WorldWideScience

Sample records for apneic oxygenation combined

  1. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Nielsen, Jakob Koefoed;

    In this porcine lung injury model, apneic oxygenation with arteriovenous CO2 removal provided sufficient gas exchange and stable hemodynamics, indicating that the method might have a potential in the treatment of severe ARDS.   Acknowledgements The membrane lungs were kindly provided by Novalung GmbH, Germany....

  2. Apneic oxygenation for elimination of respiratory motion artefact in an intubated patient undergoing helical chest computed tomography angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Pneumatikos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory motion artifact in intubated and mechanically ventilated patients often reduces the quality of helical computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA. Apneic oxygenation is a well established intra-operative technique that allows adequate oxygenation for short periods (up to 10 min in sedated and paralyzed patients. We describe the use of the apneic oxygenation for elimination of respiratory motion artefact in an intubated patient undergoing helical chest computed tomography angiography.

  3. Alveolar accumulation/concentration of nitrogen during apneic oxygenation with arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Niels D; Andersen, Gratien; Kjaergaard, Benedict; Staerkind, Mette E; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    In a model of acute lung injury (ALI), previously, we have shown that apneic oxygenation, using an inspiratory O2 fraction (FiO2) of 1.0 combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous CO2 removal (AO-AVCR) maintains adequate arterial O2 and CO2 levels for a prolonged period. However, it is important that FiO2 lower than 1.0 can be used to avoid possible pulmonary oxygen toxicity. In preliminary studies, arterial oxygenation decreased to extreme low levels, when FiO2 alveolar accumulation/concentration of N2 or by absorption atelectasis. In four anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs, mild lung injury was induced. After a lung recruitment maneuver, we initiated two 20-minute periods of AO-AVCR with FiO2 of 1 and 0.5, respectively. By using FiO2 = 1, PaO2 remained above 300 mm Hg. At the end of the period, the alveolar O2 fraction (FAO2) was 0.89 (0.88-0.89; median and ranges). With FiO2 = 0.5, PaO2 decreased 90% compared with baseline values and FAO2 decreased to 0.07 (0.06-0.07). No atelectasis was visible on computed tomography after either period, and we, therefore, conclude that the alveolar hypoxia was caused by the alveolar N2 accumulation/concentration and subsequently by the O2 depletion. PMID:20038832

  4. Prevention of hyaline membrane disease in premature lambs by apneic oxygenation and extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, A; Kolobow, T; Buckhold, D K; Pierce, J E; Huang, H; Chen, V

    1982-01-01

    Hyaline membrane disease is found only in lungs where pulmonary ventilation has been established, i.e. after birth. We delivered eleven fetal lambs of a gestational age of 128-130 days but instead kept their lungs in total apnea and inflated to constant pressure, while removing all metabolically produced carbon dioxide with an extracorporeal membrane lung. Oxygen was provided by the membrane lung, and by apneic oxygenation through the natural lungs. Hence, arterial blood gases remained always normal, without any pulmonary ventilation. After 6-66 h the lungs had sufficiently cleared to allow normal mechanical pulmonary ventilation in 10 our of 11 lambs so treated. In a control group treated with mechanical ventilation alone, five of seven lambs died within the first 24 h of severe hyaline membrane disease. PMID:6799556

  5. EEG Suppression Associated with Apneic Episodes in a Neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evonne Low

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the EEG findings from an ex-preterm neonate at term equivalent age who presented with intermittent but prolonged apneic episodes which were presumed to be seizures. A total of 8 apneic episodes were captured (duration 23–376 seconds during EEG monitoring. The baseline EEG activity was appropriate for corrected gestational age and no electrographic seizure activity was recorded. The average baseline heart rate was 168 beats per minute (bpm and the baseline oxygen saturation level was in the mid-nineties. Periods of complete EEG suppression lasting 68 and 179 seconds, respectively, were recorded during 2 of these 8 apneic episodes. Both episodes were accompanied by bradycardia less than 70 bpm and oxygen saturation levels of less than 20%. Short but severe episodes of apnea can cause complete EEG suppression in the neonate.

  6. Size matters: Spleen and lung volumes predict performance in human apneic diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika eSchagatay

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans share with e.g. seals the ability to contract the spleen and increase circulating hematocrit, which may improve apneic performance by enhancing gas storage. Seals have large spleens and while human spleen size is small in comparison, it shows great individual variation. Unlike many marine mammals, human divers rely to a great extent on lung oxygen stores, but the impact of lung volume on competitive apnea performance has never been determined. We studied if spleen- and lung size correlated with performance in elite apnea divers. Volunteers were 14 male apnea world championship participants, with a mean(SE of 5.8(1.2 years of previous apnea training. Spleen volume was calculated from spleen length, width and thickness measured via ultrasound during rest, and vital capacity via spirometry. Accumulated competition scores from dives of maximal depth, time and distance were compared to anthropometric measurements and training data. Mean dive performance was 75(4 m for constant weight depth, 5 min 53(39 s for static apnea and 139(13 m for dynamic apnea distance. Subjects’ mean height was 184(2 cm, weight 82(3 kg, vital capacity (VC 7.3(0.3 L and spleen volume 336(32 ml. Spleen volume did not correlate with subject height or weight, but was positively correlated with competition score (r=0.57; P<0.05. Total competition score was also positively correlated with VC (r=0.54; P<0.05. The three highest scoring divers had the greatest spleen volumes, averaging 538(53 ml, while the three lowest scoring divers had a volume of 270(71 ml (P<0.01. VC was also greater in the high-scorers, at 7.9(0.36 L as compared to 6.7(0.19 L in the low-scorers (P<0.01. Spleen volume was reduced to half after 2 min of apnea in the highest scoring divers, and the estimated resting apnea time gain from the difference between high and low scorers was 15 s for spleen volume and 60 s for VC. We conclude that both spleen- and lung volume predict apnea performance in elite

  7. Compensatory responses to upper airway obstruction in obese apneic men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Chien-Hung; Kirkness, Jason P.; Patil, Susheel P.; McGinley, Brian M.; Smith, Philip L.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Schneider, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Defective structural and neural upper airway properties both play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea. A more favorable structural upper airway property [pharyngeal critical pressure under hypotonic conditions (passive Pcrit)] has been documented for women. However, the role of sex-related modulation in compensatory responses to upper airway obstruction (UAO), independent of the passive Pcrit, remains unclear. Obese apneic men and women underwent a standard polysomno...

  8. Balloon Dilatation of Pediatric Subglottic Laryngeal Stenosis during the Artificial Apneic Pause: Experience in 5 Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lisý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Balloon dilatation is a method of choice for treatment of laryngeal stenosis in children. The aim of procedure in apneic pause is to avoid new insertion of tracheostomy cannula. Patients and Methods. The authors performed balloon dilatation of subglottic laryngeal strictures (SGS in 5 children (3 girls and 2 boys without tracheotomy. Two of them with traumatic and inflammatory SGS had a tracheal cannula removed in the past. The other 3 children with postintubation SGS had never had a tracheostomy before. The need for tracheostomy due to worsening stridor was imminent for all of them. Results. The total of seven laryngeal dilatations by balloon esophagoplasty catheter in apneic pause was performed in the 5 children. The procedure averted the need for tracheostomy placement in 4 of them (80%. Failure of dilatation in girl with traumatic stenosis and concomitant severe obstructive lung disease led to repeated tracheostomy. Conclusion. Balloon dilatation of laryngeal stricture could be done in the absence of tracheostomy in apneic pause. Dilatation averted threatening tracheostomy in all except one case. Early complication after the procedure seems to be a negative prognostic factor for the outcome of balloon dilatation.

  9. Plethysmographic estimation of thoracic gas volume in apneic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jánosi, Tibor Z; Adamicza, Agnes; Zosky, Graeme R; Asztalos, Tibor; Sly, Peter D; Hantos, Zoltán

    2006-08-01

    Electrical stimulation of intercostal muscles was employed to measure thoracic gas volume (TGV) during airway occlusion in the absence of respiratory effort at different levels of lung inflation. In 15 tracheostomized and mechanically ventilated CBA/Ca mice, the value of TGV obtained from the spontaneous breathing effort available in the early phase of the experiments (TGVsp) was compared with those resulting from muscle stimulation (TGVst) at transrespiratory pressures of 0, 10, and 20 cmH2O. A very strong correlation (r2= 0.97) was found, although with a systematically (approximately 16%) higher estimation of TGVst relative to TGVsp, attributable to the different durations of the stimulated (approximately 50 ms) and spontaneous (approximately 200 ms) contractions. Measurements of TGVst before and after injections of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 ml of nitrogen into the lungs in six mice resulted in good agreement between the change in TGVst and the injected volume (r2= 0.98). In four mice, TGVsp and TGVst were compared at end expiration with air or a helium-oxygen mixture to confirm the validity of isothermal compression in the alveolar gas. The TGVst values measured at zero transrespiratory pressure in all CBA/Ca mice [0.29 +/- 0.05 (SD) ml] and in C57BL/6 (N = 6; 0.34 +/- 0.08 ml) and BALB/c (N = 6; 0.28 +/- 0.06 ml) mice were in agreement with functional residual capacity values from previous studies in which different techniques were used. This method is particularly useful when TGV is to be determined in the absence of breathing activity, when it must be known at any level of lung inflation or under non-steady-state conditions, such as during pharmaceutical interventions. PMID:16645196

  10. Christine Angot or the Autofiction as Apneic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MATEI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new literary genre is theorised in the seventies in France, autofiction, which combines characteristics of autobiography (especially what is called the nominal pact, the fact the the first person narrative has the same name as the author’s and of fiction (especially what is called symbolic conversion, in that the facts are not entirely realistic. There are in fact two kinds of autofiction : one which emphasizes on fiction (for instance a novel called Truismes by Marie Darrieussecq and the other one whose interest resides on encoding the “author’s” voice. The last kind of autofiction, illustrated here by Christine Angot’s books published from early 90’s, has not been clearly defined by narratologists, because its definition requires a deeper commitment of scholars in social description that formalist literary studies are not able to give. The signification of this literature is not to be established by a post-romantic aesthetics, and one proof would be Christine Angot’s novel Inceste: a “her-story” told in direct speech, to which the reader listen more than he reads it. What is transmitted is more an emergency of talking underlining a forgotten force of literature: the “immediate” expression of a psyche, of a human energy. Is that literature or not? Is it “for real” or only a literary convention made to impress the reader and to suspend all “aesthetic judgment”?

