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Sample records for apocrine glands

  1. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog.

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    Atoji, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Suzuki, Y

    1998-11-01

    Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog are not connected morphologically with the lobules of the circumanal glands. However, an apparent functional association has been demonstrated and it is possible that the apocrine sweat glands might serve as excretory ducts for degenerated polyhedral cells of the circumanal glands. In this study, we examined the ultrastructure of the apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog in an effort to define more precisely the relationship between the apocrine sweat glands and the circumanal glands. Paraffin sections stained with azan and sections after immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against actin were examined by light microscopy. Samples fixed by aldehyde perfusion were examined with the electron microscope. Diameters of apocrine sweat glands and height of cells in the secretory epithelium varied considerably. Immunohistochemical staining for actin was weakly positive in the supranuclear regions of secretory cells and very intense in myoepithelial cells. In secretory cells, the endoplasmic reticulum was well-developed. Multivesicular bodies were abundant and were discharged into lumens. Apocrine secretion and exocytosis were observed at luminal surfaces of secretory cells. There were three types of large granule in the cytoplasm: giant mitochondria without cristae; membrane-enclosed globules with or without myelin-like contents; and electron-dense, homogeneous, globular structures. Luminal surfaces were always covered with microvilli, and extensive folding of the cell membrane was found in basal regions. Bundles of actin filaments were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. In the lumens of apocrine tubules, we observed shed secretory cells with well-preserved normal fine structures. We also noted the differentiation of secretory cells that was due to cell renewal. Apocrine sweat glands in the circumanal glands of the dog appear to be more active than those on the general body surface in

  2. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog.

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    Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Reza, Kheirandish; Shahriar, Dabiri; Omid, Azari; Daruoosh, Vosoogh; Nasrin, Askari

    2012-08-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was done. Histologically, the mass was composed of epithelial cells arranged in glandular and solid patterns. The morphologic findings suggested either a primary or metastatic apocrine-gland carcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were intensely positive for cytokeratin 7 and 20 and negative for S100 protein. On the basis of histopathological and clinical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a malignant apocrine gland tumor, arising from apocrine sweat glands of the skin. Local tumor recurrence with anorexia and weight loss was reported by the owner nine month later. Severe submandibular and prescapular lymphadenomegaly was noted in clinical examination. Several large pulmonary nodules were noted in chest radiographs resembling mediastinal lymph node metastasis. Second surgery and chemotherapy was rejected by the owner due to grave prognosis of the patient. The animal was died 45 days later due to respiratory complications. Tumors of apocrine sweat glands are relatively uncommon in dogs whereas apocrine gland adenocarcinoma with distant metastasis is extremely rare.

  3. Apocrine gland carcinoma on the right thigh

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    Sergio Renato Pais Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cutaneous apocrine ductal carcinomaof the right thigh in a 78-year-old female. Histological examinationrevealed a solid, ductal and glandular tumor with a significantdesmoplastic reaction. The tumor cells showed high-grade cellularatypia, and occasional peritumoral inflammatory infiltration wasalso observed. There were no characteristics of extramammaryPaget´s Disease on the overlying skin. The neoplastic cells wereimmunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein, lysozyme andalpha-chymotrypsin, but negative for CEA, EMA, and HMB-45. On thebasis of these findings, the diagnosis of apocrine ductal carcinomawas confirmed. The patient then underwent wide resection of thetumor plus en-bloc radical inguinal lymphadenectomy. The localreconstruction was done by means of a tensor fascia lata flap, noadjuvant treatment was performed. To date, one year on, the patientremains healthy, there being no evidence of tumor recurrence.

  4. A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Simko, Elemir; Wilcock, Brian P.; Yager, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    Apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas (AACs) are relatively uncommon skin tumors in dogs. Little prognostic or behavioral information has been published for these tumors. In this retrospective study, 44 AACs from diagnostic archives were reexamined and clinical postexcisional follow-ups for 25 of the 44 cases were obtained by a survey. There were 28 out of 44 (65.9%) AACs that invaded the capsule, stroma, or both, 5 of 44 (11.4%) invaded blood vessels and stroma, and 1 out of 25 (4%) had dista...

  5. Metastatic apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinoma in a terrier dog

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtardanesh Baharak; Kheirandish Reza; Dabiri Shahriar; Azari Omid; Vosoogh Daruoosh; Askari Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the clinical and pathological aspects of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with distant metastasis in an aged dog. A 7-year-old male terrier dog was referred to small animal hospital of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with a 5.5×3.5 centimeter pedunculated mass on its head near left auricular region which had been progressively growing since three months ago. The radiography showed no local and distant metastasis. Surgical excision and histological evaluation was don...

  6. Tubulopapillary Cystic Adenoma With Apocrine Differentiation: A Unifying Concept for Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum, Apocrine Gland Cyst, and Tubular Papillary Adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Shin-Ichi; Anan, Takashi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2017-11-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP), apocrine gland cyst (AGC, also called apocrine hidrocystoma or apocrine cystadenoma), and tubular papillary adenoma (TPA) with apocrine differentiation are defined as proliferations of apocrine epithelium with myoepithelial cells. At Sapporo Dermatopathology Institute, we retrieved 308 benign neoplastic lesions diagnosed as SCAP, AGC, or TPA and combinations of these entities. Among the 308 lesions, 202 (66%) exhibited features of only one type, of which 144 (47%) were AGC, 39 (13%) were TPA, and 19 (6%) were SCAP. The other 106 lesions (34%) had features of 2 or more types, including 56 lesions that were AGC + TPA (18%), 2 that were AGC + SCAP (1%), 34 that were TPA + SCAP (11%), and 14 that were AGC + TPA + SCAP (5%). The most frequent site of these lesions was the face (56%), followed by the scalp (13%). Lesions with the features of AGC were more frequently found on the face, especially the periocular region, than at other sites. TPA lesions were more frequent on the face and scalp than at other sites, whereas SCAP lesions were preferentially found on the face, scalp, and trunk. We also retrieved clinicopathological data and other information. We propose a unifying concept for AGC, TPA, and SCAP. Approximately one-third of these lesions are composite entities with the features of 2 or 3 different tumors, and we propose calling such tumors tubulopapillary cystic adenoma with apocrine differentiation.

  7. Immunocytochemical demonstration of intermediate filament proteins, S-100 protein and CEA in apocrine sweat glands and apocrine gland derived lesions of the dog.

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    Ferrer, L; Rabanal, R M; Fondevila, D; Prats, N

    1990-09-01

    The presence of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), intermediate filament proteins and S-100 protein in normal and pathological canine apocrine sweat glands was investigated, using a standard immunoperoxidase technique. The normal apocrine sweat glands showed a constant immunoreactivity in all the cases studied. The cells of the acini and of the ducts only reacted with the antikeratin antibody. The myoepithelial cells reacted positively with the antisera antikeratin and anti protein S-100. Epithelial cells of apocrine cysts, sweat gland adenomas and sweat gland carcinomas showed the same immunoreaction than normal apocrine cells. Proliferating myoepithelial cells were also positive for vimentin. In two out of three adenocarcinomas a positive reaction with the anti CEA could be detected in the glandular cells. This can be due to the presence in glandular cells of CEA or of Nonspecific Crossreacting Antigen (NCA). These findings indicate that demonstration of keratin is a useful aid in the detection of apocrine gland derived lesions in the dog. Similarly, S-100 protein is a marker for myoepithelial cells. Further research is necessary to investigate the expression of CEA in canine tumours.

  8. A retrospective study of 44 canine apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, Elemir; Wilcock, Brian P; Yager, Julie A

    2003-01-01

    Apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas (AACs) are relatively uncommon skin tumors in dogs. Little prognostic or behavioral information has been published for these tumors. In this retrospective study, 44 AACs from diagnostic archives were reexamined and clinical postexcisional follow-ups for 25 of the 44 cases were obtained by a survey. There were 28 out of 44 (65.9%) AACs that invaded the capsule, stroma, or both, 5 of 44 (11.4%) invaded blood vessels and stroma, and 1 out of 25 (4%) had distant metastases. The presence or absence of stromal and vascular invasion was predicted by clinical examination with more than 80% accuracy. Postexcisional median survival of dogs with AACs was 30 mo at the time of survey. Determination of a correlation between histological features and malignant behavior of AACs was compromised by the low number of cases with clinical AAC-related problems; however, it appears that intravascular invasion is an important indicator of potential systemic metastases.

  9. Unusual anogenital apocrine tumor resembling mammary-like gland adenoma in male perineum: a case report

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    Yoshioka Takako

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A rare case of an apocrine tumor in the male perineal region is reported. A dermal cystic lesion developed in the region between the anus and scrotum of a 74-year-old Japanese male. The cystic lesion, measuring 3.5 × 5.0 cm in size, was lined by columnar or flattened epithelium with occasional apocrine features and supported by a basal myoepithelium lining. A mural nodule, measuring 1 × 1.5 cm in size, protruded into the cystic space and consisted of a solid proliferation of tubular glands with prominent apocrine secretion and basal myoepithelial cells. Immunohistochemical examination showed that the luminal cells were partially positive for gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 and human milk fat globulin 1, and the basal myoepithelial cells were positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. Estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors were focally and weakly positive for luminal epithelium. Although no mammary-like glands were present in the dermis around the tumor, this unusual apocrine tumor has been suggested to be derived from male anogenital mammary-like glands and mimic a mammary-like gland adenoma in the male perineum.

  10. Polarizable crystals in apocrine sweat gland tumors: A series of 3 cases.

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    Johnson, Gina; Gardner, Jerad M; Shalin, Sara C

    2017-08-01

    Polarizable calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals have been well documented in breast biopsies, generally associated with benign apocrine metaplasia. In contrast, polarizable crystals are only rarely reported in skin adnexal neoplasms. We report 3 different cases of sweat gland tumors with polarizable crystals morphologically suggestive of CaOx: 1 apocrine hidrocystoma and 2 tubular apocrine adenomas. The histologic features were examined in 3 cases. Clinical presentation summary included 2 males and 1 female, ages 53 to 74 years, with lesions located on the left cheek, inferior vertex scalp and the left eyebrow. All 3 cases showed polarizable, geometric, plate-like and fractured, colorless crystals within the lumens of the neoplasm. Of note, these crystals were seen only on the toluidine blue-stained section of Case #1, but were not present on the corresponding permanent section. We hypothesize that polarizable crystals may be present in sweat gland neoplasms more often than previously documented, but that they may often dissolve with routine processing, accounting for their rare visibility. We highlight this rare finding, and suggest that it may be underreported. We only noted this finding in benign apocrine tumors; further investigation would be necessary to determine whether these crystals are also seen in other cutaneous adnexal neoplasms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Epidemiological and histopathological analysis of 40 apocrine sweat gland carcinomas in dogs: a retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Kycko Anna; Jasik Agnieszka; Bocian Łukasz; Otrocka-Domagała Iwona; Mikiewicz Mateusz; Śmiech Anna; Łopuszyński Wojciech; Dolka Izabella; Nowak Marcin; Madej Janusz A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs) are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

  12. Epidemiological and histopathological analysis of 40 apocrine sweat gland carcinomas in dogs: a retrospective study

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    Kycko Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (ASGCs are malignant neoplasms of dogs and other animals, rarely reported worldwide. The aim of this study was to summarise the occurrence of this cancer in a population of dogs in Poland between 2009 and 2014 with regards to histological features and body location of the tumours, as well as age, sex and breed of the cancer-affected dogs.

  13. Carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs: 113 cases (1985-1995).

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    Williams, Laurel E; Gliatto, John M; Dodge, Richard K; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Gamblin, Rance M; Thamm, Douglas H; Lana, Susan E; Szymkowski, Mary; Moore, Antony S

    2003-09-15

    To characterize the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs. Retrospective study. 113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac. Data on signalment, clinical signs, and staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment modality for potential association with survival time. Sex distribution was approximately equal (54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment. Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range, 0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212 days) than those receiving other treatments (median, 584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those that underwent surgery as part of their treatment (median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors > or = 10 cm2 had significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than dogs with tumors dogs, and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median, 256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic (median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median, 219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary metastasis (median, 548 days). Unlike most previous reports, this study revealed an approximately equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more favorable prognosis.

  14. A case of canine apocrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell variant.

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    Nibe, K; Uchida, K; Itoh, T; Tateyama, S

    2005-03-01

    A cutaneous mass at the base of the retroauricular region of a 4-year-old, female Golden Retriever was examined pathologically. Histologically, the mass formed multiple nodules consisting of a proliferation of large clear cells with abundant cytoplasm. Mitotic figures among the neoplastic cells were very sparse. The large clear cells were intensely positive for cytokeratins (AE1/AE4, cytokeratin 8 and 18) and moderately positive for lysozyme and contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, small flat cells lined the islands of neoplastic large clear cells, and these were strongly positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, and some were positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE4), suggesting they were myoepithelial cells. No local recurrence or metastasis has been recognized during the 18 months since surgical excision. On the basis of these findings, the present tumor was diagnosed as apocrine sweat gland adenoma, clear cell variant. There have been few previous reports of canine apocrine adenomas showing a clear cell morphology.

  15. Clinical and Molecular Evidence of ABCC11 Protein Expression in Axillary Apocrine Glands of Patients with Axillary Osmidrosis

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    Yu Toyoda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the risk of axillary osmidrosis is governed by a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP 538G>A in human ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11 gene. However, little data are available for the expression of ABCC11 protein in human axillary apocrine glands that produce apocrine sweat—a source of odor from the armpits. To determine the effect of the non-synonymous SNP ABCC11 538G>A (G180R on the ABCC11 in vivo, we generated transiently ABCC11-expressing transgenic mice with adenovirus vector, and examined the protein levels of each ABCC11 in the mice with immunoblotting using an anti-ABCC11 antibody we have generated in the present study. Furthermore, we examined the expression of ABCC11 protein in human axillary apocrine glands extracted from axillary osmidrosis patients carrying each ABCC11 genotype: 538GG, GA, and AA. Analyses of transiently ABCC11-expressing transgenic mice showed that ABCC11 538G>A diminishes the ABCC11 protein levels in vivo. Consistently, ABCC11 protein was detected in the human axillary apocrine glands of the 538GG homozygote or 538GA heterozygote, not in the 538AA homozygote. These findings would contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of axillary osmidrosis.

  16. Apocrine Sweat Gland Ductal Adenoma with Sebaceous Differentiation in a Dog

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    Masaki Michishita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male, Border Collie, developed a firm mass, measuring approximately 1 cm in diameter, in the left buccal skin. Histologically, the mass was composed of ductal structures lined by bilayered luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells along with a few nests of sebaceous cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the luminal epithelial tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK, CAM5.2 and CK19 but not for CK14 or p63. In contrast, the basaloid tumor cells were positive for CK14, p63, and αSMA but not for CK19 or CAM5.2. CK8 expression was observed in both luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells. The tumor cells with sebaceous differentiation were positive for CK14 but not for the other markers. This is the first case of an apocrine sweat gland ductal adenoma with sebaceous differentiation occurring in the buccal skin of a dog.

  17. Neoplasms of the apocrine sweat glands in 44 dogs and 10 cats.

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    Kalaher, K M; Anderson, W I; Scott, D W

    1990-10-20

    Neoplasms of the apocrine sweat glands accounted for 2.0 per cent and 3.6 per cent, respectively, of all canine and feline skin neoplasms diagnosed during a period of three years. They occurred in dogs from six to 17 years of age of both sexes, and golden retrievers appeared to be predisposed; they occurred in cats from six to 17 years of age and there were no breed or sex predilections. In both species, the neoplasms were usually solitary and occurred anywhere on the body; they were nearly always carcinomas and histologically were usually of the solid type. There were no clinical measurements that made it possible to distinguish reliably between benign and malignant lesions. No distant metastases were recorded, even though 22.5 per cent of the canine carcinomas had invaded the lymphatic system.

  18. Apocrine adenomyoepithelioma--a rare but distinctive primary sweat gland neoplasm.

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    Sabater Marco, Vicente

    2012-07-01

    Adenomyoepithelioma is a rare, microscopically distinctive tumor of the skin. This article explores an example that presented in the inguinal area in a 29-year-old woman, mimicking adenopathy. Histopathologically, the tumor included two different areas: a cystic area consisting of tubules and glands in hyalinized stroma and a solid area showing marked myoepithelial proliferation. The diagnosis of adenomyoepithelioma was confirmed by the presence of a biphasic immunoprofile, with expression of cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen in the glandular epithelium and with expression of vimentin and smooth muscle actin in the myoepithelial cells. An interesting novel finding was the expression of claudin-10 by myoepithelial cells, which to date has not been reported in the literature. The absence of metaplastic changes in the tumor stroma is crucial in the differential diagnosis with apocrine mixed tumor. Given that soft tissue adenomyoepithelioma is a benign tumor believed to originate from conventional sweat glands, its classification as a cutaneous myoepithelial neoplasm seems reasonable. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Cutaneous invasive micropapillary carcinoma of probable apocrine sweat gland origin in a cat.

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    Machida, Yukino; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Nakahira, Rei; Michishita, Masaki; Ohkusu-Tsukada, Kozo; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2011-07-01

    An invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMC) occurred in the buccal skin of an 18-year-old female cat. Histologically, the tumor had a honeycomb pattern characterized by clusters of neoplastic epithelial cells that were surrounded by empty clear spaces and lined with fibrocollagenous stroma. On immunohistochemistry, the neoplastic cells were positive for cytokeratin (clone CAM5.2; pancytokeratin, clone AE1/AE3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) but negative for cytokeratin 14, vimentin, S100, smooth muscle actin, and p63. The CEA-positive staining reaction was present along the outermost rim of the neoplastic cell clusters consistent with an "inside-out" immunoreactivity pattern. Examination of the tumor cells by electron microscopy revealed microvilli on the outermost rim of neoplastic cells that were directed toward the surrounding vacant space. Based on histomorphological characteristics, the neoplasm was defined as an IMC of "pure-type." The location site and immunohistochemical features suggest the tumor was most likely derived from the apocrine sweat glands in the buccal skin.

  20. Apocrine sweat gland carcinoma: initial evaluation, staging, and response monitoring using 18F-FDG PET/CT.

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    Singh, Harmandeep; Sharma, Punit; Suman Kc, Sudhir; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Malhotra, Arun; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-05-01

    Primary apocrine sweat gland carcinomas (PASGCs) are rare tumors, commonly located in the axilla. Metastases are common and confer poor prognosis. Given the rarity of these tumors, there is limited knowledge regarding its diagnosis and management. Here we show 18F-FDG PET/CT images of a 61-year-old man with PASGCs of the left axilla. PET/CT confirmed the diagnosis as primary axillary malignancy with nodal, pulmonary, and skeletal metastases. Another interesting finding in this case was the presence of FDG-avid calcified metastatic lymph nodes during the initial evaluation. Follow-up PET/CT showed progression of the disease. FDG PET/CT seems to be a promising tool in the management of PASGCs.

  1. Evaluation of adjuvant carboplatin chemotherapy in the management of surgically excised anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma in dogs.

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    Wouda, R M; Borrego, J; Keuler, N S; Stein, T

    2016-03-01

    There is no widely accepted standard of care for canine anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma (ASAGAC). Surgery alone is inadequate in many cases, but the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy is not well established. The primary objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the role of carboplatin chemotherapy in the post-operative management of ASAGAC. Seventy-four dogs with naturally occurring ASAGAC underwent surgery. Forty-four dogs received adjuvant carboplatin and 30 did not. Median overall survival (OS) was 703 days. Median time to progression (TTP) was 384 days. Only primary tumour size and lymph node metastasis at diagnosis significantly impacted the outcome. Differences in OS and TTP, between the dogs that received adjuvant carboplatin and those that did not, failed to reach statistical significance. Treatment of progressive disease, whilst not limited to chemotherapy, significantly prolonged the survival. This study shows that adjuvant carboplatin chemotherapy is well tolerated and may have a role in the management of dogs with ASAGAC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Atypical course of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma of the axilla : A very rare malignant tumor and its interdisciplinary treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauer, U; Lorenz, D; Sellei, R; Zoga, E; Braun, S

    2017-10-01

    We report on an atypical clinical course of a patient with the very rare diagnosis of an apocrine sweat gland carcinoma with lymphatic metastasis, a single metachronous distant metastasis and a now reached survival time of more than 4 years and give a review about the current literature. Only a very small number of cases have been described. The recommendations for diagnostics and treatment of this tumor, therefore, are not based on prospective randomized studies but upon case reports and on new immunohistochemical and genetic markers.

  3. Axillary apocrine carcinoma skin: report of a case | Issara | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and axillary MRI had objectified mass axillary measuring 171mm. Pathological examination with immunostaining was in favor of apocrine carcinoma. The cutaneous apocrine carcinomas are well-known in the mammary glands, but it is difficult to morphologically distinguish between breast cancer and apocrine carcinoma.

  4. Multipotent nestin-positive stem cells reside in the stroma of human eccrine and apocrine sweat glands and can be propagated robustly in vitro.

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    Sabine Nagel

    Full Text Available Human skin harbours multiple different stem cell populations. In contrast to the relatively well-characterized niches of epidermal and hair follicle stem cells, the localization and niches of stem cells in other human skin compartments are as yet insufficiently investigated. Previously, we had shown in a pilot study that human sweat gland stroma contains Nestin-positive stem cells. Isolated sweat gland stroma-derived stem cells (SGSCs proliferated in vitro and expressed Nestin in 80% of the cells. In this study, we were able to determine the precise localization of Nestin-positive cells in both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands of human axillary skin. We established a reproducible isolation procedure and characterized the spontaneous, long-lasting multipotent differentiation capacity of SGSCs. Thereby, a pronounced ectodermal differentiation was observed. Moreover, the secretion of prominent cytokines demonstrated the immunological potential of SGSCs. The comparison to human adult epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs revealed differences in protein expression and differentiation capacity. Furthermore, we found a coexpression of the stem cell markers Nestin and Iα6 within SGSCs and human sweat gland stroma. In conclusion the initial results of the pilot study were confirmed, indicating that human sweat glands are a new source of unique stem cells with multilineage differentiation potential, high proliferation capacity and remarkable self renewal. With regard to the easy accessibility of skin tissue biopsies, an autologous application of SGSCs in clinical therapies appears promising.

  5. Apocrine hidrocytoma in an Awassi sheep

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    Wael M. Hananeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidrocytomas are benign cystic lesions of sweat apocrine glands. It is a recognized condition in cats and dogs, but has never been reported in sheep. In this case, a 5-year-old Awassi ewe was presented for ocular evaluation. The left eye had a 1.0-cm-diameter dome shaped mass containing clear fluids and was protruded from the palpebral eyelid margin near the lateral canthus. The cyst was surgically removed and revealed apocrine hidrocytoma via histopathology. Seven months post-surgery, neither cyst recurrence nor additional masses were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of apocrine hidrocytoma in sheep.

  6. Molecular characterization of apocrine carcinoma of the breast: validation of an apocrine protein signature in a well-defined cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Cabezon, T.; Moreira, José

    2009-01-01

    Invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs), as defined by morphological features, correspond to 0.3-4% of all invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and despite the fact that they are histologically distinct from other breast lesions there are currently no standard molecular criteria available...... characterize these lesions as well as to dissect some of the steps in the processes underlying breast apocrine metaplasia and development of precancerous apocrine lesions. Establishing these apocrine-specific markers as best practice for the routine pathology evaluation of breast cancer, however, will require......1), in addition to a set of categorizing markers that are consistently expressed (AR, CD24) or not expressed (ERalpha, PgR, Bcl-2, and GATA-3) by apocrine metaplasia in benign breast lesions and apocrine sweat glands. This panel was used to analyze a well-defined cohort consisting of 14 apocrine...

  7. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp: a classification conundrum.

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    Cohen, Marc; Cassarino, David S; Shih, Hubert B; Abemayor, Elliot; St John, Maie

    2009-03-01

    The classification of malignant sweat gland lesions is complex. Traditionally, cutaneous sweat gland tumors have been classified by either eccrine or apocrine features. A case report of a 33-year-old Hispanic man with a left scalp mass diagnosed as a malignancy of adnexal origin preoperatively is discussed. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision with ipsilateral neck dissection was undertaken. Final pathology revealed an apocrine hidradenocarcinoma. The classification and behavior of this entity are discussed in this report. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma can be viewed as an aggressive malignant lesion of cutaneous sweat glands on a spectrum that involves both eccrine and apoeccrine lesions.

  8. Apocrine Hidradenocarcinoma of the Scalp: A Classification Conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Marc; Cassarino, David S.; Shih, Hubert B.; Abemayor, Elliot; John, Maie St.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The classification of malignant sweat gland lesions is complex. Traditionally, cutaneous sweat gland tumors have been classified by either eccrine or apocrine features. Methods A case report of a 33-year-old Hispanic man with a left scalp mass diagnosed as a malignancy of adnexal origin preoperatively is discussed. After presentation at our multidisciplinary tumor board, excision with ipsilateral neck dissection was undertaken. Results Final pathology revealed an apocrine hidrade...

  9. Apocrine hidrocytoma in an Awassi sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Wael M. Hananeh; Mousa Daradka; Zuhair Bani Ismail; Huthaifa S. Ababneh

    2014-01-01

    Hidrocytomas are benign cystic lesions of sweat apocrine glands. It is a recognized condition in cats and dogs, but has never been reported in sheep. In this case, a 5-year-old Awassi ewe was presented for ocular evaluation. The left eye had a 1.0-cm-diameter dome shaped mass containing clear fluids and was protruded from the palpebral eyelid margin near the lateral canthus. The cyst was surgically removed and revealed apocrine hidrocytoma via histopathology. Seven months post-surgery, neithe...

  10. A rare cutaneous tumor of the axilla: Apocrine adenocarcinoma

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    Karaca Semsettin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweat gland neoplasms are rare with approximately 200 cases of eccrine sweat gland and less than 50 cases of apocrine gland carcinoma being reported in the worldwide literature. More than half of the reported cases with apocrine adenocarcinoma had lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis. We report a case of a 56-year-old man, presented with a left axillary slow-growing seven year old painless nodule. Histopathological examination revealed an invasive apocrine adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastases. The patient successfully treated with total excision and radiotherapy. Apocrine adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy with high metastatic potential that occurs mostly in the axilla. Physicians should be aware of this entity while differentiating cutaneous tumor located on the axillary region.

  11. Carcinoma apócrino na glândula parótida e na região submandibular Apocrine carcinoma in the parotid gland and in the submandibular region

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    Jairo S. Francisco

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho consistem na apresentação de um caso de carcinoma apócrino e na discussão de aspectos relacionados ao seu diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico. Os carcinomas com diferenciação apócrina que não correspondem aos casos de doença extramamária de Paget, de carcinoma ductal de mama, de adenocarcinoma das glândulas de Moll e de carcinoma ceruminal são tumores muito raros. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, negra, com 51 anos, na qual duas lesões de carcinoma apócrino acometeram a parótida esquerda (processo inicial e recidiva e uma lesão envolveu a pele da região submandibular do mesmo lado. O exame histopatológico destas lesões mostrou a presença de neoplasia epitelial glandular infiltrativa com pleomorfismo celular e nuclear moderados; apresentando células poligonais ou arredondadas, com núcleos grandes e citoplasma eosinofílico e granular. Destacou-se a presença de secreção por decapitação apical na maior parte das células tumorais voltadas para a luz das estruturas císticas neoplásicas. Adicionalmente, foi encontrada a presença de focos de comedo-necrose e de material corado pelo PAS com e sem diastase. Apesar de não podermos definir com certeza qual a sede do tumor primário, com base nos aspectos histopatológicos compatíveis com o carcinoma apócrino cutâneo, consideramos que tenha sido, provavelmente, a lesão retirada da pele da região submandibular. A paciente foi submetida a tratamentos cirúrgicos e não apresentou alterações após um ano de acompanhamento, depois da retirada do tumor recidivante na parótida.The objectives of this paper are to report a case of apocrine carcinoma and the discussion of aspects related to its diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Carcinomas with apocrine differentiation not related to extramammary Paget's disease, ductal breast carcinoma, Moll's glands adenocarcinoma and ceruminous glands carcinoma are very uncommon tumors. We

  12. Morphological study of the infraorbital gland of the male barking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology of the infraorbital gland of the barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak) was examined using lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The glands consisted of sebaceous and apocrine glands, with proportion of apocrine glands was larger than the sebaceous gland.

  13. Morphological study of the infraorbital gland of the male barking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-17

    Nov 17, 2011 ... Seba- ceous gland was composed of polyhedral cells and necrotic cells were secreted through the opening of the gland. The apocrine gland was simple tubular gland. Scanning elec- tron microscopic examination revealed that the apocrine glands consisted of tubules that were lined with secretory cells.

  14. Apocrine Adenocarcinoma with Extramammary Pagetoid Spread into the Groin: a Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekić Branislav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Apocrine adenocarcinoma is a rare form of sweat gland malignancy mostly affecting adults without evident prevalence for sex or race. Clinically, it presents as a single or a multi-nodular mass or plaque in the axillary or anogenital region, with no additional symptoms. This neoplasm is locally invasive, grows slowly and has an ability to metastasize to visceral organs, regional lymph nodes and bones. We report a case of infiltrating apocrine adenocarcinoma on the scrotum and pubic area with extramammary pagetoid spread into the groin. The immunohistological staining patterns suggested that both extramammary Paget’s disease and apocrine adenocarcinoma derived from the apocrine gland, because the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK 7 and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15, but negative for CK20 and prostate-specific antigen (PSA. The results of this case study will facilitate the understanding of this malignant tumor.

  15. Evaluation of expression and function of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, platelet derived growth factor receptors-alpha and -beta, KIT, and RET in canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma and thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urie Bridget K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toceranib phosphate (Palladia has a reported objective response rate of 25% in both canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA and thyroid carcinoma (TC, with stable disease occurring in an additional 50-60% of dogs. The basis for the observed responses to toceranib is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate AGASACA and TC samples for the expression and activation of VEGFR2, PDGFRα, PDGFRβ, KIT and RET to assess whether dysregulation of these receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs may contribute to the biologic activity of toceranib. Results mRNA for VEGFR2, PDGFRα/β, KIT and RET was detected in all AGASACA samples. mRNA for VEGFR2, PDGFRα/β, and KIT was detected in all TC samples, while mRNA for RET was amplified in 10/15 samples. No phosphorylation of VEGFR2, PDGFRα/β, or KIT was observed on the arrays. However, phosphorylation of RET was detected in 54% of the primary AGASACA and 20% of TC. VEGFR2 was expressed in 19/24 primary and 6/10 metastatic AGASACA and 6/15 TC samples. KIT was present in 8/24 primary and 3/10 metastatic AGASACA and 9/15 TC samples. PDGFRα expression was noted in all tumor samples. In contrast PDGFRβ expression was found in only a few tumor samples but was evident in the stroma of all tumor specimens. Conclusions Known targets of toceranib are expressed in both AGASAC and TC. Given the observed expression of VEGFR and PDGFRα/β and phosphorylation of RET, these RTKs merit investigation as to their roles in the biology of AGSACA and TC and their contribution to toceranib’s activity.

  16. Diagnostic Workup and Treatment of a Rare Apocrine Hidrocystoma Affecting the Oral Mucosa: A Clinical and Histological Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Pier Paolo; Creminelli, Luca; Moramarco, Valeria; Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Ferrante, Franco; Maiorana, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Apocrine hidrocystomas are rare benign cystic tumors originating from the secretory portion of apocrine sweat glands. To the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence currently available reporting the presence of apocrine hidrocystomas in the oral cavity. Therefore, this case report aims to describe the clinical and histological features of an apocrine hidrocystoma affecting the oral mucosa. A 69-year-old male patient presented with a 1-year history of a solitary, well-circumscribed, submucosal mass in the left posterior buccal mucosa. The clinical examination revealed a yellowish soft, fluctuant, and painless lesion with no clinical signs of erythema or ulcerations of the overlying epithelium. The entire lesion was excised and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of apocrine hidrocystoma. No recurrence was observed after a 1-year follow-up.

  17. Diagnostic Workup and Treatment of a Rare Apocrine Hidrocystoma Affecting the Oral Mucosa: A Clinical and Histological Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Poli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apocrine hidrocystomas are rare benign cystic tumors originating from the secretory portion of apocrine sweat glands. To the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence currently available reporting the presence of apocrine hidrocystomas in the oral cavity. Therefore, this case report aims to describe the clinical and histological features of an apocrine hidrocystoma affecting the oral mucosa. A 69-year-old male patient presented with a 1-year history of a solitary, well-circumscribed, submucosal mass in the left posterior buccal mucosa. The clinical examination revealed a yellowish soft, fluctuant, and painless lesion with no clinical signs of erythema or ulcerations of the overlying epithelium. The entire lesion was excised and histopathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of apocrine hidrocystoma. No recurrence was observed after a 1-year follow-up.

  18. Molecular pathology of breast apocrine carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Gromov, P.

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that encompasses a wide range of histopathological types including: invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma, medullary carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, tubular carcinoma, and apocrine carcinoma among others. Pure apocrine carcinomas represent about 0.......5% of all invasive breast cancers according to the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from other breast lesions, there are at present no standard molecular criteria available for their diagnosis. In addition, the relationship between...... benign apocrine changes and breast carcinoma is unclear and has been a matter of discussion for many years. Recent proteome expression profiling studies of breast apocrine macrocysts, normal breast tissue, and breast tumours have identified specific apocrine biomarkers [15-hydroxyprostaglandin...

  19. Malignant sweat gland tumours: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, José C; Calonje, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous adnexal tumours can be a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. This is particularly true in the case of tumours with sweat gland differentiation, due to a large number of rare entities, a multiplicity of names to designate the same neoplasms and consequent lack of consensus regarding their classification and nomenclature. In the traditional view, sweat gland tumours were divided into eccrine and apocrine. However, this has been challenged in recent years, and in fact many of these tumours may have both eccrine and apocrine variants. Some display more complex features and defy classification, due to the presence of other lines of differentiation, namely follicular and/or sebaceous (in the case of apocrine tumours, due to the close embryological relationship between apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands). The present paper reviews and updates the basic concepts regarding the following malignant sweat gland tumours: apocrine carcinoma, porocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma and related entities, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, digital papillary adenocarcinoma, primary cutaneous mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and primary cutaneous signet ring cell carcinoma. Particular emphasis is put in recent findings that may have implications in the diagnosis and management of these tumours. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Management of Metastatic Apocrine Hidradenocarcinoma with Chemotherapy and Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel H; Peterson, Jennifer L; Buskirk, Steven J; Vallow, Laura A; Ta, Randy; Joseph, Richard; Krishna, Murli; Ko, Stephen J; Tzou, Katherine S

    2015-09-07

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare aggressive form of cutaneous adnexal skin carcinoma originating from the sweat gland. Due to its low incidence, prognostic and treatment strategies are still being explored both for primary and advanced disease. This tumor most often presents as either solid or cystic appearing subcutaneous nodules, which may be associated with pruritus or ulceration. To date the mainstay of treatment for local disease has been surgical excision; however, the paucity of historical data available has shown that these tumors often behave aggressively with high rates of local recurrence, metastasis, and poor overall outcomes. There are few case reports describing the utility of radiation therapy in the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma. Herein, we present a case of metastatic apocrine hidradenocarcinoma in a 32-year-old Caucasian male. The patient initially underwent excisional biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated, highly infiltrative, apocrine hidradenocarcinoma. He received systemic chemotherapy for metastatic disease, followed by radiation therapy to areas of grossly palpable adenopathy. Prior to radiation therapy the patient had an enlarged hypermetabolic conglomerate of lymph nodes in the right axilla, and borderline enlarged low activity nodes within the left axilla. He received 3 cycles of chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen and radiation therapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions) to areas of progressive disease in the bilateral axilla, lower neck, and axillary skin. Following treatment, the patient had complete resolution of skin nodules and improvement of his pruritus. While the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma has not been well established, this case report demonstrated the potential benefit of external beam radiotherapy in the management of this rare disease.

  1. Management of metastatic apocrine hidradenocarcinoma with chemotherapy and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare aggressive form of cutaneous adnexal skin carcinoma originating from the sweat gland. Due to its low incidence, prognostic and treatment strategies are still being explored both for primary and advanced disease. This tumor most often presents as either solid or cystic appearing subcutaneous nodules, which may be associated with pruritus or ulceration. To date the mainstay of treatment for local disease has been surgical excision; however, the paucity of historical data available has shown that these tumors often behave aggressively with high rates of local recurrence, metastasis, and poor overall outcomes. There are few case reports describing the utility of radiation therapy in the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma. Herein, we present a case of metastatic apocrine hidradenocarcinoma in a 32-year-old Caucasian male. The patient initially underwent excisional biopsy which confirmed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated, highly infiltrative, apocrine hidradenocarcinoma. He received systemic chemotherapy for metastatic disease, followed by radiation therapy to areas of grossly palpable adenopathy. Prior to radiation therapy the patient had an enlarged hypermetabolic conglomerate of lymph nodes in the right axilla, and borderline enlarged low activity nodes within the left axilla. He received 3 cycles of chemotherapy followed by tamoxifen and radiation therapy (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to areas of progressive disease in the bilateral axilla, lower neck, and axillary skin. Following treatment, the patient had complete resolution of skin nodules and improvement of his pruritus. While the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of hidradenocarcinoma has not been well established, this case report demonstrated the potential benefit of external beam radiotherapy in the management of this rare disease

  2. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland: Report of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi HM

    2001-01-01

    A case of pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland is reported here. The histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most common in salivary glands but very rare in sweat glands. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland and the similar tumors of eccring sweat gland are described that bear a striking resemblance to pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland. Upon closer examination, the tumor contained areas of apocrine decapitation secretory activity , and primitive hair follicles ...

