WorldWideScience

Sample records for apocarotenoids shedding light

  1. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  2. Shedding further light on late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In his opening essay on ‘What and/or Who is Late’, Nikhilesh Dholakia delineated inter alia “stage-setting contexts” or levels of analysis which could shed light on the phenomenon of late globalization, including its causes and effects. Indeed, these, especially the effects in contemporary contex......, are less understood and researched. To stimulate research on late globalization, Nikhilesh essay is a rich source for conceiving research questions. Herein I will try to do that.......In his opening essay on ‘What and/or Who is Late’, Nikhilesh Dholakia delineated inter alia “stage-setting contexts” or levels of analysis which could shed light on the phenomenon of late globalization, including its causes and effects. Indeed, these, especially the effects in contemporary context...

  3. Tracking Kids' Eye Movements Might Shed New Light on Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids' Eye Movements Might Shed New Light on Autism When conversations turn emotional, children with ASD change ... HealthDay News) -- New findings about where children with autism look during conversations could lead to changes in ...

  4. Marketing researcher sheds new light on rewards programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2010-01-01

    A new study by Rajesh Bagchi, assistant professor of marketing in the Pamplin College of Business, sheds new light on loyalty or rewards programs, used by airlines, hotels, and other businesses to promote customer allegiance.

  5. Relative values: shedding light on Einstein's theories

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Prof. Paul Davies has analysed light from some of the most distant stellar objects in the sky. From these observations he has concluded that the speed of light was faster billions of years ago than it is today (1/2 page).

  6. Shedding Some Light on Fluorescent Bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Nicholas R.

    1996-01-01

    Explores some of the principles behind the working of fluorescent bulbs using a specially prepared fluorescent bulb with the white inner fluorescent coating applied along only half its length. Discusses the spectrum, the bulb plasma, and light production. (JRH)

  7. Circadian Control Sheds Light on Fungal Bioluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Anderson G.; Cassius V. Stevani; Waldenmaier, Hans E.; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Jay C Dunlap

    2015-01-01

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi – only 71 species, all within the ~9000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales Order - are reported from among ~100,000 described fungal species [6,7]. All require oxygen [8] a...

  8. Circadian control sheds light on fungal bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Anderson G; Stevani, Cassius V; Waldenmaier, Hans E; Viviani, Vadim; Emerson, Jillian M; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2015-03-30

    Bioluminescence, the creation and emission of light by organisms, affords insight into the lives of organisms doing it. Luminous living things are widespread and access diverse mechanisms to generate and control luminescence [1-5]. Among the least studied bioluminescent organisms are phylogenetically rare fungi-only 71 species, all within the ∼ 9,000 fungi of the temperate and tropical Agaricales order-are reported from among ∼ 100,000 described fungal species [6, 7]. All require oxygen [8] and energy (NADH or NADPH) for bioluminescence and are reported to emit green light (λmax 530 nm) continuously, implying a metabolic function for bioluminescence, perhaps as a byproduct of oxidative metabolism in lignin degradation. Here, however, we report that bioluminescence from the mycelium of Neonothopanus gardneri is controlled by a temperature-compensated circadian clock, the result of cycles in content/activity of the luciferase, reductase, and luciferin that comprise the luminescent system. Because regulation implies an adaptive function for bioluminescence, a controversial question for more than two millennia [8-15], we examined interactions between luminescent fungi and insects [16]. Prosthetic acrylic resin "mushrooms," internally illuminated by a green LED emitting light similar to the bioluminescence, attract staphilinid rove beetles (coleopterans), as well as hemipterans (true bugs), dipterans (flies), and hymenopterans (wasps and ants), at numbers far greater than dark control traps. Thus, circadian control may optimize energy use for when bioluminescence is most visible, attracting insects that can in turn help in spore dispersal, thereby benefitting fungi growing under the forest canopy, where wind flow is greatly reduced. PMID:25802150

  9. Shedding Light on the Cosmic Skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Astronomers have tracked down a gigantic, previously unknown assembly of galaxies located almost seven billion light-years away from us. The discovery, made possible by combining two of the most powerful ground-based telescopes in the world, is the first observation of such a prominent galaxy structure in the distant Universe, providing further insight into the cosmic web and how it formed. "Matter is not distributed uniformly in the Universe," says Masayuki Tanaka from ESO, who led the new study. "In our cosmic vicinity, stars form in galaxies and galaxies usually form groups and clusters of galaxies. The most widely accepted cosmological theories predict that matter also clumps on a larger scale in the so-called 'cosmic web', in which galaxies, embedded in filaments stretching between voids, create a gigantic wispy structure." These filaments are millions of light years long and constitute the skeleton of the Universe: galaxies gather around them, and immense galaxy clusters form at their intersections, lurking like giant spiders waiting for more matter to digest. Scientists are struggling to determine how they swirl into existence. Although massive filamentary structures have been often observed at relatively small distances from us, solid proof of their existence in the more distant Universe has been lacking until now. The team led by Tanaka discovered a large structure around a distant cluster of galaxies in images they obtained earlier. They have now used two major ground-based telescopes to study this structure in greater detail, measuring the distances from Earth of over 150 galaxies, and, hence, obtaining a three-dimensional view of the structure. The spectroscopic observations were performed using the VIMOS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope and FOCAS on the Subaru Telescope, operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Thanks to these and other observations, the astronomers were able to make a real demographic study of this structure

  10. Flashes Shed Light on Cosmic Clashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    An international team of astronomers led by Danish astronomer Jens Hjorth [1] has for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging neutron stars. The same team has also used ESO's Very Large Telescope to constrain the birthplace of the first ever short burst whose position could be pinpointed with high precision, GRB 050509B. The results are being published in the October 6 issue of the journal Nature. Gamma-ray bursts, the most powerful type of explosion known in the Universe, have been a mystery for three decades. They come in two different flavours, long and short ones. Over the past few years, international efforts have convincingly shown that long gamma-ray bursts are linked with the ultimate explosion of massive stars (hypernovae; see e.g. ESO PR 16/03). "The breakthrough in our understanding of long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than about 2 seconds), which ultimately linked them with the energetic explosion of a massive star as it collapses into a black hole, came from the discovery of their long-lived X-ray and optical afterglows," says Jens Hjorth (Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark). "Short duration GRBs have however evaded optical detection for more than 30 years," he adds. Things changed recently. In the night of July 9 to 10, 2005, the NASA HETE-2 satellite detected a burst of only 70-millisecond duration and, based on the detection of X-rays, was able to determine its position in the sky. Thirty-three hours after, Jens Hjorth and his team obtained images of this region of the sky using the Danish 1.5m telescope at ESO La Silla. The images showed the presence of a fading source, sitting on the edge of a galaxy. "We have thus discovered the first optical afterglow of a short gamma-ray burst

  11. Apocarotenoids: A New Carotenoid-Derived Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Juan Camilo Moreno; Stange, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are precursors of carotenoid derived molecules termed apocarotenoids, which include isoprenoids with important functions in plant-environment interactions such as the attraction of pollinators and the defense against pathogens and herbivores. Apocarotenoids also include volatile aromatic compounds that act as repellents, chemoattractants, growth simulators and inhibitors, as well as the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactones. In plants, apocarotenoids can be found in several types of plastids (etioplast, leucoplast and chromoplast) and among different plant tissues such as flowers and roots. The structural similarity of some flower and spice isoprenoid volatile organic compounds (β-ionone and safranal) to carotenoids has led to the recent discovery of carotenoid-specific cleavage oxygenases, including carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases and 9-cis-epoxydioxygenases, which tailor and transform carotenoids into apocarotenoids. The great diversity of apocarotenoids is a consequence of the huge amount of carotenoid precursors, the variations in specific cleavage sites and the modifications after cleavage. Lycopene, β-carotene and zeaxanthin are the precursors of the main apocarotenoids described to date, which include bixin, crocin, picrocrocin, abscisic acid, strigolactone and mycorradicin.The current chapter will give rise to an overview of the biosynthesis and function of the most important apocarotenoids in plants, as well as the current knowledge about the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase enzymes involved in these biosynthetic pathways. PMID:27485225

  12. Shedding Light on Light Pollution: Reports from GLOBE at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.

    2009-05-01

    The citizen-science program on light pollution, GLOBE at Night, has had rich responses during this year's campaign in March 2009. Reporting on some of the highlights, we will hear success stories and lessons learned from educators, students, science centers and astronomy clubs from around the world. Communities will be featured from several cities, such Norman, Oklahoma, Mishawaka, Indiana, Willimantic, Connecticut, and Waynesville, Ohio, which created mini-campaigns that combined local students with public advocates and representatives from local city and county governments. Connecticut kids collaborated with students in Wales, Canada and Romania on GLOBE at Night, and an extensive campaign was planned with the schools near the observatories of north-central Chile. Groups that have received special training in GLOBE at Night and related activities include the "Astronomy from the Ground Up” network of science and nature centers (fostered by the ASP and the NSF), 146 amateur astronomers who are part of the ASP-NASA Night-Sky Network, and the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Special training was given over forums, telecon-powerpoint presentations and blogs, to fit the needs of the communities. Among the more interesting media efforts for the general public, GLOBE at Night was the topic of the March 6 episode of the IYA2009 "Days of Astronomy" podcast. International organizing efforts for GLOBE at Night have been strong in countries like Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom, to name a few. We will also discuss how cities, such as Tucson, Arizona, combined efforts on GLOBE at Night with involvement in the World Wildlife Fund's Earth Hour event (www.earthhour.org). Earth Hour encouraged everyone to turn out their lights from 8:30-9:30 p.m. local time on Saturday, March 28, the final night of GLOBE at Night 2009.

  13. Shedding new light on the Sun with the Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Omodei, N; Liu, W; da Costa, F Rubio; Chen, Q; Pesce-Rollins, M; Grove, E

    2015-01-01

    During its first six years of operation, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected >30 MeV gamma-ray emission from more than 40 solar flares, nearly a factor of 10 more than those detected by EGRET. These include detections of impulsive and sustained emissions, extending up to 20 hours in the case of the 2012 March 7 X-class flares. We will present an overview of solar flare detections with LAT, highlighting recent results and surprising features, including the detection of >100 MeV emission associated with flares located behind the limb. Such flares may shed new light on the relationship between the sites of particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission.

  14. Active galactic nuclei shed light on axion-like-particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Davis, Anne-Christine [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Shaw, Douglas J. [London Univ. (United Kingdom). Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences

    2009-02-15

    We demonstrate that the scatter in the luminosity relations of astrophysical objects can be used to search for axion-like-particles (ALPs). This analysis is applied to observations of active galactic nuclei, where we find evidence highly suggestive of the existence of a very light ALP. (orig.)

  15. Shedding Light on Neutrino Masses with Dark Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Batell, Brian; Pospelov, Maxim; Shuve, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Heavy right-handed neutrinos (RHNs) provide the simplest explanation for the origin of light neutrino masses and mixings. If the RHN masses are at or below the weak scale, direct experimental discovery of these states is possible at accelerator experiments such as the LHC or new dedicated beam dump experiments; in such experiments, the RHN decays after traversing a macroscopic distance from the collision point. The experimental sensitivity to RHNs is significantly enhanced if there is a new "...

  16. Shedding light on bioluminescence regulation in Vibrio fischeri

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashiro, Tim; Ruby, Edward G.

    2012-01-01

    The bioluminescence emitted by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri is a particularly striking result of individual microbial cells coordinating a group behavior. The genes responsible for light production are principally regulated by the LuxR-LuxI quorum-sensing system. In addition to LuxR-LuxI, numerous other genetic elements and environmental conditions control bioluminescence production. Efforts to mathematically model the LuxR-LuxI system are providing insight into the dynamics of this a...

  17. Shedding Light on Astronomy Textbooks for Astro 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Andrea; Silge, Julia D.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy textbooks present new vocabulary and concepts to students in different and unique ways. Understanding the differences between textbooks is useful for confirming that the textbook you use in your class is the best possible match for how you teach astronomy. We compare the treatment of terms and equations dealing with the Sun and properties of light in over ten different introductory textbooks. For example, nearly every textbook uses a different equation for angular resolution. (Come by the poster to vote for your favorite!) There are also various forms of the equation for Wien's Law and different uses of the terms 'hydrostatic equilibrium' and 'blackbody radiation.' We discuss possible reasons for the approximations and simplifications made by textbook authors.

  18. Remote fluorescent penetrant system sheds new light on cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remotely operated fluorescent penetrant inspection system developed in Sweden has successfully identified very small cracks -less than 2mm in length and less than 0.2mm in depth. The method, which is being patented, is applicable to all sizes of tubing, as well as other types of flat or curved surfaces. The system consists of a specially designed probe attached to a flexible hose. The probe is positioned by a remotely operated pusher-puller, which can be attached to any kind of robot. The pusher-puller is equipped with electrical motors and encoders for exact positioning at any given location. The hose is attached to a pump and valve unit remote from the item under test, located in the same area as the control equipment for the pusher-puller and the robot. Once the probe has been positioned in the area of interest, it is able to apply fluorescent penetrant test fluid remotely to the surface under test, using a system of inflatable seals. A fluorescent print is made on the probe head, which is then removed from the tube and another probe head fitted for testing of the next tube. Testing takes about 10 minutes per tube. To take measurements, a photograph of the probe head can be taken under ultraviolet light. Manual transfer of the fluorescent print under ultraviolet light to a transparent plastic sheet, temporarily wrapped around the probe head, is also done. The plastic sheet is then unfolded and copied in a normal photocopying machine, and a permanent record thus created. (author)

  19. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma.

  20. Shedding light on vampires: the phylogeny of vampyrellid amoebae revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hess

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular phylogenetic techniques the polyphyly of naked filose amoebae has been proven. They are interspersed in several supergroups of eukaryotes and most of them already found their place within the tree of life. Although the 'vampire amoebae' have attracted interest since the middle of the 19th century, the phylogenetic position and even the monophyly of this traditional group are still uncertain. In this study clonal co-cultures of eight algivorous vampyrellid amoebae and the respective food algae were established. Culture material was characterized morphologically and a molecular phylogeny was inferred using SSU rDNA sequence comparisons. We found that the limnetic, algivorous vampyrellid amoebae investigated in this study belong to a major clade within the Endomyxa Cavalier-Smith, 2002 (Cercozoa, grouping together with a few soil-dwelling taxa. They split into two robust clades, one containing species of the genus Vampyrella Cienkowski, 1865, the other containing the genus Leptophrys Hertwig & Lesser, 1874, together with terrestrial members. Supported by morphological data these clades are designated as the two families Vampyrellidae Zopf, 1885, and Leptophryidae fam. nov. Furthermore the order Vampyrellida West, 1901 was revised and now corresponds to the major vampyrellid clade within the Endomyxa, comprising the Vampyrellidae and Leptophryidae as well as several environmental sequences. In the light of the presented phylogenetic analyses morphological and ecological aspects, the feeding strategy and nutritional specialization within the vampyrellid amoebae are discussed.

  1. Shedding light on neutrino masses with dark forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian; Pospelov, Maxim; Shuve, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Heavy right-handed neutrinos, N , provide the simplest explanation for the origin of light neutrino masses and mixings. If M N is at or below the weak scale, direct experimental discovery of these states is possible at accelerator experiments such as the LHC or new dedicated beam dump experiments; in these experiments, N decays after traversing a macroscopic distance from the collision point. The experimental sensitivity to right-handed neutrinos is significantly enhanced if there is a new "dark" gauge force connecting them to the Standard Model (SM), and detection of N can be the primary discovery mode for the new dark force itself. We take the well-motivated example of a B - L gauge symmetry and analyze the sensitivity to displaced decays of N produced via the new gauge interaction in two experiments: the LHC and the proposed SHiP beam dump experiment. In the most favorable case in which the mediator can be produced on-shell and decays to right handed neutrinos ( pp → X + V B- L → X + N N ), the sensitivity reach is controlled by the square of the B - L gauge coupling. We demonstrate that these experiments could access neutrino parameters responsible for the observed SM neutrino masses and mixings in the most straightforward implementation of the see-saw mechanism.

  2. Shedding Light on Neutrino Masses with Dark Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian; Shuve, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Heavy right-handed neutrinos (RHNs) provide the simplest explanation for the origin of light neutrino masses and mixings. If the RHN masses are at or below the weak scale, direct experimental discovery of these states is possible at accelerator experiments such as the LHC or new dedicated beam dump experiments; in such experiments, the RHN decays after traversing a macroscopic distance from the collision point. The experimental sensitivity to RHNs is significantly enhanced if there is a new "dark" gauge force connecting them to the Standard Model (SM), and detection of RHNs can be the primary discovery mode for the new dark force itself. We take the well-motivated example of a B-L gauge symmetry and analyze the sensitivity to displaced decays of the RHNs produced via the new gauge interaction in two experiments: the LHC and the proposed SHiP beam dump experiment. In the most favorable case in which the mediator can be produced on-shell and decays to RHNs, the sensitivity reach is controlled by the square of t...

  3. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A;

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  4. Retail lighting: shedding light on people, products/brands and spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Quartier, Katelijn

    2013-01-01

    To understand where we are at, and to learn from the past, a brief history of retail lighting, with the focus on atmosphere will be given. Next, via the psychological aspects of lighting, its importance and the human-environment interaction will be explained. A study will be presented which shows the impact of lighting on the perception of atmosphere, the emotions and behaviour.

  5. Shedding light on light: benefits of anthropogenic illumination to a nocturnally foraging shorebird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Ross G; Bearhop, Stuart; Campbell, Hamish A; Bryant, David M

    2013-03-01

    Intertidal habitats provide important feeding areas for migratory shorebirds. Anthropogenic developments along coasts can increase ambient light levels at night across adjacent inter-tidal zones. Here, we report the effects of elevated nocturnal light levels upon the foraging strategy of a migratory shorebird (common redshank Tringa totanus) overwintering on an industrialised estuary in Northern Europe. To monitor behaviour across the full intertidal area, individuals were located by day and night using VHF transmitters, and foraging behaviour was inferred from inbuilt posture sensors. Natural light was scored using moon-phase and cloud cover information and nocturnal artificial light levels were obtained using geo-referenced DMSP/OLS night-time satellite imagery at a 1-km resolution. Under high illumination levels, the commonest and apparently preferred foraging behaviour was sight-based. Conversely, birds feeding in areas with low levels of artificial light had an elevated foraging time and fed by touch, but switched to visual rather than tactile foraging behaviour on bright moonlit nights in the absence of cloud cover. Individuals occupying areas which were illuminated continuously by lighting from a large petrochemical complex invariably exhibited a visually based foraging behaviour independently of lunar phase and cloud cover. We show that ambient light levels affect the timing and distribution of foraging opportunities for redshank. We argue that light emitted from an industrial complex improved nocturnal visibility. This allowed sight-based foraging in place of tactile foraging, implying both a preference for sight-feeding and enhanced night-time foraging opportunities under these conditions. The study highlights the value of integrating remotely sensed data and telemetry techniques to assess the effect of anthropogenic change upon nocturnal behaviour and habitat use. PMID:23190422

  6. The International Globe at Night Citizen-Science Campaign: Shedding Light on Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    For 8 years now, the Globe at Night campaign has invited citizen-scientists worldwide to measure and record the brightness of their night sky by hunting for the faintest stars in a particular constellation. Students for science projects and scientists for research use the data to monitor levels of brightness or 'light pollution' around the world. They also use the Globe at Night data to understand light pollution's effects on energy consumption, plants, wildlife and human health, as well as our ability to enjoy a starry night sky. The dates of the campaign for 2014 have been extended to every month during the year. Ten days each month (when the Moon is not up between 8pm and 10pm) are the recommended times to take measurements for the campaign. However, one can participate at other times and dates, as long as the Moon is not in the night sky and it is more than an hour after sunset or more than an hour before sunrise. New in 2014 will be an Android app that will allow you to input visual measurements anytime the Moon is not up. Also possibly included will be an iPhone app that will take sky brightness measurements. The campaign dates and the 5 easy steps to participating in the campaign are listed at www.globeatnight.org. You do not need to register. Once on the report page, you enter your location, date and time (automatic for a smart device). You find the constellation of the month in the night sky. (Help is on the website.) Then you choose which chart looks most like what you see toward the constellation. Choose the icon for how clear or cloudy it is and hit the submit button and you are done! The fifth step is returning later to the website to compare your observations on the world map to others from around the globe. Included on the Globe at Night website are many helpful resources and tools from finding the constellations used in the campaign, to understanding concepts like light pollution, to games that test your expertise in choosing 'limiting magnitudes

  7. Genetic and Epigenetic Diversities Shed Light on Domestication of Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Rui; Shi, Feng-Xue; Zhou, Yu-Xin; Li, Ya-Ling; Wang, Xin-Feng; Zhang, Cui; Wang, Xu-Tong; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing; Li, Lin-Feng

    2015-11-01

    Chinese ginseng (Panax ginseng) is a medically important herb within Panax and has crucial cultural values in East Asia. As the symbol of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese ginseng has been used as a herbal remedy to restore stamina and capacity in East Asia for thousands of years. To address the evolutionary origin and domestication history of cultivated ginseng, we employed multiple molecular approaches to investigate the genetic structures of cultivated and wild ginseng across their distribution ranges in northeastern Asia. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that the four cultivated ginseng landraces, COMMON, BIANTIAO, SHIZHU, and GAOLI (also known as Korean ginseng), were not domesticated independently and Fusong Town is likely one of the primary domestication centers. In addition, our results from population genetic and epigenetic analyses demonstrated that cultivated ginseng maintained high levels of genetic and epigenetic diversity, but showed distinct cytosine methylation patterns compared with wild ginseng. The patterns of genetic and epigenetic variation revealed by this study have shed light on the domestication history of cultivated ginseng, which may serve as a framework for future genetic improvements. PMID:26278367

  8. Integrative analyses shed new light on human ribosomal protein gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zheng, Yiyu; Hu, Haiyan; Li, Xiaoman

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) are important house-keeping genes that are well-known for their coordinated expression. Previous studies on RPGs are largely limited to their promoter regions. Recent high-throughput studies provide an unprecedented opportunity to study how human RPGs are transcriptionally modulated and how such transcriptional regulation may contribute to the coordinate gene expression in various tissues and cell types. By analyzing the DNase I hypersensitive sites under 349 experimental conditions, we predicted 217 RPG regulatory regions in the human genome. More than 86.6% of these computationally predicted regulatory regions were partially corroborated by independent experimental measurements. Motif analyses on these predicted regulatory regions identified 31 DNA motifs, including 57.1% of experimentally validated motifs in literature that regulate RPGs. Interestingly, we observed that the majority of the predicted motifs were shared by the predicted distal and proximal regulatory regions of the same RPGs, a likely general mechanism for enhancer-promoter interactions. We also found that RPGs may be differently regulated in different cells, indicating that condition-specific RPG regulatory regions still need to be discovered and investigated. Our study advances the understanding of how RPGs are coordinately modulated, which sheds light to the general principles of gene transcriptional regulation in mammals. PMID:27346035

  9. Navigating the gender minefield: An IPV prevention campaign sheds light on the gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sarah N; Honea, Joy C

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how differences in male and female views about intimate partner violence (IPV) contributed to divergent responses to a prevention campaign conducted in the western USA. The study examines focus groups (n = 22) and in-depth interview data (n = 13) collected during campaign development to shed light on quantitative results indicating that women (but not men) increased their perceived severity of domestic violence and awareness of services from pre-test to post-test, while male attitudes moved in the opposite direction. Results of the qualitative study provide the basis for the authors' conclusions about why reactions differed: (1) men's unwillingness to view abuse within a gender context limits men's ability to accept the inequity in statistically demonstrated male and female roles as perpetrators and victims; (2) male resentment of existing gender stereotypes contributed to a rejection of campaign messages that utilised gender prevalence statistics to depict images showing men as perpetrators and women as victims; and (3) victim blaming attitudes contributed to resistance to empathy for victims depicted in the campaign. The authors offer suggestions for future campaigns that foster agency among both perpetrators and survivors while confronting the structural barriers to enacting change. PMID:25995024

  10. ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING EXTENDS THE DURATION OF FECAL SHEDDING OF E. COLI O157 IN FEEDLOT CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal shedding of E. coli O157 in cattle in the United States is well documented however reasons for this phenomenon are unknown. Fecal prevalence is typically highest in the summer and early fall, decreasing to low or undetectable levels in the winter months. Ambient temperature has been sugge...

  11. Shedding LIGHT (TNFSF14) on the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer liver metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Jian Zhong; Upadhyay, Vivek; Prabhakar, Bellur; Maker, Ajay V

    2013-01-01

    Background T-cell infiltration in primary colon tumors is associated with improved patient survival. Preliminary data supports a similar association in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), and we previously identified increased CRLM expression of the immunostimulatory cytokine LIGHT (TNFSF14) to be related to improved patient prognosis. Therefore, mechanisms to augment the T-cell response in CRLM may be a promising treatment modality, however, the tumor immune microenvironment and LIGHT expres...

  12. Shedding Light on Bird Egg Color: Pigment as Parasol and the Dark Car Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, David C; Ardia, Daniel R

    2016-05-01

    The vibrant colors of many birds' eggs, particularly those that are blue to blue-green, are extraordinary in that they are striking traits present in hundreds of species that have nevertheless eluded evolutionary functional explanation. We propose that egg pigmentation mediates a trade-off between two routes by which solar radiation can harm bird embryos: transmittance through the eggshell and overheating through absorbance. We quantitatively test four components of this hypothesis on variably colored eggs of the village weaverbird (Ploceus cucullatus) in a controlled light environment: (1) damaging ultraviolet radiation can transmit through bird eggshells, (2) infrared radiation at natural intensities can heat the interior of eggs, (3) more intense egg coloration decreases light transmittance ("pigment as parasol"), and (4) more intense egg coloration increases absorbance of light by the eggshell and heats the egg interior ("dark car effect"). Results support all of these predictions. Thus, in sunlit nesting environments, less pigmentation will increase the detrimental effect of transmittance, but more pigmentation will increase the detrimental effect of absorbance. The optimal pigmentation level for a bird egg in a given light environment, all other things being equal, will depend on the balance between light transmittance and absorbance in relation to embryo fitness. PMID:27104989

  13. Shedding New Light on an Old Problem: The Estimation of Shadow Sizes in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Mirjam; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments using the "projection of shadows" paradigm investigated multidimensional reasoning, implicit and explicit knowledge, and the nonlinearity concept in 5-, 9-, and 13-year-olds and adults. Participants estimated the resulting shadow lengths of differently sized objects, placed at varying distances from a light source. Experiment 1…

  14. Shedding light on DOC release by benthic primary producers and its consumption by bioeroding sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of light on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release of benthic primary producers (BPPs) was investigated on the coral reefs of Curaçao. Incubation experiments revealed a positive relation between the DOC release of four Caribbean reef algae (Cladophora sp., Dictyota menstrualis, Lobophora

  15. Shedding light on the role of lipid flippases in the secretory pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    flippases, play an essential role in this transport process. We have recently characterized several members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases as prime candidate lipid flippases in the secretory pathway of several eukaryotic cells. Our studies in yeast, plants and mammalian cells uncovered that these...... biophysical approaches based on giant vesicles and several advanced bioimaging methods. The limitations and future perspectives of these techniques for the characterization of lipid translocases will be discussed in the light of our recent results....

  16. Chemical vs. biotechnological synthesis of C13-apocarotenoids: current methods, applications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Vicente F; López, Javiera; Cárcamo, Martín; Agosin, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Apocarotenoids are natural compounds derived from the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids. Particularly, C13-apocarotenoids are volatile compounds that contribute to the aromas of different flowers and fruits and are highly valued by the Flavor and Fragrance industry. So far, the chemical synthesis of these terpenoids has dominated the industry. Nonetheless, the increasing consumer demand for more natural and sustainable processes raises an interesting opportunity for bio-production alternatives. In this regard, enzymatic biocatalysis and metabolically engineered microorganisms emerge as attractive biotechnological options. The present review summarizes promising bioengineering approaches with regard to chemical production methods for the synthesis of two families of C13-apocarotenoids: ionones/dihydroionones and damascones/damascenone. We discuss each method and its applicability, with a thorough comparative analysis for ionones, focusing on the production process, regulatory aspects, and sustainability. PMID:27154347

  17. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    KAUST Repository

    Rodrigo, María J.

    2013-09-04

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8?-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7?,8? double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confrming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7?,8? double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. The Author 2013.

  18. Shedding Light on a New Treatment for Diabetic Wound Healing: A Review on Phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette N. Houreld

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired wound healing is a common complication associated with diabetes with complex pathophysiological underlying mechanisms and often necessitates amputation. With the advancement in laser technology, irradiation of these wounds with low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI or phototherapy, has shown a vast improvement in wound healing. At the correct laser parameters, LILI has shown to increase migration, viability, and proliferation of diabetic cells in vitro; there is a stimulatory effect on the mitochondria with a resulting increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP. In addition, LILI also has an anti-inflammatory and protective effect on these cells. In light of the ever present threat of diabetic foot ulcers, infection, and amputation, new improved therapies and the fortification of wound healing research deserves better prioritization. In this review we look at the complications associated with diabetic wound healing and the effect of laser irradiation both in vitro and in vivo in diabetic wound healing.

  19. Variable Ly alpha sheds light on the environment surrounding GRB 090426

    CERN Document Server

    Thöne, C C; Lazzati, D; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Fynbo, J P U; Christensen, L; Levan, A J; Aloy, M A; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Levesque, E M; Malesani, D; Milvang-Jensen, B; Roming, P W A; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; Gladders, M; Wuyts, E; Dahle, H

    2011-01-01

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts are commonly associated with the deaths of massive stars. Spectroscopic studies using the afterglow as a light source provide a unique opportunity to unveil the medium surrounding it, probing the densest region of their galaxies. This material is usually in a low ionisation state and at large distances from the burst site, hence representing the normal interstellar medium in the galaxy. Here we present the case of GRB 090426 at z=2.609, whose optical spectrum indicates an almost fully ionised medium together with a low column density of neutral hydrogen. For the first time, we also observe variations in the Ly alpha absorption line. Photoionisation modeling shows that we are probing material from the vicinity of the burst (~80 pc). The host galaxy is a complex of two luminous interacting galaxies, which might suggest that this burst could have occurred in an isolated star-forming region outside its host galaxy created in the interaction of the two galaxies.

  20. Discovery of Giant X-Ray Disk Sheds Light on Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Ohio University astronomers have discovered the largest disk of hot, X-ray emitting gas ever observed in the universe: At 90,000 light years in diameter, it's about 100,000 times the size of any comparable object. The disk, spinning through a distant galaxy, is more than just an interstellar oddity, the researchers say. The object could offer new information about the way certain galaxies form and evolve. About 20 percent of all galaxies are elliptical, the largest of the three types of galaxies in the universe. They differ from spiral galaxies like the Milky Way, as they lack new stars and spiral "arms." Scientists once believed that elliptical galaxies were ancient, simple systems that contained only old stars and formed in the early days of the universe. But new research suggests elliptical galaxies are more complex and dynamic. "It used to be thought that galaxies form and then sit there and age quietly over time. But now we understand that galaxies live, in the sense that there's an interplay of gas and stars," said Thomas Statler, an associate professor of physics and astronomy and lead author of the study, published in the Dec. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The newly discovered X-ray disk offers more evidence for that argument. Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, an orbiting spacecraft that houses the most powerful X-ray telescope in existence, the astronomers discovered the disk while analyzing data collected from NGC 1700, a young elliptical galaxy about 160 million light years from Earth. Giant in size and about 8 million degrees in temperature, the disk was an unexpected find for Statler and colleague Brian McNamara. But while its gargantuan scale is striking, the disk also yielded another surprise: The hot gas is not in calm balance with the gravitational forces as expected, but spinning through the galaxy. In fact, the giant, rotating X-ray disk suggests that this elliptical galaxy and perhaps others like it wasn't created by the merger of

  1. Son Preference in India: Shedding Light on the North-South Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Klaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Beitrag liegt nur in englischer Sprache vor.Son preference is widespread in India and deep-rooted in its history. It is a matter of concern because it produces an imbalanced juvenile sex ratio. There are far fewer girls than boys. The figures vary greatly among the Indian states suggesting a major north-south gradient in son preference accompanied by a minor west-east gradient. The aim of this paper is to explain the regional pattern. We provide an application of the value of children-approach according to which the decision to have children is made on the calculus of benefits and costs related to children. In the light of the socioeconomic and sociocultural background in India, we propose that (potential parents’ expectations of benefits and costs are biased in favour of sons. This is suggested, therefore, as the key motivation for the preference for male offspring. However, region-specifics in the level of affluence, the educational level, the mode of production, the meaning and importance of religion, and the kinship regime are assumed to produce stronger son preference in north India compared to south India. This mediation-model is tested using the Indian sub-sample of the international Value of Children-study. Data were collected in Uttar Pradesh (north-central India and Puducherry (south-east India. Mothers aged 16 to 65 were interviewed in 2002 and 2010. Based on 1,173 respondents, a structural equation model was carried out to test the hypothesised composition effects related to the region and the mediating position of sex-specific benefits and costs. Initial findings confirm that the national son preference pattern is more likely to be found among north Indian mothers than south Indian mothers. As assumed, the sex-specific balance of benefits and costs contributes to the explanation of son preference. However, there is little evidence that the benefits and costs mediate between the region-specific socioeconomic and

  2. Comprehensive analysis of the polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase genes in Brassica rapa shed light on their different evolutionary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weike; Huang, Zhinan; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Liu, Hailong; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Pectins are fundamental polysaccharides in the plant primary cell wall. Polygalacturonases (PGs) and pectin methylesterases (PMEs), major components of the pectin remodeling and disassembly network, are involved in cell separation processes during many stages of plant development. A comprehensive study of these genes in plants could shed light on the evolution patterns of their structural development. In this study, we conducted whole-genome annotation, molecular evolution and gene expression analyses of PGs and PMEs in Brassica rapa and 8 other plant species. A total of 100 PGs and 110 PMEs were identified in B. rapa; they primarily diverged from 12-18 MYA and PMEs were retained more than PGs. Along with another 305 PGs and 348 PMEs in the 8 species, two different expansion or evolution types were discovered: a new branch of class A PGs appeared after the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms, which led to the rapid expansion of PGs; the pro domain was obtained or lost in the proPMEs through comprehensive analyses among PME genes. In addition, the PGs and PMEs exhibit diverged expression patterns. These findings will lead to novel insight regarding functional divergence and conservation in the gene families and provide more support for molecular evolution analyses. PMID:27112365

  3. Conservation of fruit dehiscence pathways between Lepidium campestre and Arabidopsis thaliana sheds light on the regulation of INDEHISCENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenser, Teresa; Theißen, Günter

    2013-11-01

    The mode of fruit opening is an important agronomic and evolutionary trait that has been studied intensively in the major plant model system Arabidopsis thaliana. Because fruit morphology is highly variable between species, and is also often the target of artificial selection during breeding, it is interesting to investigate whether a change in fruit morphology may alter the developmental pathway leading to fruit opening. Here we have studied fruit development in Lepidium campestre, a Brassicaceae species that forms silicles instead of siliques. Transgenic L. campestre plants with altered expression levels of orthologs of A. thaliana fruit developmental genes (ALCATRAZ, FRUITFULL, INDEHISCENT and SHATTERPROOF1,2) were found to be defective in fruit dehiscence, and anatomical sections revealed similar changes in tissue patterning as found in respective A. thaliana mutants. Gene expression analyses demonstrated a high degree of conservation in gene regulatory circuits, indicating that, despite great differences in fruit morphology, the process of fruit opening remains basically unchanged between species. Interestingly, our data identify ALCATRAZ as a negative regulator of INDEHISCENT in L. campestre. By mutant analysis, we found the same regulatory relationship in A. thaliana also, thereby shedding new light on how ALCATRAZ drives separation layer formation. PMID:24004048

  4. ITS polymorphisms shed light on hybrid evolution in apomictic plants: a case study on the Ranunculus auricomus complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hodač

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of reticulate evolutionary histories in plants is still a major methodological challenge. Sequences of the ITS nrDNA are a popular marker to analyze hybrid relationships, but variation of this multicopy spacer region is affected by concerted evolution, high intraindividual polymorphism, and shifts in mode of reproduction. The relevance of changes in secondary structure is still under dispute. We aim to shed light on the extent of polymorphism within and between sexual species and their putative natural as well as synthetic hybrid derivatives in the Ranunculus auricomus complex to test morphology-based hypotheses of hybrid origin and parentage of taxa. We employed direct sequencing of ITS nrDNA from 68 individuals representing three sexuals, their synthetic hybrids and one sympatric natural apomict, as well as cloning of ITS copies in four representative individuals, RNA secondary structure analysis, and landmark geometric morphometric analysis on leaves. Phylogenetic network analyses indicate additivity of parental ITS variants in both synthetic and natural hybrids. The triploid synthetic hybrids are genetically much closer to their maternal progenitors, probably due to ploidy dosage effects, although exhibiting a paternal-like leaf morphology. The natural hybrids are genetically and morphologically closer to the putative paternal progenitor species. Secondary structures of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 were rather conserved in all taxa. The observed similarities in ITS polymorphisms suggest that the natural apomict R. variabilis is an ancient hybrid of the diploid sexual species R. notabilis and the sexual species R. cassubicifolius. The additivity pattern shared by R. variabilis and the synthetic hybrids supports an evolutionary and biogeographical scenario that R. variabilis originated from ancient hybridization. Concerted evolution of ITS copies in R. variabilis is incomplete, probably due to a shift to asexual reproduction. Under the

  5. Shedding light on avian influenza H4N6 infection in mallards: modes of transmission and implications for surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wild mallards (Anas platyrhychos are considered one of the primary reservoir species for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, mallards were experimentally infected with an H4N6 subtype of AIV by oral inoculation or contact with an H4N6 contaminated water source. Cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, fecal samples, and water samples were collected daily and tested by real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR for estimation of viral shedding. Fecal samples had significantly higher virus concentrations than oropharyngeal or cloacal swabs and 6 month old ducks shed significantly more viral RNA than 3 month old ducks regardless of sample type. Use of a water source contaminated by AIV infected mallards, was sufficient to transmit virus to naïve mallards, which shed AIV at higher or similar levels as orally-inoculated ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Bodies of water could serve as a transmission pathway for AIV in waterfowl. For AIV surveillance purposes, water samples and fecal samples appear to be excellent alternatives or additions to cloacal and oropharyngeal swabbing. Furthermore, duck age (even within hatch-year birds may be important when interpreting viral shedding results from experimental infections or surveillance. Differential shedding among hatch-year mallards could affect prevalence estimates, modeling of AIV spread, and subsequent risk assessments.

  6. Overexpression of the rice carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 gene in Golden Rice endosperm suggests apocarotenoids as substrates in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilg, Andrea; Yu, Qiuju; Schaub, Patrick; Beyer, Peter; Al-Babili, Salim

    2010-08-01

    Carotenoids are converted by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases that catalyze oxidative cleavage reactions leading to apocarotenoids. However, apocarotenoids can also be further truncated by some members of this enzyme family. The plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 (CCD1) subfamily is known to degrade both carotenoids and apocarotenoids in vitro, leading to different volatile compounds. In this study, we investigated the impact of the rice CCD1 (OsCCD1) on the pigmentation of Golden Rice 2 (GR2), a genetically modified rice variety accumulating carotenoids in the endosperm. For this purpose, the corresponding cDNA was introduced into the rice genome under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter in sense and anti-sense orientations. Despite high expression levels of OsCCD1 in sense plants, pigment analysis revealed carotenoid levels and patterns comparable to those of GR2, pleading against carotenoids as substrates in rice endosperm. In support, similar carotenoid contents were determined in anti-sense plants. To check whether OsCCD1 overexpressed in GR2 endosperm is active, in vitro assays were performed with apocarotenoid substrates. HPLC analysis confirmed the cleavage activity of introduced OsCCD1. Our data indicate that apocarotenoids rather than carotenoids are the substrates of OsCCD1 in planta. PMID:20549230

  7. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world’s most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus. PMID:26936416

  8. De novo transcriptome assembly and comprehensive expression profiling in Crocus sativus to gain insights into apocarotenoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Srivastava, Prabhakar Lal; Verma, Mohit; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is commonly known as world's most expensive spice with rich source of apocarotenoids and possesses magnificent medicinal properties. To understand the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis/accumulation, we performed transcriptome sequencing from five different tissues/organs of C. sativus using Illumina platform. After comprehensive optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly, a total of 105, 269 unique transcripts (average length of 1047 bp and N50 length of 1404 bp) were obtained from 206 million high-quality paired-end reads. Functional annotation led to the identification of many genes involved in various biological processes and molecular functions. In total, 54% of C. sativus transcripts could be functionally annotated using public databases. Transcriptome analysis of C. sativus revealed the presence of 16721 SSRs and 3819 transcription factor encoding transcripts. Differential expression analysis revealed preferential/specific expression of many transcripts involved in apocarotenoid biosynthesis in stigma. We have revealed the differential expression of transcripts encoding for transcription factors (MYB, MYB related, WRKY, C2C2-YABBY and bHLH) involved in secondary metabolism. Overall, these results will pave the way for understanding the molecular basis of apocarotenoid biosynthesis and other aspects of stigma development in C. sativus. PMID:26936416

  9. Identification, cloning and characterization of an ultrapetala transcription factor CsULT1 from Crocus: a novel regulator of apocarotenoid biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf, Nasheeman; Jain, Deepti; Vishwakarma, Ram A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Crocus sativus is a triploid sterile plant with long red stigmas which form commercial saffron. Saffron is the site for synthesis and accumulation of apocarotenoids like crocin, picrocrin and safranal which are responsible for its color, flavour and aroma making it world’s most expensive spice. These compounds are formed by oxidative cleavage of zeaxanthin by carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases. Although the biosynthetic pathway of apocarotenoids is known to a considerable extent, the...

  10. Cloning and characterisation of a maize carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (ZmCCD1) and its involvement in the biosynthesis of apocarotenoids with various roles in mutualistic and parasitic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Z.; Hans, J.; Walter, M H; Matusova, R.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Ming, Z.; Echteld, van, C.J.A.; Strack, D; Bisseling, T.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Colonisation of maize roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi leads to the accumulation of apocarotenoids (cyclohexenone and mycorradicin derivatives). Other root apocarotenoids (strigolactones) are involved in signalling during early steps of the AM symbiosis but also in stimulation of germination of parasitic plant seeds. Both apocarotenoid classes are predicted to originate from cleavage of a carotenoid substrate by a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), but the precursors and cleavag...

  11. Shedding New Light on Exploding Stars: Tera-Scale Simulation of Neutrino-Driven Supernovae and their Nucleosynthesis. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goals: I took seriously the charge to SciDAC P.I.'s to go after outstanding and key physics problems with cutting-edge numerical science. I proposed solving a key problem in core collapse supernova physics: the evolution of neutrino flavors in the supernova environment. A great deal may be riding on the solution to this problem. First, laboratory physics outstripped the supernova theorists, providing us with neutrino mass-squared differences and two of the three vacuum mixing angles. This data had not been incorporated into core collapse supernova models before, but it clearly pointed to the possibility of major changes to our existing supernova neutrino paradigm. Second, knowing how the neutrino and antineutrino energy spectra and fluxes evolved through flavor inter-conversion could be crucial for determining and understanding the supernova neutrino signal, light p-process, and r-process nucleosynthesis, and possibly even the shock re-heating problem. Moreover, much about fundamental neutrino properties remains unresolved by terrestrial experiment (e.g., the neutrino mass hierarchy, θ13, etc.). Unraveling the supernova neutrino flavor evolution problem coupled with a future Galactic supernova signal could allow determination of these unknown neutrino properties. Results and Findings: We solved the problem of coherent neutrino flavor evolution (both 2 x 2 and 3 x 3) in the supernova environment, for the first time incorporating self-consistently the nonlinear geometric and quantum trajectory coupling outlined above. The results were unexpected and surprising. These results hold out the possibility that a future Galactic supernova neutrino signal could give us significant insights into both fundamental neutrino physics, otherwise inacces- sible in the lab (e.g., the neutrino mass hierarchy, θ13), and key issues in supernova physics (e.g., distinguishing between Fe core collapse and O-Ne-Mg core collapse events). First, the numerical solution to this problem was a

  12. Relative expression of CsZCD gene and apocarotenoid biosynthesis during stigma development in Crocus sativus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Mir, J. I.; Ahmed, N; Wafai, A. H.; Qadri, Raies A.

    2012-01-01

    Crocus sativus is a triploid sterile plant characterized by its red stigmas, which produce significant quantities of carotenoid derivatives formed from the oxidative cleavage of β-carotene and zeaxanthin. The accumulation of three major carotenoid derivatives- crocin, picrocrocin, and safranal- is responsible for the color, bitter taste, and aroma of saffron, which is obtained from the dried stigma of Crocus. Maximum apocarotenoid accumulation occurs during fully developed scarlet stage of st...

  13. Shedding Light on Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Glenn Research Center sponsored an SBIR contract with ENTECH, in which the company worked to mold its successful terrestrial concentrator technology into applications that would generate solar power for space missions. ENTECH's first application made use of small, dome-shaped Fresnel lenses to direct sunlight onto high- efficiency photovoltaic cells. After some key adjustments, the mini- dome lens array was flown as part of the U.S. Air Force/NASA Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) flight experiment in 1994. Due to their three-dimensional shape, the mini- dome lenses entailed construction by a batch molding process, which is naturally more costly than a continuous process. To overcome this disadvantage and meet the requirement for precise solar pointing in two axes, ENTECH started developing solar concentrator arrays for space using a line-focus lens that can be mass-produced by a continuous process. This new technology, named Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET), was created with support from Glenn and the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, and was used to power the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  14. Oversight on ERDA's use of ''Shedding light'' pamphlet. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fourth Congress, Second Session, May 6, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transcript is presented of a hearing held on May 6, 1976, to receive testimony regarding an ERDA pamphlet, ''Shedding Light on Facts About Nuclear Energy.'' Testimony was taken concerning the objectivity of the pamphlet and the manner of its distribution prior to a California nuclear initiative

  15. Studies of Human 2,4-Dienoyl CoA Reductase Shed New Light on Peroxisomal β-Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Tian; Wu, Dong; Ding, Wei; Wang, Jiangyun; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie [Nankai; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2012-10-15

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in maintaining fatty acid homeostasis. Although mitochondria are also known to participate in the catabolism of fatty acids via β-oxidation, differences exist between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial β-oxidation. Only peroxisomes, but not mitochondrion, can shorten very long chain fatty acids. Here, we describe the crystal structure of a ternary complex of peroxisomal 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductases (pDCR) with hexadienoyl CoA and NADP, as a prototype for comparison with the mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase (mDCR) to shed light on the differences between the enzymes from the two organelles at the molecular level. Unexpectedly, the structure of pDCR refined to 1.84 Å resolution reveals the absence of the tyrosine-serine pair seen in the active site of mDCR, which together with a lysine and an asparagine have been deemed a hallmark of the SDR family of enzymes. Instead, aspartate hydrogen-bonded to the Cα hydroxyl via a water molecule seems to perturb the water molecule for protonation of the substrate. Our studies provide the first structural evidence for participation of water in the DCR-catalyzed reactions. Biochemical studies and structural analysis suggest that pDCRs can catalyze the shortening of six-carbon-long substrates in vitro. However, the Km values of pDCR for short chain acyl CoAs are at least 6-fold higher than those for substrates with 10 or more aliphatic carbons. Unlike mDCR, hinge movements permit pDCR to process very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  16. Effect of Light Conversion Shed Film on Growth of Lettuce and Occurrence of Downy Mildew%转光农膜对莴苣生长和霜霉病发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘双清; 易图永; 马骏; 高必达

    2011-01-01

    为了筛选出能够提高植物产量并可减轻病害发生的转光农膜,在大棚栽培条件下对转光农膜覆盖和普通农膜覆盖下莴苣的生长和霜霉病发生的情况进行了比较研究.结果表明,有些转光农膜能促进莴苣生长并提高产量,但未发现转光农膜对莴苣霜霉病具有防治作用.与普通农膜相比,转光农膜RB9903-2、RB9901、RB9902和RB9904覆盖下的莴苣植株商品产量分别增加了26.9%、28.1%、24.3%和32.4%;与普通地膜相比,商品产量分别增加了34.0%、35.3%、23.8%和39.8%.%To screen light conversion shed films for increasing plant yield and reducing occurrence of diseases, the growth situation of lettuce and occurrence situation of downy mildew covering with light conversion shed film and normal film under greenhouse cultivation conditions were compared.The results showed that some light conversion shed films can promote growth of lettuce and increase yield, but no control effect for downy mildew of lettuce appeared.In comparison with normal films, the yield of lettuce covering with light conversion shed films of RB9903-3, RB9901,RB9902 and RB9904 increased by 26.9%, 28.1%, 24.3% and 32.4%, respectively; in comparison w/th normal field films,the yield of lettuce covering with light conversion shed films of RB9903-3, RB9901, RB9902 and RB9904 increased by 34.0%, 35.3%, 23.8%and 39.8%, respectively.

  17. Systemic administration of the apocarotenoid bixin protects skin against solar UV-induced damage through activation of NRF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shasha; Park, Sophia L; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a causative factor in skin photodamage and carcinogenesis, and an urgent need exists for improved molecular photoprotective strategies different from (or synergistic with) photon absorption. Recent studies suggest a photoprotective role of cutaneous gene expression orchestrated by the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2). Here we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying carotenoid-based systemic skin photoprotection in SKH-1 mice and provide genetic evidence that photoprotection achieved by the FDA-approved apocarotenoid and food additive bixin depends on NRF2 activation. Bixin activates NRF2 through the critical Cys-151 sensor residue in KEAP1, orchestrating a broad cytoprotective response in cultured human keratinocytes as revealed by antioxidant gene expression array analysis. Following dose optimization studies for cutaneous NRF2 activation by systemic administration of bixin, feasibility of bixin-based suppression of acute cutaneous photodamage from solar UV exposure was investigated in Nrf2(+/+) versus Nrf2(-/-) SKH-1 mice. Systemic administration of bixin suppressed skin photodamage, attenuating epidermal oxidative DNA damage and inflammatory responses in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice, confirming the NRF2-dependence of bixin-based cytoprotection. Taken together, these data demonstrate feasibility of achieving NRF2-dependent cutaneous photoprotection by systemic administration of the apocarotenoid bixin, a natural food additive consumed worldwide. PMID:26456052

  18. In a buffalo shed

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Sitting in a buffalo shed under a village house, Alan Macfarlane reflects on the origins of settled agriculture and the role of animals and technology. He also considers some of the effects of growing wealth on equality and work.