  11. Combined oxides as oxygen-carrier material for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Manganese-based combined oxides are examined for chemical-looping combustion applications. • Promising compositions includes (MnyFe1−y)Ox, (MnySi1−y)Ox and CaMnO3−δ. • Study includes thermodynamic analysis and overview of current experimental experiences. - Abstract: Oxygen-carrier materials for chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) must be capable of taking up and releasing gas-phase O2 at conditions relevant for generation of heat and power. In principle, the capability of a certain material to do so is determined by its thermodynamic properties. This paper provides an overview of the possibility to design feasible oxygen carrier materials from combined oxides, i.e. oxides with crystal structures that include several different cations. Relevant literature is reviewed and the thermodynamic properties and key characteristics of a few selected combined oxide systems are calculated and compared to experimental data. The general challenges and opportunities of the combined oxide concept are discussed. The focus is on materials with manganese as one of its components and the following families of compounds and solid solutions have been considered: (MnyFe1−y)Ox, (MnySi1−y)Ox, CaMnO3−δ, (NiyMn1−y)Ox, (MnyCu1−y)Ox and (MnyMg1−y)Ox. In addition to showing promise from a thermodynamic point of view, reactivity data from experimental investigations suggests that the rate of O2 release can be high for all systems. Thus these combined oxides could also be very suitable for practical application

  12. Heart rate variability in non-apneic snorers and controls before and after continuous positive airway pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateika Jason H

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that sympathetic nervous system activity (SNSA is increased and parasympathetic nervous system activity (PNSA is decreased during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep in non-apneic, otherwise healthy, snoring individuals compared to control. Moreover, we hypothesized that these alterations in snoring individuals would be more evident during non-snoring than snoring when compared to control. Methods To test these hypotheses, heart rate variability was used to measure PNSA and SNSA in 11 normotensive non-apneic snorers and 12 control subjects before and 7-days after adapting to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP. Results Our results showed that SNSA was increased and PNSA was decreased in non-apneic snorers during NREM compared to control. However, these changes were only evident during the study in which snoring was eliminated with nCPAP. Conversely, during periods of snoring SNSA and PNSA were similar to measures obtained from the control group. Additionally, within the control group, SNSA and PNSA did not vary before and after nCPAP application. Conclusion Our findings suggest that long-lasting alterations in autonomic function may exist in snoring subjects that are otherwise healthy. Moreover, we speculate that because of competing inputs (i.e. inhibitory versus excitatory inputs to the autonomic nervous system during snoring, the full impact of snoring on autonomic function is most evident during non-snoring periods.

  13. Combined application of XANES and XPS to study oxygen species adsorbed on Ag foil

    CERN Document Server

    Bukhtiyarov, V I; Kaichev, V V; Knop-Gericke, A; Mayer, R W; Schloegl, R

    2001-01-01

    Adsorbed oxygen species realized in the course of ethylene epoxidation over polycrystalline silver have been characterized by X-ray absorption near the edge structure and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Namely, the combined application of XANES and XPS in similar UHV conditions using the same sample allowed us to assign an XAS feature to the nucleophilic and electrophilic oxygen. This is of great significance, since these species are suggested to be included into the active center for ethylene epoxidation. The differences in the oxygen-silver bonding of these oxygen species are discussed.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with Schwann cell transplantation promotes spinal cord injury recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-gang Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cell transplantation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy each promote recovery from spinal cord injury, but it remains unclear whether their combination improves therapeutic results more than monotherapy. To investigate this, we used Schwann cell transplantation via the tail vein, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or their combination, in rat models of spinal cord contusion injury. The combined treatment was more effective in improving hindlimb motor function than either treatment alone; injured spinal tissue showed a greater number of neurite-like structures in the injured spinal tissue, somatosensory and motor evoked potential latencies were notably shorter, and their amplitudes greater, after combination therapy than after monotherapy. These findings indicate that Schwann cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy is more effective than either treatment alone in promoting the recovery of spinal cord in rats after injury.

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with Schwann cell transplantation promotes spinal cord injury recover y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-gang Peng; Shu-quan Zhang; Min-fei Wu; Yang Lv; Dan-kai Wu; Qi Yang; Rui Gu

    2015-01-01

    Schwann cell transplantation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy each promote recovery from spinal cord injury, but it remains unclear whether their combination improves therapeutic results more than monotherapy. To investigate this, we used Schwann cell transplantationviathe tail vein, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or their combination, in rat models of spinal cord contusion injury. The combined treatment was more effective in improving hindlimb motor function than either treatment alone; injured spinal tissue showed a greater number of neurite-like structures in the injured spinal tissue, somatosensory and motor evoked potential latencies were notably shorter, and their amplitudes greater, after combination therapy than after monotherapy. These ifndings indicate that Schwann cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy is more effective than either treatment alone in promoting the recovery of spinal cord in rats after injury.

  16. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with autologous platelet concentrate applied in rabbit fibula fraction healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Fagundes Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrates in healing the fibula bone of rabbits after induced fractures. METHODS: A total of 128 male New Zealand albino rabbits, between 6-8 months old, were subjected to a total osteotomy of the proximal portion of the right fibula. After surgery, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 32 each: control group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy; autologous platelet concentrate group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site; hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions; and autologous platelet concentrate and hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy, autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site, and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to a pre-determined euthanasia time points: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperative. After euthanasia at a specific time point, the fibula containing the osseous callus was prepared histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius red. RESULTS: Autologous platelet concentrates and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, applied together or separately, increased the rate of bone healing compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrate combined increased the rate of bone healing in this experimental model.

  17. ACUPUNCTURE COMBINED WITH INHALATION OF OXYGEN FOR TREATMENT OF 60 CASES OF EXTENSIVE ANXIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects and adverse effects of "channel-oxygen therapy" for extensive anxiety. Methods: Sixty cases of extensive anxiety patients were treated with "channel-oxygen therapy" once daily and continuously for 4 weeks. Neiguan(内关PC 6) and Zusanli(足三里ST 36) were needled in combination with nasal inhalation of oxygen, 30 min each session. The therapeutic effects were assessed by Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) and the adverse effects by Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS). Results: Of the 60 cases, 35 were cured, 13 improved and 12 were ineffective, with the effective rate being 80.0% and the cured rate 58.3%. No evident adverse effects were found. Conclusion: The "channel-oxygen therapy" is safe and effective for extensive anxiety.

  18. Combined Water-Oxygen Pinch Analysis with Mathematical Programming for Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽丽; 都健; 柴绍斌; 姚平经

    2006-01-01

    Water-oxygen pinch analysis is an effective method to decrease the wastewater quantity and improve the wastewater quality. But when multiple-contaminants are present, the method is difficult to be carried out. In this paper, the method that combines water-oxygen pinch analysis with mathematical programming is proposed. It obtains the general optimal solution and leads to the reuse stream that cannot be found only by pinch analysis. The new method is illustrated by an example, and the annual cost is reduced by 8.43% compared with the solution of literature.

  19. Combined impact of water column oxygen and temperature on internal oxygen status and growth of Zostera marina seedlings and adult shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Ane-Marie Løvendahl; Borum, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) occasionally experiences severe die-offs during warm summer periods with variable water column oxygen partial pressures (pO). Eelgrass is known to be very intolerant to tissue anoxia with reduced growth and increasing mortality after ≤12h anoxia in the dark at...... temperatures of ≥25°C. In the present study we experimentally examine the impact of combined water column oxygen and temperature on oxygen dynamics in leaf meristems of seedlings and adult shoots to better understand how stressful environmental conditions affect eelgrass oxygen dynamics and subsequent growth...... and mortality. There was a strong interaction between water column oxygen and temperature on meristem pO implying that eelgrass is rather resistant to unfavorable oxygen conditions in winter but becomes increasingly vulnerable in summer, especially at high temperatures. At 25°C meristems became anoxic...

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen combined with drug therapy in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction clinical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Cui Lin; Kang Lin; Jing Wang; Shuai Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of hyperbaric oxygen combined with edaravone, salviae miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine and sodium ozagrel in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction clinical analysis.Methods: A total of 200 cases of acute cerebral infraction patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group was treated with edaravone, salvia miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine and sodium ozagrel; on the basis of treatment in control group, the observation group was combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The neurological deficit scores were observed before and after treatment in patients of two groups, meanwhile the activities of daily living (ADL) and clinical effects were compared.Results: The total effective rate in observation group (92%) was significantly higher than control group (79%), the differences were statistically significant; the score of ADL in observation group after treatment was obviously higher than control group [(79.91±5.16)vs (61.62±5.60)], and the differences were statistically significant. The neurological deficit scores after treatment were obviously lower than the control group [(9.55±4.13)vs (15.46±4.92)], the differences were statistically significant.Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen combined with edaravone, salvia miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine and sodium ozagrel in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction can improve the symptoms of microcirculation and neurologic impairment, and improve the patient s quality of life.

  1. Effects of combined irradiation of 500 keV protons and atomic oxygen on polyimide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Lev; Chernik, Vladimir; Zhilyakov, Lev; Voronina, Ekaterina; Chirskaia, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Polyimide films are widely used on the spacecraft surface as thermal control coating, films in different constuctions, etc. However, the space ionizing radiation of different types can alter the mechanical, optical and electrical properties of polyimide films. For example, it is well known that 20-100 keV proton irradiation causes breaking of chemical bonds and destruction of the surface layer in polyimide, deterioration of its optical properties, etc. In low-Earth orbits serious danger for polymeric materials is atomic oxygen of the upper atmosphere of the Earth, which is the main component in the range of heights of 200-800 km. Due to the orbital spacecraft velocity, the collision energy of oxygen atoms with the surface ( 5 eV) enhances their reactivity and opens additional pathways of their reaction with near-surface layers of materials. Hyperthermal oxygen atom flow causes erosion of the polyimide surface by breaking chemical bonds and forming of volatiles products (primarily, CO and CO _{2}), which leads to mass losses and degradation of material properties. Combined effect of protons and oxygen plasma is expected to give rise to synergistic effects enhancing the destruction of polyimide surface layers. This paper describes experimental investigation of polyimide films sequential irradiation with protons and oxygen plasma. The samples were irradiated by 500 keV protons at fluences of 10 ^{14}-10 ^{16} cm ^{-2} produced with SINP cascade generator KG-500 and 5-20 eV neutral oxygen atoms at fluence of 10 ^{20} cm ^{-2} generated by SINP magnetoplasmodynamics accelerator. The proton bombardment causes the decrease in optical transmission coefficient of samples, but their transmittance recovers partially after the exposure to oxygen plasma. The results of the comparative analysis of polyimide optical transmission spectra, Raman and XPS spectra obtained at different stages of the irradiation of samples, data on mass loss of samples due to erosion of the surface are

  2. Spatial Resolution of Combined Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy for Atomic Oxygen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Makoto; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-09-01

    For developments of thermal protection system, atomic oxygen plays important role. However, its measurement method has not been established because the pressure in front of TPS test materials is as high as a few kPa. Our group proposed combined wavelength modulation and integrated output spectroscopies based on the forbidden transition at OI 636 nm to measure the ground-state number densities. In this study, WM-ICOS system is developed and applied to a microwave oxygen plasma to evaluate measurable region. As a result, the estimated number density by ICOS could be measured as low as 1021 m21. For the condition, WM-ICOS was applied. The signal to noise ratio of the 2f signal was 40.4. Then, the sensitivity was improved about 26. This result corresponding to the measurement limit of the partial atomic oxygen pressure of 250 Pa. The sensitivity of WM-ICOS was found to enough to diagnose the shock layer in high enthalpy flows. However, the spatial resolution was as large as 8 mm. The size of the beam pattern depends on the cavity length, robust ness of the cavity and accuracy of the cavity alignment. In this presentation, the relationship among these parameters will be discussed.

  3. Oxygen Nanocarrier for Combined Cancer Therapy: Oxygen-Boosted ATP-Responsive Chemotherapy with Amplified ROS Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengfei; Zheng, Mingbin; Luo, Zhenyu; Fan, Xiujun; Sheng, Zonghai; Gong, Ping; Chen, Ze; Zhang, Baozhen; Ni, Dapeng; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen nanocarrier (A/D-ONC) with a polymeric core entrapping hemoglobin and a cationic lipid shell absorbing a DOX-intercalating DNA duplex is developed. After endocytosis oxygenated A/D-ONC donates O2 to cancer cells that acts therapeutically by: (1) increasing intracellular ATP content that promotes DOX release, thereby converting ATP to the trigger of detrimental chemotherapy; (2) by synchronously increasing the ROS amount to amplify the lethality to cancer cells.