  3. Molecular characterization of apocrine salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosea, Simion I; Williams, Lindsay; Griffith, Christopher C; Thompson, Lester D R; Weinreb, Ilan; Bauman, Julie E; Luvison, Alyssa; Roy, Somak; Seethala, Raja R; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary classification and treatment of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) require its thorough molecular characterization. Thirty apocrine SDCs were analyzed by the Ion Ampliseq Cancer HotSpot panel v2 for mutations in 50 cancer-related genes. Mutational findings were corroborated by immunohistochemistry (eg, TP53, BRAF, β-catenin, estrogen, and androgen receptors) or Sanger sequencing/SNaPshot polymerase chain reaction. ERBB2 (HER2), PTEN, FGFR1, CDKN2A/P16, CMET, EGFR, MDM2, and PIK3CA copy number changes were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization. TP53 mutations (15/27, 56%), PTEN loss (11/29, 38%, including 2 cases with PTEN mutation), PIK3CA hotspot mutations (10/30, 33%), HRAS hotspot mutations (10/29; 34%), and ERBB2 amplification (9/29, 31%, including 1 case with mutation) represented the 5 most common abnormalities. There was no correlation between genetic changes and clinicopathologic parameters. There was substantial overlap between genetic changes: 8 of 9 cases with ERBB2 amplification also harbored a PIK3CA, HRAS, and TP53 mutation and/or PTEN loss. Six of 10 cases with PIK3CA mutation also had an HRAS mutation. These findings provide a molecular rationale for dual targeting of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways in SDC. FGFR1 amplification (3/29, 10%) represents a new potential target. On the basis of studies of breast carcinomas, the efficacy of anti-ERBB2 therapy will likely be decreased in SDC with ERBB2 amplification co-occurring with PIK3CA mutation or PTEN loss. Therefore, isolated ERBB2 testing is insufficient for theranostic stratification of apocrine SDC. On the basis of the prevalence and type of genetic changes, apocrine SDC appears to resemble one subtype of breast carcinoma-"luminal androgen receptor positive/molecular apocrine."

  4. Axillary apocrine adenocarcinoma in a young male suspected initially on fine-needle aspiration cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary apocrine sweat gland adenocarcinomas are a rare entity, with only a few case reports so far. Many of these carcinomas are slow-growing with a high recurrence rate. A distinct cytological diagnosis can be made, and metastatic adenocarcinomas are always considered as a differential diagnosis on cytology. Our case was a 35-year-old male who presented with a discharging axillary sinus and swelling for the past 1 year. A clinical suspicion of tuberculous sinus was raised that however, remained unsupported by laboratory investigations. There was quite a high suspicion of apocrine adenocarcinoma on cytological examination that was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The patient was successfully treated with total excision and a wide margin. We report this case in view of its rarity and its occurrence in a 35-year-old young male, and emphasize that an initial cytological suspicion should be raised for primary apocrine adenocarcinoma in case of an axillary tumor, especially keeping in consideration the poor prognosis of the same and chances of early metastasis.

  5. FABP7 and HMGCS2 are novel protein markers for apocrine differentiation categorizing apocrine carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Espinoza, Jaime A.; Talman, Maj-Lis

    2014-01-01

    from other breast lesions, no standard molecular criteria are currently available for their diagnosis. Using gel-based proteomics in combination with mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry we have identified two novel markers, HMGCS2 and FABP7 that categorize the entire breast apocrine......, respectively, as compared to non-apocrine tumors (16.7% and 6.8%). The nuclear localization of FABP7 in tumor cells was shown to be associated with more aggressive stages of apocrine carcinomas. In addition, when added to the panel of apocrine biomarkers previously reported by our group: 15-PGDH, HMGCR...

  6. A Case of Primary Signet-Ring Cell/Histiocytoid Carcinoma of the Eyelid: Immunohistochemical Comparison With the Normal Sweat Gland and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Iwaya, Mai; Uehara, Takeshi; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Momose, Masanobu; Honda, Takayuki; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinomas of the eyelid are extremely rare tumors considered to originate from sweat glands. Here, we report the case of a 72-year-old man diagnosed with primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid and present immunohistochemical analyses of the eyelid apocrine gland (Moll gland) and apocrine and eccrine sweat glands of perineum and axilla. Widespread infiltration of tumor cells with signet-ring cell or histiocytoid appearance was obser...

  7. Apocrine-Eccrine Carcinomas: Molecular and Immunohistochemical Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long P.; Dias-Santagata, Dora; Pawlak, Amanda C.; Cosper, Arjola K.; Nguyen, Anh Thu; Selim, M. Angelica; Deng, April; Horick, Nora K.; Iafrate, A. John; Mihm, Martin C.; Hoang, Mai P.

    2012-01-01

    Apocrine-eccrine carcinomas are rare and associated with poor prognosis. Currently there is no uniform treatment guideline. Chemotherapeutic drugs that selectively target cancer-promoting pathways may complement conventional therapeutic approaches. However, studies on genetic alterations and EGFR and Her2 status of apocrine-eccrine carcinomas are few in number. In addition, hormonal studies have not been comprehensive and performed only on certain subsets of apocrine-eccrine carcinomas. To investigate whether apocrine-eccrine carcinomas express hormonal receptors or possess activation of oncogenic pathways that can be targeted by available chemotherapeutic agent we performed immunohistochemistry for AR, PR, ER, EGFR, and HER2 expression; fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for EGFR and ERBB2 gene amplification; and molecular analyses for recurrent mutations in 15 cancer genes including AKT-1, EGFR, PIK3CA, and TP53 on 54 cases of apocrine-eccrine carcinomas. They include 10 apocrine carcinomas, 7 eccrine carcinomas, 9 aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinomas, 10 hidradenocarcinomas, 11 porocarcinomas, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 4 malignant chondroid syringomas, 1 malignant spiradenoma, and 1 malignant cylindroma. AR, ER, PR, EGFR and HER2 expression was seen in 36% (19/53), 27% (14/51), 16% (8/51), 85% (44/52) and 12% (6/52), respectively. Polysomy or trisomy of EGFR was detected by FISH in 30% (14/46). Mutations of AKT-1, PIK3CA, and TP53 were detected in 1, 3, and 7 cases, respectively (11/47, 23%). Additional investigation regarding the potential treatment of rare cases of apocrine-eccrine carcinomas with PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors, currently in clinical testing, may be of clinical interest. PMID:23056620

  8. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland: Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi HM

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland is reported here. The histopathologic report confirmed the diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most common in salivary glands but very rare in sweat glands. Pleomorphic adenoma in sweat gland and the similar tumors of eccring sweat gland are described that bear a striking resemblance to pleomorphic adenomas of salivary gland. Upon closer examination, the tumor contained areas of apocrine decapitation secretory activity , and primitive hair follicles indicating cutaneous rather than mucosal origin. One year follow-up examination has revealed no evidence of recurrence.

  9. Characterization of breast precancerous lesions and myoepithelial hyperplasia in sclerosing adenosis with apocrine metaplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromova, I.; Cabezón, T.

    2007-01-01

    to identify early apocrine breast lesions is based on the postulate that invasive apocrine carcinomas evolve from epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) in a stepwise manner that involves apocrine metaplasia of normal breast epithelia, hyperplasia, atypia, and apocrine carcinoma in situ......The identification as well as the molecular characterization of breast precancerous lesions in terms of increased risk of progression and/or recurrence is becoming a critical issue today as improved non-surgical procedures are detecting cancer at an earlier stage. The strategy we have been pursuing....... First, we identify specific protein biomarkers for benign apocrine metaplasia and thereafter we search for biomarkers that are highly overexpressed by pure invasive apocrine carcinomas. Here we present studies in which we have used antibodies against components of a benign apocrine signature...

  10. A case of primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid: immunohistochemical comparison with the normal sweat gland and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaya, Mai; Uehara, Takeshi; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Momose, Masanobu; Honda, Takayuki; Ota, Hiroyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinomas of the eyelid are extremely rare tumors considered to originate from sweat glands. Here, we report the case of a 72-year-old man diagnosed with primary signet-ring cell/histiocytoid carcinoma of the eyelid and present immunohistochemical analyses of the eyelid apocrine gland (Moll gland) and apocrine and eccrine sweat glands of perineum and axilla. Widespread infiltration of tumor cells with signet-ring cell or histiocytoid appearance was observed in his left eyelid, orbit, and periocular lesion. Tumor cells expressed mucins and showed immunoreactivity that was similar to that of the Moll gland: MUC6(+), GlcNAcα1→4Gal→R(-), MUC2(-), MUC5AC(-), GCDFP15(+), CD15(+), S100(-), CK7(+), CK20(-), ER(+), PgR (+), HER2(-), E-cadherin(+), p63(-), PSA(-), and TTF-1(-). The tumor cells differed from those of perineal and axillary apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, which were MUC6(-). The Moll gland was ER(-) and PgR(-), whereas perineal and axillar apocrine sweat glands were ER(+) and PgR(+), and perineal and axillary eccrine sweat glands were ER(+) and PgR(-). The tumor showed characteristics similar to that of the eyelid Moll gland, which is demonstrated to be an apocrine gland with a protein expression distinct from that of other apocrine glands. MUC6 and GCDFP15 expression are useful in identifying the Moll gland immunophenotype and GCDFP15, ER and PgR expression are useful in distinguishing primary eyelid signet-ring/histocytoid carcinoma from gastrointestinal malignancies.

  11. Dermoscopy of apocrine hydrocystoma: A first case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandra S. Ankad,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apocrine hydrocystoma (AH is a translucent, skin-colored to bluish dome shaped cyst on the face. AH mimics basal cell carcinoma (BCC, blue nevus, amelanotic melanoma requiring histopathological confirmation. Dermoscopy shows specific patterns in skin conditions. Dermoscopy of AH is not described in the literature. Authors evaluated dermoscopic patterns in AH and observed characteristic patterns corresponding to histological features. To the best of our knowledge, it is a first report in literature.

  12. Apocrine carcinoma arising in a complex fibroadenoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Marco; Vahl, Pernille; Funder, Jonas Amstrup; Sorensen, Anne Schmidt; Jensen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    A carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma is a rare event, which often entails a diagnostic challenge. The most common type is the lobular carcinoma and secondary a ductal carcinoma. We present an extremely rare case of malignant development of an invasive apocrine carcinoma in a complex fibroadenoma and underline the importance for clinicians to recognize the possibility of benign and malignant co-existence especially in older women.

  13. Apocrine carcinoma of the breast: A brief update on the molecular features and targetable biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranic, Semir; Feldman, Rebecca; Gatalica, Zoran

    2017-02-21

    Apocrine carcinoma of the breast is a rare, primary breast cancer characterized by the apocrine morphology, estrogen receptor-negative and androgen receptor-positive profile with a frequent overexpression of Her-2/neu protein (~30%). Apart from the Her-2/neu target, advanced and/or metastatic apocrine carcinomas have limited treatment options. In this review, we briefly describe and discuss the molecular features and new theranostic biomarkers for this rare mammary malignancy. The importance of comprehensive profiling is highlighted due to synergistic and potentially antagonistic molecular events in the individual patients.

  14. Sebaceous carcinoma with apocrine differentiation: A rare entity with aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Afroz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sebaceous carcinomas are rare neoplasms but have aggressive behavior. Although they can be found anywhere in the body ocular region is the most common site which comprises 75% of all cases of sebaceous carcinomas. Due to their rarity, varied histopathological features, and diverse clinical presentation, their diagnosis is often delayed, sometimes by a year. They are divided on the basis of histological differentiation into well and poorly differentiated. Apocrine differentiation is a still rarer finding and only two cases have been reported in the literature so far. We report a case of sebaceous carcinoma with apocrine differentiation in a 60-year-old male who presented with a painless swelling in right upper eyelid for 2 months which was gradually progressive. Computed tomography (CT scan was performed and a provisional diagnosis of hemangioma was made. The mass was excised and histopathological examination revealed it to be sebaceous carcinoma. However, there were areas with decapitation secretions and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. These were positive for cytokeratin (CK 7 and CK 19 which confirmed their apocrine nature. Therefore, a final diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma with apocrine differentiation was made. Thus, it can be concluded that ocular sebaceous carcinomas with apocrine differentiation are extremely rare and have significant clinical importance since they can mimic a benign lesion and the nature of surgical intervention and follow up is more aggressive than that of simple sebaceous carcinoma alone.

  15. Apocrine Sweat Gland Ductal Adenoma with Sebaceous Differentiation in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Michishita; Junki Yasui; Rei Nakahira; Hisashi Yoshimura; Kimimasa Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    A 7-year-old male, Border Collie, developed a firm mass, measuring approximately 1 cm in diameter, in the left buccal skin. Histologically, the mass was composed of ductal structures lined by bilayered luminal epithelial and basaloid tumor cells along with a few nests of sebaceous cells. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the luminal epithelial tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK, CAM5.2) and CK19 but not for CK14 or p63. In contrast, the basaloid tumor cells were positive f...

  16. Syringocystadenoma Papilliferum of Sweat Gland of Caruncle: A Unique Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anuradha; Nagpal, R C; Harsh, Meena; Bahadur, Harsh

    2017-01-01

    Syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SP) is a rare benign hamartomatous malformation of skin which arises from apocrine or eccrine sweat glands. Skin of the head and neck is the usual site for this but rarely involves the eyelids. It is also called as a childhood tumor since it usually appears at birth or during puberty. The diagnosis is confirmed on histopathological examination after surgical excision. We are first to report a case of SP involving the caruncle in an elderly female.

  17. Management of metastatic apocrine hidradenocarcinoma with chemotherapy and radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel H. Miller; Jennifer L. Peterson; Steven J. Buskirk; Laura A. Vallow; Randy Ta; Richard Jospeh; Murli Krishna; Stephen J. Ko; Katherin S. Tzou

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare aggressive form of cutaneous adnexal skin carcinoma originating from the sweat gland. Due to its low incidence, prognostic and treatment strategies are still being explored both for primary and advanced disease. This tumor most often presents as either solid or cystic appearing subcutaneous nodules, which may be associated with pruritus or ulceration. To date the mainstay of treatment for local disease has been surgical excision; however, the paucity of historical...

  18. Apocrine carcinoma of the face in a 62-year-old Asian man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwan Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apocrine carcinoma (AC is a rare tumor with heterogeneous presentation. The disease has a highly morbid course and little is known about it. We present an otherwise healthy, 62- year-old Asian male who originally presented with chronic swelling of his left eyelid associated with excessive tears and diminished vision was diagnosed with AC. AC is often challenging to diagnose, yet it is critical to do so as early diagnosis and treatment can maximize patient survival.

  19. p53 mutations in sweat gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, W; Peraud, A; Wozniak, L; Ohgaki, H

    1998-05-04

    Sweat gland carcinomas are rare skin tumours and little is known about their etiology and molecular basis. In this study, we analyzed p53 mutations in 16 sweat gland carcinomas with different histologic types, including 2 spiradenocarcinomas, 1 composed adnexal carcinoma, 5 porocarcinomas, 2 eccrine hidradenocarcinomas, 2 syringocystadenocarcinomas, 1 sclerosing sweat gland carcinoma, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma, 1 cylindrocarcinoma and 1 apocrine adenocarcinoma. Single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses followed by direct DNA sequencing revealed that 5 carcinomas (31%) contained a p53 mutation, 4 of which were G:C-->A:T transition mutations and 1 of which was a deletion. Three G:C-->A:T mutations were located at dipyrimidine sequences on the antisense strand (2 spiradenocarcinomas, 1 eccrine hidradenocarcinoma), suggesting that UV light may play a role in the development of sweat gland carcinomas. In 2 spiradenocarcinomas, p53 mutations were present in the carcinoma but not in the adenoma portions, suggesting that p53 mutations may be associated with malignant progression in these rare adnexal tumours.

  20. Apocrine Fibroadenoma on the Face: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Amrit; Conway, Andrea; Ali, Liaqat; Heaney, Steven; Helm, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Apocrine fibroadenoma (AFA) is a common benign entity found in the breast but is rarely seen at other sites. Several studies have documented cases in the anogenital region, but to date, there have been only 4 cases (excluding the current case) of an AFA located in the skin on other parts of the body. The authors present a case of a 66-year-old woman with a 6-year history of a slow growing red nodule on her face. The histopathologic diagnosis was consistent with an AFA. An extensive review of the literature to elucidate a possible pathogenesis of these lesions and relationship to the anogenital counterparts is presented.

  1. Comparative histology of the scent glands of five species of skunks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidt, G A; Morgans, L F

    1982-01-01

    A comparative histological study of the papilla and fundic region of the scent glands of Mephitis mephitis, M. macroura, Spilogale putorius. S. pygmaea and Conepatus mesoleucus was conducted. Both the papilla and fundic region consist of a mucosa and a muscularis. The entire organ is covered by a fibrous capsule. The glandular tissue has a compound tubulo-alveolar arrangement where both the alveoli and tubules are lined by simple cuboidal serous cells. The scent glands are highly modified, enlarged, apocrine sweat glands. Differences in both the papilla and fundic region occur between the species and involve epithelial keratinization, vacuolization of the mucosa and arrangement of secretory tissue in the gland. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7076538

  2. KIT (CD117) Expression in Benign and Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Haruto; Daa, Tsutomu; Kashima, Kenji; Arakane, Motoki; Urabe, Shogo; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Gamachi, Ayako; Yokoyama, Shigeo

    2015-12-01

    KIT (CD117, c-kit) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the tumorigenesis of several neoplasms. KIT is expressed by the secretory cells of normal sweat glands. We studied the KIT expression and KIT mutational status in various benign and malignant tumors of eccrine and apocrine glands. We included a total of 108 cases comprising 10 benign and 6 malignant sweat gland tumors, and KIT expression was immunohistochemically detected (positive rate): 10 syringomas (0%), 8 poromas (25%), 20 mixed tumors (40%), 21 spiradenomas (43%), 1 cylindroma (0%), 5 hidradenomas (40%), 7 syringocystadenoma papilliferum cases (0%), 1 papillary hidradenoma (100%), 2 tubulopapillary hidradenomas (50%), 8 hidrocystomas (29%), 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas (100%), 5 porocarcinomas (20%), 6 apocrine carcinomas (33%), 10 extramammary Paget diseases (30%), 1 spiradenocarcinoma (100%), and 1 syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (0%). Most KIT-positive cells were luminal cells, arising from glandular structures. We performed polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism for detecting KIT mutational status. All cases showed no mutations at hot spots for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17). KIT mutation does not seem to be mechanism for KIT expression, but the expression may be from native sweat glands.

  3. Topics in histopathology of sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews several topics regarding sweat gland and sebaceous neoplasms. First, the clinicopathological characteristics of poroid neoplasms are summarized. It was recently reported that one-fourth of poroid neoplasms are composite tumors and one-fourth are apocrine type lesions. Recent progress in the immunohistochemical diagnosis of sweat gland neoplasms is also reviewed. CD117 can help to distinguish sweat gland or sebaceous tumors from other non-Merkel cell epithelial tumors of the skin. For immunohistochemical differential diagnosis between sweat gland carcinoma (SGC) other than primary cutanesous apocrine carcinoma and skin metastasis of breast carcinoma (SMBC), a panel of antibodies may be useful, including p63 (SGC + , SMBC - ), CK5/6 (SGC + , SMBC - ), podoplanin (SGC + , SMBC - ) and mammaglobin (SGC - , SMBC + ). Comparison of antibodies used for immunohistochemical diagnosis of sebaceous carcinoma (SC) suggests that adipophilin has the highest sensitivity and specificity. Some authors have found that immunostaining for survivin, androgen receptor and ZEB2/SIP1 has prognostic value for ocular SC, but not extraocular SC. In situ SC is rare, especially extraocular SC, but there have been several recent reports that actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are the source of invasive SC. Finally, based on recent reports, classification of sebaceous neoplasms into three categories is proposed, which are sebaceoma (a benign neoplasm with well-defined architecture and no atypia), borderline sebaceous neoplasm (low-grade SC; an intermediate tumor with well-defined architecture and nuclear atypia) and SC (a malignant tumor with invasive growth and evident nuclear atypia). © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  4. Expression of S100 protein family members in normal skin and sweat gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Okano, Shinji; Takahara, Masakazu; Chiba, Takahito; Tu, Yating; Oda, Yoshinao; Furue, Masutaka

    2013-06-01

    Despite our growing knowledge regarding the biology of S100 family proteins in cancers and internal diseases, limited data are available with their distribution in normal skin and in sweat gland tumors. To study the expression and distribution pattern of multiple S100 proteins in normal skin and in the tumors of sweat glands. Immunohistological staining was performed using S100A2, S100A4, S100A6, S100A7, S100A8/9, S100A11, and S100P in 41 cases of various kinds of sweat gland tumors and in 13 cases of normal skin. In normal skin, S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P staining were observed in the sweat glands. S100A2 positively stained in the outer layer of the eccrine duct. S100A6 immunolabeling was observed in the secretory portion of the eccrine gland. Myoepithelial cells of the apocrine gland were positive for S100A2 and S100A6. S100A7 was positive in the acrosyringium, ductal, and secretory portions of the eccrine gland and in the inner layer of the apocrine gland. Intense S100P staining was detected in the inner layer of the acrosyringium and eccrine ducts. Langerhans cells and melanocytes showed strong immunoreactivity to S100A4. Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) expressed S100A7 and S100P with partial S100A6 and S1004 staining. Eccrine poroma expressed S100A2 and S100A7 with partial labeling with S100A6. Syringoma expressed S100A2, S1007, and S100P. Apocrine hidrocystoma expressed S100A2 with partial S100A6 and S100A7 immunoreactivity. Syringocystadenoma papilliferum expressed S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P. S100A2, S100A6, S100A7, and S100P proteins are specifically involved in structure-related distribution and are potentially useful for differential diagnoses of sweat gland tumors. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Eccrine Sweat Glands are Major Contributors to Reepithelialization of Human Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittié, Laure; Sachs, Dana L.; Orringer, Jeffrey S.; Voorhees, John J.; Fisher, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    Eccrine sweat glands are skin-associated epithelial structures (appendages) that are unique to some primates including humans and are absent in the skin of most laboratory animals including rodents, rabbits, and pigs. On the basis of the known importance of other skin appendages (hair follicles, apocrine glands, and sebaceous glands) for wound repair in model animals, the present study was designed to assess the role of eccrine glands in the repair of wounded human skin. Partial-thickness wounds were generated on healthy human forearms, and epidermal repair was studied in skin biopsy samples obtained at precise times during the first week after wounding. Wound reepithelialization was assessed using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction of in vivo wounded skin samples. Our data demonstrate a key role for eccrine sweat glands in reconstituting the epidermis after wounding in humans. More specifically, i) eccrine sweat glands generate keratinocyte outgrowths that ultimately form new epidermis; ii) eccrine sweat glands are the most abundant appendages in human skin, outnumbering hair follicles by a factor close to 3; and iii) the rate of expansion of keratinocyte outgrowths from eccrine sweat glands parallels the rate of reepithelialization. This novel appreciation of the unique importance of eccrine sweat glands for epidermal repair may be exploited to improve our approaches to understanding and treating human wounds. PMID:23159944

  6. p53 expression in sweat gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, W; Woźniak, L

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed the expression of p53 in 74 cutaneous adnexal tumors, with enhancement of the detection by incubation of the slides in the microwave. The immunostaining in benign tumors was almost uniformly negative as we found p53-positivity only in one poroma, one nodular hidradenoma, and one case of syringocystadenoma papilliferum (amongst 13 spiradenomas, 9 cylindromas, 12 nodular hidradenomas, 7 poromas, 6 syringomas, 7 syringocystadenomas papilliferum, 2 papillary tubular adenomas and 4 chondroid syringomas). These results contrasted with the widespread p53 overexpression, which was revealed in the sweat gland carcinomas. All spiradenocarcinomas (3), malignant nodular hidradenoma (1), apocrine hidradenocarcinoma (1), and malignant syringoadenoma (1) showed a strong reaction to anti-p53 antibody. Two of three eccrine hidradenocarcinomas, and two of three porocarcinomas presented p53 overexpression, whereas in one case of malignant cylindroma and adenoid cystic carcinoma we did not find p53-positivity. The results of the study indicate an important role, that p53 protein plays in the malignant sweat gland tumors in comparison to their benign counterparts, but reveal that its overexpression may also occur in the reactive and benign neoplastic processes.

  7. Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome with Multiple Scalp Cylindromas and Bilateral Parotid Gland Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old female presented with numerous soft tissue lesions of her scalp and bilateral preauricular region. Several of these have been biopsied or removed with a diagnosis of cylindromas. Cylindromas are benign tumors with a differentiation towards apocrine sweat glands that increase in number and size throughout life. Multiple scalp cylindromas may coalesce and cover the entire scalp, resulting in the “turban tumor.” These are often associated with the autosomal dominant Brooke-Spiegler syndrome with coexistent facial trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas. There is a very rare association between cylindromas and basal cell adenoma and adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland, with only 17 reported cases. Ours is the first CT demonstration of both the scalp and parotid gland findings in this uncommon situation.

  8. [Clinical manifestations and treatment of sweat gland carcinoma--analysis of 22 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, H Z

    1988-11-01

    Twenty-two patients with sweat gland carcinoma treated during the past 8 years are reported. They constitute 4.4% of malignant lesions of the skin during the same period. Of these 22 patients, 2 were apocrine gland carcinoma, 15 eccrine carcinoma, 4 hidradenocarcinoma and 1 cylindroma. In 11 patients with distant metastasis, 90.9% had lymphatic metastasis and 36.3% had blood metastasis. Vascular disseminations were mainly to the bone, lung and skin in order of incidence. Sweat gland carcinoma is rare and of low malignancy with evident tendency of recurrence. Prognosis was mainly related to the presence of distant metastasis. It is believed that the enlarged local resection should be given to patients without metastasis. On the other hand, local resection plus regional dissection should be performed on patients with metastasis. Post-operative irradiation may be helpful to prevent distant metastasis.

  9. Immunohistological Expression of p16INK4a is Commonly Present Both in Benign and Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Jun; Kaku, Yumiko; Ichiki, Toshio; Eto, Ayaka; Maemura, Hiromi; Otsuka, Akiko; Nakaie, Risa; Kitagawa, Noriko; Morioka, Yuka; Matsuda, Tomoyo; Yoshida, Maiko; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-12-01

    The expression of p16INK4a has been reported to be a significant marker for malignant transformation of epidermal tumors. However, little is known about sweat gland tumors. We examined the immunohistological expression of p16INK4a in benign and malignant sweat gland tumors. The ductal and acrosyringial portion of normal eccrine glands were positively stained with p16INK4a while it was negative in the normal epidermis. Moderate to strong expression of p16INK4a was found in 16 of 17 eccrine poromas, 4 of 5 hidradenomas, 3 of 3 syringocystadenoma papilliferums, 2 of 2 mixed tumors, and 3 of 3 syringomas. The p16INK4a expression was observed focally or diffusely in 4 of 4 porocarcinomas, 4 of 4 apocrine carcinomas and 12 of 17 extramammary Paget's diseases. We conclude that the p16INK4a expression is not a good marker for dictating malignant transformation of sweat gland tumors.

  10. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck glands References National Cancer Institute. PDQ salivary gland cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Last modified ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Salivary Gland Cancer Read more Salivary Gland Disorders Read more NIH ...

  11. Clinicopathologic characteristics of 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jin Lin; Wu, Ling Ying; Zhang, Hong Tu; Lv, Ne Nan; Huang, Ying; Yu, Gau Zhi

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this article was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognostic factors of vulvar sweat gland carcinoma. Clinical and pathologic data for 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma treated at our institution from January 1958 to April 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 12 cases, 7 cases were vulvar sweat gland carcinoma, 3 cases were vulvar Paget disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma, 1 case was vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma, and 1 case was adenoid cystic carcinoma of the vulvar sweat gland. Two patients were treated with simple vulvar tumor excision at other medical institutions without adjuvant therapy. Among the other 10 patients, 6 underwent radical vulvectomy; 3, wide local excision of the vulva; and 1, a simple vulvectomy. For 5 of the 12 patients, bilateral or unilateral inguinal lymph nodes excision and biopsy were performed. For 1 patient with bulky inguinal lymph nodes, only a biopsy was performed, and the patient received radiotherapy after vulvar surgery. A follow-up for 11 patients was conducted until death or April 1, 2009. Five of the 11 patients had recurrences after primary treatment. For 2 of these patients, recurrence was local 6 and 48 months after treatment. For 3 patients, distant metastasis was found 18, 5, and 31 months after surgery at our institution. Five of 11 patients died, 1 of whom died of irrelevant disease and 4 of tumor progression. The total survival periods of the 4 patients who died of tumor progression were 24, 36, 44, and 203 months. The other 6 patients have survived for more than 5 years without local failure. In total, there are 7 patients who have survived for 5 years or more. Vulvar sweat gland carcinoma is a very rare entity. Surgery is the primary treatment modality, and the function of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is uncertain. The vulvar tumor size and inguinal lymph nodes metastasis will influence the prognosis, with pathologic differentiation and

  12. Cutaneous Sweat Gland Carcinomas with Basaloid Differentiation: An Update with Emphasis on Differential Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flux, Katharina; Brenn, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinomas with basaloid differentiation, including cribriform apocrine carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, and digital papillary adenocarcinoma. These tumors are rare and pose a significant diagnostic challenge. Their clinical presentation is nonspecific and there is significant overlap of their histologic features. Confident diagnosis is necessary because their clinical behavior ranges from indolent, nonrecurring, nonmetastasizing tumors to those with potential for disseminated disease and mortality. They should be separated from cutaneous metastases of primary visceral adenocarcinomas. Salient features of these rare entities are discussed with emphasis on distinguishing features and diagnostic clues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression alone or in combination with ACSM1 defines a subgroup of the apocrine molecular subtype of breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J.E.; Gromov, P.; Cabezon, T.

    2008-01-01

    , papillary, medullary, metaplastic, and apocrine breast carcinomas. Molecular profiling technologies, on the other hand, subdivide breast tumors into five subtypes, basal-like, luminal A, luminal B, normal breast tissue-like, and ERBB2-positive, that have different prognostic characteristics. An additional......Established histopathological criteria divide invasive breast carcinomas into defined groups. Ductal of no specific type and lobular are the two major subtypes accounting for around 75 and 15% of all cases, respectively. The remaining 10% include rarer types such as tubular, cribriform, mucinous...... subclass termed "molecular apocrine" has recently been described, but these lesions did not exhibit all the histopathological features of classical invasive apocrine carcinomas (IACs). IACs make up 0.5-3% of the invasive ductal carcinomas, and despite the fact that they are morphologically distinct from...

  14. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  15. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress and has many other important functions. With adrenal gland disorders, your glands make too much or not enough ... born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors including pheochromocytomas Infections A ...

  16. Aquaporins and Gland Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delporte, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs ) are expressed in most exocrine and endocrine secretory glands. Consequently, summarizing the expression and functions of AQPs in secretory glands represents a daunting task considering the important number of glands present in the body, as well as the number of mammalian AQPs - thirteen. The roles played by AQPs in secretory processes have been investigated in many secretory glands. However, despite considerable research, additional studies are clearly needed to pursue our understanding of the role played by AQPs in secretory processes. This book chapter will focus on summarizing the current knowledge on AQPs expression and function in the gastrointestinal tract , including salivary glands, gastric glands, Duodenal Brunner's gland, liver and gallbladder, intestinal goblets cells, exocrine and endocrine pancreas, as well as few other secretory glands including airway submucosal glands, lacrimal glands, mammary glands and eccrine sweat glands.

  17. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  18. Ultrastructure and immunohistochemical characterization of proteins concerned with the secretory machinery in goat ceruminous glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Yasui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The expression of soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE proteins in apocrine glands has not been fully elucidated. In addition to performing ultrastructural observation of the ceruminous glands in goats, our study focuses on the demonstration of β-defensins, SNARE proteins and Rab3D in these glands with the use of immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells were equipped with two types of vesicles, Golgi apparatus and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Additionally, in some of them, the characteristic concentric structures composed of rough ER were observed in their circum- and infranuclear parts. The expression of phosphorylated inositol requiring enzyme 1a was also detected. These findings may indicate their ability to produce numerous secretory proteins and the maintenance of homeostasis in the glandular cells. Furthermore, β-defensins were demonstrated as products of the ceruminous glands. The present investigation also revealed the presence of SNARE proteins and Rab3D. It is suggested that these proteins are concerned with the secretory machinery of this gland type.

  19. Epidemiology and Prognosis of Primary Periocular Sweat Gland Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Meredith S; Yin, Vivian T; Ivan, Doina; Allen, Richard C; Carter, Keith D; Esmaeli, Bita; Shriver, Erin M

    To characterize the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of patients with sweat gland carcinoma of the periocular region. To review the pathologic classification scheme, compare the clinical behavior between subtypes, and discuss treatment recommendations for periocular sweat gland carcinomas. Retrospective study from 2 tertiary centers, which are part of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Oncology Database. Twenty-two patients, of whom 13 (59%) were female, were included in the study. The median age was 69 years. The median follow-up time was 23 months. Twenty (91%) patients had lesions that were slow growing and were present for several months to years before diagnosis. Presentation was varied, and pathology included mucinous carcinoma (7; 32%), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (4; 18%), endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (4; 18%), eccrine carcinoma (2; 9%), apocrine carcinoma (2; 9%), poorly differential adnexal carcinoma (2; 9%), and hidroadenocarcinoma (1; 5%). Microcystic adnexal carcinoma tended to present with the largest tumor dimension (range: 25-32 mm) and mucinous carcinoma the smallest (range: 5-13 mm). Treatments included Mohs micrographic excision in 10 patients (45.5%), wide local excision in 10 patients (45.5%), and orbital exenteration in 2 patients (9%). No lesions ≤T2b (by AJCC 7th edition classification for eyelid carcinomas) had local recurrence or nodal metastasis. No patients had distant metastasis. Sweat gland carcinomas tend to grow slowly and be present for several months to years before diagnosis. Overall, microcystic adnexal carcinoma subtype showed more aggressive clinical behavior than mucinous subtypes. Eyelid carcinomas AJCC category T2b or less were associated with better outcomes.

  20. Clinicopathologic Profile Of Sweat Gland Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Harsh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign adnexal tumours of the skin, excluding pilosebaceous tumours were identified in 24 patients between the ages of 9 and 70 years with a mean age of 34 years; 17 women and 7 men. Most lesions (n = 13 occurred on the face and scalp. Apocrine hydrocystoma and eccrine acrospiroma were the commonest tumors with apocrine and eccrine differentiation respectively. Few uncommon tumors with included were chondroid syringoma, syringocystadenoma papilliferum. Excisional biopsy is the treatment of choice.

  1. Accumulation of pigment granules in lacrymal gland epithelium in practolol-treated beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchitani, M; Narama, I; Kohda, S

    1989-04-01

    A 6-month oral toxicity test of practolol was carried out in beagle dogs as a reference control for a newly developed beta blocker. No significant drug-induced changes were detected in any animals by various ophthalmological examinations such as ERG, tear flow, lysozymal activity in tears, etc. However, an unusual pathological change was detected in the lacrymal gland of all five dogs treated with practolol and not in control animals. Macroscopically, the lacrymal glands assumed a blackish brown to deep black colour on both the outside and the cut surface. Microscopically, fine, dark-brown pigment granules were present in the apical and supra-nuclear portion of the cytoplasm of predominantly serosal type epithelial cells. These pigments reacted positively to Schmorl's method for lipofuscin, but gave a negative PAS reaction for polysaccharide, Prussian blue for iron and Ziehl-Neelsen method for ceroid pigment. They were detected as membrane-bound electron-dense bodies by electron microscopy. Similar pigments were also deposited in the cytoplasm of the apocrine sweat gland. Although the mechanism of the accumulation of these granules is far from clear, concentration of practolol in the lacrymal gland is considered to be very closely related to the presence of these granules. A possible mechanism for ocular toxicity by practolol, involving this change, is discussed.

  2. Morphological and histochemical observations on the crural gland-spur apparatus of the echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) together with comparative observations on the femoral gland-spur apparatus of the duckbilled platypus (Ornithorhyncus anatinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, William J

    2010-01-01

    The echidna and platypus have a crural/femoral gland that is linked by a large duct to a canalized, keratinous spur located on the medial side of the ankle. The echidna crural gland, like the femoral gland of the platypus, exhibits cyclic activity, being prominent in both monotremes when they are sexually active. In the present study, we compared the structure and histochemistry of these glands. During the active phase, the secretory epithelium forming the respective glands of both species increased in height and became packed with secretory granules that differed markedly in structure. Secretory granules of the echidna crural gland were electron dense and characterized by cores or areas of increased electron density. Those of the platypus were initially electron dense, but then became less dense and coalesced into irregular complexes of secretory material. Large cytoplasmic blebs extended from epithelial cell apices and appeared to be shed into the lumen, resulting in an apocrine mode of secretion. Exocytosis was also observed. A similar form of release of secretory product was not observed in the echidna. Secretory granules of both species were periodic acid-Schiff positive and stained for protein, suggesting that much of the secretory product was glycoprotein. Myoepithelial cells enveloped the secretory tubules of the platypus femoral gland, whereas they were not observed surrounding tubules comprising the echidna crural gland. During the quiescent phase, the epithelial cells of both species lost their secretory granules and decreased in height. As a result, the secretory tubules became smaller, intralobular connective tissue increased and the glands decreased in overall size.

  3. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus ...

  4. Adrenal Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Most adrenal gland tumors are ... and may not require treatment. Malignant adrenal gland cancers are uncommon. Types of tumors include Adrenocortical carcinoma - ...

  5. Mammary gland stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers.

  6. Presentation of Apocrine Breast Carcinoma in a Woman with Bilateral Silicone Prosthesis; Presentacion de un carcinoma apocrino de mama en una mujer con protesis bilateral de silicona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J. A.; Salvador, R.; Salvador, M.; Barranco, C.