  19. Rainfall simulation experiments and Water Drop Penetration Time measurements shed light on the impact of water repellency on soils under organic farming management in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González, Óscar; León, Javier; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a well-know soil property since the research of professor Stefan Helmut Doerr recovered and powered the research developed by professor DeBano (Atanassova and Doerr, 2011; ; Jordán et al., 2011; Bodí et al., 2012; González Peñaloza et al., 2012 Bodí et al., 2013; García Moreno et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2013; Jiménez Morillo et al., 2015). However, little is known about the impact of water repellency in surface runoff generation, although usually is accepted that when more soil water repellent is a soil, higher will be the surface runoff discharge (Stoff et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2011; León et al., 2013; Lozano et al., 2013; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2015). And the impact of the water repellency and then the higher surface wash discharge can trigger high erosion rates (Kröpfl et al., 2013; Mandal and Sharda 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). However these relationships were not demonstrated as the most water repellent soils are the one with high organic contents, and those soils do not have soil losses, probably due to the high infiltration rates due to the macropore flow. Rainfall simulation experiments can shed light in the runoff generation mechanism as they can control the rainfall intensity (Bodí et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2013), and inform about the main mechanism of the soil erosion process Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011; Daugherty et al., 2011; Podwojewski et al., 2011; Dunkerley, 2012; Garel et al., 2012; Jouquet et al., 2012; Kibet et al., 2013; Butzen et al., 2014; Ma et al., 2014; Martínez Murillo et al., 2013). To determine the relationship between surface runoff generated under simulated rainfall (Cerdà, 1988a; 1988b; Cerdà et al., 1998; Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) with a small rainfall simulator (0.25 m2) and water repellency measurements with the Water Drop Penetration time methods were done (Bodí et al., 2012). The results show that

  20. The ManShed

    OpenAIRE

    Savitsky, Matthew Port

    2015-01-01

    Hot House highlights the current evolution of The ManShed, an ongoing solo project that takes the form of a multi- screen video installation and accompanying film set. Beginning in summer 2013, The ManShed refers to an enclosed, two-roomed meeting place built from conjoined panels that plays host to a series of sexual encounters between myself and other men. Under its roof, an infrastructure of hidden cameras documents these interactions between my body, a stranger's, and material forms that ...

  1. Rainfall simulation experiments and Water Drop Penetration Time measurements shed light on the impact of water repellency on soils under organic farming management in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González, Óscar; León, Javier; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a well-know soil property since the research of professor Stefan Helmut Doerr recovered and powered the research developed by professor DeBano (Atanassova and Doerr, 2011; ; Jordán et al., 2011; Bodí et al., 2012; González Peñaloza et al., 2012 Bodí et al., 2013; García Moreno et al., 2013; Jordán et al., 2013; Badía-Villas et al., 2014; Jordán et al., 2013; Jiménez Morillo et al., 2015). However, little is known about the impact of water repellency in surface runoff generation, although usually is accepted that when more soil water repellent is a soil, higher will be the surface runoff discharge (Stoff et al., 2011; Madsen et al., 2011; León et al., 2013; Lozano et al., 2013; Mataix-Solera et al., 2013; Santos et al., 2015). And the impact of the water repellency and then the higher surface wash discharge can trigger high erosion rates (Kröpfl et al., 2013; Mandal and Sharda 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). However these relationships were not demonstrated as the most water repellent soils are the one with high organic contents, and those soils do not have soil losses, probably due to the high infiltration rates due to the macropore flow. Rainfall simulation experiments can shed light in the runoff generation mechanism as they can control the rainfall intensity (Bodí et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2012; Iserloh et al., 2013), and inform about the main mechanism of the soil erosion process Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011; Daugherty et al., 2011; Podwojewski et al., 2011; Dunkerley, 2012; Garel et al., 2012; Jouquet et al., 2012; Kibet et al., 2013; Butzen et al., 2014; Ma et al., 2014; Martínez Murillo et al., 2013). To determine the relationship between surface runoff generated under simulated rainfall (Cerdà, 1988a; 1988b; Cerdà et al., 1998; Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013) with a small rainfall simulator (0.25 m2) and water repellency measurements with the Water Drop Penetration time methods were done (Bodí et al., 2012). The results show that

  2. PEG with Observable Shedding**

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Weiwei; Langer, Robert; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2010-01-01

    A novel FRET-bearing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) conjugate fluoresces at 520 nm when it is cleaved off from nanoparticles (NPs). When the NPs were targeted to cancer cell lines, the reducing redox of the endosomal compartment caused disulfide bond cleavage and shedding of the PEG layer. The fluorescence emission can be suppressed by N-ethylmaleimide to inhibit disulfide cleavage and restored by dithiothreitol, a disulfide cleavage reagent, indicating a direct correlation between fluorescence ...

  3. Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.

  4. Snapshots to shed light on LHC performance

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    With the impressive size and unprecedented power of the LHC, it is all too easy to overlook the smaller devices that have the difficult task of monitoring the new accelerator. You don't have to stand too far back from the big picture to see examples of clever technology inside the LHC. One of the undulators installed in the LHC tunnel can be seen on the right of the photo. From right to left, back row: Lucio Rossi (group leader, MCS), Davide Tommasini (conceptual design, MCS), Thierry Tenaglia (integration design,TS-MME), Remo Maccaferri (project leader, MCS) and Hans Kummer (MCS/ME); front row: Gilles Trachez (MCS-ME) and Bruno Meunier (FSU-AT12). In contrast to the usual articles about the LHC's big number statistics, examples of clever problem-solving found in beam monitoring machinery show that smaller things can be beautiful too. The design of the LHC accelerator brought new challenges for monitoring the shape of the particle beam, known as the beam profile. The size of the beam shrinks as higher energi...

  5. Ethics Workshop Sheds Light on Gray Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Randy; Williams, Billy

    2014-02-01

    AGU's Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics Workshop at the 2013 Fall Meeting, held on 9 December, highlighted the courageous conversations necessary to navigate through questions of scientific integrity and professional ethics. Participants debated real-world scenarios surrounding authorship, data management, plagiarism, and conflicts of interest. These discussions emphasized the importance of preserving scientific integrity and the responsibility of each member to uphold the standards of scientific conduct.

  6. Shedding Light on Laser Welding [poster

    OpenAIRE

    Aalderink, B.J.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Jonker, J.B.; Meijer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Nd:YAG laser welding is often used in industry to obtain high quality joints. This however does not mean that monitoring or control of this process is common practice. A few commercial products are available but none of these systems can be used for monitoring the laser welding process of aluminium. Within the NIMR project Multivariable melt pool control for double spot laser welding a monitoring system is developed based on a CMOS camera which is suited for the observation of Nd:YAG laser we...

  7. Shedding light on physician performance transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, David

    2016-02-01

    Healthcare providers can use performance data already being collected to: Manage risk more proactively by identifying high-risk, high-cost areas. Make call centers more effective and websites work better, thereby improving the patient experience. Embrace the trend toward consumerism by enabling patients with performance data. Modify behavior and make systemic improvements where weaknesses are identified. Improve the level of care by better matching patients and providers. Regain public trust and confidence by sharing real data as an alternative to subjective commentary on physician performance. PMID:26999978

  8. Research sheds light on treatment of inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The latest research breakthrough on the molecular mechanism and treatment of inflammation, contributed by scientists from the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences (SIBS) under the Chinese Academy of Sciences and their American collaborators, was reported online by Nature Immunology on July 16, 2007.

  9. Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... determine whether FDA approves a manufacturer’s application for marketing approval. "Potential racial, ethnic and other differences in ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  10. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, H; Henriksen, A; Hansen, F G;

    2001-01-01

    To visualize the formation of disulfide bonds in living cells, a pair of redox-active cysteines was introduced into the yellow fluorescent variant of green fluorescent protein. Formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines was fully reversible and resulted in a >2-fold decrease...... in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivo by non-invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 A crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond-induced distortion of the beta-barrel, as well as a structural...... reorganization of residues in the immediate chromophore environment. By combining this information with spectroscopic data, we propose a detailed mechanism accounting for the observed redox state-dependent fluorescence. The redox potential of the cysteine couple was found to be within the physiological range...

  11. ATLAS helps shed light on the retina

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Technology developed for high-energy physics has led to the discovery of a retinal cell that eluded biologists for 40 years. The 512 electrode array, inspired by silicon microstrip detector technology in ATLAS, records the electrical activity of retinal neurones.ATLAS expertise have crossed over to biology enabling the discovery of a retinal cell type that may help humans see motion. The research, carried out by ATLAS collaborators at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and by neurobiologists at the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California, appeared in the 10 October issue of the Journal of Neuroscience and may help open biologists’ eyes to the uses of techniques developed in high-energy physics. At least 22 different types of primate retinal output cell are known from anatomical studies, but the functions of only a handful of these have been determined. The cells discovered have been ca...

  12. Researchers Shed More Light on Bird Flu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Brown; 于德江

    2006-01-01

    最近科学家们对禽流感有了进一步的认识。他们发现,普通流感病毒位于人类上呼吸道内,当人们咳嗽或者打喷嚏时,这些病毒会轻而易举地被喷出体外,使得其他人极易受到感染;而H5N1型禽流感病毒则大多位于人体的肺部细胞中,由于在人类呼吸道中聚集的位置太过靠下,所以很难在人们咳嗽或打喷嚏的过程中离开人体进入空气中,这就为H5N1难于人际传染找到了最新依据。尽管如此,我们不能排除这种病毒发生变异的可能性,所以应继续对其保持警惕,绝不能掉以轻心。

  13. Shedding light on baryonic dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Halo dark matter, if it is baryonic, may plausibly consist of compact stellar remnants. Jeans mass clouds containing 10 to the 6th to 10 to the 8th solar masses could have efficiently formed stars in the early universe and could plausibly have generated, for a suitably top-heavy stellar initial mass function, a high abundance of neutron stars as well as a small admixture of long-lived low mass stars. Within the resulting clusters of dark remnants, which eventually are tidally disrupted when halos eventually form, captures of neutron stars by nondegenerate stars resulted in formation of close binaries. These evolve to produce, by the present epoch, an observable X-ray signal associated with dark matter aggregations in galaxy cluster cores.

  14. LHCf sheds new light on cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The energy spectrum of the single photon obtained using data from the LHCf experiment has turned out to be very different from that predicted by the theoretical models used until now to describe the interactions between very high-energy cosmic rays and the earth's atmosphere. The consequences of this discrepancy for cosmic ray studies could be significant.   Artistic impression of cosmic rays entering Earth's atmosphere. (Credit: Asimmetrie/Infn). It took physicists by surprise when analysis of the data collected by the two LHCf calorimeters in 2010 showed that high-energy cosmic rays don't interact with the atmosphere in the manner predicted by theory. The LHCf detectors, set up 140 metres either side of the ATLAS interaction point, are dedicated to the study of the secondary particles emitted at very small angles during proton-proton collisions in the LHC, with energies comparable to cosmic rays entering the earth's atmosphere at 2.5x1016 eV. The aim of the experiment is to r...

  15. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ilg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B, which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents.

  16. Tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases 1A and 1B: Relaxed double bond specificity leads to a plenitude of dialdehydes, mono-apocarotenoids and isoprenoid volatiles

    KAUST Repository

    Ilg, Andrea

    2014-06-25

    The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-. trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents. © 2014 The Authors.

  17. Cone outer segment shedding in the goldfish retina characterized with the 3H-fucose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an intravitreal injection of 3H-fucose, red- and blue-sensitive cone outer segments (OSs) in the goldfish retina became heavily labeled, green-sensitive cone OSs showed light labeling, and rod OSs showed virtually no labeling. Fish were maintained in white light (light/dark: 12 hr/12 hr; 6 to 10 weeks) and were injected with 3H-fucose 24 hr before sacrifice. After light onset, only phagosomes with no label were found in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE); after light offset, phagosomes with heavy, light, or no label were found in the RPE. A broad peak of cone OS shedding derived from all cone types was found beginning 2 hr after light offset and returning to baseline levels after 12 hr, with a maximum at 4 to 6 hr. When the white light was replaced with red light during the final 24 hr (irradiance matched to the white light at 625 nm), the green cones showed a reduction in shedding by 62%, the rods showed a 48% reduction in shedding, and the number of heavily labeled phagosomes was reduced by 24% (a value that may reflect normal and red cone shedding and a reduction in blue cone shedding). The results suggest that chromatic stimulation during the light period may influence the shedding response of a given class of cone OS. Finally, the 3H-fucose technique is useful for determination of the photoreceptor OS from which a given phagosome in the RPE originates in this species

  18. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  19. Adaptive load shedding and regional protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, J.J.; Ledwich, G. [School of Engineering Systems, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Qld 4001 (Australia); Bevrani, H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kurdistan Sanandaj, Kurdistan (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The requirement for improved efficiency whilst maintaining system security necessitates the development of improved system analysis approaches and the development of advanced emergency control technologies. Load shedding is a type of emergency control that is designed to ensure system stability by curtailing system load to match generation supply. This paper presents a new adaptive load shedding scheme that provides emergency protection against excess frequency decline, whilst minimizing the risk of line overloading. The proposed load shedding scheme uses the local frequency rate information to adapt the load shedding behaviour to suit the size and location of the experienced disturbance. The proposed scheme is tested in simulation on a 3-region, 10-generator sample system and shows good performance. (author)

  20. Vortex shedding by a Savonius rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrini, M.; Beguier, C.; Chauvin, A.; Brun, R.

    1984-05-01

    A series of flow visualizations was performed to characterize the wake vortices of a Savonius rotor. The trials were undertaken in an attempt to account for discrepancies between theoretical and experimentally-derived power coefficients. The Savonius examined was two-bladed with a center offset. All tests were made in a water tunnel. Dye injection provided the visualization, and average velocities and velocity fluctuations were measured using a laser Doppler anemometer. A system of three vortices was found to be periodically shed by the rotor. Flow velocity fluctuation intensity peaked as a vortex was shed. The vortex shedding alternated from blade to blade, so that one was shed from a blade moving upstream.

  1. Microfluidic isolation of cancer-cell-derived microvesicles from hetergeneous extracellular shed vesicle populations

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Steven M.; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are disseminated throughout the body and represent an important conduit of cell communication. Cancer-cell-derived microvesicles have potential as a cancer biomarker as they help shape the tumor microenvironment to promote the growth of the primary tumor and prime the metastatic niche. It is likely that, in cancer cell cultures, the two constituent extracellular shed vesicle subpopulations, observed in dynamic light scattering...

  2. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  3. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    2011-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  4. Shedding light: laser physics and mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, E

    2010-02-01

    Lasers have affected health care in many ways. Clinical applications have been found in a number of medical and surgical specialities. In particular, applications of laser technology in phlebology has made it essential for vein physicians to obtain a fundamental knowledge of laser physics, laser operation and also to be well versed in laser safety procedures. This article reviews recommended text books and current literature to detail the basics of laser physics and its application to venous disease. Laser safety and laser side effects are also discussed. PMID:20118342

  5. Shedding light into the function of the earliest vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Carlos; Purnell, Mark; Rayfield, Emily; Donoghue, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Conodonts are an extinct group of jawless vertebrates, the first in our evolutionary lineage to develop a biomineralized skeleton. As such, the conodont skeleton is of great significance because of the insights it provides concerning the biology and function of the primitive vertebrate skeleton. Conodont function has been debated for a century and a half on the basis of its paleocological importance in the Palaezoic ecosystems. However, due to the lack of extanct close representatives and the small size of the conodont element (under a milimiter in length) strongly limited their functional analysis, traditional restricted to analogy. More recently, qualitative approaches have been developed, facilitating tests of element function based on occlusal performance and analysis of microwear and microstructure. In this work we extend these approaches using novel quantitative experimental methods including Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy or Finite Element Analysis to test hypotheses of conodont function. The development of high resolution virtual models of conodont elements, together with biomechanical approaches using Finite Element analysis, informed by occlusal and microwear analyses, provided conclusive support to test hypothesis of structural adaptation within the crown tissue microstructure, showing a close topological co-variation patterns of compressive and tensile stress distribution with different crystallite orientation. In addition, our computational analyses strongly support a tooth-like function for many conodont species. Above all, our study establishes a framework (experimental approach) in which the functional ecology of conodonts can be read from their rich taxonomy and phylogeny, representing an important attempt to understand the role of this abundant and diverse clade in the Phanerozoic marine ecosystems.

  6. Mutation directional selection sheds light on prion pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Most pathogenic mutations possess strong directional selection, i.e., enhancing hydrophobicity or decreasing negative and increasing positive charge. → Mutation-induced changes may strengthen the interactions between PrP and facilitating factors. → The findings also have significant implications for exploring potential regions involved in the conformational transition from PrPC to PrPSc. -- Abstract: As mutations in the PRNP gene account for human hereditary prion diseases (PrDs), it is crucial to elucidating how these mutations affect the central pathogenic conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) to abnormal scrapie isoform (PrPSc). Many studies proposed that these pathogenic mutations may make PrP more susceptible to conformational change through altering its structure stability. By evaluating the most recent observations regarding pathogenic mutations, it was found that the pathogenic mutations do not exert a uniform effect on the thermodynamic stability of the human PrP's structure. Through analyzing the reported PrDs-related mutations, we found that 25 out of 27 mutations possess strong directional selection, i.e., enhancing hydrophobicity or decreasing negative and increasing positive charge. Based on the triggering role reported by previous studies of facilitating factors in PrPC conversion, e.g., lipid and polyanion, we proposed that the mutation-induced changes may strengthen the interaction between PrP and facilitating factors, which will accelerate PrP conversion and cause PrDs.

  7. Shedding Light on Students' Technology Preferences: Implications for Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirriahi, Negin; Alonzo, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This study built on previous research in 2010 to determine changes to students' current use of and expectations for future integration of technologies in their learning experience. The findings reveal a continued trend of conservative technology use amongst students but with a growing demand for more integration of technologies for assessment and…

  8. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Andrew; Aelterman, Bart; Alves, Jose A.; Azijn, Kevin; Bernstein, Garrett; Branco, Sérgio; Desmet, Peter; Dokter, Adriaan M.; Horton, Kyle; Kelling, Steve; Kelly, Jeffrey F.; Leijnse, Hidde; Rong, Jingjing; Sheldon, Daniel; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Van Den Meersche, Jan Klaas; Van Doren, Benjamin Mark; van Gasteren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals’ life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human–wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological products, and public outreach, education, and engagement. PMID:27557096

  9. The mummy returns… and sheds new light on old questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M T P

    2011-10-01

    Whether as the ancient Egyptian crocodile-god Sobek, a terrifying predator of African waterways, or simply as a premium handbag leather, the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) has long held the fascination of mankind. Despite 200 years of study, however, uncertainty remains as to its taxonomy. While resolving such issues are key to understanding the origins and biogeography of the so-called true crocodiles of genus Crocodylus, given widespread ongoing range contraction, such issues are paramount for design of future conservation strategies. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Hekkala et al. (2011) apply analysis of modern, historic and ancient DNA (aDNA) to the questions, with far-reaching implications. First they demonstrate that, as currently described, the Nile crocodile is paraphyletic, with individuals from the east and western clades separated by a number of New World crocodile species. The consequences of this finding are as important for conservation efforts as for their impact on crocodile taxonomy. Furthermore, they strike at the heart of the long-standing debate over whether aDNA analysis of ancient Egyptian mummies is scientifically sound. PMID:24137623

  10. Common peptides shed light on evolution of Olfactory Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancet Doron

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory Receptors (ORs form the largest multigene family in vertebrates. Their evolution and their expansion in the vertebrate genomes was the subject of many studies. In this paper we apply a motif-based approach to this problem in order to uncover evolutionary characteristics. Results We extract deterministic motifs from ORs belonging to ten species using the MEX (Motif Extraction algorithm, thus defining Common Peptides (CPs characteristic to ORs. We identify species-specific CPs and show that their relative abundance is high only in fish and frog, suggesting relevance to water-soluble odorants. We estimate the origins of CPs according to the tree of life and track the gains and losses of CPs through evolution. We identify major CP gain in tetrapods and major losses in reptiles. Although the number of human ORs is less than half of the number of ORs in other mammals, the fraction of lost CPs is only 11%. By examining the positions of CPs along the OR sequence, we find two regions that expanded only in tetrapods. Using CPs we are able to establish remote homology relations between ORs and non-OR GPCRs. Selecting CPs according to their evolutionary age, we bicluster ORs and CPs for each species. Clean biclustering emerges when using relatively novel CPs. Evolutionary age is used to track the history of CP acquisition in the collection of mammalian OR families within HORDE (Human Olfactory Receptor Data Explorer. Conclusion The CP method provides a novel perspective that reveals interesting traits in the evolution of olfactory receptors. It is consistent with previous knowledge, and provides finer details. Using available phylogenetic trees, evolution can be rephrased in terms of CP origins. Supplementary information is also available at http://adios.tau.ac.il/ORPS

  11. Beat the Winter Blues: Shedding Light on Seasonal Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viewed January 2013 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe ... winter blues” and a more severe type of depression called seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, for more ...

  12. Research Sheds New Light on the Peopling of South Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a circular molecule with 16,569 base pair length, encodes 13 proteins, 22tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. In the past few years, complete sequencing mtDNA genome has become a powerful tool to determine the matrilineal components and their evolutionary relationships (viz. phylogeny) and thus to gain some detailed insights into the past of modern humans.

  13. Shedding Light on Lithium Evolution: The Globular Cluster Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Korn, A J

    2012-01-01

    I shall review what has been learnt during 20 years of lithium observations in stars belonging to metal-poor globular clusters. The focus will be on little evolved main-sequence, turnoff-point (TOP) and subgiant-branch (SGB) stars expected to display Spite-plateau lithium abundances like those found in the majority of field stars of similar metallicities. But is the Spite plateau of globular clusters the same as those of field stars? What effect does, e.g., cluster-internal pollution have on lithium abundances in the now dominant second generation of stars? It will be shown that it is primarily our incomplete knowledge of the temperature scale of Population II stars which currently limits the diagnostic power of globular clusters as regards the stellar-surface evolution of lithium.

  14. Newly discovered sister lineage sheds light on early ant evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rabeling, Christian; Brown, Jeremy M.; Verhaagh, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Ants are the world's most conspicuous and important eusocial insects and their diversity, abundance, and extreme behavioral specializations make them a model system for several disciplines within the biological sciences. Here, we report the discovery of a new ant that appears to represent the sister lineage to all extant ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). The phylogenetic position of this cryptic predator from the soils of the Amazon rainforest was inferred from several nuclear genes, sequenced ...

  15. Research Sheds Light on Mechanism of Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Scientists from the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica (SIMM) under the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences have made significant progress in suggesting a possible mechanism for the accumulation of amyloid β-peptides (Aβs), which are believed to cause Alzheimer's disease. Aβs are fragments of a protein that is snipped from another protein called amyloid precursor protein (APP). In a healthy brain, these protein fragments would be broken down and eliminated. In Alzheimer's disease, unfortunately, the fragments accumulate to form hard, insoluble plaques, which are the characteristic lesions found in Alzheimer's patients and could dramatically inhibit several genes critical to memory and learning.

  16. Principles of Food Science Class Sheds Light on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Many students are curious about the steps in food preparation. As a result of such experiences, the author of this article began to incorporate science demonstrations into food preparation classes. She conducted research, developed resources, and piloted the "Principles of Food Science" class over the next 6 years. "Principles of Food Science"…

  17. Supernova sheds light on gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 29 March the HETE-II satellite detected the most violent explosion in the universe to date - an enormous burst of gamma rays. Observers across the world recorded and studied the event. It appears to prove that gamma ray bursts originate in supernovae (1 page)

  18. Shedding light on ovothiol biosynthesis in marine metazoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Immacolata; Migliaccio, Oriana; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Merlino, Antonello; Napolitano, Alessandra; Palumbo, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ovothiol, isolated from marine invertebrate eggs, is considered one of the most powerful antioxidant with potential for drug development. However, its biological functions in marine organisms still represent a matter of debate. In sea urchins, the most accepted view is that ovothiol protects the eggs by the high oxidative burst at fertilization. In this work we address the role of ovothiol during sea urchin development to give new insights on ovothiol biosynthesis in metazoans. The gene involved in ovothiol biosynthesis OvoA was identified in Paracentrotus lividus genome (PlOvoA). PlOvoA embryo expression significantly increased at the pluteus stage and was up-regulated by metals at concentrations mimicking polluted sea-water and by cyclic toxic algal blooms, leading to ovothiol biosynthesis. In silico analyses of the PlOvoA upstream region revealed metal and stress responsive elements. Structural protein models highlighted conserved active site residues likely responsible for ovothiol biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OvoA evolved in most marine metazoans and was lost in bony vertebrates during the transition from the aquatic to terrestrial environment. These results highlight the crucial role of OvoA in protecting embryos released in seawater from environmental cues, thus allowing the survival under different conditions.

  19. Photons shedding light on electron capture by highly charged ions

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, Romke Anne

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis charge transfer is studied in collisions of highly charged ions (Aq+) with neutral particles (B). Because the electron is captured resonantly (i.e. without its binding energy) by the ion, a limited number of highly excited states (characterized by the quantum numbers nlm) is preferentially populated. In the experimental work described in this thesis we have measured state selective electron capture cross sections by means of Photon Emission Spectroscopy. Especially, the most fu...

  20. Using pyrosequencing to shed light on deep mine microbial ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitbart Mya

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrasting biological, chemical and hydrogeological analyses highlights the fundamental processes that shape different environments. Generating and interpreting the biological sequence data was a costly and time-consuming process in defining an environment. Here we have used pyrosequencing, a rapid and relatively inexpensive sequencing technology, to generate environmental genome sequences from two sites in the Soudan Mine, Minnesota, USA. These sites were adjacent to each other, but differed significantly in chemistry and hydrogeology. Results Comparisons of the microbes and the subsystems identified in the two samples highlighted important differences in metabolic potential in each environment. The microbes were performing distinct biochemistry on the available substrates, and subsystems such as carbon utilization, iron acquisition mechanisms, nitrogen assimilation, and respiratory pathways separated the two communities. Although the correlation between much of the microbial metabolism occurring and the geochemical conditions from which the samples were isolated could be explained, the reason for the presence of many pathways in these environments remains to be determined. Despite being physically close, these two communities were markedly different from each other. In addition, the communities were also completely different from other microbial communities sequenced to date. Conclusion We anticipate that pyrosequencing will be widely used to sequence environmental samples because of the speed, cost, and technical advantages. Furthermore, subsystem comparisons rapidly identify the important metabolisms employed by the microbes in different environments.

  1. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical manufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiency of 12-15%; and 14% efficiency is the bare minimum for achieving a profit. In work performed at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA, 5 10-486-577 1)--a US Department of Energy national laboratory that conducts unclassified scientific research and is managed by the University of California--scientist Scott McHugo has obtained keen insights into the impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from polycrystalline silicon. The solar cell market is potentially vast, according to Berkeley Lab. Lightweight solar panels are highly beneficial for providing electrical power to remote locations in developing nations, since there is no need to build transmission lines or truck-in generator fuel. Moreover, industrial nations confronted with diminishing resources have active programs aimed at producing improved, less expensive solar cells. 'In a solar cell, there is a junction between p-type silicon and an n-type layer, such as diffused-in phosphorous', explained McHugo, who is now with Berkeley Lab's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. 'When sunlight is absorbed, it frees electrons, which start migrating in a random-walk fashion toward that junction. If the electrons make it to the junction; they contribute to the cell's output of electric current. Often, however, before they reach the junction, they recombine at specific sites in the crystal' (and, therefore, cannot contribute to current output). McHugo scrutinized a map of a silicon wafer in which sites of high recombination appeared as dark regions. Previously, researchers had shown that such phenomena occurred not primarily at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline material, as might be expected, but more often at dislocations in the crystal. However, the dislocations themselves were not the problem. Using a unique heat treatment technique, McHugo performed electrical measurements to investigate the material at the dislocations. He was purportedly the first to show that they were 'decorated' with iron

  2. Shedding light on fish otolith biomineralization using a bioenergetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fablet, R.; Pecquerie, L.; de Pontual, H.;

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths are biocalcified bodies connected to the sensory system in the inner ears of fish. Their layered, biorhythm-following formation provides individual records of the age, the individual history and the natural environment of extinct and living fish species. Such data are critical for ecosys...... simulation tool to improve otolith interpretation and applications, and, beyond, to address the effects of both climate change and ocean acidification on other biomineralizing organisms such as corals and bivalves...

  3. Shedding light on fish otolith biomineralization using a bioenergetic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Fablet

    Full Text Available Otoliths are biocalcified bodies connected to the sensory system in the inner ears of fish. Their layered, biorhythm-following formation provides individual records of the age, the individual history and the natural environment of extinct and living fish species. Such data are critical for ecosystem and fisheries monitoring. They however often lack validation and the poor understanding of biomineralization mechanisms has led to striking examples of misinterpretations and subsequent erroneous conclusions in fish ecology and fisheries management. Here we develop and validate a numerical model of otolith biomineralization. Based on a general bioenergetic theory, it disentangles the complex interplay between metabolic and temperature effects on biomineralization. This model resolves controversial issues and explains poorly understood observations of otolith formation. It represents a unique simulation tool to improve otolith interpretation and applications, and, beyond, to address the effects of both climate change and ocean acidification on other biomineralizing organisms such as corals and bivalves.

  4. Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Farnsworth, Andrew; Aelterman, Bart; Alves, Jose A; Azijn, Kevin; Bernstein, Garrett; Branco, Sérgio; Desmet, Peter; Dokter, Adriaan M; Horton, Kyle; Kelling, Steve; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Leijnse, Hidde; Rong, Jingjing; Sheldon, Daniel; Van den Broeck, Wouter; Van Den Meersche, Jan Klaas; Van Doren, Benjamin Mark; van Gasteren, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Globally, billions of flying animals undergo seasonal migrations, many of which occur at night. The temporal and spatial scales at which migrations occur and our inability to directly observe these nocturnal movements makes monitoring and characterizing this critical period in migratory animals' life cycles difficult. Remote sensing, therefore, has played an important role in our understanding of large-scale nocturnal bird migrations. Weather surveillance radar networks in Europe and North America have great potential for long-term low-cost monitoring of bird migration at scales that have previously been impossible to achieve. Such long-term monitoring, however, poses a number of challenges for the ornithological and ecological communities: how does one take advantage of this vast data resource, integrate information across multiple sensors and large spatial and temporal scales, and visually represent the data for interpretation and dissemination, considering the dynamic nature of migration? We assembled an interdisciplinary team of ecologists, meteorologists, computer scientists, and graphic designers to develop two different flow visualizations, which are interactive and open source, in order to create novel representations of broad-front nocturnal bird migration to address a primary impediment to long-term, large-scale nocturnal migration monitoring. We have applied these visualization techniques to mass bird migration events recorded by two different weather surveillance radar networks covering regions in Europe and North America. These applications show the flexibility and portability of such an approach. The visualizations provide an intuitive representation of the scale and dynamics of these complex systems, are easily accessible for a broad interest group, and are biologically insightful. Additionally, they facilitate fundamental ecological research, conservation, mitigation of human-wildlife conflicts, improvement of meteorological products, and public outreach, education, and engagement. PMID:27557096

  5. Mutation directional selection sheds light on prion pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Liang [Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Ji, Hong-Fang, E-mail: jhf@sdut.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} Most pathogenic mutations possess strong directional selection, i.e., enhancing hydrophobicity or decreasing negative and increasing positive charge. {yields} Mutation-induced changes may strengthen the interactions between PrP and facilitating factors. {yields} The findings also have significant implications for exploring potential regions involved in the conformational transition from PrP{sup C} to PrP{sup Sc}. -- Abstract: As mutations in the PRNP gene account for human hereditary prion diseases (PrDs), it is crucial to elucidating how these mutations affect the central pathogenic conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) to abnormal scrapie isoform (PrP{sup Sc}). Many studies proposed that these pathogenic mutations may make PrP more susceptible to conformational change through altering its structure stability. By evaluating the most recent observations regarding pathogenic mutations, it was found that the pathogenic mutations do not exert a uniform effect on the thermodynamic stability of the human PrP's structure. Through analyzing the reported PrDs-related mutations, we found that 25 out of 27 mutations possess strong directional selection, i.e., enhancing hydrophobicity or decreasing negative and increasing positive charge. Based on the triggering role reported by previous studies of facilitating factors in PrP{sup C} conversion, e.g., lipid and polyanion, we proposed that the mutation-induced changes may strengthen the interaction between PrP and facilitating factors, which will accelerate PrP conversion and cause PrDs.

  6. Shedding light on fish otolith biomineralization using a bioenergetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, Ronan; Pecquerie, Laure; de Pontual, Hélène; Høie, Hans; Millner, Richard; Mosegaard, Henrik; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths are biocalcified bodies connected to the sensory system in the inner ears of fish. Their layered, biorhythm-following formation provides individual records of the age, the individual history and the natural environment of extinct and living fish species. Such data are critical for ecosystem and fisheries monitoring. They however often lack validation and the poor understanding of biomineralization mechanisms has led to striking examples of misinterpretations and subsequent erroneous conclusions in fish ecology and fisheries management. Here we develop and validate a numerical model of otolith biomineralization. Based on a general bioenergetic theory, it disentangles the complex interplay between metabolic and temperature effects on biomineralization. This model resolves controversial issues and explains poorly understood observations of otolith formation. It represents a unique simulation tool to improve otolith interpretation and applications, and, beyond, to address the effects of both climate change and ocean acidification on other biomineralizing organisms such as corals and bivalves. PMID:22110601

  7. CCR3: Shedding New Light on a Dark Problem?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Brett Mason; Josephine Hoh

    2009-01-01

    A recent work by Ambati et al. represents a bold step towards a more effective diagnosis and treatment of age-related macular degeneration, with the new evidence showing that CCR3, a chemokine receptor, is an early marker of and potential therapeutic target for choroidal neovascularization development. In the wake of such a novel and significant finding, additional illumination to confirm and consolidate the promise shown by CCR3 will soon follow.

  8. Shedding Light on Filovirus Infection with High-Content Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha G. Panchal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy has been instrumental in the discovery and characterization of microorganisms. Major advances in high-throughput fluorescence microscopy and automated, high-content image analysis tools are paving the way to the systematic and quantitative study of the molecular properties of cellular systems, both at the population and at the single-cell level. High-Content Imaging (HCI has been used to characterize host-virus interactions in genome-wide reverse genetic screens and to identify novel cellular factors implicated in the binding, entry, replication and egress of several pathogenic viruses. Here we present an overview of the most significant applications of HCI in the context of the cell biology of filovirus infection. HCI assays have been recently implemented to quantitatively study filoviruses in cell culture, employing either infectious viruses in a BSL-4 environment or surrogate genetic systems in a BSL-2 environment. These assays are becoming instrumental for small molecule and siRNA screens aimed at the discovery of both cellular therapeutic targets and of compounds with anti-viral properties. We discuss the current practical constraints limiting the implementation of high-throughput biology in a BSL-4 environment, and propose possible solutions to safely perform high-content, high-throughput filovirus infection assays. Finally, we discuss possible novel applications of HCI in the context of filovirus research with particular emphasis on the identification of possible cellular biomarkers of virus infection.

  9. Shedding light on the black hole mass spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Spera, Mario; Mapelli, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The mass spectrum of stellar black holes (BHs) is highly uncertain. Theoretical models of BH formation strongly depend on the efficiency of stellar winds of the progenitor star and on the supernova (SN) explosion mechanism. We discuss the BH mass spectrum we obtain using SEVN, a new public population-synthesis code that includes up-to-date stellar-wind prescriptions and several SN explosion models. Our models indicate a sub-solar metallicity environment for the progenitors of the gravitational wave source GW150914. We show that our models predict substantially larger BH masses (up to ~100 Msun) than other population synthesis codes, at low metallicity. In this proceeding, we also discuss the impact of pair-instability SNe on our previously published models.

  10. NIH Scientists Shed Light on Mystery Surrounding Hepatitis B Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... function. Understanding the e-antigen structure provides a framework upon which future studies can build to fully ... the causes, treatment and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and ...

  11. Shedding Light on Fish Otolith Biomineralization Using a Bioenergetic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    FABLET, Ronan; Pecquerie, Laure; Pontual, Hélène de; Høie, Hans; Millner, Richard; Mosegaard, Henrik; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths are biocalcified bodies connected to the sensory system in the inner ears of fish. Their layered, biorhythm-following formation provides individual records of the age, the individual history and the natural environment of extinct and living fish species. Such data are critical for ecosystem and fisheries monitoring. They however often lack validation and the poor understanding of biomineralization mechanisms has led to striking examples of misinterpretations and subsequent ...

  12. Shedding Light on Selenium Biomineralization: Proteins Associated with Bionanominerals ▿

    OpenAIRE

    M. Lenz; Kolvenbach, B.; Gygax, B.; Moes, S; Corvini, P. F. X.

    2011-01-01

    Selenium reducing microorganisms produce elemental selenium nanoparticles with particular physico-chemical properties being due to an associated organic fraction. This study identified high affinity proteins being associated with such bionanominerals and with non-biogenic elemental selenium. Proteins with an anticipated functional role in selenium reduction, such as a metalloid reductase, were found associated with nanoparticles formed by one selenium respirer, Sulfurospirillum barnesii.

  13. Shedding light on fish otolith biomineralization using a bioenergetic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fablet, R; Pecquerie, L.; de Pontual, H.; Høie, H.; Millner, R.; Mosegaard, Henrik; Sebastiaan, A.; Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Otoliths are biocalcified bodies connected to the sensory system in the inner ears of fish. Their layered, biorhythm-following formation provides individual records of the age, the individual history and the natural environment of extinct and living fish species. Such data are critical for ecosystem and fisheries monitoring. They however often lack validation and the poor understanding of biomineralization mechanisms has led to striking examples of misinterpretations and subsequent erroneous ...

  14. Studies Shed Light on Origin of New Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Although scientists are certain that genomes of various organisms differ greatly in terms of numbers of genes contained, until recently they know little about process of origin of new genes. So gene genesis mechanism has become a major issue puzzling researchers in the field of evolutionary biology.

  15. Microfluidic isolation of cancer-cell-derived microvesicles from hetergeneous extracellular shed vesicle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Steven M; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A; Kirby, Brian J

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are disseminated throughout the body and represent an important conduit of cell communication. Cancer-cell-derived microvesicles have potential as a cancer biomarker as they help shape the tumor microenvironment to promote the growth of the primary tumor and prime the metastatic niche. It is likely that, in cancer cell cultures, the two constituent extracellular shed vesicle subpopulations, observed in dynamic light scattering, represent an exosome population and a cancer-cell-specific microvesicle population and that extracellular shed vesicle size provides information about provenance and cargo. We have designed and implemented a novel microfluidic technology that separates microvesicles, as a function of diameter, from heterogeneous populations of cancer-cell-derived extracellular shed vesicles. We measured cargo carried by the microvesicle subpopulation processed through this microfluidic platform. Such analyses could enable future investigations to more accurately and reliably determine provenance, functional activity, and mechanisms of transformation in cancer. PMID:25342569

  16. Itaalia maalikooli shedöövrid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    I8. detsembrist Rüütelkonna hoones näitus "Itaalia maalikooli shedöövreid Eesti Kunstimuuseumi kogust" sarjast "Kadrioru lossi aarded", mis kajastab ka teoste restaureerimist ja uurimistööd. Maali "Püha Joosepi surm" ümberatribueerimisest XVII sajandi Veneetsia meistrile Giovanni Battista Piazzettale

  17. Development of Smart Underfrequency Load Shedding System

    OpenAIRE

    Čuvičins, V; Petričenko, R

    2012-01-01

    Paper describes possibility to apply innovation technology of Smart Grid for power system emergency automation. Operational characteristics of existing emergency automation and new suggested one are compared in the paper. The method for liquidation of drawback of existing automation is suggested. Paper describes developed mathematical model of intellectual underfrequency load shedding system and its operational algorithms.

  18. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  19. Periodic cavitation shedding in a cylindrical orifice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, C.; Barber, T.; Milton, B.; Rosengarten, G. [University of New South Wales, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Sydney (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Cavitation structures in a large-scale (D = 8.25 mm), plain orifice style nozzle within a unique experimental rig are investigated using high-speed visualisation and digital image processing techniques. Refractive index matching with an acrylic nozzle is achieved using aqueous sodium iodide for the test fluid. Cavitation collapse length, unsteady shedding frequency and spray angles are measured for cavitation conditions from incipient to supercavitation for a range of Reynolds numbers, for a fixed L/D ratio of 4.85. Periodic cavitation shedding was shown to occur with frequencies between 500 and 2,000 Hz for conditions in which cavitation occupied less than 30% of the nozzle length. A discontinuity in collapse length was shown to occur once the cavitation exceeded this length, coinciding with a loss of periodic shedding. A mechanism for this behaviour is discussed. Peak spray angles of approximately {theta} {approx} 14 were recorded for supercavitation conditions indicating the positive influence of cavitation bubble collapse on the jet atomisation process. (orig.)

  20. On vortex shedding from a hexagonal cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unsteady wake behind a hexagonal cylinder in cross-flow is investigated numerically. The time-dependent three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved for three different Reynolds numbers Re and for two different cylinder orientations. The topology of the vortex shedding depends on the orientation and the Strouhal frequency is generally higher in the wake of a face-oriented cylinder than behind a corner-oriented cylinder. For both orientations a higher Strouhal number St is observed when Re is increased from 100 to 500 whereas St is unaffected by a further increase up to Re=1000. The distinct variation of St with the orientation of the hexagonal cylinder relative to the oncoming flow is opposite of earlier findings for square cylinder wakes which exhibited a higher St with corner orientation than with face orientation. -- Highlights: → The first direct numerical simulation on hexagonal cylinder. → The Letter focuses on vortex shedding from a 3D hexagonal cylinder. → Two orientations and 3 Reynolds numbers are considered. → Variation of Strouhal number between hexagonal and square cylinder is discussed.

  1. Shedding patterns of endemic Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, David; Martín-Hernando, María Paz; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    The Eurasianwild boar has experienced aworldwide demographic explosion that increases awareness on shared pathogens. However, shedding routes of relevant wild boar pathogens are unknown. Previous observations on sex- and age-related differences in Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) exposure led us to hypothesize that shedding patterns of endemicwild boar pathogens may be influenced by individual traits.We investigated shedding routes of ADV, porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Coxiella burnetii and analysed the effect of host sex and age on pathogen shedding patterns. The presence of pathogen antibodies in serumand of pathogen DNA in oral, nasal, genital and rectal swabswas analysed by ELISA and PCR, respectively. The influence of sex and age in pathogen shedding prevalencewas tested statistically.Main routes of ADV, PPV, PCV2 and C. burnetii shedding were identified but the hypothesis of sex- and/or age-related shedding patterns couldn't be confirmed. PMID:26412545

  2. August 2007 FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel Recommendations for SHEDS-Dietary and SHEDS-Residential Modules (Summarized) and EPA Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past ten years, the Agency has requested the Panel to review several probabilistic dietary exposure software models. These have included DEEM-FCID™, Calendex-FCID, CARES™, LifeLine™, and an earlier (specialized) version of SHEDS (SHEDS-Wood) designed to assess exposure...

  3. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  4. Insulation characteristics of bushing shed at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  5. Parasite Shed in Cat Feces Kills Sea Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Endangered sea otters in California have been found to suffer lethal infections from a parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, shed in cat feces. These infections may be a factor contributing to the marine mammal's slow recovery from near extinction.

  6. SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Masako; Gronthos, Stan; Zhao, Mingrui; Lu, Bai; Fisher, Larry W.; Robey, Pamela Gehron; Shi, Songtao

    2003-01-01

    To isolate high-quality human postnatal stem cells from accessible resources is an important goal for stem-cell research. In this study we found that exfoliated human deciduous tooth contains multipotent stem cells [stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)]. SHED were identified to be a population of highly proliferative, clonogenic cells capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types including neural cells, adipocytes, and odontoblasts. After in vivo transplantation, ...

  7. A building stone assessment of The Engine Shed, Stirling

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz-Parra, L.J.; Tracey, E.A.; Gillespie, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the outcomes of a project commissioned by Historic Scotland to identify suitable stone to use in forthcoming repairs to the building known as The Engine Shed, in Stirling, which will become Historic Scotland’s National Conservation Centre. A Building Stone Assessment has been conducted on three samples of sandstone supplied by Historic Scotland – two from different parts of The Engine Shed and one from the recently demolished Seaforth Place Bridge in Stirling – with a vi...

  8. Experimental Simulation of Wet-Snow Shedding from Sagged Cables

    OpenAIRE

    Fonyó, András; Kollar, László E.; Farzaneh, Masoud; Montpellier, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The process of wet-snow shedding from overhead cables was simulated in cold-chamber experiments under different ambient conditions. The main objective of the study was to examine how cable sag influences the snow-shedding process. However, the effects of several other parameters were also considered, such as air temperature, solar radiation, snow-sleeve length, and periodic excitation of the cable. Periodic excitation was applied at the suspension point of the cable, leading to cable vibratio...

  9. Natural wet-snow shedding from overhead cables

    OpenAIRE

    Kollar, László E.; Olqma, Ossama; Farzaneh, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    The initiation of wet-snow shedding from overhead cables with negligible sag due to natural processes was modeled experimentally and theoretically. The experiments were carried out in a cold chamber where wet-snow sleeves were prepared on a suspended cable, and then exposed to natural processes leading to snow shedding: air temperature above freezing point, wind effect, and heat radiation. The theoretical model is based on heat balance, and simulates water migration in the cross section at th...

  10. Modeling Wet-Snow Shedding from Current-Carrying Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Olqma, Ossama; Kollar, László E.; Farzaneh, Masoud; Pellet, Laure

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of wet-snow shedding from currentcarrying conductors was studied experimentally and theoretically. A suspended cable with cylindrical snow accretion was considered, and some of the snow properties at the end of sleeve were measured and calculated until snow shedding. The current in the cable appears to be a heat source which accelerates snow melting, similarly to air temperatures above freezing, wind and heat radiation. All of these effects were taken into account to study how ...

  11. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. PMID:24399032

  12. CRISP. Intelligent load shedding. Deliverable 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Load shedding has been used to mitigate the consequences of large disturbances in electric power systems, since the beginning of the electrification era. The way to execute the load shedding, i.e. open a circuit breaker, has hardly developed at all for a 100-year period. The modern society dependence on reliable electricity supply is continuously increasing. This means that the consequences of traditional load shedding are not acceptable. In the meantime computer and communication technology has developed tremendously. There is also a trend to use more and more intelligent control and less hardware, such as lines and generators, to provide the required level of reliability for the electric supply. Especially in power systems, and parts of power systems, comprising distributed generation, there seems to be a great potential to improve the overall cost/benefit-ratio for the desired level of reliability, by the use of intelligent load shedding. Intelligent load shedding is a means to improve power system stability, by providing an adapted load control along the distribution network, in situations where the power system otherwise would go unstable. The work with intelligent load shedding in this work package results in various technical principles of dedicated algorithms. These algorithms intend to bring a support tool for the operating system during critical situations. The main aspects are evaluating the right amount and location of power response for a given disturbance, and evaluating the right time response expected in order to comply with an acceptable stability recover. This time response is a main object in order to define appropriate ICT network enabling such a reliable implementation. A main problem of the intelligent load shedding is how to choose load to shed conveniently and quickly. There is a technical problem of finding the right level and location of the load to shed, and also an economical problem of giving incentives in order to have enough remote

  13. Suppression of vortex shedding around a square cylinder using blowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun K Saha; Ankit Shrivastava

    2015-05-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of flow past a square cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100 has been carried out to explore the effect of blowing in the form of jet(s) on vortex shedding. Higher order spatial as well as temporal discretization has been employed for the discretization of governing equations. The varying number of jets, jet velocity profiles and different blowing velocities are studied to investigate the characteristics of vortex shedding. The parabolic velocity profile has been found to be more effective in suppressing the vortex shedding as compared to the uniform velocity. Complete suppression of vortex shedding along with remarkable reduction in drag coefficient has been achieved for both jet velocity profiles but at different velocities. The corresponding values for uniform and parabolic jet profiles are 0.87 and 0.6, respectively at a mass flux of 0.120. The study also reveals that there is considerable effect of the number of jets on the vortex shedding phenomena.

  14. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  15. Developing of the EV charging and parking shed of BIPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.

  16. Constitutive Endocytosis of VEGFR2 Protects the Receptor against Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagiannis, Dimitris; Christoforidis, Savvas

    2016-08-01

    VEGFR2 plays a fundamental role in blood vessel formation and in life threatening diseases, such as cancer angiogenesis and cardiovascular disorders. Although inactive growth factor receptors are mainly localized at the plasma membrane, VEGFR2 undergoes constitutive endocytosis (in the absence of ligand) and recycling. Intriguingly, the significance of these futile transport cycles of VEGFR2 remains unclear. Here we found that, unexpectedly, the function of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2 is to protect the receptor against plasma membrane cleavage (shedding), thereby preserving the functional state of the receptor until the time of activation by VEGF. Inhibition of constitutive endocytosis of VEGFR2, by interference with the function of clathrin, dynamin, or Rab5, increases dramatically the cleavage/shedding of VEGFR2. Shedding of VEGFR2 produces an N-terminal soluble fragment (100 kDa, s100), which is released in the extracellular space, and a residual C-terminal part (130 kDa, p130) that remains integrated at the plasma membrane. The released soluble fragment (s100) co-immunoprecipitates with VEGF, in line with the topology of the VEGF-binding domain at the N terminus of VEGFR2. Increased shedding of VEGFR2 (via inhibition of constitutive endocytosis) results in reduced response to VEGF, consistently with the loss of the VEGF-binding domain from the membrane remnant of VEGFR2. These data suggest that constitutive internalization of VEGFR2 protects the receptor against shedding and provides evidence for an unprecedented mechanism via which endocytosis can regulate the fate and activity of growth factor receptors. PMID:27298320

  17. Morphological evidence of the shedding of chondrocytes from the articular surface in neonatal rats: relationship to the interlacunar network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M B; Narine, K R; Ellinger, J

    1983-08-01

    The superficial zone of the femoral head articular cartilage of 5- to 15-day old rats was examined by light and electron microscopy for evidence of shedding into the joint space. Chondrocytes deepest in the superficial zone were round, surrounded by a capsule, and connected to adjacent chondrocytes by the interlacunar network, whereas cells in the middle of the zone appeared similar but with less cytoplasm. At the circular surface, chondrocytes were small, with pyknotic nuclei and poorly defined organelles. These cells occasionally protruded from the articular surface but maintained at least partial connection with the network and their capsule. Depressions in the articular surface were lined with material similar to that of the network and were the only locations found where the network did not terminate at a cell surface. This static evidence suggested at least two hypotheses: 1) Degenerating chondrocytes moved up through the superficial zone to the articular surface and were shed into the joint space. This movement may be facilitated by the network as part of neonatal cartilage development. 2) During joint formation, the surface of the articular cartilage was eroded down to the chondrocytes, which were exposed to the joint fluid, causing cell degeneration, death, and shedding. Evidence of cell shedding was rarely seen after 2 weeks of age. Likewise, the interlacunar network disappeared from the superficial zone during this period. A physiological as well as structural relationship may exist between the chondrocytes and interlacunar network. PMID:6625202

  18. Vortex shedding flowmeters for liquids at high flow velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of vortex shedding flowmeter designs for flow measurements in liquid oxygen ducts on the space shuttle main engines have been tested in a high head water flow test facility. The results have shown that a vortex shedding element or vane spanning the duct can give a linear response to an average flow velocity of 46 m/s (150 ft/s) in a 1 1/2 inch nominal (41 mm actual) diameter duct while a vane partially spanning the duct can give a linear response to velocities exceeding 55 m/s (180 ft/s). The maximum pressure drops across the flow sensing elements extrapolate to less than 0.7 MPa (100 psi) at 56 m/s (184 ft/s) for liquid oxygen. The test results indicate that the vanes probably cannot be scaled up with pipe size, at least not linearly.