  4. Combination of positioning therapy and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in ARDS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredel, M; Bischof, L; Wurmb, T E; Roewer, N; Muellenbach, R M

    2014-03-01

    Positioning therapy may improve lung recruitment and oxygenation and is part of the standard care in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO) is a rescue strategy that may ensure sufficient gas exchange in ARDS patients failing conventional therapy. The aim of this case series was to describe the feasibility and pitfalls of combining positioning therapy and vvECMO in patients with severe ARDS. A retrospective cohort of nine patients is described. The patients received 20 (15-86) hours (median, 25(th) and 75(th) percentile) of positioning therapy while being treated with vvECMO. The initial PaO2/FiO2 index was 64 (51-67) mmHg and the arterial carbon dioxide tension was 60 (50-71) mmHg. Positioning therapy included 135 degrees prone, prone positioning and continuous lateral rotational therapy. During the first three days, the oxygenation index improved from 47 (41-47) to 12 (11-14) cmH2O/mmHg. The lung compliance improved from 20 (17-28) to 42 (27-43) ml/cmH2O. Complications related to positioning therapy were facial oedema (n=9); complications related to vvECMO were entrance of air (n=1) and pump failure (n=1). However, investigation of root causes revealed no association with the positioning therapy and had no documented effect on the outcome. The reported cases suggest that positioning therapy can be performed safely in ARDS patients treated with vvECMO, providing appropriate precautions are in place and a very experienced team is present.

  5. The use of combined hyperbaric oxygenation and erythropoietin in the treatment of cardiac insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this research is to EVALUATE therapy efficiacy of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO with regenerative effects on human tissues and erythropoietin, as a nonspecific growth factor. Material and methods This study included a group of 9 patients with echocardiographically diagnosed cardiac insufficiency with ejection fraction (EF% under 60%. HBO was used according to the protocol for patients with severe cardiac insufficiency (a total of 15 treatments. All patients also received subcutaneous erythropoietin, 2000 iv, every other day. Control echocardiography was done 30-45 days after they finished their treatments. Results The average ejection fraction before treatment was 46%. After treatment, the average EF% was 57%, so it increased by 11%. All patients felt subjectively better, with improved capacity to physical efforts. Discussion and Conclusion Ejection fraction of 30-40% is an indication for hyperbaric oxygenation therapy. The decision about the treatment is made by the physician based on his experience, general condition of the patient, frequency and severity of hypoxic episodes. If EF% is 30% or below, HBO is not recommended, because antioxidative defense mechanisms are exhausted under hypoxia and the balance of the organism should not be changed. An increase in average EF% by 11% demonstrates that combined use of HBO and Erythropoietin gives good results.

  6. In vitro oxygen-dependent survival of two human cell lines after combined radiations tirapazamin and cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent data have shown that the in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity of bioreductive drugs could be significantly cytotoxicity of bioreductive drugs could be significantly increased by combination with ionising radiation or chemotherapy. Various parameters such as oxygen tension and timing of administration of the drugs could play a crucial role in the efficacy of combined treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to define the oxygen dependency of cell survival after in vitro irradiation and incubation with tirapazamin, a bioreductive drug, and cisplatin given alone or simultaneously. Two human cell lines were studied: one cell line sensitive to tirapazamin, Na11+, a pigmented melanoma with a high percentage of hypoxic cells, and a less sensitive cell line to tirapazamin, HRT18, a rectal adenocarcinoma. Gas changes were made to study cell survival at four different oxygen concentrations (pO2): air (20.9 % O2), 10.2 and 0.2 %. Cells were incubated with tirapazamin and cisplatin alone or combined for one hour at 37 deg C, then irradiated and cultured. For Na11+, cell survival after irradiation was comparable in air and at 10 % oxygen with the two drugs given alone or combined. At 2 and 0.2 % oxygen, cell killing was largely increased by tirapazamin and was not modified by the addition of cisplatin. For HRT18, cell survival was not modified when cisplatin was added to radiation, whatever the oxygen partial pressure. At low pO2 (2 and 0.2 %) the cytotoxic effect of tirapazamin was not significantly decreased by the addition of cisplatin. When cytotoxic and bioreductive drugs are combined to radiation, the magnitude of the observed effect is highly dependent on the partial oxygen pressure and on the sensitivity of the cell line to the individual drugs. This has very important implications for clinical strategies based on combined chemo-radiotherapy. (authors)

  7. Estimation of Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Combined Sewer Systems Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Park

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF and humic-like fluorescence (HLF, respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively.

  8. Effect of the Combination of Ezetimibe and Simvastatin on Gluconeogenesis and Oxygen Consumption in the Rat Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracht, Lívia; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bracht, Adelar; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with the combination of ezetimibe and simvastatin on gluconeogenesis in rat liver. Rats were treated daily for 28 days with the combination of ezetimibe and simvastatin (10/40 mg/kg) by oral gavage. To measure gluconeogenesis and the associated pathways, isolated perfused rat liver was used. In addition, subcellular fractions, such as microsomes and mitochondria, were used for complementary measures of enzymatic activities. Treatment with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe resulted in a decrease in gluconeogenesis from pyruvate (-62%). Basal oxygen consumption of the treated animals was higher (+22%) than that of the control rats, but the resulting oxygen consumption that occurred after pyruvate infusion was 43% lower in animals treated with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe. Oxygen consumption in the livers from treated animals was completely inhibited by cyanide (electron transport chain inhibitor), but not by proadifen (cytochrome P450 inhibitor). Chronic treatment with ezetimibe/simvastatin decreased the activity of the key enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase by 59% and 45%, respectively, which is probably the major reason for the decreased gluconeogenesis seen in ezetimibe-/simvastatin-treated rats. It is also possible that part of the effect of this combination on gluconeogenesis and on the oxygen consumption is related to the impairment of mitochondrial energy transduction. PMID:26552039

  9. A fascinating combination of Co, Ni and Al nanomaterial for oxygen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sher Bahadar; Khan, Shahid Ali; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2016-05-01

    Interesting combination of Co, Ni and Al have been assessed for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets of NiCoAl, Co-Al oxide nanoparticles and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles were prepared and studied for the first time as OER catalyst. Among all the subjected catalysts, the binary LDH comprise of NiCoAl showed comparatively high catalytic activity than Co-Al oxide nanoparticles and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles. The Co-Al and Co-Ni oxide nanoparticles showed current densities of 34.6 and 24.5 mA cm-2, respectively at 1 V in 0.3 M KOH solution. However at the same conditions, NiCoAl-LDH showed comparatively low overpotential, high current density (40.8 mA cm-2) and lower Tafel slope. The low overpotential and high catalytic activity of NiCoAl-LDH stipulate the possibility to reduce the demand of precious, rare earth and expensive transition metal catalyst in electrochemical water splitting for OER.

  10. Combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin for enhancing cell affinity of poly(lactide-co-glycolide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Hu, Xixue; Yang, Fei; Bei, Jianzhong; Wang, Shenguo

    2007-10-01

    Surface characteristics greatly influence attachment and growth of cells on biomaterials. Although polylactone-type biodegradable polymers have been widely used as scaffold materials for tissue engineering, lack of cell recognition sites, poor hydrophilicity and low surface energy lead to a bad cell affinity of the polymers, which limit the usage of polymers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. In the present study, surface of poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was modified by a method of combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin. Modification effect of the method was compared with other methods of oxygen plasma treatment, cationized gelatin or gelatin coating and combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of gelatin. The change of surface property was compared by contact angles, surface energy, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement. The optimum oxygen pretreatment time determined by surface energy was 10 min when the power was 50 W and the oxygen pressure was 20 Pa. Analysis of the stability of gelatin and cationized gelatin anchored on PLGA by XPS, ATR-FTIR, contact angles and surface energy measurement indicated the cationized gelatin was more stable than gelatin. The result using mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts as model cells to evaluate cell affinity in vitro showed the cationized gelatin-anchored PLGA (OCG-PLGA) was more favorable for cell attachment and growth than oxygen plasma treated PLGA (O-PLGA) and gelatin-anchored PLGA (OG-PLGA). Moreover cell affinity of OCG-PLGA could match that of collagen-anchored PLGA (AC-PLGA). So the surface modification method combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin provides a universally effective way to enhance cell affinity of polylactone-type biodegradable polymers. PMID:17618682

  11. Pharyngeal oxygen administration increases the time to serious desaturation at intubation in acute lung injury: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Joakim; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients is associated with severe life-threatening complications in about 20%, mainly due to hypoxemia. We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation via a pharyngeal catheter during the endotracheal intubation procedure would prevent or increase the time to life-threatening hypoxemia and tested this hypothesis in an acute lung injury animal model. Methods Eight anesthetized piglets with collapse-prone lungs induced by lung lavage were ventila...

  12. A therapeutic benefit from combining normobaric carbogen or oxygen with nicotinamide in fractionated X-ray treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of normobaric oxygen and carbogen (95 percent O2 + 5 percent CO2) combined with nicotinamide to enhance the radiosensitivity of two rodent adenocarcinomas and of mouse skin and kidneys was compared with the effects of radiation in air and without the drug. A comparison of the results in tumors and normal tissues showed that significant therapeutic benefit was obtained with normobaric oxygen and carbogen combined with nicotinamide. Toxic side effects of the treatment are unlikely, as prolonged administration of nicotinamide is well tolerated in man. The combination of normobaric carbogen with nicotinamide could be an effective method of enhancing tumor radiosensitivity in clinical radiotherapy where hypoxia limits the outcome of treatment. (author). 45 refs.; 4 fig.; 4 tabs

  13. Atomic oxygen dynamics in an air dielectric barrier discharge: a combined diagnostic and modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldus, Sabrina; Schröder, Daniel; Bibinov, Nikita; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Awakowicz, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas are a promising alternative therapy for treatment of chronic wounds, as they have already shown in clinical trials. In this study an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) developed for therapeutic use in dermatology is characterized with respect to the plasma produced reactive oxygen species, namely atomic oxygen and ozone, which are known to be of great importance to wound healing. To understand the plasma chemistry of the applied DBD, xenon-calibrated two-photon laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and optical absorption spectroscopy are applied. The measured spatial distributions are shown and compared to each other. A model of the afterglow chemistry based on optical emission spectroscopy is developed to cross-check the measurement results and obtain insight into the dynamics of the considered reactive oxygen species. The atomic oxygen density is found to be located mostly between the electrodes with a maximum density of {{n}\\text{O}}=6× {{10}16} cm-3 . Time resolved measurements reveal a constant atomic oxygen density between two high voltage pulses. The ozone is measured up to 3 mm outside the active plasma volume, reaching a maximum value of {{n}{{\\text{O}3}}}=3× {{10}16} cm-3 between the electrodes.

  14. Fungal diversity in oxygen-depleted regions of the Arabian Sea revealed by targeted environmental sequencing combined with cultivation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Raghukumar, C.; Behnke, A.; Stoeck, T.

    Fungal diversity in oxygen-depleted regions of the Arabian Sea revealed by targeted environmental sequencing combined with cultivation Cathrine S Jebaraj 1, 2 , Chandralata Raghukumar 1 , Anke Behnke 2 , Thorsten Stoeck 2 1 National Institute... of Oceanography, (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India; 2 School of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany. Correspondence: Thorsten Stoeck, School of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern...