    2003-07-01

    We present a case of apocrine breast carcinoma in a 45 year-old woman with bilateral silicone breast prosthesis whose clinical manifestations and mammography were that of a palpable nodule-high glandular density, rounded and with imprecise borders devoid of any visible microcalcifications. A bibliographical revision confirmed the infrequent association of this type of tumor with the presence of silicone breast implants, precisely in which we consider its radiological interest to lie. (Author) 11 refs.

  7. [Contribution of monoclonal antibody D 47 in the study of sweat gland pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitakis, J; Schmitt, D; Thivolet, J

    1985-01-01

    D 47 is a monoclonal antibody (IgG2) reacting with a surface antigen of cortical thymocytes. On normal human skin, D 47 was found to react with a cytoplasmic antigen of the cells of the secretory portion of eccrine sweat glands (ESG). No reactivity with D 47 is detected on the excretory part of ESG, on apocrine glands and all other cutaneous structures. In this work we studied through an indirect immunofluorescence method on frozen skin sections the reactivity pattern of D 47 on a group of epithelial skin tumours of certain or alleged glandular differentiation. These consisted of: eccrine spiradenoma (ES, 1 case); chondroid syringoma (CS, 1 case); syringomas of the eyelid (1 case); clear-cell hidradenocarcinoma (1 case); eccrine porocarcinoma (1 case); naevus sebaceus of Jadassohn (2 cases, one of which associated to a syringocystadenoma papilliferum); clear-cell acanthoma (1 case); extramammary Paget's disease (3 cases); basal-cell epithelioma (2 cases). D 47 yielded in a strong labelling of a significant proportion of cells in the cases of ES and CS, while on the remaining tumours, apart from normal ESG occasionally present in the peritumoral connective tissue, no reactivity was seen. From this study it becomes clear that D 47 represents an immunohistologic marker of eccrine-secretory differentiation and that it can be applied in the investigation of the differentiation and of the differential diagnosis of sweat-gland neoplasms.

  8. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections will return. Complications are not common. Possible Complications Complications may include: Abscess of salivary gland Infection returns ... cases, salivary gland infections cannot be prevented. Good oral hygiene may prevent some cases of bacterial infection. ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  9. Parotid gland sparing radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy is a common form of treatment for head-and-neck malignancies. One of the most prominent complaints after radiotherapy is a dry mouth, which is caused by irradiation of the salivary glands. The main contributors of saliva during stimulation are the parotid glands, which are

  10. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  11. Vulvar sweat gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M R; Goellner, J R; Wolfe, J T; Su, W P

    1985-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas constitute less than 10% of all malignant tumors of the vulva, including those associated with extramammary Paget's disease (EPD). The histopathologic diagnosis of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas is difficult because of their rarity; their resemblance to metastatic carcinomas of the internal female genitalia, kidneys, and other sites; and their diversity of microscopic appearances. We report five examples of vulvar sweat gland carcinomas, two of which were associated with EPD. The other tumors included one example each of ductal eccrine adenocarcinoma, eccrine porocarcinoma, and clear cell hidradenocarcinoma. The clinical behavior of these neoplasms is correlated with their histologic types; we also discuss differential diagnosis and treatment recommendations.

  12. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  13. Salivary gland biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  14. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Takavar A

    1994-01-01

    Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I) therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Usin...

  15. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  16. Mammary Gland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Hector

    2012-01-01

    The mammary gland develops through several distinct stages. The first transpires in the embryo as the ectoderm forms a mammary line that resolves into placodes. Regulated by epithelial/mesenchymal interactions, the placodes descend into the underlying mesenchyme and produce the rudimentary ductal structure of the gland present at birth. Subsequent stages of development – pubertal growth, pregnancy, lactation and involution – occur postnatally under the regulation of hormones. Puberty initiates branching morphogenesis, which requires growth hormone and estrogen, as well as IGF1, to create a ductal tree that fills the fat pad. Upon pregnancy the combined actions of progesterone and prolactin generate alveoli, which secrete milk during lactation. Lack of demand for milk at weaning initiates the process of involution whereby the gland is remodeled back to its pre-pregnancy state. These processes require numerous signaling pathways that have distinct regulatory functions at different stages of gland development. Signaling pathways also regulate a specialized subpopulation of mammary stem cells that fuel the dramatic changes in the gland occurring with each pregnancy. Our knowledge of mammary gland development and mammary stem cell biology has significantly contributed to our understanding of breast cancer and has advanced the discovery of therapies to treat this disease. PMID:22844349

  17. Submandibular gland excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sanfurgo de Carvalho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the value of fine needle aspiration and the rates of postoperative complications in patients undergoing resection of the submandibular gland. METHODS: we analyzed the records of patients treated with resection of the gland from January 1995 to December 2008. The data collected included age, gender, findings on clinical history, surgical procedure, results of fine needle aspiration (FNA, pathological diagnosis and complications. RESULTS: 117 patients were studied, aged 12-89 years (mean 48, 70 women and 47 men. Thirty-nine patients (33.3% were affected by inflammatory diseases (28 patients with lithiasis, 70 had benign tumors, and malignant tumors, eight. Regarding FNA, the sensitivity and specificity were 85.7% and 100%, respectively. Nine patients (7.7% had temporary paralysis of the marginal mandibular nerve and one had permanent paralysis. CONCLUSION: resection of the submandibular gland is a safe procedure, with low complication rates.

  18. Mammary gland stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J R; Petersen, Ole W; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Distinct subsets of cells, including cells with stem cell-like properties, have been proposed to exist in normal human breast epithelium and breast carcinomas. The cellular origins of epithelial cells contributing to gland development, tissue homeostasis and cancer are, however, still poorly...... understood. The mouse is a widely used model of mammary gland development, both directly by studying the mouse mammary epithelial cells themselves and indirectly, by studying development, morphogenesis, differentiation and carcinogenesis of xenotransplanted human breast epithelium in vivo. While in early...... studies, human or mouse epithelium was implanted as fragments into the mouse gland, more recent technical progress has allowed the self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential of distinct cell populations or even individual cells to be interrogated. Here, we review and discuss similarities...

  19. Radioiodine and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takavar A

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Administration of a precise amount of activity in thyroid gland radioiodine (¹³¹I therapy is of prime importance. Several methods for this purpose have been suggested and used over many years. In this paper, a method for required ¹³¹I activity calculation for each case has been proposed. Major factors affecting ¹³¹I calculation such as gland volume, integral dose, and prescription index have been described. Using the method, ¹³¹I activity or any other radioisotope activity required for a certain case can be determined with a good estimate.

  20. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Aakalu

    Full Text Available The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development.We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium.The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described.Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas.

  1. Anatomy of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2011-05-01

    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichkov, Igor; Daskalakis, Theodoros; Rankin, Linda; Divino, Celia

    2004-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare malignant tumor of the skin adnexa that can occur in a variety of locations. It is a slow-growing tumor that metastasizes early and often. The rarity of this tumor has led to a relative lack of adequate evidence with regard to treating this entity. Recent advances in immunohistochemical staining have better defined this tumor and have aided in diagnosing its subtypes though histologic grade and presence of regional lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis. These are the best indicators for prognosis and management currently available. Indications for sentinel node biopsy are currently not well defined. Because of the poor prognosis of high-grade sweat gland carcinoma, clinicians should be aware of this entity and be prepared to treat aggressively. Management of sweat gland carcinoma is difficult because extensive study into both surgical and nonsurgical treatment has not been done. We present a case of sweat gland carcinoma of the lower extremity and a review of the clinicopathologic literature of these rare neoplasms, including diagnosis and surgical management.

  3. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taste in your mouth Difficulty opening your mouth Dry mouth Pain in your face or mouth Swelling of your face or neck Causes of salivary gland problems include infections, obstruction, or cancer. Problems can also be due to other disorders, such as mumps or Sjogren's syndrome.

  4. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of...... at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004...

  5. Vulvar hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is located on the sites of mammary-like anogenital glands (MLAGs): Analysis of the photographs of 52 tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Jinane; Renald, Marie-Hélène; Plantier, Françoise; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Moyal-Barracco, Micheline

    2016-08-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is a benign tumor that primarily affects the anogenital area of adult women. Previously considered apocrine tumors, anogenital HP tumors are now interpreted as adenomas of mammary-like anogenital glands based on their histologic features. This clinical study was undertaken to determine whether vulvar HP is located on mammary-like anogenital gland sites and to describe its morphologic features. The clinical photographs of 52 histologically confirmed vulvar HP provided by 7 vulva specialists were analyzed. In all, 90.4% of the HP were located on the interlabial sulcus, adjacent zone, or the perineum. These tumors were polymorphous in terms of number (1 or multiple), size (HP is mainly located on mammary-like anogenital gland sites, thereby providing further evidence to their histogenesis. Although a nonulcerated or ulcerated tumor of the interlabial sulcus should evoke a HP diagnosis, the latter must be confirmed histologically. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Head and neck sweat gland adenocarcinoma: A population-based perspective of a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Aykut A; Patel, Varesh R; Chung, Sei Y; Zhou, Albert H; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-12-01

    Head and neck sweat gland adenocarcinoma (HNSGA) is an extremely rare malignancy. We present the first population-based analysis regarding this entity. Retrospective population-based analysis. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry from 2000 to 2013, we extracted 627 cases of HNSGA. Data were analyzed for incidence trends, demographic and clinicopathologic traits, and predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS). The majority HNSGA cases were white, male, and 60 to 79 years old. The incidence was 0.036 per 100,000 people. Tumors most often presented as localized disease and histological grade II/III. The skin of the face was the most common primary site (43.4%), followed by the scalp and neck (31.6%). Overall 5-, 10-, and 20-year DSS were 94.6%, 89.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. Ethnicity did not affect survival, whereas a younger age at diagnosis and female sex conferred an advantage at 10 years (P = 0.0386) and 5 years (P = 0.0191), respectively. The origin of the HNSGA (apocrine vs. eccrine) did not affect outcomes. Regional and distant disease predicted worse DSS at 5, 10, and 20 years (P = 0.0026, P tumor grade, greater extent of invasion, and primary site of the scalp or neck. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2757-2762, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Wang; Jun-Nian Zheng; Jian-Chao Sui

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and ...

  8. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Salivary gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Schwarz-Furlan, Stephan; Gosau, Martin; Reichert, Torsten E

    2012-09-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas are rare tumours of heterogeneous morphology that require distinctive surgical and adjuvant therapy. Relevant studies were electronically searched in PubMed and reviewed for innovative and important information. Recent insights in genetic alterations like chromosomal aberrations, expression of receptor tyrosine kinases, malfunction of tumour suppressor genes or DNA promoter methylations increased the knowledge about aetiology and pathogenesis. New histological subtypes are recognised, and a three-tiered grading system seems reasonable. Ultrasound remains the basic diagnostic imaging procedure. New developments comprise the diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance imaging, while fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows good diagnostic accuracy in detecting distant metastases and local recurrence. Fine-needle aspiration cytology helps in differentiating a neoplasia from a non-neoplastic lesion while being unreliable in recognising malignancy. In contrast, additional core needle biopsy and/or intraoperative frozen section diagnosis increase the accuracy in diagnosing a malignant lesion. Conservative parotid surgery with nerve monitoring remains state-of-the-art. Free flaps or musculoaponeurotic flaps are proposed for prevention of Frey's syndrome. As parotid cancer often shows skip metastases, complete ipsilateral neck dissection (level I-V) is indicated particularly in high-grade lesions. Adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy increases local tumour control, whereas overall survival is not necessarily improved. Current results of systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy in advanced tumour stages are disappointing. Despite several developments, salivary gland carcinomas remain a heterogeneous group of tumours challenging both pathologists and clinicians.

  10. Sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-10-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement.

  11. Sweat Gland Adenocarcinoma of Scalp

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Pragya A; Rathod, Kirti M; Chaudhary, Arvind H; Pilani, Abhishek P

    2013-01-01

    Sweat gland adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor particularly over scalp. They have potential to be benign as well as distant metastasis. Usually presents with papules or nodules. Ulcerative morphology is uncommon. Wide surigical excision with regional lymph not dissection is the treatment of choice. A 42-year-old female with sweat gland adenocarcinoma of scalp is reported with cervical lymph node involvement.

  12. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-12-13

    Dec 13, 2017 ... Skin apocrine carcinoma is a rare malgnancy of epidermal adnexa, most frequent in axillary seat, where apocrine sweat gland are abundant, the neoplasm ... histological CAC and axillary metastasis of lobular carcinoma breast ... apocrine gland secretion and carcinomas of the salivary glands [11]. In fact ...

  13. Bilateral Primary Lacrimal Gland Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşad Ramazan Zor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma involving the lacrimal gland is rare. Most of the cases are unilateral at presentation. In this case, we present the diagnostic evaluation of a patient with bilateral lacrimal gland lymphoma. At presentation, the patient had inferomedial eccentric proptosis of the right eye. The patient also had limitation in the upper and lateral gaze in this eye. On magnetic resonance imaging, a mass was detected not only in the right but also in the left eye corresponding to the area of the lacrimal gland. Excisional biopsy was performed in the right eye with lateral orbitotomy approach. Histopathological examination revealed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma involving the lacrimal gland. No concurrent systemic lymphoma was detected during systemic evaluation of the patient. The patient was directed to the oncology department for systemic treatment planning. In conclusion, bilateral involvement is rare in lacrimal gland diseases but it can show severe diseases like lymphoma.

  14. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  15. Chapter 13. Adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, H.; Paulin, R.

    1975-01-01

    The condition of isotopic methods to the functional and morphological exploration of the adrenal glands is shown, with emphasis on the fact that althought the cortico-adrenal responds to these methods the same does not apply to the medullo-adrenal, which expresses its morphological changes by producing deformations on the cortical image. Funtional tests, mainly directed at the cortico-adrenal, are described first: study of exchangeable sodium and potassium; determination of the plasma concentration and metabolic clearance of some steroid hormones (cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone); evaluation of the renin activity. These tests are based on competitive analysis and radioimmunological methods. Morphological tests are examined next. Adrenal scintigraphy uses a simple technique (intraveinous administration of 131 I 19-iodocholesterol with no special preliminary preparation) which gives good images and is only limited now by the need to avoid over exposure of the gonads to ionising radiations [fr

  16. Organizing the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G

    2009-02-01

    Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.

  17. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  18. Cryopreservation of Parathyroid Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon A. Guerrero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism following thyroid and parathyroid surgery is around 1% in the hands of experienced endocrine surgeons. Although this complication is rare, rendering a patient permanently aparathyroid has significant consequences on the health and quality of life of the patient. Immediate autotransplantation of parathyroid glands that are injured or unintentionally removed offers the best possibility of graft viability and functionality. However, since the majority of cases of hypoparathyroidism are transient, immediate autotransplantation can complicate postoperative surveillance in certain patients, especially those with primary hyperparathyroidism. Cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue is an alternate technique that was developed to treat patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism. This method allows for parathyroid tissue to be stored and then autotransplanted in a delayed fashion once permanent hypoparathyroidism is confirmed. This article provides a contemporary review on cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue and its current role in thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  19. [Immunoendocrine associations in adrenal glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzl, I; Hrdá, P

    2010-12-01

    Immune and endocrine systems are basic regulatory mechanisms of organism and, including the nervous system, maintain the organism's homeostasis. The main immune system representatives are mononuclear cells, T- and B-cells and their products, in the endocrine system the main representatives are cells of the glands with inner secretion and their products. One of the most important glands for maintaining homeostasis are adrenal glands. It has been proven that either cells of the immune system, either endocrine cells can, although in trace amounts, produce mutually mediators of both systems (hormones, cytokines). Disorders in one system can lead to pathological symptoms in the other system. Also here represent adrenals an important model.

  20. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  1. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zheng, Jun-Nian; Sui, Jian-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and diagnosed as a low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. We presented a very good result of chemotherapy in the treatment of this rare malignant disease. It demonstrates that adjunct chemotherapy is effective to control the condition of malignant sweat-gland carcinomas patient.

  2. Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xia Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of malignant sweat gland lesions. It is characterized clinically with non-symptomatic, slow-growing nodules. We report the case of a patient with cutaneous sweat gland carcinoma with local recurrence and metastasis to the lung that was treated with surgical resection therapy and chemotherapy. The initial neoplasm was excised but biopsy was not performed. The tumor then recurred 7 years later, was re-excised, biopsy was performed, and diagnosed as a low-grade hidradenocarcinoma. We presented a very good result of chemotherapy in the treatment of this rare malignant disease. It demonstrates that adjunct chemotherapy is effective to control the condition of malignant sweat-gland carcinomas patient.

  3. Recurrent RET Gene Rearrangements in Intraductal Carcinomas of Salivary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Ilan; Bishop, Justin A; Chiosea, Simion I; Seethala, Raja R; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Assaad, Adel; Oliai, Bahram R; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2018-04-01

    Intraductal carcinoma (IC) is the World Health Organization designation for lesions previously called low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma. The relationship of IC to salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is controversial, but currently these are considered distinct entities. It is hypothesized that IC and SDC should have different genomic signatures that may be identifiable by next-generation sequencing. A total of 23 ICs were identified: 14 pure IC and 9 invasive carcinomas with an intraductal component. Five invasive carcinomas were subjected to next-generation paired-end RNA sequencing. Data analysis was performed using FusionSeq and Mutation detection algorithms (MuTect and VarScan) for variant callers. Gene fusion candidates were validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and mutations by Sanger sequencing. Among the 9 invasive carcinomas, all except 1 were apocrine SDCs with an intraductal component. The remaining case showed typical intercalated duct type IC with invasive adenocarcinoma. The 14 pure ICs had typical intercalated duct features (2 showed hybrid intercalated/apocrine features). RNA sequencing predicted a NCOA4-RET fusion, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, in the intercalated duct type IC invasive component. Six additional cases of pure IC showed RET rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization (7/15=47%). No apocrine carcinomas showed RET rearrangement. RNA sequencing and Sanger sequencing identified PIK3CA (p.E545K/p.H1047R) and/or HRAS (p.Q61R) hotspot mutations in 6 of 8 (75%) apocrine carcinomas. In conclusion, 2 distinctive types of intraductal lesions are emerging based on molecular analysis. Classic intercalated type ICs commonly harbor fusions involving RET and rarely show widespread invasion. Apocrine intraductal lesions are typically associated with widespread invasion with no pure examples and show similar PIK3CA and HRAS mutations to SDC.

  4. Streaming submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajicek, G.; Yagil, C.; Michaeli, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty female young adult rats were injected with tritiated thymidine ( 3 HTdR). The animals were then killed in groups of five, at the following times: 1 hour, and 4, 16, and 23 days. Autoradiograms of sections through the submandibular gland were prepared, and the location of labelled cells in relationship to tubuli and acini was recorded. The different tubular and acinar cross sections could be distinguished by their cell number. Narrow tubuli had fewer nuclei than the wider ones. The nuclear number of a cross section was defined as its class and the location of a labelled epithelial cell was expressed in relationship to the class where it was found. The location of a labelled stromal cell was determined by the class of its neighboring tubular or acinar cross sections. The mean cell numbers of intercalated, granular, and striated duct cross sections were, respectively, 4.7, 10.5, and 10.2, while the average cell content of acini was 4.7 cells. One hour after labelling most labelled tubular epithelial and stromal cells were found in tubular cross sections (or low tubular classes), while in the acini, labelled epithelial and stromal cells were found mainly in wider cross sections (or higher acinar classes). Within the next 23 days labelled tubular cells and stroma proceeded into higher classes, while labelled acinar epithelium and stroma cells were displaced into narrower cross sections (or lower classes). The displaced tubular epithelium and stroma covered daily 0.26 classes. At this velocity the cell will reach the highest tubular class in 62 days and the estimated maximal tubular cell life span is 62 days

  5. Submandibular Gland Transfer: A Potential Imaging Pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Yom, S S; Ha, P K; Heaton, C M; Glastonbury, C M

    2018-03-29

    The Seikaly and Jha submandibular gland transfer surgery is performed to facilitate gland shielding during radiation therapy for head and neck tumors to circumvent radiation-induced xerostomia. It results in an asymmetric postsurgical appearance of the submandibular and submental spaces. Our purpose was to characterize the morphologic and enhancement characteristics of the transferred submandibular gland and identify potential pitfalls in postoperative radiologic interpretation. This retrospective study identified patients with head and neck cancer who had undergone the submandibular gland transfer procedure at our institution. Chart reviews were performed to identify relevant oncologic histories and therapies. CT and MR neck imaging was reviewed to characterize morphologic and enhancement characteristics of the pre- and postoperative submandibular glands, as well as interpretive accuracy. Eleven patients with oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas who underwent submandibular gland transfer were identified. The transferred glands were significantly lengthened in the anteroposterior dimension compared with contralateral glands ( P submandibular and submental spaces. Enhancement patterns of the transferred submandibular glands varied, depending on the time of imaging relative to the operation and radiation therapy. Submandibular gland transfer was acknowledged in the postoperative report in 7/11 cases. Errors in interpretation were present in 2/11 reports. After the submandibular gland transfer procedure, the submandibular and submental spaces lose their symmetric appearances as the transferred submandibular glands become lengthened and located more anteriorly and inferiorly, with variable enhancement characteristics. Familiarity with the postsurgical appearance of the transferred submandibular glands is key to accurate imaging interpretation. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  6. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Batsakis, J G

    1977-06-01

    In an attempt to explain the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors, a bicellular theory of origin has been presented. This theory is supported by indirect evidence from light and electron microscopy. Two cells, the excretory duct reserve cell and the intercalated duct reserve cell, are presented as the hypothetical cells of origin for salivary gland neoplasms. It is argued that the excretory duct reserve cell gives rise to squamous cell carcinomas and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and that the intercalated duct reserve cell gives rise to all others. It It is also shown that myoepithelial cells are responsible in part for the wide histologic variation of these neoplasms.

  8. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    (ACC). Patient demography was similar to salivary gland tumors in other locations. All fine needle aspiration cytologies (FNACs) interpreted as benign were from ACCs. Metastatic disease was found in 12.5 % of ACCs at diagnosis with one third of all ACC patients having metastases at the end of follow...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  9. The ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... Case report. An 8-year-old boy presented to paediatric endo- crinology with short stature, delayed bone age and biochemical features suggestive of hypo pituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a flattened anterior pituitary gland within the sella, associated with absence of.

  10. Parotid gland function after radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roesink, Judith Maria

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a common treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Unfortunately, it produces serious acute and long-term side effects to the oral cavity. One severe complication is the loss of salivary gland function, which can persists for many years. Saliva has multiple functions relating to

  11. Neck sweat gland cancer hemorrhage. Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Przemysław; Górnicka, Barbara; Górnicki, Krzysztof; Kołodziejczak, Małgorzata; Siekierski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a case of an 87-year-old female patient who was admitted for an emergency operation due to massive hemorrhage of an ulceration localized on a huge neck tumor. Post-interventional diagnosis indicated hidradenocarcinoma. Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare skin neoplasm. It can coincide with adenoma, may develop through its malignant transformation or develop as a malignant tumor from the beginning. It may be found in all dermal localizations. It may develop metastases or appear in the diffuse form. Surgical excision of the tumor was performed obtaining a surgical margin, completed with excision of local lymph nodes and multiple layer suturing. Due to lack of the patient's consent, she has not been qualified for adjuvant therapy. Control examination 6 and 12 months later showed no signs of local recurrence or lymph node metastasis. Surgical excision of apocrine hidradenocarcinoma with a surgical margin could present a good therapeutic effect in spite of lack of adjuvant therapy.

  12. The reptilian thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Sam; Lock, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The field of reptilian clinical endocrinology is still in its infancy. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are intimately involved with many basic metabolic functions. These glands have been the subject of extensive research studies in reptilian species; however, the effects of abnormal gland function have been poorly documented in clinical cases. These glands play a major role in maintaining physiologic homeostasis in all vertebrates. With the advent of more sensitive assays, it should be possible to measure the small amounts of hormones found in reptilian species. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding clinical endocrinology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in reptiles.

  13. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  14. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  15. Surgery for Malignant Submandibular Gland Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Natalie L; Chinn, Steven B; Bradley, Patrick J; Weber, Randal S

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, surgery has been the primary treatment for malignant submandibular gland neoplasms. Nonetheless, due to the heterogeneity and rarity of submandibular gland malignant tumors and the high frequency of chronic benign processes in this region, management can be complex. Preoperative investigations, such as fine-needle aspiration and imaging, are critical to achieve the correct diagnosis so that appropriate surgery can be planned. In general, for malignant submandibular gland neoplasms, the minimal treatment necessary is excision of the submandibular gland with level I lymph node dissection. Salivary gland cancer in the submandibular gland is generally more aggressive than the same histologic type in the parotid gland. Neck dissection may be required and primarily depends on the stage and histological grade. Adjuvant therapy most frequently consists of radiation and can improve overall survival. Some factors that influence prognosis after surgical treatment include the histologic grade, stage at presentation, and positive surgical margins. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Submandibular gland function and parotid gland function in Bell's palsy, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kato, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1986-01-01

    With the use of sup(99m)Tc, we attempted to measure simultaneously submandibular gland function and parotid gland function, which is thought not to be controlled by the facial nerve, in patients with unilateral Bell's palsy. For comparison, the lachrymal gland function of some patients was measured by the thread method. We found that facial palsy sometimes affects parotid gland function as well as submandibular gland function. In 60 % of the patients the function of the two glands tended to be affected in the same way. Lachrymal gland function tended to be affected in a similar way to parotid gland function. We conclude that the chorda tympani and the greater petrosal nerve may influence parotid gland function. (author)

  17. Development of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Fagman, Henrik

    2017-06-15

    Thyroid hormones are crucial for organismal development and homeostasis. In humans, untreated congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid agenesis inevitably leads to cretinism, which comprises irreversible brain dysfunction and dwarfism. Elucidating how the thyroid gland - the only source of thyroid hormones in the body - develops is thus key for understanding and treating thyroid dysgenesis, and for generating thyroid cells in vitro that might be used for cell-based therapies. Here, we review the principal mechanisms involved in thyroid organogenesis and functional differentiation, highlighting how the thyroid forerunner evolved from the endostyle in protochordates to the endocrine gland found in vertebrates. New findings on the specification and fate decisions of thyroid progenitors, and the morphogenesis of precursor cells into hormone-producing follicular units, are also discussed. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Cancers of major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Aru; Kozel, Jessica A; Lydiatt, William M

    2015-07-01

    Major salivary gland malignancies are a rare but histologically diverse group of entities. Establishing the diagnosis of a malignant salivary neoplasm may be challenging because of the often minimally symptomatic nature of the disease, and limitations of imaging modalities and cytology. Treatment is centered on surgical therapy and adjuvant radiation in selected scenarios. Systemic therapy with chemotherapeutic agents and monoclonal antibodies lacks evidence in support of its routine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognosis and submandibular gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ino, Chiyonori; Yamashita, Toshio; Hanaoka, Mako; Kumazawa, Tadami

    1984-01-01

    Submandibular gland function was tested with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan 10 days and 3-4 weeks after the onset Bell's palsy, and the results and prognoses were correlated. In the first report we divided the cases into groups A, B and C, and this time group D classified in S.S.R. was poor. Groups A and D can be differentiated by submandibular gland scan within 10 days after the onset; that is to say, the prognosis of more than half the cases can be determined in this early phase. Especially, it is noticeable that group D showing the poor prognosis is differentiated within 10 days after the onset. This method was compared with other tests of facial palsy. Four to five weeks after the onset all tests were of equal accuracy in predicting the prognosis of each group. Within 10 days after the onset, however, submandibular gland scan seems to be more useful than the other tests. (author)

  20. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  1. Spiradenoma and cylindroma originate from the hair follicle bulge and not from the eccrine sweat gland: an immunohistochemical study with CD200 and other stem cell markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellheyer, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Spiradenoma and cylindroma have historically been described as sweat gland tumors and have often been considered to be of eccrine lineage. However, (a) associations with trichoepitheliomas in Brooke-Spiegler syndrome or with trichoepitheliomas and milia in Rasmussen syndrome, (b) neoplastic combinations with hair follicle tumors in solitary cases, and (c) anatomical considerations support a folliculosebaceous-apocrine lineage. Follicular stem cell markers may allow for further characterization of these neoplasms. A total of 97 tumors were examined for the expression pattern of follicular stem cell markers cytokeratin 15 (CK15), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 (PHLDA1), and CD200. The tumors were comprised of 27 spiradenomas, 30 cylindromas, 16 hidradenomas, 19 poromas, 4 dermal duct tumors and 1 hidroacanthoma simplex. All spiradenomas and cylindromas were CD200-positive whereas the other tumors classified as eccrine in lineage were all CD200-negative. CK15 also discriminated between spiradenomas and cylindromas and the remaining neoplasms but not to the degree of CD200. PHLDA1 and CK19 were noncontributory. It is concluded that both spiradenoma and cylindroma are not eccrine but follicular tumors. More specifically, it is proposed that both adnexal neoplasms are derived from the hair follicle bulge and as such represent one of the least differentiated follicular tumors. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality o...

  3. Breast carcinoma metastasis to the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Marie N.; Von Holstein, Sarah; Hansen, Alastair B.

    2015-01-01

    tomography scans revealed irregular lacrimal gland tumours in the two patients. The two patients had history of breast cancer. The first breast cancer metastasis in the lacrimal gland demonstrated a cribriform growth pattern containing ductal elements. The epithelial tumour cells stained positive...... study aimed to describe two such cases and draw attention to breast carcinomas as a differential diagnosis and the most frequent cause of lacrimal gland metastasis....

  4. The harderian gland: a tercentennial review.

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, A P

    1994-01-01

    The harderian gland was first described in 1694 by Johann Jacob Harder (1656-1711). It occurs in most terrestrial vertebrates and is located within the orbit where, in some species, it is the largest structure. It may be compound tubular or compound tubuloalveolar, and its secretory duct is usually morphologically distinct only after leaving the substance of the gland to open on the surface of the nictitating membrane. The tubules of the gland are formed of a single layer of columnar epitheli...

  5. Hemangioblastoma arising from the submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Marco A; Morawiecki, Peter A; Yencha, Myron W

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to document and describe the clinical features of a hemangioblastoma arising from a submandibular gland. A case report of a 63-year-old man with a right submandibular gland hemangioblastoma. Submandibular gland excision and histological examination revealed a hemangioblastoma. Subsequent evaluation with imaging studies found no association with von Hippel-Lindau disease. We report the first presentation of a hemangioblastoma arising in a salivary gland. Further evaluation of patients with a hemangioblastoma is recommended given the neoplasms' association with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

  6. Lacrimal Gland Pathologies from an Anatomical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Sinan Abit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients in our daily practice have one or more ocular surface disorders including conjucntivitis, keratitis, dry eye disease, meibomian gland dysfunction, contact lens related symptoms, refractive errors,computer vision syndrome. Lacrimal gland has an important role in all above mentioned pathologies due to its major secretory product. An anatomical and physiological knowledge about lacrimal gland is a must in understanding basic and common ophthalmological cases. İn this paper it is aimed to explain the lacrimal gland diseases from an anatomical perspective.

  7. What Are Some Types of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor of the pituitary gland (this is called Cushing's disease) Tumor of the adrenal gland (as explained above) ... the adrenal glands to produce too much cortisol. Cushing's disease refers to pituitary tumors that cause Cushing's syndrome . ...

  8. Pineal Gland Agenesis: Review and Case Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Marcus A; Davis, Michele; Voin, Vlad; Shoja, Mohammadali; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R. Shane

    2017-01-01

    Agenesis of the pineal gland has rarely been reported in the medical literature. Herein, we report a cadaveric specimen found to have agenesis of the pineal gland. The remaining gross examination of the brain was normal. A review of the literature was performed on this unusual finding.

  9. Ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, H E; Greisen, O; Hastrup, N

    1987-06-01

    A case of ductal carcinoma of the parotid gland is described. The medical literature contains only 13 previous reports on this kind of adenocarcinoma of the parotid gland. The tumour is characterized by its histologic resemblance to ductal carcinomas of the breast and prostate. The course of previously described cases suggests that this tumour has a highly aggressive biological behaviour.

  10. Comparative ultrasound measurement of normal thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... the normal thyroid gland has a homogenous increased medium level echo texture. The childhood thyroid gland dimension correlates linearly with age and body surface unlike adults. [14] Iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are thyroid hormones which function to control the basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  11. Retention of lipiodol after parotid gland sialography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J.; Pijpe, J.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Vissink, A.

    There is limited information about the retention of lipiodol in the parotid gland after parotid gland sialography. This study assesses the prevalence of lipiodol retention after parotid sialography and determines if retention of lipiodol is related to the sialography technique or the underlying

  12. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Treatment (Posterior Blepharitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WARM COMPRESSES Heating the eyelid margin will increase oil production and melt the “crusty” oil that has solidified in the glands. Use a ... remove oil, bacteria and debris which block the oil gland openings. Use a Q-tip, your ... Use a mild soap like cetaphil or CeraVe or dilute baby shampoo ( ...

  13. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall recurrcnce rate of 4.48%. Conclusion: Minor salivaiy gland tumours are rare. Follow-up in this environment is. 13001'. There is a need to educate the patients about the importance of early presentation and recall visits. Key worclsz Salivary glands, minor, tumour, treatment liitroduction. U f-;;i|i\\ar§, land tumours are ...

  14. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland represent a large spectrum of lesions with similarities in clinical signs and symptoms but with different biological behaviour and prognosis. They are rare, but with aggressive malignant potential. Tumours of the lacrimal gland may present with swelling of...

  15. Orbital Lymphoma Mimicking Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Strianese

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the case of a patient affected by orbital lymphoma mimicking pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. Methods: This was a retrospective case report. Results: We present the case of a patient with 15-year history of slowly progressive left proptosis and inferomedial bulbar dislocation who had the presumptive diagnosis of lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma based on clinical and radiological features. The patient underwent lateral orbitotomy and lacrimal gland excision. Postoperative histological features were consistent with low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion: The accepted clinico-radiological criteria used for the diagnosis of lacrimal gland fossa lesions might have a certain false-positive rate, even in recent years. The initial surgical approach with the appropriate choice between fine-needle aspiration biopsies, intraoperative biopsies and lacrimal gland excisions might be a challenge.

  16. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  17. Gordon Research Conference on Mammary Gland Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 conference was the tenth in the series of biennial Gordon Research Conferences on Mammary Gland Biology. Traditionally this conference brings together scientists from diverse backgrounds and experience but with a common interest in the biology of the mammary gland. Investigators from agricultural and medical schools, biochemists, cell and molecular biologists, endocrinologists, immunologists, and representatives from the emerging biotechnology industries met to discuss current concepts and results on the function and regulation of the normal and neoplastic mammary gland in a variety of species. Of the participants, approximately three-fourths were engaged in studying the normal mammary gland function, whereas the other quarter were engaged in studying the neoplastic gland. The interactions between scientists, clinicians, veterinarians examining both normal and neoplastic cell function serves to foster the multi-disciplinary goals of the conference and has stimulated many cooperative projects among participants in previous years

  18. What do you think of an unusual axillary mass? | Benzzi | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skin apocrine carcinoma is a rare malgnancy of epidermal adnexa, most frequent in axillary seat, where apocrine sweat gland are abundant, the neoplasm can arise ... Standard treatment is surgical excision with margins of 2 to 3cm for local tumor, for apocrine adenocarcinoma regional lymph node dissection if nodes were ...

  19. The metapleural gland of ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-01-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions......-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG...... is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional...

  20. [Tissue engineering of parathyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, F; Armano, G; Auriemma, P P; Sergio, R; De Sena, G; Capuozzo, V; Rosso, F; Marino, G; Papale, F; Grimaldi, A; Barbarisi, A

    2010-01-01

    The postoperative hypoparathyroidism is a not rare complication after total thyroidectomy and/or total parathyroidectomy. Attempts to transplant parathyroid tissue began in 1975 with the work of Wells, but still today results are disappointing. However, with the development of tissue engineering techniques, some experimental approaches to build artificial parathyroid are been made. Bioengineered device, actively secreting PTH, for transplant in patients with iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism is unavailable. Parathyroid cells were obtained from three chronic uremic patients in hemodialysis, operated for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Cell cultures in RPMI medium were subsequently seeded on collagen scaffold (three-dimensional matrix with slow biodegradation). Collagen is the major component of the extracellular matrix and thus is a good substrate for cell adhesion and growth. Culture media, with a low calcium concentration, were optimised to physiologically stimulate parathyroid hormone secretion. Cell cultures were morphologically observed in optical and electron (ESEM) microscopy and metabolically assayed by MTT method until the tenth week. Besides, concentration of parathyroid hormone in the culture medium has been measured for several weeks. After 24 hours of culture in RPMI, cells extracted from human parathyroid glands were nearly all adherent and organised in clusters to resemble the glandular organization. The cellular population consisted predominantly of parathyroid cells (90-95%). On collagen scaffolds, cells maintains an epithelial-like morphology also after 10 weeks, colonizing the scaffold surface and keeping a good proliferative rate with a discrete production of parathyroid hormone. The use of parathyroid cells extracted from patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism was certainly an appropriate choice that enabled us to achieve these results, that albeit partial bode well for the experimental in vivo animal model. The bioengineered scaffolds when

  1. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokić, Edita; Kljajić, Vladimir; Idjuški, Stevan; Benc, Damir; Popović, Djordje; Protić, Mladjan; Crnobrnja, Veljko

    2014-01-01

    Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  2. Primary parotid gland lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Katsaronis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas are the most common lymphomas of the salivary glands. The benign lymphoepithelial lesion is also a lymphoproliferative disease that develops in the parotid gland. In the present case report, we describe one case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion with a subsequent low transformation to grade mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma appearing as a cystic mass in the parotid gland. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian female smoker was referred to our clinic with a non-tender left facial swelling that had been present for approximately three years. The patient underwent resection of the left parotid gland with preservation of the left facial nerve through a preauricular incision. The pathology report was consistent with a low-grade marginal-zone B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma following benign lymphoepithelial lesion of the gland. Conclusions Salivary gland mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cystic or bilateral salivary gland lesions. Parotidectomy is recommended in order to treat the tumor and to ensure histological diagnosis for further follow-up planning. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be considered in association with surgery in disseminated forms or after removal.