  19. Post-Modernising the Museum: The Ration Shed

    OpenAIRE

    Carly Smith

    2014-01-01

    The application of postmodern critical theory to the essentially modernist construct of the museum has significantly impacted the role of the contemporary museum within society. This article briefly describes the movement toward a ‘new museology’ and the subsequent emergence of the ‘post-museum’. It then presents a case study of the Ration Shed Museum in the historical precinct of Cherbourg, Queensland, as an example of this new ‘post-museum’. Through its application of postmodern critical th...

  20. Norovirus in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals: cytokines and viral shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K L; Moe, C L; Kirby, A E; Flanders, W D; Parkos, C A; Leon, J S

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis world-wide. NoV infections are often asymptomatic, although individuals still shed large amounts of NoV in their stool. Understanding the differences between asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals would help in elucidating mechanisms of NoV pathogenesis. Our goal was to compare the serum cytokine responses and faecal viral RNA titres of asymptomatic and symptomatic NoV-infected individuals. We tested serum samples from infected subjects (n = 26; 19 symptomatic, seven asymptomatic) from two human challenge studies of GI.1 NoV for 16 cytokines. Samples from prechallenge and days 1-4 post-challenge were tested for these cytokines. Cytokine levels were compared to stool NoV RNA titres quantified previously by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). While both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups had similar patterns of cytokine responses, the symptomatic group generally exhibited a greater elevation of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines and IL-8 post-challenge compared to the asymptomatic group (all P viral RNA titre was associated positively with daily IL-6 concentration and negatively with daily IL-12p40 concentration (all P viral RNA titre, duration of viral shedding or cumulative shedding. Symptomatic individuals, compared to asymptomatic, have greater immune system activation, as measured by serum cytokines, but they do not have greater viral burden, as measured by titre and shedding, suggesting that symptoms may be immune-mediated in NoV infection. PMID:26822517

  1. Laminar vortex shedding behind a cooled circular cylinder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Wang, A. B.; Tu, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2014), s. 1-12. ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vortex shedding * cooled circular cylinder * thermal effect Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/journal/348/55/2/page/1

  2. Globally shed wakes for three distinct retracting foil geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Stephanie; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2015-11-01

    In quickly retracting foils at an angle of attack, the boundary layer vorticity along with the added mass energy is immediately and globally shed from the body into the surrounding fluid. The deposited vorticity quickly reforms into lasting vortex structures, which could be used for purposes such as manipulating or exploiting the produced flow structures by additional bodies in the fluid. The globally shed wake thus entrains the added mass energy provided by the initially moving body, reflected by the value of the circulation left in the wake. In studying experimentally as well as numerically this phenomenon, we find that the three different tested geometries leave behind distinct wakes. Retracting a square-ended foil is undesirable because the deposited wake is complicated by three-dimensional ring vorticity effects. Retracting a tapered, streamlined-tipped foil is also undesirable because the shape-changing aspect of the foil geometry actually induces energy recovery back to the retracting foil, leaving a less energetic globally shed wake. Finally, a retracting hollow foil geometry avoids both of these detrimental effects, leaving relatively simple, yet energetic, vortex structures in the wake.

  3. Autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood after open heart surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵康丽; 许建屏; 胡盛寿; 吴清玉; 魏以桢; 刘迎龙

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety and effectiveness of autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood after open heart surgery. Methods Sixty patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were selected randomly to receive either nonwashed shed mediastinal blood (Group 1, n=30) or banked blood (Group 2, n=30). Drainage and transfusion volume were determined after the operation. Hb, RBC, HCT and PLT were detected immediately before and after the operation, as well as 24 hours and 7 days after the operation. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. A P0.05). In the two groups, no significant difference in the mean blood loss was observed during 24 hours after the operation (660±300 ml in Group 1 and 655±280 ml in Group 2, P>0.05). In Group 1, the mean volume autotransfused was 280±160 ml, and the patients required 360±80 ml banked blood compared with 660±120 ml in Group 2. In other words, the banked blood requirement in Group 1 was 40% lower. Conclusions Autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood after an open heart operation is safe and effective.

  4. Vortex shedding from two surface-mounted cubes in tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Periodic vortex shedding from two surface-mounted cubes, of height H, in tandem arrangement placed in a thin boundary layer is investigated for a spacing 2H using phase-averaged Laser Doppler Velocimetry. Tests were conducted for a Reynolds number of 22,000, based on H and the freestream velocity, and an approximately 0.07H thick laminar boundary layer. For obstacle separations between 1.5H and 2.5H, the shedding frequency scales inversely with the obstacle spacing, S, such that the Strouhal number based on S is constant or geometrically locked. In this locked regime, periodic shedding is triggered by the interference between a vertical flow stream along the front face of the downstream obstacle and the vortex in the inter-obstacle cavity. This three-dimensional mechanism is not observed for two-dimensional geometries and helps explain why a locked regime cannot be observed for square cylinders in tandem arrangement. Furthermore, it is shown that the structure of the turbulent field in the cavity region differs significantly from that in the base region of a two-dimensional obstacle

  5. Replication and shedding of MERS-CoV in Jamaican fruit bats (Artibeus jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Vincent J; Adney, Danielle R; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Brown, Vienna R; Miazgowicz, Kerri L; Milne-Price, Shauna; Bushmaker, Trenton; Rosenke, Rebecca; Scott, Dana; Hawkinson, Ann; de Wit, Emmie; Schountz, Tony; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) highlights the zoonotic potential of Betacoronaviruses. Investigations into the origin of MERS-CoV have focused on two potential reservoirs: bats and camels. Here, we investigated the role of bats as a potential reservoir for MERS-CoV. In vitro, the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein interacted with Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis) dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) receptor and MERS-CoV replicated efficiently in Jamaican fruit bat cells, suggesting there is no restriction at the receptor or cellular level for MERS-CoV. To shed light on the intrinsic host-virus relationship, we inoculated 10 Jamaican fruit bats with MERS-CoV. Although all bats showed evidence of infection, none of the bats showed clinical signs of disease. Virus shedding was detected in the respiratory and intestinal tract for up to 9 days. MERS-CoV replicated transiently in the respiratory and, to a lesser extent, the intestinal tracts and internal organs; with limited histopathological changes observed only in the lungs. Analysis of the innate gene expression in the lungs showed a moderate, transient induction of expression. Our results indicate that MERS-CoV maintains the ability to replicate in bats without clinical signs of disease, supporting the general hypothesis of bats as ancestral reservoirs for MERS-CoV. PMID:26899616

  6. Measurement on the cavitating vortex shedding behind rectangular obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, F; Hos, C; Pandula, Z; Kullmann, L, E-mail: hegedusf@hds.bme.h [Department of Hydrodynamic Systems, Budapest University of Technology and Economics Muegyetem rkp. 1, Budapest 1111 (Hungary)

    2010-08-15

    Measurement results on the cavitating vortex shedding behind sharp-edged rectangular bodies are presented, intended to provide benchmark cases for the validation of unsteady cavitation models of CFD codes. Rectangular bodies of increasing aspect ratio (1, 2, 3 and 4) were used with a constant 25mm height (12.5% blockage ratio). The water velocity in the 0.2x0.05m test section of the channel was varied between 1 and 12 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number in the range of (0.4-3.5)x105. Pressure signals were measured at several locations, notably in the wake. Dominant frequencies and Strouhal numbers are reported from cavitation-free flow (classic von Karman vortex shedding) up to supercavitation as a function of the free-stream Reynolds number. The results are in good agreement with the literature in case of the square cylinder. We experienced a slight increase of the dominant Strouhal number with increasing aspect ratio. This result is somewhat inconsistent with the literature, in which a fall of the Strouhal number can be observed at side ratio 2. This may be the consequence of the different ranges of Reynolds numbers. It was also found that between the inception of cavitation and the formation of supercavitation the Strouhal number is not affected by cavitation.

  7. Post-Modernising the Museum: The Ration Shed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Smith

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of postmodern critical theory to the essentially modernist construct of the museum has significantly impacted the role of the contemporary museum within society. This article briefly describes the movement toward a ‘new museology’ and the subsequent emergence of the ‘post-museum’. It then presents a case study of the Ration Shed Museum in the historical precinct of Cherbourg, Queensland, as an example of this new ‘post-museum’. Through its application of postmodern critical theory, the Ration Shed Museum has détourned the construct of the modernist museum and applied its cultural logics in order to meet the specific needs of its local community. This museum presents a history previously overlooked by western grand narratives and offers insight into a contemporary local indigenous community on its own terms. It presents a public pedagogy where the agency of both the viewer and the museum itself is embraced, and promotes active engagement – a form of dialogue – between the viewer, the community and the museum’s curators.

  8. Some effects of vortex shedding in grid-generated turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melina, Gianfrancesco; Bruce, Paul J. K.; Vassilicos, John Christos

    2015-11-01

    We perform hot-wire measurements in a wind tunnel downstream of different types of turbulence-generating grids: a regular grid (RG60), a fractal square grid (FSG17) and a single square grid (SSG). We characterize the flow highlighting similarities and differences between the grids and between the production and the decay regions of turbulence. We focus on the effects of vortex shedding from the bars of the grids. For this purpose we design a novel 3D configuration formed by the SSG and a set of four splitter plates detached from the grid. We show that, by placing the splitter plates, the peak of turbulence intensity on the centerline is reduced and its location is moved downstream. We compare data from the different turbulence generators and find that a reduction of vortex shedding energy correlates with an increase in the magnitudes of the skewness and flatness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the production region. The authors acknowledge support form the EU through the FP7 Marie Curie MULTISOLVE project (grant agreement No. 317269).

  9. Lorentz microscopy sheds light on the role of dipolar interactions in magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, M.; Ciprian, R.; Bedogni, E.; Mega, A.; Chiesi, V.; Casoli, F.; de Julián Fernández, C.; Rotunno, E.; Rossi, F.; Secchi, A.; Bigi, F.; Salviati, G.; Magén, C.; Grillo, V.; Albertini, F.

    2015-04-01

    Monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles with comparable size distributions have been synthesized by two different synthesis routes, co-precipitation and thermal decomposition. Thanks to the different steric stabilizations, the described samples can be considered as a model system to investigate the effects of magnetic dipolar interactions on the aggregation states of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the presence of magnetic dipolar interactions can strongly affect the nanoparticle efficiency as a hyperthermic mediator. In this paper, we present a novel way to visualize and map the magnetic dipolar interactions in different kinds of nanoparticle aggregates by the use of Lorentz microscopy, an easy and reliable in-line electron holographic technique. By exploiting Lorentz microscopy, which is complementary to the magnetic measurements, it is possible to correlate the interaction degrees of magnetic nanoparticles with their magnetic behaviors. In particular, we demonstrate that Lorentz microscopy is successful in visualizing the magnetic configurations stabilized by dipolar interactions, thus paving the way to the comprehension of the power loss mechanisms for different nanoparticle aggregates.Monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles with comparable size distributions have been synthesized by two different synthesis routes, co-precipitation and thermal decomposition. Thanks to the different steric stabilizations, the described samples can be considered as a model system to investigate the effects of magnetic dipolar interactions on the aggregation states of the nanoparticles. Moreover, the presence of magnetic dipolar interactions can strongly affect the nanoparticle efficiency as a hyperthermic mediator. In this paper, we present a novel way to visualize and map the magnetic dipolar interactions in different kinds of nanoparticle aggregates by the use of Lorentz microscopy, an easy and reliable in-line electron holographic technique. By exploiting Lorentz microscopy, which is complementary to the magnetic measurements, it is possible to correlate the interaction degrees of magnetic nanoparticles with their magnetic behaviors. In particular, we demonstrate that Lorentz microscopy is successful in visualizing the magnetic configurations stabilized by dipolar interactions, thus paving the way to the comprehension of the power loss mechanisms for different nanoparticle aggregates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00273g

  10. Changes in Coaching Study Design Shed Light on How Features Impact Teacher Practice. Lessons from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killion, Joellen

    2016-01-01

    Teacher coaching is a powerful form of professional learning that improves teaching practices and student achievement, yet little is known about the specific aspects of coaching programs that are more effective. Researchers used a blocked randomized experiment to study the effects of one-to-one coaching on teacher practice. When pooled across all…

  11. A New Snake Skull from the Paleocene of Bolivia Sheds Light on the Evolution of Macrostomatans

    OpenAIRE

    Scanferla, Agustín; Zaher, Hussam; Fernando E Novas; de Muizon, Christian; Céspedes, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Macrostomatan snakes, one of the most diverse extant clades of squamates, display an impressive arsenal of cranial features to consume a vast array of preys. In the absence of indisputable fossil representatives of this clade with well-preserved skulls, the mode and timing of these extraordinary morphological novelties remain obscure. Here, we report the discovery of Kataria anisodonta n. gen. n. sp., a macrostomatan snake recovered in the Early Palaeocene locality of Tiupampa, Bolivia. The h...

  12. Alpine endemic spiders shed light on the origin and evolution of subterranean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Isaia, Marco; Arnedo, Miquel A

    2015-01-01

    We designed a comparative study to unravel the phylogeography of two Alpine endemic spiders characterized by a different degree of adaptation to subterranean life: Troglohyphantes vignai (Araneae, Linyphiidae) and Pimoa rupicola (Araneae, Pimoidae), the latter showing minor adaptation to hypogean life. We sampled populations of the model species in caves and other subterranean habitats across their known geographical range in the Western Alps. By combining phylogeographic inferences and Ecological Niche Modeling techniques, we inferred the biogeographic scenario that led to the present day population structure of the two species. According to our divergent time estimates and relative uncertainties, the isolation of T. vignai and P. rupicola from their northern sister groups was tracked back to Middle-Late Miocene. Furthermore, the fingerprint left by Pleistocene glaciations on the population structure revealed by the genetic data, led to the hypothesis that a progressive adaptation to subterranean habitats occurred in T. vignai, followed by strong population isolation. On the other hand, P. rupicola underwent a remarkable genetic bottleneck during the Pleistocene glaciations, that shaped its present population structure. It seems likely that such shallow population structure is both the result of the minor degree of specialization to hypogean life and the higher dispersal ability characterizing this species. The simultaneous study of overlapping spider species showing different levels of adaptation to hypogean life, disclosed a new way to clarify patterns of biological diversification and to understand the effects of past climatic shift on the subterranean biodiversity. PMID:26734503

  13. Shedding light on microbial predator-prey population dynamics using a quantitative bioluminescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hansol; Kim, Dasol; Ghim, Cheol-Min; Mitchell, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the dynamics of predation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD 100. Predation tests with two different bioluminescent strains of Escherichia coli, one expressing a heat-labile bacterial luciferase and the other a heat-stable form, showed near identical losses from both, indicating that protein expression and stability are not responsible for the "shutting-off" of the prey bioluminescence (BL). Furthermore, it was found that the loss in the prey BL was not proportional with the predator-to-prey ratio (PPR), with significantly greater losses seen as this value was increased. This suggests that other factors also play a role in lowering the prey BL. The loss in BL, however, was very consistent within nine independent experiments to the point that we were able to reliably estimate the predator numbers within only 1 h when present at a PPR of 6 or higher, Using a fluorescent prey, we found that premature lysis of the prey occurs at a significant level and was more prominent as the PPR ratio increased. Based upon the supernatant fluorescent signal, even a relatively low PPR of 10-20 led to approximately 5% of the prey population being prematurely lysed within 1 h, while a PPR of 90 led to nearly 15% lysis. Consequently, we developed a modified Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model that accounted for this lysis and is able to reliably estimate the prey and bdelloplast populations for a wide range of PPRs. PMID:24272279

  14. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  15. Out of Africa: Fossils shed light on the origin of the hoatzin, an iconic Neotropic bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; Alvarenga, Herculano; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile

    2011-11-01

    We describe the earliest fossils of the enigmatic avian taxon Opisthocomiformes (hoatzins) from the Oligo-Miocene (22-24 mya) of Brazil. The bones, a humerus, scapula and coracoid, closely resemble those of the extant hoatzin, Opisthocomus hoazin. The very similar osteology of the pectoral girdle in the new Brazilian fossil compared to the extant O. hoazin, in which it reflects peculiar feeding adaptations, may indicate that hoatzins had already evolved their highly specialized feeding behavior by the mid-Cenozoic. We further show that Namibiavis senutae from the early Miocene of Namibia is another, previously misclassified representative of Opisthocomiformes, which documents that the extant Neotropic distribution of hoatzins is relictual. Because of the weak flight capabilities of hoatzins, their occurrence on both sides of the South Atlantic is of particular biogeographic interest. We detail that this distribution pattern is best explained by dispersal from Africa to South America, and that Opisthocomiformes provide the first example of transatlantic rafting among birds.

  16. Fiat lux!: Phylogeny and Bioinformatics shed light on GABA functions in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Renault, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in plants in response to a wide variety of environmental cues. Recent data point toward an involvement of GABA in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity and respiration, especially in stressed roots. To gain further insights into potential GABA functions in plants, phylogenetic and bioinformatic approaches were undertaken. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the GABA transaminase (GABA-T) protein family revealed the monophyletic na...

  17. Galactose utilization sheds new light on sugar metabolism in the sequenced strain Dekkera bruxellensis CBS 2499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moktaduzzaman, Md; Galafassi, Silvia; Capusoni, Claudia; Vigentini, Ileana; Ling, Zhihao; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-03-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are considered two phylogenetically distant relatives, but they share several industrial relevant traits such as the ability to produce ethanol under aerobic conditions (Crabtree effect), high tolerance towards ethanol and acids, and ability to grow without oxygen. Beside a huge adaptability, D. bruxellensis exhibits a broader spectrum in utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources in comparison to S. cerevisiae. With the aim to better characterize its carbon source metabolism and regulation, the usage of galactose and the role that glucose plays on sugar metabolism were investigated in D. bruxellensis CBS 2499. The results indicate that in this yeast galactose is a non-fermentable carbon source, in contrast to S. cerevisiae that can ferment it. In particular, its metabolism is affected by the nitrogen source. Interestingly, D. bruxellensis CBS 2499 exhibits the 'short-term Crabtree effect', and the expression of genes involved in galactose utilization and in respiratory metabolism is repressed by glucose, similarly to what occurs in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25673757

  18. Differentiation and cancer in the mammary gland: shedding light on an old dichotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Rønnov-Jessen, L; Weaver, V M;

    1998-01-01

    retinoic acids in solid tumors (Lotan, 1996; Sachs, 1996). However, an emerging and promising new avenue in this area appears to point to additional factors, such as the cellular form and extracellular matrix (ECM) (Bissel et al., 1982; Bissel and Barcellos-Hoff, 1987; Ingber, 1992). The recent interest in...

  19. Di-photon resonance around 750 GeV: shedding light on the theory underneath

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Ghosh, Pradipta; Mondal, Subhadeep; Srivastava, Tripurari

    2015-01-01

    The run-II LHC data has come up with a very exciting excess in the di-photon channel. This has been confirmed by both the ATLAS and CMS. Both the ATLAS and CMS have announced the observation of 14 and 10 excess events in the di-photon invariant mass ($m_{\\gamma \\gamma}$) around 750 GeV and 760 GeV with statistical significance 3.9$\\sigma$ and 2.6$\\sigma$ significances respectively. In this paper we have framed a model independent analysis to understand how this excess can give a bias to the searches for new physics beyond the Standard Model (BSM). We have defined a set of effective couplings among the new particle ($\\tilde{H}$), which we considered as spin-0, and gluons and photons respectively. Then we have performed a simulation based analysis to fit the production cross-section and excess event for process $pp \\to \\tilde{H} \\to \\gamma \\gamma$. In the process we have sorted out the required correlation among those effecting couplings. We have also provided a model independent analysis on the decay branching...

  20. Shedding Light on Decay Kinetics of Critical Wastewater Bacteria with Molecular Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzochette, Mark Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Decay kinetics of bacteria in biological wastewater treatment systems are vital to efficient design and operation of treatment plants.  Of special concern are decay characteristics of fecal indicator organisms, which can aid design of wastewater treatment processes to eliminate fecal pathogens.  This study focuses on characterizing the decay of three strains of the key fecal indicator bacterium, Escherichia coli, and comparing microbial techniques for quantifying decay rates.  Traditional met...

  1. Metabolomics Investigation To Shed Light on Cheese as a Possible Piece in the French Paradox Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Hong; Yde, Christian Clement; Clausen, Morten Rahr;

    2015-01-01

    An NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the differentiation between subjects consuming cheese or milk and to elucidate the potential link to an effect on the blood cholesterol level. Fifteen healthy young men participated in a full cross-over study where they consumed three iso...

  2. Shedding light onto topological insulator beads: perspectives for optical tweezing application

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Yuri G; Fonseca, Jakson M

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with a spheric-type three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) bead is described within classical optics framework. By virtue of the topological magnetoelectric effect (TMEE) experienced by reflected and transmitted rays at the TI surface, there appears a net constant force on the spherical bead which is proportional to the fine structure constant times the incident radiation power. Such an uniform dynamics (constant acceleration) may be particularly useful for optical tweeezing techniques, for instance, to investigate a DNA strip or a membrane piece under stretching as well as to displace a tiny object by means of purely optical control.

  3. An Old Measure of Decision-Making Quality Sheds New Light on Paternalism

    OpenAIRE

    Shachar Kariv; Dan Silverman

    2013-01-01

    Definitive judgment about the quality of decision-making is made difficult by twin problems of measurement and identification. A measure of decision-making quality is hard to formalize, to quantify, and to make practical for use in a variety of choice environments; and it is difficult to distinguish differences in decision-making quality from unobserved differences in preferences, information, beliefs, or constraints. In this paper, we describe a widely applicable set of tools for theoretical...

  4. Zika in the Brain: New Models Shed Light on Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Heather D; Pierson, Theodore C

    2016-08-01

    The current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak is associated with high numbers of human congenital birth defects, yet it has been unclear how ZIKV infection during pregnancy causes these abnormalities. Three new mouse models now show that ZIKV crosses the placenta and replicates in the brains of fetal mice. PMID:27345865

  5. Chile shadow report to the United Nations sheds light on women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A

    1999-07-01

    Three Chilean women's rights organizations and CRLP presented a Shadow Report to the UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The 25-page Shadow Report indicates in summary the disappointment of the Chilean women in their government. Although Chile has emerged from its history of military dictatorship and is taking its first steps toward returning to a democratic-style of government, the military and the Catholic Church still exert a very strong influence, especially when it comes to policy making. Chilean people especially women, continue to be tyrannized by repressive attitudes, laws, and policies. This tyrannization is exemplified by the rampant discrimination against women in the prisons and the punishment of those undergoing illegal abortions. In short, women have no rights in Chile, and the government has not done enough to eliminate discrimination against them. PMID:12346531

  6. Gas and oil shales. To shed light on the French debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe needs cheap energies and gas shales may be part of the solution. According to the American Agency for Energy, the European soil is home of 93 Gbep and its exploitation would require circa 50.000 wells throughout Europe and the use of 500 millions to 1 billion tons of water. These figures look important but no so much at the European scale. Economic studies show that the European gas bill would be reduced by 10 to 20% and between 600.000 and 1 million jobs would be created. The exploitation of gas shales requires 3 preliminary investigations. First we have to know whether the European source rocks contain as much gas shales as their American counterparts, only test drills will provide a response. Secondly, the economic competitiveness of such projects will rest on our ability to drill and fracture wells at a reasonable cost. And thirdly, all the concerns whatever they are: environmental, societal or cultural that are raised inevitably by such projects, will have to be resolved in a complete transparent way. The main alternative to hydraulic fracturing is propane stimulation but in any case there is no alternative to rock fracturing. (A.C.)

  7. Shed a light of wireless technology on portable mobile design of NIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunlong; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Mobile internet is growing rapidly driven by high-tech companies including the popular Apple and Google. The wireless mini-NIRS is believed to deserve a great spread future, while there is sparse report on wireless NIRS device and even for the reported wireless NIRS, its wireless design is scarcely presented. Here we focused on the wireless design of NIRS devices. The widely-used wireless communication standards and wireless communication typical solutions were employed into our NIRS design and then compared on communication efficiency, distance, error rate, low-cost, power consumption, and stabilities, based on the requirements of NIRS applications. The properly-performed wireless communication methods matched with the characteristics of NIRS are picked out. Finally, we realized one recommended wireless communication in our NIRS, developed a test platform on wireless NIRS and tested the full properties on wireless communication. This study elaborated the wireless communication methods specified for NIRS and suggested one implementation with one example fully illustrated, which support the future mobile design on NIRS devices.

  8. Algorithmic handwriting analysis of Judah's military correspondence sheds light on composition of biblical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum-Golovin, Shira; Shaus, Arie; Sober, Barak; Levin, David; Na'aman, Nadav; Sass, Benjamin; Turkel, Eli; Piasetzky, Eli; Finkelstein, Israel

    2016-04-26

    The relationship between the expansion of literacy in Judah and composition of biblical texts has attracted scholarly attention for over a century. Information on this issue can be deduced from Hebrew inscriptions from the final phase of the first Temple period. We report our investigation of 16 inscriptions from the Judahite desert fortress of Arad, dated ca 600 BCE-the eve of Nebuchadnezzar's destruction of Jerusalem. The inquiry is based on new methods for image processing and document analysis, as well as machine learning algorithms. These techniques enable identification of the minimal number of authors in a given group of inscriptions. Our algorithmic analysis, complemented by the textual information, reveals a minimum of six authors within the examined inscriptions. The results indicate that in this remote fort literacy had spread throughout the military hierarchy, down to the quartermaster and probably even below that rank. This implies that an educational infrastructure that could support the composition of literary texts in Judah already existed before the destruction of the first Temple. A similar level of literacy in this area is attested again only 400 y later, ca 200 BCE. PMID:27071103

  9. Shedding light on detritus: Interactions between invertebrates, bacteria and substrates in benthic habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Admiraal, W.; Breure, A.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.; De Mulder, C.; Hunting, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    The processing of dead organic matter, also known as detritus, is a central ecosystem process driven by detritus feeding organisms that are mostly located at the bottom of water bodies where dead organic matter (OM) accumulates. Detritivorous organisms form communities composed of invertebrates, fungi and bacteria that interact with each other and their substrate. Although it is likely that links between benthic biodiversity and OM processing are driven by similar mechanisms across different ...

  10. Shedding light on anti-estrogen resistance and antigen presentation through biophysical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Willem Teunis

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is composed of two parts part one: The study on anti-estrogen resistance and defining criteria a cell has to meet in order to become resistant to anti-estrogenic compounds. part two: the study of antigen-loading, vesicle positioning and costimulation.

  11. Shedding light on minipig drug metabolism - elevated amide hydrolysis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Russell; Marschmann, Michaela; Keller, Michael; Qiu, Na Hong; Fowler, Stephen; Singer, Thomas; Schuler, Franz; Funk, Christoph; Schadt, Simone

    2016-06-01

    1. In recent years, the minipig is increasingly used as a test species in non-clinical assessment of drug candidates. While there is good scientific evidence available concerning cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism in minipig, the knowledge of other metabolic pathways is more limited. 2. The aim of this study was to provide an understanding of when, why, and how drug metabolism in minipig differs from other species commonly used in non-clinical studies. In-house cross-species metabolite profile comparisons in hepatocytes and microsomes of 38 Roche development compounds were retrospectively analyzed to compare the metabolism among minipig, human, rat, dog, monkey, rabbit and mouse. 3. A significant contributor to the elevated metabolism observed for certain compounds in minipig was identified as amide hydrolysis. The hepatic amide hydrolysis activity in minipig was further investigated in subcellular liver fractions and a structure-activity relationship was established. When structural motifs according to the established SAR are excluded, coverage of major human metabolic pathways was shown to be higher in minipig than in dog, and only slightly lower than in cynomolgus monkey. 4. A strategy is presented for early identification of drug compounds which might not be suited to further investigation in minipig due to excessive hydrolytic metabolism. PMID:26405846

  12. A new snake skull from the Paleocene of Bolivia sheds light on the evolution of macrostomatans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Scanferla

    Full Text Available Macrostomatan snakes, one of the most diverse extant clades of squamates, display an impressive arsenal of cranial features to consume a vast array of preys. In the absence of indisputable fossil representatives of this clade with well-preserved skulls, the mode and timing of these extraordinary morphological novelties remain obscure. Here, we report the discovery of Kataria anisodonta n. gen. n. sp., a macrostomatan snake recovered in the Early Palaeocene locality of Tiupampa, Bolivia. The holotype consists of a partial, minute skull that exhibits a combination of booid and caenophidian characters, being the presence of an anisodont dentition and diastema in the maxilla the most distinctive trait. Phylogenetic analysis places Kataria basal to the Caenophidia+Tropidophiidae, and represents along with bolyeriids a distinctive clade of derived macrostomatans. The discovery of Kataria highlights the morphological diversity in the maxilla among derived macrostomatans, demonstrating the relevance of maxillary transformations in the evolution of this clade. Kataria represents the oldest macrostomatan skull recovered, revealing that the diversification of macrostomatans was well under way in early Tertiary times. This record also reinforces the importance of Gondwanan territories in the history of snakes, not only in the origin of the entire group but also in the evolution of ingroup clades.

  13. The Narrow Niche hypothesis: gray squirrels shed new light on primate origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Joseph D; Pontzer, Herman

    2011-04-01

    Current hypotheses for primate origins propose that nails and primate-like grasping hands and feet were important early adaptations for feeding in fine branches. Comparative research in this area has focused on instances of convergence in extant animals, showing that species with primate-like morphology feed predominantly from terminal branches. Little has been done to test whether animals without primate-like morphology engage in similar behavior. We tested the fine-branch niche hypothesis for primate origins by observing branch use in Eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, a species lacking primate grasping adaptations that has been understudied in the context of primate origins. We hypothesized that because gray squirrels lack primate-like grasping adaptations, they would avoid feeding and foraging in terminal branches. Instantaneous focal animal sampling was used to examine the locomotor and postural behaviors used while feeding and foraging. Our results demonstrate habitual and effective usage of terminal branches by gray squirrels while feeding and foraging, primarily on tree seeds (e.g., oak, maple, and elm). Discriminant function analysis indicates that gray squirrels feed and forage like primates, unlike some other tree squirrel species. Given the absence of primate-like features in gray squirrels, we suggest that although selection for fine-branch foraging may be a necessary condition for primate origins, it is not sufficient. We propose an alternative model of primate origins. The Narrow Niche hypothesis suggests that the primate morphological suite evolved not only from selection pressure for fine branch use, but also from a lack of engagement in other activities. PMID:21404237

  14. Shedding light on detritus: Interactions between invertebrates, bacteria and substrates in benthic habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Hunting

    2013-01-01

    The processing of dead organic matter, also known as detritus, is a central ecosystem process driven by detritus feeding organisms that are mostly located at the bottom of water bodies where dead organic matter (OM) accumulates. Detritivorous organisms form communities composed of invertebrates, fun

  15. The genomics of wild yeast populations sheds light on the domestication of man's best (micro) friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Chris; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Landry, Christian R

    2015-11-01

    The domestication of plants, animals and microbes by humans are the longest artificial evolution experiments ever performed. The study of these long-term experiments can teach us about the genomics of adaptation through the identification of the genetic bases underlying the traits favoured by humans. In laboratory evolution, the characterization of the molecular changes that evolved specifically in some lineages is straightforward because the ancestors are readily available, for instance in the freezer. However, in the case of domesticated species, the ancestor is often missing, which leads to the necessity of going back to nature in order to infer the most likely ancestral state. Significant and relatively recent examples of this approach include wolves as the closest wild relative to domestic dogs (Axelsson et al. 2013) and teosinte as the closest relative to maize (reviewed in Hake & Ross-Ibarra 2015). In both cases, the joint analysis of domesticated lineages and their wild cousins has been key in reconstructing the molecular history of their domestication. While the identification of closest wild relatives has been done for many plants and animals, these comparisons represent challenges for micro-organisms. This has been the case for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whose natural ecological niche is particularly challenging to define. For centuries, this unicellular fungus has been the cellular factory for wine, beer and bread crafting, and currently for bioethanol and drug production. While the recent development of genomics has lead to the identification of many genetic elements associated with important wine characteristics, the historical origin of some of the domesticated wine strains has remained elusive due to the lack of knowledge of their close wild relatives. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Almeida et al. (2015) identified what is to date the closest known wild population of the wine yeast. This population is found associated with oak trees in Europe, presumably its natural host. Using population genomics analyses, Almeida and colleagues discovered that the initial divergence between natural and domesticated wine yeasts in the Mediterranean region took place around the early days of wine production. Surprisingly, genomic regions that are key to wine production today appeared not to be derived from these natural populations but from genes gained from other yeast species. PMID:26509691

  16. Transcriptomic response to injury sheds light on the physiological costs of reproduction in ant queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wyschetzki, Katharina; Lowack, Helena; Heinze, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The trade-off between reproduction and longevity is widespread among multicellular organisms. As an important exception, the reproductive females of perennial social insects (ants, honeybees, termites) are simultaneously highly fertile and very long-lived relative to their nonreproductive nestmates. The observation that increased fecundity is not coupled with decreased lifespan suggests that social insect queens do not have to reallocate resources between reproduction and self-maintenance. If queens have to compensate for the costs of reproduction on the level of the individual, the activation of other energy-demanding physiological processes might force them to reduce the production of eggs. To test this hypothesis in ant queens, we increased immunity costs by injury and measured the effect of this treatment on egg-laying rates and genomewide gene expression. Amputation of both middle legs led to a temporary decrease in egg-laying rates and affected the expression of 947 genes corresponding to 9% of the transcriptome. The changes comprised the upregulation of the immune and wound healing response on the one hand, and the downregulation of germ cell development, central nervous system development and learning ability on the other hand. Injury strongly influenced metabolism by inducing catabolism and repressing amino acid and nitrogen compound metabolism. By comparing our results to similar transcriptomic studies in insects, we found a highly consistent upregulation of immune genes due to sterile and septic wounding. The gene expression changes, complemented by the temporary decline of egg-laying rates, clearly reveal a trade-off between reproduction and the immune response in social insect queens. PMID:26880273

  17. Shedding light on a living lab: the CLEF NEWSREEL open recommendation platform

    OpenAIRE

    Brodt, Torben; Hopfgartner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In the CLEF NEWSREEL lab, participants are invited to evaluate news recommendation techniques in real-time by providing news recommendations to actual users that visit commercial news portals to satisfy their information needs. A central role within this lab is the communication between participants and the users. This is enabled by The Open Recommendation Platform (ORP), a web-based platform which distributes users' impressions of news articles to the participants and returns their recommend...

  18. From Insect to Man: Photorhabdus Sheds Light on the Emergence of Human Pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Mulley

    Full Text Available Photorhabdus are highly effective insect pathogenic bacteria that exist in a mutualistic relationship with Heterorhabditid nematodes. Unlike other members of the genus, Photorhabdus asymbiotica can also infect humans. Most Photorhabdus cannot replicate above 34°C, limiting their host-range to poikilothermic invertebrates. In contrast, P. asymbiotica must necessarily be able to replicate at 37°C or above. Many well-studied mammalian pathogens use the elevated temperature of their host as a signal to regulate the necessary changes in gene expression required for infection. Here we use RNA-seq, proteomics and phenotype microarrays to examine temperature dependent differences in transcription, translation and phenotype of P. asymbiotica at 28°C versus 37°C, relevant to the insect or human hosts respectively. Our findings reveal relatively few temperature dependant differences in gene expression. There is however a striking difference in metabolism at 37°C, with a significant reduction in the range of carbon and nitrogen sources that otherwise support respiration at 28°C. We propose that the key adaptation that enables P. asymbiotica to infect humans is to aggressively acquire amino acids, peptides and other nutrients from the human host, employing a so called "nutritional virulence" strategy. This would simultaneously cripple the host immune response while providing nutrients sufficient for reproduction. This might explain the severity of ulcerated lesions observed in clinical cases of Photorhabdosis. Furthermore, while P. asymbiotica can invade mammalian cells they must also resist immediate killing by humoral immunity components in serum. We observed an increase in the production of the insect Phenol-oxidase inhibitor Rhabduscin normally deployed to inhibit the melanisation immune cascade. Crucially we demonstrated this molecule also facilitates protection against killing by the alternative human complement pathway.

  19. Shedding light on the relative DNA contribution of two persons handling the same object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldoni, F; Castella, V; Hall, D

    2016-09-01

    Traces collected on crime scene objects frequently result in challenging DNA mixtures from several contributors in different DNA proportions. Understanding how the relative proportion of DNA deposited by different persons who handled the same object evolves through time has important bearings. For instance, this information may help determine whether the major contributor in a mixed DNA profile is more likely to correspond to the object owner or to the person who may have stolen this object. In this perspective, a simulation-based protocol was designed where randomly paired participants were asked to act either as first (object owner) or second (last) users. The first user was asked to handle/wear 9 different plastic-, metal-, nitrile- and fabric-made objects, commonly found at burglary/robbery crime scenes, for a minimum of 20min during 8 or 10 consecutive days. The second user subsequently used them for 5, 30 or 120min in three distinct simulation sessions. The analysis of the relative DNA contribution on the resulting 234 mock DNA traces revealed a large variability in the contribution depending on the time, substrate and pairs of participants. Despite this, a progressive increase of the second user's DNA contribution, relative to the first user, was observed over time in 93% of the traces. The second user was shown to become the major contributor in approximately 15%, 33% and 55% of the traces recovered from objects used for 5, 30 and 120min, respectively. Single-source DNA profiles were shown to represent only 1% of the traces. In addition, the DNA profiles of 165 out of 234 (71%) simulated traces displayed extra alleles. Most of these occurred in the minor fraction of mixed DNA profiles and were interpreted as artefacts. Nevertheless, DNA profiles of known participants either involved or not in the simulations were observed in 9 cases (4%). This confirms that indirect DNA transfer should be taken into account when interpreting "touch" DNA evidence. PMID:27441463

  20. Amnesia in frontotemporal dementia: shedding light on the Geneva historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Beratis, Ion N; Horvath, Judit; Herrmann, François R; Bouras, Constantin; Kövari, Enikö

    2016-04-01

    Recent accumulated evidence indicates that episodic memory impairments could be part of the initial clinical expression of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). An early study on this issue was carried out by Constantinidis and colleagues in 1974, but it was subsequently overlooked for a long period of time. The scope of the present research was: (a) to explore the presence of early episodic memory impairments in the entire population of neuropathologically confirmed FTD patients from the Geneva brain collection; and (b) to expand the present insight on the association between the initial symptomatology and various characteristics, namely gender, age at onset, disease duration, and presence of Pick body neuropathology. A careful review of the records of 50 FTD patients hospitalized at the Department of Psychiatry of the Bel-Air Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland, from 1929 to 1999, was conducted. Further in-depth neuropathological analysis with novel immunohistological methods was carried out in 37 of the cases. The data showed that memory impairments were the first clinical symptom in several of the patients. In addition, this specific phenotypic expression of FTD was associated with the female gender, advanced age, and positive Pick body neuropathology. The current findings give the opportunity to historically vindicate the early work of Constantinidis and colleagues. In addition, the novel observations about the association of episodic memory impairments with the female gender and positive Pick body neuropathology add to the existing knowledge about this phenotypic expression of FTD. PMID:26810723

  1. Shedding light on the formation of the pre-biotic molecule formamide with ASAI

    CERN Document Server

    López-Sepulcre, A; Mendoza, E; Lefloch, B; Ceccarelli, C; Vastel, C; Bachiller, R; Cernicharo, J; Codella, C; Kahane, C; Kama, M; Tafalla, M

    2015-01-01

    Formamide (NH2CHO) has been proposed as a pre-biotic precursor with a key role in the emergence of life on Earth. While this molecule has been observed in space, most of its detections correspond to high-mass star-forming regions. Motivated by this lack of investigation in the low-mass regime, we searched for formamide, as well as isocyanic acid (HNCO), in 10 low- and intermediate-mass pre-stellar and protostellar objects. The present work is part of the IRAM Large Programme ASAI (Astrochemical Surveys At IRAM), which makes use of unbiased broadband spectral surveys at millimetre wavelengths. We detected HNCO in all the sources and NH2CHO in five of them. We derived their abundances and analysed them together with those reported in the literature for high-mass sources. For those sources with formamide detection, we found a tight and almost linear correlation between HNCO and NH2CHO abundances, with their ratio being roughly constant -between 3 and 10- across 6 orders of magnitude in luminosity. This suggests ...

  2. Shedding light on inflammatory pseudotumor in children: spotlight on inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a generic term used to designate a heterogeneous group of inflammatory mass-forming lesions histologically characterized by myofibroblastic proliferation with chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Inflammatory pseudotumor is multifactorial in etiology and generally benign, but it is often mistaken for malignancy given its aggressive appearance. It can occur throughout the body and is seen in all age groups. Inflammatory pseudotumor has been described in the literature by many organ-specific names, resulting in confusion. Recently within this generic category of inflammatory pseudotumor, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor has emerged as a distinct entity and is now recognized as a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic neoplasm with intermediate biological potential and occurring mostly in children. We present interesting pediatric cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors given this entity's tendency to occur in children. Familiarity and knowledge of the imaging features of inflammatory pseudotumor can help in making an accurate diagnosis, thereby avoiding unnecessary radical surgery. (orig.)

  3. Shedding light on disulfide bond formation: engineering a redox switch in green fluorescent protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, H.; Henriksen, A.; Hansen, Flemming G.;

    2001-01-01

    To visualize the formation of disulfide bonds in living cells, a pair of redox-active cysteines was introduced into the yellow fluorescent variant of green fluorescent protein. Formation of a disulfide bond between the two cysteines was fully reversible and resulted in a >2-fold decrease...... in the intrinsic fluorescence. Inter conversion between the two redox states could thus be followed in vitro as well as in vivoby non- invasive fluorimetric measurements. The 1.5 Angstrom crystal structure of the oxidized protein revealed a disulfide bond- induced distortion of the beta -barrel, as well...... as a structural reorganization of residues in the immediate chromophore environment. By combining this information with spectroscopic data, we propose a detailed mechanism accounting for the observed redox state-dependent fluorescence. The redox potential of the cysteine couple was found to be within...

  4. Shed a light in fatigue detection with near-infrared spectroscopy during long-lasting driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Pan, Boan; Li, Kai; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Fatigue driving is one of the leading roles to induce traffic accident and injury, which urgently desires a novel technique to monitor the fatigue level at driving. Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is capable of noninvasive monitoring brain-activities-related hemodynamic responses. Here, we developed a fINRS imager and setup a classic psychological experiment to trigger visual divided attention which varied responding to driving fatigue, and attempted to record the drive-fatigue-level correlated hemodynamic response in the prefrontal cortex. 7 volunteers were recruited to take 7 hours driving and the experimental test was repeated every 1 hour and 8 times in total. The hemodynamic response were extracted and graphed with pseudo image. The analysis on the relationship between the fNIRS-measured hemodynamic response and fatigue level finally displayed that the oxyhemoglobin concentration in one channel of left prefrontal lobe increased with driving duration in significant correlation. And the spatial pattern of hemodynamic response in the prefrontal lobe varied with driving duration as well. The findings indicated the potential of fNIRSmeasured hemodynamic index in some sensitive spot of prefrontal lobe as a driving fatigue indicator and the promising use of fNIRS in traffic safety field.

  5. Shedding Light on Protein Folding, Structural and Functional Dynamics by Single Molecule Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutika Bavishi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advent of advanced single molecule measurements unveiled a great wealth of dynamic information revolutionizing our understanding of protein dynamics and behavior in ways unattainable by conventional bulk assays. Equipped with the ability to record distribution of behaviors rather than the mean property of a population, single molecule measurements offer observation and quantification of the abundance, lifetime and function of multiple protein states. They also permit the direct observation of the transient and rarely populated intermediates in the energy landscape that are typically averaged out in non-synchronized ensemble measurements. Single molecule studies have thus provided novel insights about how the dynamic sampling of the free energy landscape dictates all aspects of protein behavior; from its folding to function. Here we will survey some of the state of the art contributions in deciphering mechanisms that underlie protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. We will discuss a few selected examples highlighting the power of the emerging techniques and finally discuss the future improvements and directions.

  6. Shedding Some Light on RFID Distance Bounding Protocols and Terrorist Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, J M E; van der Lubbe, Jan C A

    2009-01-01

    During the last years, researchers have focused on designing secure and efficient RFID authentication protocols. The vast majority of these protocols assume proximity between readers and tags due to the limited range of the radio channel. However, in real scenarios, an intruder can be located between the prover (tag) and the verifier (reader) and trick the latter into thinking that the prover is in close proximity. This attack is globally known as a relay attack, a kind that includes others such as distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist attacks. Distance bounding protocols represent a promising countermeasure to hinder relay attacks. Several protocols have been proposed in the last years, but vulnerabilities of major or minor relevance have been identified in all of them. In 2008, Kim et al. [10] proposed a new distance bounding protocol with the objective of being the best one in terms of security, privacy, tag computational overhead and fault tolerance - as claimed by their authors. The study of this rec...

  7. Shedding light on emotional perception: Interaction of brightness and semantic content in extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Keil, Andreas; Porcu, Emanuele; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-06-01

    The rapid extraction of affective cues from the visual environment is crucial for flexible behavior. Previous studies have reported emotion-dependent amplitude modulations of two event-related potential (ERP) components - the N1 and EPN - reflecting sensory gain control mechanisms in extrastriate visual areas. However, it is unclear whether both components are selective electrophysiological markers of attentional orienting toward emotional material or are also influenced by physical features of the visual stimuli. To address this question, electrical brain activity was recorded from seventeen male participants while viewing original and bright versions of neutral and erotic pictures. Bright neutral scenes were rated as more pleasant compared to their original counterpart, whereas erotic scenes were judged more positively when presented in their original version. Classical and mass univariate ERP analysis showed larger N1 amplitude for original relative to bright erotic pictures, with no differences for original and bright neutral scenes. Conversely, the EPN was only modulated by picture content and not by brightness, substantiating the idea that this component is a unique electrophysiological marker of attention allocation toward emotional material. Complementary topographic analysis revealed the early selective expression of a centro-parietal positivity following the presentation of original erotic scenes only, reflecting the recruitment of neural networks associated with sustained attention and facilitated memory encoding for motivationally relevant material. Overall, these results indicate that neural networks subtending the extraction of emotional information are differentially recruited depending on low-level perceptual features, which ultimately influence affective evaluations. PMID:26994832

  8. Multi-Species Genome Comparison Sheds New Light on Evolutionary Processes, Cancer Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    An international team that includes researchers from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has discovered that mammalian chromosomes have evolved by breaking at specific sites rather than randomly as long thought--and that many of the breakage hot spots are also involved in human…

  9. Diffuse Gas in Galaxies Sheds New Light on the Origin of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Jonas; Gilfanov, Marat; Sarzi, Marc; Chen, Yan-Mei; Oh, Kyuseok

    2014-01-01

    We measure the strength of HeII$\\lambda$4686 nebular emission in passively evolving ("retired") galaxies, aiming to constrain their populations of hot accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in the context of the single degenerate (SD) scenario of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In the SD scenario, as a WD burns hydrogen-rich material accreted from a companion star, it becomes a powerful source of ionizing UV emission. If significant populations of such sources exist in galaxies, strong emission in the recombination lines of HeII should be expected from the interstellar medium. To explore this conjecture, we select from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ~11 500 emission line galaxies with stellar ages >1 Gyr showing no signs of AGN activity and co-add their spectra in bins of stellar population age. For the first time, we detect HeII$\\lambda$4686 nebular emission in retired galaxies and find it to be significantly weaker than that expected in the SD scenario, especially in the youngest age bin (1-4 Gyr) where the SN Ia rate is ...

  10. Shedding Light on the Microbial Community of the Macropod Foregut Using 454-Amplicon Pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Alicia Y H Kang; Maguire, Anita J.; Kienzle, Marco; Klieve, Athol V.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering). Thirty-two OTUs were identified as ‘shared’ OTUS (i.e. present in all samples) belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales)...

  11. Shedding light on the microbial community of the macropod foregut using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Maree Gulino

    Full Text Available Twenty macropods from five locations in Queensland, Australia, grazing on a variety of native pastures were surveyed and the bacterial community of the foregut was examined using 454-amplicon pyrosequencing. Specifically, the V3/V4 region of 16S rRNA gene was examined. A total of 5040 OTUs were identified in the data set (post filtering. Thirty-two OTUs were identified as 'shared' OTUS (i.e. present in all samples belonging to either Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes (Clostridiales/Bacteroidales. These phyla predominated the general microbial community in all macropods. Genera represented within the shared OTUs included: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Lachnospiraceae, unclassified Clostridiales, Peptococcus sp. Coprococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Blautia sp., Ruminoccocus sp., Eubacterium sp., Dorea sp., Oscillospira sp. and Butyrivibrio sp. The composition of the bacterial community of the foregut samples of each the host species (Macropus rufus, Macropus giganteus and Macropus robustus was significantly different allowing differentiation between the host species based on alpha and beta diversity measures. Specifically, eleven dominant OTUs that separated the three host species were identified and classified as: unclassified Ruminococcaceae, unclassified Bacteroidales, Prevotella spp. and a Syntrophococcus sucromutans. Putative reductive acetogens and fibrolytic bacteria were also identified in samples. Future work will investigate the presence and role of fibrolytics and acetogens in these ecosystems. Ideally, the isolation and characterization of these organisms will be used for enhanced feed efficiency in cattle, methane mitigation and potentially for other industries such as the biofuel industry.

