotype (17.70% vs. 10.39%, P = 0.003 and the APOE-ε2 allele (10.53% vs. 5.80%, P = 0.001 were significantly higher in the hyperuricemic group than in the normouricemic group. Furthermore, male cases were more likely to have the APOE-ε2ε3 genotype and APOE-ε2 allele, compared with male controls. In both Han and Hui subjects, cases were more likely to have the APOE-ε2ε3 genotype and the APOE-ε2 allele compared with controls. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression showed that carriers of the APOE-ε2ε3 genotype (P = 0.001, OR = 2.194 and the ε2 allele (P = 0.001, OR = 2.099 were significantly more likely to experience hyperuricemia than carriers of the ε3/ε3 genotype and the ε3 allele after adjustment for sex, body mass index (BMI, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, creatinine (Cr and fasting blood glucose (FBG. CONCLUSIONS: The APOE-ε2ε3 genotype and the APOE-ε2 allele are associated with serum uric acid levels

  10. Mechanisms of cinnamon extract-induced suppression of the intestinal overproduction of apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins in insulin resistant high-fructose fed animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have reported previously that cinnamon extract (CE) prevents high-fructose (HF) feeding-induced whole-body insulin resistance by enhancing insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated whether intestinal apolipoprotein overproduction is inhibited by CE in this insulin-resis...

  11. Characterization of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Familial Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency With Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis, Corneal Arcus and Opacification, and Tubo-Eruptive and Planar Xanthomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe two male siblings with homozygous familial apolipoprotein (apo) A-I deficiency, markedly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, undetectable plasma apoA-1, tubo-eruptive and planar xanthomas, and mild corneal arcus and opacification. Sequencing of the apoA-I gene re...

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIVER FAT CONTENT AND THE RATE OF VLDL APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 SYNTHESIS IN CHILDREN WITH PROTEIN-ENERGY MALNUTRITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty infiltration of the liver is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality in children with severe protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Although impaired synthesis of VLDL apolipoprotein B-100 (VLDL-apo B-100) is generally accepted as the pathogenetic...

  13. The Influence of the Epsilon4 Allele of the Apolipoprotein E Gene on Childhood IQ, Nonverbal Reasoning in Old Age, and Lifetime Cognitive Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; St. Clair, David; Breen, Gerome; Leaper, Steve; Lemmon, Helen; Hayward, Caroline; Starr, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the influence of apolipoprotein E gene states on three cognitive outcomes in 173 people at age 11 and in the same people at age 77 and examined the change in IQ between these ages. There was no significant main effect of gene status on IQ in youth or old age, nor in cognitive change across the lifespan. (SLD)

  14. Expression of apolipoprotein B in the kidney attenuates renal lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzystanek, Marcin; Pedersen, Tanja Xenia; Bartels, Emil Daniel;

    2010-01-01

    tubular epithelium. Mouse kidney expressed both the apoB and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein genes, which permit lipoprotein formation. To examine de novo lipoprotein secretion, kidneys from human apoB-transgenic mice were minced and placed in medium with (35)S-amino acids. Upon sucrose gradient...

  15. Leishmaniasis in beige mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, C E; Farrell, J P

    1982-01-01

    The courses of two protozoal diseases, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, were examined in three groups of C57BL/6J mice. One group of mice was homozygous recessive for the beige gene (bg/bg). Beige mice are the genetic homologue of the human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome and, among other defects, are profoundly deficient in natural killer cell activity. Wild-type (+/+) mice, which respond to experimental cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis by eventually eliminating their parasites, and heteroz...

  16. The MICE luminosity monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, A.; Forrest, D; F.J.P. Soler

    2013-01-01

    The MICE experiment will provide the first measurement of ionisation cooling, a technique suitable for reducing the transverse emittance of a tertiary muon beam in a future neutrino factory accelerator facility. MICE is presently in the final stages of commissioning its beam line. The MICE luminosity monitor has proved an invaluable tool throughout this process, providing independent measurements of particle rate from the MICE target, normalisation for beam line detectors and verification of ...