  15. Ultrasound-mediated destruction of paclitaxel and oxygen loaded lipid microbubbles for combination therapy in ovarian cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Chang, Shufang; Sun, Jiangchuan; Zhu, Shenyin; Yin, Minyue; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Ronald X

    2015-05-28

    We have synthesized multifunctional oxygen and paclitaxel loaded microbubbles (OPLMBs) for ultrasound mediated delivery of combination therapy in an ovarian cancer xenograft model. In comparison with other therapeutic options, intravenous injection of OPLMBs followed by ultrasound mediation yielded a superior therapeutic outcome. Immunohistochemical analyses of the dissected tumor tissue confirmed the increased tumor apoptosis and the reduced VEGF expression after treatment. Western Blot tests further confirmed the decreased expressions of HIF-1α and P-gp. Our experiment suggests that ultrasound mediation of OPLMBs may provide a promising drug delivery strategy for the combination treatment of ovarian cancer.

  16. Ultrasound-mediated destruction of oxygen and paclitaxel loaded lipid microbubbles for combination therapy in hypoxic ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiangchuan; Yin, Mingyue; Zhu, Shenyin; Liu, Li; Zhu, Yi; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Ronald X; Chang, Shufang

    2016-01-01

    We synthesized oxygen and paclitaxel (PTX) loaded lipid microbubbles (OPLMBs) for ultrasound mediated combination therapy in hypoxic ovarian cancer cells. Our experiments successfully demonstrated that ultrasound induced OPLMBs destruction significantly enhanced the local oxygen release. We also demonstrated that OPLMBs in combination with ultrasound (300 kHz, 0.5 W/cm(2), 15s) yielded anti-proliferative activities of 52.8 ± 2.75% and cell apoptosis ratio of 35.25 ± 0.17% in hypoxic cells at 24h after the treatment, superior to other treatment groups such as PTX only and PTX-loaded MBs (PLMBs) with or without ultrasound mediation. RT-PCR and Western blot tests further confirmed the reduced expression of HIF-1α and MDR-1/P-gp after ultrasound mediation of OPLMBs. Our experiment suggests that ultrasound mediation of oxygen and drug-loaded MBs may be a useful method to overcome chemoresistance in the hypoxic ovarian cancer cells.

  17. ENZYMATIC BLEACHING OF COTTON FIBRES WITH LACCASE/MEDIATOR SYSTEMS COMBINED WITH OXYGEN AND OZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba İNKAYA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes should be used in every step of pretreatment of cotton textiles in order to minimize energy and water consumption while keeping the effluent control within the tolerable standards. It has been investigated whether enzymatic bleaching of cotton textiles could be replaced with hydrogen peroxide bleaching, which is a water and energy consuming step. In this study, fungal laccase, laccase moderator systems and also oxygen and ozone feed to these systems have been experimented. The initial whiteness of the desizied fabric before bleaching was 49 stensby degree. This value did not increase over 51 stensby degree by use of enzyme and also enzyme moderator systems. Oxygen and ozone feeding at a gas flow rate of 1000 ml/min and ozone concentration of 32 mg/min have been conducted in order to increase whiteness. Oxygen feed did not have a considerable effect and whiteness degrees raised up to only 51 stensby degree, however, ozone feed enhanced to raise the whiteness of the fabric upto 68 stensby degree by enzyme alone and 70 stensby degree by enzyme moderator systems.

  18. Cryogenic oxygen jet response to transverse acoustic excitation with the first transverse and the first combined longitudinal-transverse modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardi, J. S.; Oschwald, M.

    2016-07-01

    The intact length of the dense oxygen core from an oxygen-hydrogen shear coaxial rocket injector was measured. The measurements were made in a rectangular rocket combustor with optical access and acoustic forcing. The combustor was operated at chamber pressures of 40 and 60 bar, with either ambient temperature or cryogenic hydrogen. The multielement injection spray is subjected to forced transverse gas oscillations of two different acoustic resonance modes; the first transverse (1T) mode at 4200 Hz and the first combined longitudinal-transverse (1L1T) at 5500 Hz. Intact core length is measured from high-speed shadowgraph imaging. The dependence of intact core length with increasing acoustic amplitude is compared for the two modes of excitation.

  19. Monitoring cancer treatment response using photoacoustic and ultrasound spectral analysis in combination with oxygenation measurements (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Eno; May, Jonathan P.; Wirtzfeld, Lauren; Undzys, Elijus; Li, Shyh-Dar; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-03-01

    At clinically-relevant depths, the frequency content of photoacoustic signals encodes information about the size, concentration and spatial distribution of non-resolvable blood vessels. This study evaluates whether photoacoustics can detect cancer therapy-induced vascular perturbations. Photoacoustic/ultrasound (PA/US) spectral analysis was combined with functional, PA-based oxygenation and power Doppler (PD) perfusion estimates to assess treatment response. Co-registered, in-vivo US/PA/PD imaging of mice bearing breast cancer tumors was performed pre-treatment and 30m/2h/5h/24h/7d post-treatment (VevoLAZR, Fujifilm VisualSonics). Hyperthermia treatment (1h, 43C) was performed after systemic injections of doxorubicin-loaded thermosensitive liposomes (TSL, n=13) or free doxorubicin (DOX, n=11). Response was classified according to 2h, PA-based oxygenation drop and endpoint (>9d), caliper-based volume reduction. At all time-points/wavelengths (750/850nm), the spectral-slope (SS) was computed from the normalized US/PA power spectra using depth-matched reference phantoms. The percent-vascularity (PV) was estimated for the animal with the largest oxygenation-drop at 2h. TLS-treated responders decreased their PA-SS by 1.9x @750nm and 5.8x @850nm 30m post-treatment and remained constant for 24h; tumor oxygenation followed the same trend. Non-responding SS remained unchanged for 24h. The 750nm SS was 18.7x lower than 850nm suggesting the TSL is sensitive vessel oxygenation. Responder PV decreased 100% when the 30m oxygenation dropped 15% and increased 7x when the 7d oxygenation increased 20%. DOX-responders exhibited similar trends to TSL-responders although the 750nm PA-SS was 1.6x smaller and post-treatment PV was 50% higher. The US-SS remained unchanged until 7d post-treatment suggesting its sensitivity to tumor cell-death. These findings suggest that PA spectral analysis has potential in monitoring cancer treatment response.

  20. Effect of nicardipine combined with esmolol on systemic and tissue oxygenation during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian-long; JIANG Yan; YANG Ba-xian

    2005-01-01

    Background The hemodynamics and oxygenation severely fluctuated during the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCABG). This study aimed at investigating whether or not nicardipine combined with esmolol (1∶ 10) can maintain systemic and tissue oxygenation during OPCABG.Methods Twenty patients scheduled for OPCABG were divided ramdomly into Group nicardipine (N) and Group nitroglycerine (X) respectively combined with esmolol (E) (Dosage ratio: 1 to 10) (Group N+E and Group X+E) with 10 patients in each group. The mixed solution of N+E or X+E were titrated to maintain mean arterial blood pressure between 70 and 80 mmHg following anesthesia induction. The variables of hemodynamics, arterial blood lactate content (Lac) and gastric intramucosal partial pressure of carbon dioxide were measured at the following time points: after induction of anesthesia (T1), pre-revascularization (T2), grafting of left anterior descending (T3), right coronary descending (T4) and left coronary circumflexus branches (T5), post-revascularization (T6), the end of operation (T7). The delivery of oxygen (DO2), consumption of oxygen (VO2) and gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) were calculated.Results The cardiac index (CI) in Group N+E was significantly increased (P<0.05) as compared with T1 during OPCABG, while it was mildly decreased in Group X+E. The stroke volumes at T4, T5 in Group N+E and at T3-T6 in Group X+E were significantly decreased (P<0.05). The systemic vascular resistance indices in Group N+E were significantly decreased as compared with T1 (P<0.05). The heart rates in these two Groups were significantly elevated intraoperatively (P<0.05). The DO2 after the infusion of N+E was significantly increased (P<0.05) or leveled to T1, and the Lac were within the normal range. But the DO2 in Group X+E was decreased throughout the procedure, reaching significant level at T5 (P<0.05), and the Lac was significantly increased beyond normal range (P<0.05). The pHi in Group N+E was

  1. A combined sensor for simultaneous high resolution 2-D imaging of oxygen and trace metals fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahl, Henrik; Warnken, Kent W.; Sochaczewski, Lukasz;

    2012-01-01

    that the enhanced smearing and reduced response time of the O-2 signal associated with the additional DGT layer were marginal. To test sensor performance at realistic conditions, it was applied to an artificial burrow system consisting of permeable dialysis tubing flushed with oxygenated seawater. The measurements...... demonstrated localized mobilization of Ni, Cu, and Pb close to the burrow wall, where O-2 was elevated. The latter was also confirmed for Cu and Pb in natural sediments irrigated by the polychaete Hediste diversicolor. The sandwich sensor has great potential for investigating interrelations between O-2 d...

  2. Percutaneous treatment of non-contained lumbar disc herniation by injection of oxygen-ozone combined with collagenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Zhiqun [Therapy Center of Pain, Division of Interventional Radiology, Tang Du Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710038 (China)], E-mail: zhiqunwu@yahoo.com; Wei Longxiao [Therapy Center of Pain, Division of Interventional Radiology, Tang Du Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710038 (China); Li Jun [Therapy Center of Pain, Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Tang Du Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710038 (China); Wang Yiqing; Ni Daihui [Therapy Center of Pain, Division of Interventional Radiology, Tang Du Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710038 (China); Yang Peng; Zhang Yuhai [Department of Biostatistics, Fourth Military Medical University, Xian 710032 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic results of oxygen-ozone combined collagenase injection for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation compared to the surgery. And to explore the role of this minimally invasive treatment as an alternative to disc surgery. Materials and methods: Two groups of patients (n = 108) were treated with different ways respectively. Minimally invasive group of patients was treated with the injection of oxygen-ozone combined with collagenase into the lumbar disc or the epidural space; the other group was treated with traditional surgery. After the treatment, the patients were followed-up and the therapeutic effect was assessed at 2 weeks, 3 and 12 months by the modified Macnab criteria. Results: The success rate was 86.11% and 88.89% in minimally invasive group at 3 and 12 months respectively, while 92.59% and 95.37% in surgical group. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups at 3 and 12 months (P = 0.123, P = 0.08). However, the surgical group produced a statistically significant greater improvement for back pain and disability in the first few weeks (P = 0.0001). The success rate was 51.86% and 85.18% at 2 weeks in minimally invasive group and surgical group respectively. No serious complication occurred in this group. Conclusions: The combination of the oxygen-ozone with collagenase shows significant reductions in pain and improvements in function at 3 and 12 months, it can be considered as an option for the treatment of non-contained lumbar disc herniation instead of surgery.

  3. Serum indicators and endothelial function of hyperbaric oxygen combined with memantine and Aricept treatment of senile vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao-Yi Yin

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To find the effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with memantine and Aricept treatment of senile vascular dementia on serum indicators and endothelial function.Methods:A total of126 cases of patients with senile vascular dementia treated in our hospital from March 2012 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects, treatment that patients received was retrospectively analyzed, and patients were divided into observation group 64 cases and control group 62 cases. Control group received memantine and Aricept therapy, observation group received hyperbaric oxygen combined with memantine and Aricept therapy, and then differences in levels of serum TGF-β, IGF-1 and ICAM-1, Hcy, MDA and SOD, NPY, sFas, sFasL and so on, ET and EPC between two groups were compared.Results:Serum TGF-β ad IGF-1 levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group, and ICAM-1 levels were lower than those of control group; Hcy and MDA levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group at corresponding points in time, and SOD levels were higher than those of control group; serum NPY, sFas, sFasL and Ca2+ values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group, and PON-1 value was higher than that of control group; ET values of observation group at various points in time after treatment were lower than those of control group, and EPC contents were higher than those of control group.Conclusion:Hyperbaric oxygen combined with memantine and Aricept treatment for patients with senile vascular dementia can effectively improve the disease and optimize endothelial function, and it has active clinical significance.