  12. Sex differences in animal models of schizophrenia shed light on the underlying pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Rachel Anne

    2016-08-01

    Sex differences in schizophrenia are apparent in almost all features of the illness, from incidence and mean age of onset to symptomatology, course of illness and response to pharmacological treatments. Understanding how men and women with schizophrenia differ provides significant clues into the pathophysiology of the disorder. Animal models are powerful tools when dissecting the molecular biology which underlies behavioural disturbances, and allow structured comparisons of biological sex differences without the social environmental gender influence that so often confounds human sex comparison studies. This review will provide a summary of sex differences described in developmental, genetic and drug-induced animal models of schizophrenia and will link sex-specific molecular and behavioural phenotypes of these models in an attempt to unravel the role that sex plays in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Both sex and stress hormones interact to shape the developing brain and behaviour and animal models of schizophrenia that include both sexes provide significant insight into the complexities of these interactions and can direct toward novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26743857

  13. Resolving phenylalanine metabolism sheds light on natural synthesis of penicillin G in Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Tânia; Solis-Escalante, Daniel; Romagnoli, Gabriele; ten Pierick, Angela; Hanemaaijer, Mark; Deshmukh, Amit T; Deshmuhk, Amit; Wahl, Aljoscha; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2012-02-01

    The industrial production of penicillin G by Penicillium chrysogenum requires the supplementation of the growth medium with the side chain precursor phenylacetate. The growth of P. chrysogenum with phenylalanine as the sole nitrogen source resulted in the extracellular production of phenylacetate and penicillin G. To analyze this natural pathway for penicillin G production, chemostat cultures were switched to [U-(13)C]phenylalanine as the nitrogen source. The quantification and modeling of the dynamics of labeled metabolites indicated that phenylalanine was (i) incorporated in nascent protein, (ii) transaminated to phenylpyruvate and further converted by oxidation or by decarboxylation, and (iii) hydroxylated to tyrosine and subsequently metabolized via the homogentisate pathway. The involvement of the homogentisate pathway was supported by the comparative transcriptome analysis of P. chrysogenum cultures grown with phenylalanine and with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) as the nitrogen source. This transcriptome analysis also enabled the identification of two putative 2-oxo acid decarboxylase genes (Pc13g9300 and Pc18g01490). cDNAs of both genes were cloned and expressed in the 2-oxo-acid-decarboxylase-free Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CEN.PK711-7C (pdc1 pdc5 pdc6Δ aro10Δ thi3Δ). The introduction of Pc13g09300 restored the growth of this S. cerevisiae mutant on glucose and phenylalanine, thereby demonstrating that Pc13g09300 encodes a dual-substrate pyruvate and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase, which plays a key role in an Ehrlich-type pathway for the production of phenylacetate in P. chrysogenum. These results provide a basis for the metabolic engineering of P. chrysogenum for the production of the penicillin G side chain precursor phenylacetate. PMID:22158714

  14. Shedding light on the single-molecule magnet behavior of mononuclear Dy(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Daniel; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2013-12-01

    General requirements for obtaining Dy(III) single-molecule magnets (SMM) were studied by CASSCF+RASSI calculations on both real and model systems. A set of 20 Dy(III) complexes was considered using their X-ray crystal structure for our calculations. Theoretical results were compared with their experimental slow relaxation data, and general conclusions about the calculated key parameters related with SMM behavior are presented. The effect of the coordination geometry and nature of ligands is discussed based on calculations on real and model systems. We found two different patterns to exhibit SMM behavior: the first one leads to the largest axial anisotropy in complexes showing heterolepticity of the ligand environment (more important than symmetric requirements), while the second one corresponds to sandwich-shaped complexes with a smaller anisotropy. Thus, most existing mononuclear zero-field SMMs adopting a heteroleptic coordination mode mixing neutral and anionic ligands present the same pattern in the electrostatic potential induced by their ligands, with a lower potential island related to the presence of neutral ligands inside a high potential background related with anionic groups. The existence of different electrostatic regions caused by the ligands induces a preferential orientation to reduce the electron repulsion for the electron density of the Dy(III) cations, resulting in the magnetic anisotropy. PMID:24237385

  15. Studies Shed Light on Cross-modal Memory Facilitation of Fruit Flies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As a result of their threeyear studies in Drosophilae (fruit flies),CAS scientists reveal that the memory and learning in the insect could be enhanced by stimuli combining olfactory (or smell) and visual signals.

  16. SINTEF Project Sheds Light on Mechanics of Reservoir Compaction and Subsidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokstad, Ketil; Wulff, Angelika; Mjaaland, Svein; Paramichos, Euripides

    2000-07-01

    The seabed of the Ekofisk oil field in the North Sea is now eight metres lower than it used to be before production started in 1971. The article deals very briefly with work done at SINTEF Petroleum Research on the physics and mechanisms of reservoir compaction and subsidence.

  17. Gene co-expression networks shed light into diseases of brain iron accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Conceição; Forabosco, Paola; Wiethoff, Sarah; Heidari, Moones; Johnstone, Daniel M.; Botía, Juan A.; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Hardy, John; Milward, Elizabeth A.; Ryten, Mina; Houlden, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant brain iron deposition is observed in both common and rare neurodegenerative disorders, including those categorized as Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation (NBIA), which are characterized by focal iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Two NBIA genes are directly involved in iron metabolism, but whether other NBIA-related genes also regulate iron homeostasis in the human brain, and whether aberrant iron deposition contributes to neurodegenerative processes remains largely unknown. This study aims to expand our understanding of these iron overload diseases and identify relationships between known NBIA genes and their main interacting partners by using a systems biology approach. We used whole-transcriptome gene expression data from human brain samples originating from 101 neuropathologically normal individuals (10 brain regions) to generate weighted gene co-expression networks and cluster the 10 known NBIA genes in an unsupervised manner. We investigated NBIA-enriched networks for relevant cell types and pathways, and whether they are disrupted by iron loading in NBIA diseased tissue and in an in vivo mouse model. We identified two basal ganglia gene co-expression modules significantly enriched for NBIA genes, which resemble neuronal and oligodendrocytic signatures. These NBIA gene networks are enriched for iron-related genes, and implicate synapse and lipid metabolism related pathways. Our data also indicates that these networks are disrupted by excessive brain iron loading. We identified multiple cell types in the origin of NBIA disorders. We also found unforeseen links between NBIA networks and iron-related processes, and demonstrate convergent pathways connecting NBIAs and phenotypically overlapping diseases. Our results are of further relevance for these diseases by providing candidates for new causative genes and possible points for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26707700

  18. Shedding New Light on the 3C 273 Jet with the Spitzer Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Uchiyama, Y.; Urry, C. M.; Cheung, C. C.; Jester, S.; van Duyne, J.; Coppi, P.; Sambruna, R. M.; Takahashi, T.; Tavecchio, F.; Maraschi, L.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed infrared imaging of the jet of the quasar 3C 273 at wavelengths 3.6 and 5.8 microns with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. When combined with the radio, optical and X-ray measurements, the IRAC photometry clearly shows that the optical emission is dominated by the high-energy component of the jet, not by the radio synchrotron component, as had been assumed to date. The high-energy component may be due to a second synchrotron component or to IC ...

  19. A mollusk retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ortholog sheds light on the evolution of ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mazariegos, Juliana; Nadendla, Eswar Kumar; Lima, Daniela; Pierzchalski, Keely; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen; Nishikawa, Jun-Ichi; Hiromori, Youhei; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Santos, Miguel M; Castro, L Filipe C; Bourguet, William; Schubert, Michael; Laudet, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that regulate networks of target genes in response to small molecules. There is a strong bias in our knowledge of these receptors because they were mainly characterized in classical model organisms, mostly vertebrates. Therefore, the evolutionary origins of specific ligand-receptor couples still remain elusive. Here we present the identification and characterization of a retinoic acid receptor (RAR) from the mollusk Nucella lapillus (NlRAR). We show that this receptor specifically binds to DNA response elements organized in direct repeats as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor. Surprisingly, we also find that NlRAR does not bind all-trans retinoic acid or any other retinoid we tested. Furthermore, NlRAR is unable to activate the transcription of reporter genes in response to stimulation by retinoids and to recruit coactivators in the presence of these compounds. Three-dimensional modeling of the ligand-binding domain of NlRAR reveals an overall structure that is similar to vertebrate RARs. However, in the ligand-binding pocket (LBP) of the mollusk receptor, the alteration of several residues interacting with the ligand has apparently led to an overall decrease in the strength of the interaction with the ligand. Accordingly, mutations of NlRAR at key positions within the LBP generate receptors that are responsive to retinoids. Altogether our data suggest that, in mollusks, RAR has lost its affinity for all-trans retinoic acid, highlighting the evolutionary plasticity of its LBP. When put in an evolutionary context, our results reveal new structural and functional features of nuclear receptors validated by millions of years of evolution that were impossible to reveal in model organisms. PMID:25116705

  20. Shedding light on protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavishi, Krutika; Hatzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    in non-synchronized ensemble measurements. Single molecule studies have thus provided novel insights about how the dynamic sampling of the free energy landscape dictates all aspects of protein behavior; from its folding to function. Here we will survey some of the state of the art contributions in...... deciphering mechanisms that underlie protein folding, structural and functional dynamics by single molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. We will discuss a few selected examples highlighting the power of the emerging techniques and finally discuss the future improvements and directions.......The advent of advanced single molecule measurements unveiled a great wealth of dynamic information revolutionizing our understanding of protein dynamics and behavior in ways unattainable by conventional bulk assays. Equipped with the ability to record distribution of behaviors rather than the mean...

  1. Shedding light on the prompt high efficiency paradox - self consistent modeling of GRB afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Beniamini, Paz; Duran, Rodolfo Barniol; Piran, Tsvi

    2015-01-01

    We examine GRBs with both Fermi-LAT and X-ray afterglow data. Assuming that the 100MeV (LAT) emission is radiation from cooled electrons accelerated by external shocks, we show that the kinetic energy of the blast wave estimated from the 100MeV flux is 50 times larger than the one estimated from the X-ray flux. This can be explained if either: i) electrons radiating at X-rays are significantly cooled by SSC (suppressing the synchrotron flux above the cooling frequency) or ii) if the X-ray emitting electrons, unlike those emitting at 100MeV energies, are in the slow cooling regime. In both cases the X-ray flux is no longer an immediate proxy of the blast wave kinetic energy. We model the LAT, X-ray and optical data and show that in general these possibilities are consistent with the data, and explain the apparent disagreement between X-ray and LAT observations. All possible solutions require weak magnetic fields: $10^{-6}< \\epsilon_B < 10^{-3}$ (where $\\epsilon_B$ is the fraction of shocked plasma energy...

  2. Waves of genomic hitchhikers shed light on the evolution of gamebirds (Aves: Galliformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosius Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylogenetic tree of Galliformes (gamebirds, including megapodes, currassows, guinea fowl, New and Old World quails, chicken, pheasants, grouse, and turkeys has been considerably remodeled over the last decades as new data and analytical methods became available. Analyzing presence/absence patterns of retroposed elements avoids the problems of homoplastic characters inherent in other methodologies. In gamebirds, chicken repeats 1 (CR1 are the most prevalent retroposed elements, but little is known about the activity of their various subtypes over time. Ascertaining the fixation patterns of CR1 elements would help unravel the phylogeny of gamebirds and other poorly resolved avian clades. Results We analyzed 1,978 nested CR1 elements and developed a multidimensional approach taking advantage of their transposition in transposition character (TinT to characterize the fixation patterns of all 22 known chicken CR1 subtypes. The presence/absence patterns of those elements that were active at different periods of gamebird evolution provided evidence for a clade (Cracidae + (Numididae + (Odontophoridae + Phasianidae not including Megapodiidae; and for Rollulus as the sister taxon of the other analyzed Phasianidae. Genomic trace sequences of the turkey genome further demonstrated that the endangered African Congo Peafowl (Afropavo congensis is the sister taxon of the Asian Peafowl (Pavo, rejecting other predominantly morphology-based groupings, and that phasianids are monophyletic, including the sister taxa Tetraoninae and Meleagridinae. Conclusion The TinT information concerning relative fixation times of CR1 subtypes enabled us to efficiently investigate gamebird phylogeny and to reconstruct an unambiguous tree topology. This method should provide a useful tool for investigations in other taxonomic groups as well.

  3. Shedding Light on the Controversy Surrounding the Temporal Decline in Human Sperm Counts: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Cocuzza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We systematically examined the evidence of declining sperm counts and the hypothesis that an increased exposure to environmental pollutants is responsible for such decline. Search engines, including PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and Cochrane library, were used to identify epidemiologic studies published from 1985 to 2013. We concluded that there is no enough evidence to confirm a worldwide decline in sperm counts. Also, there seems to be no scientific truth of a causative role for endocrine disruptors in the temporal decline of sperm production. Such assumptions are based on few meta-analyses and retrospective studies, while other well-conducted researches could not confirm these findings. We acknowledge that difficult-to-control confounding factors in the highly variable nature of semen, selection criteria, and comparability of populations from different time periods in secular-trend studies, the quality of laboratory methods for counting sperm, and apparently geographic variations in semen quality are the main issues that complicate the interpretation of the available evidence. Owing to the importance of this subject and the uncertainties still prevailing, there is a need not only for continuing monitoring of semen quality, reproductive hormones, and xenobiotics, but also for a better definition of fecundity.

  4. Ancient DNA sheds light on the ancestry of pre-hispanic Canarian pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Olalde, Iñigo; Capote, Juan; Del-Arco, María C; Atoche, Pablo; Delgado, Teresa; González-Anton, Rafael; Pais, Jorge; Amills, Marcel; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Ramírez, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Background Canarian Black (CB) pigs belong to an autochthonous and endangered breed, which is spread throughout the Canarian archipelago. It is commonly accepted that they represent a relic of the pig populations that were bred by the Berbers in North Africa over millennia. It is important to note that the geographic isolation of the Canary Islands has preserved this genetic legacy intact from foreign introgressions until the Spanish conquest of the archipelago in the 15th century. Ten years ...

  5. Shedding light on inflammatory pseudotumor in children: spotlight on inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Lillian M.; Kao, Simon C.S.; Moritani, Toshio; Clark, Eve; Ishigami, Kousei; Sato, Yutaka [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); McCarville, M.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Kirby, Patricia [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bahrami, Armita [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Pathology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Inflammatory pseudotumor is a generic term used to designate a heterogeneous group of inflammatory mass-forming lesions histologically characterized by myofibroblastic proliferation with chronic inflammatory infiltrate. Inflammatory pseudotumor is multifactorial in etiology and generally benign, but it is often mistaken for malignancy given its aggressive appearance. It can occur throughout the body and is seen in all age groups. Inflammatory pseudotumor has been described in the literature by many organ-specific names, resulting in confusion. Recently within this generic category of inflammatory pseudotumor, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor has emerged as a distinct entity and is now recognized as a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic neoplasm with intermediate biological potential and occurring mostly in children. We present interesting pediatric cases of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors given this entity's tendency to occur in children. Familiarity and knowledge of the imaging features of inflammatory pseudotumor can help in making an accurate diagnosis, thereby avoiding unnecessary radical surgery. (orig.)

  6. A unified model of island biogeography sheds light on the zone of radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosindell, James; Phillimore, Albert B

    2011-06-01

    Islands acquire species through immigration and speciation. Models of island biogeography should capture both processes; however quantitative island biogeography theory has either neglected speciation or treated it unrealistically. We introduce a model where the dominance of immigration on small and near islands gives way to an increasing role for speciation as island area and isolation increase. We examine the contribution of immigration and speciation to the avifauna of 35 archipelagoes and find, consistent with our model, that the zone of radiation comprises two regions: endemic species diverged from mainland sister-species at intermediate isolation and from insular sister-species at higher levels of isolation. Our model also predicts species-area curves in accord with existing research and makes new predictions about species ages and abundances. We argue that a paucity of data and theory on species abundances on isolated islands highlights the need for island biogeography to be reconnected with mainstream ecology. PMID:21481125

  7. The predicted secretome of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 sheds light on interactions with its environment

    OpenAIRE

    Boekhorst, J.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Siezen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The predicted extracellular proteins of the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum were analysed to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying interactions of this bacterium with its environment. Extracellular proteins play important roles in processes ranging from probiotic effects in the gastrointestinal tract to degradation of complex extracellular carbon sources such as those found in plant materials, and they have a primary role in the adaptation of a bacterium to changing environmental cond...

  8. Shedding Light on a New Treatment for Diabetic Wound Healing: A Review on Phototherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Houreld, Nicolette N.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired wound healing is a common complication associated with diabetes with complex pathophysiological underlying mechanisms and often necessitates amputation. With the advancement in laser technology, irradiation of these wounds with low-intensity laser irradiation (LILI) or phototherapy, has shown a vast improvement in wound healing. At the correct laser parameters, LILI has shown to increase migration, viability, and proliferation of diabetic cells in vitro; there is a stimulatory effect...

  9. Lower Cambrian polychaete from China sheds light on early annelid evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianni; Ou, Qiang; Han, Jian; Li, Jinshu; Wu, Yichen; Jiao, Guoxiang; He, Tongjiang

    2015-01-01

    We herein report a fossilized polychaete annelid, Guanshanchaeta felicia gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan Biota (Cambrian Series 2, stage 4). The new taxon has a generalized polychaete morphology, with biramous parapodia (most of which preserve the evidence of chaetae), an inferred prostomium bearing a pair of appendages, and a bifid pygidium. G. felicia is the first unequivocal annelid reported from the Lower Cambrian of China. It represents one of the oldest annelids among...

  10. Lower Cambrian polychaete from China sheds light on early annelid evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianni; Ou, Qiang; Han, Jian; Li, Jinshu; Wu, Yichen; Jiao, Guoxiang; He, Tongjiang

    2015-06-01

    We herein report a fossilized polychaete annelid, Guanshanchaeta felicia gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Cambrian Guanshan Biota (Cambrian Series 2, stage 4). The new taxon has a generalized polychaete morphology, with biramous parapodia (most of which preserve the evidence of chaetae), an inferred prostomium bearing a pair of appendages, and a bifid pygidium. G. felicia is the first unequivocal annelid reported from the Lower Cambrian of China. It represents one of the oldest annelids among those from other early Paleozoic Lagerstätten including Sirius Passet from Greenland (Vinther et al., Nature 451: 185-188, 2008) and Emu Bay from Kangaroo island (Parry et al., Palaeontology 57: 1091-1103, 2014), and adds to our increasing roll of present-day animal phyla recognized in the early Cambrian Guanshan Biota. This finding expands the panorama of the Cambrian `explosion' exemplified by the Guanshan Biota, suggesting the presence of many more fossil annelids in the Chengjiang Lagerstätte and the Kaili Biota. In addition, this new taxon increases our knowledge of early polychaete morphology, which suggests that polychaete annelids considerably diversified in the Cambrian.

  11. Shedding new light on the K-Pg extinction event: application of modern fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Rory; Rein, Guillermo; Belcher, Claire

    2016-04-01

    The impact on fire on the earth system is a key component to understand the long term evolutionary history of our planet. However, in order to fully explore the role of fire, it is essential to draw on the significant existing literature and methods available to both palaeontologists and fire scientists if we are to better interpret the fossil record of life. A novel cross-disciplinary approach was developed to investigate the extent to which forest materials may have been ignited by the thermal radiation delivered by the collision of an extra-terrestrial body on the Yucatán Peninsula at the end of the Cretaceous period. A novel experimental approach was developed through close collaboration between earth scientists and fire safety engineers that drew on well established procedures for assessing material flammability. Through close working in both experimental design and interpretation, a new method to rapidly and effectively assess the expected ignition behaviour resulting from this event was developed. Prior modelling of the impact indicated that the impact resulted in a range of heat flux pulses, dependent on the angle of impact and melt spherule distribution and was shown to vary as a function of geographical location. These data were used as an input to a series of laboratory experiments undertaken at the Rushbrook Fire Laboratory at the University of Edinburgh. Building on existing material flammability assessment methods, modifications were made to the operation of the FM Global Fire Propagation Apparatus to allow these time-dependent heat flux pulses to be reproduced in the laboratory under controlled conditions of thermal input and burning environment. The results indicate that the ignition propensity of a particular biome is strongly dependent on both the fuel available and the heat pulse. It was observed that thin, dry fuels could be ignited easily under almost every condition but that live fuels could not. Live fuels could only be ignited by the less intense, long duration pulse that occurred at locations far from the impact site. Not only has this resulted in new insights into building our understanding of the end Cretaceous mass extinction, but it has also yielded a simple experimental method that rapidly allows investigation of the ignition propensity of specific ecosystems of utility to the fossil record. Finally, by applying fire science techniques to this problem, the underlying physical phenomena can be investigated allowing greater confidence in extrapolation of data to other scenarios. It is clear that such collaborative approaches in developing new experimental procedures drawing on existing knowledge from diverse research fields has allowed for rapid progress in interpreting the fossil evidence of fire through earth history. In addition to advancing the state of the art in palaeontology, this work has resulted in new developments in fire safety science clearly indicating the benefits of cross-disciplinary experimental research methods.

  12. Changes in seismic anisotropy shed light on the nature of the Gutenberg discontinuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghein, Caroline; Yuan, Kaiqing; Schmerr, Nicholas; Xing, Zheng

    2014-03-14

    The boundary between the lithosphere and asthenosphere is associated with a platewide high-seismic velocity "lid" overlying lowered velocities, consistent with thermal models. Seismic body waves also intermittently detect a sharp velocity reduction at similar depths, the Gutenberg (G) discontinuity, which cannot be explained by temperature alone. We compared an anisotropic tomography model with detections of the G to evaluate their context and relation to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). We find that the G is primarily associated with vertical changes in azimuthal anisotropy and lies above a thermally controlled LAB, implying that the two are not equivalent interfaces. The origin of the G is a result of frozen-in lithospheric structures, regional compositional variations of the mantle, or dynamically perturbed LAB. PMID:24578529

  13. X-ray structure of potato epoxide hydrolase sheds light on substrate specificity in plant enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Mowbray, Sherry L.; Elfström, Lisa T.; Ahlgren, Kerstin M; Andersson, C. Evalena; Widersten, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolases catalyze the conversion of epoxides to diols. The known functions of such enzymes include detoxification of xenobiotics, drug metabolism, synthesis of signaling compounds, and intermediary metabolism. In plants, epoxide hydrolases are thought to participate in general defense systems. In the present study, we report the first structure of a plant epoxide hydrolase, one of the four homologous enzymes found in potato. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and refi...

  14. Drug Elucidation: Invertebrate Genetics Sheds New Light on the Molecular Targets of CNS Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donard S. Dwyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many important drugs approved to treat common human diseases were discovered by serendipity, without a firm understanding of their modes of action. As a result, the side effects and interactions of these medications are often unpredictable, and there is limited guidance for improving the design of next-generation drugs. Here, we review the innovative use of simple model organisms, especially Caenorhabditis elegans, to gain fresh insights into the complex biological effects of approved CNS medications. Whereas drug discovery involves the identification of new drug targets and lead compounds/biologics, and drug development spans preclinical testing to FDA approval, drug elucidation refers to the process of understanding the mechanisms of action of marketed drugs by studying their novel effects in model organisms. Drug elucidation studies have revealed new pathways affected by antipsychotic drugs, e.g., the insulin signaling pathway, a trace amine receptor and a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Similarly, novel targets of antidepressant drugs and lithium have been identified in C. elegans, including lipid-binding/transport proteins and the SGK-1 signaling pathway, respectively. Elucidation of the mode of action of anesthetic agents has shown that anesthesia can involve mitochondrial targets, leak currents and gap junctions. The general approach reviewed in this article has advanced our knowledge about important drugs for CNS disorders and can guide future drug discovery efforts.

  15. Metaphylogeny of 82 gene families sheds a new light on chordate evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vienne, Alexandre; Pontarotti, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Achieving a better comprehension of the evolution of species has always been an important matter for evolutionary biologists. The deuterostome phylogeny has been described for many years, and three phyla are distinguishable: Echinodermata (including sea stars, sea urchins, etc…), Hemichordata (including acorn worms and pterobranchs), and Chordata (including urochordates, cephalochordates and extant vertebrates). Inside the Chordata phylum, the position of vertebrate species is quite unanimous...

  16. Metaphylogeny of 82 gene families sheds a new light on chordate evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving a better comprehension of the evolution of species has always been an important matter for evolutionary biologists. The deuterostome phylogeny has been described for many years, and three phyla are distinguishable: Echinodermata (including sea stars, sea urchins, etc…, Hemichordata (including acorn worms and pterobranchs, and Chordata (including urochordates, cephalochordates and extant vertebrates. Inside the Chordata phylum, the position of vertebrate species is quite unanimously accepted. Nonetheless, the position of urochordates in regard with vertebrates is still the subject of debate, and has even been suggested by some authors to be a separate phylum from cephalochordates and vertebrates. It was also the case for agnathans species –myxines and hagfish– for which phylogenetic evidence was recently given for a controversial monophyly. This raises the following question: which one of the cephalochordata or urochordata is the sister group of vertebrates and what are their relationships? In the present work, we analyzed 82 protein families presenting homologs between urochordata and other deuterostomes and focused on two points: 1 testing accurately the position of urochordata and cephalochordata phyla in regard with vertebrates as well as chordates monophyly, 2 performing an estimation of the rate of gene loss in the Ciona intestinalis genome. We showed that the urochordate phyla is the vertebrate sister group and that gene loss played a major role in structuring the urochordate genome.

  17. The Role of Collaborative Learning on Training and Development Practices within the Australian Men's Shed Movement: A Study of Five Men's Sheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Southcombe, Amie; Bartram, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role and impact of collaborative learning on training and development practices in Australian Men's Sheds. We use a case study approach, underpinned by Peters and Armstrong's theoretical framework of collaborative learning in adult education, to investigate five Men's Sheds. Semi-structured interviews were…

  18. Shedding of Renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, C L; Pascho, R J

    1999-10-11

    Laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of Renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne R. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. To quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13 degrees C in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with R. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) fish (-1) (high-dose injection group) or 1.5 x 10(3) CFU fish (-1) (low-dose injection group). R. salmoninarum infection levels were measured in the exposed fish by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (BKD-ELISA). At regular intervals for 30 d, the numbers of R. salmoninarum shed by the injected fish were calculated on the basis of testing water samples by the membrane filtration-fluorescent antibody test (MF-FAT) and bacteriological culture. Mean BKD-ELISA optical densities (ODs) for fish in the low-dose injection group were not different from those control fish (p > 0.05), and no R. salmoninarum were detected in water samples taken up to 30 d after injection of fish in the low-dose group. By 12 d after injection a proportion of the fish from the high-dose infection group had high (BKD-ELISA OD > or = 1.000) to severe (BKD-ELISA OD > or = 2.000) R. salmoninarum infection levels, and bacteria were detected in the water by both tests. However, measurable levels of R. salmoninarum were not consistently detected in the water until a proportion of the fish maintained high to severe infection levels for an additional 8 d. The concentrations of R. salmoninarum in the water samples ranged from undetectable up to 994 cells ml(-1) on the basis of the MF-FAT, and up to 1850 CFU ml(-1) on the basis of bacteriological culture. The results suggest that chinook salmon infected with R. salmoninarum by injection of approximately 1 x 10(6) CFU fish (-1) can be used as the source of infection in cohabitation challenges

  19. Leading-edge vortex shedding from rotating wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke W., Montreal, QC H3A 0B9 (Canada); Elimelech, Yossef [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Schneider, Kai, E-mail: dkolom@gmail.com [M2P2–CNRS, Université d' Aix-Marseille, 39, rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, F-13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the leading-edge vortices generated by rotating triangular wings at Reynolds number Re = 250. A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out using a Fourier pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. The transition from stable attachment of the leading-edge vortex to periodic vortex shedding is explored, as a function of the wing aspect ratio and the angle of attack. It is found that, in a stable configuration, the spanwise flow in the recirculation bubble past the wing is due to the centrifugal force, incompressibility and viscous stresses. For the flow outside of the bubble, an inviscid model of spanwise flow is presented. (papers)

  20. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 250C during summer and about 200C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s-1 and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin

  1. Analysis and Prediction of Ice Shedding for a Full-Scale Heated Tail Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreeger, Richard E.; Work, Andrew; Douglass, Rebekah; Gazella, Matthew; Koster, Zakery; Turk, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    When helicopters are to fly in icing conditions, it is necessary to consider the possibility of ice shed from the rotor blades. In 2013, a series of tests were conducted on a heated tail rotor at NASA Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The tests produced several shed events that were captured on camera. Three of these shed events were captured at a sufficiently high frame rate to obtain multiple images of the shed ice in flight that had a sufficiently long section of shed ice for analysis. Analysis of these shed events is presented and compared to an analytical Shedding Trajectory Model (STM). The STM is developed and assumes that the ice breaks off instantly as it reaches the end of the blade, while frictional and viscous forces are used as parameters to fit the STM. The trajectory of each shed is compared to that predicted by the STM, where the STM provides information of the shed group of ice as a whole. The limitations of the model's underlying assumptions are discussed in comparison to experimental shed events.

  2. A vortex-shedding flowmeter based on IPMCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Giovanna; Graziani, Salvatore; Pollicino, Antonino; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive polymers that can be used both as sensors and actuators. They have been demonstrated for many potential applications, in wet and underwater environments. Applications in fields such as biomimetics, robotics, and aerospace, just to mention a few, have been proposed. In this paper, the sensing nature of IPMCs is used to develop a flowmeter based on the vortex shedding phenomenon. The system is described, and a model is proposed and verified. A setup has been realized, and data have been acquired for many working conditions. The performance of the sensing system has been investigated by using acquired experimental data. Water flux velocities in the range [0.38, 2.83] m s-1 have been investigated. This working range is comparable with ranges claimed for established technologies. Results show the suitability of the proposed system to work as a flowmeter. The proposed transducer is suitable for envisaged post-silicon applications, where the use of IPMCs gives the opportunity to realize a new generating polymeric flowmeter. This has potential applications in fields where properties of IPMCs such as low cost, usability, and disposability are relevant.

  3. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY: Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. CONCLUSIONS: RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  4. Dairy shed effluent treatment and recycling: Effluent characteristics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Julian; Hagare, Dharma; Sivakumar, Muttucumaru

    2016-09-15

    Dairy farm milking operations produce considerable amounts of carbon- and nutrient-rich effluent that can be a vital source of nutrients for pasture and crops. The study aim was to characterise dairy shed effluent from a commercial farm and examine the changes produced by treatment, storage and recycling of the effluent through a two-stage stabilisation pond system. The data and insights from the study are broadly applicable to passive pond systems servicing intensive dairy and other livestock operations. Raw effluent contained mostly poorly biodegradable particulate organic material and organically bound nutrients, as well as a large fraction of fixed solids due to effluent recycling. The anaerobic pond provided effective sedimentation and biological treatment, but hydrolysis of organic material occurred predominantly in the sludge and continually added to effluent soluble COD, nutrients and cations. Sludge digestion also suppressed pH in the pond and increased salt levels through formation of alkalinity. High sludge levels significantly impaired pond treatment performance. In the facultative pond, BOD5 concentrations were halved; however smaller reductions in COD showed the refractory nature of incoming organic material. Reductions in soluble N and P were proportional to reductions in respective particulate forms, suggesting that respective removal mechanisms were not independent. Conditions in the ponds were unlikely to support biological nutrient removal. Recycling caused conservative inert constituents to accumulate within the pond system. Material leaving the system was mostly soluble (86% TS) and inert (65% TS), but salt concentrations remained below thresholds for safe land application. PMID:27213866

  5. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy nanostructural study of shed microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Issman

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are sub-micron membrane vesicles (100-1000 nm shed from normal and pathologic cells due to stimulation or apoptosis. MPs can be found in the peripheral blood circulation of healthy individuals, whereas elevated concentrations are found in pregnancy and in a variety of diseases. Also, MPs participate in physiological processes, e.g., coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Since their clinical properties are important, we have developed a new methodology based on nano-imaging that provides significant new data on MPs nanostructure, their composition and function. We are among the first to characterize by direct-imaging cryogenic transmitting electron microscopy (cryo-TEM the near-to-native nanostructure of MP systems isolated from different cell types and stimulation procedures. We found that there are no major differences between the MP systems we have studied, as most particles were spherical, with diameters from 200 to 400 nm. However, each MP population is very heterogeneous, showing diverse morphologies. We investigated by cryo-TEM the effects of standard techniques used to isolate and store MPs, and found that either high-g centrifugation of MPs for isolation purposes, or slow freezing to -80 °C for storage introduce morphological artifacts, which can influence MP nanostructure, and thus affect the efficiency of these particles as future diagnostic tools.

  6. Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent vortex shedding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis documents the development and application of a computational algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation. Unusually, the method adopts a fully collocated variable storage arrangement and is applicable to complex, non-rectilinear geometries. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes algorithm has formed the starting point of the development, but has been modified substantially: the spatial approximation of convection is effected by an energy-conserving central-differencing scheme; a second-order time-marching Adams-Bashforth scheme has been introduced; the pressure field is determined by solving the pressure-Poisson equation; this equation is solved either by use of preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient methods or with the Generalised Minimum Residual method; two types of sub-grid scale models have been introduced and examined. The algorithm has been validated by reference to a hierarchy of unsteady flows of increasing complexity starting with unsteady lid-driven cavity flows and ending with 3-D turbulent vortex shedding behind a square prism. In the latter case, for which extensive experimental data are available, special emphasis has been put on examining the dependence of the results on mesh density, near-wall treatment and the nature of the sub-grid-scale model, one of which is an advanced dynamic model. The LES scheme is shown to return time-average and phase-averaged results which agree well with experimental data and which support the view that LES is a promising approach for unsteady flows dominated by large periodic structures. (author)

  7. Acoustic interaction with vortex structures shed by an obstacle in a closed cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, D.; Hebrard, P.; Pauzin, S.; Garnier, F.; Labegorre, B.; Laverdant, A.

    CERT-DERMES has created an experimental set-up for studying the interaction between acoustics and coherent structures. The set-up comprises a subsonic diffuser, a rectangular wind tunnel with a square prismatic obstacle placed at an incidence to shed vortices, and a converging-diverging nozzle. The sound waves are observed to be amplified when the acoustic triggering and vortex shedding frequencies are close to one another. A numerical simulation using an adapted version of the KIVA code developed at Los Alamos replicated experimental vortex shedding with particle dyes. The experimental and numerical Strouhal numbers for the vortex shedding behind the obstacle are in good agreement with previously published results.

  8. Smallpox vaccine, ACAM2000: Sites and duration of viral shedding and effect of povidone iodine on scarification site shedding and immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Phillip R; Garman, Patrick M; Kim, Sung-Han; Schmader, Trevor J; Nieding, William J; Pike, Jason G; Knight, Ryan; Johnston, Sara C; Huggins, John W; Kortepeter, Mark G; Korman, Lawrence; Ranadive, Manmohan; Quinn, Xiaofei; Meyers, Mitchell S

    2015-06-12

    The U.S. Department of Defense vaccinates personnel deployed to high-risk areas with the vaccinia virus (VACV)-based smallpox vaccine. Autoinoculations and secondary and tertiary transmissions due to VACV shedding from the vaccination site continue to occur despite education of vaccinees on the risks of such infections. The objectives of this study were to investigate, in naïve smallpox vaccinees, (a) whether the vaccination site can remain contagious after the scab separates and (b) whether the application of povidone iodine ointment (PIO) to the vaccination site inactivates VACV without affecting the immune response. These objectives were tested in 60 individuals scheduled to receive smallpox vaccine. Thirty individuals (control) did not receive PIO; 30 subjects (treatment) received PIO starting on post-vaccination day 7. Counter to current dogma, this study showed that VACV continues to shed from the vaccination site after the scab separates. Overall viral shedding levels in the PIO group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p=0.0045), and PIO significantly reduced the duration of viral shedding (median duration 14.5 days and 21 days in the PIO and control groups, respectively; p=0.0444). At least 10% of control subjects continued to shed VACV at day 28, and 3.4% continued to shed the virus at day 42. PIO reduced the proportion of subjects shedding virus from the vaccination site from day 8 until days 21-23 compared with control subjects. Groups did not differ significantly in the proportion of subjects mounting an immune response, as measured by neutralizing antibodies, IgM, IgG, and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay. When applied to the vaccination site starting on day 7, PIO reduced viral shedding without altering the immune response. The use of PIO in addition to a semipermeable dressing may reduce the rates of autoinoculation and contact transmission originating from the vaccination site in smallpox-vaccinated individuals

  9. Acceleration of epithelial cell syndecan-1 shedding by anthrax hemolytic virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandhoke Vikas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recently reported that major pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accelerate a normal process of cell surface syndecan-1 (Synd1 ectodomain shedding as a mechanism of host damage due to the production of shedding-inducing virulence factors. We tested if acceleration of Synd1 shedding takes place in vitro upon treatment of epithelial cells with B. anthracis hemolysins, as well as in vivo during anthrax infection in mice. Results The isolated anthrax hemolytic proteins AnlB (sphingomyelinase and AnlO (cholesterol-binding pore-forming factor, as well as ClnA (B. cereus homolog of B. anthracis phosphatidyl choline-preferring phospholipase C cause accelerated shedding of Synd1 and E-cadherin from epithelial cells and compromise epithelial barrier integrity within a few hours. In comparison with hemolysins in a similar range of concentrations, anthrax lethal toxin (LT also accelerates shedding albeit at slower rate. Individual components of LT, lethal factor and protective antigen are inactive with regard to shedding. Inhibition experiments favor a hypothesis that activities of tested bacterial shedding inducers converge on the stimulation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Syk family, ultimately leading to activation of cellular sheddase. Both LT and AnlO modulate ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, while JNK pathway seems to be irrelevant to accelerated shedding. Accelerated shedding of Synd1 also takes place in DBA/2 mice challenged with Bacillus anthracis (Sterne spores. Elevated levels of shed ectodomain are readily detectable in circulation after 24 h. Conclusion The concerted acceleration of shedding by several virulence factors could represent a new pathogenic mechanism contributing to disruption of epithelial or endothelial integrity, hemorrhage, edema and abnormal cell signaling during anthrax infection.

  10. Comparison of three nonlinear models to describe long-term tag shedding by lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Swanson, Bruce L.; Schram, Stephen T.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    We estimated long-term tag-shedding rates for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush using two existing models and a model we developed to account for the observed permanence of some tags. Because tag design changed over the course of the study, we examined tag-shedding rates for three types of numbered anchor tags (Floy tags FD-67, FD-67C, and FD-68BC) and an unprinted anchor tag (FD-67F). Lake trout from the Gull Island Shoal region, Lake Superior, were double-tagged, and subsequent recaptures were monitored in annual surveys conducted from 1974 to 1992. We modeled tag-shedding rates, using time at liberty and probabilities of tag shedding estimated from fish released in 1974 and 1978–1983 and later recaptured. Long-term shedding of numbered anchor tags in lake trout was best described by a nonlinear model with two parameters: an instantaneous tag-shedding rate and a constant representing the proportion of tags that were never shed. Although our estimates of annual shedding rates varied with tag type (0.300 for FD-67, 0.441 for FD-67C, and 0.656 for FD-68BC), differences were not significant. About 36% of tags remained permanently affixed to the fish. Of the numbered tags that were shed (about 64%), two mechanisms contributed to tag loss: disintegration and dislodgment. Tags from about 11% of recaptured fish had disintegrated, but most tags were dislodged. Unprinted tags were shed at a significant but low rate immediately after release, but the long-term, annual shedding rate of these tags was only 0.013. Compared with unprinted tags, numbered tags dislodged at higher annual rates; we hypothesized that this was due to the greater frictional drag associated with the larger cross-sectional area of numbered tags.

  11. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  12. Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent vortex shedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambeau, F

    1995-06-01

    This thesis documents the development and application of a computational algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation. Unusually, the method adopts a fully collocated variable storage arrangement and is applicable to complex, non-rectilinear geometries. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes algorithm has formed the starting point of the development, but has been modified substantially: the spatial approximation of convection is effected by an energy-conserving central-differencing scheme; a second-order time-marching Adams-Bashforth scheme has been introduced; the pressure field is determined by solving the pressure-Poisson equation; this equation is solved either by use of preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient methods or with the Generalised Minimum Residual method; two types of sub-grid scale models have been introduced and examined. The algorithm has been validated by reference to a hierarchy of unsteady flows of increasing complexity starting with unsteady lid-driven cavity flows and ending with 3-D turbulent vortex shedding behind a square prism. In the latter case, for which extensive experimental data are available, special emphasis has been put on examining the dependence of the results on mesh density, near-wall treatment and the nature of the sub-grid-scale model, one of which is an advanced dynamic model. The LES scheme is shown to return time-average and phase-averaged results which agree well with experimental data and which support the view that LES is a promising approach for unsteady flows dominated by large periodic structures. (author) 87 refs.

  13. Influence of thermal inhibitor position and temperature on vortex-shedding-driven pressure oscillations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Wanxing; Li Shipeng; Zhang Qiao; Li Junwei; Ye Qingqing; Wang Ningfei

    2013-01-01

    Vortex-acoustic coupling is one of the most important potential sources of combustion instability in solid rocket motors (SRMs).Based on the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) experimental motor,the influence of the thermal inhibitor position and temperature on vortex-shedding-driven pressure oscillations is numerically studied via the large eddy simulation (LES)method.The simulation results demonstrate that vortex shedding is a periodic process and its accurate frequency can be numerically obtained.Acoustic modes could be easily excited by vortex shedding.The vortex shedding frequency and second acoustic frequency dominate the pressure oscillation characteristics in the chamber.Thermal inhibitor position and gas temperature have little effect on vortex shedding frequency,but have great impact on pressure oscillation amplitude.Pressure amplitude is much higher when the thermal inhibitor locates at the acoustic velocity anti-nodes.The farther the thermal inhibitor is to the nozzle head,the more vortex energy would be dissipated by the turbulence.Therefore,the vortex shedding amplitude at the second acoustic velocity antinode near 3/4L (L is chamber length) is larger than those of others.Besides,the natural acoustic frequencies increase with the gas temperature.As the vortex shedding frequency departs from the natural acoustic frequency,the vortex-acoustic feedback loop is decoupled.Consequently,both the vortex shedding and acoustic amplitudes decrease rapidly.

  14. Strongyle egg shedding consistency in horses on farms using selective therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Haaning, Niels; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    Knowledge of horses that shed the same number of strongyle eggs over time can lead to the optimization of parasite control strategies. This study evaluated shedding of strongyle eggs in 424 horses on 10 farms whan a selective anthelmintic treatment regime was used over a 3-year period....

  15. Application of computational intelligence techniques for load shedding in power systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The power system blackout history of last two decades is presented. • Conventional load shedding techniques, their types and limitations are presented. • Applications of intelligent techniques in load shedding are presented. • Intelligent techniques include ANN, fuzzy logic, ANFIS, genetic algorithm and PSO. • The discussion and comparison between these techniques are provided. - Abstract: Recent blackouts around the world question the reliability of conventional and adaptive load shedding techniques in avoiding such power outages. To address this issue, reliable techniques are required to provide fast and accurate load shedding to prevent collapse in the power system. Computational intelligence techniques, due to their robustness and flexibility in dealing with complex non-linear systems, could be an option in addressing this problem. Computational intelligence includes techniques like artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic control, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and particle swarm optimization. Research in these techniques is being undertaken in order to discover means for more efficient and reliable load shedding. This paper provides an overview of these techniques as applied to load shedding in a power system. This paper also compares the advantages of computational intelligence techniques over conventional load shedding techniques. Finally, this paper discusses the limitation of computational intelligence techniques, which restricts their usage in load shedding in real time

  16. A Study on a Centralized Under-Voltage Load Shedding Scheme Considering the Load Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiyu; Liu, Junyong

    Under-voltage load shedding is an important measure for maintaining voltage stability.Aiming at the optimal load shedding problem considering the load characteristics,firstly,the traditional under-voltage load shedding scheme based on a static load model may cause the analysis inaccurate is pointed out on the equivalent Thevenin circuit.Then,the dynamic voltage stability margin indicator is derived through local measurement.The derived indicator can reflect the voltage change of the key area in a myopia linear way.Dimensions of the optimal problem will be greatly simplified using this indicator.In the end,mathematical model of the centralized load shedding scheme is built with the indicator considering load characteristics.HSPPSO is introduced to slove the optimal problem.Simulation results on IEEE-39 system show that the proposed scheme display a good adaptability in solving the under-voltage load shedding considering dynamic load characteristics.

  17. Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-Shedding in Agent-Based Microgrid Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Research, development, and demonstration projects on microgrids have been progressed in many countries. Furthermore, microgrids are expected to introduce into power grids as eco-friendly small-scale power grids in the near future. Load-shedding is a problem not avoided to meet power balance between power supply and power demand to maintain specific frequency such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Load-shedding causes consumers inconvenience and therefore should be performed minimally. Recently, agent-based microgrid operation has been studied and new algorithms for their autonomous operation including load-shedding has been required. The bankruptcy problem deals with distribution insufficient sources to claimants. In this paper, we approach the load-shedding problem as a bankruptcy problem and adopt the Talmud rule as an algorithm. Load-shedding using the Talmud rule is tested in islanded microgrid operation based on a multiagent system.

  18. Men's Sheds: enabling environments for Australian men living with and without long-term disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansji, Neeraj L; Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie

    2015-05-01

    The health of Australian men has recently received greater attention. Men's Sheds are named in national policy as an exemplar community-based organisation for the betterment of men's psychosocial health; yet, the evidence base to support this is limited. This study investigates the comparative experience of men with long-term disabilities and men without long-term disabilities who go to a Men's Shed and to what extent this provides these men with an enabling, as opposed to disabling, environment. Data were collected from 12 individual interviews with men with long-term disabilities (5) and men without long-term disabilities (6), including 1 interview with the male Men's Shed Coordinator (MSC); participant observation within the shed; and a document received from the female MSC regarding the funding the Shed receives. Interviews explored the men's experiences at the Shed and their sense of belonging and social inclusion. Participants had any type of long-term disability and had been attending the shed for a minimum of 1 month. Data were collected between May and September 2013 and were analysed using the constant comparative method of grounded theory. The core theme that emerged was an enabling community space. The four sub-themes were: a community and social hub; an equalising space; a safe and supportive male environment; and meaningful male activities. The current literature exemplifies Men's Sheds to be important community-based organisations beneficial to men's health and well-being. For men living with long-term disabilities, this study illuminates that Men's Sheds offer an environment of equality, facilitating a collegial and egalitarian culture. Men can partake in enabling activities and enjoy the company of other men enhancing their sense of belonging and social inclusion as well as interact with other community groups that occupy the same space as the Men's Shed. PMID:25428844

  19. Numerical simulation of terrain-induced vortex/wave shedding at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Li-Jie; Mao, Hui [Shenzhen National Climate Observatory, Meteorological Bureau of Shenzhen Municipality (China); Chan, P.W. [Hong Kong Observatory (China)

    2013-10-15

    The present study aims at simulating the shedding of vortex/wave from a mountain nearby the Hong Kong International Airport using a computational fluid dynamics model by employing high resolution terrain data without smoothing. The successful simulation of this shedding would have an important application in the short-term forecasting of the chance of occurrence of terrain-induced windshear at an operating airport. Two typical cases of vortex/wave shedding are considered, namely, in neutral atmosphere associated with the passage of a typhoon, and in stably stratified atmosphere in spring-time easterly flow with continental origin. The model is found to successfully capture the salient features of the shedding. The simulated radial velocity fields of weather radar/LIDAR compare well with actual observations. In particular, the creation and the propagation of the vortex/wave through shedding from a mountain nearby the airport are captured well in the model simulation. The shedding periods are also reproduced. From the limited number of cases studied in this paper, it appears that the model has the capability of forecasting the occurrence of vortex/wave shedding by coupling with a mesoscale meteorological model. (orig.)

  20. Numerical simulation of terrain-induced vortex/wave shedding at the Hong Kong International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at simulating the shedding of vortex/wave from a mountain nearby the Hong Kong International Airport using a computational fluid dynamics model by employing high resolution terrain data without smoothing. The successful simulation of this shedding would have an important application in the short-term forecasting of the chance of occurrence of terrain-induced windshear at an operating airport. Two typical cases of vortex/wave shedding are considered, namely, in neutral atmosphere associated with the passage of a typhoon, and in stably stratified atmosphere in spring-time easterly flow with continental origin. The model is found to successfully capture the salient features of the shedding. The simulated radial velocity fields of weather radar/LIDAR compare well with actual observations. In particular, the creation and the propagation of the vortex/wave through shedding from a mountain nearby the airport are captured well in the model simulation. The shedding periods are also reproduced. From the limited number of cases studied in this paper, it appears that the model has the capability of forecasting the occurrence of vortex/wave shedding by coupling with a mesoscale meteorological model.

  1. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  2. The association between HPV, intraepithelial lesions and HIV-1 shedding in anogenital specimens in two contrasting populations: Senegalese women and American MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Julia E; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S; Kiviat, Nancy B; Sow, Papa Salif; Toure, Macoumba; Feng, Qinghua; Hawes, Stephen E

    2016-04-01

    In light of observational evidence showing an association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV acquisition risk, the potential of HPV vaccination as a HIV prevention strategy is being considered. However, the relationship between HPV and HIV infectiousness is unclear. In this analysis, the relationship between HPV and anogenital HIV shedding (a proxy for transmissibility) was assessed in two diverse populations: HIV-infected Senegalese women and American men who have sex with men (MSM). Data from two longitudinal studies with similar protocols were analysed. In both studies, anogenital specimens underwent cytologic, HPV DNA, and HIV-1 RNA testing. Analyses utilised multivariable generalised estimating equations that controlled for age, hormonal contraceptive use (women only), plasma viral load, CD4 count and treatment status. Among Senegalese women, cervical lesions were significantly associated with the detection of HIV RNA (aRR = 1.16 [1.05, 1.28]) and log10 cervicovaginal fluids viral load (adjusted β = 0.56 [0.12, 1.01]). No association was detected between HPV (of any type) and cervicovaginal HIV shedding (aRRDetection = 0.90 [0.77, 1.06]; βQuantity = -0.31 [-0.78, 0.16]). Among MSM, having multiple HPV infections (versus no HPV infection) was associated with anal HIV shedding (aRRDetection = 1.05 [1.01, 1.09]; βQuantity = 0.11 [0.01, 0.21]). Anal lesions were not associated with anal HIV shedding (aRRLESIONS = 0.99 [0.96, 1.03], βLESIONS = -0.05 [-0.13, 0.03]). Although HPV and intraepithelial lesions were associated with anogenital HIV shedding in crude analyses, the measures of effect were attenuated in adjusted analyses. Our data suggest that the prevention of HPV through vaccination is unlikely to substantially affect HIV infectiousness among persons living with HIV. PMID:25914409

  3. Lipids shed into the culture medium by trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusti Rosalia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi were metabolically labeled with [14C]-ethanolamine and [3H]-palmitic acid. Lipids shed to the culture medium were analyzed and compared with the parasite components. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine accounted for 53% of the total incorporated precursor. Interestingly, phosphatidylethanolamine and its lyso derivative lysophosphatidylethanolamine, although present in significant amounts in the parasites, could not be detected in the shed material. Shed lipids were highly enriched in the desaturated fatty acids C16:1 and C18:1 when compared to the total fatty acid pool isolated from the parasites.

  4. Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Tråvén, Madeleine; Alenius, Stefan; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Prevention of virus spread is impeded by a lack of basic knowledge concerning viral shedding and transmission potential in individual animals. The aims of the study were to investigate the duration and quantity of BCoV shedding in feces and nasal secretions related to clinical signs, the presence of virus in blood and tissues and to test the hypothesis t...

  5. Modulation of statin-activated shedding of Alzheimer APP ectodomain by ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Pedrini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs that act by inhibiting HMGCoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Recent evidence suggests that statin use may be associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer disease, although the mechanisms underlying this apparent risk reduction are poorly understood. One popular hypothesis for statin action is related to the drugs' ability to activate alpha-secretase-type shedding of the alpha-secretase-cleaved soluble Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein ectodomain (sAPP(alpha. Statins also inhibit the isoprenoid pathway, thereby modulating the activities of the Rho family of small GTPases-Rho A, B, and C-as well as the activities of Rac and cdc42. Rho proteins, in turn, exert many of their effects via Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs. Several cell-surface molecules are substrates for activated alpha-secretase-type ectodomain shedding, and regulation of shedding typically occurs via activation of protein kinase C or extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases, or via inactivation of protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. However, the possibility that these enzymes play a role in statin-stimulated shedding has been excluded, leading us to investigate whether the Rho/ROCK1 protein phosphorylation pathway might be involved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found that both atorvastatin and simvastatin stimulated sAPP(alpha shedding from a neuroblastoma cell line via a subcellular mechanism apparently located upstream of endocytosis. A farnesyl transferase inhibitor also increased sAPP(alpha shedding, as did a dominant negative form of ROCK1. Most conclusively, a constitutively active ROCK1 molecule inhibited statin-stimulated sAPP(alpha shedding. CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest that statins exert their effects on shedding of sAPP(alpha from cultured cells, at least in part, by modulation of the isoprenoid pathway and ROCK1.