  3. Imaging of Submandibular and Sublingual Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit K; Kanekar, Sangam G

    2018-05-01

    The submandibular and sublingual salivary glands are major salivary glands with a wide spectrum of pathologic conditions. The corresponding spaces along the floor of mouth have complex anatomy, best evaluated with cross-sectional imaging. The spectrum of diseases in these regions varies from simple infection to advanced malignancy, not just from the gland itself but also from the surrounding structures. The most common abnormalities in these spaces are inflammatory and infectious, and computed tomography is currently the most common imaging modality used. The anatomy of these spaces is much better depicted with MR; however, all the modalities have their unique roles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lymphoma type MALT of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frometa Neirai, Carlos; Gonzalez Gomez, Juan Manuel; Arredondo Lopez, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    The lymphomas type MALT or the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are the most recent variety of non-Hodgkin lymphomas present mainly in the gastric mucosa associated with Helycobacter pylori infection and in the thyroid gland in relation to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Frequently the origin of this lesion can't be determined only by cytology study, thus it is necessary the histopathology analysis for a definitive diagnosis in most cases. Present paper includes the case of male patient with bilateral volume increase of both parotid glands and a diagnosis cytopathological of a benign lymphoepithelial process and the development of a type MALT lymphoma in relation to the right parotid gland. (author)

  5. [Salivary gland drainage into the thyroglossal duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siem, G; Natvig, K; Kolbenstvedt, A; Lømo, J

    2001-01-20

    Failure in regression of the thyroglossal duct is one of the most common reasons for midline swellings in the neck. Several authors have described recurrent thyroglossal duct remnants with persisting draining sinuses. However, few have described accessory salivary glands that drain into the thyroglossal duct. In this article we report two such cases with midline salivary glands in the floor of the mouth. These two patients were subsequently successfully treated with radical tissue resection in the area between the hyoid bone and foramen cecum. Preoperative fistulography or sinography was useful to demonstrate the ductal ramification of the salivary glands, and use of methylene blue during surgery proved of significant value for the result.

  6. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bee; electron microscopy; larval salivary gland; light microscopy; polarized light microscopy; silk gland. Abstract. The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well ...

  7. New exocrine glands in ants: the hypostomal gland and basitarsal gland in the genus Melissotarsus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölldobler, Bert; Obermayer, Malu; Plowes, Nicola J. R.; Fisher, Brian L.

    2014-07-01

    Fisher and Robertson (Insect Soc 46: 78-83, 1999) discovered the production of silk-like secretions emerging from slit-shaped openings along the anterior margin of the ventral hypostoma of Melissotarsus ant workers. The current histological study describes a hitherto unknown hypostomal gland from which this silk-like substance originates. In addition, this study describes a new basitarsal gland in the three pairs of legs of Melissotarsus workers.

  8. [Anogenital mammary-like glands and related diseases. Part 2. Malignant tumors of the anogenital glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, A M; Belousova, I E; Kacerovska, D; Michal, M; Shelekhova, K V; Kazakov, D V

    Mammary-like glands are a normal anatomical component of the anogenital region and can give rise to many benign and malignant tumors that morphologically mimic the similar diseases of the breast. The literature review is complemented by a description of 199 cases of malignant tumors of mammary-like glands. The paper presents the clinical and morphological characteristics of various malignant tumors of mammary-like glands, including extramammary Paget's disease, ductal, tubulolobular, adenoid cystic adenocarcinoma, low-grade phyllodes tumor, etc.

  9. Morphology and diversity of exocrine glands in lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegliante, Francesca; Hasenfuss, Ivar

    2012-01-01

    The morphology of 21 exocrine glands and 13 supposedly exocrine structures recorded for lepidopteran larvae is reviewed. The epitracheal glands, for which a double role (exocrine and endocrine) has been demonstrated, are examined as well. Function is well known for at least 8 glands but completely unknown for 6 glands, for 10 putative glandular structures, and for the exocrine component of the epitracheal glands. Functional studies on the remaining structures are insufficient; in some cases (mandibular gland and adenosma) homologous glands may play a different role depending on the species, and only a few taxa have been examined. The secretions of 13 glandular types have been analyzed chemically. The histology of 11 glands is known at the ultrastructural level, whereas that of 6 glands and 7 putative glandular structures is completely unknown. Comparative anatomical studies of the osmeterium, adenosma, and Verson's glands may yield useful information for phylogenetic reconstructions. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  10. The nasus gland: a new gland in soldiers of Angularitermes (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, Thomas; Carrijo, Tiago F; Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Alain; Křížková, Barbora; Constantini, Joice P; Cancello, Eliana M

    2015-09-01

    Termites have developed many exocrine glands, generally dedicated to defence or communication. Although a few of these glands occur in all termite species, or represent synapomorphies of larger clades, others are morphological innovations of a single species, or a few related species. Here, we describe the nasus gland, a new gland occurring at the base of the nasus of Angularitermes soldiers. The nasus gland is composed of class 1, 2, and 3 secretory cells, a rare combination that is only shared by the sternal and tergal glands of some termites and cockroaches. The ultrastructural observations suggest that the secretion is produced by class 2 and 3 secretory cells, and released mostly by class 3 cells. The base of the nasus has a rough appearance due to numerous pits bearing openings of canals conducting the secretion from class 3 secretory cells to the exterior. We tentatively assign a defensive function to the nasus gland, although further research is needed to confirm this function. Although the gland is described only from species of Angularitermes, other genera of Nasutitermitinae also present a rough nasus base, suggesting the presence of a similar, possibly homologous, gland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saneem Ahamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cysts are benign, slowly growing unilocular or multilocular lesions that appear in the head and neck. They are also called Branchial cyst. The head and neck sites are the salivary glands(more commonly parotid and rarely submandibular gland and the oral cavity (usually the floor of the mouth. there are various methods of investigation available today, of which Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC can be used to provide an immediate diagnosis of a lymphoepithelial cyst. The other investigations include, Ultrasonogram,and Computed tomography.It usually occurs due to the process of lymphocyte-induced cystic ductular dilatation and the confirmatory diagnosis is always made postoperatively by histopathological examination. The mainstay in the treatment of a lymphoepithelial cyst remains the surgical approach, which includes complete enucleation of the cyst along with total excision of the involved salivary gland. This is a report of a lymphoepithelial cyst involving the submandibular salivary gland and its management.

  12. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  13. Amyloidosis of the thyroid gland: ultrasonographic aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya, M.I.; Vilas, I.; Menargues, M.A.; Hernandez, M.

    1998-01-01

    Subclinical amyloid infiltration of the thyroid gland is very common. However, amyloidosis rarely provokes thyroid symptoms. We describe a case of goiter due to secondary amyloidosis and review the characteristic ultrasound findings associated with this condition. (Author) 6 refs

  14. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

  15. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... a review of literature from 1991 to 2010 was performed. RESULTS: Six Danish patients with a malignant salivary gland tumor in the larynx were identified resulting in an incidence of 0.001/100,000 inhabitants/year. Four had adenoid cystic carcinoma and two a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. All patients were male....... female ratio was 2:1, the most common location was the supraglottic region (52%) and the most predominant histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (46%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (35%) and adenocarcinoma NOS (12%). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma is a rare disease with a male...

  16. The labral gland on termite soldiers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palma-Onetto, V.; Hošková, K.; Křížková, B.; Krejčířová, R.; Pflegerová, Jitka; Bubeníčková, F.; Plarre, R.; Dahlsjö, C. A. L.; Synek, J.; Bourguignon, T.; Sillam-Dusses, D.; Šobotník, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 3 (2018), s. 535-544 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : exocrine gland * hypopharynx * labrum Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Entomology Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2016

  17. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Kato, Kazuo; Wada, Takuro; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  18. Papillary cystadenocarcinoma of submandibular salivary gland: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mardi Kavita; Sharma Sudarshan; Gupta Neelam

    2010-01-01

    Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm characterized by cysts and papillary endophytic projections. It was first defined in 1991 by World Health organization as a separate entity. Major locations of this neoplasm are the parotid gland, the sublingual gland, and minor salivary glands, while occurrence in the submandibular gland is extremely rare. We present a case of papillary cystadenocarinoma arising from the submandibular gland in a 67-year-old male patient. Fu...

  19. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI......), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease....

  20. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Bahl Amit; Sharma D; Julka P; Das Anup; Rath G

    2006-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  1. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Amit; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Das, Anup; Rath, G K

    2006-01-01

    Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  2. Sweat gland carcinoma with lung metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahl Amit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor. The tumor has propensity to spread to lymph nodes and distant metastases has been reported. Their exact incidence in the Indian setting is not known. Aspects related to treatment are also not clearly defined. Though surgery forms the initial treatment approach, adjuvant treatment has not been properly explored. We report here a case of sweat gland carcinoma with bilateral lung metastases.

  3. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta

    2013-01-01

    To investigate genetic alterations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) with emphasis on the MYB-NFIB fusion oncogene and its downstream targets, MYB rearrangements, and copy number alterations in relation to clinical data and survival.......To investigate genetic alterations in lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) with emphasis on the MYB-NFIB fusion oncogene and its downstream targets, MYB rearrangements, and copy number alterations in relation to clinical data and survival....

  4. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are differen...

  5. [Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands: diagnostic considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagán Sebastián, J V; Silvestre Donat, F J

    1990-09-01

    We present 3 cases of Sialoadenosis of the parotid glands, one male and two females, who presented associated systemic pathology (liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus), detected following clinically suspect syaloadenosis (the patients were unaware of their systemic disease). In all three cases definitive diagnosis was established by needle aspiration of the gland. Which revealed great acinar dilatation. Finally, differential diagnosis was established between sialoadenosis and those conditions with clinical presentations similar to those described for sialoadenosis.

  6. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  7. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modification of the submandibular gland transfer procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, Hani Z; Elkhalidy, Youness; Jha, Naresh; Scrimger, Rufus; Debenham, Brock J; Harris, Jeffrey R; O'Connell, Daniel A; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-11-01

    The treatment for most advanced head and neck cancers (stage III and IV) usually includes radiation, and the most common side effect of this treatment modality is a permanent decrease in salivary production. Xerostomia is a devastating complication that significantly affects patients' quality of life by interfering with functions of taste, mastication, deglutition, and speech production. Treatment of xerostomia is varied, but one of the strategies developed by our group was to preserve one submandibular gland by surgically transferring it to the submental space and shielding it from the full dose of radiation. This procedure is proven to reduce the rate of radiation-induced xerostomia, but its main disadvantage is that it is contraindicated in oral cavity cancer. This study describes and evaluates a modification of the submandibular gland transfer (SGT) procedure, where the submandibular gland contralateral to the disease process is relocated to the parotid region. This modification has the potential of expanding the benefits of submandibular gland transfer procedures to patients with oral cavity cancers. Prospective feasibility study. This study involved nine patients with a new diagnosis of advanced head and neck cancer undergoing major head and neck cancer resection with postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy. The new modified salivary gland transfer procedure was performed on all nine patients, and the glands total dose received with radiation therapy was assessed. All the modified SGT procedures were successful with no post-operative complications. The radiation oncology team has been able to successfully localize the transferred submandibular glands and shield them from the radiation beam postoperatively. We have successfully demonstrated that surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the parotid region is feasible, surgically viable, oncologically sound, and does not interfere with radiation therapy. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2492-2496, 2016.

  9. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  10. Partial irradiation of the parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisbruch, A; Ship, J A; Kim, H M; Ten Haken, R K

    2001-07-01

    Recent efforts to reduce xerostomia associated with irradiation (RT) of head and neck cancer include the use of conformal and intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) to partly spare the major salivary glands, notably the parotid glands, from a high radiation dose while treating adequately all the targets at risk of disease. Knowledge of the dose-volume-response relationships in the salivary glands would determine treatment planning goals and facilitate optimization of the RT plans. Recent prospective studies of salivary flows following inhomogeneous irradiation of the parotid glands have utilized dose-volume histograms (DVHs) and various models to assess these relationships. These studies found that the mean dose to the gland is correlated with the reduction of the salivary output. This is consistent with a pure parallel architecture of the functional subunits (FSUs) of the salivary glands. The range of the mean doses, which have been found in these studies to cause significant salivary flow reduction is 26 to 39 Gy. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  11. The metapleural gland of ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-11-01

    The metapleural gland (MG) is a complex glandular structure unique to ants, suggesting a critical role in their origin and ecological success. We synthesize the current understanding of the adaptive function, morphology, evolutionary history, and chemical properties of the MG. Two functions of the MG, sanitation and chemical defence, have received the strongest empirical support; two additional possible functions, recognition odour and territorial marking, are less well supported. The design of the MG is unusual for insects; glandular secretions are stored in a rigid, non-compressible invagination of the integument and the secretion is thought to ooze out passively through the non-closable opening of the MG or is groomed off by the legs and applied to target surfaces. MG loss has occurred repeatedly among the ants, particularly in the subfamilies Formicinae and Myrmicinae, and the MG is more commonly absent in males than in workers. MG chemistry has been characterized mostly in derived ant lineages with unique biologies (e.g. leafcutter ants, fire ants), currently precluding any inferences about MG chemistry at the origin of the ants. A synthetic approach integrating functional morphology, phylogenetic transitions and chemical ecology of the MGs of both the derived and the unstudied early-branching (basal) ant lineages is needed to elucidate the evolutionary origin and diversification of the MG of ants. © 2010 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Recurrent Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert Lee; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The most important causes of recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma are enucleation with intraoperative spillage and incomplete tumor excision in association with characteristic histologic findings for the lesion (incomplete pseudocapsule and the presence of pseudopodia). Most recurrent pleomorphic adenomas (RPAs) are multinodular. MRI is the imaging method of choice for their assessment. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity of RPA surgery. Although treatment of RPA must be individualized, total parotidectomy is generally recommended given the multicentricity of the lesions. However, surgery alone may be inadequate for controlling RPA over the long term. There is growing evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiotherapy results in significantly better local control. A high percentage of RPAs are incurable. All patients should therefore be informed about the possibility of needing multiple treatment procedures, with possible impairment of facial nerve function, and radiation therapy for RPA. Reappearance of Warthin tumor is a metachronous occurrence of a new focus or residual incomplete excision of all primary multicentric foci of Warthin tumor. Selected cases can be observed. Conservative surgical management can include partial superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. Not uncommonly, other major and minor salivary gland neoplasms, including myoepithelioma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, cystadenoma, and ductal papilloma, follow an indolent course after surgical resection, with rare cases of recurrence. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  14. Tumor de glândula ceruminosa com invasão intracraniana: relato de caso Tumor of ceruminous gland with intracranial invasion: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÍRIAM C. M. DE CASTRO

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available As glândulas ceruminosas são glândulas apócrinas modificadas encontradas na região profunda da derme que reveste a porção cartilaginosa do meato acústico externo. Os tumores originados dessas glândulas são raros. Existem controvérsias em relação ao termo ceruminoma, que nos parece impróprio. Na verdade, esses tumores são atualmente classificados como adenoma, adenocarcinoma, carcinoma adenóide cístico e adenoma pleomórfico. Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 39 anos, apresentado-se com cefaléia, hipoacusia e zumbidos à direita, além de vertigem e náuseas. A TC de crânio evidenciou tumoração do ouvido médio, invadindo os limites ósseos e cartilaginosos, com extensão intracraniana. Foi submetida a cirurgia, com exérese parcial do tumor, seguida de radioterapia (6000 cG. A histologia mostrou tratar-se de carcinoma adenóide cístico de glândulas ceruminosas. A paciente apresentou no pós-operatório paralisia facial periférica à direita, mantendo os déficits anteriores. Após um ano da cirurgia encontra-se estável clinicamente.Ceruminous glands are modified apocrine glands, confined to the skin lining of the cartilaginous part of the external auditory meatus. Tumors arising from these glands are rare. Controversy exists regarding the term "ceruminoma". Actually this neoplasia should be classified as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and pleomorphic ceruminous adenoma. We report a 39-year-old woman first seen at Santa Casa of Belo Horizonte, in 1998, presenting with headache, nausea, vertigo, hearing loss and tinitus on the right for the past two years. CT scan showed a tumor eroding cartilaginous and bony limits with intracranial invasion. She was submitted to multidisciplinary treatment with surgery followed by radiotherapy (6000 cG. Histology showed a ceruminous adenoid cystic carcinoma. The patient manifested a right peripherical facial palsy and had no recovery of the previous deficits. After one

  15. Rescue of salivary gland function after stem cell transplantation in irradiated glands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle M A Lombaert

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential xerostomia (dry mouth syndrome. In this study, a clinically applicable method for the restoration of radiation-impaired salivary gland function using salivary gland stem cell transplantation was developed. Salivary gland cells were isolated from murine submandibular glands and cultured in vitro as salispheres, which contained cells expressing the stem cell markers Sca-1, c-Kit and Musashi-1. In vitro, the cells differentiated into salivary gland duct cells and mucin and amylase producing acinar cells. Stem cell enrichment was performed by flow cytrometric selection using c-Kit as a marker. In vitro, the cells differentiated into amylase producing acinar cells. In vivo, intra-glandular transplantation of a small number of c-Kit(+ cells resulted in long-term restoration of salivary gland morphology and function. Moreover, donor-derived stem cells could be isolated from primary recipients, cultured as secondary spheres and after re-transplantation ameliorate radiation damage. Our approach is the first proof for the potential use of stem cell transplantation to functionally rescue salivary gland deficiency.

  16. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. The clypeal gland: a new exocrine gland in termite imagoes (Isoptera: Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křížková, Barbora; Bourguignon, Thomas; Vytisková, Blahoslava; Sobotník, Jan

    2014-11-01

    Social insects possess a rich set of exocrine organs producing diverse pheromones and defensive compounds. This is especially true for termite imagoes, which are equipped with several glands producing, among others, sex pheromones and defensive compounds protecting imagoes during the dispersal flight and colony foundation. Here, we describe the clypeal gland, a new termite exocrine organ occurring in the labro-clypeal region of imagoes of most Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae and Termitidae species. The clypeal gland of Coptotermes testaceus consists of class 1 (modified epidermal cell) and class 3 (bicellular gland unit) secretory cells. Ultrastructural features suggest that the gland secretes volatile compounds and proteins, probably after starting the reproduction. One peculiar feature of the gland is the presence of multiple secretory canals in a single canal cell, a feature never observed before in other insect glands. Although the function of the gland remains unknown, we hypothesize that it could produce secretion signalling the presence of functional reproductives or their need to be fed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation induced cell loss in rat submandibular gland and its relation to gland function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP

    Purpose: To understand early and late radiation-induced loss of function of the submandibular gland, changes in cell number were documented and correlated with data on gland function. Modulation of the radiation effect by sialogogues was used to investigate possible mechanisms of action. Materials

  19. A retrospective evaluation of submandibular gland involvement in oral cavity cancers: a case for gland preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoturo, E M; Trivedi, N P; Kekatpure, V; Gangoli, A; Shetkar, G S; Mohan, M; Kuriakose, M A

    2012-11-01

    The key factor mitigating against prognosis in head and neck cancer is nodal metastasis and its management. Neck dissection has been known to play an integral part in this type of cancer management. Submandibular gland preservation during neck dissection and post radiotherapy, have been known to improve subjective symptoms of xerostomia. The authors retrospectively surveyed the involvement of submandibular gland involvement in oral cancer with a view to confirm oncologic safety of submandibular gland preservation, as a first step in a quest to manage radiation induced xerostomia by submandibular gland transfer. The medical and pathological records of oral cancer patients who underwent surgical treatment at the authors' centre were reviewed retrospectively. 194 patients were included in the study. 229 submandibular glands were excised from the same number of neck dissections. 3 (1.3%) submandibular glands were involved with malignancies microscopically. The mode of involvement was by direct infiltration. In conclusion, no metastasis to submandibular gland was observed. This may suggest the oncologic safety of submandibular gland preservation and transfer. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Histopathological Pattern of Salivary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrestha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tumors of the salivary glands are uncommon head and neck neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative frequencies, types, site distribution and the histopathological features of salivary gland tumors. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 176 cases of salivary gland tumors collected from medical record section and department of pathology at B.P.Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2010. Tumors were analyzed based on demographics, anatomic location and histopathological type. Results: Out of 176 cases, 66 (37.5 % were benign and 110 (62.5 % were malignant with M:F ratio of 1.7:1. The mean age observed was 44.76 years with age range of 12 to 75 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was found to be the commonest benign tumor (72.7 %, followed by Warthin tumor (15.1%, monomorphic adenoma (3.0 % and basal cell adenoma (3.0 %. The mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor (38.1 %, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.4%, acinic cell carcinoma (10.9%, adenocarcinoma NOS (6.3%, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (5.4% and unclassified malignant tumor (4.5 %. Parotid was the most common site for the location of tumors (70.4% followed by submandibular (19.3% and minor salivary glands (10.2 %. Conclusion: Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest salivary gland tumor observed in both sexes. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant salivary gland tumor. The parotid gland was the most common site of origin in both benign and malignant tumors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10291 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 520-524

  1. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic/Recurrent ACC of All Sites and Non-ACC Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  2. Impact of submandibular gland excision on salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaguar, G C; Lima, E N P; Kowalski, L P; Pellizon, A C; Carvalho, A L; Alves, F A

    2010-05-01

    Head and neck cancer surgery is often associated with neck dissection and usually includes the submandibular glands. Literature data related to remaining salivary gland function after surgery is scarce and controversial. A reduction in salivary output and increase in complaints of xerostomia have been suggested. However, a compensatory salivary mechanism has also been reported. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of neck dissection (with submandibular excision) on salivary gland function measured by salivary flow rate and salivary gland scintigraphy. A total of 80 patients with head and neck tumors were evaluated. The surgery group was composed of 37 patients, who underwent submandibular gland resection, and the non-surgery group of 43 patients evaluated prior to radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment. Whole unstimulated and stimulated saliva collection and salivary gland scintigraphy were performed in all patients. Twenty-one percent of patients in the surgery group reported xerostomia, whereas 7% in the non-surgery group. The mean unstimulated salivary flow was 0.60 and 0.94 m/min for the surgery and non-surgery groups, respectively (p=0.008). Nevertheless, no statistical difference in the stimulated salivary flow was observed between the groups (p=0.26). In addition, the mean uptake and excretion rates for parotid and remaining submandibular glands also showed no statistical difference. The data of the present study support the contention that submandibular gland resection causes a decrease in unstimulated salivary volume. However, the residual submandibular glands in the surgery group showed similar function to that of submandibular glands in the non-surgery group. Consequently, the compensatory salivary mechanism seems not to be a possibility. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aplasia of the parotid glands with accessory parotid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, Meghan J.; Walkiewicz, Thomas W.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Curran, John G.; Towbin, Richard B. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Congenital absence of the parotid gland is a rare entity. Absence is most commonly unilateral, and is not associated with accessory glandular tissue. In the majority of reported cases, parotid gland aplasia is seen with craniofacial abnormalities or hypoplasia of other ectodermal structures, particularly the lacrimal glands. We present a 14-year-old male with bilateral parotid gland aplasia detected incidentally on MRI of the brain and then confirmed on neck CT. The studies also revealed accessory parotid tissue superficial to the left masseter muscle. There were no associated craniofacial abnormalities. The lacrimal glands and submandibular glands were normal. (orig.)

  4. Mammary gland immunity and mastitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Lorraine M; Streicher, Katie L

    2002-04-01

    Lactation is considered the final phase of the mammalian reproductive cycle, and the mammary gland provides milk for nourishment and disease resistance to the newborn. However, the cellular and soluble immune components associated with mammary tissues and secretion also can play an important role in protecting the gland from infectious diseases, such as mastitis. Mastitis can affect essentially all lactating mammals, but is especially problematic for dairy cattle. The most recent estimates from the National Mastitis Council suggest that mastitis affects one third of all dairy cows and will cost the dairy industry over 2 billion dollars annually in the United States in lost profits (National Mastitis Council (1996) Current Concepts in Bovine Mastitis, National Mastitis Council, Madison, WI). The overall impact of mastitis on the quality and quantity of milk produced for human consumption has provided the impetus to better understand the pathophysiology of the mammary gland and develop ways to enhance disease resistance through immunoregulation. As such, the bovine species has played a critical and prominent role in our current understanding of mammary gland immunobiology. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of mammary gland immunity and how the stage of lactation can impact important host defenses While this review emphasizes the bovine system, comparisons to humans and other domestic mammals will be addressed as well.

  5. Management of the thyroid gland during laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S X; Polacco, M A; Gosselin, B J; Harrington, L X; Titus, A J; Paydarfar, J A

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to: describe the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in advanced laryngeal cancer, analyse patterns of spread to the thyroid and elucidate predictors of thyroid involvement. A retrospective review was performed on patients who underwent laryngectomy from 1991 to 2015 as a primary or salvage treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, hypopharynx or base of tongue. The incidence of thyroidectomy during total laryngectomy, type of thyroidectomy, incidence of gland involvement, route of spread, and positive predictors of spread were analysed and reported. A total of 188 patients fit the inclusion criteria. Of these, 125 (66 per cent) underwent thyroidectomy. The thyroid was involved in 10 of the 125 patients (8 per cent), 9 by direct extension and 1 by metastasis. Cartilage invasion was a predictor of thyroid gland involvement, with a positive predictive value of 26 per cent. There is a low incidence of thyroid gland involvement in laryngeal carcinoma. Most cases of gland involvement occurred by direct extension. Thyroidectomy during laryngectomy should be considered for advanced stage tumours with cartilage invasion.

  6. Computer tomographic imaging of rabbit bulbourethral glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to utilize the obtained data for differentiation of normal and pathologically altered bulbourethral glands in rabbits with regard to using this animal species as a model for studying diseases in this organ in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten sexually mature healthy male white New Zealand rabbits, 12 months old, weighed 2.8−3.2 kg were investigated. The animals were anesthetized. Scans were done at 2 mm intervals and the image reconstruction was three-dimensional. RESULTS: Rabbit bulbourethral glands were observed as a transversely oval homogeneous, relatively hyperdense structure against the surrounding soft tissues. They are visualized in the transverse cut of the pelvic outlet in the plane through the cranial part of cg2, the body of ischium, cranially to tuber ischiadicum and dorsally to the caudal part of symphysis pubis –sciatic arch. The glandular margins are adequately distinguished from the adjacent soft tissue structures. The density of the rabbit bulbourethral glands was similar to this of the soft tissues. CONCLUSION: The data obtained by the computed tomographic imaging of the rabbit bulbourethral glands could be used as an anatomical reference in the diagnosis and interpretation of imaging findings of various pathological states of the gland in this species, as well as in utilization of the rabbit as an animal model for studying diseases of this organ in humans, particularly diverticula, stenosis, lithiasis and valves

  7. Experimental autotransplantation of the parathyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigouris, S; Lorentziadis, M; Stylogiannis, S; Nafas, R; Masouras, A; Poulantzas, I

    1996-03-01

    The lateral parathyroid gland of the rabbit was resected and autotransplanted under an ear skin flap. A skin flap at the opposite side was used as control. The success of autotransplantation was established by microangiography of the transplant and by measuring plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium and phosphorus. After 4 months the animals were killed and the transplant was studied histologically and by electron microscopy. Fourteen animals were included in the study. There was an increase in PTH derived from the transplanted gland after 4-6 postoperative days. All animals developed hypocalcaemia during the 3 days after transplantation. There were no significant changes in serum phosphorus. Transplantation did not alter the morphology of the distribution of the cells in the transplanted gland, which functioned normally after the fourth postoperative day.

  8. Thyroid gland in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miłkowska-Dymanowska, Joanna; Białas, Adam J; Laskowska, Paulina; Górski, Paweł; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2017-01-01

    The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as thyroid diseases increases with age. COPD is a common systemic disease associated with chronic inflammation. Many endocrinological disorders, including thyroid gland diseases are related to systemic inflammation. Epidemiological studies suggest that patients with COPD are at higher risk of thyroid disorders. These associations are not well-studied and thyroid gland diseases are not included on the broadly acknowledged list of COPD comorbidities. They may seriously handicap quality of life of COPD patients. Unfortunately, the diagnosis may be difficult, as many signs are masked by the symptoms of the index disease. The comprehension of the correlation between thyroid gland disorders and COPD may contribute to better care of patients. In this review, we attempt to revise available literature describing existing links between COPD and thyroid diseases.

  9. Malignant sweat gland tumors: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas represent an important and somewhat contentious group of tumors in diagnostic skin pathology. Although their overall incidence is rare, they show a wide range of histologic features, and reliable classification is often challenging. Awareness and recognition of these tumors is, however, important as they may be associated with significant morbidity and even disease-related mortality, especially if left untreated. According to their behavior, sweat gland carcinomas are traditionally separated into tumors with low-grade and high-grade malignant behavior. This article is aimed at increasing awareness and providing an overview of malignant sweat gland tumors with emphasis on recently reported and novel findings and diagnostically challenging and potentially underrecognized entities. It further aims to illustrate the wide morphologic range of these tumors and provides a discussion of the relevant immunohistochemistry, disease-specific behavior, and differential diagnosis.

  10. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computed tomography of the adrenal glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.; Reiser, U.; Heuck, F.

    1982-01-01

    Whole body CT opens a third dimension - in addition with the advantage of being a non-invasive method with relatively negligible risk. Both, the normal CT findings of the adrenal gland and the normal variants in shape and position are described. With help of morphometry and image processing measurements of the size of the adrenal gland of 20 healthy patients were made and are listed; not only the respective normal variants but also hypo-hyperplasia are pointed out. Some examples are suitable for the illustration of pathologic conditions, such as inflammation and benign and malignant primary and secondary neoplasis. Finally, the value of adrenal gland CT is discussed with reference to the other radiologic methods. (orig.)

  12. The Role of Pineal Gland and Exogenous Melatonin on the Irradiation Stress Response of Suprarenal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aličelebić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group or shampinealectomy (control group, adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatoninintraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  13. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Białek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related, similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  14. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Michinao; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Uematsu, Minoru; Kusano, Shoichi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10 -3 , n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  15. Metastasis to submandibular glands in oral cavity cancers: Can we preserve the gland safely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Naresh K; Patro, Sourabha K; Bakshi, Jaimanti; Verma, Roshan K; Das, Ashim; Chatterjee, Debajyoti

    2015-08-01

    To analyze submandibular gland (SMG) involvement in cases of oral cavity cancers and decide whether to remove submandibular glands while performing neck dissections for oral cavity cancers to decrease the incidence of xerostomia, a common issue post-operatively. Retrospective analysis of 157 neck dissections out of 204 neck dissections performed for oral cavity carcinomas in the Department of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery from 2008 to 2013 was done. SMG was bilaterally removed in 6 dissections, hence a total of 163 glands were analyzed. Those involved by tumor in histopathology were further studied for the pattern of involvement. 3.68% (6/163) glands showed involvement by the tumor. 9.20% (15/163) showed chronic sialo-adenitic changes. Four of the six involved glands showed direct contiguous spread from primary lesion, one showed extra-capsular spread from level IB lymph nodes and evidence of both modes of spread was seen in one. Evidence of metastasis was not seen in any of the glands (0%). Literature review showed a metastasis rate of 0.096% (2/2074). Metastatic involvement of submandibular gland is extremely rare. Submandibular gland preservation, in the absence of evidence of gross contiguous involvement, does not affect survival. Hence, SMG can be safely spared during neck dissections for oral cavity squamous cell cancers except in certain situations such as close proximity of the primary lesion to gland, presence of intra-capsular lymph nodes in radiology, gross intraoperative evidence of invasion of the SMG and in salvage surgeries performed in post-irradiated and recurrent cases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  17. Disorders of the equine thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuhaus, Babetta A

    2011-04-01

    Regulatory control of the thyroid gland in horses is similar to other species. Clinical signs of hypothyroidism in adult horses are minimal. Several drugs and physiologic and pathophysiological states can cause circulating thyroid hormone concentrations to be low without actual pathology of the thyroid gland. Thus, nonthyroidal factors must be ruled out before a diagnosis of hypothyroidism can be made. Thyroid hormone supplementation seems to be well tolerated, even in euthyroid horses. Neonatal foals have very high circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, and deficiencies result in significant clinical signs. Unlike in adults, two syndromes of hypothyroidism are well described in foals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How do health care providers diagnose adrenal gland disorders? Methods for diagnosing ... Tumors To diagnose an adrenal gland tumor, a health care provider may order one or more tests. 3 ...

  19. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, C.; Benezery, K.; Bensadoun, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Xerostomia is one of the most a common complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, affecting quality of life. Parotid glands produce approximately 60% of saliva and submandibular glands 20% of saliva while the rest is secreted by sublingual and accessory salivary glands. Methods of measuring the salivary output are collection of unstimulated or stimulated saliva or 99m Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy. Several studies demonstrated that late salivary dysfunction after radiotherapy has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia could be avoided if at one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than approximately 25-30 Gy. Clinical benefit of submandibular gland sparing is more controversial. A mean dose less than 39 Gy could preserve submandibular gland function. This paper aims to review main studies evaluating tolerance dose of salivary glands. (authors)

  20. Histological and histochemical studies of parathyroid gland in one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group B), and old ages (Group C), were used for the study. The camel parathyroid gland tissues were obtained from camels slaughtered at the Kano Metropolitan abattoir. The glands were prepared for standard histological study using ...

  1. Surgical anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancy, Tanya; Gallagher, Daniel; Hornig, Joshua D

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the recurrent laryngeal nerve, discussing how the anatomy affects function and dysfunction of the glands. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection surgical treatment and its results in children's thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.G.; Lebedev, V.I.; Belkina, B.M.; Shishkov, R.V.; Makarova, I.S.; Durnov, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    208 patients with thyroid gland cancer were observed in 1975-1993 . The morphological investigations point to an absolute prevalence of highly differentiated forms of thyroid gland cancer in children. The radiation diagnostic techniques included ultrasound investigations of neck organs, chest roentgenography, thyroid gland scintigraphy. It is shown that the surgical method is the basic technique of treating thyroid gland cancer in children. 5-year survival rate of patients depending on the stage of disease development and scope of surgical treatment is analysed

  3. An Unusually Large Submandibular Gland Stone. A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latter was incised and drained, while excision of the right submandibular gland and calculus was carried out three weeks later. 5.0cm - sized stone was excised. This turned out to be the second largest salivary gland stone recorded in literature. Conclusion Giant salivary gland stone which ( greater than 1.5cm) is rare.

  4. Pathology of head and neck tumors: salivary glands. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batsakis, J.G.; Regezi, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The authors present a concept of histogenesis and classification as well as an analysis of (1) salivary-gland tumors in children, (2) the relationship between breast carcinoma and salivary-gland carcinoma, (3) the status of radiation induction of salivary-gland tumors, and (4) the clinicopathologic aspects of tumors of the salivary oncocyte.

  5. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During mating male and female Breviceps become 'glued' together. The distribution of multicellular dermal glands varies between the sexes. The mate has a large number of holocrine glands on the ventrum, while the female has similar glands on the dorsum of the back. II thus appears that both sexes contribute to the ...

  6. Histology Of The Exocrine Glands Of The Canine Perianal Skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A histopathological study of the perianal skin of indigenous breeds of dogs in Nigeria was carried out in Zaria. The skin in this area had three types of glands: sebaceous, sweat, and hepatoid circumanal glands. Sebaceous glands in this area release their product by holocrine mode in which the whole cell is secreted with its ...

  7. The Micromorphology Of Hepatoid Circumanal Gland In Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hepatoid circumanal glands (HCGs) were found in dogs of all age group, in both sexes and appeared to be ductless. There were usually two glands separated by a hair follicle. A lobe of a gland was made of 20 lobules or more. Each lobule consisted of polygonal or polyhedral non-vacuolated cells with one or more ...

  8. Infiltrative Oncocytoma arising from minor salivary glands of palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncocytoma of salivary gland origin is an uncommon tumor found mainly in the parotid gland. On rare occasions, oncocytoma arise in the intra-oral minor salivary glands; having a greater tendency for locally aggressive behavior and infiltrating the adjacent tissues due to incomplete encapsulation. The current case is of ...

  9. 9 CFR 310.17 - Inspection of mammary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mammary glands and diseased mammary glands of cattle, sheep, swine, and goats shall be removed without... accordance with the provisions of part 311 of this subchapter. (c) Lactating mammary glands of cattle, sheep... as “Brucellosis reactors” or as “Mastitis elimination cows” shall be condemned. ...

  10. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to

  11. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. E. Lyah; V. G. Guryanov; E. A. Yakobson

    2016-01-01

    Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT) and malignant thermograms (MT).

  12. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia

    2011-01-01

    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.

  13. [Sweat gland carcinomas of the skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütten, A; Requena, L

    2008-02-01

    Sweat gland carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the skin. The well-defined entities porocarcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, mucinous eccrine carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, spiradenocarcinoma, cylindrocarcinoma, hidradenocarcinoma are described. The article summarizes essential clinical, prognostic and histopathological findings of these tumors and takes in focus special recommendations for dermatologists and surgeons to plan biopsies and operations.

  14. Evaluating cotton seed gland initiation by microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossypol is a terpenoid aldehyde found in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) glands and helps protect the seed from pests and pathogens. However, gossypol is toxic to many animals, so the seed is used mainly in cattle feed, as ruminants are tolerant to the effects of gossypol. In order to develop strat...

  15. Adenome pleomorphe des glandes salivaires accessoires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution was good for the first patient after secondary excision of the tumor. The patient presenting a carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma developed quickly pulmonary and cerebral metastases. Conclusion : Pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland is generally known to be a slow-growing tumour. They must be ...

  16. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4 resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  17. investigation of the chest gland secretion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Submitted 6 February 1979; accepted 29 April 1980. Ga/ago crassicaudatus is a favourable animal for study- ing chemical communication since, as a nocturnal animal, it is highly dependent on olfaction for com- munication and has the most prominent scent gland of all the African galagines (Clark 1975 & 1978a). Recent.