  4. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation combining with hyperbaric oxygen therapy on rehabilitation of rat spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Kui Geng; Hong-Hua Cao; Xiong Ying; Hua-Lin Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of BMSCs transplantation plus hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on repair of rat SCI. Methods:Seventy five male rats were divided randomly into five groups:sham, vehicle, BMSCs transplantation group, combination group, 15 rats in each group. Every week after the SCI onset, all animals were evaluated for behavior outcome by Basso-Beattle-Bresnahan (BBB) score and inclined plane test. Axon recovery was examined with focal spinal cord tissue by electron microscope at 6 weeks after the SCI onset. HE staining and BrdU staining were performed to examine the BMSCs and lesion post injury. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction. Results:Results from the behavior tests from combination group were significant higher than rats which received only transplantation or HBO treatment. Results from histopathology showed favorable recovery from combination group than other treatment groups. The number of BrdU+ in combination group were measureable more than transplantation group (P<0.05). The greatest decrease in TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-αdetermined by Elisa assay in combination group were evident too. Conclusions:BMSCs transplantation can promote the functional recovery of rat hind limbs after SCI, and its combination with HBO has a synergistic effect.

  5. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation combining with hyperbaric oxygen therapy on rehabilitation of rat spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Kui; Geng; Hong-Hua; Cao; Xiong; Ying; Hua-Lin; Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of BMSCs transplantation plus hyperbaric oxygen(HBO)on repair of rat SCI.Methods:Seventy five male rats were divided randomly into five groups:sham,vehicle.BMSCs transplantation group,combination group,15 rats in each group.Every week after the SCI onset,all animals were evaluated for behavior outcome by Basso-BeattleBresnahan(BBB) score and inclined plane test.Axon recovery was examined with focal spinal cord tissue by electron microscope at 6 weeks after the SCI onset.HE staining and BrdU staining were performed to examine the BMSCs and lesion post injury.Somatosensory evoked potential(SEP) testing was performed to detect the recovery of neural conduction.Results from the behavior tests from combination group were significant higher than rats which received only transplantation or HBO treatment.Results from histopathology showed favorable recovery from combination group than other treatment groups.The number of BrdU+ in combination group were measureable more than transplantation group(P<0.05).The greatest decrease in TNF-α,IL-1β,IL-6.IFN-α determined by Elisa assay in combination group were evident too.Conclusions:BMSCs transplantation can promote the functional recovery of rat hind limbs after SCI,and its combination with HBO has a synergistic effect.

  6. Kinetics of oxygen reduction in perovskite cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells: A combined modeling and experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, Lincoln James

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to replace conventional stationary power generation technologies; however, there are major obstacles to commercialization, the most problematic of which is poor cathode performance. Commercialization of SOFCs will follow when the mechanisms occurring at the cathode are more thoroughly understood and adapted for market use. The catalytic reduction of oxygen occurring in SOFC cathodes consists of many elementary steps such as gas phase diffusion, chemical and/or electrochemical reactions which lead to the adsorption and dissociation of molecular oxygen onto the cathode surface, mass transport of oxygen species along the surface and/or through the bulk of the cathode, and full reduction and incorporation of the oxygen at the cathode/electrolyte two or three phase boundary. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is the main technique used to identify the occurrence of these different processes, but when this technique is used without an explicit model describing the kinetics it is difficult to unravel the interdependence of each of these processes. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify the heterogeneous reactions occurring at the cathode of an SOFC by combining experimental EIS results with mathematical models describing the time dependent behavior of the system. This analysis is performed on two different systems. In the first case, experimental EIS results from patterned half cells composed of Ca-doped lanthanum manganite (LCM)| yttria-doped ZrO2 (YSZ) are modeled to investigate the temperature and partial pressure of oxygen, pO2, dependence of oxygen adsorption/dissociation onto the LCM surface, surface diffusion of atomic oxygen, and electrochemical reduction and incorporation of the oxygen into the electrolyte in the vicinity of the triple phase boundary (TPB). This model determines the time-independent state-space equations from which the Faradaic admittance transfer function is obtained. The

  7. Combined effect of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing functional groups of microporous activated carbon on its electrochemical performance in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Lu, Gao Qing [University of Queensland ARC, Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology and School of Engineering Corner College, St Lucia (Australia); Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J. [City College of New York, Department of Chemistry, New York, NY (United States)

    2009-02-10

    Microporous activated carbon originating from coconut shell, as received or oxidized with nitric acid, is treated with melamine and urea and heated to 950 C in an inert atmosphere to modify the carbon surface with nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups for a systematic investigation of their combined effect on electrochemical performance in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} supercapacitors. The chemistry of the samples is characterized using elemental analysis, Boehm titration, potentiometric titration, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Sorption of nitrogen and carbon dioxide is used to determine the textural properties. The results show that the surface chemistry is affected by the type of nitrogen precursor and the specific groups present on the surface before the treatment leading to the incorporation of nitrogen. Analysis of the electrochemical behavior of urea- and melamine-treated samples reveal pseudocapacitance from both the oxygen and the nitrogen containing functional groups located in the pores larger than 10A. On the other hand, pores between 5A and 6A are most effective in a double-layer formation, which correlates well with the size of hydrated ions. Although the quaternary and pyridinic-N-oxides nitrogen groups have enhancing effects on capacitance due to the positive charge, and thus an improved electron transfer at high current loads, the most important functional groups affecting energy storage performance are pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen along with quinone oxygen. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Pulmonary functional MRI:an animal model study of oxygen-enhanced ventilation combined with Gd-DTPA-enhanced perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨健; 万明习; 郭佑民

    2004-01-01

    Background The assessment of regional pulmonary ventilation and perfusion is essential for the evaluation of a variety of lung disorders. Pulmonary ventilation MRI using inhaled oxygen as a contrast medium can be obtained with a clinical MR scanner, without additional equipment, and has been demonstrated to be a feasible means of assessing ventilation in animal models and some clinical patients. However, few studies have reported on MR ventilation-perfusion imaging. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of oxygen-enhanced ventilation in combination with first-pass Gd-DTPA-enhanced perfusion MRI in a canine model of pulmonary embolism and airway obstruction.Methods Peripheral pulmonary embolisms were produced in eight dogs by intravenous injection of gelfoam strips at the pulmonary segmental arterial level, and airway obstructions were created in five of the dogs by inserting a self-designed balloon catheter into a secondary bronchus. Oxygen-enhanced MR ventilation images were produced by subtracting images from before and after inhalation of pure oxygen. Pulmonary perfusion MR images were acquired with a dynamic three-dimensional fast gradient-echo sequence. MR ventilation and perfusion images were read and contrasted with results from general examinations of pathological anatomy, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and pulmonary angiography. Results Regions identified as having airway obstructions matched using both MR ventilation and perfusion imaging, but regions of pulmonary embolisms were mismatched. The area of airway obstruction defects was smaller using MR ventilation imagery than that using ventilation scintigraphy. Abnormal perfusion regions due to pulmonary embolisms were divided into defective regions and reduced regions based on the time course of signal intensity changes. In the diagnosis of pulmonary embolisms with the technique of ventilation and perfusion MRI, sensitivity and specificity were 75.0% and 98.1%, respectively, and the diagnostic

  9. Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation and Treated with Hyperbaric Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Lemos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is an uncommon retinal vascular disease which causes sudden visual acuity loss and is associated with poor prognosis and the development of severe complications. We report a very rare case of combined CRAO and CRVO in a patient with factor V Leiden (FVL mutation (only 3 cases published. To our knowledge, this is the first case of combined CRAO and CRVO treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. Case and Results: A 49-year-old woman presented with complaints of sudden loss of vision in her left eye (LE, with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 1/20. A complete ophthalmic evaluation with fundus angiography showed combined CRAO and CRVO. The patient was urgently treated with HBOT (she completed a total of 9 sessions in 7 days, with marked visual acuity and angiographic improvement (BCVA of 10/10. Forty-five days later, she developed a new LE CRVO, and BCVA decreased to 5/10 and later to Conclusions: Combined CRAO and CRVO in young adults should be investigated thoroughly for embolic sources, thrombophilic disorders and local ocular conditions. This is the first case of this severe disease that was treated with HBOT, and the visual result was very good.

  10. Barley responses to combined waterlogging and salinity stress: separating effects of oxygen deprivation and elemental toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanrong; Shabala, Lana; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Salinity and waterlogging are two major factors affecting crop production around the world and often occur together (e.g., salt brought to the surface by rising water tables). While the physiological and molecular mechanisms of plant responses to each of these environmental constraints are studied in detail, the mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to their combined stress are much less understood. In this study, whole-plant physiological responses to individual/combined salinity and waterlogging stresses were studied using two barley varieties grown in either vermiculite (semi-hydroponics) or sandy loam. Two weeks of combined salinity and waterlogging treatment significantly decreased plant biomass, chlorophyll content, maximal quantum efficiency of PSII and water content (WC) in both varieties, while the percentage of chlorotic and necrotic leaves and leaf sap osmolality increased. The adverse effects of the combined stresses were much stronger in the waterlogging-sensitive variety Naso Nijo. Compared with salinity stress alone, the combined stress resulted in a 2-fold increase in leaf Na(+), but a 40% decrease in leaf K(+) content. Importantly, the effects of the combined stress were more pronounced in sandy loam compared with vermiculite and correlated with changes in the soil redox potential and accumulation of Mn and Fe in the waterlogged soils. It is concluded that hypoxia alone is not a major factor determining differential plant growth under adverse stress conditions, and that elemental toxicities resulting from changes in soil redox potential have a major impact on genotypic differences in plant physiological and agronomical responses. These results are further discussed in the context of plant breeding for waterlogging stress tolerance. PMID:23967003

  11. Combined Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen XANES Spectroscopy on Hydrated and Anhydrous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feser, M.; Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.

    2003-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth s stratosphere generally contain percent-level concentrations of organic matter. This organic matter in IDPs is important for several reasons: 1) some IDPs contain interstellar organic matter, identified by high D/H or N-15, providing the opportunity to characterize this interstellar material, 2) comparison of the organic matter in anhydrous IDPs to that in hydrated IDPs can help establish the effects of parent body aqueous alteration, and, 3) IDPs are believed to have delivered to the surface of the early Earth pre-biotic organic matter important for the origin of life. X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy provides information on the functional groups present in a sample, and XANES can be performed on the nano-scale, comparable to the size of some of the sub-units of the IDPs. The energies of the XANES transitions are diagnostic of the type of bonding of the C, N, and O, allowing identification of the functional groups present in the sample. As part of our ongoing effort to characterize the organic matter in the IDPs, we have performed carbon- and oxygen- and the first nitrogen-XANES spectroscopy on two IDPs and acid-insoluble residue from the CM2 meteorite Murchison.

  12. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xiao Zhou; Zhi-gang Liu; Xiao-jiao Liu; Qian-xue Chen

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized lfuid (2.5–3.0 atm impact force). The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantationvia the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function signiifcantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and signiifcantly promotes recovery of neurological functions.

  13. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-xiao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized fluid (2.5-3.0 atm impact force. The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantation via the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function significantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and significantly promotes recovery of neurological functions.