  6. Modulation of Statin-Activated Shedding of Alzheimer APP Ectodomain by ROCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrini Steve

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs that act by inhibiting HMGCoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Recent evidence suggests that statin use may be associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer disease, although the mechanisms underlying this apparent risk reduction are poorly understood. One popular hypothesis for statin action is related to the drugs' ability to activate alpha-secretase-type shedding of the alpha-secretase-cleaved soluble Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein ectodomain (sAPPalpha. Statins also inhibit the isoprenoid pathway, thereby modulating the activities of the Rho family of small GTPases-Rho A, B, and C-as well as the activities of Rac and cdc42. Rho proteins, in turn, exert many of their effects via Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs. Several cell-surface molecules are substrates for activated alpha-secretase-type ectodomain shedding, and regulation of shedding typically occurs via activation of protein kinase C or extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases, or via inactivation of protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. However, the possibility that these enzymes play a role in statin-stimulated shedding has been excluded, leading us to investigate whether the Rho/ROCK1 protein phosphorylation pathway might be involved. Methods and Findings We found that both atorvastatin and simvastatin stimulated sAPPalpha shedding from a neuroblastoma cell line via a subcellular mechanism apparently located upstream of endocytosis. A farnesyl transferase inhibitor also increased sAPPalpha shedding, as did a dominant negative form of ROCK1. Most conclusively, a constitutively active ROCK1 molecule inhibited statin-stimulated sAPPalpha shedding. Conclusion Together, these data suggest that statins exert their effects on shedding of sAPPalpha from cultured cells, at least in part, by modulation of the isoprenoid pathway and ROCK1.

  7. Will he still look good with the lights on? : Spectral tuning of visual pigments in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Julia; Gunter, Helen; Meyer, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Visual perception is a key element in evolution, as it is required for many life processes. Two recent studies in BMC Biology and BMC Evolutionary Biology shed light on the genetic determinants of color detection in strikingly colored fish.

  8. LRP1 shedding in human brain: roles of ADAM10 and ADAM17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiss Karina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 plays critical roles in lipid metabolism, cell survival, and the clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ peptide. Functional soluble LRP1 (sLRP1 has been detected in circulating human placenta; however, whether sLRP1 is also present in the central nervous system is unclear. Results Here we show that abundant sLRP1 capable of binding its ligands is present in human brain tissue and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF. Interestingly, the levels of sLRP1 in CSF are significantly increased in older individuals, suggesting that either LRP1 shedding is increased or sLRP1 clearance is decreased during aging. To examine potential effects of pathological ligands on LRP1 shedding, we treated MEF cells with Aβ peptide and found that LRP1 shedding was increased. ADAM10 and ADAM17 are key members of the ADAM family that process membrane-associated proteins including amyloid precursor protein and Notch. We found that LRP1 shedding was significantly decreased in MEF cells lacking ADAM10 and/or ADAM17. Furthermore, forced expression of ADAM10 increased LRP1 shedding, which was inhibited by ADAM-specific inhibitor TIMP-3. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that LRP1 is shed by ADAM10 and ADAM17 and functional sLRP1 is abundantly present in human brain and CSF. Dysregulated LRP1 shedding during aging could alter its function and may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  9. Duration of shedding of respiratory syncytial virus in a community study of Kenyan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngama Mwanajuma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the transmission dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection will be better informed with improved data on the patterns of shedding in cases not limited only to hospital admissions. Methods In a household study, children testing RSV positive by direct immunofluorescent antibody test (DFA were enrolled. Nasal washings were scheduled right away, then every three days until day 14, every 7 days until day 28 and every 2 weeks until a maximum of 16 weeks, or until the first DFA negative RSV specimen. The relationship between host factors, illness severity and viral shedding was investigated using Cox regression methods. Results From 151 families a total of 193 children were enrolled with a median age of 21 months (range 1-164 months, 10% infants and 46% male. The rate of recovery from infection was 0.22/person/day (95% CI 0.19-0.25 equivalent to a mean duration of shedding of 4.5 days (95%CI 4.0-5.3, with a median duration of shedding of 4 days (IQR 2-6, range 1-14. Children with a history of RSV infection had a 40% increased rate of recovery i.e. shorter duration of viral shedding (hazard ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.01-1.86. The rate of cessation of shedding did not differ significantly between males and females, by severity of infection or by age. Conclusion We provide evidence of a relationship between the duration of shedding and history of infection, which may have a bearing on the relative role of primary versus re-infections in RSV transmission in the community.

  10. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings. PMID:25701819

  11. Role of ADAM10 and ADAM17 in CD16b Shedding Mediated by Different Stimulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sha Guo; Min Peng; Qing Zhao; Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main proteinases responsible for CD16b shedding under different stimulators.Methods HEK293 cell line stably expressing CD16b was constructed by lentivirus system.The cell line was then overexpressed with a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) or ADAM17,suppressed with short hairpin RNA of ADAM10 or ADAM17,and reconstituted with ADAMi0 or ADAM17,respectively.After each treatment,the cell line was stimulated with ionomycin or phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate (PMA) for 12 hours.The soluble CD 16b released from cell membrane was detected by immunoprecipition and immtmoblot.Quantitation was then implemented to compare the amount of soluble CD 16b in cell supernatant after stimulation.Results HEK293 cell line stably expressing CD16b was successfully established.When CD16b expressing cell line was overexpressed with ADAM1 0,shedding of CD 16b was increased after stimulation with ionomycin but not PMA; when the cell line overexpressed with ADAM 17,shedding of CD 16b was increased after stimulation with PMA but not ionomycin.Similarly,when ADAM10 was suppressed by short hairpin RNA,CD16b shedding was decreased after stimulation with ionomycin; when ADAM17 was suppressed by short hairpin RNA,CD16b shedding was decreased after stimulation with PMA.The shedding of CD16b was increased again when CD16b expressing cell line was reconstituted with ADAM10 and stimulated by ionomycin or reconstituted with ADAM 17 and stimulated by PMA.Conclusions Both ADAM10 and ADAM17 could shed CD16b,but they possess differed preferences.ADAM10 is the main sheddase under stimulation of ionomycin,while ADAM17 is the main sheddase under stimulation of PMA.

  12. The Influence of Load Shedding on the Productivity of Hotel Staff in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriëtte STEENKAMP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, ESCOM is the country’s main electricity supplier. Since 2008, Eskom has implemented load shedding on an ongoing basis as a result of insufficient electricity supply to meet the demands of all its customers. Owing to the fact that many organisations across South Africa are depended on electricity in order to function, previous research studies show that the wide-spread impact of load shedding has had an adverse on the sustainability of many of these organisations. Among these organisations are those based in the hospitality industry – imperative in relation to the stimulation of the national economy; directly related to tourism. Albeit the aforementioned, the sustainability of organisations in the hospitality industry is also heavily dependent on the productivity of their employees. For this research study the influence of load shedding on the productivity of the staff in the hospitality industry was investigated within one particular hotel (Hotel X based in Cape Town. Empirical research was deployed, making use of a mixed methods approach to obtain both quantitative data and qualitative data from respondents. Stemming from the findings it was found that load shedding did have an adverse influence on the productivity of staff in Hotel X, despite the fact that affordable measures were put in place to mitigate the disruptions caused by load shedding. Moreover, the latter dispensation was found to have an inadvertently adverse influence on the overall sustainability of Hotel X on the long run.

  13. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Vortex Shedding on Solar Collector Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaulddin Abdulqader Kadim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of vortex shedding on the solar collector performance of the parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC was estimated experimentally. The effect of structure oscillations due to wind vortex shedding on solar collector performance degradation was estimated. The performance of PTSC is evaluated by using the useful heat gain and the thermal instantaneous efficiency. Experimental work to simulate the vortex shedding excitation was done. The useful heat gain and the thermal efficiency of the parabolic trough collector were calculated from experimental measurements with and without vortex loading. The prototype of the collector was fabricated for this purpose. The effect of vortex shedding at different operation conditions was examined. The variation of angles of attack and wind velocity leads to different values of vortex loading coefficients and shedding frequencies. The relation between the dynamic characteristics and solar collector performance was evaluated. The finite element method was used to estimate the dynamic characteristic of the solar collector in addition to experimental work to evaluate the relation between the dynamic behavior of the collector and its performance.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation and Mechanism Analysis of the Fiber Shedding Property of Textile Pile Debridement Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber shedding is a critical problem in biomedical textile debridement materials, which leads to infection and impairs wound healing. In this work, single fiber pull-out test was proposed as an in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of a textile pile debridement material. Samples with different structural design (pile densities, numbers of ground yarns and coating times were prepared and estimated under this testing method. Results show that single fiber pull-out test offers an appropriate in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of textile pile debridement materials. Pull-out force for samples without back-coating exhibited a slight escalating trend with the supplement in pile density and number of ground yarn plies, while back-coating process significantly raised the single fiber pull-out force. For fiber shedding mechanism analysis, typical pull-out behavior and failure modes of the single fiber pull-out test were analyzed in detail. Three failure modes were found in this study, i.e., fiber slippage, coating point rupture and fiber breakage. In summary, to obtain samples with desirable fiber shedding property, fabric structural design, preparation process and raw materials selection should be taken into full consideration.

  15. [Life span and cercaria shedding of schistosome-infected snails in mountain region of Yunnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, F; Yin, G; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Zhang, X; Yang, J; Qian, K; Tan, H; Zheng, J; Zhang, R

    1990-01-01

    The life span and cercaria shedding of infected Oncomelania snails in a mountain region of Shitoudi village, Weishan County, Yunnan Province were observed in simulated local ecological environments. 135 infected snails were isolated for observation 3 months after exposure to miracidia in August, 1987. The snail survival rate from the day of initial cercaria shedding to next June, July, August and September was 27.4, 16.3, 13.3 and 11.9% respectively, and the average number of cercariae shed was 139.9, 29.6, 39.2 and 75 per month respectively. The average life span of infected snails was 171.6 days. The average number of cercariae shed per snail in its whole life was 673.0. It was estimated that the average patent period of infected snails was over half a year. As this is the first report in our country in respect to the life span and cercariae shedding of infected snails in a mountain region, the result might be useful for quantitative analysis of epidemiological factors of schistosomiasis in this kind of endemic areas as well as for formulation of control strategy. PMID:2114229

  16. Bringing light into darkness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea McEwan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The art historian Fritz Saxl, Aby Warburg’s librarian and trusted friend, researched apart from art historical topics images of gods of late antiquity, Oriental and Greek mystery cults and the pictorial presentation of dialogue in early Christian art. This research led him to Mithraism, the images and practices of this mystery cult and in particular how Oriental thought flowed into Occidental thought. Saxl was engaged in this work for many years. In this article I touch upon Saxl’s extended correspondence with Aby Warburg in 1929, when Warburg was in Rome and was able to see Mithraic temples for himself. The exchange of their queries and tentative answers, their theoretical speculations and findings, their approach to understanding Mithraic monuments and sites, shed light on their unique method of scholarly collaboration.

  17. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  18. A parametric model of biofilm shedding in a test water distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Maier, S.; Powell, R S; Woodward, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates particle counts as an indication of water quality in a 1.3 km water pipe. The observations from an extensive sampling schedule are used to develop a parametric model that describes the response of particle counts to a step increase of flow. The model is represented as a linear system with a biofilm shedding profile as input and a dynamic shear-off function as transfer function. The parameters of the shear-off function and the biofilm shedding profil(BSP) can both be id...

  19. Underfrequency Load Shedding for an Islanded Distribution System With Distributed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    Significant penetration of distributed generation in many distribution systems has opened an option of operating distribution systems in island mode for economical and technical reasons. However, balancing frequency of the islanded system is still an issue to be solved, especially when the demand...... exceeds the generation in the power island. This paper presents a strategy to shed an optimal number of loads in the island to stabilize the frequency. The load shedding strategy is based on frequency information, rate of change of frequency, customers' willingness to pay, and loads histories. Different...

  20. Large eddy simulation of vortex shedding and pressure fluctuation in aerostatic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jincheng; Chen, Han; Chen, Xuedong

    2013-07-01

    In aerostatic bearings, high speed air flow may induce small vibration, which has been harmful to the improvement of moving and positioning accuracy of aerostatically supported devices in ultra-precision applications. In this paper, the transient flow field in the aerostatic bearing is numerically investigated using the large eddy simulation method. Turbulent structures are studied and vortex shedding phenomenon is discovered in the bearing recess. Our computational results demonstrate that vortex shedding causes pressure fluctuation in the bearing clearance. Relationship between pressure fluctuation and bearing vibration is established based on our simulation results and experimentally measured vibration strength.

  1. Digital Light

    OpenAIRE

    Cubitt, Sean; Palmer, Daniel; Tkacz, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Light symbolises the highest good, it enables all visual art, and today it lies at the heart of billion-dollar industries. The control of light forms the foundation of contemporary vision. Digital Light brings together artists, curators, technologists and media archaeologists to study the historical evolution of digital light-based technologies. Digital Light provides a critical account of the capacities and limitations of contemporary digital light-based technologies and techniques by tracin...

  2. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  3. Endothelial glycocalyx shedding and vascular permeability in severely injured trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbar, Elaheh; Cardenas, Jessica C; Baimukanova, Gyulnar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) is a key regulator of vascular permeability, cell adhesion, and inflammation. The EGL is primarily composed of syndecan-1, hyaluronic acid (HA), heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). While many studies have observed increased shedding...

  4. General Relativistic Considerations of the Field Shedding Model of Fast Radio Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Popular models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) involve the gravitational collapse of neutron star progenitors to black holes. It has been proposed that the shedding of the strong neutron star magnetic field ($B$) during the collapse is the power source for the radio emission. Previously, these models have utilized the simplicity of the Schwarzschild metric which has the restriction that the magnetic flux is magnetic "hair" that must be shed before final collapse. But, neutron stars have angular momentum and charge and a fully relativistic Kerr Newman solution exists in which $B$ has its source inside of the event horizon. In this letter, we consider the magnetic flux to be shed as a consequence of the electric discharge of a metastable collapsed state of a Kerr Newman black hole. It has also been argued that the shedding model will not operate due to pair creation. By considering the pulsar death line, we find that for a neutron star with $B = 10^{11} - 10^{13}$ G and a long rotation period, $>1$ s this is not a ...

  5. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. 63.305 Section 63.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  6. Near-wake effects of a heat input on the vortex-shedding mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, R. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands)], E-mail: rene.kieft@corusgroup.com; Rindt, C.C.M.; Steenhoven, A.A. van [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, Eindhoven 5600 MB (Netherlands)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents the investigation on the vortex formation and shedding process behind a heated cylinder which is exposed to a cold cross flow. The Reynolds number is chosen to be 75 while the Grashof number is varied between 0 and 5000 (resulting in a variation from forced to mixed convection). The numerical results show that the addition of heat disturbs the vortex formation process. The vortices shed from the upper half of the cylinder become stronger for increasing heat input. Therefore, the shedding process at the upper half of the cylinder becomes more effective compared with the process at the lower half. Consequently, the vortices shed from the upper half of the cylinder have a higher vorticity extreme and a higher temperature. The results show that the difference in effectiveness is mainly caused by a decreasing effect of strain rate during the formation of an upper vortex. This change in strain rate is caused by a change in flow pattern around the cylinder for increasing Grashof number. For higher heat input more fluid flows underneath the cylinder, resulting in weaker shear layers at the upper part of the cylinder.

  7. EPA's SHEDS-multimedia model: children's cumulative pyrethroid exposure estimates and evaluation against NHANES biomarker data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's SHEDS-Multimedia model was applied to enhance the understanding of children's exposures and doses to multiple pyrethroid pesticides, including major contributing chemicals and pathways. This paper presents combined dietary and residential exposure estimates and cum...

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates thrombomodulin lectin-like domain shedding in human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an anticoagulant glycoprotein highly expressed on endothelial cell surfaces. Increased levels of soluble TM in circulation have been widely accepted as an indicator of endothelial damage or dysfunction. Previous studies indicated that various proinflammatory factors stimulate TM shedding in various cell types such as smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator present in biological fluids during endothelial damage or injury. In the present study, we first observed that LPA triggered TM shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By Cyflow analysis, we showed that the LPA-induced accessibility of antibodies to the endothelial growth factor (EGF)-like domain of TM is independent of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), while LPA-induced TM lectin-like domain shedding is MMP-dependent. Furthermore, a stable cell line expressing TM without its lectin-like domain exhibited a higher cell proliferation rate than a stable cell line expressing full-length TM. These results imply that LPA induces TM lectin-like domain shedding, which might contribute to the exposure of its EGF-like domain for EGF receptor (EGFR) binding, thereby stimulating subsequent cell proliferation. Based on our findings, we propose a novel mechanism for the exposure of TM EGF-like domain, which possibly mediates LPA-induced EGFR transactivation

  9. Fatigue of threaded rods in cable anchorages due to Vortex shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Snijder, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    The 'Hovenring' is a bicycle roundabout flyover built as a signature bridge with a central steel pylon carrying a circular bridge deck suspended through stay-cables. Shortly after installation of the bridge, the stay-cables turned out to vibrate in the wind due to vortex shedding. These vibrations h

  10. Low temperature-induced cell surface membrane vesicle shedding is associated with DNA fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temperature shift conditions of 0 degree to 22 degrees C or 0 degree to 37 degrees C induce the formation and shedding of membrane vesicles (MV) from P815 tumor cell surfaces. When the MV shedding process takes place at 22 degrees C it occurs without changes in cell surface membrane permeability, whereas at 37 degrees C, changes in permeability to 51Cr and trypan blue do occur, thus mimicking the lymphocyte-mediated lytic process of tumor cells. The present studies demonstrate that nuclear DNA fragmentation also occurs in both 0 degree to 22 degrees C and 0 degree to 37 degrees C temperature shifts. However, cell surface membrane permeability to DNA fragments occurs only in the latter condition, i.e., 0 degree to 37 degrees C. The microtubule-stabilizing agent deuterium oxide (D2O) inhibited the MV shedding process, the changes in membrane permeability, and DNA fragmentation. When P815 cells which had been induced to shed MV by the 0 degree to 22 degrees C temperature shift were labeled with 51Cr and used as targets for alloimmune lymphocytes, they were found to be as susceptible to T-cell lysis as control P815 cells. This result indicates that the lytic effect of alloimmune T lymphocytes can be exerted at the target cell surface membrane level independently of nuclear DNA fragmentation

  11. Prolonged Leptospira Urinary Shedding in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Nielsen-Saines; Michael Lovett; Jarlath Nally; Jaime Deville; Emilie Chow

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of leptospirosis in a previously healthy girl following a trip to Costa Rica. While she was clinically asymptomatic, she had spirochetes cultured from her urine six weeks following her trip. Prolonged urinary shedding following infection with Leptospira is possible in humans and often has subtle manifestations in children.

  12. Vortex shedding of a heated circular cylinder at low Reynolds number

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wang, A. B.; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Wu, M. H.

    Taiwan: National Cheng Kung University, 2001 - (Hsiao, F.), s. 49-54 [The 4th Pacific International Conference on Aerospace Science and Technology (PICAST 4). Kaohsiung (TR), 22.05.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/99/0059 Keywords : heated circular cylinder * laminar flow * vortex shedding Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  13. Inhibitory effects of rutin on the endothelial protein C receptor shedding in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Sae-Kwang; Lee, In-Chul; Han, Min-Su; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) has important functions in regulation of coagulation and inflammation. EPCR shedding from the cell surface is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Rutin is one of the major flavonoids from the buckwheat plant Fagopyrum tataricum. In this study, we investigated the effects of rutin on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and on cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding. We used a CLP model because this model more closely resembles human sepsis. Data showed rutin was a potent inhibitor of PMA, TNF-α, IL-1β, and CLP-induced EPCR shedding by suppression of TACE expression. Treatment with rutin resulted in a decrease of PMA-stimulated phosphorylation of p38, extracellular regulated kinases 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. These results suggest the potential application of rutin for treatment of PMA and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding. PMID:24622777

  14. Structural requirements for inducible shedding of the p55 tumor necrosis factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, C; Varfolomeev, E E; Batkin, M; Wallach, D

    1994-01-01

    mutations in the spacer on the shedding indicate that the process is independent of the amino acid side-chain identity in this region except for a limited dependence on the identity of 1 residue (Val-173), located downstream to the putative major cleavage site of the receptor. It is strongly affected...

  15. Dead or alive? Viability of chytrid zoospores shed from live amphibian hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Chelsea; DiRenzo, Graziella V; Tunstall, Tate S; Muletz, Carly R; Zamudio, Kelly R; Lips, Karen R

    2016-05-26

    Pathogens vary in virulence and rates of transmission because of many differences in the host, the pathogen, and their environment. The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), affects amphibian hosts differently, causing extinction and population declines in some species but having limited effects on others. Phenotypic differences in zoospore production rates among Bd lineages likely contribute to some of the variation observed among host responses, although no studies have quantified the viability of zoospores shed from live animals. We compared host survivorship, infection intensity, shedding rates, and zoospore viability between 2 species of endangered tropical frogs, Hylomantis lemur and Atelopus zeteki, when exposed to a highly virulent lineage of Bd (JEL 423). We applied a dye to zoospores 30 to 60 min following animal soaks, to estimate shedding rate and proportion of live zoospores shed by different species. The average infection intensity for A. zeteki was nearly 17 times higher (31,455 ± 10,103 zoospore genomic equivalents [ZGEs]) than that of H. lemur (1832 ± 1086 ZGEs), and A. zeteki died earlier than H. lemur. The proportion of viable zoospores was ~80% in both species throughout the experiment, although A. zeteki produced many more zoospores, suggesting it may play a disproportionate role in spreading disease in communities where it occurs, because the large number of viable zoospores they produce might increase infection in other species where they are reintroduced. PMID:27225201

  16. Prioritization of pesticides based on daily dietary exposure potential as determined from the SHEDS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major pathway for exposure to many pesticides is through diet. The objectives were to rank pesticides by comparing their calculated daily dietary exposure as determined by EPA's Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation (SHEDS) to single pesticides for different age groups ...

  17. New Vortex Shedding Criteria for Low Order Models of Unsteady Plate Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manar, Field; Jones, Anya

    2015-11-01

    A complex potential flow model with a small number of point vortices of time-varying strength is developed to evaluate the flow around an infinitely thin flat plate undergoing arbitrary unsteady motion. Vortex strengths are determined using the Kutta condition, and vortex convection takes place according to an impulse-matching scheme. Previous work has had only limited success due to vortices not being properly shed from the plate and acquiring too much circulation. In this work, a new vortex shedding criterion based on the dynamics of the shear layer is investigated. This criterion seeks to approximate the occurrence of vortex pinch off by observing the tangential velocities in the shear layer. The effect of the new vortex-shedding criteria on the evolution of the flow are evaluated with respect to previous shedding criteria and experimental PIV results. One motivation for the development of this model is to predict the unsteady forces on a wing quickly, and at low computational cost. Given the velocity field computed via the complex potential model, the forces on the plate are computed by taking the time derivative of the total flow momentum, and are evaluated with respect to experimental measurements.

  18. Technico-economical feasibility of a hybrid dryer designed from a large metallic shed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alidina, E.; Daguenet, M. [Perpignan Univ., 66 (France). Lab. de Thermodynamique et Energetique; Zeghmati, B. [Laboratoire de Metrologie des Interfaces Techniques, 90 - Belfort (France)

    1995-10-01

    In this paper the authors present an analysis of the technico-economical performances of a paddy (husked rice) drying system consisting of a metallic shed converted into a warm air generator and a silo type dryer. Thanks to several simulations, they determine the optimum operating conditions and the economic performances of the system. (author)

  19. Power System Stability Using Decentralized Under Frequency and Voltage Load Shedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    information to shed the loads with higher voltage decay first. Therefore, this approach deals with coordination of voltage and frequency information instead of independent methods. Numerical simulations which are carried out in DigSilent PowerFactory software confirm the efficiency of proposed methodology to...

  20. Gastrointestinal microbiota and porcine immunity: factors that influence salmonella shedding in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are often asymptomatically colonized with the human foodborne pathogen Salmonella and can exhibit notable variation in severity and duration of Salmonella fecal shedding. Multiple factors impact the dynamics of Salmonella in swine, including features of the microorganism, responses from the pi...

  1. Internal Structure of Asteroids Having Surface Shedding Due to Rotational Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Sánchez, Diego Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-07-01

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.

  2. Characterization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ectodomain shedding from mouse proximal tubular cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Xiao

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 is highly expressed in the kidney proximal tubule, where it cleaves angiotensin (Ang II to Ang-(1-7. Urinary ACE2 levels increase in diabetes, suggesting that ACE2 may be shed from tubular cells. The aim of this study was to determine if ACE2 is shed from proximal tubular cells, to characterize ACE2 fragments, and to study pathways for shedding. Studies involved primary cultures of mouse proximal tubular cells, with ACE2 activity measured using a synthetic substrate, and analysis of ACE2 fragments by immunoblots and mass spectrometry. The culture media from mouse proximal tubular cells demonstrated a time-dependent increase in ACE2 activity, suggesting constitutive ACE2 shedding. ACE2 was detected in media as two bands at ∼ 90 kDa and ∼ 70 kDa on immunoblots. By contrast, full-length ACE2 appeared at ∼ 100 kDa in cell lysates or mouse kidney cortex. Mass spectrometry of the two deglycosylated fragments identified peptides matching mouse ACE2 at positions 18-706 and 18-577, respectively. The C-terminus of the 18-706 peptide fragment contained a non-tryptic site, suggesting that Met(706 is a candidate ACE2 cleavage site. Incubation of cells in high D-glucose (25 mM (and to a lesser extent Ang II for 48-72 h increased ACE2 activity in the media (p<0.001, an effect blocked by inhibition of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM17. High D-glucose increased ADAM17 activity in cell lysates (p<0.05. These data indicate that two glycosylated ACE2 fragments are constitutively shed from mouse proximal tubular cells. ACE2 shedding is stimulated by high D-glucose, at least partly via an ADAM17-mediated pathway. The results suggest that proximal tubular shedding of ACE2 may increase in diabetes, which could enhance degradation of Ang II in the tubular lumen, and increase levels of Ang-(1-7.

  3. "Tangible Lights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tor; Merritt, Timothy; Andersen, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    While there has been much focus on tangible lighting interfaces embedded in physical objects and smartphones as remote control, there has not been sufficient attention on how the expressivity of bodily movement can be used when designing interactions with light. Therefore, we investigate...... interaction with lighting technology beyond the smartphone and physical controllers. We examine the usefulness of the in-air gestural interaction style for lighting control. We bring forward "Tangible Lights", which serves as a novel interface for in-air interaction with lighting, drawing on existing...... knowledge from the tangible world. Tangible Lights has been subject to initial evaluations....

  4. Extended viral shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis are susceptible to infection with some influenza A viruses. However, the viral shedding capability of this peri-domestic mammal and its potential role in influenza A virus ecology are largely undetermined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Striped skunks were experimentally infected with a low pathogenic (LP H4N6 avian influenza virus (AIV and monitored for 20 days post infection (DPI. All of the skunks exposed to H4N6 AIV shed large quantities of viral RNA, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and confirmed for live virus with virus isolation, from nasal washes and oral swabs (maximum ≤ 10(6.02 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL and ≤ 10(5.19 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL, respectively. Some evidence of potential fecal shedding was also noted. Following necropsy on 20 DPI, viral RNA was detected in the nasal turbinates of one individual. All treatment animals yielded evidence of a serological response by 20 DPI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that striped skunks have the potential to shed large quantities of viral RNA through the oral and nasal routes following exposure to a LP AIV. Considering the peri-domestic nature of these animals, along with the duration of shedding observed in this species, their presence on poultry and waterfowl operations could influence influenza A virus epidemiology. For example, this species could introduce a virus to a naive poultry flock or act as a trafficking mechanism of AIV to and from an infected poultry flock to naive flocks or wild bird populations.

  5. Tumour necrosis factor receptor gene expression and shedding in human whole lung tissue and pulmonary epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) at the gene and surface level, and its shedding in human lung tissue and a pulmonary epithelial cell line, A549. Levels of gene expression of TNF-R were evaluated by Northern blot analysis. Human lung issue expressed both type I and type II TNF-R gene, while A549 cells expressed only type I TNF-R gene. Phorbol ester upregulated and TNF-α down-regulated the TNF-R gene expression in A549 cells. Consistent with these modulations of TNF-R gene expression, 125I-TNF binding capacities were increased with phorbol ester stimulation and decreased with TNF stimulation after 24 h in A549 cells. The shedding of TNF-R from A549 cells was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for soluble type I TNF-R. Not only lung tissues but also A549 cells spontaneously released soluble type I TNF-R into the culture medium. Both phorbol ester and TNF stimulation accelerated the shedding of soluble TNF-R from A549 cells. These results suggest that type I TNF-R gene expression and shedding of soluble TNF-R are differentially regulated in A549 cells. We conclude that tumour necrosis factor receptor surface expression is regulated, at least in part, at the gene expression level and shedding of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor is modulated by inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor in A549 cells. (au) 39 refs

  6. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmental transmission, and disease spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviane Henaux; Samuel, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection (from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (10–11.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks (5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HPAI outbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance, we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (in particular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAI shedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive

  7. Shedding some light over the floral metabolism by arum lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica spathe de novo transcriptome assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete de Souza Cândido

    Full Text Available Zantedeschia aethiopica is an evergreen perennial plant cultivated worldwide and commonly used for ornamental and medicinal purposes including the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the current understanding of molecular and physiological mechanisms in this plant is limited, in comparison to other non-model plants. In order to improve understanding of the biology of this botanical species, RNA-Seq technology was used for transcriptome assembly and characterization. Following Z. aethiopica spathe tissue RNA extraction, high-throughput RNA sequencing was performed with the aim of obtaining both abundant and rare transcript data. Functional profiling based on KEGG Orthology (KO analysis highlighted contigs that were involved predominantly in genetic information (37% and metabolism (34% processes. Predicted proteins involved in the plant circadian system, hormone signal transduction, secondary metabolism and basal immunity are described here. In silico screening of the transcriptome data set for antimicrobial peptide (AMP -encoding sequences was also carried out and three lipid transfer proteins (LTP were identified as potential AMPs involved in plant defense. Spathe predicted protein maps were drawn, and suggested that major plant efforts are expended in guaranteeing the maintenance of cell homeostasis, characterized by high investment in carbohydrate, amino acid and energy metabolism as well as in genetic information.

  8. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µM Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albu...

  9. Shedding light on new Wess-Zumino couplings with their corrections to all orders in alpha-prime

    CERN Document Server

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by arXiv:1203.5553, we continue to match super string amplitudes with their own effective field theory. We carry out within full details the computations of the complete form of the amplitude of one closed string Ramond-Ramond field and three SYM vertex operators, namely one gauge field and two scalar fields in type IIB(A) super string theories. Making use of the recent two gauge and two scalar couplings to all orders of $\\alpha'$, we produce all the infinite gauge poles for $p=n$ case (with $n$ as RR field strength's rank and $p$ as the dimension of a D$_p$-brane). Proceeding with direct and full S-Matrix calculations, we are able to produce even all the infinite gauge poles in u-channel for $p-2=n$ case in field theory as well. New couplings for $p-2=n$ case with their all order $\\alpha'$ corrections are discovered. In addition, we explain how to find out all the infinite scalar poles of this amplitude in $s,t$-channels and produce them for $p+2=n$ case. By comparing all of the contact terms of th...

  10. The medaka mutation tintachina sheds light on the evolution of V-ATPase B subunits in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Claudia; Maeso, Ignacio; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Martínez-Morales, Juan R.

    2013-11-01

    Vacuolar-type H+ ATPases (V-ATPases) are multimeric protein complexes that play a universal role in the acidification of intracellular compartments in eukaryotic cells. We have isolated the recessive medaka mutation tintachina (tch), which carries an inactivating modification of the conserved glycine residue (G75R) of the proton pump subunit atp6v1Ba/vatB1. Mutant embryos show penetrant pigmentation defects, massive brain apoptosis and lethality before hatching. Strikingly, an equivalent mutation in atp6v1B1 (G78R) has been reported in a family of patients suffering from distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a hereditary disease that causes metabolic acidosis due to impaired kidney function. This poses the question as to how molecularly identical mutations result in markedly different phenotypes in two vertebrate species. Our work offers an explanation for this phenomenon. We propose that, after successive rounds of whole-genome duplication, the emergence of paralogous copies allowed the divergence of the atp6v1B cis-regulatory control in different vertebrate groups.

  11. Shedding Light on Copyright Trolls: An Analysis of Mass Copyright Litigation in the Age of Statutory Damages

    OpenAIRE

    DeBriyn, James

    2012-01-01

    Copyright law and the Internet are at an impasse. The looming question is how to approach unlicensed distribution of copyrighted works in the age of peer-to-peer networks. To supplement profits from copyrighted works, copyright holders have devised a mass-litigation model to monetize, rather than deter, infringement. Because of the ...

  12. The X-ray structures of two mutant crystallin domains shed light on the evolution of multi-domain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norledge, B V; Mayr, E M; Glockshuber, R; Bateman, O A; Slingsby, C; Jaenicke, R; Driessen, H P

    1996-03-01

    We use protein engineering and crystallography to simulate aspects of the early evolution of beta gamma-crystallins by observing how a single domain oligomerizes in response to changes in a sequence extension. The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of gamma beta-crystallin with its four-residue C-terminal extension shows that the domain does not form a symmetric homodimer analogous to the two-domain pairing in beta gamma-crystallins. Instead the C-terminal extension now forms heterologous interactions with other domains leading to the solvent exposure of the natural hydrophobic interface with a consequent loss in protein solubility. However, this domain truncated by just the C-terminal tyrosine forms a symmetric homodimer of domains in the crystal lattice. PMID:8605629

  13. A novel in vivo cell-wall labeling approach sheds new light on peptidoglycan synthesis in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.K. Olrichs; M.E.G. Aarsman; J. Verheul; C.J. Arnusch; N.I. Martin; M. Hervé; W. Vollmer; B. de Kruijff; E. Breukink; T. den Blaauwen

    2011-01-01

    Peptidoglycan synthesis and turnover in relation to cell growth and division has been studied by using a new labeling method. This method involves the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptidoglycan precursors into the cell wall by means of the cell-wall recycling pathway. We show that Escheric

  14. IgH loci of American alligator and saltwater crocodile shed light on IgA evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadán-Mompó, Susana; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    Immunoglobulin loci of two representatives of the order Crocodylia were studied from full genome sequences. Both Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus have 13 genes for the heavy chain constant regions of immunoglobulins. The IGHC locus contains genes encoding four immunoglobulins M (IgM), one immunoglobulin D (IgD), three immunoglobulins A (IgA), three immunoglobulins Y (IgY), and two immunoglobulins D2 (IgD2). IgA and IgD2 genes were found in reverse transcriptional orientation compared to the other Ig genes. The IGHD gene contains 11 exons, four of which containing stop codons or sequence alterations. As described in other reptiles, the IgD2 is a chimeric Ig with IgA- and IgD-related domains. This work clarifies the origin of bird IgA and its evolutionary relationship with amphibian immunoglobulin X (IgX) as well as their links with mammalian IgA. PMID:23558556

  15. The velocity width function of galaxies from the 40% ALFALFA survey: shedding light on the CDM overabundance problem

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey is a wide-area, extragalactic HI-line survey conducted at the Arecibo Observatory. Sources have so far been extracted over ~3,000 sq.deg of sky (40% of its final area), resulting in the largest HI-selected sample to date. We measure the space density of HI-bearing galaxies as a function of their observed velocity width (uncorrected for inclination) down to w = 20 km/s, a factor of 2 lower than the previous generation HIPASS survey. We confirm previous results that indicate a substantial discrepancy at low widths between the observational distribution and the theoretical one expected in a CDM Universe. In particular, a comparison with synthetic galaxy samples populating state-of-the-art CDM simulations imply a factor of ~8 difference in the abundance of galaxies with w = 50 km/s (increasing to a factor of ~100 when extrapolated to the ALFALFA limit of w = 20 km/s). We furthermore identify possible solutions, including a ~keV WDM scenario and the fact that H...

  16. Ancient mitochondrial DNA from the northern fringe of the Neolithic farming expansion in Europe sheds light on the dispersion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmström, Helena; Linderholm, Anna; Skoglund, Pontus;

    2015-01-01

    The European Neolithization process started around 12 000 years ago in the Near East. The introduction of agriculture spread north and west throughout Europe and a key question has been if this was brought about by migrating individuals, by an exchange of ideas or a by a mixture of these. The ear...

  17. Shedding light on LMA-dark solar neutrino solution by medium baseline reactor experiments: JUNO and RENO-50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhti, P.; Farzan, Y.

    2014-07-01

    In the presence of Non-Standard neutral current Interactions (NSI) a new solution to solar neutrino anomaly with cos 2 θ 12 < 0 appears. We investigate how this solution can be tested by upcoming intermediate baseline reactor experiments, JUNO and RENO-50. We point out a degeneracy between the two solutions when both hierarchy and the θ 12 octant are flipped. We then comment on how this degeneracy can be partially lifted by long baseline experiments sensitive to matter effects such as the NOvA experiment.

  18. Shedding light on LMA-Dark solar neutrino solution by medium baseline reactor experiments: JUNO and RENO-50

    CERN Document Server

    Bakhti, Pouya

    2014-01-01

    In the presence of Non-Standard neutral current Interactions (NSI) a new solution to solar neutrino anomaly with $\\cos 2\\theta_{12}<0$ appears. We show that this solution can be tested by upcoming intermediate baseline reactor experiments JUNO and RENO-50.

  19. From dawn till dusk: Shedding light on the recovery process by investigating daily change patterns in fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsheger, Ute R

    2016-06-01

    Although the notion that recovery is a process rather than a state lies at the heart of recovery theory, the continuous cycle of depletion and replenishment of resources itself has not yet been investigated empirically. In the present article, I therefore build on recovery theory and on evidence from chronobiological research and adopt a temporal research approach that allows investigating change trajectories in fatigue over the course of the day. Furthermore, the role of sleep quality and psychological detachment in these change trajectories is investigated. Hypotheses are tested in an experience-sampling study involving 133 employees who were asked to provide fatigue ratings 4 times a day over 5 consecutive workdays. Growth curve analyses revealed that on average fatigue decreased in the morning, reaching a nadir around midday and then increased until bedtime. Additionally, daily sleep quality explained variation in individuals' fatigue change trajectories: When sleep quality was low, next day fatigue decreased between morning and midday and then increased again until bedtime; when sleep quality was high, fatigue remained stable until midday and then increased again between the end of work and bedtime. Theoretical implications for the recovery literature and practical implications are discussed in conclusion. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26949820

  20. The genome sequence of Brucella pinnipedialis B2/94 sheds light on the evolutionary history of the genus Brucella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claverie Jean-Michel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the discovery of the Malta fever agent, Brucella melitensis, in the 19th century, six terrestrial mammal-associated Brucella species were recognized over the next century. More recently the number of novel Brucella species has increased and among them, isolation of species B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti from marine mammals raised many questions about their origin as well as on the evolutionary history of the whole genus. Results We report here on the first complete genome sequence of a Brucella strain isolated from marine mammals, Brucella pinnipedialis strain B2/94. A whole gene-based phylogenetic analysis shows that five main groups of host-associated Brucella species rapidly diverged from a likely free-living ancestor close to the recently isolated B. microti. However, this tree lacks the resolution required to resolve the order of divergence of those groups. Comparative analyses focusing on a genome segments unshared between B. microti and B. pinnipedialis, b gene deletion/fusion events and c positions and numbers of Brucella specific IS711 elements in the available Brucella genomes provided enough information to propose a branching order for those five groups. Conclusions In this study, it appears that the closest relatives of marine mammal Brucella sp. are B. ovis and Brucella sp. NVSL 07-0026 isolated from a baboon, followed by B. melitensis and B. abortus strains, and finally the group consisting of B. suis strains, including B. canis and the group consisting of the single B. neotomae species. We were not able, however, to resolve the order of divergence of the two latter groups.

  1. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Analysis Sheds Light on the Diversity and Origin of the MLO Family of Integral Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Stefan; Pesch, Lina; Panstruga, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Mildew resistanceLocusO(MLO) proteins are polytopic integral membrane proteins that have long been considered as plant-specific and being primarily involved in plant-powdery mildew interactions. However, research in the past decade has revealed that MLO proteins diverged into a family with several clades whose members are associated with different physiological processes. We provide a largely increased dataset of MLO amino acid sequences, comprising nearly all major land plant lineages. Based on this comprehensive dataset, we defined seven phylogenetic clades and reconstructed the likely evolution of the MLO family in embryophytes. We further identified several MLO peptide motifs that are either conserved in all MLO proteins or confined to one or several clades, supporting the notion that clade-specific diversification of MLO functions is associated with particular sequence motifs. In baker's yeast, some of these motifs are functionally linked to transmembrane (TM) transport of organic molecules and ions. In addition, we attempted to define the evolutionary origin of the MLO family and found that MLO-like proteins with highly diverse membrane topologies are present in green algae, but also in the distinctly related red algae (Rhodophyta), Amoebozoa, and Chromalveolata. Finally, we discovered several instances of putative fusion events between MLO proteins and different kinds of proteins. Such Rosetta stone-type hybrid proteins might be instructive for future analysis of potential MLO functions. Our findings suggest that MLO is an ancient protein that possibly evolved in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes, and consolidated in land plants with a conserved topology, comprising seven TM domains and an intrinsically unstructured C-terminus. PMID:26893454

  2. Shedding Light on a Pervasive Problem: A Review of Research on Bullying Experiences among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jessica H.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Bebko, James M.; Pepler, Debra J.; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. As a result, individuals with ASD are at an increased risk of bullying victimization, compared to typically developing peers. This paper reviews the…

  3. A novel in vivo cell-wall labeling approach sheds new light on peptidoglycan synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olrichs, Nick K; Aarsman, Mirjam E G; Verheul, Jolanda; Arnusch, Christopher J; Martin, Nathaniel I; Hervé, Mireille; Vollmer, Waldemar; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2011-05-01

    Peptidoglycan synthesis and turnover in relation to cell growth and division has been studied by using a new labeling method. This method involves the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptidoglycan precursors into the cell wall by means of the cell-wall recycling pathway. We show that Escherichia coli is able to import exogenous added murein tripeptide labeled with N-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (AeK-NBD) into the cytoplasm where it enters the peptidoglycan biosynthesis route, resulting in fluorescent labels specifically located in the cell wall. When wild-type cells were grown in the presence of the fluorescent peptide, peptidoglycan was uniformly labeled in cells undergoing elongation. Cells in the process of division displayed a lack of labeled peptidoglycan at mid-cell. Analysis of labeling patterns in cell division mutants showed that the occurrence of unlabeled peptidoglycan is dependent on the presence of FtsZ, but independent of FtsQ and FtsI. Accumulation of fluorescence at the division sites of a triple amidase mutant (ΔamiABC) revealed that AeK-NBD is incorporated into septal peptidoglycan. AmiC was shown to be involved in the rapid removal of labeled peptidoglycan side chains at division sites in wild-type cells. Because septal localization of AmiC is dependent on FtsQ and FtsI, this points to the presence of another peptidoglycan hydrolase activity directly dependent on FtsZ. PMID:21472954

  4. A New Titanosaurian Braincase from the Cretaceous "Lo Hueco" Locality in Spain Sheds Light on Neuroanatomical Evolution within Titanosauria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Knoll

    Full Text Available Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of ''Lo Hueco" in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp. is known from the same locality, this specimen is clearly a distinct taxon and presents a number of occipital characters found in Antarctosaurus and Jainosaurus, which are approximately coeval taxa from southern Gondwana. The specimen was subjected to X-ray computed tomographic (CT scanning, allowing the generation of 3D renderings of the endocranial cavity enclosing the brain, cranial nerves, and blood vessels, as well as the labyrinth of the inner ear. These findings add considerable knowledge to the field of sauropod paleoneuroanatomy in general and titanosaurian endocast diversity in particular. Compared with that of many sauropodomorphs, the endocast appears only slightly flexed in lateral view and bears similarities (e.g., reduction of the rostral dural expansion with Gondwanan titanosaurians such as Jainosaurus, Bonatitan, and Antarctosaurus. The vestibular system of the inner ear is somewhat contracted (i.e., the radius of the semicircular canals is small, but less so than expected in derived titanosaurians. However, as far as the new specimen and Jainosaurus can be contrasted, and with the necessary caution due to the small sample of comparative data currently available, the two taxa appear more similar to one another in endocast morphology than to other titanosaurians. Recent phylogenetic analyses of titanosaurians have not included virtually any of the taxa under consideration here, and thus the phylogenetic position of the new Spanish titanosaurian--even its generic, let alone specific, identification--is not possible at the moment. Nevertheless, both the braincase osteology and the endocast morphology suggest that the specimen represents a derived titanosaurian that presumably branched further from the base of Lithostrotia, potentially even near Saltasauridae, comparable in evolutionary terms with Jainosaurus.

  5. A New Titanosaurian Braincase from the Cretaceous "Lo Hueco" Locality in Spain Sheds Light on Neuroanatomical Evolution within Titanosauria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Fabien; Witmer, Lawrence M; Ridgely, Ryan C; Ortega, Francisco; Sanz, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    Despite continuous improvements, our knowledge of the neurocranial anatomy of sauropod dinosaurs as a whole is still poor, which is especially true for titanosaurians even though their postcranial remains are common in many Upper Cretaceous sites worldwide. Here we describe a braincase from the uppermost Cretaceous locality of ''Lo Hueco" in Spain that is one of the most complete titanosaurian braincases found so far in Europe. Although the titanosaurian Ampelosaurus sp. is known from the same locality, this specimen is clearly a distinct taxon and presents a number of occipital characters found in Antarctosaurus and Jainosaurus, which are approximately coeval taxa from southern Gondwana. The specimen was subjected to X-ray computed tomographic (CT) scanning, allowing the generation of 3D renderings of the endocranial cavity enclosing the brain, cranial nerves, and blood vessels, as well as the labyrinth of the inner ear. These findings add considerable knowledge to the field of sauropod paleoneuroanatomy in general and titanosaurian endocast diversity in particular. Compared with that of many sauropodomorphs, the endocast appears only slightly flexed in lateral view and bears similarities (e.g., reduction of the rostral dural expansion) with Gondwanan titanosaurians such as Jainosaurus, Bonatitan, and Antarctosaurus. The vestibular system of the inner ear is somewhat contracted (i.e., the radius of the semicircular canals is small), but less so than expected in derived titanosaurians. However, as far as the new specimen and Jainosaurus can be contrasted, and with the necessary caution due to the small sample of comparative data currently available, the two taxa appear more similar to one another in endocast morphology than to other titanosaurians. Recent phylogenetic analyses of titanosaurians have not included virtually any of the taxa under consideration here, and thus the phylogenetic position of the new Spanish titanosaurian--even its generic, let alone specific, identification--is not possible at the moment. Nevertheless, both the braincase osteology and the endocast morphology suggest that the specimen represents a derived titanosaurian that presumably branched further from the base of Lithostrotia, potentially even near Saltasauridae, comparable in evolutionary terms with Jainosaurus. PMID:26444700

  6. Hindsight Is 20/20: A Case Study of Vision and Reading Issues Sheds Light for Teacher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kristie B.; Box, Jean A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study designed to educate students in pre-service teacher education programs about the importance of a comprehensive eye exam. The case study chronicles a family's multi-year search for solutions to their child's reading difficulties. The research supporting the case study explores the connection between vision…

  7. Shedding Light on Dark Matter in Hot, Massive, and Awfully Complicated Cluster of Galaxies 1E0657-56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cluster of galaxies 1E0657-56 has been the subject of intense ongoing research in the last few years. This system is remarkably well-suited to addressing outstanding issues in both cosmology and fundamental physics. It is one of the hottest and most luminous X-ray clusters known and is unique in being a major supersonic cluster merger occurring nearly in the plane of the sky, earning it the nickname 'the Bullet Cluster'. In this talk I will present our measurements of the composition of this system, show the evidence for existence of dark matter, and describe limits that can be placed on the intrinsic properties of dark matter particles. In addition, I will explain how this cluster offers a serious challenge to MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) theories.

  8. Shedding Light on Dark Matter in Hot, Massive, and Awfully Complicated Cluster of Galaxies 1E0657-56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradac, Marusa

    2006-11-20

    The cluster of galaxies 1E0657-56 has been the subject of intense ongoing research in the last few years. This system is remarkably well-suited to addressing outstanding issues in both cosmology and fundamental physics. It is one of the hottest and most luminous X-ray clusters known and is unique in being a major supersonic cluster merger occurring nearly in the plane of the sky, earning it the nickname 'the Bullet Cluster'. In this talk I will present our measurements of the composition of this system, show the evidence for existence of dark matter, and describe limits that can be placed on the intrinsic properties of dark matter particles. In addition, I will explain how this cluster offers a serious challenge to MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) theories.

  9. New molecular data shed light on the global phylogeny and species limits of the Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekimoğlu, Olcay; Sağlam, İsmail K; Özer, Nurdan; Estrada-Peña, Agustin

    2016-07-01

    The Rhipicephalus sanguineus complex is a group of closely related tick species distributed all around the world. In this study, using mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA, new specimens of R sanguineus sensu lato from Turkey and Rhipicephalus camicasi from Kenya, were evaluated together with available sequences of this complex in GenBank. Our objectives were to delimit the complex, re-evaluate its global phylogeny and develop a reconstruction of its biogeographic history. Given Turkey's geographical location and its neighboring status within Africa, Asia and Europe, molecular information of R. sanguineus s.l. species from this region could have important implications both on a regional and global scale. Phylogenetic trees obtained with three methods (Bayesian, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony) were highly similar and consensus trees gave the same branching patterns and similar node support values. A total of four different clades with up to 9 Operational Taxonomic Units formed strong monophyletic groups. Biogeographic reconstructions demonstrated the importance of populations in Middle East (Turkey) in the spread of the group from Europe to Africa and Asia. Data supported previous conclusions on the existence of two species of R. sanguineus s.l. in South America and the strong molecular similarity between R. camicasi and the so-called tropical lineage of R. sanguineus s.l. These results point to the need of a re-evaluation of most specimens designated as R. sanguineus s.l. in East Europe, Middle East, Africa and Asia after an adequate re-description of this taxon. PMID:27050755

  10. Compliance at Banks, Company Law and Financial Markets Law Observations on Whether the Law Sheds Adequate Light on Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Kersten, Armand

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1999, I started being professionally positioned as a ‘compliance officer’ in a bank. My career in the world of the compliance function in banks began in an international private banking environment, during which phase I predominantly focused on assisting the bank’s management in preventing the private bank from being (mis)used for money laundering.1 In my capacity as the global head of the compliance function of ABN AMRO’s worldwide private banking activities, ...