  17. Apolipoprotein E knockout as the basis for mouse models of dyslipidemia-induced neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinder, Lucy M; Vincent, Andrea M; Hayes, John M; McLean, Lisa L; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia has been identified as an important pathogenic risk factor for diabetic neuropathy, but current animal models do not adequately reproduce the lipid profile observed in human diabetics (increased triglycerides with an elevated LDL-cholesterol and reduced HDL-cholesterol). High fat feeding of mice produces hyperlipidemia, but mice are resistant to increases in the LDL to HDL ratio, reducing the potential for peripheral lipid deposits to impact neuropathy, as is postulated to occur in human subjects. Genetic manipulations provide an alternative approach to reproducing a neuropathic plasma lipid profile. Based on findings from the atherosclerosis literature, we began with knockout of ApoE. Since knockout of ApoE alone only partially mimics the human diabetic lipid profile, we examined the impact of its combination with a well-characterized model of type 2 diabetes exhibiting neuropathy, the db/db mouse. We added further gene manipulations to increase hyperlipidemia by using mice with both ApoE and ApoB48 knockout on the ob/+ (leptin mutation) mice. In all of these models, we found that either the db/db or ob/ob genotypes had increased body weight, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and evidence of neuropathy compared with the control groups (db/+ or ob/+, respectively). We found that ApoE knockout combined with leptin receptor knockout produced a lipid profile most closely modeling human dyslipidemia that promotes neuropathy. ApoE knockout combined with additional ApoB48 and leptin knockout produced similar changes of smaller magnitude, but, notably, an increase in HDL-cholesterol. Our data suggest that the overall effects of ApoE knockout, either directly upon nerve structure and function or indirectly on lipid metabolism, are insufficient to significantly alter the course of diabetic neuropathy. Although these models ultimately do not deliver optimal lipid profiles for translational diabetic neuropathy research, they do present glycemic and lipid profile

  18. Apolipoprotein M affecting lipid metabolism or just catching a ride with lipoproteins in the circulation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlbäck, B; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    link to cholesterol metabolism. However, in casecontrol studies, apoM levels in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and controls were similar, suggesting apoM levels not to affect the risk for CHD in humans. Experiments in transgenic mice suggested apoM to have antiatherogenic properties......; possible mechanisms include increased formation of pre-ss HDL, enhanced cholesterol mobilization from foam cells, and increased antioxidant properties....

  19. Disruption of estrogen receptor beta in mice brain results in pathological alterations resembling Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-hong ZHANG; Yan-hong HUANG; Yu-zhen HU; Geng-ze WEI; Xue-feng HAN; Shun-yan LU; Yu-feng ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the pathological characteristics of the mice with estrogen receptor β (ERβ) disruption in brain.METHODS: Immunohistochemistry method was applied in the study. RESULTS: β-Amyloid peptide(Aβ42) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) immunoreactive substances were accumulated notably in cortex and limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala in brain, resembling the pathological changes of human Alzheimer disease (AD). Aβ formed cloudy-like deposits in parenchyma of brain, while apoE also deposited along or surrounding the blood vessels. CONCLUSIONS: ERβ is crucial to the development of neural degenerative disease, so modulation of Aβ metabolism via ERβ signal pathway might be beneficial for AD prevention or therapy.

  20. Apolipoprotein B-containing lipoprotein particle assembly: Lipid capacity of the nascent lipoprotein particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchekar, Medha; Forte, Trudy M.; Datta, Geeta; Richardson, Paul E.; Segrest, Jere P.; Dashti, Nassrin

    2003-12-01

    We previously proposed that the N-terminal 1000 residue {beta}{alpha}{sub 1} domain of apolipoprotein B (apoB) forms a bulk lipid pocket homologous to that of lamprey lipovitellin (LV). In support of this ''lipid pocket'' hypothesis, apoB:1000 (residues 1-1000) was shown to be secreted by a stable transformant of McA-RH7777 cells as a monodisperse particle with HDL{sub 3} density and Stokes diameter of 112 {angstrom}. In contrast, apoB:931 (residues 1-931), missing only 69 residues of the sequence homologous to LV, was secreted as a particle considerably more dense than HDL with Stokes diameter of 110 {angstrom}. The purpose of the present study was to determine the stoichiometry of the lipid component of the apoB:931 and apoB:1000 particles. This was accomplished by metabolic labeling of cells with either [{sup 14}C]oleic acid or [{sup 3}H]glycerol followed by immunoprecipitation (IP) or nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (NDGGE) of secreted lipoproteins and by immunoaffinity chromatography of secreted unlabeled lipoproteins. The [{sup 3}H]-labeled apoB:1000-containing particles, isolated by NDGGE, contained 50 phospholipids (PL) and 11 triacylglycerols (TAG) molecules per particle. In contrast, apoB:931-containing particles contained only a few molecules of PL and were devoid of TAG. The unlabeled apoB:1000-containing particles isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography and analyzed for lipid mass, contained 56 PL, 8 TAG, and 7 cholesteryl ester molecules per particle. The surface:core lipid ratio of apoB:1000-containing particles was approximately 4:1 and was not affected by incubation of cells with oleate. Although small amounts of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) were associated with apoB:1000-containing particles, it never approached a 1:1 molar ratio of MTP to apoB. These results support a model in which: (1) the first 1000 amino acid residues of apoB are competent to complete the ''lipid pocket