  14. Combined sonodynamic and antimetabolite therapy for the improved treatment of pancreatic cancer using oxygen loaded microbubbles as a delivery vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Conor; Kamila, Sukanta; Owen, Joshua; Nesbitt, Heather; Callan, Bridgeen; Borden, Mark; Nomikou, Nikolitsa; Hamoudi, Rifat A; Taylor, Mark A; Stride, Eleanor; McHale, Anthony P; Callan, John F

    2016-02-01

    In this manuscript we describe the preparation of an oxygen-loaded microbubble (O2MB) platform for the targeted treatment of pancreatic cancer using both sonodynamic therapy (SDT) and antimetabolite therapy. O2MB were prepared with either the sensitiser Rose Bengal (O2MB-RB) or the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil (O2MB-5FU) attached to the microbubble (MB) surface. The MB were characterised with respect to size, physical stability and oxygen retention. A statistically significant reduction in cell viability was observed when three different pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPc-3, MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1), cultured in an anaerobic cabinet, were treated with both SDT and antimetabolite therapy compared to either therapy alone. In addition, a statistically significant reduction in tumour growth was also observed when ectopic human xenograft BxPC-3 tumours in SCID mice were treated with the combined therapy compared to treatment with either therapy alone. These results illustrate not only the potential of combined SDT/antimetabolite therapy as a stand alone treatment option in pancreatic cancer, but also the capability of O2-loaded MBs to deliver O2 to the tumour microenvironment in order to enhance the efficacy of therapies that depend on O2 to mediate their therapeutic effect. Furthermore, the use of MBs to facilitate delivery of O2 as well as the sensitiser/antimetabolite, combined with the possibility to activate the sensitiser using externally applied ultrasound, provides a more targeted approach with improved efficacy and reduced side effects when compared with conventional systemic administration of antimetabolite drugs alone.

  15. Combined Central Retinal Artery and Vein Occlusion Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation and Treated with Hyperbaric Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, José Alberto; Teixeira, Carla; Carvalho, Rui; Fernandes, Tiago

    2015-01-01

    Background Combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is an uncommon retinal vascular disease which causes sudden visual acuity loss and is associated with poor prognosis and the development of severe complications. We report a very rare case of combined CRAO and CRVO in a patient with factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation (only 3 cases published). To our knowledge, this is the first case of combined CRAO and CRVO treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Case and Results A 49-year-old woman presented with complaints of sudden loss of vision in her left eye (LE), with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 1/20. A complete ophthalmic evaluation with fundus angiography showed combined CRAO and CRVO. The patient was urgently treated with HBOT (she completed a total of 9 sessions in 7 days), with marked visual acuity and angiographic improvement (BCVA of 10/10). Forty-five days later, she developed a new LE CRVO, and BCVA decreased to 5/10 and later to <1/20 because of significant macular edema. A detailed investigation showed an abnormal resistance to activated protein C, and a genetic study showed homozygosity for FVL mutation. The patient was submitted to 3 monthly injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. After 10 months, the patient is in a stable condition with BCVA of 6/10. Conclusions Combined CRAO and CRVO in young adults should be investigated thoroughly for embolic sources, thrombophilic disorders and local ocular conditions. This is the first case of this severe disease that was treated with HBOT, and the visual result was very good. PMID:26955350

  16. Effect of resveratrol and beta-sitosterol in combination on reactive oxygen species and prostaglandin release by PC-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Atif B; Burr, Andrew T; Fink, Carol S

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this project was to identify some possible mechanisms by which two common phytochemicals, resveratrol and beta-sitosterol, inhibit the growth of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. These mechanisms include the effect of the phytochemicals on apoptosis, cell cycle progression, prostaglandin synthesis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Prostaglandins have been known to play a role in regulating cell growth and apoptosis. PC-3 cells were supplemented with 50 microM resveratrol or 16 microM beta-sitosterol alone or in combination for up to 5 days. Phytochemical supplementation resulted in inhibition in cell growth. beta-Sitosterol was more potent than resveratrol and the combination of the two resulted in greater inhibition than supplementation with either alone. Long-term supplementation with resveratrol or beta-sitosterol elevated basal prostaglandin release but beta-sitosterol was much more potent than resveratrol in this regard. beta-Sitosterol was more effective than resveratrol in inducing apoptosis and the combination had an intermediate effect after 1 day of supplementation. Cells supplemented with resveratrol were arrested at the G1 phase and at the G2/M phase in the case of beta-sitosterol while the combination resulted in cell arrest at the two phases of the cell cycle. beta-Sitosterol increased ROS production while resveratrol decreased ROS production. The combination of the two phytochemicals resulted in an intermediate level of ROS. The observed changes in prostaglandin levels and ROS production by these two phytochemicals may suggest their mediation in the growth inhibition. The reduction in ROS level and increase by resveratrol supplementation in PC-3 cells reflects the antioxidant properties of resveratrol. It was concluded that these phytochemicals may induce the inhibition of tumor growth by stimulating apoptosis and arresting cells at different locations in the cell cycle and the mechanism may involve alterations in

  17. Enhanced phosphorus removal from wastewater by growing deep-sea bacterium combined with basic oxygen furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weizhi; Huang, Zhaosong; Sun, Cuiping; Zhao, Haixia; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2016-08-01

    As one solid waste with potential for phosphorus removal, application of slags in water treatment merits attention. But it was inhibited greatly by alkaline solution (pH>9.5) and cemented clogging generated. To give one solution, phosphorus removal was investigated by combining deep-sea bacterium Alteromonas 522-1 and basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS). Results showed that by the combination, not only higher phosphorous removal efficiency (>90%) but also neutral solution pH of 7.8-8.0 were achieved at wide ranges of initial solution pH value of 5.0-9.0, phosphorus concentration of 5-30mg/L, salinity of 0.5-3.5%, and temperature of 15-35°C. Moreover, sedimentary property was also improved with lower amount of sludge production and alleviated BOFS cementation with increased porosity and enlarged particle size. These results provided a promising strategy for the phosphorus recovery with slags in large-scale wastewater treatment.

  18. Enhanced phosphorus removal from wastewater by growing deep-sea bacterium combined with basic oxygen furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weizhi; Huang, Zhaosong; Sun, Cuiping; Zhao, Haixia; Zhang, Yuzhong

    2016-08-01

    As one solid waste with potential for phosphorus removal, application of slags in water treatment merits attention. But it was inhibited greatly by alkaline solution (pH>9.5) and cemented clogging generated. To give one solution, phosphorus removal was investigated by combining deep-sea bacterium Alteromonas 522-1 and basic oxygen furnace slag (BOFS). Results showed that by the combination, not only higher phosphorous removal efficiency (>90%) but also neutral solution pH of 7.8-8.0 were achieved at wide ranges of initial solution pH value of 5.0-9.0, phosphorus concentration of 5-30mg/L, salinity of 0.5-3.5%, and temperature of 15-35°C. Moreover, sedimentary property was also improved with lower amount of sludge production and alleviated BOFS cementation with increased porosity and enlarged particle size. These results provided a promising strategy for the phosphorus recovery with slags in large-scale wastewater treatment. PMID:27179297

  19. Improvement of oxygen supply by an artificial carrier in combination with normobaric oxygenation decreases the volume of tissue hypoxia and tissue damage from transient focal cerebral ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seiffge, David J.; Lapina, Natalia E.; Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos; Theisinger, Bastian; Henning, Robert H.; Schilling, Lothar

    2012-01-01

    Tissue hypoxia may play an important role in the development of ischemic brain damage. In the present study we investigated in a rat model of transient focal brain ischemia the neuroprotective effects of increasing the blood oxygen transport capacity by applying a semifluorinated alkane (SFA)-contai

  20. Relative humidity across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum via combined hydrogen-oxygen isotope paleohygrometry (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, F. A.; Bloch, J. I.; Secord, R.; Wing, S. L.; Kraus, M. J.; Boyer, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) presents an opportunity to characterize continental hydrologic changes during rapid and extreme global warming. The Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, has long been recognized for the PETM sequences preserved there and sits in an ideal location for recording hydrologic changes in the interior of North America. The southeast Bighorn Basin is of particular interest because it contains not only alluvial paleosols and vertebrate fossils, but also macrofloral remains from the PETM. The carbon isotope excursion associated with this event is preserved in this part of the Basin in leaf wax lipids, tooth enamel, and bulk organic matter. To characterize the hydrologic changes that occurred during the PETM we are applying a suite of isotopic, paleobotanical and paleopedological approaches to sections in the southeast Bighorn Basin. Reported here are results from the combined hydrogen and oxygen isotope analysis aimed at reconstructing relative humidity. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of biogenic apatite from mammalian tooth enamel and fish scales vary with environment, physiology and diet. Because mammals are homeothermic, they primarily track surface water values with predictable physiological offsets. Hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) of leaf-wax lipids (long-chain n-alkanes) reflect both meteoric water δD values and additional D-enrichment caused by evapotranspiration. The enrichment factor between water δD and n-alkane δD can therefore be used as a proxy for relative humidity (RH). In this study, δ18O of surface water is estimated using the δ18O of Coryphodon tooth enamel. We use these δ18O values to estimate surface water δD values using the Global Meteoric Water Line (δD = 8δ18O + 10). We then calculate relative humidity from n-alkane δD values using a Craig-Gordon type isotopic model for D-enrichment caused by transpiration from leaves. Results of the combined hydrogen-oxygen isotope paleohygrometer indicate a general rise in

  1. High performance SOFC/GT combined power generation system with CO2 recovery by oxygen combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors newly propose and investigate two types of carbon dioxide recovering SOFC/GT combined power generation systems in which a gas turbine with carbon dioxide recycle or water vapor injection is adopted as the bottoming cycle. In these systems, fuel gas is first introduced to a SOFC, and its exhaust fuel gas is afterburned by pure oxygen. Carbon dioxide or water vapor is also injected into the combustor to reduce the combustion gas temperature. The obtained combustion gas, which is composed of only carbon dioxide and water vapor, is introduced to a gas turbine in the bottoming cycle. The exhaust gas of the gas turbine preheats the injection gas, and then, carbon dioxide is separated by only cooling and water condensation. It is made clear that the overall efficiency of the system with carbon dioxide recycle reaches 63.87% (HHV) or 70.88% (LHV), and that of the system with water vapor injection reaches 65.00% (HHV) or 72.13% (LHV). These values are sufficiently high, indicating that the proposed systems are worth further research and development

  2. Increased generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species initiates selective cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 cell line resultant from redox active combination therapy using copper-thiosemicarbazone complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akladios, Fady N; Andrew, Scott D; Parkinson, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    The combination of cytotoxic copper-thiosemicarbazone complexes with phenoxazines results in an up to 50-fold enhancement in the cytotoxic potential of the thiosemicarbazone against the MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line over the effect attributable to drug additivity-allowing minimization of the more toxic copper-thiosemicarbazone component of the therapy. The combination of a benzophenoxazine with all classes of copper complex examined in this study proved more effective than combinations of the copper complexes with related isoelectronic azines. The combination approach results in rapid elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen levels followed by apoptotic cell death. Normal fibroblasts representative of non-cancerous cells (MRC-5) did not display a similar elevation of reactive oxygen levels when exposed to similar drug levels. The minimization of the copper-thiosemicarbazone component of the therapy results in an enhanced safety profile against normal fibroblasts. PMID:26951232

  3. Feasibilities of combination of hyperbaric oxygenation, ultraviolet blood irradiation, hemisorption in treating patients with sepsis as a complication of acute inflammatory diseases of abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consideration is given to correlation of efficiency of results of treating patients with sepsis during traditional intensive therapy and during complex treatment, including hemosorption, hyperbaric oxygenation, ultraviolet blood irradiation, based on studying clinical picture, biochemical and immunological indices. Increase of treatment efficiency when using mentioned therapeutic measures, particularly their different combinations, is shown. 69 refs

  4. Combining benthic foraminiferal ecology and shell Mn/Ca to deconvolve past bottom water oxygenation and paleoproductivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koho, K.A.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Reichart, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    The Mn/Ca of carbonate tests of living deep-sea foraminifera (Hoeglundina elegans, Bulimina aculeata, Uvigerina peregrina and Melonis barleeanus) were determined together with pore water manganese along a bottom water oxygen gradient across the lower boundary of the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone.