  11. Compliance at Banks, Company Law and Financial Markets Law Observations on Whether the Law Sheds Adequate Light on Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.J.P.B.M. Kersten (Armand)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1999, I started being professionally positioned as a ‘compliance officer’ in a bank. My career in the world of the compliance function in banks began in an international private banking environment, during which phase I predominantly focused on assisting the bank’s m

  12. Survey of microsatellite clustering in eight fully sequenced species sheds light on the origin of compound microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelley Tamas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compound microsatellites are a special variation of microsatellites in which two or more individual microsatellites are found directly adjacent to each other. Until now, such composite microsatellites have not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. Results Our in silico survey of microsatellite clustering in genomes of Homo sapiens, Maccaca mulatta, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster revealed an unexpected high abundance of compound microsatellites. About 4 – 25% of all microsatellites could be categorized as compound microsatellites. Compound microsatellites are approximately 15 times more frequent than expected under the assumption of a random distribution of microsatellites. Interestingly, microsatellites do not only tend to cluster but the adjacent repeat types of compound microsatellites have very similar motifs: in most cases (>90% these motifs differ only by a single mutation (base substitution or indel. We propose that the majority of the compound microsatellites originates by duplication of imperfections in a microsatellite tract. This process occurs mostly at the end of a microsatellite, leading to a new repeat type and a potential microsatellite repeat track. Conclusion Our findings suggest a more dynamic picture of microsatellite evolution than previously believed. Imperfections within microsatellites might not only cause the "death" of microsatellites they might also result in their "birth".

  13. Survey of microsatellite clustering in eight fully sequenced species sheds light on the origin of compound microsatellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lelley Tamas; Luschützky Evita; Schlötterer Christian; Kofler Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Compound microsatellites are a special variation of microsatellites in which two or more individual microsatellites are found directly adjacent to each other. Until now, such composite microsatellites have not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. Results Our in silico survey of microsatellite clustering in genomes of Homo sapiens, Maccaca mulatta, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, Gallus gallus, Danio rerio and Drosophila melanogaster revea...

  14. The genome sequence of Brucella pinnipedialis B2/94 sheds light on the evolutionary history of the genus Brucella

    OpenAIRE

    Claverie Jean-Michel; Lescot Magali; Audic Stéphane; Cloeckaert Axel; Zygmunt Michel S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Since the discovery of the Malta fever agent, Brucella melitensis, in the 19th century, six terrestrial mammal-associated Brucella species were recognized over the next century. More recently the number of novel Brucella species has increased and among them, isolation of species B. pinnipedialis and B. ceti from marine mammals raised many questions about their origin as well as on the evolutionary history of the whole genus. Results We report here on the first complete gen...

  15. A large mimotonid from the Middle Eocene of China sheds light on the evolution of lagomorphs and their kin

    OpenAIRE

    Łucja Fostowicz-Frelik; Chuankui Li; Fangyuan Mao; Jin Meng; Yuanqing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Mimotonids share their closest affinity with lagomorphs and were a rare and endemic faunal element of Paleogene mammal assemblages of central Asia. Here we describe a new species, Mimolagus aurorae from the Middle Eocene of Nei Mongol (China). This species belongs to one of the most enigmatic genera of fossil Glires, previously known only from the type and only specimen from the early Oligocene of Gansu (China). Our finding extends the earliest occurrence of the genus by at least 10 million y...

  16. A large mimotonid from the middle Eocene of China sheds light on the evolution of lagomorphs and their kin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostowicz-Frelik, Łucja; Li, Chuankui; Mao, Fangyuan; Meng, Jin; Wang, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Mimotonids share their closest affinity with lagomorphs and were a rare and endemic faunal element of Paleogene mammal assemblages of central Asia. Here we describe a new species, Mimolagus aurorae from the Middle Eocene of Nei Mongol (China). This species belongs to one of the most enigmatic genera of fossil Glires, previously known only from the type and only specimen from the early Oligocene of Gansu (China). Our finding extends the earliest occurrence of the genus by at least 10 million years in the Paleogene of Asia, which closes the gap between Mimolagus and other mimotonids that are known thus far from middle Eocene or older deposits. The new species is one of the largest known pre-Oligocene Glires. As regards duplicidentates, Mimolagus is comparable with the largest Neogene continental leporids, namely hares of the genus Lepus. Our results suggest that ecomorphology of this species was convergent on that of small perissodactyls that dominated faunas of the Mongolian Plateau in the Eocene, and probably a result of competitive pressure from other Glires, including a co-occurring mimotonid, Gomphos. PMID:25818513

  17. DNA Markers and FCSS Analyses Shed Light on the Genetic Diversity and Reproductive Strategy of Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Gigliola Ambrosi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. (2n = 2x = 22 is becoming a popular non-food oleaginous crop in several developed countries due to its proposed value in the biopharmaceutical industry. Despite the potentials of its oil-rich seeds as a renewable source of biodiesel and an interest in large-scale cultivation, relatively little is known with respect to plant reproduction strategies and population dynamics. Here, genomic DNA markers and FCSS analyses were performed to gain insights into ploidy variation and heterozygosity levels of multiple accessions, and genomic relationships among commercial varieties of Jatropha grown in different geographical areas. The determination of ploidy and the differentiation of either pseudogamous or autonomous apomixis from sexuality were based on the seed DNA contents of embryo and endosperm. The presence of only a high 2C embryo peak and a smaller 3C endosperm peak (ratio 2:3 is consistent with an obligate sexual reproductive system. Because of the lack of either 4C or 5C endosperm DNA estimates, the occurrence of gametophytic apomixis seems unlikely in this species but adventitious embryony cannot be ruled out. The investigation of genetic variation within and between cultivated populations was carried out using dominant RAPD and Inter-SSR markers, and codominant SSR markers. Nei’s genetic diversity, corresponding to the expected heterozygosity, was equal to He = 0.3491 and the fixation index as low as Fst = 0.2042. The main finding is that seeds commercialized worldwide include a few closely related genotypes, which are not representative of the original Mexican gene pool, revealing high degrees of homozygosity for single varieties and very low genetic diversity between varieties.

  18. Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénzes, Judit J; Pham, Hanh T; Benkö, Mária; Tijssen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here, we report the detection and partial genome characterization of two novel reptilian parvoviruses derived from a short-tailed pygmy chameleon (Rampholeon brevicaudatus) and a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) along with the complete genome analysis of the first lizard parvovirus, obtained from four bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Both homology searches and phylogenetic tree reconstructions demonstrated that all are members of the genus Dependoparvovirus. Even though most dependoparvoviruses replicate efficiently only in co-infections with large DNA viruses, no such agents could be detected in one of the bearded dragon samples, hence the possibility of autonomous replication was explored. The alternative ORF encoding the full assembly activating protein (AAP), typical for the genus, could be obtained from reptilian parvoviruses for the first time, with a structure that appears to be more ancient than that of avian and mammalian parvoviruses. All three viruses were found to harbour short introns as previously observed for snake adeno-associated virus, shorter than that of any non-reptilian dependoparvovirus. According to the phylogenetic calculations based on full non-structural protein (Rep) and AAP sequences, the monophyletic cluster of reptilian parvoviruses seems to be the most basal out of all lineages of genus Dependoparvovirus. The suspected ability for autonomous replication, results of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, intron lengths and the structure of the AAP suggested that a single Squamata origin instead of the earlier assumed diapsid (common avian-reptilian) origin is more likely for the genus Dependoparvovirus of the family Parvoviridae. PMID:26067293

  19. Expression analysis in response to drought stress in soybean: Shedding light on the regulation of metabolic pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-Dias, Fábia; Neves-Borges, Anna Cristina; Viana, Antonio Americo Barbosa; Mesquita, Rosilene Oliveira; Romano, Eduardo; de Fátima Grossi-de-Sá, Maria; Nepomuceno, Alexandre Lima; Loureiro, Marcelo Ehlers; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2012-06-01

    Metabolomics analysis of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana plants, under control and drought stress conditions revealed several metabolic pathways that are induced under water deficit. The metabolic response to drought stress is also associated with ABA dependent and independent pathways, allowing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in this model plant. Through combining an in silico approach and gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR, the present work aims at identifying genes of soybean metabolic pathways potentially associated with water deficit. Digital expression patterns of Arabidopsis genes, which were selected based on the basis of literature reports, were evaluated under drought stress condition by Genevestigator. Genes that showed strong induction under drought stress were selected and used as bait to identify orthologs in the soybean genome. This allowed us to select 354 genes of putative soybean orthologs of 79 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 38 distinct metabolic pathways. The expression pattern of the selected genes was verified in the subtractive libraries available in the GENOSOJA project. Subsequently, 13 genes from different metabolic pathways were selected for validation by qPCR experiments. The expression of six genes was validated in plants undergoing drought stress in both pot-based and hydroponic cultivation systems. The results suggest that the metabolic response to drought stress is conserved in Arabidopsis and soybean plants. PMID:22802708

  20. Shedding New Light on Kaon-Nucleon/Nuclei Interaction and Its Astrophysical Implications with the AMADEUS Experiment at DAFNE

    CERN Document Server

    Scordo, A; Bellotti, G; Berucci, C; Bosnar, D; Bragadireanu, A M; Clozza, A; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Butt, A Dawood; Del Grande, R; Fabbietti, L; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Sandri, P Levi; Marton, J; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Shi, H; Sirghi, D; Sirghi, F; Tucakovic, I; Doce, O Vazquez; Wiedmann, W; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The AMADEUS experiment deals with the investigation of the low-energy kaon-nuclei hadronic interaction at the DA{\\Phi}NE collider at LNF-INFN, which is fundamental to respond longstanding questions in the non-perturbative QCD strangeness sector. The antikaon-nucleon potential is investigated searching for signals from possible bound kaonic clusters, which would open the possibility for the formation of cold dense baryonic matter. The confirmation of this scenario may imply a fundamental role of strangeness in astrophysics. AMADEUS step 0 consisted in the reanalysis of 2004/2005 KLOE dataset, exploiting K- absorptions in H, 4He, 9Be and 12C in the setup materials. In this paper, together with a review on the multi-nucleon K- absorption and the particle identification procedure, the first results on the {\\Sigma}0-p channel will be presented including a statistical analysis on the possible accomodation of a deeply bound state

  1. Differences and similarities between carbon nanotubes and asbestos fibers during mesothelial carcinogenesis: shedding light on fiber entry mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirotaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2012-08-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology represents an important milestone, as it opens the way to a broad spectrum of applications for nanomaterials in the fields of engineering, industry and medicine. One example of nanomaterials that have the potential for widespread use is carbon nanotubes, which have a tubular structure made of graphene sheets. However, there have been concerns that they may pose a potential health risk due to their similarities to asbestos, namely their high biopersistence and needle-like structure. We recently found that despite these similarities, carbon nanotubes and asbestos differ in certain aspects, such as their mechanism of entry into mesothelial cells. In the study, we showed that non-functionalized, multi-walled carbon nanotubes enter mesothelial cells by directly piercing through the cell membrane in a diameter- and rigidity-dependent manner, whereas asbestos mainly enters these cells through the process of endocytosis, which is independent of fiber diameter. In this review, we discuss the key differences, as well as similarities, between asbestos fibers and carbon nanotubes. We also summarize previous reports regarding the mechanism of carbon nanotube entry into non-phagocytic cells. As the entry of fibers into mesothelial cells is a crucial step in mesothelial carcinogenesis, we believe that a comprehensive study on the differences by which carbon nanotubes and asbestos fibers enter into non-phagocytic cells will provide important clues for the safer manufacture of carbon nanotubes through strict regulation on fiber characteristics, such as diameter, surface properties, length and rigidity. PMID:22568550

  2. Coordinated ultrastructural and phylogenomic analyses shed light on the hidden phycobiont diversity of Trebouxia microalgae in Ramalina fraxinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Santiago; del Campo, Eva M; Barreno, Eva; García-Breijo, Francisco J; Reig-Armiñana, José; Casano, Leonardo M

    2016-01-01

    The precise boundary delineations between taxa in symbiotic associations are very important for evolutionary and ecophysiological studies. Growing evidence indicates that in many cases, the use of either morphological characters or molecular markers results in diversity underestimation. In lichen symbioses, Trebouxia is the most common genus of lichen phycobionts, however, the diversity within this genus has been poorly studied and as such there is no clear species concept. This study constitutes a multifaceted approach incorporating aspects of ultrastructural characterization by TEM and phylogenomics to evaluate the morphological and genetic diversity of phycobionts within the sexually reproducing lichen Ramalina fraxinea in the context of Mediterranean and temperate populations. Results reveal an association with at least seven different Trebouxia lineages belonging to at least two species, T. decolorans and T. jamesii, and diverse combinations of such lineages coexisting within the same thallus depending on the analyzed sample. Some of these lineages are shared by several other non-related lichen taxa. Our findings indicate the existence of a highly diverse assemblage of Trebouxia algae associating with R. fraxinea and suggest a possible incipient speciation within T. decolorans rendering a number of lineages or even actual species. This study stresses the importance of coordinated ultrastructural and molecular analyses to improve estimates of diversity and reveal the coexistence of more than one Trebouxia species within the same thallus. It is also necessary to have clearer species delimitation criteria within the genus Trebouxia and microalgae in general. PMID:26516030

  3. Patients with schizophrenia do not preserve automatic grouping when mentally re-grouping figures: shedding light on an ignored difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnneGiersch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Looking at a pair of objects is easy when automatic grouping mechanisms bind these objects together, but visual exploration can also be more flexible. It is possible to mentally ‘re-group’ two objects that are not only separate but belong to different pairs of objects. ‘Re-grouping’ is in conflict with automatic grouping, since it entails a separation of each item from the set it belongs to. This ability appears to be impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Here we check if this impairment is selective, which would suggest a dissociation between grouping and ‘re-grouping’, or if it impacts on usual, automatic grouping, which would call for a better understanding of the interactions between automatic grouping and ‘re-grouping’. Sixteen outpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls had to identify two identical and contiguous target figures within a display of circles and squares alternating around a fixation point. Eye-tracking was used to check central fixation. The target pair could be located in the same or separate hemifields. Identical figures were grouped by a connector (grouped automatically or not (to be re-grouped. Attention modulation of automatic grouping was tested by manipulating the proportion of connected and unconnected targets, thus prompting subjects to focalize on either connected or unconnected pairs. Both groups were sensitive to automatic grouping in most conditions, but patients were unusually slowed down for connected targets while focalizing on unconnected pairs. In addition, this unusual effect occurred only when target were presented within the same hemifield. Patients and controls differed on this asymmetry between within- and across-hemifield presentation, suggesting that patients with schizophrenia do not re-group figures in the same way as controls do. We discuss possible implications on how ‘re-grouping’ ties in with ongoing, automatic perception in healthy volunteers.

  4. Shedding light on microbial dark matter: a TM6 bacterium as natural endosymbiont of a free-living amoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delafont, Vincent; Samba-Louaka, Ascel; Bouchon, Didier; Moulin, Laurent; Héchard, Yann

    2015-12-01

    The TM6 phylum belongs to the so-called microbial dark matter that gathers uncultivated bacteria detected only via DNA sequencing. Recently, the genome sequence of a TM6 bacterium (TM6SC1) has led to suggest that this bacterium would adopt an endosymbiotic life. In the present paper, free-living amoebae bearing a TM6 strain were isolated from a water network. The amoebae were identified as Vermamoeba vermiformis and the presence of a TM6 strain was detected by polymerase chain reaction and microscopy. The partial sequence of its 16S rRNA gene showed this strain to be closely related to the sequenced TM6SC1 strain. These bacteria displayed a pyriform shape and were found within V. vermiformis. Therefore, these bacteria were named Vermiphilus pyriformis. Interactions studies showed that V. pyriformis was highly infectious and that its relation with V. vermiformis was specific and highly stable. Finally, it was found that V. pyriformis inhibited the encystment of V. vermiformis. Overall, this study describes for the first time an endosymbiotic relationship between a TM6 bacterium and a free-living amoeba in the environment. It suggests that other bacteria of the TM6 phylum might also be endosymbiotic bacteria and may be found in other free-living amoebae or other organisms. PMID:26471960

  5. Lightness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo;

    2012-01-01

    Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking in the...... direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions is...... lightness functions....

  6. Velocity measurement by vortex shedding. Contribution to the mass-flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of vortex shedding has been known for centuries and has been the subject of scientific studies for about one hundred years. It is only in the ten last years that is has been applied to the measurement of fluids velocity. In 1878 F. Strouhal observed the vortex shedding phenomenon and shown that the shedding frequency of a wire vibrating in the wind was related to the wire diameter and the wind velocity. Rayleigh, who introduced the non-dimensional Strouhal number, von Karman and Rohsko, carried out extensive work or the subject which indicated that vortex shedding could form the basis for a new type of flowmeter. The thesis describes two parallel lines of investigation which study in depth the practical applications of vortex shedding. The first one deals with the measure of velocity and it presents the novelty of a bluff body with a cross-section which has not been used until this day. This body is a circular cylinder with a two-dimensional slit along the diameter and situated in crossdirection to the fluid's stream. It possesses excellent characteristics and it is the most stable as a vortex shedder, which gives it great advantage to the rest of the shapes used until now. The detection of the vortex has been performed by measuring the pressure changes generated by the vortex on two posts situated just beside the slit. To calculate the frequency of the vortex shedding, we obtain the difference of the mentioned signals, which are the same and 180 out of phase. Finding out the period of the autocorrelation function of this signal we can estimate the velocity of the fluid. A logical equipment based on a microprocessor has been designed for the calculation using a zero-crossing time algorithm implemented in assembler language. The second line of research refers to a new method of measure mass flow. The pressure signal generated by the vortex has an intensity which is proportional to the density and to the square of the velocity. Since we have already

  7. The Timeline of Influenza Virus Shedding in Children and Adults in a Household Transmission Study of Influenza in Managua, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sophia; Lopez, Roger; Kuan, Guillermina; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Gordon, Aubree

    2016-05-01

    In a household transmission study in Nicaragua, children under 6 years old had a longer duration of presymptomatic influenza virus shedding than adults. The duration of postsymptomatic influenza virus shedding was longest in children 0-5 years old, followed by children 6-15 years of age and adults. PMID:26910589

  8. A New Optimal Under Frequency Load Shedding in Micro Grids in Presence of Wind Turbines by using ANFIS Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Amooshahi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of renewable energy have led to the high penetration of Distributed Generators (DG in the distribution systems. Besides the technical, economical and environmental benefits, Microgrids can operate in islanded (autonomous modes. Microgrids need an effective load shedding system for the control of system frequency and voltage profile in an autonomous operation mode. The generation uncertainty of wind turbines in microgrids is analyzed in this paper and a new load shedding criteria has been proposed. Reactive power balance is an important problem with considering short electrical distances in microgrids and considering this basic fact, the proposed load shedding method uses a combination of frequency and voltage criteria. The total load shedding amount is determined by using transient stability analysis. This method is implemented by using ANFIS network in microgrids. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed load shedding method.

  9. Adaptive Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  10. Light Reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Ultra Sales, Inc.'s fluorescent lighting fixture gets a boost in reflectivity through installation of Lightdriver, a thin tough thermoplastic film plated with aluminum, capable of reflecting 95 percent of visible light striking it. Lightdriver increases brightness without adding bulbs, and allows energy savings by removing some bulbs because the mirrorlike surface cuts light loss generally occasioned by conventional low reflectivity white painted surface above the bulbs in many fluorescent fixtures. Forty-five percent reduction in lighting electricity is attainable.

  11. A Lagrangian analysis of a two-dimensional airfoil with vortex shedding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using invariant material manifolds and flow topology, the flow behavior and structure of flow around a two-dimensional Eppler 387 airfoil is examined with an emphasis on vortex shedding and the time-dependent reattachment profile. The examination focuses on low Reynolds number (Re = 60 000) flow at several angles of attack. Using specialized software, we identify invariant manifolds in the flow and use these structures to illuminate the process of vortex formation and the periodic behavior of the reattachment profile. Our analysis concludes with a topological view of the flow, including fixed points and a discussion of phase plots and the frequency spectrum of several key points in the flow. The behavior of invariant manifolds directly relates to the flow topology and illuminates some aspects seen in phase space during vortex shedding. Furthermore, it highlights the reattachment behavior in ways not seen before

  12. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  13. Awareness of Stem cells & Health Implications of SHED found in Pediatric Dentition among Indian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Goomer, Pallvi; Sidhu, Arshpreet Kaur; Tuli, Preety; Kansal, Shinam; Bansal, Kanishka; Thakre, Gauri R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary teeth may be an ideal source of postnatal stem cells to regenerate tooth structures and bone, and possibly to treat neural tissue injury or degenerative diseases. SHED (stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth) were identified to be a population of highly proliferative, clonogenic cells capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types including neural cells, adipocytes, and odontoblasts. The present study was carried out to assess the knowledge, awareness...

  14. Slab model for Rayleigh--Taylor stabilization by vortex shedding, compressibility, thermal conduction, and ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical models are derived for stabilization of the Rayleigh--Taylor instability of an ablatively accelerated slab. The procedure is to conserve mass, momentum, and energy flux across a perturbed interface through which plasma flows. In various regimes, the stabilization mechanism can be described as vortex shedding, compressibility, thermal conduction, and ablation. Comparisons are made with recent fluid simulations, and simple laws relevant to laser-driven ablative acceleration are derived

  15. Gene co-expression network analysis identifies porcine genes associated with variation in Salmonella shedding

    OpenAIRE

    Kommadath, Arun; Bao, Hua; Arantes, Adriano S; Plastow, Graham S.; Christopher K Tuggle; Bearson, Shawn MD; Luo Guan, Le; Stothard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a gram-negative bacterium that can colonise the gut of humans and several species of food producing farm animals to cause enteric or septicaemic salmonellosis. While many studies have looked into the host genetic response to Salmonella infection, relatively few have used correlation of shedding traits with gene expression patterns to identify genes whose variable expression among different individuals may be associated with differences in ...

  16. The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR undergoes ectodomain shedding and regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Houri

    Full Text Available The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR is a cell adhesion molecule originally characterized as a virus receptor but subsequently shown to be involved in physiological processes such as neuronal and heart development, epithelial tight junction integrity, and tumour suppression. Proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules and a wide variety of other cell surface proteins serves as a mechanism for protein turnover and, in some cases, cell signaling. Metalloproteases such as A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM family members cleave cell surface receptors to release their substrates' ectodomains, while the presenilin/ɣ-secretase complex mediates regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP, releasing intracellular domain fragments from the plasma membrane. In the case of some substrates such as Notch and amyloid precursor protein (APP, the released intracellular domains enter the nucleus to modulate gene expression. We report that CAR ectodomain is constitutively shed from glioma cells and developing neurons, and is also shed when cells are treated with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and the calcium ionophore ionomycin. We identified ADAM10 as a sheddase of CAR using assays involving shRNA knockdown and rescue, overexpression of wild-type ADAM10 and inhibition of ADAM10 activity by addition of its prodomain. In vitro peptide cleavage, mass spectrometry and mutagenesis revealed the amino acids M224 to L227 of CAR as the site of ADAM10-mediated ectodomain cleavage. CAR also undergoes RIP by the presenilin/γ-secretase complex, and the intracellular domain of CAR enters the nucleus. Ectodomain shedding is a prerequisite for RIP of CAR. Thus, CAR belongs to the increasing list of cell surface molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding and that are substrates for ɣ-secretase-mediated RIP.

  17. Application of ultrasonic velocity profile meter to vortex shedding and empirical eigenfunctional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Tsuji, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Kukita, Y.

    The vortex shedding behind a cylinder in a fully developed pipe flow is investigated by applying new measurement and data-analysis techniques. An ultrasound anemometry technique, providing the multipoint information of the flow, is employed. The measured instantaneous velocity fluctuations are decomposed by the empirical eigenfunctional analysis known as the proper orthogonal decomposition. The predominant modes of fluid motions are well identified by this technique, and their time-frequency features are discussed.

  18. Adaptive Tuning of Frequency Thresholds Using Voltage Drop Data in Decentralized Load Shedding

    OpenAIRE

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Faria Da Silva, Filipe Miguel; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    Load shedding (LS) is the last firewall and the most expensive control action against power system blackout. In the conventional under frequency LS (UFLS) schemes, the load drop locations are already determined independently of the event location. Furthermore, the frequency thresholds of LS relays are prespecified and constant values which may not be a comprehensive solution for widespread range of possible events. This paper addresses the decentralized LS in which the instantaneous voltage d...

  19. Characterization of the Lassa virus GP1 ectodomain shedding: implications for improved diagnostic platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branco Luis M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant requirement for the development and acquisition of reagents that will facilitate effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lassa fever. In this regard, detection of early markers of Lassa virus (LASV infection may improve diagnosis and ultimately successful treatment with antivirals. Characterization of LASV GP1 ectodomain shedding is an important step toward developing sensitive diagnostics to detect circulating levels of this viral glycoprotein in infected patient sera. Results Secretion of GP1 from mammalian cells expressing a native LASV GPC gene was not mediated by proteolytic cleavage, as determined by treatment with a panel of matrix metalloprotease (MMP inhibitors. The shedding of GP1 was also not the result of over-expression of GPC under the control of a strong intron-A containing CMV promoter, as the soluble component could be immunoprecipitated from supernatants of cells expressing low levels of GPC under the control of an intronless promoter. Cells transfected with GPC retained surface membrane-associated expression of GP1 as determined by immunofluorescence assay, in addition to secreting the glycoprotein. Secreted GP1 derived from GPC expression has a higher content of high mannose N-linked glycosylation than sGP1 expressed independently from the GP2 portion of the protein. Neither GP1 isoform contains sialylated N-glycans, O-linked carbohydrate chains, or galactose-β(1-4-N-acetylglucosamine commonly present in complex and hybrid N-glycan structures. Conclusion These results demonstrate the non-proteolytic secretory nature of GP1 shedding during expression of the arenaviral glycoprotein complex. This phenomenon parallels shedding of a secretory glycoprotein component in filovirus replication. The glycosylation pattern of soluble GP1 resulting from expression of GPC was different from that of a soluble GP1 construct (sGP1-RRAA-FLAG, highlighting the intricately orchestrated post

  20. Association between Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, John; Rauch, Brad; Welcome, Frank; Kim, Sung; Dubovi, Edward; Schukken, Ynte

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the potential association between Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk and chronic subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. In two separate studies, we identified an association between PCR-based detection of C. burnetii in milk and chronic subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. These studies were conducted in a commercial dairy herd where there was ongoing intensive monitoring of subclinical mastitis by aerobic bacteriology, but no prior knowle...

  1. Development of a wide range vortex shedding flowmeter for high-temperature helium gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S. P.; Ennis, R. M., Jr.; Herndon, P. G.

    1981-07-01

    A single flowmeter capable of meeting all the core flow test loop (CFTL) requirements was developed in order to provide significant economic and performance advantages in the operation of the loop. The development, conceptual design, and final design of a modified vortex shedding flowmeter are described. The results of extensive flow calibration of the flowmeter at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station are presented. The report closes with recommendations for application of the VSFM to the CFTL and for future development work.

  2. IL-8-induced L-selectin shedding regulates its binding kinetics to PSGL-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA XiaoLing; CHEN Juan; LONG Mian

    2009-01-01

    L-selectin plays a crucial role in inflammation cascade by initiating the tethering and rolling of leukocytes on endothelium wall.While many L-selectin molecules are rapidly shed from the cell surface upon activation,the remaining membrane-anchored L-selectin may still play an important role in regulating leukocyte rolling and adhesion with different binding kinetics.Here we developed an in vitro model to activate Jurkat cells via interlukin-8 (IL-8) and quantified the two-dimensional (2D) binding kinetics,using a micropipette aspiration assay,of membrane-anchored L-selectin to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) ligand coupled onto human red blood cells (RBCs).The data indicated that L-selectin shedding reduced the amount of membrane-anchored L-selecUn and lowered both its reverse and forward rates.These results suggested that the rolling dynamics of activated leukocytes was determined by two opposite impacts:reducing the surface presentation would enhance the rolling but lowering the kinetic rates would decrease the rolling.This finding provides a new insight into understanding how L-selectin shedding regulates leukocyte rolling and adhesion.

  3. Parametric CFD study of micro-energy harvesting in a flow channel exploiting vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubogiannis, Dimitrios G.

    2016-05-01

    Miniature energy harvesting devices are increasingly used in various fields. For example, Wireless Sensor Networks have recently made great progress in many applications. However, their main drawback, i.e. the limited duration of operation, poses the requirement for an effective way to recharge their batteries. In this context, the presentwork focuses on the study of micro-energy harvesting from flow by exploiting vortex shedding behind bluff bodies, in order to cause oscillations to a piezoelectric film and generate the required electrical power. To this end, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool is validated on a particular miniature device configuration proposed in the literature and implemented for the numerical simulations of flow around bluff micro-bodies in a very small channel. Aiming to enhance vortex shedding, parametric studies corresponding to different bluff body shapes and arrangements for a fixed Reynolds number are performed, the main parameters involved in the phenomenon are highlighted and the potential for vortex shedding exploitation is qualitatively assessed.

  4. A new-type flexible rock-shed under the impact of rock block: experimental investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main disadvantage of conventional concrete rock-shed is the need for a massive foundation due to the deadweight of the structure. In order to overcome such construction difficulty and to reduce costs, a new concept of flexible rock-shed is proposed in this paper. The flexible rock-shed is made of flexible nets held up by specially designed steel vaulted structure. An 1:1 prototype is manufactured and tested for functional evaluation with impact experiment. It is shown that the structure can stand for an impact energy of about 250 kJ without observable rupture of the flexible nets or cables and can be put into service again with some maintenances on the steel vaulted structure. Expermental data such as local strains, peak loads and impact times are recorded by dynamic strain gauges, load cells and high speed camera for structural analysis and some complementary suggestions of improving and designing are offered with respect to the joints and components.

  5. Control of Vortex Shedding on an Airfoil using Mini Flaps at Low Reynolds Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiyama, Daisuke; Numata, Daiju; Asai, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effects of mini flaps (MFs) on a NACA0012 airfoil were investigated experimentally at low Reynolds number. MFs are small flat plates attached to the trailing edge of an airfoil perpendicularly. All the tests were conducted at the Tohoku-University Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel at the chord Reynolds number of 25,000. Aerodynamic forces were measured using a 3-component balance and the surface flow was visualized by luminescent oil film technique. The results of force measurement show that attachment of MFs enhances lift and the enhanced lift increases with MF height. On the other hand, the results of oil flow visualization show that attachment of MFs enlarges the separated region on the airfoil rather than diminishes it. To understand the physical mechanism of MFs for lift enhancement, the flow around the airfoil was visualized by the smoke-wire method and the wake profile behind the airfoil was measured using a hot wire anemometer. It was found that vortices shed periodically from the tip of the MFs and interact with the separated shear layer from the upper surface. This unsteady vortex shedding forms a low-pressure region on the upper surface, generating higher lift. These results suggest that the height of MFs controls the frequency of vortex shedding behind the MF, forcing the separated shear layer on the upper surface flow in unsteady manner.

  6. Internal Structure of Asteroids Having Surface Shedding due to Rotational Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Scheeres, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to such surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this pa...

  7. An investigation of the shedding of macromolecules from the Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous release, or shedding, of cell surface components into the extracellular medium may be important in the determination of several features of the cancer cell phenotype. The release of macromolecules from the Erhlich mouse ascites tumor cell was studied under a variety of experimental conditions to elucidate the origin and the underlying mechanisms of release. The extrinsic macromolecules are a diverse group with apparent molecular weights ranging from 13,500 to 400,000 daltons. External labeling of the cell surface with tritiated 4,4'-diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2-disulfonic acid ([3H]H2DIDS) reveals a slow loss of labeled components at 4 degrees C, while at 21 degrees C and 37 degrees C an initial rapid loss is followed by a slower release. In vitro metabolic labeling with [1-14C]-D-glucosamine hydrochloride, D-[2-3H]-mannose and various [3H]-L-amino acids results in the appearance of labeled macromolecules in the medium suggesting tumor, not mouse, origin. These data suggest that the extrinsic macromolecules originate from the cell surface. Macromolecules are shed by a temperature and pH sensitive process. These results suggest that a limited proteolytic digestion, or sublethal autolysis, of the cell surface may occur in this system. The macromolecules shed by the Ehrlich cell originate from the surface and are probably released by sublethal autolysis, direct secretion and a passive process

  8. Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  9. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An age old and time tested technique of mosquito net requiring no energy, used by humans since prehistoric period was the inspiration behind this novel technique of fly proof net shed for livestock. With the aim to develop similar type of net shed for animals, which will protect them at night from biting of range of insects from Culicoides midges to mosquitoes, research was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Net shed with pitch roof (gable type was erected for use of livestock. The open inlet area was covered with 40 mesh size wire net. The roof at attic level was fitted with hurricane type of ventilator. Shed was used for animals at night hours only. vane anemometer was used for estimation of temperature and wind related parameters. Thermal humidity index (THI and air changes were calculated as per the standard formulas. Based on these parameters suitability of shed was judged. Results: It was observed that, due to netting of the shed population of Culicoides and other flies and incidences of their bites at night hours were considerably lowered. As a result, animals were found comfortable, and their body movements undertaken for wiping off these flies were significantly reduced from 196.50 to 22.16. All it accrued to increased milk yield to the tune of 18.97% in the net shed buffaloes as against control shed. Studies on suitability and comfort to animals were tested by estimating THI and air changes per hour in the net shed, which also revealed the estimates in comfortable regimen and ventilation, remained not much affected despite of netting. Other parameters studied for testing its more accuracy by taking other species of animals as kids, for them also, shed was found suitable through estimation of various physiological and behavioral parameters. Finally, the efficacy of shed was judged on the basis of cost effectiveness. Highly encouraging results on the above said parameters endorsed the effectiveness of the technique. Conclusion: A

  10. Viral shedding in Chinese young adults with mild 2009 H1N1 influenza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Ning; GAO Yan; SUO Ji-jiang; XIE Li-jun; YAN Zhong-qiang; XING Yu-bin; HE Lei; LIU Yun-xi

    2011-01-01

    Background The duration of viral shedding and the transmission of 2009 H1N1 influenza among individuals, especially among the younger population with mild illness, are not well understood now. The aim of this study was to determine the viral shedding of the young adult patients with mild 2009 H1N1 influenza in China.Methods From September 2009 to January 2010, the clinical data and serial nasopharyngeal swabs of 67 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza and 37 patients with seasonal influenza aged from 18 years to 35 years were collected. The nasopharyngeal swab samples were detected by real time RT-PCR to determine the viral shedding. All the patients did not receive the antiviral therapy but Chinese medicine for detoxicating.Results Among the patients with H1N1 virus infection, 82.1% (55/67) patients presented with fever symptom, while more patients with high fever (≥39℃) were found in seasonal influenza patients (P<0.05). For the H1N1 patients, the median interval between the symptom onset and the undetectable RNA was six days (4-10 days). But viral shedding was still found in 31.3% patients after 7 days following illness onset. The median interval between disappearance of fever and an undetectable viral RNA level was three days (2-8 days), and 17.9% patients were found to be viral shedding 6 days later after normalization of body temperature. For the seasonal influenza patients, 94.6% patients were detected out viral RNA within 7 days. The median interval of seasonal influenza between the symptom onset and the undetectable RNA was four days (3-8 days). The median interval between disappearance of fever and an undetectable viral RNA level was three days (2-6 days).Conclusion It suggests that 7 days isolation period from the illness onset or 24 hours after the resolution of fever and respiratory symptoms are not long enough to cut off the transmission among Chinese young adults with mild illness.

  11. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  12. Maintaining the Body's Immune System: Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Your body protects you from illness with its own security system - the immune system. This system keeps illness at bay not only by mounting a defense against foreign organisms, but also by controlling the population of bacteria and viruses that normally live in your body. But there's no need to panic: certain microbes can actually exist in your body without causing illness. Some bacteria are even beneficial - like the E. coli in the large intestine that are an important source of vitamin K. While viruses are not exactly considered beneficial, they can also inhabit the human body without causing immediate harm or infection. A good example is the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), more commonly known as cold sores or fever blisters. This virus infects 70 to 80 percent of all adults but remains latent much of the time. While latent, the virus within cells remains dormant. Activation of the dormant virus causes it to make copies of itself (known as replication) constantly detectable in body fluids such as urine or saliva in a process called shedding. When a person becomes sick or stressed, however, this weakened condition allows the virus to reactivate and multiply. These elevated levels may be enough to produce symptoms, but shedding can also occur without symptoms. This ability to shed without showing signs of infection, or asymptomatic shedding, is of great interest, as it increases the chances of infecting others. The stresses associated with space flight - adapting to microgravity, isolation from family and friends, living and working in a confined space, sleep deprivation, and busy schedules, to name but a few - may weaken astronauts' immune systems, leaving them at greater risk of viral reactivation. Members of the STS-107 crew will participate in this experiment, Incidence of Latent Viral Shedding in Space Flight, to help scientists understand how reactivation works in space, and at what level replication reaches before symptoms begin to show. This study also

  13. Paracrine regulation of growth factor signaling by shed leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Wei [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umea University, SE-90187 Umea (Sweden); Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030 (China); Holmlund, Camilla; Nilsson, Jonas [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umea University, SE-90187 Umea (Sweden); Inui, Shigeki [Department of Regenerative Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Lei, Ting [Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030 (China); Itami, Satoshi [Department of Regenerative Dermatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita-shi, Osaka, 565-0871 (Japan); Henriksson, Roger [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umea University, SE-90187 Umea (Sweden); Hedman, Hakan, E-mail: hakan.hedman@onkologi.umu.se [Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology, Umea University, SE-90187 Umea (Sweden)

    2011-02-15

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a recently discovered negative regulator of growth factor signaling. The LRIG1 integral membrane protein has been demonstrated to regulate various oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), by cell-autonomous mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether LRIG1 ectodomains were shed, and if LRIG1 could regulate cell proliferation and EGF signaling in a paracrine manner. Cells constitutively shed LRIG1 ectodomains in vitro, and shedding was modulated by known regulators of metalloproteases, including the ADAM17 specific inhibitor TAPI-2. Furthermore, shedding was enhanced by ectopic expression of Adam17. LRIG1 ectodomains appeared to be shed in vivo, as well, as demonstrated by immunoblotting of mouse and human tissue lysates. Ectopic expression of LRIG1 in lymphocytes suppressed EGF signaling in co-cultured fibroblastoid cells, demonstrating that shed LRIG1 ectodomains can function in a paracrine fashion. Purified LRIG1 ectodomains suppressed EGF signaling without any apparent downregulation of EGFR levels. Taken together, the results show that the LRIG1 ectodomain can be proteolytically shed and can function as a non-cell-autonomous regulator of growth factor signaling. Thus, LRIG1 or its ectodomain could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of growth factor receptor-dependent cancers.

  14. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hird

    Full Text Available Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5-30 days after a "challenge" dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.24. In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59-1.11] or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82-1.58]. There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.

  15. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  16. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-10-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this research shows that optically trapped micro-fabricated structures can potentially help bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the sub-wavelength domain.

  17. Solar lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Pode, Ramchandra

    2011-01-01

    Limited availability of grid-based electricity is a major challenge faced by many developing countries, particularly the rural population. Fuel-based lighting, such as the kerosene lantern, is widespread in these areas, but it is a poor alternative, contributing to global warming and causing serious health problems. Several developing countries are therefore now encouraging the use of sustainable lighting. ""Solar Lighting"" gives an in-depth analysis of energy-efficient light production through the use of solar-powered LED systems. The authors pay particular attention to the interplay between

  18. Dynamics of virus shedding and antibody responses in influenza A virus-infected feral swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hailiang; Cunningham, Fred L; Harris, Jillian; Xu, Yifei; Long, Li-Ping; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Baroch, John A; Fioranelli, Paul; Lutman, Mark W; Li, Tao; Pedersen, Kerri; Schmit, Brandon S; Cooley, Jim; Lin, Xiaoxu; Jarman, Richard G; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Wan, Xiu-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Given their free-ranging habits, feral swine could serve as reservoirs or spatially dynamic 'mixing vessels' for influenza A virus (IAV). To better understand virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics in the context of IAV surveillance amongst feral swine, we used IAV of feral swine origin to perform infection experiments. The virus was highly infectious and transmissible in feral swine, and virus shedding patterns and antibody response dynamics were similar to those in domestic swine. In the virus-inoculated and sentinel groups, virus shedding lasted ≤ 6 and ≤ 9 days, respectively. Antibody titres in inoculated swine peaked at 1 : 840 on day 11 post-inoculation (p.i.), remained there until 21 days p.i. and dropped to nucleoprotein position 473. Using data from cell culture as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of a matrix gene-based quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method using nasal swab samples for detection of IAV in feral swine were 78.9 and 78.1 %, respectively. Using data from haemagglutination inhibition assays as a benchmark, sensitivity and specificity of an ELISA for detection of IAV-specific antibody were 95.4 and 95.0 %, respectively. Serological surveillance from 2009 to 2014 showed that ∼7.58 % of feral swine in the USA were positive for IAV. Our findings confirm the susceptibility of IAV infection and the high transmission ability of IAV amongst feral swine, and also suggest the need for continued surveillance of IAVs in feral swine populations. PMID:26297148

  19. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1997-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  20. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  1. Association between nasal shedding and fever that influenza A (H3N2 induces in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jinsik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian origin canine influenza virus was reported in Korea. The dog to dog contact transmission of the avian origin canine influenza virus (CIV H3N2 and CIV H3N8 was shown by experimental contact transmission. This study was focused on viral excretion and fever in order to elucidate the epidemiological associations which might be helpful to control the disease transmissions in CIV outbreak in dogs. Methods An influenza seronegative 10-week-old Beagle dog was experimentally inoculated with the canine influenza virus A/canine/01/2007, subtype H3N2. Eight hours after inoculation, the infected dog was cohoused with seven uninfected Beagle dogs. Clinical signs including fever were recorded for 14 days post inoculation. Results The infected dog and four of seven contact dogs in the study showed clinical signs (sneezing, nasal discharge and coughing during the study. Viral shedding occurred in all of the animals tested and began on 1 to 6 DPI in dogs with clinical signs. Elevated body temperatures above 39.5°C (geometric mean temperature of 39.86°C±0.49 were observed in all symptomatic dogs. The mean viral titer during fever was 2.99 log EID50/ml, which was significantly higher than the viral titer detected in the non fever. Conclusions The data show that contact dogs with a canine influenza infected dog shed different levels of virus in their nasal excretions and demonstrate that clinical signs, including fever, significantly correlate with the viral shedding.

  2. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A. Girard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA. Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near

  3. Respiratory syncytial virus shedding by children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Aya; Hashimoto, Koichi; Sato, Masatoki; Kawashima, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-06-01

    Children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection shed virus for variable periods. The aim of this study was to quantify the viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates of children with RSV throughout their hospitalization. This study included 37 children who were admitted with a diagnosis of RSV infection based on a positive rapid diagnostic test. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients every day, from admission to discharge. Viral detection and quantification were performed using quantitative real-time PCR. Of the 37 patients, RSV-A was detected in 29 and RSV-B in 6. Two patients were PCR-negative for any type of RSV. RSV-A was detected in 12 of 16 patients (75%) 6 days after admission. These patients shed detectable virus from days 1 to 12, and for a significantly longer period (mean 5.7 days) than RSV-B (mean 3.8 days) patients. Half of the RSV-A patients were also positive on day 14 following onset. RSV-A was detected in patients <12 months of age for significantly longer periods after onset than in patients ≥12 months of age. RSV-A viral load was negatively correlated with days from admission and days from onset. Because RSV shedding was frequently prolonged, the hospitalized children may have contracted RSV as a nosocomial infection. To prevent nosocomial RSV infections in hospital wards, healthcare workers must take appropriate infection control measures and provide adequate guidance on hand washing to the family of the patient. J. Med. Virol. 88:938-946, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26588816

  4. Boundary layer effects on the vortex shedding in a Donaldson- type hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid - Structure Interaction (FSI) phenomena is becoming a relevant study field for the design or revamping of hydropower plants. The generalized trend of increasing flow rates and reducing rotor blades/stay vanes thickness in order to improve the efficiency of the machine together with a major push from plant owners/operators for production flexibility (partial load operation is more common nowadays) make the FSI between the vortex shedding phenomenon and the vanes/blades of the machine an area of interest. From a design point of view, the machine structure has to resist all the hydrodynamic forces generated and maintain tension stresses under the fatigue limit to ensure a machine lifetime of several decades. To accomplish that goal, designers have to assure there is no presence of strong coupling phenomena (lock-in) between the vortex shedding frequency and the eigenfrequencies of the structure. As the vortex street is directly related to the state of the boundary layer along the hydrofoil, in this paper the effect of the boundary layer on the vortex shedding in a Donaldson-type hydrofoil is studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The development of the boundary layer along the Donaldson trailing edge hydrofoil chord is presented under lock-off conditions. The results are validated against previously obtained experimental results. Since the Donaldson trailing edge is non-symmetric, the boundary layer velocity profiles are reported for the suction and pressure side of the hydrofoil. In addition, the effect of the Donaldson trailing edge on laminar-to-turbulent transition on both sides of the hydrofoil is studied

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles with pH-Triggered PEG Shedding

    OpenAIRE

    Clawson, Corbin; Ton, Linh; Aryal, Santosh; Fu, Victoria; Esener, Sadik; Zhang, Liangfang

    2011-01-01

    Novel lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles are designed with a poly(ethylene glycol) coating that is shed in response to a low pH trigger. This allows the nanoparticles to be stable during systemic circulation and at neutral pH, but destabilize and fuse with lipid membranes in acidic environments. The hybrid nanoparticles consist of a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) core with a lipid and lipid-PEG monolayer shell. To make the hybrid nanoparticles pH sensitive, a lipid-(succinate)-mPEG conjugate i...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile shedding in veal calves in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Maresca, Carmen; Cucco, Lucilla; Bano, Luca; Drigo, Ilenia; Filippini, Giovanni; Dettori, Annalisa; Broccatelli, Sayra; Pezzotti, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and risk factors of Clostridium difficile shedding in six farms belonging to two companies in Northern Italy. Four hundred and twenty veal calves, randomly selected and individually identified, were sampled three times: at 0-16, 90-120, and 150 days after introduction. C. difficile was isolated at least once from 87 out of the 420 calves (20.7%). The prevalence of shedding was 20.24% at the first sampling and dropped to 0.72% at the second sampling. None of the samples obtained at 150 days tested positive. Sampling of cecal contents and carcass swabs at slaughter was stratified according to the herd of origin of the animals. C. difficile was never isolated at slaughter, excluding a prevalence higher than 3.5% on the basis of previous investigations. Therefore, in this work, the veal calf could not be confirmed as a potential source of C. difficile for the consumer. Eight different ribotypes (RT) have been described, but the vast majority of the isolates (87.8%) belonged to three ribotypes only: RT-078, RT-012 and RT-126, which are also among the most common of the ribotypes detected in humans in Europe. Most isolates, and all the RT-078 isolates, harbored genes coding for toxins A and B, the binary toxin, and showed a deletion in the gene encoding toxin C, suggesting that the veal calf was a reservoir for epidemic hyper-virulent strains. A correlation between age and shedding was found: the odds ratio (OR) ranged from 2.79 for 36-45 days of age to 4.57 for 13-28 days of age. The presence of diarrhea at first sampling was significantly associated with the recovery of C. difficile in feces (OR 3.26). A correlation was found between the administration of antimicrobials and shedding: an increased risk was shown when the number of antimicrobials used was higher than 4 (OR 4.02) or 5-6 (OR 5.83) or when polymyxin E or beta-lactams were administered. PMID:25638401

  7. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ≥1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. PMID:25043226

  8. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, invasion into and shedding by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Nyman, P.; Wiklund, T.

    2000-01-01

    The infection route of Flavobacterium psychrophilum into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied using bath and cohabitation challenges as well as oral challenge with live feed as a vector. Additionally, the number of bacterial cells shed by infected fish into the surrounding water was...... determined in the cohabitation experiment and in challenge experiments at 3 different water temperatures. The experiments showed that skin and skin mucus abrasion dramatically enhanced the invasion of F. psychrophilum into the affected fish in bath and cohabitation challenges. Disruption of the skin is...

  9. Effect of Terpenes on the Skin Permeation of Ketoprofen through Shed Snake Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Hilal Bilek; Nanthida Wonglertnirant; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat; Praneet Opanasopit; Mont Kumpugdee -Vollrath

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of hydrocarbon (α-pinene and limonene) and oxygen containing monoterpenes (carvone and terpineole) at 5%w/v in hydroalcoholic mixtures (50% ethanol) on the permeation of ketoprofen across shed snake skin of Python molurus bivittatus. The amount of KP retained in the skin after 8 h of diffusion was determined. It was found that the percutaneous absorption of ketoprofen was enhanced in the presence of the enhancers. The rank order of enha...

  10. Role of Protein Kinase C in Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 trafficking and shedding from endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → PKC activation increases the trafficking of ECE-1 to the cell surface. → This in turn leads to an increase in the amount of ECE-1 shed. → Only the catalytically active C-terminal region is shed from the cell surface. -- Abstract: This study aimed to determine the consequences of Protein Kinase C (PKC) mediated Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 (ECE-1) phosphorylation and its relationship to ECE-1 expression and shedding. The proteins on the surface of EA.hy926 cells were labelled with EZ-Link NHS-SS-Biotin both prior to (control) and following stimulation by 2 μM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) which activates PKC. The biotinylated proteins were isolated using neutravidin beads, resolved by gel electrophoresis and analysed by western blotting using anti-ECE-1 antibodies. Significant increase in ECE-1 expression at the cell surface was observed following stimulation by PMA, compared to unstimulated control cells (170 ± 32.3% of control, n = 5). The ECE-1 activity (expressed as μM substrate cleaved/min) was determined by monitoring the cleavage of a quenched fluorescent substrate. The specificity of cleavage was confirmed using the ECE-1 inhibitor (CGS35066). The stimulation of cells by PMA (1 μM, 6 h) significantly increased the ECE-1 activity (0.28 ± 0.02; n = 3) compared to the control (0.07 ± 0.02; n = 3). This increase was prevented by prior incubation with the PKC inhibitor bisindolymaleimide (BIM; 2 μM for 1 h; 0.10 ± 0.01; n = 3). Treatment with PMA also increased the activity of ECE-1 in the media (0.18 ± 0.01; n = 3) compared to control (0.08 ± 0.01; n = 3). In addition, this study confirmed by western immunoblotting that only the extracellular region of ECE-1 is released from the cell surface. These data indicate for the first time that PKC activation induces the trafficking and shedding of ECE to and from the cell surface, respectively.