  18. Imaging for salivary gland sparing radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major side effects of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck area is a reduced saliva production due to the high radiation-sensitivity of the salivary glands. The reduced salivary flow induces difficulties in swallowing, eating, speaking, and often induces dental caries. This thesis addresses

  19. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    :  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  20. Transcriptional profiling reveals gland-specific differential expression in the three major salivary glands of the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Oei, Maria S; Ovitt, Catherine E; Sincan, Murat; Melvin, James E

    2018-04-01

    RNA-Seq was used to better understand the molecular nature of the biological differences among the three major exocrine salivary glands in mammals. Transcriptional profiling found that the adult murine parotid, submandibular, and sublingual salivary glands express greater than 14,300 protein-coding genes, and nearly 2,000 of these genes were differentially expressed. Principle component analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed three distinct clusters according to gland type. The three salivary gland transcriptomes were dominated by a relatively few number of highly expressed genes (6.3%) that accounted for more than 90% of transcriptional output. Of the 912 transcription factors expressed in the major salivary glands, greater than 90% of them were detected in all three glands, while expression for ~2% of them was enriched in an individual gland. Expression of these unique transcription factors correlated with sublingual and parotid specific subsets of both highly expressed and differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the highly expressed genes common to all glands were associated with global functions, while many of the genes expressed in a single gland play a major role in the function of that gland. In summary, transcriptional profiling of the three murine major salivary glands identified a limited number of highly expressed genes, differentially expressed genes, and unique transcription factors that represent the transcriptional signatures underlying gland-specific biological properties.

  1. Current treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon-Duck; Sa, Ho-Seok; Esmaeli, Bita

    2016-09-01

    The traditional treatment for lacrimal gland carcinoma is orbital exenteration followed by radiation therapy. However, orbital exenteration does not prevent distant relapse and death, and some patients experience local-regional recurrence after exenteration. More recently, eye-sparing surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy have gained popularity in the treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma. Preliminary studies show that these approaches are associated with reasonable local control rates and ocular toxicity profiles. In this review, we discuss recent studies of treatment of lacrimal gland carcinoma, including studies of potential molecular treatment targets. Recent studies suggest promising results for neoadjuvant intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by orbital exenteration and adjuvant intravenous chemotherapy, but only in patients with an 'intact lacrimal artery'. Recent studies of globe-sparing surgery followed by adjuvant proton radiation therapy or concurrent chemoradiation suggest good local control, reasonable rates of eye preservation, and low risk of serious ocular toxic effects. Larger tumor size and predominant basaloid histology seem to be associated with higher risk of local-regional recurrence and distant metastasis. One study showed oncogenic mutations in more than half of cases of lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, with KRAS mutations in 10 of 24 patients, suggesting potential benefit of treatments targeting the EGFR-RAS-RAF cascade. In selected patients with lacrimal gland carcinoma, eye-sparing surgery with eye-sparing radiation therapy offers preservation of visual function with good local control and minimal radiation-induced ocular toxic effects. In patients with recurrent or metastatic disease, a search for actionable cancer-associated mutations may be prudent.

  2. Deposition in the human thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1979-01-01

    Deposition of radioiodine in the thyroid gland of the Japanese has been described, especially on the following aspects of metabolic and radiological importance. 1) The measurements of radioiodine, essentially 131 I, in milk, thyroid glands of humans and cattles, and human urine are presented which were obtained at times following major Chinese nuclear tests. Highest observed 131 I concentration in cattle milk was 437 pCi per liter, and the transfer of 131 I in the environment to the thyroid gland was demonstrated. 2) Thyroidal uptake rate of radioiodine in the Japanese was estimated to be in a range 0.15 - 0.20 for f sub(w), lower than the reference value of 0.30 for the European and North Americans. The effect of stable isotope intake in the Japanese diet, estimated as 1.5 - 2.0 mg per day, which is one order of magnitude higher than the level in the latter populations, 0.2 mg per day, is demonstrated. This is based on uptake study data, obtained by the author et al. and also reported in the field of nuclear medicine. 3) Mass and dimensions of the thyroid gland in the Japanese male and female are described as a function of age and total body weight. The data reasonably assumed to be valid as reference values for the Japanese as of 1980s. 4) In vivo measurement of radioiodine in the human thyroid gland in case of any unplanned or accidental release of gaseous radionuclides from nuclear facilities is described using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometry and also a scintillation surveymeter. The high-resolution gamma energy spectroscopy does not seem to be employed before for the present purpose. (author)

  3. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 705 salivary glands neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Magdalena; Bień, Stanisław; Okła, Sławomir; Zyłka, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological data concerning the rare group of tumors derived from salivary glands recorded in the National Cancer Registry is insufficient because it records only malignant salivary glands tumors. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 699 patients with salivary glands tumors (n=705). The data were retrieved from ENT Department District Hospital in Kielce (01.09.1989-28.02.2001) and from Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Holy Cross Cancer Centre in Kielce (01.03.2001-31.12.2008). In the analyzed group of 699 patients with 705 salivary glands tumors women predominated, consisting 54,2% of all group. The average age in group of malignant tumors was higher than in nonmalignant group. The risk of malignant neoplasms development increased with patient age. In the analyzed group of 705 salivary glands tumors the nonmalignant neoplasms dominated-78,3%. Out of all cases, 547 (77,6%) were localized in the parotid gland, 80 (11,3%) in submandibular gland and 78 (11,1%) in minor salivary glands. Nonmalignant tumors were more frequent in the parotid gland (82,8%) and submandibular gland (71,3%), whereas in minor salivary glands nonmalignant and malignant neoplasms the occurrence was nearly the same. In general-the smaller the salivary gland, the risk of development malignant tumors was higher. In group of nonmalignant salivary gland tumors two histopathological types dominated - pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor, which comprised 91,8% of the whole group. In the group of 153 malignant salivary gland tumors the most common histopathology were - adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In the analyzed period of 20 years' time, the incidence of salivary glands tumors increased with high siginificance, both for nonmalignant, as well malignant tumors. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  5. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  6. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  7. Image diagnosis of parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Keiko; Kozuka, Takahiro; Morimoto, Shizuo; Ikezoe, Junpei; Arisawa, Jun; Akira, Masanori; Koide, Takuo; Oka, Toshitsugu; Sone, Shusuke.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the neck were performed in 12 patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-eight of 44 excised parathyroid glands were visualized by US preoperatively (64 %). By CT, 20 parathyroid glands were detected (45 %). US was superior to CT for demonstrating parathyroid glands weighing between 500 and 1500 mg. There was no difference between US and CT for demonstrating parathyroid glands weighing more than 1500 mg and less than 500 mg. For definite diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism and preoperative localization, US is modality of choice initially, and then CT can be employed to search for mediastinal parathyroid gland. (author)

  8. Papillary cystadenocarcinoma of submandibular salivary gland: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardi Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary cystadenocarcinoma is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm characterized by cysts and papillary endophytic projections. It was first defined in 1991 by World Health organization as a separate entity. Major locations of this neoplasm are the parotid gland, the sublingual gland, and minor salivary glands, while occurrence in the submandibular gland is extremely rare. We present a case of papillary cystadenocarinoma arising from the submandibular gland in a 67-year-old male patient. Further, we have discussed the cytological and histopathological features of this rare entity and reviewed the current literature.

  9. Advanced Upper Eyelid Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma with Deep Orbital Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi SAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sebaceous gland carcinomas (SGC are highly malignant lid tumors which originate from meibomian glands and rarely from the gland of Zeis, sebaceous gland of caruncle, eyebrows and periocular skin. In many cases correct diagnosis of SGC is delayed because of its ability to masquerade as a variety of other ocular conditions.A forty year old male presented with a left upper eyelid swelling with an ulcerated wound on its nasal aspect. A differential diagnosis of sebaceous gland carcinoma or preseptal cellulitis was made. Contrast enhanced computed tomography showed an ill defined soft tissue density mass in the left orbit encasing the whole of the optic nerve. A total exentration was performed. A diagnosis of meibomian gland carcinoma was confirmed on histopathology.This is a report of an advanced sebaceous gland carcinoma with deep orbital extension. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may decrease the long term morbidity and extend the survival rate of such patients.

  10. Salt gland distribution in limonium bicolor at the individual level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, B. Y.; Yuan, F.; Dong, X. X.; Wang, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    Limonium bicolor is a typical exo-recretohalophyte with multi-cellular salt glands. A differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope were applied to investigate the pattern of salt gland distribution in L. bicolor at the individual level. For a single mature leaf, more salt glands are distributed in the leaf central and apical regions than leaf base. For the leaves in different developmental stages, firstly, the density of salt glands linearly decreased at the beginning of leaf expansion and kept a relatively constant value in the later periods, which was mainly due to the rapid expansion of epidermal cells. Secondly, the total number of glands per leaf showed a reversed trend compared to the density of salt glands. These results suggested that the salt gland density was adapted to the leaf age and area as more and more salt accumulated in the saline soils.

  11. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  12. [The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands in evolutionary perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, O F

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenesis of mammalian cutaneous glands is considered based on the analysis of the literature and our own original data with the focus on the issues of gland polymorphism and specific features in postnatal development (from the case study of circumanal hepatoid glands of newborn domestic dogs), including the features reflecting the evolutionary relationships of various types of cutaneous glands. The hepatoid glands are a component of the glandular complex ofthe hair follicle, which also includes sebaceous and sweat glands; have a specific structure; and produce protein secretion by a merocrine pathway. Characteristic of these glands are wide polymorphism, sex- and age-related differences in the degree of development, occurrence in only a few phylogenetically related mammalian taxa (even-toed ungulates and carnivores); and a signaling type of their secretion. The data support the "generative concept," relying on the idea of a separate and independent origination of diverse derivatives of the external integuments.

  13. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  14. Parotid gland tumours: a six years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    To find out the different types of Parotid tumours in out setup and their prevalence in different age groups. All patients admitted with Parotid swellings, irrespective of age and sex. The detailed data of the patients was collected and analyzed. A total of 27 patients, 15 males and 12 females, with ages ranging from 15 to 65 years were included in the study. Most of the patients were in the 31-50 years of age group. Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest benign tumour with an incidence of 66.6%, while Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with an incidence of 11.11% was the most common malignant tumour. Parotid gland is the principal site of salivary gland tumours. Males are affected more and Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma the most common malignant tumour. (author)

  15. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ikue; Dufresne, Raymond; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare, low-grade, cutaneous neoplasm that may be associated with invasive mucinous carcinoma. Tumors typically present as slow-growing, flesh-colored, nonspecific papules or nodules that favor the eyelids in older individuals. Histologic examination usually reveals basaloid nodules composed of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, with focal mucin production and occasional glandular structures. Definitive diagnosis requires immunohistochemical staining. Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinomas have been noted to stain positively with neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin and chromogranins as well as cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin CAM 5.2, epithelial membrane antigen, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Complete excision with close follow-up is important given EMPSGC's association with invasive mucinous carcinoma. Mohs micrographic surgery is an appropriate choice for treatment. We report 2 cases of EMPSGC presenting on the eyelids in a 72-year-old woman and a 74-year-old man.

  16. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Herr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or "incidentaloma", has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of malignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed.

  17. Imaging of the adrenal gland lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Keith [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Muglia, Valdair F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Koff, Walter Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos, E-mail: antonio.westphalen@ucsf.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging and Urology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    With the steep increase in the use of cross-sectional imaging in recent years, the incidentally detected adrenal lesion, or 'incidentaloma', has become an increasingly common diagnostic problem for the radiologist, and a need for an approach to classifying these lesions as benign, malignant or indeterminate with imaging has spurred an explosion of research. While most incidentalomas represent benign disease, typically an adenoma, the possibility of m alignant involvement of the adrenal gland necessitates a reliance on imaging to inform management decisions. In this article, we review the literature on adrenal gland imaging, with particular emphasis on computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and photon-emission tomography, and discuss how these findings relate to clinical practice. Emerging technologies, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, dual-energy computed tomography, and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging will also be briefly addressed. (author)

  18. FRACTAL DIMENSIONALITY ANALYSIS OF MAMMARY GLAND THERMOGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. E. Lyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermography may enable early detection of a cancer tumour within a mammary gland at an early, treatable stage of the illness, but thermogram analysis methods must be developed to achieve this goal. This study analyses the feasibility of applying the Hurst exponent readings algorithm for evaluation of the high dimensionality fractals to reveal any possible difference between normal thermograms (NT and malignant thermograms (MT.

  19. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...... is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  20. Mycobacterium chelonae infection of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid S Shaaban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium chelonae can cause numerous infections, including lung disease, local cutaneous disease, osteomyelitis, joint infections and ocular disease. With the exception of lung disease, these syndromes commonly develop after direct inoculation. The most common clinical presentation in immunocompetent individuals is skin and soft tissue infection. We present a case of M. chelonae infection of the parotid gland that was successfully treated with clarithromycin monotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of M. chelonae parotitis in an adult.

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the...

  2. Paratiroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Carpio, Roberto; Jimenez Torres, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 62 year old woman with diagnose of parathyroid gland adenoma and single pulmonary fibroma admitted at the ION SOLCA in Quito by the surgery service. At her admission she was classified as a paraneoplasic syndrome associated witha a pulmonary mass + hypercalcemia. This case was presented because of the importance of the primary hyperparathyroidism as one of the principal endocrine pathologies, that in oncology are associated with the multiple neoplasia syndromes. (The author)

  3. Submandibular Gland Involvement in Early Stage Oral Cavity Carcinomas: Can the Gland be left behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.; Ahmed, A.; Khan, M.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of submandibular gland involvement in early oral cavity tumors. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: ENT Department, CMH, Rawalpindi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Data of 110 oral cavity tumors operated over 2008 - 2011 was retrieved from ENT OPD, tumor registry in AFIP and from Head and Neck Oncology Forum Registry. Cases of oral cavity tumors that had undergone elective neck dissections were retrospectively studied for invasion of the submandibular gland, TNM Staging, perineural, perivascular, lymphovascular invasion, site specific frequency of oral cavity tumors and frequency of lymph node metastasis. Results: Tumors of tongue were the most common constituting 42%, squamous cell carcinoma was the histological diagnosis in 90% cases. Sixty eight (61.8%) cases were node negative. Selective neck dissection was done in 55.5% of the cases. Submandibular gland was involved in 2 cases (1.8%). Conclusion: Submandibular gland metastasis from early oral cavity tumors is rare; any neoplastic involvement of the gland usually occurs via direct spread. (author)

  4. The mystery of the thymus gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daniel; Ellis, Harold

    2016-09-01

    The thymus is the last organ in the human body to have its mechanisms fully understood, having had its function fully delineated more than 50 years ago (Miller , Tissue Antigens 63:509-517). Prior to this, the thymus gland has had an interesting history with theories having included a role in fetal growth and development before becoming more sinisterly, a cause of sudden infant death in the late 19th century known as status lymphaticus (Paltauf , Wien Klin Wochenschr 2:877-881). Until Miller (, Lancet 278:748-749) eventually proved its primarily immunological role, the history of this mysterious gland has closely mirrored the history of medicine itself, troubling the minds of pathologists such as Virchow (, Ueber die Chlorose und die damit zusammenhängenden Anomalien im Gefässapparate, insbesondere über "Endocarditis puerperalis," vorgetragen in der Sitzung der Berliner Geburtshülflichen Gesellschaft vom 12) and Grawitz (, Deut Med Wochenschr 22:429-431), surgeons such as Astley Cooper (, The Anatomy of the Thymus Gland) and Keynes (1953, Ann R Coll Surg 12:88), and eminent medical epidemiologists such as Greenwood and Woods [, J Hyg (Lond) 26:305-326]. This article will hopefully be of interest therefore to both clinician and historian alike. Clin. Anat. 29:679-684, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Lacrimal Gland Fistula following Severe Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil Demir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to present a unique case with discharging lacrimal gland fistula secondary to severe head trauma by an animal. A 9-year-old girl presented with serous fluid discharge from a cutaneous fistula in the left orbital region. The patient had history of surgery for traumatic frontal bone fracture and skin laceration in the superior orbital rim three weeks earlier. She underwent a complete ophthalmological examination and there was no anterior segment or fundus pathology. The orifice of the fistula was detected in mediolateral part of the left superior orbital rim and fluid secretion was increasing with irritation of the left eye. Neurosurgical complications were excluded and radiological assessment was nonremarkable. The patient’s legal representatives were informed and lacrimal gland fistulectomy was planned. However, the fistula was self-closed one week after initial ophthalmological examination, and the patient had no symptoms. In conclusion, traumatic injuries of superior orbital region should be carefully evaluated and wounds should be well closed to prevent consecutive lacrimal gland fistula.

  6. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Associated With Periocular Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Jun; Ko, JaeSang; Ji, Yong Woo; Kim, Tae-Im; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of periocular radiotherapy on meibomian glands. We evaluated 28 patients (40 eyes) who received radiotherapy (RT group) for conjunctival or orbital lymphoma and 30 age-matched control subjects (60 eyes). Subjects underwent slit-lamp examination of the eyelids, Schirmer test, meibography, and evaluation of tear film breakup time (TBUT), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores, meibomian glands evaluation (meiboscore, meibum expressibility, and lid margin abnormality scores), and tear film lipid layer thickness using an ocular surface interferometer. These parameters were compared between subjects in the RT and control groups. Meiboscores as well as meibum expressibility and OSDI scores in the RT group were significantly higher compared with those in the control group (1.6 ± 0.9 vs. 0.4 ± 0.6, 1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, and 48.1 ± 21.4 vs. 6.2 ± 4.4, respectively, P radiotherapy exhibited relatively high tear film instability induced by meibomian gland dysfunction, contributing to the high severity of dry eye symptoms.

  7. Vitamin D receptors and parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Christine S; Ruppe, Mary D; Grubbs, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    To describe the function and metabolism of the vitamin D hormone and the role of the vitamin D receptor and the calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone. A review of the literature was undertaken regarding the function and metabolism of vitamin D; the role of the vitamin D receptor and calcium-sensing receptor in the secretion of parathyroid hormone; and the contemporary research regarding the interaction of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in patients with vitamin D deficiency, primary hyperparathyroidism, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Over the last several years, great interest has been generated about the interaction of vitamin D and the parathyroid glands, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, and bone in relation to calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Vitamin D has an important role in calcium and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Likewise, the vitamin D axis appears to be involved with the development of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The specific mechanism by which vitamin D interacts with the parathyroid gland to bring about observed effects is not yet fully understood. Future studies investigating the relationship of the vitamin D receptor, calcium-sensing receptor, and parathyroid glands are needed to enhance our knowledge of vitamin D deficiency and primary and secondary vitamin D deficiency.

  8. Lacrimal gland duct stones: misdiagnosed as chalazion in 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Lee, Kook; Lee, Sang Un

    2014-02-01

    To report 3 cases of lacrimal gland duct stones misdiagnosed as chalazion. Retrospective case series. Three patients with lacrimal gland duct stones misdiagnosed as chalazion at a local clinic between 2010 and 2012. A thorough review of clinical, imaging, and histopathologic manifestations. Clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland duct stones included conjunctival injection, lid swelling, tenderness, and ocular discharge, which are similar to chalazion symptoms. Computed tomography revealed a relatively well-defined, high-density mass near the lacrimal gland. Histopathologic examination of excised material revealed calcified amorphous stones. Intractable chalazion-like lesions at the lateral canthal area near the lacrimal gland should be carefully examined; imaging studies are required to confirm the presence of lacrimal gland duct stones, which require surgical removal. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Floral glands in asclepiads: structure, diversity and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Demarco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Species of Apocynaceae stand out among angiosperms in having very complex flowers, especially those of asclepiads, which belong to the most derived subfamily (Asclepiadoideae. These flowers are known to represent the highest degree of floral synorganization of the eudicots, and are comparable only to orchids. This morphological complexity may also be understood by observing their glands. Asclepiads have several protective and nuptial secretory structures. Their highly specific and specialized pollination systems are associated with the great diversity of glands found in their flowers. This review gathers data regarding all types of floral glands described for asclepiads and adds three new types (glandular trichome, secretory idioblast and obturator, for a total of 13 types of glands. Some of the species reported here may have dozens of glands of up to 11 types on a single flower, corresponding to the largest diversity of glands recorded to date for a single structure.

  10. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus......Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... in enlarged adrenal and pituitary glands and it is suggested that prospective studies should be conducted with scanning during successive depressive episodes and periods of remission....

  11. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  12. A structural review of foliar glands in Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Renata Cristina Cassimiro de; da Costa Silva, Delmira; Flavia de Albuquerque Melo-de-Pinna, Gladys

    2017-01-01

    Extrafloral glands in Passifloraceae species have aroused the interest of many researchers because of their wide morphological diversity. The present work analyzed the foliar glands on 34 species of Passiflora from samples containing glands in the petiole and foliar blade fixed in 50% solution of formaldehyde-ethanol-acetic acid and stored in a 70% ethanol solution. For anatomical analyses, part of the material was embedded in Paraplast, longitudinally sectioned and double stained with safranin and astra blue. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also carried out. To analyze the presence of sugars in the secretion of foliar glands, a glucose strip test was used. Based on the results of morphological, anatomical and glucose strip tests, the foliar secretory glands in Passiflora can be grouped into two categories: Type I glands, defined as nectaries, can be elevated or flattened, and can have a sugar content high enough to be detected by the glucose strip test analysis. Type II glands are elevated and did not show a positive reaction to the glucose strip test. From an anatomical viewpoint, glands characterized as extrafloral nectaries show a multistratified secretory epidermis, typically followed by two flat layers of nectariferous parenchyma with dense content. Internal to these layers, vascular bundles are immersed in the subsecretory parenchyma and terminate in phloem cells. On the other hand, type II glands show a single layer of elongated secretory epidermal cells. Internal to this single layer, parenchyma and vascular tissue with both phloem and xylem elements can be observed. The analyzed species show a wide diversity of gland shape and distribution, and the combined analysis of morphology, anatomy and preliminary tests for the presence of glucose in the exudate in different Passiflora subgenera suggests the occurrence of two categories of glands: nectaries and resin glands.

  13. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion...... hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers...

  14. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Ičin Tijana; Bajkin Ivana; Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is r...

  15. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as sal...

  16. A Case of Primary Submandibular Gland Oncocytic Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tokashiki, Kunihiko; Tsukahara, Kiyoaki; Motohashi, Ray; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma is a rare pathology, with only 10 cases being reported to date. We encountered a case of primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma and report it herein. The patient was a 69-year-old man who came to our hospital with right submandibular cancer as the main complaint. Based on the results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, submandibular gland tumor was diagnosed. Preoperative cytodiagnosis suggested class III oncocytic ca...

  17. Concurrent pleomorphic adenoma in parapharyngeal space and submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunlewe M O

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pleomorphic adenoma in the parapharyngeal space either occurs de novo or as an extension from the deep lobe of the parotid gland. Case presentation A rare synchronous occurrence of pleomorphic adenoma in the parapharyngeal space and submandibular gland of a 48-year-old Nigerian male is reported. Conclusion Pleomorphic adenoma concurrent in the parapharyngeal space and submandibular gland is very rare. A complete surgical excision of both tumors is the treatment of choice.

  18. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salibian

    Full Text Available This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms.

  19. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  20. Percutaneous Salivary Gland Ablation using Ethanol in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Burch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sialorrhea is a common health and psychosocial problem for children with neuromuscular dysfunction secondary to a variety of disorders such as cerebral palsy. Current accepted treatments include the injection of botulinum toxin into the submandibular glands for temporary symptom relief. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of percutaneous ethanol injection for longer lasting salivary gland ablation in an animal model. Material and Methods: Twenty rats were used in this study. In each rat, 98% ethanol was injected into the right submandibular gland under ultrasound guidance. No intervention was performed on the left gland, which served as the control. Ten rats were sacrificed and glands evaluated at three weeks, with the remaining 10 rats sacrificed and evaluated at three months. Unpaired, 1-tailed T-tests were used to analyse the data. Results: Ethanol injections induced a significant and sustained reduction in salivary gland size. Treated glands were 41% smaller by mass than untreated controls in the 10 rats sacrificed at three weeks (P < 0.001. Treated glands were 43% smaller by mass than untreated controls in the 10 rats sacrificed at three months (P < 0.001. Qualitative histologic analysis demonstrated extensive parenchymal damage, inflammation, and fibrosis at both three week and three month time points. Conclusions: Using a rat model, we demonstrated dramatic and sustained submandibular gland damage after percutaneous injection of ethanol.

  1. Gland system, especially for nuclear power plant circulation pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.; Vesely, M.

    1975-01-01

    The invention claims a gland system suitable especially for the circulation pumps of nuclear power plants. The system prevents the release of the radioactive high-pressure cooling liquid in the atmosphere. The gland system consists of at least two mechanical glands arranged in series and of the closed circuit of the cooling high-pressure medium. The respective mechanical glands are linked with by-pass branches and discharge piping. The by-pass branches accommodating control manometers and flowmeters are linked with the storage reservoir with drain pipes provided with stop fittings. (Oy)

  2. Gene Expression in Human Accessory Lacrimal Glands of Wolfring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubels, John L.; Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Tisdale, Ann S.; Van Dyken, Rachel E.; Hatton, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The accessory lacrimal glands are assumed to contribute to the production of tear fluid, but little is known about their function. The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of gene expression by glands of Wolfring that would provide a more complete picture of the function of these glands. Methods. Glands of Wolfring were isolated from frozen sections of human eyelids by laser microdissection. RNA was extracted from the cells and hybridized to gene expression arrays. The expression of several of the major genes was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Results. Of the 24 most highly expressed genes, 9 were of direct relevance to lacrimal function. These included lysozyme, lactoferrin, tear lipocalin, and lacritin. The glands of Wolfring are enriched in genes related to protein synthesis, targeting, and secretion, and a large number of genes for proteins with antimicrobial activity were detected. Ion channels and transporters, carbonic anhydrase, and aquaporins were abundantly expressed. Genes for control of lacrimal function, including cholinergic, adrenergic, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, purinergic, androgen, and prolactin receptors were also expressed in gland of Wolfring. Conclusions. The data suggest that the function of glands of Wolfring is similar to that of main lacrimal glands and are consistent with secretion electrolytes, fluid, and protein under nervous and hormonal control. Since these glands secrete directly onto the ocular surface, their location may allow rapid response to exogenous stimuli and makes them readily accessible to topical drugs. PMID:22956620

  3. [Application scintigraphy in evaluation of salivary gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsak, Małgorzata Natalia; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2010-03-01

    The salivary glands belong to the exocrine glands. There are tree main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Several modalities are used for salivary gland imaging, such as sonography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of these methods is mainly to present morphological impairment. Parenchymal function and excretion function of all salivary glands can be quantified by scintigraphy. After single intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate sequential images are acquired up to 25-40 minutes. Usually about fifteen minutes postinjection 3 ml of lemon juice are administered intraorally as sialogogue. Salivary scintigraphy can estimate the severity of salivary gland involvement and function disorders, which may not be accurately reflected by the morphological damage. The clinical impact of scintigraphy has been reported in multiple salivary glands diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sialolithiasis with or without parenchymal damage, iatrogenic irradiation of the salivary glands for therapy of head and neck tumors or radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer. No other method can give so much information about function of salivary glands. Scintigraphy is noninvasive examination, easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.

  4. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether...... between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion....... the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...

  5. Large Parotid Gland Lipoblastoma in a Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Danny; Heilingoetter, Ashley; Ghai, Ritu; Jeffe, Jill; Al-Khudari, Samer

    2018-01-01

    Lipoblastomas are rare benign neoplasms that arise from fetal white fat cells. They are typically found in children under the age of 3 and have been reported in the mediastinum, extremities, and infrequently in the head and neck. We present a rare case of a lipoblastoma arising from the parotid gland and the first known report of a parotid lipoblastoma in a teenager. A 15-year-old male presented with a painless, slowly enlarging parotid mass and left facial swelling. A fine needle aspiration was non-diagnostic and initial MRI showed a 3.8 cm × 5.0 cm × 4.0 cm fatty lesion involving the superficial and deep lobes of the left parotid gland and masticator space with widening of the stylo-mandibular tunnel and thinning of the adjacent mandibular condyle. The patient was taken to the operating room, and the mass was excised under general anesthesia via a transcervical parotid approach with facial nerve monitoring. The most superficial aspect of the parotid bed was spared and with upper and lower divisions of the facial nerve preserved. The tumor, which primarily involved the deep lobe of the parotid, was entirely excised. Final pathology revealed a 5.2 cm lipoblastoma. The patient did well post-operatively with full function of the facial nerve and 20 months of follow up without evidence of recurrence. This is the first reported case of a lipoblastoma of the parotid gland in a teenager. Although a rare tumor, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a parotid mass in this population.

  6. Rescue of Salivary Gland Function after Stem Cell Transplantation in Irradiated Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle M. A.; Brunsting, Jeanette F.; Wierenga, Pieter K.; Faber, Hette; Stokman, Monique A.; Kok, Tineke; Visser, Willy H.; Kampinga, Harm H.; de Haan, Gerald; Coppes, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and accounts for 3% of all new cancer cases each year. Despite relatively high survival rates, the quality of life of these patients is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequential

  7. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A.; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J. H.; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P.

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG)

  8. Primary lymphocytic lymphoma of lacrimal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Caballero, M D; Lozano-García, I; Gómez-Molina, C; Gil-Liñán, A I; Arcas, I

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of primary small-cell lymphocytic lacrimal gland lymphoma in a male diagnosed with primary antiphospholipid syndrome. These rare lymphomas are usually presented in the clinic as disseminations secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and the primary site is rare in the orbit. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of tumours. Although treatment in the IE stage is usually radiotherapy, due to its association with antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic treatment with rituximab was administered. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Update on Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Michiel P J; Brenn, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Malignant sweat gland tumors are rare cutaneous neoplasms, traditionally separated according to their behavior into low- and high-grade malignant. There is significant morphologic overlap, and outright malignant tumors may show relatively bland histologic features. They may, therefore, be mistaken easily for benign neoplasms. Recognition of these tumors and accurate diagnosis is important for early treatment to prevent aggressive behavior and adverse outcome. This article provides an overview of 4 important entities with emphasis on diagnostic pitfalls, differential diagnosis and recent developments. Microcystic adnexal carcinoma, squamoid eccrine ductal carcinoma, aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma, and spiradenocarcinoma are discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Mucinous sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, P L; Herwig, M C; Holz, F G; Loeffler, K U

    2016-09-01

    A 52-year-old patient presented with a painless nodular tumor of the upper left eyelid, which was first noticed 6 months prior to the initial presentation. The histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of the excised tumor revealed a mucinous sweat gland carcinoma. This very rare neoplasm (1/150,000 skin lesions) is located within the ocular adnexa in 40 % of cases. If completely excised the prognosis is usually good; however, due to the histological similarity to metastases of an adenocarcinoma, a hitherto unknown primary tumor at another site should be excluded.

  11. Renal mucus gland cystadenomas in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loynachan, Alan T; Bryant, Uneeda K; Williams, Neil M

    2008-07-01

    A 35-year-old horse was submitted to the necropsy service at the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center. At necropsy, multiple 1-4-cm-diameter cystic structures were incidentally identified unilaterally in the right renal medulla and the cortex. On histologic examination, the cystic structures compressed the normal renal architecture, were lined by tall columnar epithelium that formed occasional papillary projections, and contained large amounts of mucicarmine and periodic acid-Schiff-positive mucinous material. The masses were diagnosed as renal mucus-gland cystadenomas. This tumor should be considered as a differential diagnosis when cystic structures are identified in the equine kidney.

  12. Mammary gland pathologies in the parturient buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G N Purohit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Parturition related mammary gland pathologies in the buffalo appear to be low on accord of anatomic (longer teat length, thicker streak canal and physiologic (lower cisternal storage of secreted milk, lower milk production differences with cattle. Hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia usually occur in the buffalo due to physiologic changes around parturition however mastitis involves pathologic changes in the udder and teats; the incidence of mastitis is however lower compared to cattle. The incidence and therapy of hemolactia, udder edema and hypogalactia are mentioned and the risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, therapy and prevention for mastitis in buffalo are also described.

  13. Assessment of parotid salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmana, B.; Preethi, G.; Naveen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck region often causes salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Several reports suggest that the submandibular and sublingual glands may be less radiosensitive than the parotid glands. The effect of radiotherapy on parotid gland function was studied by salivary scintigraphy in patients irradiated with different doses of radiation in the head and neck region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differential dose of radiation effects on the parotid glands using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods: Thirty-five patients with head and neck tumours were enrolled in a prospective salivary function study using Scintigraphy. Twenty-seven of thirty-five patients received different doses of radiation and remaining 8 patients did not receive radiation and they were considered as control. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured in all the patients from scintigraphy of parotid glands. Results: Patients who received radiation dose of =50 Gy showed severe salivary dysfunction when compared to patients who received radiation dose <50 Gy. Overall, patients who received radiation showed significant dysfunction of parotid gland when compared to patients who did not receive radiotherapy. Conclusion: Dysfunction of the parotid salivary gland increases as the radiation dose increases . QSGS appears to be a useful toll in qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating the grade of dysfunction following radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of the salivary glands of an invasive whitefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly

  15. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia masquerading as cancer nodal metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipchandler, Taha Z; Lorenz, Robert R

    2008-01-01

    Five reports have examined unilateral submandibular gland aplasia. The purposes of this report are to demonstrate submandibular gland aplasia leading to contralateral gland hypertrophy in the setting of oral cavity cancer and to discuss the corresponding diagnostic and management challenges. This study is a case report of a 60-year-old male who presented with pain on the right side of the mobile tongue. This report uses literature review. A 60-year-old male presented with pain on the right side of the mobile tongue. Subsequent results of punch biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ with foci of microinvasion of the tongue. Head and neck examination revealed no abnormalities. The patient underwent a wide-local excision of the tongue lesion. Postoperative computed tomographic (CT) scan showed an asymmetric mass on the ipsilateral side of the cancer in the region of the submandibular gland. The gland was noted to be abnormally large. A diagnosis of contralateral submandibular gland aplasia was made. The patient is cancer-free at 2 years postlocal excision. Salivary gland aplasia is an extremely rare disorder and is often associated with various congenital syndromes. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia is even rarer with ours representing the sixth reported case. Aplasia is believed to stem from a regional disturbance in early fetal development. Common symptoms can include dysphagia, dry mouth, decreased taste, and tooth decay. In the presence of a history of oral cavity cancer, unilateral submandibular gland aplasia poses a challenge during postoperative cancer follow-up. Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia in the setting of oral cavity cancer poses a unique challenge for cancer follow-up. Hypertrophy of the submandibular gland on the other side can masquerade as nodal metastasis. Head and neck examination as well as CT scan can be inconclusive. Regular confirmatory tests such as fine needle aspiration biopsy and positron emission tomography/CT for

  16. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in symptom particularly of (micro) PTC. In contrast follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  17. Isolated bilateral congenital lacrimal gland agenesis – Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar Alwohaib

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lacrimal gland agenesis, also called congenital alacrima, is a rare cause of dry eye and is characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of lacrimal glands. We present two 5-year old children with congenital lacrimal gland agenesis. The two cases had the final diagnosis of isolated bilateral congenital lacrimal gland agenesis and we document the clinical aspects, treatment and present a literature review related to this rare condition. Keywords: Alacrima, Lacrimal gland, Lacrimal gland agenesis, Punctal plugs

  18. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjith Parameswaran Nair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed.

  19. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-15

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  20. Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos: A ten-year retrospective study. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Objectives: This study is aimed at describing the histological pattern, age, sex and site distribution of benign salivary gland

  1. Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volatile chemicals in glands of the carpenter ant, Camponotus arminius. J.M. Brand, L.V. Mabinya, E.D. Morgan. Abstract. Camponotus arminius is a large black carpenter ant that occurs in tropical and sub-tropical Africa and has extensive foraging trails both in trees and on the ground. Analysis of excised mandibular glands ...

  2. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  3. Observations on the oesophageal glands in some Tanzanian anurans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology and Marine Biology, University of Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The occurrence and function of oesophageal glands in some anurans from Tanzania was investigated. The compound glands were present in the oesophageal submucosa of. Ptychadena oxyrhynchus Smith, Ptychadena ...

  4. The histology of the adrenal gland of the African elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The histology, particularly the ultrastructural cytology, of the adrenal gland of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, is virtually unknown. Tissue from 14 adult male and female elephants was processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. The gland is surrounded by a thick capsule composed of an outer layer ...

  5. Histochemistry of gland cells of Eurytrema pancreaticum cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdárská, Z

    1979-01-01

    The cercariae of Eurytrema pancreaticum (Janson, 1889) possess four types of gland cells - proper cystogenic, penetration, ventral and dorsal gland cells. The secretion of ventral and dorsal gland cells is released into the tegument. The proper cystogenic gland cells are the largest and their contents serve for the formation of the cyst wall of metacercariae in the second intermediate host. The secretion of proper cystogenic gland cells contains besides neutral mucosubstances also acid mucosubstances with both carboxyl- and sulphogroups digestible with beta-glucuronidase. The secretion of penetration gland cells contains neutral mucosubstances and proteins with tyrosine, tryptophan and SS groups. The ventral gland cells contain mostly acid mucosubstances with sulphogroups, which are digested with beta-glucuronidase, and proteins with tyrosine, tryptophan and SH groups. The rudimentary dorsal gland cells contain a small amount of acid mucosubstances. The whole tegument of cercariae and the two main collecting canals of the excretory system exhibit a high alkaline phosphatase activity. The nerve ring and the main nerve truncs contain proteins with SH groups and hydrophilic lipids and exhibit a cholinesterase activity. The suckers contain a larger amount of glycogen.

  6. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cephalic salivary glands of some species of bees are exclusive and well developed only in Apinae. These glands were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy in workers, queens and males from the honey bee Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica in different life phases. The results ...