  5. Imbalance between oxygen photoreduction and antioxidant capacities in Symbiodinium cells exposed to combined heat and high light stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberty, S.; Fransolet, D.; Cardol, P.; Plumier, J.-C.; Franck, F.

    2015-12-01

    During the last decades, coral reefs have been affected by several large-scale bleaching events, and such phenomena are expected to increase in frequency and severity in the future, thus compromising their survival. High sea surface temperature accompanied by high levels of solar irradiance has been found to be responsible for the induction of oxidative stress ultimately ending with the disruption of the symbiosis between cnidarians and Symbiodinium. For two decades, many studies have pointed to the water-water cycle (WWC) as being one of the primary mediators of this phenomenon, but the impacts of environmental stress on the O2 reduction by PSI and the associated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-detoxifying enzymes remain to be determined. In this study, we analyzed the impacts of acute thermal and light stress on the WWC in the model Symbiodinium strain A1. We observed that the high light treatment at 26 °C resulted in the up-regulation of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities and an increased production of ROS with no significant change in O2-dependent electron transport. Under high light and at 33 °C, O2-dependent electron transport was significantly increased relative to total electron transport. This increase was concomitant with a twofold increase in ROS generation compared with the treatment at 26 °C, while enzymes involved in the WWC were largely inactivated. These data show for the first time that combined heat and light stress inactivate antioxidant capacities of the WWC and suggests that its photoprotective functions are overwhelmed under these conditions. This study also indicates that cnidarians may be more prone to bleach if they harbor Symbiodinium cells having a highly active Mehler-type electron transport, unless they are able to quickly up-regulate their antioxidant capacities.

  6. Achieving Stable Nitritation for Mainstream Deammonification by Combining Free Nitrous Acid-Based Sludge Treatment and Oxygen Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin; Laloo, Andrew; Xu, Yifeng; Bond, Philip L.; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    Stable nitritation is a critical bottleneck for achieving autotrophic nitrogen removal using the energy-saving mainstream deammonification process. Herein we report a new strategy to wash out both the Nitrospira sp. and Nitrobacter sp. from the treatment of domestic-strength wastewater. The strategy combines sludge treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA) with dissolved oxygen (DO) control in the nitritation reactor. Initially, the nitrifying reactor achieved full conversion of NH4+ to NO3‑. Then, nitrite accumulation at ~60% was achieved in the reactor when 1/4 of the sludge was treated daily with FNA at 1.82 mg N/L in a side-stream unit for 24 h. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) revealed FNA treatment substantially reduced the abundance of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (from 23.0 ± 4.3 to 5.3 ± 1.9%), especially that of Nitrospira sp. (from 15.7 ± 3.9 to 0.4 ± 0.1%). Nitrite accumulation increased to ~80% when the DO concentration in the mainstream reactor was reduced from 2.5–3.0 to 0.3–0.8 mg/L. FISH revealed the DO limitation further reduced the abundance of NOB (to 2.1 ± 1.0%), especially that of Nitrobacter sp. (from 4.9 ± 1.2 to 1.8 ± 0.8%). The strategy developed removes a major barrier for deammonification in low-strength domestic wastewater.

  7. Comparison of oral midazolam with a combination of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation in the effectiveness of dental sedation for young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zahrani A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of 0.6 mg/kg oral midazolam sedation alone and a combination of 0.6 mg/kg oral midazolam plus nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation, in controlling the behavior of uncooperative children during dental treatment. Study Design: The study had a crossover design where the same patient received two different sedation regimens, that is, oral midazolam 0.6 mg/kg and oral midazolam 0.6 mg/kg with nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation during two dental treatment visits. Materials and Methods: Thirty children (17 males and 13 females were randomly selected for the study, with a mean age of 55.07 (± 9.29 months, ranging from 48 - 72 months. A scoring system suggested by Houpt et al. (1985 was utilized for assessment of the children′s behavior. Results : There was no significant (p > 0.05 difference in the overall behavior assessment between the two sedation regimens, that is, oral midazolam alone and oral midazolam plus nitrous oxide-oxygen. However, the combination of midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen showed significantly (p < 0.05 superior results as compared to midazolam alone, in terms of controlling movement and crying during local anesthesia administration and restorative procedures. Conclusion: Compared to oral midazolam alone, a combination of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation appears to provide more comfort to pediatric dental patients and operators during critical stages of dental treatment.

  8. [EFFICIENCY OF COMBINATION OF ROFLUMILAST AND QUERCETIN FOR CORRECTION OXYGEN- INDEPENDENT MECHANISMS AND PHAGOCYTIC ACTIVITY OF MACROPHAGE CELLS OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE WHEN COMBINED WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerych, P; Yatsyshyn, R

    2015-01-01

    Studied oxygen independent reaction and phagocytic activity of macrophage cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) II-III stage when combined with coronary heart disease (CHD). The increasing oxygen independent reactions monocytes and neutrophils and a decrease of the parameters that characterize the functional state of phagocytic cells, indicating a decrease in the functional capacity of macrophage phagocytic system (MPS) in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, which runs as its own or in combination with stable coronary heart disease angina I-II. FC. Severity immunodeficiency state in terms of cellular component of nonspecific immunity in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD II-III stage in conjunction with the accompanying CHD increases with the progression of heart failure. Inclusion of basic therapy of COPD exacerbation and standard treatment of coronary artery disease and drug combinations Roflumilastand quercetin causes normalization of phagocytic indices MFS, indicating improved immune status and improves myocardial perfusion in terms of daily ECG monitoring.

  9. XPS of oxygen atoms on Ag(111) and Ag(110) surfaces: accurate study with SAC/SAC-CI combined with dipped adcluster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Atsushi; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    O1s core-electron binding energies (CEBE) of the atomic oxygens on different Ag surfaces were investigated by the symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method combined with the dipped adcluster model, in which the electron exchange between bulk metal and adsorbate is taken into account properly. Electrophilic and nucleophilic oxygens (O(elec) and O(nuc)) that might be important for olefin epoxidation in a low-oxygen coverage condition were focused here. We consider the O1s CEBE as a key property to distinguish the surface oxygen states, and series of calculation was carried out by the Hartree-Fock, Density functional theory, and SAC/SAC-CI methods. The experimental information and our SAC/SAC-CI results indicate that O(elec) is the atomic oxygen adsorbed on the fcc site of Ag(111) and that O(nuc) is the one on the reconstructed added-row site of Ag(110) and that one- and two-electron transfers occur, respectively, to the O(elec) and O(nuc) adclusters from the silver surface.

  10. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poff, A M; Ward, N; Seyfried, T N; Arnold, P; D'Agostino, D P

    2015-01-01

    The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT) and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control), low glucose (LG), ketone supplementation (βHB), hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT), or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT) on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers. PMID:26061868

  11. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Poff

    Full Text Available The Warburg effect and tumor hypoxia underlie a unique cancer metabolic phenotype characterized by glucose dependency and aerobic fermentation. We previously showed that two non-toxic metabolic therapies - the ketogenic diet with concurrent hyperbaric oxygen (KD+HBOT and dietary ketone supplementation - could increase survival time in the VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer. We hypothesized that combining these therapies could provide an even greater therapeutic benefit in this model. Mice receiving the combination therapy demonstrated a marked reduction in tumor growth rate and metastatic spread, and lived twice as long as control animals. To further understand the effects of these metabolic therapies, we characterized the effects of high glucose (control, low glucose (LG, ketone supplementation (βHB, hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT, or combination therapy (LG+βHB+HBOT on VM-M3 cells. Individually and combined, these metabolic therapies significantly decreased VM-M3 cell proliferation and viability. HBOT, alone or in combination with LG and βHB, increased ROS production in VM-M3 cells. This study strongly supports further investigation into this metabolic therapy as a potential non-toxic treatment for late-stage metastatic cancers.

  12. Episodes of apnea and bradycardia in the preterm newborn: impact on cerebral oxygenation measured by near-infrared spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huffel, Sabine; Craemers, Johan; Lenaerts, Bart; Daniels, Hans; Naulaers, Gunnar; Casaer, Paul

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of episodes of apneas and/or mild bradycardia (heart rate decreases of 10 to 20% or more) on cerebral oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and reduced hemoglobin (Hb) concentration as measured by Near Infrared Spectrophotometry (NIRS). Measurements were carried out on 7 preterm infants who experienced apneic and bradycardiac events. It is shown how to characterize these events using time-frequency analysis. In addition to NIRS (performed with a NIRO-500 from Hamamatsu, Japan), the heart rate, ECG, peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (measured at the foot) and respiration (abdominal and thoracic pressure, and nasal airflow) were continuously recorded. The impact of apneic events and periodic breathing on these measurements reveals the clinical relevance of NIRS. In particular, we investigate whether these changes in heart rate and respiration also influence HbO2 and reduced Hb concentration in neonatal brain. These changes are characterized, as well as their relationships with the other simultaneously recorded signals such as peripheral arterial oxygen saturation.

  13. Clinical Observation on Acupuncture Combined with Hyperbaric Oxygenation in Treating Patients with Cervical Spondylosis of Nerve Root Type in Acute Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jian-xiong; Zhang Jun-feng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture combined with hyperbaric oxygenation for cervical spondylosis of nerve root type in acute phase. Methods: One hundred cases with cervical spondylosis of nerve root type in acute phase were randomly divided into two groups, with 50 patients in each group. The patients in the treatment group were treated by acupuncture combined with hyperbaric oxygenation, and those in the control group only received the same acupuncture therapy as the treatment group. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated after 2 courses of treatment. Results: In the treatment group, 27cases were cured, 9 cases showed markedly effective, and 4 cases were invalid, and the recovery rate was 67.5%, the total effective rate was 90.0%; in the control group, 18 cases were cured, 17 cases showed markedly effective, 15 cases were invalid, and the recovery rate was 36.0%, the total effective rate was 70.0%. There were statistically significant differences between two groupsin the recovery rate and the total effective rate (bothP Conclusion: Acupuncture combined with hyperbaric oxygenationhas rapid and reliable effects for cervical spondylosis of nerve root type in acute phase.

  14. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined withα-lipoic acid on neurological function and serum indexes of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Li; Ling Qi; Jun Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined withα-lipoic acid on neurological function and serum indexes of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Methods:A total of 118 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients who received treatment in our hospital were selected as research subjects, and according to the different clinical treatment they received, all included patients were divided into observation group 59 cases and control group 59 cases. Control group received conventional clinical treatment, and observation group received additional hyperbaric oxygen combined withα-lipoic acid treatment. Differences in nerve conduction velocity, gastrocnemius nerve threshold, illness-related factors, oxidative stress indicator values, and so on were compared between two groups after treatment.Results:MCV and SCV values of median nerve, ulnar nerve and tibial nerve of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group (P<0.05); gastrocnemius nerve threshold of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum CP and BDNF values of observation group after treatment were higher than those of control group while Cys-C, SDF-1α, HMGB1 and MBP values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum MDA and NO values of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group while SOD, CAT and GSH-Px values were higher than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hyperbaric oxygen combined withα-lipoic acid is a good method to optimize the neurological function and improve overall illness of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and is expected to become a new way of inhibiting disease progression and improving disease outcome.