  11. Proteolytic shedding of the macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabriek, Babs O; Møller, Holger J; Vloet, Rianka P M; van Winsen, Lisa M; Hanemaaijer, Roeland; Teunissen, Charlotte E; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; van den Berg, Timo K; Dijkstra, Christine D

    2007-01-01

    MMP-9 levels in controls, but not in MS patients. Moreover, evidence was obtained for CD163-cleaving MMP activity in plasma of MS patients. Finally, the increased proteolytic shedding of CD163 correlated to reduced plasma levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, our results provide......The scavenger receptor CD163 is selectively expressed on tissue macrophages and human monocytes. CD163 has been implicated to play a role in the clearance of hemoglobin and in the regulation of cytokine production by macrophages. Membrane CD163 can be cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP...

  12. Force Balance and Membrane Shedding at the Red-Blood-Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Gov, Nir

    2007-01-01

    During the aging of the red-blood cell, or under conditions of extreme echinocytosis, membrane is shed from the cell plasma membrane in the form of nanovesicles. We propose that this process is the result of the self-adaptation of the membrane surface area to the elastic stress imposed by the spectrin cytoskeleton, via the local buckling of membrane under increasing cytoskeleton stiffness. This model introduces the concept of force balance as a regulatory process at the cell membrane and quantitatively reproduces the rate of area loss in aging red-blood cells.

  13. Frequency lock-in and phase synchronization of vortex shedding behind circular cylinder due to surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoo, Hans; Abcha, Nizar; Ezersky, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    The influence of harmonic surface wave on non-regular Karman Vortex Street is investigated. In our experiments, Karman Street arises behind a vertical circular cylinder in a water flow and harmonic surface waves propagating upstream. It is found that surface waves can modify regimes of shedding in Karman Street: frequency lock-in and synchronization of vortex shedding can arise. Intensive surface waves can excite symmetric vortex street instead of chess-like street, and completely suppress shedding behind the cylinder. It is shown experimentally that such effects occur if frequency of harmonic surface wave is approximately twice higher than the frequency of vortex shedding. Region of frequency lock-in is found on the plane amplitude-frequency of surface wave.

  14. Faecal Salmonella shedding in fattening pigs in relation to the presence of Salmonella antibodies in three pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    Human salmonellosis originating from pork is an important zoonotic disease, and the production of outdoor pigs may increase the risk of contaminating the food chain with Salmonella from environmental sources. The prevalence of faecal Salmonella shedding has therefore been compared in organic...... was 5.4% with no significant differences between systems. Pigs with Salmonella shedding on farm were more likely to also be shedding Salmonella at slaughter (P<0.001). The serological test result was a significant predictor of Salmonella shedding at slaughter in indi-vidual pigs from conventional......, conventional outdoor and indoor finishing pig herds in a Danish survey with participation of 34 herds. Individual faecal samples were collected from 30 to 50 pigs per herd before and after transport to slaughter and analysed for the presence of Salmonella. Further meat juice samples were collected from the...

  15. Lighting Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Mullins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Light as a multi-dimensional design element has fundamental importance for a sustainable environment. The paper discusses the need for an integration of scientific, technical and creative approaches to light and presents theory, methods and applications toward fulfilling this need. A theory of...

  16. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  17. Haplometra cylindracea (Zeder, 1800) (Trematoda: Plagiorchiidae): variation in the dates of cercarial shedding for overwintering Galba truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Vignoles P.; Dreyfuss G.; Rondelaud D.

    2011-01-01

    Natural infections of Galba truncatula with Haplometra cylindracea were followed from 2001 to 2009 to determine if their characteristics were similar when snails came from water collections frequented by Bufo bufo or by frogs and newts for their egg-laying. Snail samples were collected from both types of sites to count shed cercariae for three days and also free cercariae when snails were dissected. In sites only frequented by B. bufo, cercarial shedding occurred earlier than in those coloniz...

  18. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hidemi Izumi; Kazuo Hisa; Yukari Murakami

    2008-01-01

    The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine) of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70%) spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CF...

  19. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  20. EDITORIAL: Slow light Slow light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Robert; Hess, Ortwin; Denz, Cornelia; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    Research into slow light began theoretically in 1880 with the paper [1] of H A Lorentz, who is best known for his work on relativity and the speed of light. Experimental work started some 60 years later with the work of S L McCall and E L Hahn [2] who explored non-linear self-induced transparency in ruby. This field of research has burgeoned in the last 10 years, starting with the work of L Vestergaard Hau and coworkers on slow light via electromagnetically induced transparency in a Bose-Einstein condensate [3]. Many groups are now able to slow light down to a few metres per second or even stop the motion of light entirely [4]. Today, slow light - or more often `slow and fast light' - has become its own vibrant field with a strongly increasing number of publications. In broad scope, slow light research can be categorized in terms of the sort of physical mechanism used to slow down the light. One sort of slow light makes use of material dispersion. This dispersion can be the natural dispersion of the ordinary refractive index or can be the frequency dependence of some nonlinear optical process, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, coherent population oscillations, stimulated light scattering, or four-wave mixing processes. The second sort of slow light makes use of the wavelength dependence of artificially structured materials, such as photonic crystals, optical waveguides, and collections of microresonators. Material systems in which slow light has been observed include metal vapours, rare-earth-doped materials, Raman and Brillioun gain media, photonic crystals, microresonators and, more recently, metamaterials. A common feature of all of these schemes is the presence of a sharp single resonance or multiple resonances produced by an atomic transition, a resonance in a photonic structure, or in a nonlinear optical process. Current applications of slow light include a series of attractive topics in optical information processing, such as optical data

  1. A comparison between longitudinal shedding patterns of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Dublin on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M; McLaren, I; Clifton-Hadley, F A; Liebana, E; Wales, A D; Davies, R H

    2012-08-25

    Salmonella in cattle herds may behave as epidemic or endemic infections. An intensive longitudinal sampling study across all management groups and ages on six dairy farms in the UK was used to examine patterns of Salmonella shedding, following the prior identification of either Salmonella Dublin (SD) (three farms) or Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) (three farms) on the premises in the context of clinical salmonellosis. Individual faeces, pooled faeces and environmental samples (total 5711 samples), taken approximately every six weeks for 15-24 weeks, were cultured for Salmonella. SD was detected at low frequency (on any visit, 0.5-18.3 per cent of samples positive) and most consistently in calves. By contrast, ST was isolated at higher frequency (on any visit, 6.8-75 per cent of samples positive), and in higher numbers, up to 10(7) cfu/g faeces. Significantly more samples from calves were positive for ST than were positive for SD (50.6 per cent v 3.1 per cent; P < 0.001), which was also true for milking cows (46.3 per cent v 4.4 per cent; P < 0.001). The differences could help to explain the different patterns of bovine infection classically associated with these two serovars in the UK. No consistent effect upon shedding was seen among the ST-infected herds following vaccination. PMID:22859413

  2. Protease inhibitors decrease IgG shedding from Staphylococcus aureus, increasing complement activation and phagocytosis efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Falcon, Maria F; Echague, Charlene G; Hair, Pamela S; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Cunnion, Kenji M

    2011-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen for immunologically intact humans and its pathogenesis is a model system for evasion of host defences. Antibodies and complement are essential elements of the humoral immune system for prevention and control of S. aureus infections. The specific hypothesis for the proposed research is that S. aureus modifies humoral host defences by cleaving IgG that has bound to the bacterial surface, thereby inhibiting opsonophagocytosis. S. aureus was coated with pooled, purified human IgG and assayed for the shedding of cleaved IgG fragments using ELISA and Western blot analysis. Surface-bound IgG was shed efficiently from S. aureus in the absence of host blood proteins. Broad-spectrum protease inhibitors prevented cleavage of IgG from the S. aureus surface, suggesting that staphylococcal proteases are responsible for IgG cleavage. Serine protease inhibitors and cysteine protease inhibitors decreased the cleavage of surface-bound IgG; however, a metalloprotease inhibitor had no effect. Using protease inhibitors to prevent the cleavage of surface-bound IgG increased the binding of complement C3 fragments on the surface of S. aureus, increased the association with human neutrophils and increased phagocytosis by human neutrophils. PMID:21636671

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF TWO NOVEL COCCIDIAN SPECIES SHED BY CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Johnson, Christine K.; Miller, Robin H.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Wasmuth, James D.; Colegrove, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst–forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal. PMID:22091999

  4. Vortex shedding from vertical axis wind turbine blades under linear motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Reeve; McKeon, Beverley

    2014-11-01

    A NACA 0018 airfoil was pitched and surged sinusoidally in in a mean free stream flow at Rec = 100 , 000 to simulate the flow over vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) blades. Angle of attack variations between α = +/-30° and velocity variation of Umax/-Umin Umean = . 80 at a reduced frequency k =Ωc/2U∞ = . 12 result in strong dynamic stall on the blade. Multiple flow regimes occur during the airfoil motion resulting in vortex shedding over a large range of frequencies. A model of the phase averaged (based on airfoil angle of attack and velocity) flow developed using dynamic mode decomposition highlights the evolution of the leading edge or dynamic stall vortex at the airfoil frequency. Instantaneous results show vortex shedding at frequencies up to 100 times higher than the frequency of the pitch/surge motion and smeared out by the phase averaging process. The implications for forcing on the blade (and associated wind turbine) are described. This research is funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF #2645 to the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoh Mambu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV GP1 (sGP1 in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC gene 12. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV, a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90% fatality rates 345. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH Lassa Fever Ward (LFW, in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. Results It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for

  6. Combination Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  7. Light seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Mestres Sierra, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Light Seekers represents a light and colour allegory, becoming a tribute to the French Impressionism. This audiovisual piece is a travel through the artist’s creative process from a magic point of view: the alchemy. A conceptual tour starting from the usual mundane things until the achievement of the mind’s spiritual ascension. A collection of emotions and sensations interlaced through music and landscapes, rhythm and colour

  8. Use of Booster Sheds to Improve Performance of 800 kV Multicone Type Insulators Under Heavy Rain%Use of Booster Sheds to Improve Performance of 800 kV Multicone Type Insulators Under Heavy Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orsino Oliveira Filho; Jose Antonio Cardoso; Darcy Ramalho de Mello; Rogerio Magalhges de Azevedo; Sylvia G Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Studies based on AC high voltage tests have been done at Cepel to investigate the performance of 800 kV bushar insulators under heavy wetting conditions. Insulators were tested which are now used on site and also with dif- ferent configurations of booster sheds. Images recorded by ultra-violet (UV) camera were used to help the investiga- tions on the effectiveness of booster sheds. By comparing UV images of the insulator being stressed with high voltage under heavy artificial rain, with and without booster sheds, it was possible to observe how significant the reduction on the flashover formation process was when booster sheds were used. The effectiveness of booster sheds was also quan- tified by determining the disruptive discharge of the insulator with and without them. The results of these studies can also be considered as contribution to national and international standard technical committees to improving the standardized procedure for tests on ultra high voltage (UHV) insulators under heavy rain. Subjects such as the clear definition of relevant UHV test procedure and test arrangements, including the use of UV camera, have to be taken into account.

  9. Cell washing versus immediate reinfusion of intraoperatively shed blood during abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, G W; Glover, J L; Bendick, P J; Brown, O W; Kitzmiller, J W; Lombness, P; Hanson, D

    1993-08-01

    Significant hematologic changes are known to occur following intraoperative autotransfusion of shed blood, but the clinical importance of cell washing prior to reinfusion has not been substantiated. To evaluate these changes and their relationship to the use of blood bank products and postoperative morbidity, 26 patients undergoing elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair were prospectively randomized to reinfusion with washed shed blood or to the use of a collection system in which filtered, but unwashed, whole blood was reinfused intraoperatively. Each patient was evaluated with respect to standard metabolic and hematologic laboratory parameters preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and 12 to 18 hours postoperatively. Patient demographic data were similar for both groups. Perioperative survival was 100% for both groups. Total blood loss and blood volume autotransfused were significantly greater in the unwashed cell group compared with the washed cell group (p = 0.00014 and p = 0.00011, respectively). Hemoglobin, fibrinogen, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time levels were not significantly different between the two groups at any time perioperatively; fibrin split product and d-dimer levels were significantly higher in the unwashed cell group postoperatively (p = 0.016 and p < 0.001, respectively). Serum free hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in the immediate postoperative period in the unwashed cell group compared with the washed cell group (p = 0.0013); by 12 to 18 hours postoperatively, this difference was not significant. Haptoglobin levels were significantly lower in the unwashed cell group at both postoperative times (123 +/- 86 mg/dL versus 41 +/- 50 mg/dL, p = 0.0086; 102 +/- 66 mg/dL versus 24 +/- 36 mg/dL, p = 0.0001); however, there was no perioperative renal failure in either group. Furthermore, homologous blood product use was not significantly different between the two groups, with an average of 1.5 +/- 2.5 units of

  10. Numerical study of wingtip shed vorticity reduction by wing Boundary Layer Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Jose Alejandro

    Wingtip vortex reductions have been obtained by Boundary Layer Control application to an AR=1.5 rectangular wing using a NACA 0012 airfoil. If wingtip shed vorticity could be reduced significantly, then so would induced drag resulting in improved cruise fuel economy. Power savings would be even more impressive at low flight speed or in climb. A two dimensional wing produces lift without wingtip vorticity. Its bound vorticity, Gamma, equals the contour integral of the boundary layer vorticity gamma or Gamma = ∮gamma · dl. Where the upper and lower boundary layers meet at the cusped TE, their local static pressure pu=pl then the boundary layer outer edge inviscid velocity Vupper=Vlower and gammalower=-gamma upper. This explains the 2-D wing self cancellation of the upper and lower surface boundary layer vorticity when they meet upon shedding at the trailing edge. In finite wings, the presence of spanwise pressure gradients near the wing tips misaligns gammalower and gammaupper at the wingtip TE preventing the upper and lower surface boundary layers from completely canceling each other. To prevent them from generating wing tip vortices, the local boundary layers need to be captured in suction slots. Once vorticity is captured, it can be eliminated by viscous mixing prior to venting over board. The objective of this dissertation was to use a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code (Fluent) to search for the best configuration to locate BLC suction slots to capture non-parallel boundary layer vorticity prior to shedding near the wingtips. The configuration selected for running the simulations was tested by trying to duplicate a 3D wing for which sufficient experimental and computational models by others are available. The practical case selected was done by Chow et al in the 32 x 48 in. low speed wind tunnel at the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of NASA Ames Research Center, and computationally analyzed by Dacles-Mariani et al, and Khim and Rhee. The present

  11. Prediction models for 90Sr in shed deciduous teeth and infant bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker

    1971-01-01

    Shed deciduous teeth were collected in 1966-69 in Denmark, the Faroes and Greenland from children born in the period 1953-63. 235 samples of crowns were analysed for 90Sr. The 90Sr levels in deciduous tooth crowns were related to the fall-out rate and the accumulated fall-out. The tooth levels in...... children born in 1950-62 could be described with the same equation as the 90Sr bone levels in 1-yr-old infants born in 1962-68. The prediction models for 90Sr in teeth and bones showed that for given amount of fall-out the Faroese levels became nearly twice as high as the Danish. The maximum teeth and bone...

  12. Characterization of the Frictional Response of Squamata Shed Skin in Comparison to Human skin

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aal, H A

    2010-01-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined rubbing response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its behavior according to the evolution of sliding conditions. Inspirations for such designs are frequently encountered in natural species. In particular, and from a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a Python regius snake. The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional re...

  13. Probe Measurements of Ash Deposit Formation Rate and Shedding in a Biomass Suspension-Fired boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming;

    The aim of this study was to investigate ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake reduction and deposit removal by using advanced online ash deposition and sootblowing probes in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, utilizing wood and straw pellets as fuel. The influence of fuel type (straw share in...... wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500, 550 and 600 oC) and flue gas temperature (600 - 1050 oC) on ash deposit formation rate, heat uptake by the probe, the fly ash and deposit characteristics, and deposit removal have been investigated. The results indicated that increase in flue...... video recordings of all deposit probe experiments revealed that deposit shedding was primarily through debonding from the surface of the tubes in the superheater region. Chemical analysis of fly ashes indicated that during suspension-firing of straw and wood, the fly ashes were rich in Si, K, Ca and Cl...

  14. Impact of pretreatments on morphology and enzymatic saccharification of shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim Nasser; Santoso, Shella Permatasari; Tran-Nguyen, Phuong Lan; Huynh, Lien Huong; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of subcritical water (SCW) and dilute acid pretreatments on the shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron (paper bark tree, PBT) biomass morphology, crystallinity index (CrI) and enzymatic saccharification were studied. The morphology of PBT bark was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SCW pretreatment mainly extracted amorphous parts of the biomass hence its CrI increased, partial decrystallization of cellulose and exposing of intact nanofibers of cellulose were observed for SCW pretreatment at 180°C. On the other hand, dilute acid pretreatment at 160°C exhibited a large decrease in CrI, an increase in surface area, a decrease in lignin content and decrystallization of cellulose as well as the peel-off and degradation of some nanofiber bundles. Dilute acid and SCW pretreatments of PBT biomass resulted in about 4.5 fold enhancement in glucose release relative to the untreated one. PMID:23697662

  15. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Development of a wide range vortex shedding flowmeter for high temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    A flowmeter was required to measure recirculating helium gas flow over a wide range of conditions in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core flow simulator, the ORNL Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL). The flow measurement requirements of the CFTL exceeded the proven performance of any single conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a special purpose vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was developed. A single flowmeter capable of meeting all the CFTL requirements would provide significant economic and performance advantages in the operation of the loop. The development, conceptual design, and final design of a modified VSFM are described. The results of extensive flow calibration of the flowmeter at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station (CEES) are presented. The report closes with recommendations for application of the VSFM to the CFTL and for future development work.

  17. Wide-range vortex shedding flowmeter for high-temperature helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing design of a commercially available vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was modified and optimized to produce three 4-in. and one 6-in. high-performance VSFMs for measuring helium flow in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) test loop. The project was undertaken because of the significant economic and performance advantages to be realized by using a single flowmeter capable of covering the 166:1 flow range (at 3500C and 45:1 pressure range) of the tests. A detailed calibration in air and helium at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station showed an accuracy of +-1% of reading for a 100:1 helium flow range and +-1.75% of reading for a 288:1 flow range in both helium and air. At an extended gas temperature of 4500C, water cooling was necessary for reliable flowmeter operation

  18. A wide-range vortex shedding flowmeter for high temperature helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing design of a commercially available vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was modified and optimized to produce three 4-in. and one 6-in. high performance VSFMs for measuring helium flow in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) test loop. The project was undertaken because of the significant economic and performance advantages to be realized by using a single flowmeter capable of covering the 166:1 flow range (at 3500C and 45:1 pressure range) of the tests. A detailed calibration in air and helium at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station showed an accuracy of +.1% of reading for a 100:1 helium flow range and +.1.75% of reading for a 288:1 flow range in both helium and air. At an extended gas temperature of 4500C, water cooling was necessary for reliable flowmeter operation

  19. Development of a wide range vortex shedding flowmeter for high temperature helium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flowmeter was required to measure recirculating helium gas flow over a wide range of conditions in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core flow simulator, the ORNL Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL). The flow measurement requirements of the CFTL exceeded the proven performance of any single conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a special purpose vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was developed. A single flowmeter capable of meeting all the CFTL requirements would provide significant economic and performance advantages in the operation of the loop. The development, conceptual design, and final design of a modified VSFM are described. The results of extensive flow calibration of the flowmeter at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station (CEES) are presented. The report closes with recommendations for application of the VSFM to the CFTL and for future development work

  20. Wide-range vortex shedding flowmeter for high-temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Herndon, P.G.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The existing design of a commercially available vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was modified and optimized to produce three 4-in. and one 6-in. high-performance VSFMs for measuring helium flow in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) test loop. The project was undertaken because of the significant economic and performance advantages to be realized by using a single flowmeter capable of covering the 166:1 flow range (at 350/sup 0/C and 45:1 pressure range) of the tests. A detailed calibration in air and helium at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station showed an accuracy of +-1% of reading for a 100:1 helium flow range and +-1.75% of reading for a 288:1 flow range in both helium and air. At an extended gas temperature of 450/sup 0/C, water cooling was necessary for reliable flowmeter operation.

  1. Lighting Computer Programs in Lighting Technology

    OpenAIRE

    EKREN, Nazmi; Bahtiyar DURSUN; Aykut, Ercan

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the computer in lighting technology is a vital component for lighting designers. Lighting computer programs are preferred in preparing architectural projects in lighting techniques, especially in lighting calculations. Lighting computer programs, which arise with the aim of helping lighting designers, gain more interest day by day. The most important property of lighting computer programs is the ability to enable the simulation of lighting projects without requiring any ...

  2. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  3. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P feed conversion ratio, and increased weight gain compared with controls. The 0.025% and 0.015% EO in drinking water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed. PMID:23436536

  4. Determining Influenza Virus Shedding at Different Time Points in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Abdoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Monitoring of influenza virus shedding and optimization of multiplicities of infection (MOI is important in the investigation of a virus one step growth cycle and for obtaining a high yield of virus in vaccine development and conventional basic diagnostic methods. However, eluted infectious viruses may still be present immediately after virus inoculation and when cells are washed following virus cultivation which may lead to a false positive virus infectivity assay.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we investigated influenza virus progeny production in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells with five different MOI at determined time points. The results were analyzed by end point titration tests and immunofluorescence assay.Results: Higher titers of eluted virus were observed following a high MOI inoculation of virus in cell culture. Most probably, this was the result of sialic acid residues from viral hemagglutin in proteins that were cleaved by neuraminidase glycoproteins on the surface of the influenza virus, which promoted viral spread from the host cell to the culture supernatant or during endocytosis, where viruses recycle to the cell surface by recycling endosomes which culminated in virus shedding without replication.Conclusion: We demonstrated that the pattern of influenza virus progeny production was dose-dependent and not uniform. This production was influenced by several factors, particularly MOI. Understanding the exact features of viral particle propagation has a major impact in producing high virus yields in the development of vaccines. Use of lower MOI (0.01 could result in accurate, precise quantitative assays in virus diagnosis and titration methods.

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of insulin receptors in viable cultured human lymphocytes. Demonstration of receptor shedding and degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A photosensitive derivative of radiolabeled insulin, SANAH-125I-insulin, was prepared by reacting N-succinimidyl-6-(4'-azido-2'-nitrophenylamino) hexanoate (SANAH) with 125I-insulin. Cultured IM-9 cells were incubated with SANAH-125I-insulin at 16 degrees C in the dark. They were then washed, photolyzed, solubilized, and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Under disulfide reducing conditions, a single specific band of Mr 125,000 was obtained. The characteristics of the labeling of this band with SANAH-125I-insulin (specificity, time course, concentration effect) were the same as that of 125I-insulin interaction with the IM-9 cells and the labeling process did not affect cell viability. The solubilized photolabeled insulin receptor fraction was enriched by first adsorbing to agarose-bound wheat germ agglutinin and the material eluted with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine was then analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Under nonreducing conditions, a major receptor band of Mr 320 K and a minor band of 280 K were obtained. Upon disulfide bond reduction with increasing concentrations of dithiothreitol, a major band of Mr 125 K and two minor bands of Mr 210 K and 94 K were seen. When cells photolabeled at 16 degrees C were further incubated at 37 degrees C, there was a time-dependent loss of intact receptors into the incubation buffer. In contrast, no similar shedding of labeled receptors was observed from isolated rat adipocytes. Following shedding, the labeled IM-9 insulin receptors rapidly disappeared from the incubation buffer (half-time approximately 1.5 h). These results demonstrate the feasibility of photoaffinity labeling, characterizing, and following the fate of insulin receptor in viable cells. Thus receptor photoaffinity labeling should provide a suitable approach for studies of the biologic fate of insulin receptors in cells that are targets for insulin action

  6. Multi-frequency response of a cylinder subjected to vortex shedding and support motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikestad, Kyrre

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with an experimental investigation of vortex induced vibrations of a circular cylinder. The purpose of the experiment was to identify the influence from a controlled disturbance of the cylinder motions on the response caused by vortex shedding. The cylinder investigated is 2 m long and the diameter is 10 cm. The cylinder is elastically mounted in an apparatus using springs, where the foundation of one of the springs can have a harmonic motion. The apparatus is placed on a carriage in a 25 m long towing tank. Towing velocities are varied between 0.140 m/s and 0.655 m/s corresponding to reduced velocity range from 2.8 to 13.2. The still water natural frequency is 0.497 Hz, and the natural frequency in air is 0.634 Hz. The cylinder is only able to oscillate in the cross-flow direction. The support motion frequency was varied between 0.26 Hz and 1.01 Hz, and the force motion amplitude was varied using 2, 4 and 6 cm support amplitudes. Three sets of experiments were carried out: (1) Still water oscillations due to harmonic support motion excitation, support amplitude and frequencies varied, (2) Towing tests with no support motion, the velocity is varied, (3) Combined excitation: Towing tests with support motion. All possible combinations of experiments (1) and (2) are carried out. The two first experiments provide reference values for the combined excitation experiments and for verification purposes. The results reveal the ability of the external disturbance to influence the vortex shedding process both regarding frequency and the resulting response amplitudes. Results for added mass, in-line drag and damping are also obtained. The work may be of use in deep water floating petroleum production. 81 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. ADAM12-directed ectodomain shedding of E-cadherin potentiates trophoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, M; Hogg, K; Perdu, S; Robinson, W P; Beristain, A G

    2015-12-01

    Trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, undergo extensive differentiation to form the cellular components of the placenta. Trophoblast progenitor cell differentiation into the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast is a key developmental process required for placental function, where defects in syncytiotrophoblast formation and turnover associate with placental pathologies and link to poor pregnancy outcomes. The cellular and molecular processes governing syncytiotrophoblast formation are poorly understood, but require the activation of pathways that direct cell fusion. The protease, A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12), controls cell fusion in myoblasts and is highly expressed in the placenta localizing to multiple trophoblast populations. However, the importance of ADAM12 in regulating trophoblast fusion is unknown. Here, we describe a function for ADAM12 in regulating trophoblast fusion. Using two distinct trophoblast models of cell fusion, we show that ADAM12 is dynamically upregulated and is under the transcriptional control of protein kinase A. siRNA-directed loss of ADAM12 impedes spontaneous fusion of primary cytotrophoblasts, whereas overexpression of the secreted variant, ADAM12S, potentiates cell fusion in the Bewo trophoblast cell line. Mechanistically, both ectopic and endogenous levels of ADAM12 were shown to control trophoblast fusion through E-cadherin ectodomain shedding and remodeling of intercellular boundaries. This study describes a novel role for ADAM12 in placental development, specifically highlighting its importance in controlling the differentiation of villous cytotrophoblasts into multinucleated cellular structures. Moreover, this work identifies E-cadherin as a novel ADAM12 substrate, and highlights the significance that cell adhesion molecule ectodomain shedding has in normal development. PMID:25909890

  8. Effect of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on reactivation and shedding of the eight human herpes viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chêne

    Full Text Available Human herpes viruses (HHVs are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8. We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0 and 14 days later (after treatment, or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.

  9. Two separate metalloproteinase activities are responsible for the shedding and processing of the NG2 proteoglycan in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Richard A; Morgenstern, Daniel A; Properzi, Francesca; Nishiyama, Akiko; Levine, Joel M; Fawcett, James W

    2005-05-01

    A high proportion of NG2 in the adult rat spinal cord is saline-soluble and migrates slightly faster than intact NG2 on SDS-PAGE, suggesting that it represents the shed ectodomain of NG2. In the injured cerebral cortex, much of the overall increase in NG2 is due to the saline-soluble (shed), rather than the detergent-soluble (intact), form. Hydroxamic acid metalloproteinase inhibitors, but not TIMPs, were able to prevent NG2 shedding in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in vitro. The generation of another truncated form of NG2 was, however, sensitive to TIMP-2 and TIMP-3. Two observations suggest that NG2 is involved in PDGF signaling in OPCs: the rate of NG2 shedding increased with cell density and NG2 expression was increased in the absence of PDGF. Ectodomain shedding converts NG2 into a diffusible entity able to interact with the growth cone, and we suggest that this release is likely to enhance its axon growth-inhibitory activity. PMID:15866049

  10. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  11. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  12. A new real time optimal under frequency load shedding method by using power system security indices and artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Moazzami

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today modern power systems are operated in lower security level due to power system deregulation and increasing the power transfer capacity. Extensive power systems blackouts in recent years show the remarkable increase of power system vulnerability in contingency situations. Load shedding is one of the last corrective actions for keeping power system stability. In this paper a real time optimal under frequency load shedding by using artificial neural network is presented. This structure contains two offline and online studies. In offline studies according to the values of vulnerability and security margin indices of total power system, minimum frequency, reduction rate of equivalent inertial center frequency (dfc/dt for N-K contingency scenarios, the power system security is determined and the ANN inputs data base will be established. In each scenario, the necessary active and reactive load shedding value for preserving power system stability is determined by solving an offline optimization problem by using intelligent hybrid CPCE algorithm. The values of the active and reactive load shedding in each load shedding step in each contingency scenario are considered as the ANN outputs. Genetic algorithm is employed for optimizing the ANN training process. The trained ANN will be used for online application in power system by using real time operation information that is collected by wide area monitoring system (WAMS and phasor measurement units (PMU. Simulation results for IEEE 118-bus test system shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts

  14. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  15. Calculus light

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Menahem

    2011-01-01

    Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor

  16. Research and Development of a New Field Enhanced Low Temperature Thermionic Cathode that Enables Fluorescent Dimming and Loan Shedding without Auxiliary Cathode Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jin

    2009-01-07

    This is the final report for project entitled 'Research and development of a new field enhanced low temperature thermionic cathode that enables fluorescent dimming and load shedding without auxiliary cathode heating', under Agreement Number: DE-FC26-04NT-42329. Under this project, a highly efficient CNT based thermionic cathode was demonstrated. This cathode is capable of emitting electron at a current density two order of magnitude stronger then a typical fluorescent cathode at same temperatures, or capable of emitting at same current density but at temperature about 300 C lower than that of a fluorescent cathode. Detailed fabrication techniques were developed including CVD growth of CNTs and sputter deposition of oxide thin films on CNTs. These are mature technologies that have been widely used in industry for large scale materials processing and device fabrications, thus, with further development work, the techniques developed in this project can be scaled-up in manufacturing environment. The prototype cathodes developed in this project were tested in lighting plasma discharge environment. In many cases, they not only lit and sustain the plasma, but also out perform the fluorescent cathodes in key parameters such like cathode fall voltages. More work will be needed to further evaluate more detailed and longer term performance of the prototype cathode in lighting plasma.

  17. Unsteady CFD Prediction of von Kármán Vortex Shedding in Hydraulic Turbine Stay Vanes

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Thi; Nennemann, Bernd; Ausoni, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed; Avellan, François

    2007-01-01

    All hydraulic turbines containing a casing with stay vanes face the potential dynamic problem of stay vane von Kármán vortex shedding. For hydraulic efficiency purposes the stay vanes tend to be relatively slender in the direction normal to the flow thus being flexible in this direction. As a result structural vibrations may be excited by the von Kármán vortices shedding at the trailing edge of the vanes. When the excitation frequency coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the stay ...

  18. Viral shedding in children infected by pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus

    OpenAIRE

    Fossali Emilio; Taroni Francesca; Campanini Giulia; Scala Alessia; Baldanti Fausto; Daleno Cristina; Esposito Susanna; Pelucchi Claudio; Principi Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate viral shedding in otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in order to define how long children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza shed the virus, and also plan adequate measures to control the spread of the disease within households. Findings In 74 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for virus detection upon hospital admission and every two days unti...

  19. Renewable energy the best remedy for electrical load shedding in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Average 33% time of daily electrical load shedding in Pakistan is most serious as it has affected all activities. Industries are crippled, commercial, official activities and daily life is being deteriorated Total loss to Export is 1.3 and oil import bill is $ 9 Billion. If appropriate actions are not taken immediately; the situation is going to get worse when people will fight for every watt of electricity. The impounding crises are not foreseen and its gravity is not yet properly realized by the decision makers. Politics and several lobbies work against construction of major projects of hydel power and baseless controversies have been created. Pakistan is blessed with abundant renewable energy i.e. 2.9 million MW solar, tidal, wind 346,000 MW and 59,000 MW potentials of hydro electricity. Analysis of the reasons for the slow and no growth of these vital renewable potentials in Pakistan indicate that there are barriers which need to be mitigated to take immediate benefits to overcome menace of load shedding. Local R and D, Design, manufacturing, installation and feasibility study capabilities are negligible. Institutional capabilities in most of the organizations can at best be ranked as average or weak. Other impediments and barriers that continue to hamper the load shedding are losses, attitude in the promotion of renewable and hydro power projects include: lack of serious attempts to mitigate the barriers, integrate the programs with profitability; inadequate evaluation of resources; non availability of reliable baseline data; and lack of coordination among the relevant agencies; weak institutional arrangements for renewable energy promotion; absence of fiscal and financing mechanisms; lack of understanding, awareness, information and outreach; uneven allocation of resources; lack of appropriate quality management, monitoring and evaluation programs; and need of attractive policy framework and legislative support, building consensus among people and provinces

  20. Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates

  1. Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpurea Vent) Reduces Fecal Shedding of Escherichia coli in Pastured Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L; Wang, Y; Iwaasa, A D; Li, Y; Xu, Z; Schellenberg, M P; Liu, X L; McAllister, T A; Stanford, K

    2015-08-01

    A 3-year (2009 to 2011) grazing study was conducted to assess the effects of purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent) on fecal shedding of total Escherichia coli in cattle. Three pasture types were used in the experiment: bromegrass (Check), mixed cool season grasses with PPC (Simple), and mixed cool and warm grasses with PPC (Complex). Pastures were rotationally grazed during a summer and fall grazing period. PPC was grazed in summer at the vegetative or early flower stage and at the flower or early seed stage during the fall. Fecal samples were collected for enumeration of E. coli and chemical analyses. Forage samples were collected throughout grazing for analysis. Condensed tannins (CT) were only detected in Simple and Complex pastures that contained PPC, with higher concentrations found in the fall than in the summer. Fecal counts of E. coli in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures linearly decreased (P < 0.05) over summer to fall in all 3 years, an outcome not observed in cattle grazing the Check pasture. Across the three grazing seasons, fecal E. coli was lower (P < 0.05) in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures than in those grazing the Check pasture during the fall. During the fall, feces collected from cattle grazing the Check pasture had higher (P < 0.05) values for pH, N, NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, but a lower (P < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio than feces collected from cattle grazing Simple or Complex pastures. In a second experiment, two strains of E. coli were cultured in M9 medium containing 25 to 200 μg/ml of PPC CT. Growth of E. coli was linearly (P < 0.01) reduced by increasing levels of PPC CT. Scanning electron micrographs showed electron-dense filamentous material associated with the outer membrane of E. coli cells exposed to CT. Incorporation of PPC into forage reduced the fecal shedding of E. coli from grazing cattle, likely due to the anti-E. coli properties of PPC CT. PMID

  2. No-Light Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  3. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  4. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  5. EDITORIAL: Controlling light with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Feinberg, Jack; Roosen, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    The field of photorefractive physics and optics is mature and, although there is no significant commercial activity using photorefractive media, researchers in the field have had an extraordinary impact on many related areas of research and development. For example, in the late 1990s many of the telecom innovations and products were based on the interaction between light and matter. Examples include optical switches, filters, gratings, routers and light sources. The theory of multiple interacting beams of light inside a photosensitive medium, many of which were developed or further explored in photorefractive media, has found application in medicine, engineering, communication systems, displays and other photonics devices. On the occasions of the 30th anniversary of the theory of coupled wave analysis and the 10th anniversary of the meetings on Photorefractive Effects and Devices, it seemed appropriate to the meeting organizers of PR'07 to broaden the scope to include other related fields. The name of the meeting was changed to Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More to attract a larger audience than traditionally would attend the more narrowly focused photorefractive meeting. To further disseminate the results of the 2007 meeting, Gerald Roosen proposed a special publication of original full research articles arising from key presentations at the meeting. The selection of papers in this Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is the result of that initiative. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the committee members for their valuable insight and efforts in helping to organize the meeting, and the Optical Society of America for their professional assistance throughout the preparation period of the meeting as well as during the three beautiful days in Lake Tahoe, CA.

  6. Increased ectodomain shedding of cell adhesion molecule 1 as a cause of type II alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Yoneshige, Azusa; Hagiyama, Man; Inoue, Takao; Mimae, Takahiro; Kato, Takashi; Okada, Morihito; Enoki, Eisuke; Ito, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis has attracted attention as an early pathogenic event in the development of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP); however, the causative mechanism remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is an AEC adhesion molecule in the immunoglobulin superfamily. It generates a membrane-associated C-terminal fragment, αCTF, through protease-mediated ectodomain shedding, termed α-shedding. Increased CADM1 α-shedding contributes to AEC apop...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF VORTEX SHEDDING INDUCED HYDRODYNAMIC VIBRATION IN VORTEX STREET FLOWMETER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Vortex street flowmeter has been used in steady flo w measurement for about three decades. The benefits of this type of flowmeter i nclude high accuracy,good linearty,wide measuring range,and excellent reliabilit y. However,in unsteady flow measurement,the pressure disturbance as well as the noise from the system or surrounding can reduce the signal-to-noise ra tio of the flowmeter seriously. Aimed to use vortex street flowmeters in unstea dy flow measurement,the characteristics of the vortex shedding induced hydrodyna mic vibration around the prism bluff body in a vortex street flowmeter are inves tigated numerically and by expriments. The results show that the hydrodynamic vibrations with 180° phase shift occur at the axisymmetric points of the channe l around the bluff body. The most intense vibration occurs at the points on the lateral faces close to the base of the prism. The results provide therefore a useful reference for developing an anti-interference vortex flowmeter using the differential sensing technique.

  8. Steroid estrogens, conjugated estrogens and estrogenic activity in farm dairy shed effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadd, Jennifer B., E-mail: j.gadd@niwa.co.n [Department of Chemistry, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Tremblay, Louis A., E-mail: tremblayl@landcareresearch.co.n [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln, 7640 (New Zealand); Northcott, Grant L., E-mail: grant.northcott@plantandfood.co.n [Plant and Food Research, Private Bag 3123, Waikato Mail Centre, Hamilton 3240 (New Zealand)

    2010-03-15

    Agricultural wastes are a source of steroid estrogens and, if present, conjugated estrogens may add to the estrogen load released to soil and aquatic environments. Dairy shed effluent samples were collected from 18 farms for analysis of steroid estrogens by GC-MS, conjugated estrogens by LC-MS-MS, and estrogenic activity by E-screen in vitro bioassay. 17alpha-estradiol was found at highest concentrations (median 730 ng l{sup -1}), followed by estrone (100 ng l{sup -1}) and 17beta-estradiol (24 ng l{sup -1}). Conjugated estrogens (estrone-3-sulfate, 17alpha-estradiol-3-sulfate and 17beta-estradiol-3,17-disulfate) were measured in most samples (12-320 ng l{sup -1}). Median estrogenic activity was 46 ng l{sup -1} 17beta-estradiol equivalents. Conjugated estrogens contributed up to 22% of the total estrogen load from dairy farming, demonstrating their significance. Steroid estrogens dominated overall estrogenic activity measured in the samples. Significantly, 17alpha-estradiol contributed 25% of overall activity, despite potency 2% that of 17beta-estradiol, highlighting the importance in environmental risk assessments of this previously neglected compound. - In rural ecosystems, 17alpha-estradiol and conjugated estrogens are significant sources of environmental estrogens from agricultural wastes.

  9. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Shed Amphiregulin at the Surface of Lung Carcinoma Cells in a Juxtacrine Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriane Carnet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors comprise cancer cells and different supportive stromal cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which have recently been shown to enhance tumor growth and metastasis. We provide new mechanistic insights into how bone marrow (BM–derived MSCs co-injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells promote tumor growth and metastasis in mice. The proinvasive effect of BM-MSCs exerted on tumor cells relies on an unprecedented juxtacrine action of BM-MSC, leading to the trans-shedding of amphiregulin (AREG from the tumor cell membrane by tumor necrosis factor-α–converting enzyme carried by the BM-MSC plasma membrane. The released soluble AREG activates cancer cells and promotes their invasiveness. This novel concept is supported by the exploitation of different 2D and 3D culture systems and by pharmacological approaches using a tumor necrosis factor-α–converting enzyme inhibitor and AREG-blocking antibodies. Altogether, we here assign a new function to BM-MSC in tumor progression and establish an uncovered link between AREG and BM-MSC.

  10. Impact of the shedding level on transmission of persistent infections in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Noa; Mitchell, Rebecca Mans; Whitlock, Robert H; Fyock, Terry; Pradhan, Abani Kumar; Knupfer, Elena; Schukken, Ynte Hein; Louzoun, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Super-shedders are infectious individuals that contribute a disproportionate amount of infectious pathogen load to the environment. A super-shedder host may produce up to 10,000 times more pathogens than other infectious hosts. Super-shedders have been reported for multiple human and animal diseases. If their contribution to infection dynamics was linear to the pathogen load, they would dominate infection dynamics. We here focus on quantifying the effect of super-shedders on the spread of infection in natural environments to test if such an effect actually occurs in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). We study a case where the infection dynamics and the bacterial load shed by each host at every point in time are known. Using a maximum likelihood approach, we estimate the parameters of a model with multiple transmission routes, including direct contact, indirect contact and a background infection risk. We use longitudinal data from persistent infections (MAP), where infectious individuals have a wide distribution of infectious loads, ranging upward of three orders of magnitude. We show based on these parameters that the effect of super-shedders for MAP is limited and that the effect of the individual bacterial load is limited and the relationship between bacterial load and the infectiousness is highly concave. A 1000-fold increase in the bacterial contribution is equivalent to up to a 2-3 fold increase in infectiousness. PMID:26925966

  11. Steroid estrogens, conjugated estrogens and estrogenic activity in farm dairy shed effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural wastes are a source of steroid estrogens and, if present, conjugated estrogens may add to the estrogen load released to soil and aquatic environments. Dairy shed effluent samples were collected from 18 farms for analysis of steroid estrogens by GC-MS, conjugated estrogens by LC-MS-MS, and estrogenic activity by E-screen in vitro bioassay. 17α-estradiol was found at highest concentrations (median 730 ng l-1), followed by estrone (100 ng l-1) and 17β-estradiol (24 ng l-1). Conjugated estrogens (estrone-3-sulfate, 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate and 17β-estradiol-3,17-disulfate) were measured in most samples (12-320 ng l-1). Median estrogenic activity was 46 ng l-1 17β-estradiol equivalents. Conjugated estrogens contributed up to 22% of the total estrogen load from dairy farming, demonstrating their significance. Steroid estrogens dominated overall estrogenic activity measured in the samples. Significantly, 17α-estradiol contributed 25% of overall activity, despite potency 2% that of 17β-estradiol, highlighting the importance in environmental risk assessments of this previously neglected compound. - In rural ecosystems, 17α-estradiol and conjugated estrogens are significant sources of environmental estrogens from agricultural wastes.

  12. Prolonged influenza virus shedding and emergence of antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard van der Vries

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised individuals tend to suffer from influenza longer with more serious complications than otherwise healthy patients. Little is known about the impact of prolonged infection and the efficacy of antiviral therapy in these patients. Among all 189 influenza A virus infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ErasmusMC, 71 were hospitalized, since the start of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We identified 11 (15% cases with prolonged 2009 pandemic virus replication (longer than 14 days, despite antiviral therapy. In 5 out of these 11 (45% cases oseltamivir resistant H275Y viruses emerged. Given the inherent difficulties in studying antiviral efficacy in immunocompromised patients, we have infected immunocompromised ferrets with either wild-type, or oseltamivir-resistant (H275Y 2009 pandemic virus. All ferrets showed prolonged virus shedding. In wild-type virus infected animals treated with oseltamivir, H275Y resistant variants emerged within a week after infection. Unexpectedly, oseltamivir therapy still proved to be partially protective in animals infected with resistant virus. Immunocompromised ferrets offer an attractive alternative to study efficacy of novel antiviral therapies.

  13. Membrane Vesicles as a Novel Strategy for Shedding Encrusted Cell Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Shao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface encrustation by minerals, which impedes cellular metabolism, is a potential hazard for microbes. The reduction of U(VI to U(IV by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 leads to the precipitation of the mineral uraninite, as well as a non-crystalline U(IV product. The wild-type (WT strain can produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, prompting precipitation of U some distance from the cells and precluding encrustation. Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy we show that, in the biofilm-deficient mutant ∆mxdA, as well as in the WT strain to a lesser extent, we observe the formation of membrane vesicles (MVs as an additional means to lessen encrustation. Additionally, under conditions in which the WT does not produce EPS, formation of MVs was the only observed mechanism to mitigate cell encrustation. Viability studies comparing U-free controls to cells exposed to U showed a decrease in the number of viable cells in conditions where MVs alone are detected, yet no loss of viability when cells produce both EPS and MVs. We conclude that MV formation is a microbial strategy to shed encrusted cell surfaces but is less effective at maintaining cell viability than the precipitation of U on EPS.

  14. Transient Stability Improvement for Combined Heat and Power System Using Load Shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze and improve the transient stability of an industrial combined heat and power (CHP system in a high-tech science park in Taiwan. The CHP system installed two 161 kV/161 kV high-impendence transformers to connect with Taipower System (TPS for both decreasing the short-circuit fault current and increasing the fault critical clearing time. The transient stabilities of three types of operation modes in CHP units, 3G1S, 2G1S, and 1G1S, are analyzed. Under the 3G1S operation mode, the system frequency is immediately restored to 60 Hz after tie line tripping with the TPS. Under the 1G1S and 2G1S operation modes, the system frequencies will continuously decrease and eventually become unstable. A novel transient stability improvement approach using load shedding technique based on the change in frequency is proposed to improve the transient stability.

  15. Flowering, nectar secretion, pollen shed and insect foraging on Aquilegia vulgaris L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on blooming biology, nectar secretion, pollen production and insect visitation of Aquilegia vulgaris L. was carried out in 2009 and 2011 in Lublin. The peak of flower opening during the day was between 5.00 and 7.00 (GMT +2. The flowers are protandrous with the female phase beginning approx. on the 3rd day of anthesis. The dynamics of nectar secretion and pollen shed from anthers (progressing from the central part of the androecium outwards support the reproductive system. The amount of nectar accumulated in the spurs increased from the bud stage and was the highest in the phase with approx. ¾ of dehisced anthers, usually on the 3rd day of flower life. Then, towards the end of anthesis, the amount of secreted and accumulated nectar decreased. The number of anthers developed per flower varied from 41 to 61 (mean = 49.1. The mass of pollen per 100 anthers averaged 6.7 mg. Pollen production per flower (mean = 3.28 mg slightly varied between years and was mainly correlated with the number of developed anthers. Estimated pollen yield was 1.69 g per m2 and sugar yield 1.22 g per m2. Species from the genus Bombus were the main flower visitors, with B. terrestris being the most frequent forager.

  16. Sulfamate inhibitor S4 influences carbonic anhydrase IX ectodomain shedding in colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Ree, Anne Hansen; Redalen, Kathrine Røe; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a pivotal pH regulator under hypoxia, which by its tumor-specific expression represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here, we report on effects of the sulfamate CAIX inhibitor S4 (4-(3'-(3″,5″-dimethylphenyl)ureido)phenyl sulfamate) in colorectal carcinoma cell lines. S4 was administered under experimental hypoxia or normoxia to HT29, KM20L2 and HCT116 cells. Effects on survival, proliferation, pH, lactate extrusion and CAIX protein expression were evaluated. S4 treatment resulted in attenuated hypoxia-induced extracellular acidification and reduced clonogenic survival under hypoxia in HT29 cells. The pH effects were present only in a [Formula: see text]-free buffer system and were accompanied by decreased lactate extrusion. The main finding of this work was that S4 treatment caused alterations in CAIX ectodomain shedding. This merits further investigation to understand how sulfamates influence CAIX activity and how such drugs may be of use in cancer treatment. PMID:26244271

  17. Power transfer capability assessment of transmission interfaces with SVC and load shedding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovsky, V. [DMCC-Engineering, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Electrodynamics; Dolzhenitsa, Y. [DMCC Engineering, Kiev (Ukraine); Ushapovskiy, K. [National Power Co. Ukrenergo, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    As a result of deregulation in the power industry, energy trade and markets are pushing transmission system operators to operate their systems closer to the edge of the power transfer capability. Voltage instability and inadequate reactive power support of generators is a key factor in most major outages around the world. The ideal way to control power systems is to avoid emergencies by reliable planning and secure operation of power systems. Therefore, the accurate calculation of the power transfer capability of transmission interfaces is an important task on the planning and operation stages. This paper discussed the issue of transfer capability assessment and monitoring for interfaces with static var compensator (SVC) and load shedding schemes. It also proposed a special measure, a distance to voltage instability point, to monitor transfer capability on-line. The distance may be observed by measurement of SVC output. The paper considered the problem of optimal SVC size selection and a new approach was proposed based on P-V curves analysis. The paper discussed the problem formulation and proposed approach. A case was also presented in order to demonstrate the proposed approach on the IPS Ukraine-Crimea interface. It was concluded that the proposed approach allows the optimal rating of SVC for increasing transfers capability of transmission corridors. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Application of a vortex shedding flowmeter to the wide range measurement of high temperature gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single flowmeter was required for helium gas measurement in a Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor loss of coolant simulator. Volumetric flow accuracy of +-1.0% of reading was required over the Reynolds Number range 6 x 103 to 1 x 106 at flowing pressures from 0.2 to 9 MPa (29 to 1305 psia) at 3500C (6600F) flowing temperature. Because of its inherent accuracy and rangeability, a vortex shedding flowmeter was selected and specially modified to provide for a remoted thermal sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between signal attenuation and sensor remoting geometry, as well as the relationship between gas flow parameters and remoted thermal sensor signal for both compressed air and helium gas. Based upon the results of these experiments, the sensor remoting geometry was optimized for this application. The resultant volumetric flow rangeability was 155:1. The associated temperature increase at the sensor position was 90C above ambient (250F) at a flowing temperature of 3500C. The volumetric flow accuracy was measured over the entire 155:1 flow range at parametric values of flowing density. A volumetric flow accuracy of +- % of reading was demonstrated

  19. Application of a vortex shedding flowmeter to the wide range measurement of high temperature gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single flowmeter was required for helium gas measurement in a Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor loss of coolant simulator. Volumetric flow accuracy of +-1.0% of reading was required over the Reynolds Number range 6 x 10/sup 3/ to 1 x 10/sup 6/ at flowing pressures from 0.2 to 9 MPa (29 to 1305 psia) at 350/sup 0/C (660/sup 0/F) flowing temperature. Because of its inherent accuracy and rangeability, a vortex shedding flowmeter was selected and specially modified to provide for a remoted thermal sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between signal attenuation and sensor remoting geometry, as well as the relationship between gas flow parameters and remoted thermal sensor signal for both compressed air and helium gas. Based upon the results of these experiments, the sensor remoting geometry was optimized for this application. The resultant volumetric flow rangeability was 155:1. The associated temperature increase at the sensor position was 9/sup 0/C above ambient (25/sup 0/F) at a flowing temperature of 350/sup 0/C. The volumetric flow accuracy was measured over the entire 155:1 flow range at parametric values of flowing density. A volumetric flow accuracy of +- % of reading was demonstrated.