  7. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  8. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with ... MASC can be mistaken for acinic cell carcinoma; however, MASC does not have acinar cells with .... carcinoma of salivary glands: A report of 2 cases with expression of basal/myoepithelial markers (calponin, CD10 and p63 protein).

  9. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  10. Bilaterally Diffuse Lacrimal Gland Involvement: Initial Presentation of Systemic Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Orbital involvement in systemic sarcoidosis is a rare condition. We report a case of orbital sarcoidosis with bilaterally huge lacrimal gland involvement as the initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. A 20-year-old woman admitted the ophthalmology department with progressive bilateral upper eyelid swelling for 6 months. The only pathologic finding was the presence of bilateral, symmetrical, solid, lobular masses at the lateral upper eyelids at the location of lacrimal glands. On systemic examination, bilateral parotid and submandibular glands appeared swollen. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed bilateral symmetrical diffuse enlargement of the lacrimal glands with maximum and minimum thickness of 11 mm and 7 mm, respectively. The biopsy findings were compatible with sarcoidosis. Although lacrimal gland involvement has been reported in different studies, we for the first time report an unusual case with bilateral diffuse huge lacrimal gland involvement. Normal lacrimal gland thickness is approximately 4-5 mm in magnetic resonance imaging, while our case had bilateral diffuse enlargement of lacrimal glands, which showed maximum and minimum thickness of 11 mm and 7 mm, respectively. Although orbital involvement is uncommon in sarcoidosis, it should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  11. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  12. Morphology and morphometry of postnatal suprarenal glands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of morphology and morphometry of suprarenal gland facilitates diagnostic and treatment methods for various associated clinical conditions. In the present study 120 suprarenal glands obtained from 60 cadavers were observed for their morphological and morphometric parameters along with weight of the kidneys.

  13. Sonographic mammary gland density pattern in women in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are known to affect the mammary gland density. This study aims to determine mammary gland density pattern in selected population of women in Sothern Nigeria using the American College of Radiology Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR-BI-RADS) lexicon and to promote the use of ultrasound as a breast cancer ...

  14. Benign lymphoepithelial lesion arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Chung; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Yoo, Dong Soo

    1996-01-01

    The authors diagnosed a 33 years old female as benign lymphoepithelial lesion after undergoing clinical, radiological and histopathological examinations and the characteristics were as follows : 1. Clinically, the patient complained of painless bilateral swelling of the parotid glands and dryness of the palate. Rheumatoid facor was detected in her serum. 2. Sialograms showed punctuate or globular collections of contrast media distributed evenly throughout the parotid gland s in so-called 'cherry blossom' or 'fearless fruit-laden tree' appearance. 3. A salivary gland scan showed no uptake of radioisotopes by the parotid glands. 4. At T1-weighted imaging of PNS MRI, the lesions had the same signal intensity as the rest of the gland. At T2-weighted imaging, the lesion could be seen as high signal intensity 1.3 cm and 2.1 cm in diameter in the left and the right parotid gland respectively. 5. Ultrasonogram showed sonolucent lesions 20 X 15 mm and 17 X 14 mm in size in the lower part of the left parotid gland an d another 18 X 11 mm in size in the lower part of the parotid gland AS well as many other small sonolucent lesions. 6. Histopathologically, lymphocytic infiltration replacing the normal acini and lymphoid follicles containing germinal centers could be seen. Epimyoepithelial islands were scattered throughout the lesion and benign lymphoepithelial cysts were also observed.

  15. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th ...

  16. Hyperforin accumulates in the translucent glands of Hypericum perforatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jäger, Anna K

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypericum perforatum contains the therapeutically important compounds hypericin and hyperforin. Hypericin is known to accumulate in the dark glands. This investigation aimed to determine the accumulation site of hyperforin. METHODS: Dark and translucent glands as well as non-...

  17. MicroRNA expression profiling during upland cotton gland forming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This data may be useful in future studies associated with gland control involved in the terpenoid aldehyde biosynthesis pathway, genetic engineering and molecular breeding of cotton. Key words: MicroRNA, cotton, gland morphogenesis, microRNA microarray, quantitative real-time reversetranscription polymerase chain ...

  18. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), was also determined. The morphology and anatomical structure of the salt gland varied according to the salinity degree. At low salinities, salt gland was small, thin and flat having many shallow canals, while ...

  19. Single and multiple gland disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bonjer, Jaap

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe scope of this thesis is: To review diagnostic procedures in primary hyperparathyroidism To review localization studies of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism primary To assess the optima! surgical hyperparathyroidism by studying the recurrent hyperparathyroidism treatment of primary rates of persistent or To attempt to classify primary hyperparathyroidism by histopathology To determine DNA patterns in parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism

  20. Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, W.; Boerner, W.

    1987-04-01

    Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand.

  1. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.

    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  2. MRI study of normal pituitary glands in stage of puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guangwu; Zhang Tao; Yang Ning; Cai Feng; Shi Yifan; Deng Jieying; Zhang Luodong; Jiang Yayun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of shape, size and signal intensity of normal pituitary glands in adolescents and to correlate the size and shape of normal pituitary glands with the age, height and weight in stage of puberty. Methods: One hundred and fifty-five cases of MRI data of pituitary glands in normal adolescents range from 6.0 year to 18.9 year were used. Using high-field 1.5T MR scanner, the appearances of pituitary glands in 152 normal adolescents were analyzed on T 1 WI in standard median sagittal and coronal plane. Results: Three groups quantitative data of size, shape and single intensity changes of normal pituitary glands were obtained, which were divided into 6- m =0.74, t=3.624, P=0.004; r f =0.94, t=9.562, P=0.000), however, it was not markedly correlated with the height and weight (P>0.05). Conclusion: Obvious changes of the size and shape of pituitary glands were found in health adolescents. The pituitary glands manifest physiologic hypertrophy with more convex of upper border when age increased in stage of puberty. The spherical appearance of the pituitary glands is a normal developmental feature and should not warrant clinical investigation for the presence of an underlying micro-adenoma in teenage females. (authors)

  3. Volume of the adrenal and pituitary glands in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge Stoel; Knorr, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyperactive in some depressed patients. It is unclear whether such hyperactivity results in changed volumes of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland and hypothalamus. We systematically reviewed all controlled studies...... on the adrenal or pituitary glands or hypothalamus volume in unipolar depressive disorder published in PubMed 1966 to December 2009. We identified three studies that investigated the volume of the adrenal glands and eight studies that examined the volume of the pituitary gland, but no studies on hypothalamus...... were found. Two out of three studies found a statistically significant increase in adrenal volume in patients compared to controls. Four out of eight studies found a statistically significant increase in pituitary volume in patients compared to controls. Different methodological problems were...

  4. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  5. Computed tomography diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veverková, Lucia; Bakaj-Zbrožková, Lenka; Hallamová, Lucie; Heřman, Miroslav

    2013-10-01

    Fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland is the most common interventional procedure used to diagnose thyroid diseases. Serious complications are rare in this procedure. They comprise an infection with abscess formation and hemorrhage. To date, only a few case reports have described an ultrasound diagnosis of active bleeding into the thyroid gland. We established such a diagnosis using computed tomography (CT). A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with complications after fine-needle biopsy of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound revealed a large hematoma surrounding the gland. A subsequent CT scan confirmed the presence of hematoma and, moreover, showed active bleeding. This finding prompted rapid surgical intervention. CT has the capability to show active bleeding into the thyroid gland.

  6. Size, shape, and appearance of the normal female pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolpert, S.M.; Molitch, M.E.; Goldman, J.A.; Wood, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred seven women 18-65 years old were studied who were referred for suspected central nervous system disease not related to the pituitary gland or hypothalamus. High-resolution, direct, coronal, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) was used to examine the size; shape, and density of the normal pituitary gland. There were three major conclusions: (1) the height of the normal gland can be as much as 9 mm; (2) the superior margin of the gland may bulge in normal patients; and (3) both large size and convex contour appear to be associated with younger age. It was also found that serum prolactin levels do not appear to correlate with the CT appearances. Noise artifacts inherent in high-detail, thin-section, soft-tissue scanning may be a limiting factor in defining reproducible patterns in different parts of the normal pituitary gland

  7. Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma of Parotid Gland- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin A. Badge

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC is most commonly seen in the nasopharynx. Very rarely it is found in the salivary gland, preferably in parotid gland followed by submandibular gland where it accounts for 0.4% of all malignant salivary gland tumours. Most commonly it is seen in fifth decade with female predominance. Significant correlation has been reported between this tumour and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV.It has a racial predilection for Inuits,Chinese and Japanese. Very rarely it is found In Indians. So we present a case of LEC of parotid gland in a 23 year old male Indian patient. As this is a very radiosensitive tumour, surgery followed by radiotherapy remains the treatment of choice.

  8. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  9. Bilateral Warthin tumor of the parotid gland: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    The Warthin tumor is a benign neoplasm that occurs mostly in the parotid gland. The tumor frequently occurs in the tail of the parotid gland. A 75-year-old man was referred to Wonkwang dental hospital with a chief complaint of swelling on the right submandibular area. Numerous salivary stones were observed in the right submandibular gland on computed tomography(CT). And the two tumorous lesions were incidentally found in the parotid gland bilaterally. The tumorous lesions showed homogeneous enhancement on the CT and intermediate signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. This tumorous lesions also showed contrast enhancement on fat suppressed T1 weighted MR images. We report common CT and MR features of this case of Warthin tumor in the parotid gland with literature review.

  10. Postoperative Submandibular Gland Swelling following Craniotomy under General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Nakanishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Reporting of a rare case of postoperative submandibular gland swelling following craniotomy. Case Report. A 33-year-old male underwent resection for a brain tumor under general anesthesia. The tumor was resected via a retrosigmoid suboccipital approach and the patient was placed in a lateral position with his face down and turned to the right. Slight swelling of the right submandibular gland was observed just after the surgery. Seven hours after surgery, edematous change around the submandibular gland worsened and he required emergent reintubation due to airway compromise. The cause of submandibular gland swelling seemed to be an obstruction of the salivary duct due to surgical positioning. Conclusion. Once submandibular swelling and edematous change around the submandibular gland occur, they can worsen and compromise the air way within several hours after operation. Adequate precaution must be taken for any predisposing skull-base surgery that requires strong cervical rotation and flexion.

  11. Histoanatomical study of the Sublingual Salivary Gland in the Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.a Ebrahimi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The heads of ten adult camels were used in this study. Following skin removal, the length, width and thickness of the gland was measured by ruler and caliper. Dye injection was used to distinguish the sublingual duct papilla and 1cm sections from the gland were removed and fixed to prepare histologic sections stained with H & E for microscopic studies. The long, ribbon like and lobulated monostomatic part of the gland is situated underneath the tongue alongside the hypoglossus muscle. This part of the gland begins from the mandibular symphysis and is continued caudally to near the root of the tongue. The average length, width and thickness of this part were 15.2±0.02, 2.2±0.03 and 0.5±0.05 cm respectively. The polystomatic part was observed as scattered and lobulated near the submucosa and in front of the monostomatic part with decreasing concentration caudally. The average size of these fragments was approximately 0.5±0.02 cm. The overall appearance of the gland was lobulated with a pink colour. The monostomatic part has a single duct entering the sublingual caruncle. The minute polystomatic ducts open into the depressions alongside the tongue inside the oral cavity. These ducts are numerous. Histologically, the gland is surrounded by a capsule of dense connective tissue. Trabcules from the capsule penetrate the gland and divide it into lobules. Loose connective tissue makes up the framework of the gland and there are tubulo-acinus glands in the spaces of this framework. Approximately 95% of the secretory cells of this gland consist of mucous secreting cells. Myoepithelial cells are seen on the external surface of the secretory cells and also alongside the connecting ducts.

  12. Effect of Meibomian gland massage before phacoemulsification on ocular surface after surgery in patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang-Tao Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the changes of ocular surface in cataract patients with Meibomian gland dysfunction(MGDwho treated with Meibomian gland massage before surgery. METHODS: Totally 90 patients(93 eyeswith cataract and MGD were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in experimental group were treated with hot compress and Meibomian gland massage every day before surgery, while the patients in the control group were not taken. Two groups of patients received phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation. Lid margin abnormalities, secretion characteristics, Schimer I test(SⅠtand tear film break-up time(BUTwere recorded and compared between two groups using slit lamp microscope inspection preoperatively and postoperatively 1wk. RESULTS: In the control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin and Meibomian gland secretion was increased significantly than preoperative, while the value of BUT and SⅠt was down significantly. Compared with control group, the postoperative score of eyelid margin shape and Meibomian gland secretion in the experimental group was decreased significantly, while the value of BUT and SIT improved significantly(PCONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification can aggravate the Meibomian gland dysfunction and have some extent of effects on the ocular surface. Meibomian gland massage before surgery can significantly improve the function of Meibomian gland and the state of ocular surface in patients with MDG.

  13. The importance of background correction during calculation of the major salivary gland function in salivary gland scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Taşdemir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the parotid (P and submandibular (SM glands uptake and excretion ratios of 99mTc-pertechnetate, which were calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas. Methods: Ninety-eight P and 98 SM glands of totally 48 patients were included in the study. 99mTc-pertechnetate salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in all patients. Oral stimulation with lemon juice was made at 15th minute of the imaging. The 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands were calculated separately without using any background, and by using the backgrounds drawn on wide frontal, narrow frontal, temporal, cervical and shoulder regions. These values were statistically compared with each other in pairwise manner. Results: The radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated without using any background correction were statistically different from that calculated by using any background correction. In addition, the radioactivity uptake and excretion ratios of the P and SM glands calculated by using the backgrounds drawn on five different areas were mostly found statistically different from each other (p<0.05. Conclusion: Background correction is important during the calculation of the uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands. This study demonstrates that calculated uptake and excretion ratios of P and SM glands may differ according to the used background area.

  14. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  15. Normal tissue complication probability for salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of radiotherapy is to make a profitable balance between the morbidity (due to side effects of radiation) and cure of malignancy. To achieve this, one needs to know the relation between NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) and various treatment variables of a schedule viz. daily dose, duration of treatment, total dose and fractionation along with tissue conditions. Prospective studies require that a large number of patients be treated with varied schedule parameters and a statistically acceptable number of patients develop complications so that a true relation between NTCP and a particular variable is established. In this study Salivary Glands Complications have been considered. The cases treated in 60 Co teletherapy machine during the period 1994 to 2002 were analyzed and the clinicians judgement in ascertaining the end points was the only means of observations. The only end points were early and late xerestomia which were considered for NTCP evaluations for a period of 5 years

  16. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  17. [Intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synoracki, S; Ting, S; Siebolts, U; Dralle, H; Koperek, O; Schmid, K W

    2015-07-01

    The goal of evaluation of intraoperative frozen sections of the thyroid gland is to achieve a definitive diagnosis which determines the subsequent surgical management as fast as possible; however, due to the specific methodological situation of thyroid frozen sections evaluation a conclusive diagnosis can be made in only some of the cases. If no conclusive histological diagnosis is possible during the operation, subsequent privileged processing of the specimen allows a final diagnosis at the latest within 48 h in almost all remaining cases. Applying this strategy, both pathologists and surgeons require a high level of communication and knowledge regarding the specific diagnostic and therapeutic peculiarities of thyroid malignancies because different surgical strategies must be employed depending on the histological tumor subtype.

  18. Neutron therapy of resistant thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choynzonov, E. L.; Gribova, O. V.; Startseva, Zh. A.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Musabaeva, L. I.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons c. The study included 45 patients with thyroid gland cancers who received the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy alone with the use of 6.3 MeV fast neutrons generated within U-120 cyclotron. The clinical trial of neutron-photon therapy used alone and in combination with the surgery for the patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer showed feasibility of increasing the effectiveness of treatment due to the reduction in the incidence of local recurrences. In addition, satisfactory treatment tolerance and absence of severe specific complications dictate the necessity of prospective studies to improve treatment outcomes.

  19. Postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Keun Yong; Wu, Hong Gyun; Kim, Jae Sung; Park, Charn Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Chae Seo; Kim, In Ah

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for parotid gland malignancy, and determine prognostic factors for locoregional control and survival. Between 1980 and 2002, 130 patients with parotid malignancy were registered in the database of the Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital. The subjects of this analysis were the 72 of these 130 patients who underwent postoperative irradiation. There were 42 males and 30 females, with a median age of 46.5 years. The most common histological type was a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. There were 6, 23, 23 and 20 patients in Stages I, II, III and IV, respectively. The median dose to the tumor bed was 60 Gy, with a median fraction size of 1.8 Gy. The overall 5 and 10 year survival rates were 85 and 76%, respectively. The five-year locoregional control rate was 85%, which reached a plateau phase after 6 years. Sex and histological type were found to be statistically significant for overall survival from a multivariate analysis. No other factors, including age, facial nerve palsy and stage, were related to overall survival. For locoregional control, nodal involvement and positive resection margin were associated with poor local control. Histological type, tumor size, perineural invasion and type of surgery were not significant for locoregional control. A high survival rate of parotid gland malignancies, with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, was confirmed. Sex and histological type were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Nodal involvement and a positive resection margin were associated with poor locoregional control

  20. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  1. Chloride secretion by cultures of pig tracheal gland cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borthwell, Rachel M.; Hajighasemi-Ossareh, Mohammad; Lachowicz-Scroggins, Marrah E.; Finkbeiner, W. E.; Stevens, Jeremy E.; Modlin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Malfunction of airway submucosal glands contributes to the pathology of cystic fibrosis (CF), and cell cultures of CF human airway glands show defects in Cl− and water transport. Recently, a transgenic pig model of CF (the CF pig) has been developed. Accordingly, we have developed cell cultures of pig airway gland epithelium for use in investigating alterations in gland function in CF. Our cultures form tight junctions (as evidenced by high transepithelial electrical resistance) and show high levels of active anion secretion (measured as amiloride-insensitive short-circuit current). In agreement with recent results on human airway glands, neurohumoral agents that elevate intracellular Ca2+ potently stimulated anion secretion, while elevation of cAMP was comparatively ineffective. Our cultures express lactoferrin and lysozyme (serous gland cell markers) and MUC5B (the main mucin of airway glands). They are, therefore, potentially useful in determining if CF-related alterations in anion transport result in altered secretion of serous cell antimicrobial agents or mucus. PMID:22367783

  2. Adrenal gland infection by serotype 5 adenovirus requires coagulation factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Tran

    Full Text Available Recombinant, replication-deficient serotype 5 adenovirus infects the liver upon in vivo, systemic injection in rodents. This infection requires the binding of factor X to the capsid of this adenovirus. Another organ, the adrenal gland is also infected upon systemic administration of Ad, however, whether this infection is dependent on the cocksackie adenovirus receptor (CAR or depends on the binding of factor X to the viral capsid remained to be determined. In the present work, we have used a pharmacological agent (warfarin as well as recombinant adenoviruses lacking the binding site of Factor X to elucidate this mechanism in mice. We demonstrate that, as observed in the liver, adenovirus infection of the adrenal glands in vivo requires Factor X. Considering that the level of transduction of the adrenal glands is well-below that of the liver and that capsid-modified adenoviruses are unlikely to selectively infect the adrenal glands, we have used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT imaging of gene expression to determine whether local virus administration (direct injection in the kidney could increase gene transfer to the adrenal glands. We demonstrate that direct injection of the virus in the kidney increases gene transfer in the adrenal gland but liver transduction remains important. These observations strongly suggest that serotype 5 adenovirus uses a similar mechanism to infect liver and adrenal gland and that selective transgene expression in the latter is more likely to be achieved through transcriptional targeting.

  3. Mammary gland stem cells: more puzzles than explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimala, Suneesh; Bisana, Swathi; Kumar, Satish

    2012-06-01

    Mammary gland stem cells (MaSC) have not been identified in spite of extensive research spanning over several decades. This has been primarily due to the complexity of mammary gland structure and its development, cell heterogeneity in the mammary gland and the insufficient knowledge about MaSC markers. At present, Lin (-) CD29 (i) CD49f (i) CD24 (+/mod) Sca- 1 (-) cells of the mammary gland have been reported to be enriched with MaSCs. We suggest that the inclusion of stem cell markers like Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and the mammary gland differentiation marker BRCA-1 may further narrow down the search for MaSCs. In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary gland structures in this review. Nevertheless, it is the lack of identity for a MaSC that is curtailing the advances in some of the above and other related areas.

  4. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  5. [Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N

    2011-01-01

    The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  6. An Update on Tumors of the Lacrimal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Esmaeli, Bita; Holstein, Sarah Linéa von

    2017-01-01

    Lacrimal gland tumors are rare and constitute a wide spectrum of different entities ranging from benign epithelial and lymphoid lesions to high-grade carcinomas, lymphomas, and sarcomas with large differences in prognosis and clinical management. The symptoms and findings of a lacrimal gland lesion...... are a growing mass at the site of the lacrimal gland, including displacement of the eyeball, decreased motility, diplopia, and ptosis. Pain is the cardinal symptom of an adenoid cystic carcinoma. Radiological findings characteristically include an oval, well-demarcated mass for benign lesions whereas malignant...

  7. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a loss of stem cells that are no longer able to replenish saliva-producing acinar cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy could be utilized to prevent radiation-induced damage to the salivary gland. Bon...

  8. Aplasia of the parotid gland in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M M; Ponnambalam, Y

    2005-04-01

    Salivary gland aplasia has not to our knowledge been previously reported in association with Down syndrome. We present a case of bilateral parotid aplasia in a patient with Down syndrome. Clinically he had aplasia of the major salivary glands and symptoms of xerostomia. Thirteen other family members over three generations were examined, and all had functional parotid glands. We reviewed publications about Down syndrome and salivary aplasia, together with the data regarding his other clinical problems and family background. His oral problems were inadequate plaque control, dental caries, and erosion of the teeth.

  9. A kinetic compartment model for evaluating salivary gland scintigraphies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    referred for (99m) Tc-pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy were studied. Dynamic imaging of the head in a fixed anterior projection was performed after an intravenous bolus injection of 150 MBq (99m) Tc-pertechnetate using a gamma scintillation camera. After 30 min, lemon juice was orally administered...... through a syringe. Time activity curves were generated for each of the four major salivary glands (i.e. the right and left submandibular and right and left parotid glands). Excretion fractions (the fraction of mobilizable radioactivity after administering lemon juice) and the gland activity...

  10. A Case of Primary Submandibular Gland Oncocytic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Tokashiki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma is a rare pathology, with only 10 cases being reported to date. We encountered a case of primary submandibular gland oncocytic carcinoma and report it herein. The patient was a 69-year-old man who came to our hospital with right submandibular cancer as the main complaint. Based on the results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, submandibular gland tumor was diagnosed. Preoperative cytodiagnosis suggested class III oncocytic carcinoma. Resection of the right submandibular tumor was performed along with right neck dissection. Postoperative histopathological diagnosis was oncocytic carcinoma. As of 3 years following surgery, no recurrence has been identified.

  11. Cutaneous Metastases from Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Submandibular Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahida Chakari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive malignant neoplasm that frequently metastasises to other organs, but cutaneous metastasis is uncommon. There are only 6 cases reported in the literature with metastases to the skin and in all cases the tumour originates from the parotid gland. We present a case of skin metastases from the submandibular gland that was mistaken for basal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of salivary duct carcinoma arising from the submandibular gland with cutaneous metastases.

  12. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with {beta}-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Kiortsis, D.N. [Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece); Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Ioannina (Greece)

    2001-12-01

    In transfusion-dependent {beta}-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with {beta}-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  13. Pituitary gland height evaluated by MR in patients with β-thalassemia major: a marker of pituitary gland function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyropoulou, M.I.; Metafratzi, Z.; Efremidis, S.C.; Kiortsis, D.N.; Bitsis, S.; Tsatoulis, A.

    2001-01-01

    In transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia major, increased iron deposition in the pituitary gland has a cytotoxic effect leading mainly to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Our purpose was to assess in these patients the height of the pituitary gland and to evaluate whether it represents a marker of pituitary gland function. In 29 patients with β-thalassemia major and 35 age- and gender-matched controls the pituitary gland height was evaluated in a midline sagittal scan using a spin echo T1-weighted (500/20 TR/TE) sequence. In all patients, an extensive endocrine evaluation was performed, including measurements of spontaneous and stimulated levels of gonadotropins, thyroid hormones, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and adrenal hormones. The pituitary gland height was lower in thalassemic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=15) (mean 3.48; SD 0.46) than in the age- and gender-matched controls (mean 6.29; SD 0.77), (P<0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between thalassemic patients without hormone dysfunction (n=14) (mean 5.34; SD 1.52) and age- and gender-matched controls (mean 5.91; SD 1.06). We conclude that in thalassemic patients the pituitary gland height is an additional marker of pituitary gland function and might be useful in clinical management. (orig.)

  14. A comparison of the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunmeng Da

    Full Text Available This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups-a sham-operated group (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E, and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR. The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3 and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase. The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms.

  15. A comparison of the effects of estrogen and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Yunmeng; Niu, Kaiyu; Wang, Ke; Cui, Guangxia; Wang, Wenjuan; Jin, Biao; Sun, Yu; Jia, Jing; Qin, Lihua; Bai, Wenpei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to observe the effects of estradiol and Cimicifuga racemosa on the lacrimal gland and submandibular gland of ovariectomized rats. We randomly divided 20 adult female SD rats into four groups-a sham-operated group (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX) group, ovariectomized group treated with estradiol (OVX+ E), and ovariectomized group treated with the isopropanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (OVX+ iCR). The SHAM group and OVX group used distilled water to instead the drugs. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the estradiol and iCR were administered for 4 weeks. Next, we used H&E staining and electron microscopy to observe any histological changes in the lacrimal and submandibular glands and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) and Cu-Zn SOD (superoxide dismutase). The H&E staining find that both drugs can prevent the cells of area from shrinkage in the two kinds of gland. But under the electron microscopy, estradiol and iCR have different efficacy. Estradiol is more effective at protecting mitochondria in lacrimal gland acinar cells than iCR, and iCR is more effective at suppressing endoplasmic reticulum expansion than estradiol. Both estradiol and iCR have a similar protective function on mitochondria in the submandibular gland. The protective function of the two glands may inhibit apoptosis by suppressing the expression of Casp-3. In addition, iCR increases the expression of Cu-Zn SOD in duct system of submandibular gland. The results suggest that both estradiol and iCR confer a protective effect on the lacrimal and submandibular glands of ovariectomized rats via different mechanisms.

  16. Exocrine glands in the legs of the social wasp Vespula vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Catherine; Billen, Johan

    2015-09-01

    This study brings a survey of the exocrine glands in the legs of Vespula vulgaris wasps. We studied workers, males, virgin queens as well as mated queens. A variety of 17 glands is found in the different leg segments. Among these, five glands are novel exocrine structures for social insects (trochanter-femur gland, ventrodistal tibial gland, distal tibial sac gland, ventral tibial gland, and ventral tarsomere gland). Most leg glands are present in the three leg pairs of all castes. This may indicate a mechanical function. This is likely for the numerous glands that occur near the articulation between the various leg segments, where lubricant production may be expected. Other possible functions include antenna cleaning, acting as a hydraulic system, or pheromonal. Further research including leg-related behavioural observations and chemical analyses may help to clarify the functions of these glandular structures in the legs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of sublingual glands. Surgery and radiotherapy combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagnale, Ramiro; Campagnale, Rodrigo; Varalli, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) or Cilindroma is a strange entity classified by the WHO within the carcinomas of salivary glands. It represents only 1 % of all the wicked tumours of the oral and maxillofacial region although, when making reference to the salivary glands, it constitutes 5% of the parotid, submaxilar and sublingual carcinomas, and about 50% of the smallest ones. The most frequent location is in the palatine glands and its main characteristics are: slow but persistent growth, high rates of local relapse and metastasis at distance originating the death between the first 5 and 10 years in 50-70% of the cases approximately. A case of localization is presented in sublingual gland which was first treated surgically and later with radiotherapy, obtaining good results. (author) [es

  18. Single and multiple gland disease in primary hyperparathyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Bonjer (Jaap)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe scope of this thesis is: To review diagnostic procedures in primary hyperparathyroidism To review localization studies of parathyroid glands in hyperparathyroidism primary To assess the optima! surgical hyperparathyroidism by studying the recurrent hyperparathyroidism treatment of

  19. Stones in the lacrimal gland: a rare condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halborg, Jakob; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Toft, Peter Bjerre

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stones (dacryoliths) in the lacrimal drainage system are relatively common. However, stones in the lacrimal gland itself are very rare. We present three cases of lacrimal gland stones and describe the clinical and histopathological characteristics and composition of the stones. METHODS...... of the excised material showed an eosinophilic, amorphic material organized in lamellae and localized in a ductule. The findings were consistent with a stone in the lacrimal gland in all three cases. All stones were composed of proteins of similar types. After surgery, the three patients healed without...... complications. CONCLUSIONS: Lacrimal gland stones represent a very rare but relevant differential diagnosis when a patient presents with unilateral persistent conjunctivitis or with a tumour in the lateral canthus. Treatment is excision under local anaesthesia....

  20. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Rocher, F.; Vigneron, N.; Pecking, A.; Najean, Y.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment [fr

  1. Parotid Gland Biopsy, the Alternative Way to Diagnose Sjogren Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkervet, Fred. K.L.; Haacke, Erlin; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bootsma, Hendrika; Vissink, Arjan

    Salivary gland biopsy is a technique broadly applied for the diagnosis of Sjogren syndrome (SS), lymphoma in SS, and connective tissue disorders (sarcoidosis, amyloidosis). In SS characteristic histology findings are found, including lymphocytic infiltration surrounding the excretory ducts in

  2. Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertorini, Tulio E; Perez, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the adrenal glands frequently have secondary neurological manifestations, while some diseases that involve the central nervous system are accompanied by adrenal gland dysfunction. Excessive corticosteroid secretions in primary or secondary Cushing's syndrome causes muscle weakness and behavioral disturbances, such as emotional lability and sometimes depression, while adrenal insufficiency may cause fatigue, weakness, and depression. Adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenoneuromyelopathy are X-linked recessive disorders of the metabolism of very long chain fatty acids that manifest with white matter abnormalities of the brain, myelopathy and/or neuropathy, as well as adrenal insufficiency. Other disorders of the adrenal glands include hyperaldosteroidism, which may cause weakness from hypokalemia. Dysfunction of the adrenal medulla causes excessive or deficient secretion of catecholamines, primarily causing cardiovascular symptoms. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations and diagnostic aspects and treatment of the various disorders of the adrenal glands. Some of the congenital adrenal diseases are also discussed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Minor salivary gland tumors. A histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Lloyd, R V; Zarbo, R J; McClatchey, K D

    1985-01-01

    Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical data were reviewed and evaluated on 238 oral minor salivary gland tumors. Benign neoplasms accounted for 65% of the total. Pleomorphic adenomas were the most common of all neoplasms, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas were the most frequently encountered malignancies. Pleomorphic adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas stained positive for S-100 protein. Immunohistochemistry was believed to be of potential assistance in diagnosis of salivary gland tumors and in prediction of histogenesis.

  4. Geometric changes of parotid glands caused by hydration during chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kager, Petronella M.; Weerdenburg, Sanne C. C. van; Kranen, Simon R. van; Beek, Suzanne van; Lamers-Kuijper, Elisabeth A.; Heemsbergen, Wilma D.; Hamming-Vrieze, Olga; Remeijer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plan adaptation during the course of (chemo)radiotherapy of H&N cancer requires repeat CT scanning to capture anatomy changes such as parotid gland shrinkage. Hydration, applied to prevent nephrotoxicity from cisplatin, could temporarily alter the hydrogen balance and hence the captured anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine geometric changes of parotid glands as function of hydration during chemoradiotherapy compared to a control group treated with radiotherapy only. This study included an experimental group (n = 19) receiving chemoradiotherapy, and a control group (n = 19) receiving radiotherapy only. Chemoradiotherapy patients received cisplatin with 9 l of saline solution during hydration in the first, fourth and seventh week. The delineations of the parotid glands on the planning CT scan were automatically propagated to Cone Beam CT scans using deformable image registration. Relative volume and position of the parotid glands were determined at the second chemotherapy cycle (week four) and at fraction 35. When saline solution was administrated, the volume temporarily increased on the first day (7.2 %, p < 0.001), second day (10.8 %, p < 0.001) and third day (7.0 %, p = 0.016). The gland positions shifted lateral, the distance between glands increased on the first day with 1.5 mm (p < 0.001), on the second day 2.2 mm (p < 0.001). At fraction 35, with both groups the mean shrinkage was 24 % ± 11 % (1SD) and the mean medial distance between the parotid glands decreased by 0.47 cm ± 0.27 cm. Hydration significantly modulates parotid gland geometry. Unless, in the context of adaptive RT, a repeat CT scan is timed during a chemotherapy cycle, these effects are of minor clinical relevance

  5. A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Thyroid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Geun; Yang, Youngro; Kim, Kwang Sik; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lee, Ji Shin; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Daeho

    2011-01-01

    Metastasis to the thyroid gland from distant cancer is rare, and, in some cases, is a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. A 77-year-old man presented with a neck mass detected about 1 month previously. He had undergone a right nephrectomy owing to renal cell carcinoma 14 years previously. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a few atypical follicular cells with nuclear atypia. Under a tentative diagnosis of papillary thyroid ...

  6. Positional Variations in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Veltmaat, Jacqueline M.; Ramsdell, Ann F.; Sterneck, Esta

    2013-01-01

    Most mammals develop their mammary glands in pairs of which the two counterparts are symmetrically displaced away from the ventral midline. Based on this symmetry and the same functional outcome as a milk-producing organ, the mammary glands are easily presumed to be mere copies of one another. Based on our analysis of published data with inclusion of new results related to mammary development and pathology in mice, we argue that this presumption is incorrect: Between and within pairs, mammary...

  7. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  8. The originality of Descartes' theory about the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhorst, G J; Kaitaro, T T

    2001-03-01

    René Descartes thought that the pineal gland is the part of the body with which the soul is most immediately associated. Several prominent historians (such as Soury, Thorndike and Sherrington) have claimed that this idea was not very original. We re-examine the evidence and conclude that their assessment was wrong. We pay special attention to the thesis about the pineal gland which Jean Cousin defended in January, 1641.

  9. Isolated submandibular gland metastasis from an occult papillary thyroid cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sarda A; Pandey D; Bhalla S; Goyal A

    2004-01-01

    A case of an isolated submandibular gland metastasis from a clinically occult papillary thyroid carcinoma is described in a 46-year old lady. Initial surgery was done based on the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) report of adenocarcinoma of the submandibular gland. Histopathologic examination of the specimen suggested a metastatic papillary carcinoma. Occult papillary carcinoma in the thyroid was found by multiple blind FNACs. Subsequently to near-total thyroidectomy, no other site of m...

  10. [Nursing cooperation on circulation restore during microvascular submandibular gland transfer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Chen; Liu, Jie

    2011-06-01

    To summarize the cooperative measures on circulation restore during the operation of microvascular submandibular gland transfer. Fifty-six cases of microvascular submandibular gland transfer were performed in Peking University School & Hospital of Stomatology from January 2005 to March 2009. The related data was collected retrospectively and the cooperative measures on circulation restore during the operation were summarized. The circulation restore of transferred glands were satisfied in all 56 cases when the submandibular gland transfer operation finished. Thrombosis happened in 7 cases within the postoperative 48 hours and the secondary emergency operations were done. At last 6 glands were salvaged and the final successful rate was 98.21%. Successful circulation restore was one of the key points on microvascular submandibular gland transfer. The most important mission of the nursing during the operation was the prevention of vascular crisis. The main measures include persistent wet packing using narceine, fomentation using warm saline and special nursing on postoperative complications. Our experience proves that it is beneficial to the success of operation.

  11. The effects of diabetes on the rat parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chull Jea; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to observe microscopic change of salivary gland tissue, which is a cause of xerostomia in diabetic condition; for this target, the author injected streptozotocin 0.1 ml/100 gm b.w. on the rat, Sprague Dawley, to induce diabetes, and then observed microscopic changes in parotid gland tissue using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The results were as follows: 1. Parotid gland tissue of the diabetic rat was atrophied or degenerated in lapse of experimental time, but began to re pair from 14 days alter diabetic induction. 2. In the basal lamina of the vessel of parotid gland tissue in the diabetic rat, lamina lucida was discontinued and la mina densa was increased in thickness, but the number of capillary was gradually increased and dilated. 3. In acinic and intercalated ductal cells of parotid gland in the diabetic rat, changes of mitochondria, RER, secretor y granule, free ribosome were prominent. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that degenerative changes of the parotid gland tissue were due to not completely thickening of the basal lamina of vessels, but many other causal factors, because thickness of the basal lamina of vessels was not related with degenerative changes.

  12. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  13. Tumors of the Major Salivary Glands. A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordany Boza Mejías

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of salivary gland neoplasms is one of the most complex issues of cancer of the head and neck. Objective: to determine the behavior of tumors of the major salivary glands. Method: an observational-descriptive-retrospective case series in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía of Cienfuegos, in the period from January 2000 through December 2009. Results: tumors of the major salivary glands occurred in the study population with a similarity between the sexes, with a slight predominance in males. The parotid gland was the most affected (93,55 %, pleomorphic adenoma was the most represented the benign tumor (58,06 %, while within the most frequent malignant adenocarcinoma (3,23 %. The most common surgical technique was subtotal parotidectomy. The (85,5 % of clinical diagnoses corresponded with histopathological and the type of tumor is found that of the 51 benign lesions (82,26 % are the largest percentage of agreement presented. In the present series were 61 patients (98,39 % alive without disease, only 1 patient (1,61 % had recurrence of their disease. We found no patient died during the study period. Conclusions: salivary gland tumors in the parotid gland predominate and are the most common benign tumors usually occur in adults.

  14. AKT3 drives adenoid cystic carcinoma development in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboray, Katalin; Mohrherr, Julian; Stiedl, Patricia; Pranz, Klemens; Wandruszka, Laura; Grabner, Beatrice; Eferl, Robert; Moriggl, Richard; Stoiber, Dagmar; Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Popper, Helmut; Casanova, Emilio; Moll, Herwig P

    2018-02-01

    Salivary gland cancer is an aggressive and painful cancer, but a rare tumor type accounting for only ~0.5% of cancer cases. Tumors of the salivary gland exhibit heterogeneous histologic and genetic features and they are subdivided into different subtypes, with adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) being one of the most abundant. Treatment of ACC patients is afflicted by high recurrence rates, the high potential of the tumors to metastasize, as well as the poor response of ACC to chemotherapy. A prerequisite for the development of targeted therapies is insightful genetic information for driver core cancer pathways. Here, we developed a transgenic mouse model toward establishment of a preclinical model. There is currently no available mouse model for adenoid cystic carcinomas as a rare disease entity to serve as a test system to block salivary gland tumors with targeted therapy. Based on tumor genomic data of ACC patients, a key role for the activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway was suggested in tumors of secretory glands. Therefore, we investigated the role of Akt3 expression in tumorigenesis and report that Akt3 overexpression results in ACC of salivary glands with 100% penetrance, while abrogation of transgenic Akt3 expression could revert the phenotype. In summary, our findings validate a novel mouse model to study ACC and highlight the druggable potential of AKT3 in the treatment of salivary gland patients. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Thyroid gland involvement in carcinoma of the hypopharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P; Nair, S; Chaturvedi, P; Nair, D; Shivakumar, T; D'Cruz, A K

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid gland is removed en bloc during laryngectomy. There are no objective criteria for deciding the extent of thyroid gland resection in primary hypopharyngeal cancer cases. The present study aimed to determine the incidence of thyroid gland involvement in hypopharyngeal cancer and identify the various predictors of this involvement. This paper reports a retrospective analysis of 358 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer, who underwent total laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy at Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai between 2004 and 2010. The mean age of this population was 61 years. The pyriform sinus was the most common hypopharyngeal subsite involved (in 89 per cent of cases). Most patients underwent hemi-thyroidectomy as part of their surgery. The thyroid gland was involved in only 13 per cent of cases. Thyroid gland involvement is not common in hypopharyngeal cancer. Cases that involved the post-cricoid area, subglottic extension, extralaryngeal spread or prior tracheostomy were associated with a higher risk of thyroid gland involvement. Ipsilateral thyroidectomy is sufficient in most patients undergoing surgery (laryngectomy with partial or total pharyngectomy) for hypopharyngeal cancers.

  16. Endosonographic examination of thyroid gland among patients with nonthyroid cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Amer A.; Mahayni, Abdulah A.; Chawki, Ghaleb R.; Yoder, Leon; Elkhatib, Fateh A.; Al-Haddad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited endosonographic literature regarding thyroid gland pathology, which is frequently visualized during upper endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid lesions encountered during routine upper EUS within a cancer center setting. Materials and Methods: The data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. All upper EUS procedures performed between October 2012 and July 2014 were reviewed at a large referral cancer center. Data collected included patient demographics, preexisting thyroid conditions, thyroid gland dimensions, the presence or absence of thyroid lesions, and EUS morphology of lesions if present, and interventions performed to characterize thyroid lesions and pathology results when applicable. Results: Two hundred and forty-five EUS procedures were reviewed. Of these, 100 cases reported a detailed endosonographic examination of the thyroid gland. Most of the thyroid glands were endosonographically visualized when the tip of the scope was at 18 cm from the incisors. Twelve cases showed thyroid lesions, out of which three previously undiagnosed thyroid cancers were visualized during EUS (two primary papillary thyroid cancers and one anaplastic thyroid cancer). Transesophageal EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid lesions was feasible when the lesion was in the inferior portion of the thyroid gland, and the tip of the scope was at 18 cm or more from the incisors. Conclusions: Routine EUS examination may detect unexpected thyroid lesions including malignant ones. We encourage endosonographers to screen the visualized portions of the thyroid gland during routine withdrawal of the echoendoscope. PMID:27803906

  17. Tuberculosis of the Parotid Gland: Computed Tomographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Y.; Xiao, J.; Pui, M.H.; Gong, Q. (Dept. of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan Univ., Sichuan (China))

    2008-05-15

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) of the parotid gland is rare, even in endemic regions. Approximately 100 cases have been reported in the English literature. The computed tomographic (CT) features, however, have seldom been studied. Purpose: To determine the diagnostic CT features of tuberculosis of the parotid gland. Material and Methods: CT studies of four histologically proven cases of tuberculosis of the parotid gland were retrospectively reviewed. Results: A total of 15 enlarged lymph nodes were found in the superficial lobes of the parotid glands. The nodes were arranged linearly within the gland. Enhancement patterns included homogeneous enhancement (9/15, 60%), homogeneous enhancement with eccentric microcysts (3/15, 20%), and thick-walled rim enhancement with central lucency (3/15, 20%). Thickened adjacent fascial plane and platysma were seen in two patients. Ipsilateral cervical lymphadenopathy was seen in all patients. Conclusion: In patients presenting with unilateral parotid nodules, TB should be considered when linearly arranged enhancing nodules are demonstrated in the superficial lobes of the glands on CT scan

  18. Endosonographic examination of thyroid gland among patients with nonthyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Amer A; Mahayni, Abdulah A; Chawki, Ghaleb R; Yoder, Leon; Elkhatib, Fateh A; Al-Haddad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    There is limited endosonographic literature regarding thyroid gland pathology, which is frequently visualized during upper endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid lesions encountered during routine upper EUS within a cancer center setting. The data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. All upper EUS procedures performed between October 2012 and July 2014 were reviewed at a large referral cancer center. Data collected included patient demographics, preexisting thyroid conditions, thyroid gland dimensions, the presence or absence of thyroid lesions, and EUS morphology of lesions if present, and interventions performed to characterize thyroid lesions and pathology results when applicable. Two hundred and forty-five EUS procedures were reviewed. Of these, 100 cases reported a detailed endosonographic examination of the thyroid gland. Most of the thyroid glands were endosonographically visualized when the tip of the scope was at 18 cm from the incisors. Twelve cases showed thyroid lesions, out of which three previously undiagnosed thyroid cancers were visualized during EUS (two primary papillary thyroid cancers and one anaplastic thyroid cancer). Transesophageal EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid lesions was feasible when the lesion was in the inferior portion of the thyroid gland, and the tip of the scope was at 18 cm or more from the incisors. Routine EUS examination may detect unexpected thyroid lesions including malignant ones. We encourage endosonographers to screen the visualized portions of the thyroid gland during routine withdrawal of the echoendoscope.

  19. Intraoperative near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, Roland; Sommerey, Sandra; Arabi, Nora Al; Hallfeldt, Klaus K J; Stepp, Herbert; Gallwas, Julia K S

    2017-08-01

    To identify parathyroid glands intraoperatively by exposing their autofluorescence using near-infrared light. Fluorescence imaging was carried out during minimally invasive and open parathyroid and thyroid surgery. After identification, the parathyroid glands as well as the surrounding tissue were exposed to near-infrared (NIR) light with a wavelength of 690-770 nm using a modified Karl Storz near-infrared/indocyanine green (NIR/ICG) endoscopic system. Parathyroid tissue was expected to show near-infrared autofluorescence, captured in the blue channel of the camera. Whenever possible the visual identification of parathyroid tissue was confirmed histologically. In preliminary investigations, using the original NIR/ICG endoscopic system we noticed considerable interference of light in the blue channel overlying the autofluorescence. Therefore, we modified the light source by interposing additional filters. In a second series, we investigated 35 parathyroid glands from 25 patients. Twenty-seven glands were identified correctly based on NIR autofluorescence. Regarding the extent of autofluorescence, there were no noticeable differences between parathyroid adenomas, hyperplasia and normal parathyroid glands. In contrast, thyroid tissue, lymph nodes and adipose tissue revealed no substantial autofluorescence. Parathyroid tissue is characterized by showing autofluorescence in the near-infrared spectrum. This effect can be used to distinguish parathyroid glands from other cervical tissue entities.

  20. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Salivary glands; Dose de tolerance a l'irradiation des tissus sains: les glandes salivaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortholan, C.; Benezery, K. [Service de radiotherapie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Bensadoun, R.J. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU de Poitiers, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2010-07-15

    Xerostomia is one of the most a common complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, affecting quality of life. Parotid glands produce approximately 60% of saliva and submandibular glands 20% of saliva while the rest is secreted by sublingual and accessory salivary glands. Methods of measuring the salivary output are collection of unstimulated or stimulated saliva or {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy. Several studies demonstrated that late salivary dysfunction after radiotherapy has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia could be avoided if at one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than approximately 25-30 Gy. Clinical benefit of submandibular gland sparing is more controversial. A mean dose less than 39 Gy could preserve submandibular gland function. This paper aims to review main studies evaluating tolerance dose of salivary glands. (authors)

  1. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  2. Cytoplasmic crystalloids in irradiated rat parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholley, M.M.; Pratt, N.E.; Sodicoff, M.

    1981-01-01

    Cytoplasmic crystalloids were found in paroid acinar cells of rats given a large (6400 R) single exposure of X-rays to the head and neck. The crystalloids were first observed 1 day after irradiation and became numerous at 3-4 days. They were associated with autophagic vacuoles, which were seen in acinar cells as early as 3-6 h. Crystalloids sometimes appeared to be forming within autophagic vacuoles, which also contained membranous residues and apparently degenerating secretory material. They were bounded by a single, smooth membrane and had a substructure consisting of dense, parallel longitudinal striations. The crystalloids were also seen in macrophages associated with the basal surfaces of acinar cells. At 3-4 days macrophages were numerous and many contained crystalloids, degenerated secretory droplets, and other cellular debris, which they apparently had phagocytosed. By 6-8 days crystalloids and macrophages were seen infrequently. Regarding mode of formation, removal by macrophages, and ultrastructure, the crystalloids resembled those described by others after ethionine intoxication. Ethionine-induced crystalloids have cytochemical characteristics consistent with a lysosomal identity. The crystalloids in irradiated parotid glands probably reflect a variant type of lysosome, which is a nonspecific manifestation of severe cellular injury and can be elicited by a variety of injurious agents. (author)

  3. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan E. Kapp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903 and no expression of P501S. The patient’s previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors.

  4. Leak processing system for valve gland portion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Masami

    1990-01-01

    When a process fluid for a valve to be checked is at such a normal temperature as during reactor operation, leaked fluid can be detected depending on the temperature increase accompanying the leakage. However, detection is difficult if the temperature of the process fluid for the valve to be checked is low and, if leakage is detected after the reactor start-up, repair has to be applied after the shutdown of the plant. Then, gland leak is detected by detecting the pressure instead of the temperature in the pipeline system and the leak flow rate is calculated based on the pressure. As a result, leakage is detected irrespective of the temperature of the leaked fluid and, for instance, leakage can be detected even in a case where the temperature is not high as in the case of pressure proof test for the pressure vessel before start-up. It can contribute much to the improvement of the plant operation efficiency and can determine the leak flow rate at a high accuracy. (N.H.)

  5. Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A W

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the left lateral canthus of the eye which metastasized to the intraparotid lymph nodes with infiltration of the adjacent parotid parenchyma. More awareness and vigilance is required on the part of the reporting pathologist to consider metastasis in the presence of a parotid tumour. Features favouring metastasis include history of primary cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, histological similarity to the primary lesion and absence of any demonstrable direct extension from the skin lesion. We also review the literature on metastatic basal cell carcinoma and discuss the need for adequate follow up in high risk patients.

  6. Malignant epithelial tumours of the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langezaal, O.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    By means of the present clinico-pathologic study the author has attempted, through analysis of the evolution in a group of 101 patients suffering from malignant epithelial tumors of the parotis, to obtain insight into the clinical and pathologic factors governing the prognosis. Furthermore it was tried to assess the value of the different modes of therapy, including radiotherapy. Starting from certain types of tumors defined according to the WHO classification of tumors of the salivary glands, chapter 2 presents the reports in the literature on the pathology, clinical description and prognosis of the individual types of tumors. The initial treatment of the tumors is analysed with the use of a number of factors discussed in chapter 3. The significance of tumor-associated factors ascertained by the clinician and the pathologist as well as of patient-associated factors is correlated with the tumor-free period; the treatment-associated factors are correlated with the period of time between therapy and the advent of a local recurrence. The tumor-free period, instead of the survival time, was chosen as a criterion because the survival time depends not only on the prognostic factors but also on collateral circumstances, such as different diseases and the effect of the treatment instituted for the local recurrence. (Auth.)

  7. The morphometry of quadrifid digestive glands in traps of three Utricularia species: Does gland size correlate with trap size?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamec, Lubomír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-38 ISSN 0079-2047 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : aquatic Utricularia * traps * digestive-absorptive glands Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  8. Skin glands, poison and mimicry in dendrobatid and leptodactylid amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Sciani, Juliana M; Pimenta, Daniel C; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F B; Jared, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    In amphibians, secretions of toxins from specialized skin poison glands play a central role in defense against predators. The production of toxic secretions is often associated with conspicuous color patterns that warn potential predators, as it is the case of many dendrobatid frogs, including Ameerega picta. This species resembles the presumably nontoxic Leptodactylus lineatus. This study tests for mimicry by studying the morphology and distribution of skin glands, components of skin secretion, and defensive behavior. Dorsal skin was studied histologically and histochemically, and skin secretions were submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and assays for proteolytic activity. We found that poison glands in A. picta are filled with nonprotein granules that are rich in carbohydrates, while L. lineatus glands present protein granules. Accordingly, great amounts of proteins, at least some of them enzymes, were found in the poison of L. lineatus but not in that of A. picta. Both species differ greatly on profiles of gland distribution: In L. lineatus, poison glands are organized in clusters whose position coincides with colored elements of the dorsum. These regions are evidenced through a set of displays, suggesting that poison location is announced to predators through skin colors. In contrast, A. picta presents lower densities of glands, distributed homogeneously. This simpler profile suggests a rather qualitative than quantitative investment in chemical defense, in agreement with the high toxicity attributed to dendrobatids in general. Our data suggest that both species are toxic or unpalatable and transmit common warning signals to predators, which represents a case of Müllerian mimicry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  10. Usefulness of screening ultrasound for thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Youn; Han, Heon; Park, Man Soo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the ultrasonography as a screening test for thyroid diseases. For 7 months, thyroid ultrasonography (7.5 MHz linear array) was performed prospectively by radiologists on 1,316 subjects who do not have a history of the thyroid disease. We analyzed the morphological abnormalities of thyroid gland and these were classified as the nodulal, cystic and diffuse types in accordance with the gender and ages of the patients. We performed ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration in 21 patients who had sonographic features that were suggestive of malignant thyroid nodules. Physical examination was performed for all subjects by clinicians before the thyroid ultrasonography, and we compared the detectability of thyroid lesions between ultrasonography and physical examination. Thyroidal abnormalities were detected in 94 (7.1%) of 1,316 subjects. Among the 94 patients, 72(5.5%) showed as nodules, 18 (1.4%) showed as cysts and 4 (0.3%) showed as diffuse abnormalities. The result of the ultrasound-guided aspiration on 21 patients showed 4 malignant nodules, 16 benign nodules and 1 undetermined nodule. Physical examination detected abnormalities in only 12 patients (12.8%) of the 94 patients, which were showed as nodules, cysts and the diffuse type by ultrasonography. Thyroid disease of the general population was relatively common and the detection rate with performing physical examination for the thyroid nodule, cyst and the diffuse type was lower than that for ultrasonography. Thyroid ultrasonography is a useful screening modality for detecting thyroid diseases

  11. Biosynthesis of lipids by bovine meibomian glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolattukudy, P.E.; Rogers, L.M.; Nicolaides, N.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated bovine meibomian glands incorporated exogenous [1- 14 C]acetate into lipids. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the lipids showed that wax esters and sterol esters contained 61% of the total label. Radio gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the acid and alcohol moieties of both ester fractions showed the label was distributed equally between the two portions of the ester in both cases. Cholesterol and 5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3 beta-ol were the major labeled sterols, and anteiso-C25, anteiso-C27 and anteiso-C23 were the most highly labeled alcohols. The major labeled fatty acids in the wax esters were anteiso-C15, n-C16, anteiso-C17 and n-C18:1, whereas anteiso-C25 and anteiso-C27 were the major labeled acids in the sterol esters. The diester region with 6% of the total label contained labeled fatty acids and fatty alcohols each with anteiso-C25 as the major component and omega-hydroxy acids in which n-C32:1 was the major labeled component. The triglyceride fraction which contained 8% of the total lipids was composed of labeled fatty acids similar to those found in both sterol and wax ester fractions. Chromatographic analyses of the labeled lipids derived from exogenous labeled isoleucine showed that anteiso-branched products were preferentially labeled. The labeled triglyceride fraction derived from [U- 14 C] isoleucine also contained esterified C15, C13, C11, C9, C7 and possibly shorter anteiso-branched acids

  12. Establishing Human Lacrimal Gland Cultures with Secretory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shubha; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Balla, Murali M. S.; Naik, Milind N.; Honavar, Santosh G.; Reddy, Vijay Anand P.; Vemuganti, Geeta K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in–vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. Methods Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM), mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90) and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100) origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme) post carbachol (100 µM) stimulation by ELISA. Results Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%), high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26%) and c-kit (6.7±2.0%). Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15–20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed ‘spherules’ with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml), lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml) and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml) in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusion The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  13. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  14. Size and location of thyroid gland in the fetal period.

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    Ozguner, Gülnur; Sulak, Osman

    2014-05-01

    The present study's purpose was to examine the size and location of the thyroid gland using anatomic dissection methods on fetal cadavers. This study was performed on 200 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (100 males and 100 females) aged between 9 and 40 weeks of gestation. Fetuses without any external and internal pathology or anomaly were included in this study. Fetuses were divided into four groups based on gestational ages as follows: first group 9-12 weeks (first trimester), second group 13-25 weeks (second trimester), third group 26-37 weeks (third trimester) and fourth group 38-40 weeks (full term). The fetuses were also grouped into monthly cohorts as follows: 9-12 weeks, 3rd month; 13-16 weeks, 4th month; 17-20 weeks, 5th month; 21-24 weeks, 6th month; 25-28 weeks, 7th month; 29-32 weeks, 8th month; 33-36 weeks, 9th month; and 37-40 weeks, 10th month. The anterior necks of fetuses were dissected and the thyroid glands exposed. Vertebral and laryngeal levels and the dimensions (width, length, thickness and weight) of the fetal thyroid glands were determined by anatomical dissection methods. The dimensions and ratios of the fetal thyroid gland (weight/fetal body weight) were evaluated. The mean values and standard deviations of all parameters by gestational weeks, months, and trimesters were calculated. It was found that all parameters increased with gestational age. No significant differences were observed between genders in all parameters (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the right and the left sides for parameters of the thyroid glands. The levels of the superior poles of the thyroid lobes were located at the cervical (C) C1-C3 vertebral bodies. The levels of the inferior poles of the thyroid lobes were located at C4-C5 vertebral bodies. The levels of the superior poles of thyroid lobes were located between the upper ½ and lower ½ of the thyroid cartilage or cricoid cartilage. The levels of the inferior poles of the thyroid

  15. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands.

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    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-09-15

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca(2+) activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X(7) receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X(7) receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion.

  16. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X7 receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X7 receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X7−/− (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca2+ activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X7−/− mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X7−/− mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca2+ activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X7 receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X7 receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X7 receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X7 receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion. PMID:20643770

  17. ACINIC CELL CARCINOMA OF THE MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS: A CASE REPORT

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    O. A. Saprina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinic cell carcinomas (ACC constitute 5 to 11 % of all salivary gland cancers. ACCs arise from the reserve precursor cells of the terminal and intercalated ducts. The tumor results from the neoplastic proliferation and aberrant differentiation of reserve pluripotent cells that are normally located in the transition of acini into the intercalated ducts of the salivary gland and/or into the intercalated ducts proper of mature salivary glands. ACCs chiefly affect the major salivary glands; sporadic cases of its involvement of the minor salivary glands have been described in the literature. This paper presents a clinical case of ACC of the minor salivary glands.

  18. FAIR true-FISP perfusion imaging of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraml, Christina; Boss, Andreas; Martirosian, Petros; Schwenzer, Nina F; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of quantitative perfusion MRI of the thyroid gland using an arterial spin labeling (ASL) method. An ASL technique with flow-sensitive alternating inversion-recovery (FAIR) spin preparation and a true fast imaging in the steady state (TrueFISP) signal readout strategy was implemented on a 1.5T whole-body unit. Anatomical and perfusion imaging of the thyroid gland was performed in eight healthy volunteers and one patient with functioning adenoma. Quantitative perfusion maps were calculated using the extended Bloch equations. In all subjects the perfusion images showed diagnostic image quality. The mean examination time was 24 minutes for multiplanar perfusion imaging of the entire thyroid gland. Individual perfusion values ranged between 341 +/- 91 and 640 +/- 90 mL/100 g/minute, with a mean perfusion of 461 +/- 90 mL/100 g/minute. The functioning adenoma showed markedly reduced perfusion compared to normal thyroidal parenchyma. No perfusion was noticeable inside four detected thyroid cysts. Quantitative ASL perfusion imaging of the thyroid gland using a FAIR-TrueFISP sequence leads to perfusion maps that may provide important information for assessing thyroid gland pathologies and monitoring therapeutic treatment. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Does thyroid gland examination by palpation alter serum hormone levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toros, Sema Zer; Ozel, Leyla; Yekrek, Mehmet Murat; Toros, Ahmet Burak; Naiboglu, Baris; Kara, Melih; Erdoğdu, Erdal; Egeli, Erol; Titiz, Izzet

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of routine thyroid gland palpation on serum thyroid hormone levels. Prospective study at Haydarpaşa Numune Research and Education Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. This study was carried out in two groups with a total of 50 consecutive adults. Group I consisted of 20 patients (12 female and 8 male, aged 20-48 years) with a diagnosis of nodular thyroid disease confirmed by ultrasound imaging techniques. The second group consisted of 30 otherwise healthy subjects (17 female and 13 male, aged 18-50 years) referred for neck and thyroid ultrasound and with no thyroid pathology detected. Thyroid gland palpations were performed by the same physician. Blood samples were obtained before and 2 hours after thyroid gland palpation. Serum total T3 (TT3), total T4 (TT4), free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroglobulin (TG) measurements were made. We found that routine palpation in the first group caused a significant increase in serum TT3 (P .05). Preliminary data proposing a possible effect of routine thyroid gland palpation on serum thyroid hormone levels suggest that serum thyroid hormone measurements should be performed before any manipulation of the gland, including palpation, to avoid misdiagnosis.

  20. Histological characterization of peppermint shrimp ( Lysmata wurdemanni) androgenic gland

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    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lin, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    The androgenic gland (AG) is an important endocrine gland for male reproductive function in crustaceans. In the present study, we investigated the histological characteristics of the androgenic gland of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata wurdemanni. The peppermint shrimp matures as male first, then some individuals may become euhermaphrodite after several moltings (transitional phase). Euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp acts as male at intermolts. However, it can be fertilized as a female immediately after molting. Considering the male reproductive function acts in its lifespan except for at larval stages, and female reproductive system starts to develop at transitional phase, we hypothesized that AG activity might be reduced to allow and promote vitellogenesis onset in early transitional phase and the following euhermaphrodite phase. So AG cell structure might be different in three phases in L. wurdemanni. The results showed that AG exists in the male in transitional and euhermaphrodite phases. The gland cell clusters surrounding the ejaculatory ducts locate at the roots of the fifth pereopods. The nucleus diameters are similar in the three phases while the nucleus- to-cell ratio is the lowest in euhermaphrodite phase. Our results indicated that for the individuals that will become euhermaphrodite, the cellular structure of AG changes since transitional phase. Male reproductive function which is still available in euhermaphrodite-phase shrimp should be due to the existence of the gland.

  1. Early-stage mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of eyelid

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    Nizawa T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Nizawa1, Toshiyuki Oshitari1, Ryuta Kimoto1, Fusae Kajita1, Jiro Yotsukura1, Kaoru Asanagi1, Takayuki Baba1, Yoko Takahashi2, Takashi Oide2, Takako Kiyokawa2, Takashi Kishimoto2, Shuichi Yamamoto11Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba, JapanAbstract: We present the findings of an early-stage primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma in the lower eyelid of a Japanese patient. The patient was a 73-year-old man who had had a nodule on the left lower eyelid for two years. He was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of a swollen chalazion. The clinical and histopathological records were reviewed and the mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography excluded systemic metastases. After the histopathological findings, a complete surgical excision of the margins of the adenocarcinoma was performed, with histopathological confirmation of negative margins. After the final histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with a primary mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the left eyelid. Six months after the surgery, no recurrence has been observed. Because the appearance of mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma of the eyelid is quite variable, the final diagnosis can only be made by histopathological examination. A complete surgical excision is recommended.Keywords: complete surgical excision, eyelid, initial stage, mucinous sweat gland adenocarcinoma

  2. FGF23 fails to inhibit uremic parathyroid glands.

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    Canalejo, Rocío; Canalejo, Antonio; Martinez-Moreno, Julio Manuel; Rodriguez-Ortiz, M Encarnacion; Estepa, Jose C; Mendoza, Francisco Javier; Munoz-Castaneda, Juan Rafael; Shalhoub, Victoria; Almaden, Yolanda; Rodriguez, Mariano

    2010-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) modulates mineral metabolism by promoting phosphaturia and decreasing the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). FGF23 decreases parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA and secretion, but despite a marked elevation in FGF23 in uremia, PTH production increases. Here, we investigated the effect of FGF23 on parathyroid function in normal and uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands in rats. In normal parathyroid glands, FGF23 decreased PTH production, increased expression of both the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor and the vitamin D receptor, and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, FGF23 induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, which mediates the action of FGF23. In contrast, in hyperplastic parathyroid glands, FGF23 did not reduce PTH production, did not affect expression of the calcium-sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor, and did not affect cell proliferation. In addition, FGF23 failed to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. We observed very low expression of the FGF23 receptor 1 and the co-receptor Klotho in uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands, which may explain the lack of response to FGF23 in this tissue. In conclusion, in hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, the parathyroid cells resist the inhibitory effects of FGF23, perhaps as a result of the low expression of FGF23 receptor 1 and Klotho in this condition.

  3. Submandibular gland cancer: Specific features and treatment considerations.

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    Aro, Katri; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Saat, Riste; Saarilahti, Kauko; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of unified treatment protocol, we evaluated the management and outcomes of submandibular gland cancers in an unselected patient series. We included all patients with resected submandibular gland cancer treated at the Helsinki University Hospital from 2000 to 2010 with a 5-year minimum follow-up. Twenty-five patients with cancer represented 30% of submandibular gland neoplasms, and most were adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs; 56%). At presentation, 3 patients showed clinical signs of probable malignancy. Of 22 neck dissection specimens, 5 patients (20%) had metastases with an occult metastasis rate of 4%. Cancer recurred in 11 patients (44%), of which 7 (28%) were only at a distant site. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 76%, and disease-free survival (DFS) was 68%. Most tumors were ACCs differing from the histological pattern of parotid gland cancers. Occult metastases were rare. The rarity of submandibular gland cancer, its variable histological pattern, and varying biological behavior warrant centralized management. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction after radioiodine therapy for thyroid carcinoma using non-contrast-enhanced CT: the significance of changes in volume and attenuation of the glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabaa, B; Takahashi, K; Sasaki, T; Okizaki, A; Aburano, T

    2012-11-01

    Although radiation induced damage to the salivary gland is a known complication of radioactive iodine ((131)I) therapy for thyroid carcinoma, prediction of the severity and reversibility of sialoadenitis is difficult. Our aim was to correlate the extent of salivary dysfunction assessed by salivary gland scintigraphy with changes in the volume and attenuation of salivary glands on nonenhanced CT in postoperative patients with thyroid cancer treated with RIT. Forty patients with thyroid carcinoma, 13 men (age range, 21-80 years) and 27 women (age range, 28-75 years) who underwent a total thyroidectomy and were treated with RIT were assessed retrospectively. On CT, the percentage of volume reduction and the difference in attenuation of the parotid and submandibular glands after RIT were determined and correlated with the extent of radiation-induced salivary dysfunction on scintigraphy. The salivary gland volume significantly decreased with an increase in the dysfunction grade on scintigraphy for both the parotid and submandibular glands (P gland (P gland. The cutoff value of volume reduction to diagnose severe gland dysfunction was 19.5% (sensitivity, 86.0%; specificity, 100%) for the parotid gland and 31.0% (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 97.0%) for the submandibular gland, and that of the attenuation change was 9.8 HU (sensitivity, 81.0%; specificity, 95%) for the parotid gland. The reduction in volume of the parotid and submandibular glands and the increase in attenuation of the parotid gland on nonenhanced CT can be indicators of the grade of RIT-induced salivary dysfunction.

  5. Thymus in experimental carcinogenesis of the prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Lomshakov, A A; Astashov, V V; Kazakov, O V; Mayorov, A P; Larionov, P M

    2014-10-01

    We studied structural changes in the prostate gland, thymus, and lymph nodes in CBA mice after transplantation of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells into the prostate gland. On experimental day 5, the number of blood and lymph vessels decreased in the gland; the percentage of connective tissue elements and glandular tissue and the number of immunoblasts in the thymus increased. On day 18, the number of blood vessels in the tumor decreased; the width of the cortex and glandular tissue increased in the thymus, while the number of immunoblasts was reduced. On day 28, tumor infiltration and increased number of lymphatic vessels in its stroma were observed; parenchyma was reduced, and the area of the connective tissue increased in the thymus. These structural changes indicated the development of accidental involution of the thymus during carcinogenesis of the prostate.

  6. Radiological features of endocrine orbitopathy involving lacrimal gland

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    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available According to orbit computer tomography, lacrimal gland is involved in autoimmune process in 26.8% of patients with Graves’ orbitopathy. A short orbit is a predisposing factor of the lacrimal gland (LG involvement in the autoimmune process. In addition to increasing of the size of the lacrimal gland, formed thickening of the optic nerve in 1 cm from the eye posterior pole (in 60% of cases, the increase in x-ray density of orbital portions of optic nerve, proved «shortening» of length in axial projection with reliable reduc- tion of length to width ratio (with increase in width at the same time up to 5.8±0.2 are roentgenological features of this сlinical form. Change of spatial topography in orbit with reduction of the conversion rate was associated with increased rate of optic neuropathydevelopment.

  7. Hormonal homeostasis during radiotherapy in patients with mammary gland cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozins'ka, Yi.M.; Yakimova, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    248 patients with mammary gland cancer (stages 2 and 3) were studied. In 3 stage patients, inhibition of the thyroid gland function, increase of somatotropic hormones (STH) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration, when compared with the respective data in stage 2 patients, were noted. Radiotherapy at stages 2 and 3 of the disease causes various changes of the above-mentioned values. Increase of CEA blood concentration results in inhibition of cellular immune reactions in the tumor stroma and its bed, which influences 5-years' survival of the patients. The authors suggest that at stage 3 mammary gland cancer, homeostasis state occurs in the organism; it differs from that occurring at stage 3 of the disease. Thus, different approaches to treatment at these two stages of the disease are required

  8. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik

    1997-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  9. Anatomy of thyroid and parathyroid glands and neurovascular relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebati, A; Shaha, A R

    2012-01-01

    Historically, thyroid surgery has been fraught with complications. Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, or the parathyroid glands may result in profound life-long consequences for the patient. To minimize the morbidity of the operation, a surgeon must have an in-depth understanding of the anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and be able to apply this information to perform a safe and effective operation. This article will review the pertinent anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the critical structures that lie in their proximity. This information should aid the surgeon in appropriate identification and preservation of the function of these structures and to avoid the pitfalls of the operation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Radioanatomic correlations in the study of the intact mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolganova, I.P.; Zolotarevskij, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The technique and results of parallel X-ray and morphologic study of mammary gland preparations of 30 women of different age who have died for various reasons, are described. The whole preparation is X-rayed in the native state and after fixation in formalline under the same conditions as in the clinic. The mammary gland preparation is split layer-by-layer with the following roentgenography and the study of histological substrate of all shadow elements. The investigations permit to single out 4 types of shadows on the mammograms conditioned by connecting tissue structures with the elements of glandular tissue. A definite type of mammary gland structure on roentgenograms is characteristic of every age period (child-bearing, preclimacteric, climax) [ru

  11. Detection of the involvement of salivary glands in autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland by using Ttc-99m MIBI

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    Deniz Söylemez ¹

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the involvement in the salivary glands of the patients with Graves’ Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis and controls by detecting the changes of Tc-99m Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-99m MIBI uptake. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. 19 patients with Graves’ disease (6 men, 13 women, 28 Hashimoto Thyroiditis patients (5 men, 23 women and 11 euthyroid controls (4 men, 7 women were evaluated retrospectively. Uptake values of parotid and submandibular glands were calculated by drawing elliptical ROIs (region of interest and using the formula for uptake calculation. Result: In all three groups, in parotis glands, a statistical significant difference between Tc-99m MIBI uptake was not detected. The Tc-99m MIBI upateke values in submandibular glands were statistically different among patients with Graves’Disease, Hashimoto Thyroiditis, as well as in Control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: We concluded that the different uptake values of Tc-99m-MIBI in submandibular glands in Graves disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis as compared to the control group patient would be results of the histopathological features, such as autoimmunity, high mitochondria number and inflammatory reaction. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 67-73

  12. Lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Dmitry V; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Long considered to be ectopic breast tissue representing the caudal remnants of the milk ridges, anogenital mammary-like glands are nowadays thought to represent a normal constituent of the anogenital area. Lesions involving these glands, benign or malignant, epithelial or stromal manifest a striking similarity to their mammary counterparts. This review addresses the recent literature on lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands and our personal experience with various lesions related to these structures. Discussed are the normal anatomy and histology of these glands as well as the clinical presentation, histopathological and immunohistochemical features, molecular biological aspects, and differential diagnosis of various lesions involving anogenital mammary-like glands, including lactating adenoma, hidradenoma papilliferum, hidradenocarcinoma papilliferum, fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumor, pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia, extramammary Paget disease, and other carcinomas. In addition, "nonspecific" epithelial or stromal changes some of which can be likened to similar changes occurring in a range of benign breast disease, including sclerosing adenosis, columnar cell lesions, ductal lesions and various metaplastic changes affecting epithelium and myoepithelium are discussed. Although lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands are often discussed in many dermatopathology textbooks in the context of cutaneous adnexal neoplasms we advocate that the best approach to the diagnosis of these lesions is to relate them to analogous well recognized lesions occurring in the breast, that is, through the eyes of a breast pathologist. This will enable their recognition, precise classification and should introduce greater uniformity in how they are reported in the literature so that more meaningful clinicopathological comparisons and correlations may be made.

  13. Sexual Differentiation of Circadian Clock Function in the Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloehn, Ian; Pillai, Savin B; Officer, Laurel; Klement, Claire; Gasser, Paul J; Evans, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in glucocorticoid production are associated with increased responsiveness of the adrenal gland in females. However, the adrenal-intrinsic mechanisms that establish sexual dimorphic function remain ill defined. Glucocorticoid production is gated at the molecular level by the circadian clock, which may contribute to sexual dimorphic adrenal function. Here we examine sex differences in the adrenal gland using an optical reporter of circadian clock function. Adrenal glands were cultured from male and female Period2::Luciferase (PER2::LUC) mice to assess clock function in vitro in real time. We confirm that there is a pronounced sex difference in the intrinsic capacity to sustain PER2::LUC rhythms in vitro, with higher amplitude rhythms in adrenal glands collected from males than from females. Changes in adrenal PER2::LUC rhythms over the reproductive life span implicate T as an important factor in driving sex differences in adrenal clock function. By directly manipulating hormone levels in adult mice in vivo, we demonstrate that T increases the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in adrenal glands of both male and female mice. In contrast, we find little evidence that ovarian hormones modify adrenal clock function. Lastly, we find that T in vitro can increase the amplitude of PER2::LUC rhythms in male adrenals but not female adrenals, which suggests the existence of sex differences in the mechanisms of T action in vivo. Collectively these results reveal that activational effects of T alter circadian timekeeping in the adrenal gland, which may have implications for sex differences in stress reactivity and stress-related disorders.

  14. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  15. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  16. Micropreparation of single secretory glands from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottloff, Sandy; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Mithöfer, Axel

    2009-11-01

    A rapid mechanical micropreparation technique has been developed to isolate multicellular glands, here from Nepenthes pitchers, based on a microdissection platform. The method is an alternative to laser capture dissection because fresh plant tissue can be used directly without previous fixation. Subsequent experiments, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of an individual gene encoding a thaumatin-like protein and RNA extraction for gene expression analysis, have been successfully added to prove the quality of the prepared biological material. The procedure described is adaptable to a broad range of plant species and should find wide application in the preparation of multicellular glands or other tissues.

  17. [Participation of pineal gland in antistressor activity of adaptogenic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanian, É B; Beĭer, É V

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress produces some morphological changes in rats, including thymus weight reduction, adrenal hypertrophy, and peptic ulcers in stomach. Repeated administration of phytoadaptogenic drugs (ginseng and bilobil) decreased these stress-induced disorders. The antistressor activity of drugs was attenuated upon by removal of the pineal gland. Histochemical and morphometric investigation of pineal tissues in stressed animals showed that that the pharmacological effect was accompanied by increasing functional activity of the pineal gland. It is suggested that pineal mobilization may participate in antistressor activity of phytoadaptogenic drugs.

  18. Segmenting the Parotid Gland using Registration and Level Set Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Højgaard, Liselotte

    The bilateral parotid glands were segmented using a registration scheme followed by level set segmentation. A training set consisting of computerized tomography from 10 patients with segmentation of the bilateral glands were used to optimize the parameters of registration and level set segmentation....... The method was evaluated on a test set consisting of 8 corresponding data sets. The attained total volume Dice coefficient and mean Haussdorff distance were 0.61 ± 0.20 and 15.6 ± 7.4 mm respectively. The method has improvement potential which could be exploited in order for clinical introduction....