  20. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but not interferon-γ and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1β and TNF-α correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1β and TNF-α, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  1. ADAM12 is expressed in the tumour vasculature and mediates ectodomain shedding of several membrane-anchored endothelial proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohlich, Camilla; Klitgaard, Marie; Noer, Julie B;

    2013-01-01

    ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) 12 is a metalloprotease implicated in cancer progression. ADAM12 can activate membrane-anchored proteins, such as sonic hedgehog, Delta-like 1 and certain epidermal growth factor receptor ligands, through a process called ectodomain shedding. We screened...

  2. Evaluation of crucial factors for implementing shed-microspore culture of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.; Muswita, W.; Suharsono, S.; Custers, J.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed in Wageningen for producing doubled haploid plants in several genotypes of Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). For transfer of technology to Indonesia, three factors were studied that appeared crucial for successful implementation in practice.

  3. Regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Ectodomain Shedding and Its Role in Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, Alex; Kwak, Taekyoung; Jules, Joel; Harja, Evis; Landgraf, Ralf; Hudson, Barry I

    2016-06-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand transmembrane receptor that can undergo proteolysis at the cell surface to release a soluble ectodomain. Here we observed that ectodomain shedding of RAGE is critical for its role in regulating signaling and cellular function. Ectodomain shedding of both human and mouse RAGE was dependent on ADAM10 activity and induced with chemical activators of shedding (ionomycin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate) and endogenous stimuli (serum and RAGE ligands). Ectopic expression of the splice variant of RAGE (RAGE splice variant 4), which is resistant to ectodomain shedding, inhibited RAGE ligand dependent cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading, and cell migration. We found that blockade of RAGE ligand signaling with soluble RAGE or inhibitors of MAPK or PI3K blocked RAGE-dependent cell migration but did not affect RAGE splice variant 4 cell migration. We finally demonstrated that RAGE function is dependent on secretase activity as ADAM10 and γ-secretase inhibitors blocked RAGE ligand-mediated cell migration. Together, our data suggest that proteolysis of RAGE is critical to mediate signaling and cell function and may therefore emerge as a novel therapeutic target for RAGE-dependent disease states. PMID:27022018

  4. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menschikowski, Mario, E-mail: Mario.Menschikowski@uniklinikum-dresden.de [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Technical University of Dresden, Medical Faculty ' Carl Gustav Carus' , Fetscherstrasse 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Technical University of Dresden, Medical Faculty ' Carl Gustav Carus' , Fetscherstrasse 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  5. Do High-nickel Leaves Shed by the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum Murale Inhibit Seed Germination of Competing Plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemental allelopathy suggests that nickel (Ni)-rich leaves shed by hyperaccumulators inhibit the germination and growth of nearby plant species. Here, the germination of eight herbaceous species following addition of Alyssum murale biomass or Ni(NO3)2, with the same Ni level added to soil, was ass...

  6. Integrating comparative expression profiling data with association of SNPs to Salmonella shedding for improved food safety and porcine disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella in swine is a major food safety problem, as a majority of U.S. swine herds are Salmonella-positive. Salmonella can be shed from colonized swine and contaminate a) neighboring pigs; b) slaughter plants and pork products; c) edible crops when swine manure is used as a fertilizer; and d) wat...

  7. Handbook of industrial lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Industrial Lighting is a practical guide on the specification, design, installation, operation, and maintenance of lighting in industrial premises. Coverage of the book includes the importance of good localized lighting; the different lighting schemes; lighting for difficult visual tasks; lighting in consideration to safety; and emergency lighting. The book also includes the practical, thermal, ventilation, and energy considerations; lighting in different environments; maintenance of lighting installations; and the cost benefits of efficient lighting. Appendices include useful info

  8. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  9. Control of a coupled map lattice model for vortex shedding in the wake of a cylinder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Balasubramanian; D J Olinger; M A Demetriou

    2002-07-01

    The flow behind a vibrating flexible cable at low Reynolds numbers can exhibit complex wake structures such as lace-like patterns, vortex dislocations and frequency cells. These structures have been observed in experiments and numerical simulations, and are predicted by a previously developed low-order coupled map lattice (CML). The discrete (in time and space) CML models consist of a series of diffusively coupled circle map oscillators along the cable span. Motivated by a desire to modify the complex wake patterns behind flexible vibrating cables, we have studied the addition of control terms into the highly efficient CML models and explored the resulting dynamics. Proportional, adaptive proportional and discontinuous non-linear (DNL) control methods were used to derive the control laws. The first method employed occasional proportional feedback. The adaptive method used spatio-temporal feedback control. The DNL method used a discontinuous feedback linearization procedure, and the controller was designed for the resulting linearized system using eigenvalue assignment. These techniques were applied to a modeled vortex dislocation structure in the wake of a vibrating cable in uniform freestream flow. Parallel shedding patterns were achieved for a range of forcing frequency-forcing amplitude combinations studied to validate the control theory. The adaptive proportional and DNL methods were found to be more effective than the proportional control method due to the incorporation of a spatially varying feedback gain across the cylinder span. The DNL method was found to be the most efficient controller of the low-order CML model. The required control level across the cable span was correlated to the 1/1 lock-on behavior of the temporal circle map.

  10. Scorpion sheds 'tail' to escape: consequences and implications of autotomy in scorpions (Buthidae: Ananteris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo I Mattoni

    Full Text Available Autotomy, the voluntary shedding or detachment of a body part at a determined cleavage plane, is a common anti-predation defense mechanism in several animal taxa, including arthropods. Among arachnids, autotomy has been observed in harvestmen, mites, and spiders, always involving the loss of legs. Autotomy of the opisthosoma (abdomen was recently reported in a single species of the Neotropical buthid scorpion genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891, but few details were revealed. Based on observations in the field and laboratory, examination of material in museum collections, and scanning electron microscopy, we document autotomy of the metasoma (the hind part of the opisthosoma, or 'tail' in fourteen species of Ananteris. Autotomy is more common in males than females, and has not been observed in juveniles. When the scorpion is held by the metasoma, it is voluntarily severed at the joints between metasomal segments I and II, II and III, or III and IV, allowing the scorpion to escape. After detachment, the severed metasoma moves (twitches automatically, much like the severed tail of a lizard or the severed leg of a spider, and reacts to contact, even attempting to sting. The severed surface heals rapidly, scar tissue forming in five days. The lost metasomal segments and telson cannot be regenerated. Autotomy of the metasoma and telson results in permanent loss of the posterior part of the scorpion's digestive system (the anus is situated posteriorly on metasomal segment V and the ability to inject venom by stinging. After autotomy, scorpions do not defecate and can only capture small prey items. However, males can survive and mate successfully for up to eight months in the laboratory. In spite of diminished predation ability after autotomy, survival allows males to reproduce. Autotomy in Ananteris therefore appears to be an effective, adaptive, anti-predation escape mechanism.

  11. Real-Time PCR Investigation of Potential Vectors, Reservoirs, and Shedding Patterns of Feline Hemotropic Mycoplasmas▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S.; Meli, Marina L.; Bernasconi, Marco V.; Casati, Simona; Hegglin, Daniel; Puorger, Maria; Neimark, Harold; Cattori, Valentino; Wengi, Nicole; Reusch, Claudia E.; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2007-01-01

    Three hemotropic mycoplasmas have been identified in pet cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum,” and “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis.” The way in which these agents are transmitted is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate fleas, ticks, and rodents as well as saliva and feces from infected cats for the presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas, to gain insight into potential transmission routes for these agents. DNA was extracted from arthropods and from rodent blood or tissue samples from Switzerland and from salivary and fecal swabs from two experimentally infected and six naturally infected cats. All samples were analyzed with real-time PCR, and some positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmas were detected in cat fleas and in a few Ixodes sp. and Rhipicephalus sp. ticks collected from animals but not in ticks collected from vegetation or from rodent samples, although the latter were frequently Mycoplasma coccoides PCR positive. When shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas were investigated, “Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis” DNA was detected in saliva and feces at the early but not at the late phase of infection. M. haemofelis and “Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum” DNA was not amplified from saliva and feces of naturally infected cats, despite high hemotropic mycoplasma blood loads. Our results suggest that besides an ostensibly indirect transmission by fleas, direct transmission through saliva and feces at the early phase of infection could play a role in the epizootiology of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas. Neither the investigated tick nor the rodent population seems to represent a major reservoir for feline hemotropic mycoplasmas in Switzerland. PMID:17468284

  12. Real-time PCR investigation of potential vectors, reservoirs, and shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Meli, Marina L; Bernasconi, Marco V; Casati, Simona; Hegglin, Daniel; Puorger, Maria; Neimark, Harold; Cattori, Valentino; Wengi, Nicole; Reusch, Claudia E; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2007-06-01

    Three hemotropic mycoplasmas have been identified in pet cats: Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum," and "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis." The way in which these agents are transmitted is largely unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate fleas, ticks, and rodents as well as saliva and feces from infected cats for the presence of hemotropic mycoplasmas, to gain insight into potential transmission routes for these agents. DNA was extracted from arthropods and from rodent blood or tissue samples from Switzerland and from salivary and fecal swabs from two experimentally infected and six naturally infected cats. All samples were analyzed with real-time PCR, and some positive samples were confirmed by sequencing. Feline hemotropic mycoplasmas were detected in cat fleas and in a few Ixodes sp. and Rhipicephalus sp. ticks collected from animals but not in ticks collected from vegetation or from rodent samples, although the latter were frequently Mycoplasma coccoides PCR positive. When shedding patterns of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas were investigated, "Ca. Mycoplasma turicensis" DNA was detected in saliva and feces at the early but not at the late phase of infection. M. haemofelis and "Ca. Mycoplasma haemominutum" DNA was not amplified from saliva and feces of naturally infected cats, despite high hemotropic mycoplasma blood loads. Our results suggest that besides an ostensibly indirect transmission by fleas, direct transmission through saliva and feces at the early phase of infection could play a role in the epizootiology of feline hemotropic mycoplasmas. Neither the investigated tick nor the rodent population seems to represent a major reservoir for feline hemotropic mycoplasmas in Switzerland. PMID:17468284

  13. Scorpion Sheds ‘Tail’ to Escape: Consequences and Implications of Autotomy in Scorpions (Buthidae: Ananteris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoni, Camilo I.; García-Hernández, Solimary; Botero-Trujillo, Ricardo; Ochoa, José A.; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A.; Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; Prendini, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Autotomy, the voluntary shedding or detachment of a body part at a determined cleavage plane, is a common anti-predation defense mechanism in several animal taxa, including arthropods. Among arachnids, autotomy has been observed in harvestmen, mites, and spiders, always involving the loss of legs. Autotomy of the opisthosoma (abdomen) was recently reported in a single species of the Neotropical buthid scorpion genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891, but few details were revealed. Based on observations in the field and laboratory, examination of material in museum collections, and scanning electron microscopy, we document autotomy of the metasoma (the hind part of the opisthosoma, or ‘tail’) in fourteen species of Ananteris. Autotomy is more common in males than females, and has not been observed in juveniles. When the scorpion is held by the metasoma, it is voluntarily severed at the joints between metasomal segments I and II, II and III, or III and IV, allowing the scorpion to escape. After detachment, the severed metasoma moves (twitches) automatically, much like the severed tail of a lizard or the severed leg of a spider, and reacts to contact, even attempting to sting. The severed surface heals rapidly, scar tissue forming in five days. The lost metasomal segments and telson cannot be regenerated. Autotomy of the metasoma and telson results in permanent loss of the posterior part of the scorpion’s digestive system (the anus is situated posteriorly on metasomal segment V) and the ability to inject venom by stinging. After autotomy, scorpions do not defecate and can only capture small prey items. However, males can survive and mate successfully for up to eight months in the laboratory. In spite of diminished predation ability after autotomy, survival allows males to reproduce. Autotomy in Ananteris therefore appears to be an effective, adaptive, anti-predation escape mechanism. PMID:25629529

  14. Faecal shedding and strain diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens due to the high mortality rate and severity of the infection. L. monocytogenes is a ubiquitous organism occasionally present in the intestinal tract of various animal species and faecal shedding by asymptomatically infected livestock poses a risk for contamination of farm environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and strain diversity of L. monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine herds. Results Faecal samples from 30 animals per herd were collected from 343 herds (120 sheep, 124 beef cattle, 82 dairy cattle and 17 swine in the Basque Country and screened in pools by an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (VIDAS® to estimate the prevalence of positive herds. Positive samples were subcultured onto the selective and differential agar ALOA and biochemically confirmed. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 46.3% of dairy cattle, 30.6% beef cattle and 14.2% sheep herds, but not from swine. Within-herd prevalence investigated by individually analysing 197 sheep and 221 cattle detected 1.5% of faecal shedders in sheep and 21.3% in cattle. Serotyping of 114 isolates identified complex 4b as the most prevalent (84.2%, followed by 1/2a (13.2%, and PFGE analysis of 68 isolates showed a highly diverse L. monocytogenes population in ruminant herds. Conclusion These results suggested that cattle represent a potentially important reservoir for L. monocytogenes in the Basque Country, and highlighted the complexity of pathogen control at the farm level.

  15. Acoustic-excited vortex shedding and acoustic nonlinearity at a rectangular slit with bias flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2014-06-01

    The acoustical response of a slit with a mean bias flow is numerically studied. By means of a potential flow model based on the discrete vortex method and a spanwise-averaged three-dimensional Green's function, both unsteady vortical flow and slit impedance are obtained in a unified theoretical framework. The numerical simulation focuses on the acoustic-excited vortex structures of the slit flow while neglecting the viscous damping effect. Three representative flow features are demonstrated, which are the destabilized jet flow, the rolling up of vortex sheets and formation of vortex pairs, and the reversal flow with alternating vortex shedding on both sides of the slit. These features are corresponding to low, moderate, and high sound amplitude, respectively. The acoustic behavior of the slit can be divided into linear, transition, and nonlinear regimes. During its evolution through the three regimes, the resistance exhibits a constant value, a slight decrease, and a significant increase with the increasing sound amplitude. Correspondingly, the reactance first remains constant and then shows a modest decrease as the sound amplitude increases. The nonlinear effect also causes the gradual decrease of the mean bias velocity in company with the marked increase of the amplitude of the fluctuating velocity in the slit. The mean bias velocity decreases to about 80 percent of its linear value at the transition point where reversal flow begins to occur, and further decreases to only 10 percent in the highly nonlinear region. The slit impedance is also presented as a function of frequency and for different aspect ratios. And the effects of frequency and slit geometry are discussed.

  16. Understanding the proton radius puzzle: Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present calculations of nuclear structure effects to the Lamb shift in light muonic atoms. We adopt a modern ab-initio approach by combining state-of-the-art nuclear potentials with the hyperspherical harmonics method. Our calculations are instrumental to the determination of nuclear charge radii in the Lamb shift measurements, which will shed light on the proton radius puzzle.

  17. Viral shedding in children infected by pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fossali Emilio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate viral shedding in otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in order to define how long children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza shed the virus, and also plan adequate measures to control the spread of the disease within households. Findings In 74 otherwise healthy children with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken for virus detection upon hospital admission and every two days until negative. The nasopharyngeal swabs of all of the children were positive for pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus in the first three days after the onset of infection, and only 21.6% and 13.5% remained positive after respectively 11 and 15 days. No child was positive after more than 15 days. Viral load also decreased over time, and was not associated with patient age or the risk of pneumonia. Those who shed the virus for ≥ 9 days were not at any increased risk of suffering from more severe disease in comparison with those who shed the virus for a shorter time, but their households experienced a significantly higher number of influenza-like illness during the two weeks after the onset of the initial disease (72.3% vs 41.4%; p Conclusions Regardless of their age, healthy children can shed pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus for up to two weeks after illness onset, and the households of the children who shed the virus for ≥ 9 days suffered a higher number of influenza-like illness in the two weeks following the onset of the first disease. This could suggest that when a completely unknown influenza virus is circulating, isolation period of infected children has to be longer than the 7 days recommended for the infections due to seasonal influenza viruses.

  18. Impacts of Individual Animal Response to Heat and Handling Stresses on Escherichia coli and E. coli O157:H7 Fecal Shedding by Feedlot Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reduction of foodborne pathogens in cattle destined for human consumption will require knowledge of the factors that impact the carriage and shedding of these organisms. The effects of heat and handling stress levels on the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli by feedl...

  19. Shedding of antibiotic-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in healthy residents of France and Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachaty, E; Youssef, M T; Bourneix, C; Andremont, A

    1995-02-01

    We compared the frequency of shedding of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, gentamicin and ceftazidime in 83 French residents of the Paris urban area and in 101 subjects in Jordan, 64 of whom resided in the urban area of Irbid, 15 in rural areas, and 22 of whom had a nomadic lifestyle. There was no significant difference between these populations regarding (i) the percentages of subjects with strains resistant to any of the antimicrobial agents tested and (ii) the proportions of total counts of organisms of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to these agents. The simultaneous shedding of strains resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and kanamycin was significantly associated with (i) exposure to antibiotic treatment during the six months preceding the study and (ii) the presence of many children at home. PMID:7652211

  20. Prevalence of and associated risk factors for shedding Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia cysts within feral pig populations in California.

    OpenAIRE

    Atwill, E. R.; Sweitzer, R A; M. G. Pereira; Gardner, I A; Van Vuren, D; Boyce, W. M.

    1997-01-01

    Populations of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) may serve as an environmental reservoir of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts for source water. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of and associated demographic and environmental risk factors for the shedding of C. parvum oocysts and Giardia sp. cysts. Feral pigs were either live-trapped or dispatched from 10 populations located along the coastal mountains of western California, and fecal samples were obtai...

  1. Transient fecal shedding and limited animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile by naturally infected finishing feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Pickworth, Carrie; Loerch, Steve; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2011-05-01

    To longitudinally assess fecal shedding and animal-to-animal transmission of Clostridium difficile among finishing feedlot cattle as a risk for beef carcass contamination, we tested 186 ± 12 steers (mean ± standard deviation; 1,369 samples) in an experimental feedlot facility during the finishing period and at harvest. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 12.9% of steers on arrival (24/186; 0 to 33% among five suppliers). Shedding decreased to undetectable levels a week later (0%; P difficile on arrival, however, had 4.6 times higher odds of receiving antimicrobials for respiratory signs than nonshedders (95% confidence interval for the odds ratio, 1.4 to 14.8; P = 0.01). Neither the toxin genes nor toxin A or B was detected in most (39/42) isolates based on two complementary multiplex PCRs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing, respectively. Two linezolid- and clindamycin-resistant PCR ribotype 078 (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/39-bp-type deletion in tcdC) isolates were identified from two steers (at arrival and week 20), but these ribotypes did not become endemic. The other toxigenic isolate (tcdA+/tcdB+/cdtB+/classic tcdC; PCR ribotype 078-like) was identified in the cecum of one steer at harvest. Spatio-temporal analysis indicated transient shedding with no evidence of animal-to-animal transmission. The association between C. difficile shedding upon arrival and the subsequent need for antimicrobials for respiratory disease might indicate common predisposing factors. The isolation of toxigenic C. difficile from bovine intestines at harvest highlights the potential for food contamination in meat processing plants. PMID:21441320

  2. Prolonged shedding of the canine influenza H3N2 virus in nasal swabs of experimentally immunocompromised dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Minki; Kang, Bokyu; Na, Woonsung; An, Dongjun; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kim, Doo-Jin; Oh, Jinsik; Park, Seong-Jun; Poo, Haryoung; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Jongman; Song, Daesub

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The avian origin canine influenza virus H3N2 has been recently isolated and found to be currently in dog population in South Korea and China. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between immunosuppressive glucocorticoids used in veterinary clinical practice and viral shedding pattern of influenza in dogs. Materials and Methods Eight conventional beagle dogs were divided into control infection group and immunocompromised group. Dogs of both groups were infected wit...

  3. The redial and cercarial production of a Digenean in the snail host is lower when no cercarial shedding occurs

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfuss G.; Vignoles P.; Rondelaud D.

    2009-01-01

    Single- and double-miracidium exposures of Galba truncatula with Fasciola hepatica (two groups) or with Paramphistomum daubneyi (two groups) were carried out under laboratory conditions to compare parasite production in cercaria-shedding snails (CS snails) with that found in snails without emission (NCS snails). Free rediae and cercariae were thus counted in snails from both categories after their dissection at regular intervals (at 24 °C). In the four groups, the numbers of free rediae and f...

  4. Older men and social activity:a systematic review of Men’s Sheds and other gendered interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Milligan, Christine; Neary, David; Payne, Sheila; Hanratty, Barbara; Irwin, Pamela; Dowrick, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways of improving the health and wellbeing of older men is an important challenge for public health. This review aimed to assess evidence for the effects of Men's Sheds and other gendered social activities on the health and wellbeing of older men, and to consider their effective components and theoretical frameworks. A scoping review using standardised search criteria and terms identified 31 relevant papers of sufficient quality for inclusion. Analysis was informed by guidance on inte...

  5. Early Diagnosis of Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Infection, Using Shed Acute Phase Antigen, in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mallimaci, María Cristina; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Russomando, Graciela; Sanchez, Zunilda; Sijvarger, Carina; Alvarez, Isabel Marcela; Barrionuevo, Lola; Lopez, Carlos; Segura, Elsa Leonor

    2010-01-01

    Chagas' disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanasoma cruzi. It is estimated that 15,000 new cases of congenital T. cruzi transmission occur in the Americas each year. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of congenital T. cruzi infection in infants born to infected women living in Ushuaia, Argentina, as well to assess a serologic test using Shed Acute Phase Antigen (SAPA) for a timely diagnosis of congenital infection. The rate of congenital i...

  6. Novel Processed Form of Syndecan-1 Shed from SCC-9 Cells Plays a Role in Cell Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Aragão, Annelize Z. B.; Belloni, Marília; Simabuco, Fernando M.; Zanetti, Mariana R.; Yokoo, Sami; Domingues, Romênia R.; Kawahara, Rebeca; Pauletti, Bianca A; Gonçalves, Anderson; Agostini, Michelle; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D; Fox, Jay W.; Leme, Adriana F. Paes

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular milieu is comprised in part by products of cellular secretion and cell surface shedding. The presence of such molecules of the sheddome and secretome in the context of the extracellular milieu may have important clinical implications. In cancer they have been hypothesized to play a role in tumor growth and metastasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the sheddome/secretome from two cell lines could be correlated with their potential for tumor development. ...

  7. Faecal shedding and strain diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine in Northern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Ana; Juste Ramón A; Aduriz Gorka; Oporto Beatriz; Esteban Jon I

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens due to the high mortality rate and severity of the infection. L. monocytogenes is a ubiquitous organism occasionally present in the intestinal tract of various animal species and faecal shedding by asymptomatically infected livestock poses a risk for contamination of farm environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and strain diver...

  8. A new tracer experiment to estimate the methane emissions from a dairy cow shed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)

    OpenAIRE

    Marik, Thomas; Levin, Ingeborg

    1996-01-01

    Methane emissions from livestock and agricultural wastes contribute globally more than 30% to the anthropogenic atmospheric methane source. Estimates of this number have been derived from respiration chamber experiments. We determined methane emission rates from a tracer experiment in a modern cow shed hosting 43 dairy cows in their accustomed environment. During a 24-hour period the concentrations of CH4, CO2, and SF6, a trace gas which has been released at a constant rate into the stable ai...

  9. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Sebastiaan Theuns; Nádia Conceição-Neto; Mark Zeller; Inge D. M. Roukaerts; Acar, Delphine D; Dominique A. J. Olyslaegers; Marc Van Ranst; Jelle Matthijnssens; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a high...

  10. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  11. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  12. FcγRIIB on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells is essential for antibody-induced GPVI ectodomain shedding in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegner, David; Popp, Michael; Lorenz, Viola; Wax, Jacqueline K; Gessner, J Engelbert; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2016-08-11

    The activating platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a promising antithrombotic target because of its central role in arterial thrombosis and its minor relevance for normal hemostasis. The receptor can be specifically targeted by antibodies and irreversibly downregulated in circulating platelets in vivo, resulting in long-term antithrombotic protection in mice. This GPVI immunodepletion predominantly occurs through ectodomain shedding, which is accompanied by a transient drop in peripheral platelet counts. Mechanistic studies on this targeted GPVI loss have been hampered because it cannot be reproduced in isolated platelets in vitro. Here we show that both the transient thrombocytopenia and GPVI ectodomain shedding depend on the Fc portion of the anti-GPVI antibody and its interaction with the inhibitory Fcγ receptor (FcγR)IIB. In wild-type, but not Fcgr2b(-/-) mice, anti-GPVI-opsonized platelets became transiently trapped in the liver followed by the appearance of the soluble GPVI ectodomain in the plasma. Depletion of Kupffer cells neither affected anti-GPVI-induced platelet accumulation nor GPVI shedding, demonstrating that the other major FcγRIIB-expressing cell type, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, is required for both processes to occur. These results reveal a novel and unexpected function of hepatic FcγRIIB in the targeted downregulation of GPVI in vivo. PMID:27297794

  13. Nudging hair shedding by antidandruff shampoos. A comparison of 1% ketoconazole, 1% piroctone olamine and 1% zinc pyrithione formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, C; Goffin, V; Henry, F; Uhoda, I; Braham, C; Piérard, G E

    2002-10-01

    Hair shedding and hair thinning have been reported to be affected by dandruff and seborrhoeic dermatitis. The present study was conducted in 150 men presenting with telogen effluvium related to androgenic alopecia associated with dandruff. They were randomly allocated to three groups receiving each one of the three shampoos in the market containing either 1% ketoconazole (KTZ), 1% piroctone olamine (PTO) or 1% zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Shampoos had to be used 2-3 times a week for 6 months. Hair shedding during shampoo was evaluated semiquantitatively. Hair density on the vertex was evaluated on photographs using a Dermaphot. Trichograms were used for determining the anagen hair percentage and the mean proximal hair shaft diameter using computerized image analysis. The sebum excretion rate (SER, mug cm(-2) h(-1)) was also measured using a Sebumeter. The three treatments cleared pruritus and dandruff rapidly. At end point, hair density was unchanged, although hair shedding was decreased (KTZ: -17.3%, PTO: -16.5%, ZPT: -10.1%) and the anagen hair percentage was increased (KTZ: 4.9%, PTO: 7.9%, ZPT: 6.8%). The effect on the mean hair shaft diameter was contrasted between the three groups of volunteers (KTZ: 5.4%, PTO: 7.7%, ZPT: -2.2%). In conclusion, telogen effluvium was controlled by KTZ, PTO and ZPT shampoos at 1% concentration. In addition, KTZ and PTO increased the mean hair shaft thickness while discretely decreasing the sebum output at the skin surface. PMID:18498517

  14. Consequence of temperature changes on cercarial shedding from Galba truncatula infected with Fasciola hepatica or Paramphistomum daubneyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rondelaud Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infections of Galba truncatula (two populations with Fasciola hepatica or Paramphistomum daubneyi were carried out to study the effect of water temperature changes (3 h at a mean of 12 °C every week on cercarial shedding during the patent period. The results were compared with those of control snails infected according to the same protocol and always maintained at 20 °C. Compared to controls, a significant increase in the number of cercariae-shedding snails, a significantly longer patent period and significantly greater cercarial production were noted in temperature-challenged snails, regardless of the type of digenean infection. In contrast, the number of incompletely formed metacercariae was significantly higher in temperature-challenged snails than in controls. Incompletely formed metacercariae of F. hepatica consisted of cysts whose colour remained whitish after shedding (25.4% for temperature-challenged snails or whose dome was flattened after encystment (74.6%. Those of P. daubneyi were totally dark brown or blackish after formation. These incomplete metacercariae might originate from young differentiating cercariae within the snail body (F. hepatica or from cercariae which died just after encystment (P. daubneyi. The use of regular temperature changes for snails infected with F. hepatica or P. daubneyi must be monitored carefully during collection of metacercariae to select completely formed cysts for infecting definitive hosts.

  15. Shedding of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from adult and pediatric bathers in marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinigalliano Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant S. aureus, MRSA, are human colonizing bacteria that commonly cause opportunistic infections primarily involving the skin in otherwise healthy individuals. These infections have been linked to close contact and sharing of common facilities such as locker rooms, schools and prisons Waterborne exposure and transmission routes have not been traditionally associated with S. aureus infections. Coastal marine waters and beaches used for recreation are potential locations for the combination of high numbers of people with close contact and therefore could contribute to the exposure to and infection by these organisms. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and characteristics of the shedding of methicillin sensitive S. aureus, MSSA and MRSA by human bathers in marine waters. Results Nasal cultures were collected from bathers, and water samples were collected from two sets of pools designed to isolate and quantify MSSA and MRSA shed by adults and toddlers during exposure to marine water. A combination of selective growth media and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to identify and perform limited characterization of the S. aureus isolated from the water and the participants. Twelve of 15 MRSA isolates collected from the water had identical genetic characteristics as the organisms isolated from the participants exposed to that water while the remaining 3 MRSA were without matching nasal isolates from participants. The amount of S. aureus shed per person corresponded to 105 to 106 CFU per person per 15-minute bathing period, with 15 to 20% of this quantity testing positive for MRSA. Conclusions This is the first report of a comparison of human colonizing organisms with bacteria from human exposed marine water attempting to confirm that participants shed their own colonizing MSSA and MRSA into their bathing milieu. These findings clearly

  16. Residential lighting design

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Good lighting is essential to a building. An effective design is not just about introducing light into a space, but rather an appreciation of how the space will be used. A good lighting design is so intertwined with the building that it is only noticed in its absence. This book introduces the tools of the lighting designer and explains how to produce a lighting design for a home. Looking at the nature of light and introducing different lamps and light fittings available, it explains the basics of lighting design and how to provide atmosphere through the play of light and shadow. It gives room-

  17. Light up My Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, light is nature's way of transferring energy through space. Discussions of light usually refer to visible light, which is perceived by the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. We see however, only a small part of the light spectrum. Light connects us as we sit and tell yarns around camp fires. Yet, one in every four…

  18. The seroprevalence and salivary shedding of herpesviruses in Behçet's syndrome and recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Seoudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behçet's syndrome (BS is one of the multisystemic diseases that presents with oral ulceration and several other systemic manifestations including genital ulceration, folliculitis, erythema nodosum-like lesions, uveitis, and arthropathy. Ocular manifestation, central nervous system involvement, and gastrointestinal manifestation account for most of the complications of this disease, whereas orogenital ulceration and dermatological involvement affects the quality of life. The cause of the disease is not fully elucidated; however, herpesviruses have long been thought to play a pivotal role in the disease pathogenesis. Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence and salivary shedding of herpesviruses in BS. Method: The levels of specific immunoglobulin G in six different herpesviruses in serum samples collected from 54 BS, 28 healthy controls (HC, and 7 recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS patients were investigated. Salivary viral load was also quantified for these viruses in matched saliva samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The BS had lower cytomegalovirus (CMV IgG level in comparison to HC (p=0.0226 and RAS (p=0.0450. There was statistically significant higher salivary shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV in BS in comparison to HC (p=0.0052, but not RAS (p=0.3318. Conclusions: A high EBV shedding was observed in both BS and RAS and a lower level of CMV IgG was observed in BS only. The reason for the observed lower level of CMV IgG in BS is not clear. However, one explanation might be a defect in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immune responses which was suggested by a previously described defect in the toll-like receptor 1 and 2 heterodimer formation and function, this being the initial receptor sensing of CMV.

  19. Shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 51 volunteers treated with oral cefixime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachaty, E; Bourneix, C; Renard, S; Bonnay, M; Andremont, A

    1993-07-01

    Microbial changes including the shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed in 51 healthy volunteers given 200 mg of cefixime twice daily for 8 days. The number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae (means +/- standard deviations) dropped from 6.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.9 +/- 1.8 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01), whereas counts of enterococci rose from 7.0 +/- 1.5 to 9.0 +/- 1.0 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01). Both counts returned to their initial levels 50 days after the cessation of treatment. Cefixime did not significantly modify the frequency of fecal excretion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus spp., yeasts, or members of the Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ceftazidime or ampicillin. The proportion of subjects shedding C. difficile rose from 6% before treatment to 57% (P < 0.01) at the end of treatment but returned to 8% 50 days thereafter. No case of pseudomembranous colitis was observed. Stool changes occurred in 13 volunteers during treatment (25%) and in 2 others more than 10 days after the end of treatment (4%). These changes were not significantly associated with the shedding of toxigenic strains of C. difficile or with the presence of toxin A in feces. By contrast, during treatment, stool changes occurred in 8 of the 18 volunteers (44%) who had antibiotic activity in their feces but in only 5 of the 33 (15%) for whom no such activity was found (P < 0.05). The absence of antibiotic activity in the feces was itself linked with the presence of beta-lactamase activity in the feces. Since we had found earlier that fecal beta-lactamase activity afforded protection against alteration in stool consistency during treatments with oral cephalosporins, the present study confirmed our previous preliminary results in this respect. PMID:8363371

  20. Long-Term Shedding of Influenza Virus, Parainfluenza Virus, Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Nosocomial Epidemiology in Patients with Hematological Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lehners

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses are a cause of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI, but can be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI in immunocompromised patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variability of influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and the duration of viral shedding in hematological patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs from hematological patients were screened for influenza, parainfluenza and RSV on admission as well as on development of respiratory symptoms. Consecutive swabs were collected until viral clearance. Out of 672 tested patients, a total of 111 patients (17% were infected with one of the investigated viral agents: 40 with influenza, 13 with parainfluenza and 64 with RSV; six patients had influenza/RSV or parainfluenza/RSV co-infections. The majority of infected patients (n = 75/111 underwent stem cell transplantation (42 autologous, 48 allogeneic, 15 autologous and allogeneic. LRTI was observed in 48 patients, of whom 15 patients developed severe LRTI, and 13 patients with respiratory tract infection died. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a variety of influenza A(H1N1pdm09, A(H3N2, influenza B, parainfluenza 3 and RSV A, B viruses. RSV A was detected in 54 patients, RSV B in ten patients. The newly emerging RSV A genotype ON1 predominated in the study cohort and was found in 48 (75% of 64 RSV-infected patients. Furthermore, two distinct clusters were detected for RSV A genotype ON1, identical RSV G gene sequences in these patients are consistent with nosocomial transmission. Long-term viral shedding for more than 30 days was significantly associated with prior allogeneic transplantation (p = 0.01 and was most pronounced in patients with RSV infection (n = 16 with a median duration of viral shedding for 80 days (range 35-334 days. Long-term shedding of respiratory viruses might be a catalyzer of nosocomial transmission and must be considered for

  1. TGFβ induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → TGFβ induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. → TGFβ induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. → TGFβ enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. → Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGFβ. → ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGFβ-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGFβ and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGFβ. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGFβ was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGFβ was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGFβ-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGFβ induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF

  2. Comparative Study of Conventional Steel Building and PreEngineered Building to be used as an Industrial Shed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhyuday Titiksh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper mainly focuses on the advantages of pre-engineered buildings over conventionally designed buildings. The different fields of comparison mainly constitute its cost effectiveness, time saving, future scope, subtleness and economy of pre-engineered buildings over conventionally engineered buildings and its importance in developing nations like India. It’s a case study for Industrial Shed based on the review and various case studies which shows their experimental and analytical studies carried out in this field. The result shows that these structures are economical, energy efficient and flexible in design.

  3. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Bortolaia, Valeria; Langebæk, Rikke; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard; Guardabassi, Luca

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces of....../g). Cefotaxime resistance was associated with the presence of blaCTX-M-1 (n=4), blaCMY-2 (n=4) or multiple mutations in the promoter and coding region of chromosomal ampC (n=1). Altogether the results indicate that the risks of zoonotic transmission of β-lactam-resistant bacteria via human exposure to canine...

  4. Shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 51 volunteers treated with oral cefixime.

    OpenAIRE

    Chachaty, E; Bourneix, C; Renard, S; Bonnay, M.; Andremont, A

    1993-01-01

    Microbial changes including the shedding of Clostridium difficile, fecal beta-lactamase activity, and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed in 51 healthy volunteers given 200 mg of cefixime twice daily for 8 days. The number of organisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae (means +/- standard deviations) dropped from 6.9 +/- 1.1 to 3.9 +/- 1.8 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01), whereas counts of enterococci rose from 7.0 +/- 1.5 to 9.0 +/- 1.0 log CFU/g of feces (P < 0.01). Both counts returned to...

  5. Novel Barite Chimneys at the Loki's Castle Vent Field Shed Light on Key Factors Shaping Microbial Communities and Functions in Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Ida H.; Dahle, Håkon; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Daae, Frida-Lise; Rapp, Hans Tore; Pedersen, Rolf B.; Thorseth, Ingunn H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to fully understand the cycling of elements in hydrothermal systems it is critical to understand intra-field variations in geochemical and microbiological processes in both focused, high-temperature and diffuse, low-temperature areas. To reveal important causes and effects of this variation, we performed an extensive chemical and microbiological characterization of a low-temperature venting area in the Loki's Castle Vent Field (LCVF). This area, located at the flank of the large sulfide mound, is characterized by numerous chimney-like barite (BaSO4) structures (≤ 1 m high) covered with white cotton-like microbial mats. Results from geochemical analyses, microscopy (FISH, SEM), 16S rRNA gene amplicon-sequencing and metatranscriptomics were compared to results from previous analyses of biofilms growing on black smoker chimneys at LCVF. Based on our results, we constructed a conceptual model involving the geochemistry and microbiology in the LCVF. The model suggests that CH4 and H2S are important electron donors for microorganisms in both high-temperature and low-temperature areas, whereas the utilization of H2 seems restricted to high-temperature areas. This further implies that sub-seafloor processes can affect energy-landscapes, elemental cycling, and the metabolic activity of primary producers on the seafloor. In the cotton-like microbial mats on top of the active barite chimneys, a unique network of single cells of Epsilonproteobacteria interconnected by threads of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was seen, differing significantly from the long filamentous Sulfurovum filaments observed in biofilms on the black smokers. This network also induced nucleation of barite crystals and is suggested to play an essential role in the formation of the microbial mats and the chimneys. Furthermore, it illustrates variations in how different genera of Epsilonproteobacteria colonize and position cells in different vent fluid mixing zones within a vent field. This may be related to niche-specific physical characteristics. Altogether, the model provides a reference for future studies and illustrates the importance of systematic comparative studies of spatially closely connected niches in order to fully understand the geomicrobiology of hydrothermal systems. PMID:26779165

  6. Fossil Worm Burrows Reveal Very Early Terrestrial Animal Activity and Shed Light on Trophic Resources after the End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Chin; Dean Pearson; A A Ekdale

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty s...

  7. Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A A

    2013-01-01

    The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041

  8. Shedding Light on the EOS-Gravity Degeneracy and Constraining the Nuclear Symmetry Energy from the Gravitational Binding Energy of Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    He Xiao-Tao; Fattoyev F. J.; Li Bao-An; Newton W. G.

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of properties of neutron stars requires both a reliable knowledge of the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the strong-field gravity theories simultaneously. To provide information that may help break this EOS-gravity degeneracy, we investigate effects of nuclear symmetry energy on the gravitational binding energy of neutron stars within GR and the scalar-tensor subset of alternative gravity models. We focus on effects of the slope $L$ of nuclea...

  9. Shedding light on bioactivity of botanical by-products: neem cake compounds deter oviposition of the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Garreffa, Rita; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-03-01

    Industrial plant-borne by-products can be sources of low-cost chemicals, potentially useful to build eco-friendly control strategies against mosquitoes. Neem cake is a cheap by-product of neem oil extraction obtained by pressing the seeds of Azadirachta indica. Neem products are widely used as insecticides since rarely induce resistance because their multiple mode of action against insect pests and low-toxicity rates have been detected against vertebrates. In this research, we used field bioassays to assess the effective oviposition repellence of neem cake fractions of increasing polarity [n-hexane (A), methanol (B), ethyl acetate (C), n-butanol (D), and aqueous (E) fraction] against Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. These fractions, already characterized for low nortriterpenoids contents by HPLC analyses, were analyzed for their total content by HPTLC, highlighting striking differences in their chemical composition. Field results showed that B, A, and C tested at 100 ppm exerted higher effective repellence over the control (71.33, 88.59, and 73.49% of ER, respectively), while E and D did not significantly deter A. albopictus oviposition (17.06 and 22.72% of ER, respectively). The highest oviposition activity index was achieved by A (-0.82), followed by C (-0.63), and B (-0.62). Lower OAIs were achieved by D (-0.14) and E (-0.09). On the basis of our results, we believe that A, B, and C are very promising as oviposition deterrents against the arbovirus vector A. albopictus since they are proved as rich in active metabolites, cheap, and really effective at low doses. PMID:24337544

  10. Complementing DIGE proteomics and DNA subarray analyses to shed light on Oenococcus oeni adaptation to ethanol in wine-simulated conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costantini, Antonella; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Majumder, Avishek; Jacobsen, Susanne; Pessione, Enrica; Svensson, Birte; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia; Cocolin, Luca

    2015-01-01

    . In 12% ethanol, pyrimidine anabolism was stimulated, but in 8% ethanol some energy-consuming biosynthetic pathways were limited. The most significant result was the stress response induced by alcohol that concerned both the cell-envelope and specific stress proteins. Interestingly, 8% and 12% ethanol...... triggered different stress responses: in mild ethanol stress (8%), chaperones with prevalent refolding activity (like HSP20) were over-expressed, whereas at higher alcohol concentration (12%), together with HSP20 and the refolding DNAJ/K, also chaperones having proteolytic activity (like ClpP) were induced....... Furthermore the stress response repressor HrcA was downregulated only at 12% ethanol, suggesting that it controls stress pathways, which are different from those active at 8% alcohol. This result confirms that the HrcA system is operative in O. oeni where the CtrS system is prevalent. Biological significance...

  11. Mortality records (1979–2011 shed light on threats to Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae in Nilgiris, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Davidar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We compiled records of 291 elephant deaths over a 33-year period (1979–2011 from the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve and the reserved forests of Nilgiri North and South divisions of southern India from the databases of the Tamil Nadu Forest Department, the Wildlife Protection Society of India and the Nilgiri Wildlife and Environment Association.  We tested the null hypothesis that the causes of elephant deaths would not differ with time, by gender and with level of protection.  We classified records by gender and age: adults (≥15 years, sub adults (5–15 years, juveniles (>1–<5 and calves (≤ 1. We organised records over 3-decade periods. The database consisted of 209 adults (≥15 years, 27 sub adults (5–15 years, 33 juveniles (>1–<5 and 22 calves (≤ 1. MTR had the maximum records (148 followed by NND (138 and NSD (4.  The median age of death was 20 years for adult males and 30 years for adult females.  Mean survival time for adult males was 22.45 years, and 31.84 for females.  Poaching was responsible for the majority of deaths (40%, particularly of male elephants (82%, and unknown causes (31% for the majority of female deaths (66%.  Human-caused deaths, which included poaching and some accidents, averaged 72% between 1979 and 2000 and decreased to 22% during 2001–2011. Deaths due to unknown causes and diseases increased from 28% in 1979-1989 to 69% in 2001–2011.  Relative to estimated population size, deaths attributed to poaching was higher in NND (47% than in MTR (34%.  The causes of death differed by region. In conclusion, the elephant population in the Nilgiris is at risk and needs stringent protection; the mortality database should be systematised; forensic capabilities upgraded, and detection of carcasses improved.  

  12. Shedding light on the photophysical properties of newly designed platinum(II) complexes by adding substituents on functionalized ligands as highly efficient OLED emitters from a theoretical viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phosphorescent properties of three synthesized and three new designed platinum(II) complexes are focused on in this work. To reveal their structure–property relationships, a density functional theory/time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TDDFT) investigation is performed on the geometric and electronic structures, absorption and emission spectra. The electroluminescent (EL) properties are evaluated by the ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), and reorganization energy (λ). Furthermore, the radiative rate constant (kr) is qualitatively elucidated by various factors including the strength of the SOC interaction between the higher-lying singlet excited states (Sn) and the T1 state, the oscillator strength (f) of the Sn states that can couple with the T1 state, and the energy separation between the coupled states. A combined analysis of various elements that could affect the phosphorescent efficiency is beneficial to exploring efficient triplet phosphors in OLEDs. Consequently, complexes Pt-1 and 1 would be more suitable blue-emitting phosphorescent materials with balance of EL properties and acceptable quantum yields. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The absorption and phosphorescence spectra of Pt(II) complexes are investigated. • Their Φem, IP, EA, and reorganization energy are compared. • Three new Pt(II) complexes are designed

  13. Therapeutic collaboration and formalized feedback: using perspectives from Vygotsky and Bakhtin to shed light on practices in a family therapy unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundet, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Patient-focused research points to the necessity of continuously monitoring process and outcome in psychotherapy to supply service users and their therapists with feedback as a way of avoiding no change and detrimental development. At the Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, therapists implement monitoring in an intensive family therapy unit inspired by postmodern and language-oriented forms of family therapy using the Session Rating Scale and the Outcome Rating Scale. Research generated descriptions of users' experiences of these scales as conversational tools are reflected upon using concepts from the work of Vygotsky and Bakhtin. Mediation, dialogicality, voice, the zone of proximal development and the metaphor of scaffolding are offered as conceptualizations that expand the inspirational sources of the unit by creating and enhancing further possibilities for collaboration between families and their therapists. PMID:19914938

  14. Discovery of a 240 million year old nematode parasite egg in a cynodont coprolite sheds light on the early origin of pinworms in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Scott L. Gardner; Borba, Victor; Araujo, Priscilla; Leles, Daniela; Stock Da-Rosa, Átila Augusto; Dutra, Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    2014-01-01

    Background We report the discovery of a nematode parasite egg (Nemata: Oxyurida) from a coprolite closely associated with the remains of several species of Cynodontia, dated to 240 million years old. This finding is particularly significant because this is the oldest record of an oxyurid nematode yet discovered, and because the cynodonts are considered a stem-group of the mammals. Methods We extracted material from a fully mineralized coprolite by both scraping the surface, and removing fragm...

  15. Directional RNA deep sequencing sheds new light on the transcriptional response of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to combined-nitrogen deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head Steven R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria are potential sources of renewable chemicals and biofuels and serve as model organisms for bacterial photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and responses to environmental changes. Anabaena (Nostoc sp. strain PCC 7120 (hereafter Anabaena is a multicellular filamentous cyanobacterium that can "fix" atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia when grown in the absence of a source of combined nitrogen. Because the nitrogenase enzyme is oxygen sensitive, Anabaena forms specialized cells called heterocysts that create a microoxic environment for nitrogen fixation. We have employed directional RNA-seq to map the Anabaena transcriptome during vegetative cell growth and in response to combined-nitrogen deprivation, which induces filaments to undergo heterocyst development. Our data provide an unprecedented view of transcriptional changes in Anabaena filaments during the induction of heterocyst development and transition to diazotrophic growth. Results Using the Illumina short read platform and a directional RNA-seq protocol, we obtained deep sequencing data for RNA extracted from filaments at 0, 6, 12, and 21 hours after the removal of combined nitrogen. The RNA-seq data provided information on transcript abundance and boundaries for the entire transcriptome. From these data, we detected novel antisense transcripts within the UTRs (untranslated regions and coding regions of key genes involved in heterocyst development, suggesting that antisense RNAs may be important regulators of the nitrogen response. In addition, many 5' UTRs were longer than anticipated, sometimes extending into upstream open reading frames (ORFs, and operons often showed complex structure and regulation. Finally, many genes that had not been previously identified as being involved in heterocyst development showed regulation, providing new candidates for future studies in this model organism. Conclusions Directional RNA-seq data were obtained that provide comprehensive mapping of transcript boundaries and abundance for all transcribed RNAs in Anabaena filaments during the response to nitrogen deprivation. We have identified genes and noncoding RNAs that are transcriptionally regulated during heterocyst development. These data provide detailed information on the Anabaena transcriptome as filaments undergo heterocyst development and begin nitrogen fixation.

  16. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddix Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative financial experiences of pharmacy initiatives to inform future projects and advance access to medicines goals.

  17. Balancing medicine prices and business sustainability: analyses of pharmacy costs, revenues and profit shed light on retail medicine mark-ups in rural Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Maddix Jason; Waning Brenda; Soucy Lyne

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the ...

  18. Shedding Some Light on the Dark Matter of Competition: Insights from the Strategic Management and Organizational Science Literature for the Consideration of Diversity Aspects in Merger Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kern, Benjamin R.; Ackermann, Malte

    2014-01-01

    A merger between two innovation competitors is often suspected to reduce the variety of heterogeneous entities which are currently undertaking R&D or which are well situated to undertake R&D in a certain field. The consequential reduction of “diversity” can be detrimental to innovation because it reduces the number of independent sources for possible future innovations and might furthermore lead to an alignment of formerly different R&D programs. However, if “diversity” indeed benefits innova...

  19. Shedding Light on Thirteen Years of Darkness: Content Analysis of Articles Pertaining to Transgender Issues in Marriage/Couple and Family Therapy Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Markie L. C.; Green, Mary S.; Knowles, Sarah J.; Williams, April

    2012-01-01

    What is the extent to which marriage/couple and family therapy (M/CFT) journals address transgender issues and how many of them say they are inclusive of transgender persons when they are not? To answer these queries, a content analysis was conducted on articles published in M/CFT literature from 1997 through 2009. Of the 10,739 articles examined…

  20. Old Lineage on an Old Island: Pixibinthus, a New Cricket Genus Endemic to New Caledonia Shed Light on Gryllid Diversification in a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

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    Jérémy Anso

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused on the early colonization of New Caledonia by insects, after the re-emergence of the main island, 37 Myr ago. Here we investigate the mode and tempo of evolution of a new endemic cricket genus, Pixibinthus, recently discovered in southern New Caledonia. First we formally describe this new monotypic genus found exclusively in the open shrubby vegetation on metalliferous soils, named 'maquis minier', unique to New Caledonia. We then reconstruct a dated molecular phylogeny based on five mitochondrial and four nuclear loci in order to establish relationships of Pixibinthus within Eneopterinae crickets. Pixibinthus is recovered as thesister clade of the endemic genus Agnotecous, mostly rainforest-dwellers. Dating results show that the island colonization by their common ancestor occurred around 34.7 Myr, shortly after New Caledonia re-emergence. Pixibinthus and Agnotecous are then one of the oldest insect lineages documented so far for New Caledonia. This discovery highlights for the first time two clear-cut ecological specializations between sister clades, as Agnotecous is mainly found in rainforests with 19 species, whereas Pixibinthus is found in open habitats with a single documented species. The preference of Pixibinthus for open habitats and of Agnotecous for forest habitats nicely fits an acoustic specialization, either explained by differences in body size or in acoustic properties of their respective habitats. We hypothesize that landscape dynamics, linked to major past climatic events and recent change in fire regimes are possible causes for both present-day low diversity and rarity in genus Pixibinthus. The unique evolutionary history of this old New Caledonian lineage stresses the importance to increase our knowledge on the faunal biodiversity of 'maquis minier', in order to better understand the origin and past dynamics of New Caledonian biota.