  19. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  20. Prostate malignancy grading using gland-related shape descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Scheibe, Patrick; Loeffler, Markus; Kristiansen, Glen; Wernert, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    A proof-of-principle study was accomplished assessing the descriptive potential of two simple geometric measures (shape descriptors) applied to sets of segmented glands within images of 125 prostate cancer tissue sections. Respective measures addressing glandular shapes were (i) inverse solidity and (ii) inverse compactness. Using a classifier based on logistic regression, Gleason grades 3 and 4/5 could be differentiated with an accuracy of approx. 95%. Results suggest not only good discriminatory properties, but also robustness against gland segmentation variations. False classifications in part were caused by inadvertent Gleason grade assignments, as a-posteriori re-inspections had turned out.

  1. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well......-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures...

  2. Recurrent endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Patrick O; de Vinck, David; Waldorf, Heidi A; Phelps, Robert G

    2007-12-01

    Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma is a rare skin tumor that most commonly involves the eyelid of elderly women. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, it is analogous to endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast and mammary solid papillary carcinoma; also, like the analogous breast lesion, there is an often associated invasive mucinous carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation. We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman with endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma of the eyelid that recurred 3 years after an apparently complete excision.

  3. Anatomy, Physiology, and Laboratory Evaluation of the Pituitary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Gregory K; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A

    2016-02-01

    The pituitary gland functions prominently in the control of most endocrine systems in the body. Diverse processes such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, and water balance are tightly regulated by the pituitary in conjunction with the hypothalamus and various downstream endocrine organs. Benign tumors of the pituitary gland are the primary cause of pituitary pathology and can result in inappropriate secretion of pituitary hormones or loss of pituitary function. First-line management of clinically significant tumors often involves surgical resection. Understanding of normal pituitary physiology and basic testing strategies to assess for pituitary dysfunction should be familiar to any skull base surgeon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Geun; Yang, Youngro; Kim, Kwang Sik; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lee, Ji Shin; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Daeho

    2011-08-01

    Metastasis to the thyroid gland from distant cancer is rare, and, in some cases, is a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. A 77-year-old man presented with a neck mass detected about 1 month previously. He had undergone a right nephrectomy owing to renal cell carcinoma 14 years previously. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a few atypical follicular cells with nuclear atypia. Under a tentative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was performed. The histologic and immunohistochemical studies of the surgical specimens indicated that the thyroid masses were metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid.

  5. Carcinoma ex mixed tumor arising in the parotid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Hwang, E. H.; Lee, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma ex mixed tumor is a mixed tumor in which a second neoplasm develops from the epithelial component that fulfills the criteria for malignancy. This tumor occurs frequently in the parotid glands. Individuals in whom carcinoma ex mixed tumor have a past history of benign mixed tumor. These lesions contain both a benign mixed tumor as well as a malignant neoplasm. We report a case of carcinoma ex mixed tumor which occurred in the parotid gland. A 67-year-old woman presented with movable right mass. She complained pain and facial paralysis. The clinical presentation, several diagnostic images, and histopathologic findings are presented.

  6. Bullous lesions, sweat gland necrosis and rhabdomyolysis in alcoholic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old male developed hemorrhagic bullae and erosions while in alcohol induced coma. The lesions were limited to areas of the body in prolonged contact with the ground in the comatose state. He developed rhabdomyolysis, progressing to acute renal failure (ARF. Histopathological examination of the skin showed spongiosis, intraepidermal vesicles, and necrosis of eccrine sweat glands with denudation of secretory epithelial lining cells. With supportive treatment and hemodialysis, the patient recovered in 3 weeks time. This is the first reported case of bullous lesions and sweat gland necrosis occurring in alcohol-induced coma complicated by rhabdomyolysis and ARF.

  7. Epidermal growth factor in mammary glands and milk from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba

    1993-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF-immunoreact......Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the major growth-promoting agents in milk. Using immunohistochemistry we localized EGF in the mammary glands of lactating rats to the luminal border of the secretory cells. Following proteolytic pretreatment of the histological sections, the EGF...

  8. Biokinetics and dose estimation of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M. [Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Homma-Takeda, S. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Y. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    ICRP is revising its recommendations for radiological protection and has added salivary and secretory glands as new target organs. However, little information is available on the distributions of radionuclides in the salivary gland, secretory glands and male reproductive organs. This study deals with the distribution of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs as a function of time after a single intravenous and oral administration. For the study, 64 Wistar strain male rats, eight weeks of age were used. The rats were periodically sacrificed, the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, salivary gland, testis, epididymitis and prostate gland sampled and the radioactivity of these organs measured with an NaI scintillation counter. The relative concentration of {sup 65}Zn was highest in the prostate gland. We estimated the radiation dose in humans using rat data for the salivary and secretory glands as well as reproductive organs after intake of {sup 65}Zn. (authors)

  9. Comparison of radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular glands after different radiation schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    Background and purpose: To investigate the radiosensitivity of rat parotid and submandibular gland functioning after local single dose, conventional fractionated and accelerated fractionated irradiation. Methods: The salivary glands of male albino Wistar rats were locally irradiated with a single

  10. Mechanisms Underlying the Very High Susceptibility of the Immature Mammary Gland to Carcinogenic Initiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gould, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to explore the toxic effects of physical and chemical carcinogens on the immature mammary gland as compared to the effects on the young adult mammary gland using a rat model. We have: I...

  11. Salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland: CT and MR imaging findings with emphasis on intratumoral cystic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-Level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland with emphasis on intratumoral cystic components. Seventy-two histopathologically confirmed salivary gland tumors of the parotid gland (44 benign and 28 malignant), which underwent both CT and MR imaging including contrast-enhanced study, were included in this study. We retrospectively reviewed images for the presence, number, occupying rate, margin characteristics, distribution, and predominant MR signal intensity of intratumoral cystic components. The prevalence of cystic components was greater in malignant than benign tumors (79 vs. 50 %, p < 0.05). The number and occupying rate were similar between benign and malignant tumors. The irregular margins were more frequent in malignant than benign tumors (73 vs. 27 %, p < 0.01). The frequency of eccentric location was greater in benign than malignant tumors (91 vs. 55 %, p < 0.01), whereas the frequency of centric location was greater in malignant than benign tumors (32 vs. 0 %, p < 0.01). On T1-weighted images, the frequency of hyperintensity was greater in benign than malignant tumors (50 vs. 9 %, p < 0.01), whereas that of isointensity was greater in malignant than benign tumors (50 vs. 0 %, p < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the absence of irregular margins of cystic components only was significantly correlated with the presence of benign salivary gland tumors (p < 0.01). Imaging features of intratumoral cystic components may help to differentiate benign from malignant tumors of the parotid salivary gland. (orig.)

  12. Factors of salivary gland tumor influence on salivary gland function. Studies on salivary scintigraphy using 99mTcO4-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Michio; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Togashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchimochi, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show clearly what factors such as tumor size, duration of illness, location, and tumor invasion in salivary gland tumor affect salivary gland function. The study cases were 42 salivary gland tumor patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and sialoscintigraphy. Salivary gland tumor was confirmed histopathologically. The patients were 24 males and 18 females, aged from 16 to 82 years old (mean age: 52.8 years old). There were 23 patients with parotid gland tumors and 19 patients with submandibular gland tumors (27 benign tumors, 15 malignant tumors). By using 99m TcO 4 - sialoscintigraphy, the salivary gland function was classified into three different types according to stimulatory selection ratio which was expressed as the ratio of pre- to post-stimulation counts on the salivary gland, namely, normal, lower functional, and no functional types. Then the normal type was judged abnormal function, and the lower and no functional types were judged as abnormal function. The results were as follows: There was a significant difference between malignant tumor and benign tumor in salivary gland function (P<0.0001). Depending on tumor size, abnormal function was significantly higher than normal function (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference among duration of illness, location of tumor, and salivary gland function. There was a significant difference between tumor invasion and salivary gland function (P<0.0001). The results showed that salivary gland function was disturbed in salivary gland tumor with larger size and positive invasion. (author)

  13. Radioprotective Effect of Thymol Against Salivary Glands Dysfunction Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Bijani, Ali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of thymol as a natural product against salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats. The rats were treated with thymol at dose of 50 mg/Kg before exposure to ionizing radiation at dose 15 Gy. Salivary gland function was evaluated with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Ionizing radiation caused significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3th and...

  14. Sensitivity of Salivary Glands to Radiation: from Animal Models to Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Limesand, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in normal salivary glands, compare animal models used to investigate radiation-induced salivary gland damage, address therapeutic advances, and...

  15. Pleomorphic adenoma involving minor salivary glands of upper lip: A rare phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Kumar, Naresh; Sharma, Parikshit; Singh, Shreya

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of salivary glands, usually occurs in major salivary glands (mostly in parotid gland). It also affects the minor salivary glands present in the oral cavity. Most of the time it occurs in postero-lateral part of palate, but the involvement of upper lip is rare. The present report describes a case of 55-year-old male with asymptomatic firm nodular swelling of upper lip which was later diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma.

  16. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands among the population of the city of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Videnović G.; Živković S.; Krasić D.; Tabaković S.; Matvijenko V.; Marjanović D.; Lazić V.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are rare malignancies and most of them affect major salivary glands. The aim of this study was to analyze trends in age-standardized incidence rates of major salivary glands tumors among the Belgrade population. Data were obtained from The Serbian Cancer Registry. We analyzed all cases of malignant tumors of major salivary glands registered in Belgrade from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2010. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to define trends a...

  17. Fine structure of the oesophageal and gastric glands of the red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oesophageal and gastric glands of the anuran Kassina maculata Dumeril were studied uSing the electron microscope. The cells of the oesophageal glands contained abundant secretory granules, rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The cells of the gastric glands were composed entirely of chief cells which ...

  18. Skene's gland duct cysts: The utility of vaginal/transperineal imaging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : P F Kruger (pkruger@urogynaecology.co.za). Periurethral glands, or Skene's glands, are branched, tubular glands that are adjacent to the distal urethra. Usually Skene's ducts run parallel to the long axis of the urethra for approximately 1 cm ...

  19. Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs): a novel group of insect pathogenic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivary gland hypertrophy viruses (SGHVs) are a unique, unclassified group of entomopathogenic, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been reported from three genera of Diptera. These viruses replicate in nuclei of salivary gland cells in adult flies, inducing gland enlargement with little obvious ...

  20. File list: ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_glands mm9 All antigens Breast Mammary glands ERX200400,ER...216177,ERX200416,ERX200438,SRX1078980,ERX200398,ERX200402,ERX200399,ERX200405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Brs.05.AllAg.Mammary_glands.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_glands [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_glands mm9 RNA polymerase Breast Mammary glands SRX1078976...,SRX1184165,SRX1078977,SRX1078989,SRX1078990 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Brs.50.AllAg.Mammary_glands.bed ...

  2. Submandibular gland megalith eroding the floor of the mouth: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sourav; Singh, Smita

    2013-12-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common pathologic condition affecting the salivary glands. However, large sialoliths (megaliths) are considered rare. The submandibular glands are more susceptible to stone formation than are the other salivary glands. We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with an unusually large sialolith that had eroded the floor of the mouth.

  3. Pleomorphic adenoma of the soft palate: major tumor in a minor gland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland tumors are a relatively rare and morphologically diverse group of lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign tumor of the salivary gland that consists of a combination of epithelial and mesenchymal elements. The tumor most commonly arises from the parotid (60-70%) or submandibular glands. It develops ...

  4. First extensive characterization of the venom gland from an egg parasitoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusumano, Antonino; Duvic, Bernard; Jouan, Véronique; Ravallec, Marc; Legeai, Fabrice; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano; Volkoff, Anne Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    The venom gland is a ubiquitous organ in Hymenoptera. In insect parasitoids, the venom gland has been shown to have multiple functions including regulation of host immune response, host paralysis, host castration and developmental alteration. However, the role played by the venom gland has been

  5. Structure and function of defensive glands in soldiers of Glossotermes oculatus (Isoptera: Serritermitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Bourguignon, T.; Hanus, Robert; Weyda, František; Roisin, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2010), s. 839-848 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : autothysis * behaviour * frontal gland * labial glands * labral gland Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.166, year: 2010

  6. Immunoglobulin G4-related dacyroadenitis presenting as bilateral chorioretinal folds from severely enlarged lacrimal glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Kurokawa

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions and importance: This is the first account of chorioretinal fold formation by severely enlarged lacrimal glands appearing in IgG4-related dacryoadenitis. Chorioretinal fold formation by an enlarged lacrimal gland occurring bilaterally may represent a basis for suspecting IgG4-related dacryoadenitis. Prompt treatment is recommended for patients presenting with very large lacrimal glands to avoid visual impairment.

  7. Preparation and characterization of protein isolate from glandless and glanded cottonseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein isolates were prepared from cottonseed meals recovered from both glandless and glanded cottonseed. Isolate yield was 2.5-fold greater from the glandless meal than from the glanded meal, indicating that the gossypol in the glanded meal was likely promoting the formation of protein aggregates...

  8. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONAWAY, C.H. & METTER, D.E. 1967. Skin glands associated with breeding in Microhyla carolinensis. Copeia 3: 672 - 673. FITCH, H.S. 1956. A field study of the Kansas ant-eating frog,. Gaslrophryne olivacea. Univ. Kans. Publ. Mus. Nal. Hisl. 8;. 275 - 306. INGER, R.F. 1954. Systematics and zoogeography of Philippine.

  9. Case Report: The ectopic posterior pituitary gland | Mahomed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ectopic posterior pituitary gland is a rare condition and may present with an empty pituitary fossa, hypoplasia or absence of the infundibular stalk and resultant short stature due to growth hormone deficiency. The location of the ectopic lobe can vary, but it is most commonly situated along the median eminence in the floor ...

  10. Construction of mammary gland specific expression plasmid pIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Then the neo gene was amplified from plasmid pCDNA3.1 and placed downstream of the β-casein 3' arm as a positive selection marker. In order to analyze the bioactivity of plasmid pIN, it was transfected into the Bcap-37 cell line and injected into goat mammary gland. Western-blotting and quantitative polymerase chain ...

  11. Induction of mammary gland tumor in female Sprague- Dawley rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Evaluation of blood enzymes showed significantly higher (P < 0.005) serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tumor-bearing than in normal rats. This LA7 cell-induced rat mammary gland tumor model may be useful for studies in breast cancer drug or nutraceutical research.

  12. Subnuclear globules in simple mucinous glands of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Ingeholm, P.

    2007-01-01

    Pyloric and duodenal Brunner glands may be the site of a peculiar cytoplasmic change characterized by clear vacuoles or glassy eosinophilic globules, occupying a subnuclear position with displacement of the nuclei towards the lumenal surface. To our knowledge this previously documented,5,6 although...

  13. Histological and histometrical changes of ostrich thyroid gland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal changes of ostrich thyroid structure in Tehran, which has a hot summer and a relatively cold winter, were studied. The study was conducted on thyroid glands of 20 ostriches in two groups (summer and winter group). The samples were collected by autopsy with a maximum of 0.5 cm thickness and were fixed in ...

  14. Pure intrasellar meningioma located under the pituitary gland: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seung Woo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Pyo, Ju Yeon [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Jun; Lee, SAeung Ro [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Most intrasellar meningiomas are located in the subdiaphragmatic and supraglandular region because they originate from the diaphragma sellae. Subglandular meningiomas located under the pituitary gland are extremely rare. Intrasellar meningiomas in the subdiaphragmatic and subglandular region probably originate from the dura in the sellar floor. We report a case of a subglandular meningioma along with a review of the literature.

  15. Histoanatomical study of the sublingual salivary gland in the buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Ebrahimi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten adult buffalo heads were used in this study. Following skin removal, the length, width and thickness of the gland was measured. by ruler and caliper. Dye injection was used to distinguish the sublingual duct papilla and 1 cm sections from the gland were removed and fixed to prepare histologic sections for microscopic studies. The long, ribbon like and lobulated monostomatic part of the gland is situated underneath the tongue alongside the hypoglossus muscle. The average length, width and thickness of this part was 20.6, 1.01 and 1.99 cm respectively. The polystomatic part was observed as small scattered fragments near the mucosa of the oral cavity. The average size of these fragments was approximately 0.5 cm and the diffuseness of the polystomatic part in caudal region is more than the cranial region. The monostomatic part has a single duct which together with the mandibular salivary duct enters the sublingual caruncle. The minute polystomatic ducts open into the lateral sublingual recess and their number is equal to the number of scattered parts. Histologically, approximately 90% of the secretory cells of this gland consist of mucous secreting cells.

  16. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we s...

  17. Discrimination of Oribotritia species by oil gland chemistry (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspotnig, Günther; Leutgeb, Verena; Krisper, Günther; Leis, Hans-Jörg

    2011-07-01

    The chemical composition of secretions from opisthonotal (oil) glands in four species of the oribatid mite genus Oribotritia (Mixonomata, Euphthiracaroidea, Oribotritiidae) was compared by means of gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The secretions of all, O. banksi (from North America) and three Austrian oribotritiids (O. berlesei, O. hermanni, O. storkani), are shown to be based on certain unusual compounds, the iridoid monoterpenes chrysomelidial and epi-chrysomelidial and the diterpene β-springene. These components probably represent general chemical characteristics of oribotriid oil glands. Their relative abundance in the secretions along with further components (mainly saturated and unsaturated C(13)-, C(15)-, C(17)-hydrocarbons, and the tentatively identified octadecadienal) led to well-distinguishable, species-specific oil gland secretions profiles. In addition a reduced set of "Astigmata compounds" (sensu Sakata and Norton in Int J Acarol 27:281-291, 2001)--namely the two monoterpenes neral and geranial--could be detected in extracts of O. banksi nevertheless indicating the classification of euphthiracaroids within the (monophyletic) group of "Astigmata compounds-bearing"-Oribatida. These compounds are considered to be apomorphically reduced in all Austrian species. Our findings emphasize the potential of chemosystematics using oil gland secretion profiles in the discrimination of morphologically very similar, syntopically living or even cryptic oribatid species.

  18. Plasma ACTH concentration and pituitary gland histo-pathology in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tail blood samples were collected weekly for the determination of plasma concentration of ACTH. The pituitary gland and coronal section of brain were processed histologically and observed microscopically. Results: There was a significant difference (p = 0.0190) in plasma ACTH concentration between the control and ...

  19. Towards identification of oesophageal gland proteins in Globodera rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.M.

    1996-01-01


    Secretory proteins from the dorsal and subventral oesophageal glands of potato cyst- nematodes (Globodera rostochiensis and G.pallida ) are considered to play an important role in the induction and exploitation of the

  20. Distribution of Dendritic Cells in Normal Human Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, An; Saverin, Michele; Hand, Arthur R.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are believed to contribute to development of autoimmune sialadenitis, but little is known about their distribution in normal salivary glands. In this study, DC were identified and their distribution was determined in normal human parotid and submandibular glands. For light microscopy, salivary gland sections were stained with H&E or immunocytochemically using antibodies to DC markers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of DC. In H&E sections, elongated, irregularly shaped nuclei were occasionally seen in the striated and excretory duct epithelium. Immunolabeling with anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD11c and anti-S100 revealed DC with numerous processes extending between ductal epithelial cells, often close to the lumen. Morphometric analyses indicated that HLA-DR-positive DC occupied approximately 4–11% of the duct wall volume. Similar reactive cells were present in acini, intercalated ducts and interstitial tissues. TEM observations revealed cells with indented nuclei containing dense chromatin, pale cytoplasm with few organelles, and lacking junctional attachments to adjacent cells. These results indicate that DC are abundant constituents of normal human salivary glands. Their location within ductal and acinar epithelium suggests a role in responding to foreign antigens and/or maintaining immunological tolerance to salivary proteins

  1. Morphometric studies of thyroid gland of Wistar rats exposed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric studies of thyroid gland of Wistar rats exposed to alcohol during pregnancy and/or lactation. JE Onu, BO Oke, PO Ozegbe, JO Oyewale. Abstract. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation results to some developmental defects such as microcephaly, impairment of central nervous system ...

  2. Lacrimal Gland Pleomorphic Adenoma and Carcinoma ex Pleomorphic Adenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah L; Fehr, André; Persson, Marta

    2014-01-01

    To study genetic alterations in lacrimal gland pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (Ca-ex-PA) with focus on copy number changes and expression patterns of the translocation target genes PLAG1, HMGA2, and CRTC1-MAML2 in relation to clinical data....

  3. Facial nerve function in carcinoma of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, Chris; Lubsen, Herman; Tan, Bing; Merkx, Thijs; van der Laan, Bernard; Jong, Rob Baatenburg-de; Manni, Hans; Kneght, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyse, for patients with carcinoma of the parotid gland, the prognostic value for treatment outcome of the function of the facial nerve (NVII), and determining facial nerve dysfunction after treatment. Methods and materials: In a retrospective study of the Dutch head and Neck cooperative

  4. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  5. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD 50 (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD 50 . Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  6. Prognostic factors in adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Andrew T; Tang, Chad; Bell, Diana; Yener, Murat; Izquierdo, Luis; Frank, Steven J; El-Naggar, Adel K; Hanna, Ehab Y; Weber, Randal S; Kupferman, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to characterize prognostic factors and outcomes in adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands. Patients were identified and retrospectively reviewed for clinical and pathologic tumor characteristics. Low and high grade adenocarcinoma histologies were separated and analyzed. Treatment regimens and patient-related outcomes were recorded and measured. A total of 51 adenocarcinomas of the salivary glands were reviewed. The most common locations of disease were the superficial lobe of the parotid gland, followed by the deep lobe. Five-year overall and disease free survival rates were 43% and 37%. Univariate analysis identified the following as negative prognostic factors: symptoms of a fixed mass or rapid growth, advanced tumor or nodal stage, and perineural or lymphovascular invasion. Facial nerve paralysis was not found to be a significant prognostic variable. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent negative prognostic importance of the following characteristics: presentation with a fixed mass or rapid growth, diagnosis of adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified, and positive surgical margins. Our results identify several important prognostic factors associated with overall survival in adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands. These prognostic variables encompass symptoms on presentation, clinical and pathologic tumor stage characteristics, and treatment-related factors; all of which are important in patient counseling and may provide impetus for determining treatment escalation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microfilaria in thyroid gland fine needle aspiration cytology - an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Involvement of thyroid gland by filariasis is an unusual finding. We report a case in which microfilaria was found in thyroid aspirate smear. Patient did not have any symptoms or signs suggestive of filariasis. The patient was treated with diethylcarbamazine and a later hemithyroidectomy was performed. We reviewed the ...

  8. Histomorphometry aspect of thyroid gland and biochemical profile in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of body physiology and metabolism is a prerequisite for successful pregnancy in camels, which is about a year and few months. The present study was carried out to verify the effect of pregnancy on histomorphometry and functional traits of thyroid gland, as well as some biochemical indices of liver and kidney ...

  9. Induction of mammary gland tumor in female Sprague- Dawley rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current methods for tumor induction in breast cancer research animal models are time-consuming, hazardous, expensive, sometimes irreproducible and inconvenient. We successfully developed a new, simple and cost-effective method in developing solid mammary gland tumor in female Sprague-Dawley rat using LA7 ...

  10. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P; Schmidt, P T; Hay-Schmidt, A; Møller, M

    2005-05-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion-fixed rat brain sections showed substance P and neurokinin A to be present in nerve fibers located both in the perivascular spaces as well as intraparenchymally between the pinealocytes. After extracting total RNA, followed by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers, are involved in an up to now unknown function, different from that of melatonin synthesis.

  11. Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Does Morphological Diversity Reflect Tumor Heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito, Miguel; Fonseca, Isabel

    2017-09-21

    Salivary gland tumor classification encompasses a vast list of benign and malignant neoplasms. Their morphological diversity is recognized not only between different entities but also within individual tumors. Tumor categories as described by the World Health Organization reflect, in part, a true genetic heterogeneity (e.g., translocations involving CRTC1 and CRTC3-MAML2 genes in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and MYB-NFIB fusion in adenoid cystic carcinoma). Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma shows diversity in its histological appearance, but recurrent rearrangements on PLAG1 and HMGA2 are common to its benign precursor. More recently, new categories have been defined, like secretory carcinoma with the t(12;15) (p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and clear-cell carcinoma with EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. Recent studies on cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland origin and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma point to a correlation with their morphological features. All of these advances show that the search of a histogenetic and genetic basis for salivary gland tumors is helping to clarify morphological categories and unraveling new ones. Nevertheless, currently morphology is still the hallmark of tumor classification and the gold standard. The therapeutic options for advanced tumors remain very limited but the discovery of translocation-generated gene fusions and increased knowledge of the genomic information of salivary gland tumors is creating opportunities for the development of specific targeted therapies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, we have discussed some of the other unresolved puzzles on the mammary gland stem cells, such as their similarities and/or differences with mammary cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional mammary ...

  13. Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gross and morphometric anatomical changes of the thyroid gland in the West African Dwarf Goat ( Capra hircus ) during the foetal and post-natal periods of development. ... The right lobe was more cranially located on the larynx and trachea than the left lobe in all age groups. Thyroid isthmus was absent in few foetal thyroid ...

  14. Cranium eroding sweat gland carcinoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, M.; Karadeniz, A. N.; Aksu, G.; Guveli, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Sweat gland carcinomas are rare tumors. Eccrine sweat gland carcinomas are also very rare, with only about 200 cases reported in the world literature and only one of them was eroding the cranium. Treatment modalities of these carcinomas are not well known. Case report. Our patient was 47 years old female. Since 1989, she was operated on six times because of the tumour relapses. After each operation, the pathological results were: sweat gland adenoma, sweat gland tumour, cylindroma, turban tumour, malign cylindiroma. That was her seventh relapse. On examination, a lesion of the size 10 x 6 cm was observed in the left parietal region. Computed tomography showed the lesion had the size of 11 x 5 cm, and was destroying the tabula externa, diploic region and tabula. The tumour was invading the dura and causing periost reaction. Surgery and postoperative radiotherapy treatment was planned because of malign transformation and risk of recurrence. Conclusions. Only one case with cranium erosion was reported in literature. In our case, also intracranial extension of the tumor was observed. (author)

  15. Lithiasis of salivary glands treated with a CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna; Janas, Anna

    2003-10-01

    The study compares the results of classical surgical treatment with laserotherapy in lithiasis of submandibular salivary glands. The study included 48 patients, 26 of which were treated with application of a CO2 laser. The follow-up did not reveal any postoperative complications in the course of healing. No relapse of the disease was observed in patients.

  16. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-28

    Apr 28, 2012 ... cancer stem cells, use of milk as source of mammary stem cells and the possibility of in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells ... Abbreviations used: CK, cytokeratin; EBs, embryoid bodies; ER, estrogen receptor; ES cells, embryonic stem cells; LRC, label retaining cells;. MaSCs, mammary gland ...

  17. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zajkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings.

  18. The Bartholin gland: An overview of anatomy, physiology and disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Bartholin's glands are located bilaterally at the posterior portion of the vestibule, distal to the hymenal remnants and are secretory in function. Although not solely so, they are responsible for the natural lubrication of the vagina and vulva and are normally not palpable or visible on examination of the pelvis. Symptomatic ...

  19. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Neal Murari; Horattas, Mark C

    2008-11-01

    To examine the presentation, diagnosis, and appropriate management of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland. We describe a clinical case of solitary thyroid metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma and present a comprehensive review of the related English-language literature. Common patterns of presentation and generalized overall management recommendations are evaluated and summarized. Eight years after nephrectomy for renal carcinoma at age 61 years, a man presented with a thyroid mass. Cytology and histopathologic surgical findings were consistent with a solitary metastasis most compatible with metastatic clear cell carcinoma from his previous renal carcinoma. After left thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy, the patient remains disease-free 5 years later. Although uncommon, nearly 150 cases of clinically recognized metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid have been reported in the English-language literature. Metastatic disease from the kidney to the thyroid gland can occur more than 20 years after nephrectomy with the average time interval being 7.5 years. Obtaining a full clinical history in any patient who presents with a thyroid nodule is essential to allow consideration of possible metastatic disease from previous primary tumor. Metastatic disease to the thyroid gland can be correctly diagnosed preoperatively. If metastatic renal cancer is limited to the thyroid gland only, prompt, appropriate surgical intervention can be curative. Metastatic renal carcinoma to the thyroid should be considered in any patient presenting with a thyroid mass and a medical history of renal cell carcinoma.

  20. Be careful….. She has a pituitary gland in her nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabelink, N.M.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Castelijns, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this case report we describe a 38 year-old-female with galactorrhea several months after the birth of an anencephalic child. She had hyperpolactemia and imaging of the pituitary gland revealed a midline defect and a nasopharyngeal mass compatible with a meningo-(hypophyso-) encephalocele and

  1. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    in the following sequence: Br = greater than Cl greater than I = greater than NO3 greater than isethionate. Furosemide, 1.0 and 0.1 mmol/l, inhibited Cl-supported secretion by 97-99% and 70-78%, respectively. SITS, 0.1 mmol/l, had no effect and amiloride, 1.0 mmol/l, caused a 55-65% inhibition. Addition of SITS...... to amiloride-treated glands produced no further effect. In glands perfused with Cl-free solutions, but containing 25 mM HCO3, amiloride, 1.0 mmol/l, inhibited secretion by 95% and methazolamide, 0.1 mmol/l, by 55%. In glands perfused with solutions containing both HCO3 and Cl, furosemide had smaller effects...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  2. Ultrastructure of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, W J

    2011-10-01

    The secretory units of the platypus and echidna mandibular glands consist of a single serous cell type. Secretory granules within the cells of the platypus mandibular gland stained intensely with the periodic acid-Schiff staining procedure but failed to stain with Alcian Blue, suggesting the granules contained neutral glycoproteins. Secretory granules within the mandibular glands of the echidna failed to stain with the methods used indicating little if any glycoprotein was associated with the secretory granules. Ultrastructurally, secretory granules of the platypus mandibular gland were electron dense with a central core of less electron-dense material and were membrane bound. In contrast, those of the echidna presented a lamellated appearance and also were limited by a membrane. These secretory granules appeared to form as a result of concentric layering of lamellae within cisternae of the Golgi membranes. The intralobular ductal system of the platypus was more extensively developed than that of the echidna. The striated ducts of both species were characterized by elaborate infoldings of the basolateral plasmalemma and an abundance of associated mitochondria. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Submandibular salivary gland transfer prevents radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Naresh; Seikaly, Hadi; McGaw, Timothy; Coulter, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Background: Xerostomia is a significant morbidity of radiation therapy in the management of head and neck cancers. We hypothesized that the surgical transfer of one submandibular salivary gland to submental space, outside the proposed radiation field, prior to starting radiation treatment, would prevent xerostomia. Methods: We are conducting a prospective clinical trial where the submandibular gland is transferred as part of the surgical intervention. The patients are followed clinically, with salivary flow studies and University of Washington quality of life questionnaire. Results: We report early results of 16 patients who have undergone this procedure. Seven patients have finished and 2 patients are currently undergoing radiation treatment. In 2 patients, no postoperative radiation treatment was indicated. Two patients are waiting to start radiation treatment and 2 patients refused treatment after surgery. The surgical transfer was abandoned in 1 patient. All of the transferred salivary glands were positioned outside the proposed radiation fields and were functional. The patients did not complain of any xerostomia and developed only minimal oral mucositis. There were no surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (outside the radiation field) preserves its function and prevents the development of radiation-induced xerostomia

  4. Cutaneous Carcinosarcoma with Metastasis to the Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Tze Ling Loh; Jeanne Tomlinson; Ronald Chin; Guy D. Eslick

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous carcinosarcoma is a rare malignancy that exhibits both mesenchymal and epithelial components. It is similar to nonmelanoma skin cancers in terms of risk and prognostic factors. However, these malignancies are known to have a propensity for local recurrence and metastasis, even with adequate resection margins. Here we report a case of metastatic cutaneous carcinosarcoma to the parotid gland and review the relevant literature.

  5. Post-irradiation carcinosarcoma of the parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spraggs, P.D.R.; Grant, H.R. (University College London Hospitals (United Kingdom). Dept. of Otolaryngology); Rose, D.S.C.; Gallimore, A.P. (University Coll. Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-05-01

    Carcinosarcoma of the salivary glands are rare tumours, often associated with a history of pleomorphic adenoma. A case of carcinosarcoma of the parotid arising following irradiation to the resection site of a pleomorphic adenoma is presented. The clinical and histological features are discussed and the literature reviewed. (Author).

  6. [Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Bajkin, Ivana; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Zavisić, Branka Kovacev

    2012-01-01

    Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency The proper daily amount of iodine is required for optimal thyroid function. Iodine deficiency can cause hypothyroidism, developmental brain disorders and goiter. Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women cause miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with iodine deficiency disorders can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech or hearing. Excessive Iodine Intake. Excessive iodine intake, which can trigger a utoimmune thyroid disease and dysfunction. is on the other side. Iodine use in Case of Nuclear Catastrophe. In addition to other severe consuquences of radioactivity, high amount of radioactive iodine causes significant increase in incidence of thyroid gland carcinoma after some of the nuclear catastrophes (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Chernobyl, Fukushima). The incidence of thyroid carcinoma was increased mostly in children. This paper was aimed at clarifying some of the possibilities of prevention according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization.

  7. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J; Cherukuri, Praveen F

    2012-01-01

    pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian...

  8. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 173-180 ISSN 2190-460X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * pituitary * endocrine glands Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  9. MicroRNA expression profiling during upland cotton gland forming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... 2Key Laboratory of Cotton Genetic Improvement, Cotton Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural. Sciences ... Analysis of the transcript data for some miRNA target genes indicated that they play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of gland ... against pests and diseases.

  10. Clozapine- induced recurrent and transient parotid gland swelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mainly due to its side effect of agranulocytosis. Hypersalivation is another distressing and common side effect of clozapine which occurs in about 23 % of patients.3. Hypersalivation , a poorly understood paradoxical side effect of clozapine, may sometimes cause salivary gland swelling. Rarely, the anticholinergic effect of ...

  11. Salivary gland masses. Dynamic MR imaging and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinho; Inoue, Shingo; Ishizuka, Yasuhito; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kawanishi, Masayuki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko; Ebihara, Yoshiro

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of salivary gland masses. We retrospectively examined 19 salivary gland masses that were pathologically diagnosed by surgical operation or biopsy. We obtained T1- and T2-weighted images on MRI, performed dynamic studies on each mass and examined the correlation between enhancement patterns and pathological findings. Four enhancement patterns were recognized on contrast-enhanced MRI: type 1 showed marked, homogeneous enhancement; type 2 slights, homogeneous enhancement; type 3 marginal enhancement; and type 4 poor enhancement of the mass. Most pleomorphic adenomas had a type 1 enhancement pattern, but two had a type 2 pattern. Pathologically, each mass enhancement pattern had different tumor cell and matrix components. Warthin's tumor generally showed the type 4 pattern. Primary malignant tumors of the salivary gland all showed the type 3 pattern, and pathological specimens showed many tumor cells along the marginal portion of the tumor. One inflammatory cyst and one Warthin's tumor also showed the type 3 pattern. Except for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the enhancement patterns of late phase images and dynamic study images were the same. Dynamic MRI added little diagnostic information about salivary gland masses, but the contrast-enhanced MR features correlated well with the pathological findings. (author)

  12. Histologic and Immunohistochemical classification of 41 bovine adrenal gland neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Anette Blak; Leifsson, Páll S.; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2013-01-01

    Tumors of the adrenal glands are among the most frequent tumors in cattle; however, few studies have been conducted to describe their characteristics. The aim of this study was to classify 41 bovine adrenal neoplasms from 40 animals based on macroscopic and histologic examination, including...

  13. Pattern of salivary gland neoplasm in Port Harcourt | Nwogbo | Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgical treatment of a salivary gland tumour, especially the parotid, requires careful approach due to the anatomic presence of vulnerable vital structures. Early presentation and surgical treatment also contribute to successful treatment, especially if the lesion is malignant. Aim: To highlight the pattern of ...

  14. Morphologic changes in the anterior pituitary gland of male wistar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mixed Palm oil diets have been reported to alter the morphology of testes, which is related to the pituitary-testicular axis. Aims: To determine the morphologic changes of the anterior pituitary gland following high consumption of mixed palm oil diets. Methods: Twelve (12) albino wistar rats were divided into three ...

  15. Recurrent Bartholin's gland abscess in pregnancy: An uncommon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recurrent Bartholin's gland abscess in pregnancy: An uncommon presentation. ... This case involved a 25-year old grandmultipara, who presented at a gestational age of 24 weeks with a huge vulval swelling measuring 14cm x 10cm, following failure of its resolution from self-medicated antibiotics. She had experienced ...

  16. Mammary gland stem cells: More puzzles than explanations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-28

    Apr 28, 2012 ... mouse mammary epithelial cells are pluripotent, self-renewing and sensitive to TGF-beta1 expression. Oncogene 24 552–560. Brisken C 2002 Hormonal control of alveolar development and its implications for breast carcinogenesis. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 7 39–48. Buehring GC 1972 Culture of ...

  17. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  18. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and. D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  19. The histology of the adrenal gland of the African elephant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-22

    Jan 22, 1991 ... transmission electron microscopy. The gland is surrounded by a thick capsule composed of an ... brain shot animal, on a semi-automatic image analysis sys- tem (Kontron Videoplan). ..... the noradrenaline which is precipitated in situ within the granule with this technique, is very electron dense. The. 197.

  20. Aversion substance(s) of the rat coagulating glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawienowski, Anthony M.; Berry, Iver J.; Kennelly, James J.

    1982-01-01

    The aversive substance(s) present in adult male urine were not found in castrate rat urine. Removal of the coagulating glands also resulted in a loss of the aversion compounds. The aversion substances were restored to the urine after androgen treatment of the castrate rats.