  15. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body ... machine in your home. A different kind of oxygen therapy is called hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It uses oxygen ...

  16. Combined effect of oxygen deficient point defects and Ni doping in radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni doped ZnO thin films with oxygen deficiency have been synthesized on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique using argon plasma. The combined effect of point defects generated due to oxygen vacancies and Ni doping on the optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films has been studied in this work. Ni doping concentrations were varied and the structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were studied as a function of doping concentrations. The films were characterized with X-ray diffractometer, UV–Vis–NIR spectrophotometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements. Oxygen deficient point defects (Schottky defects) made the ZnO thin film highly conducting while incorporation of Ni dopant made it more functional regarding their electrical and optical properties. The films were found to have tunable electrical conductivity with Ni doping concentrations. - Highlights: • ZnO thin films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique • Synthesis process was stimulated to introduce Schottky-type point defects. • Point defects and external doping of Ni made ZnO thin films more functional. • Point defect induced high electrical conductivity in ZnO thin film. • Significant shift in optical bandgap observed in ZnO with Ni doping concentrations

  17. Combination of On-line pH and Oxygen Transfer Rate Measurement in Shake Flasks by Fiber Optical Technique and Respiration Activity MOnitoring System (RAMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Büchs

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shake flasks are commonly used for process development in biotechnologyindustry. For this purpose a lot of information is required from the growth conditions duringthe fermentation experiments. Therefore, Anderlei et al. developed the RAMOS technology[1, 2], which proviedes on-line oxygen and carbondioxide transfer rates in shake flasks.Besides oxygen consumption, the pH in the medium also plays an important role for thesuccessful cultivation of micro-organisms and for process development. For online pHmeasurement fiber optical methods based on fluorophores are available. Here a combinationof the on-line Oxygen Transfer Rate (OTR measurements in the RAMOS device with anon-line, fiber optical pH measurement is presented. To demonstrate the application of thecombined measurement techniques, Escherichia coli cultivations were performed and on-line pH measurements were compared with off-line samples. The combination of on-lineOTR and pH measurements gives a lot of information about the cultivation and, therefore, itis a powerful technique for monitoring shake flask experiments as well as for processdevelopment.

  18. Generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species in wheat flag leaves under combined shading and waterlogging stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Huawei; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;

    2012-01-01

    caused enhanced concentrations of malondialdehyde and H2O2, and an increased superoxide anion release. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity were stimulated at 4 days after the onset of WS at 0–7 and 8–15 DAA, but decreased at 8 days after the onset of WS at 0–7, 8–15 and 16–23 DAA. Ascorbate...... peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activity increased during 0–8 days after the onset of WS at 0–7, 8–15 and 16–23 DAA. At 16–24 DAA, Pn, the level of reactive oxygen species and activity of the antioxidative enzymes fully recovered in plants...

  19. Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Robert J.; Horazak, Dennis A.

    2012-03-06

    A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

  20. Combination multinitrogen with good oxygen balance: molecule and synthesis design of polynitro-substituted tetrazolotriazine-based energetic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Piao; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Wang, Kun; Yin, Xin; Zhang, Tong-Lai

    2015-06-01

    We investigated 5,8-dinitro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrotetrazolo[1,5-b][1,2,4]triazine (short for DNTzTr (1)) using various ab initio quantum chemistry methods. We proposed an additional three novel polynitro-substituted tetrazolotriazine-based compounds with exceptional performance, including 5,8-dinitro-5,6-dioxotetrazolo[1,5-b][1,2,4]triazine, DNOTzTr (2), 4,5,9,10-tetranitro[1,2,4,5]tetrazolo[3,4-b][1,2,4,5]tetrazolo[3',4':5,6]triazino[2,3-e]triazine, TNTzTr (3), and 4,5,6,10,11,12-hexanitro-bis[1,2,4,5]tetrazolo[3',4':5,6]triazino[2,3-b:2',3'-e]triazine, HNBTzTr (4). The optimized structure, electronic density, natural bond orbital (NBO) charges and HOMO-LUMO orbitals, electrostatic potential on surface of molecule, IR- and NMR-predicted spectra, as well as thermochemical parameters were calculated with the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d) level of theory. Critical parameters such as density, enthalpy of formation (EOF), and detonation performance have also been predicted. Characters with positive EOF (1386.00 and 1625.31 kJ/mol), high density (over 2.00 g/cm(3)), outstanding detonation properties (D = 9.82 km/s, P = 45.45 GPa; D = 9.94 km/s, P = 47.30 GPa), the perfect oxygen balance set to zero, and acceptable impact sensitivity led novel compounds 3 and 4 to be very promising energetic materials. This work provides the theoretical molecule design and a reasonable synthesis path for further experimental synthesis and testing.

  1. Combined oxygen, hydrogen, /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar isotopic evaluation of molybdenite mineralization, east Pioneer Mountains, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesley, J.T.; Snee, L.W.; O' Neil, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Pear Lake molybdenite (moly) prospect is in the Eastern Pioneer Wilderness Area, 30 km south of the Cannivan Gulch moly deposit. It lies on a NW-SE trend with other prospects that are contemporaneous. Mineralized veins outcrop sporadically over a 4 square mile area, with a major concentration in the center of the study area. Previous studies have suggested potential moly-mineralization at depth. /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age-spectra on hornblend (hb) from the granodiorite host rock indicate emplacement at 75.0 +/- 1 Ma, with biotite closure at 69.0 +/- .3 Ma, in the vicinity of Pear Lake. Hydrothermal muscovites from the moly-bearing veins have ages of 68.0 +/- .5 Ma. partial resetting of biotite cooling dates in the vicinity of mineralization are observed, but biotites on the outer portion of the mineralizing system are undisturbed. These relations suggest that mineralization occurred after the host pluton had cooled to below 280/sup 0/C. Quartz-magnetite isotopic temperatures are 380 to 420/sup 0/C for moly-veins. These data suggest that magmatic hydrothermal fluids operated in the upper portion of this molysystem. These isotopic data, combined with geologic mapping, suggest that the Pear Lake moly prospect resulted from a weak, short-lived magmatic hydrothermal event at depth, and is unlikely to contain economic levels of molybdenum. The combined /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar-stable isotope approach should prove useful in evaluating other hydrothermal systems.

  2. Feasibility of actinide separation from UREX-like raffinates using a combination of sulfur- and oxygen-donor extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A synergistic combination of bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithios-phosphinic acid and trioctylphosphine oxide has been recently shown to selectively remove uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium from aqueous environment containing up to 0.5 M nitric acid and 5.5 g/l fission products. Here the feasibility of performing this complete actinide recovery from aqueous mixtures is forecasted for a new organic formulation containing sulfur donor extractant of modified structure based on Am(III) and Eu(III) extraction data. A mixture of bis(bis-m,m-trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-dithios-phosphinic acid and TOPO in toluene enhances the extraction performance, accomplishing Am/Eu differentiation in aqueous mixtures up to 1 M nitric acid. The new organic recipe is also less susceptible to oxidative damage resulting from radiolysis. (authors)

  3. Combined Increases in Mitochondrial Cooperation and Oxygen Photoreduction Compensate for Deficiency in Cyclic Electron Flow in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kieu-Van; Plet, Julie; Tolleter, Dimitri; Jokel, Martina; Cuiné, Stéphan; Carrier, Patrick; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    During oxygenic photosynthesis, metabolic reactions of CO2 fixation require more ATP than is supplied by the linear electron flow operating from photosystem II to photosystem I (PSI). Different mechanisms, such as cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI, have been proposed to participate in reequilibrating the ATP/NADPH balance. To determine the contribution of CEF to microalgal biomass productivity, here, we studied photosynthesis and growth performances of a knockout Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (pgrl1) deficient in PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION LIKE1 (PGRL1)–mediated CEF. Steady state biomass productivity of the pgrl1 mutant, measured in photobioreactors operated as turbidostats, was similar to its wild-type progenitor under a wide range of illumination and CO2 concentrations. Several changes were observed in pgrl1, including higher sensitivity of photosynthesis to mitochondrial inhibitors, increased light-dependent O2 uptake, and increased amounts of flavodiiron (FLV) proteins. We conclude that a combination of mitochondrial cooperation and oxygen photoreduction downstream of PSI (Mehler reactions) supplies extra ATP for photosynthesis in the pgrl1 mutant, resulting in normal biomass productivity under steady state conditions. The lower biomass productivity observed in the pgrl1 mutant in fluctuating light is attributed to an inability of compensation mechanisms to respond to a rapid increase in ATP demand. PMID:24989042

  4. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  5. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  6. Highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors by combined application of oxygen plasma treatment and field plate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asubar, Joel T.; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tokuda, Hirokuni; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2016-04-01

    We report on the highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combined application of pre-passivation oxygen (O2) plasma treatment and gate field plate (FP) structures schemes. Four different devices were fabricated in this work: (1) conventional HEMT as reference device, (2) field-plated HEMT, (3) O2 plasma-treated HEMT, (4) both field-plated and O2 plasma-treated HEMT. Analysis of dependence of normalized dynamic R on (NDR) on gate pulse on-time (t on) revealed that gate-FP reduces the emission time constant (τ i ) of trapped electrons while O2-plasma treatment decreases the density of traps. For all measurement conditions, the device with both FP and O2 plasma treatment exhibited the least NDR compared to devices with either FP or O2 plasma treatment only, demonstrating for the first time the compatibility of both O2 plasma treatment and FP schemes in mitigating current collapse.

  7. Characterizing Earth-like Planets Using a Combination of High-Dispersion Spectroscopy and High-Contrast Instruments: Doppler-shifted Water and Oxygen Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kawahara, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Future radial velocity, astrometric and direct imaging surveys will find nearby Earth-sized planets within the habitable zone (HZ) in the near future. How can we search for water and oxygen in those non-transiting planets? We propose a combination of high-dispersion spectroscopy and coronagraphic techniques as a method to detect molecular lines in Earth-like planets (ELPs). In this method, the planetary signals are spectroscopically separated from the telluric absorption due to the Doppler shift. Assuming a long observing campaign ($T_\\mathrm{exp}=$ 20 days) using the high-dispersion spectrometer ($R = 50,000$) with the speckle suppression on a 30 m telescope, we simulate the spectra from the ELPs around M dwarfs at 5 pc. Performing the cross-correlation analysis with the binary template of the molecular lines, we find that the raw contrasts of $10^{-4}$ (0.8-1.8 $\\mu$m) and $10^{-4.5}$ (use of J-band only) at 30 mas are required to detect the water vapor for a $\\sim 4 - 5 \\sigma$ detection. The raw contrast ...

  8. Antiproliferation of Berberine in Combination with Fluconazole from the Perspectives of Reactive Oxygen Species, Ergosterol and Drug Efflux in a Fluconazole-Resistant Candida tropicalis Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Shi, GaoXiang; Wang, TianMing; Wu, DaQiang; Wang, ChangZhong

    2016-01-01

    Candida tropicalis has emerged as an important pathogenic fungus in nosocomial infections due to its recalcitrant resistance to conventional antifungal agents, especially to fluconazole (FLC). Berberine (BBR) is a bioactive herbal-originated alkaloids and has been reported to possess antifungal functions against C. albicans. In this paper, we tried to figure out the antifungal mechanisms of BBR and/or FLC in a clinical C. tropicalis isolate 2006. In the microdilution test, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BBR was found 16 μg/mL with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) 0.13 in C. tropicalis 2006. The synergism of BBR and FLC was also confirmed microscopically. After the treatments of BBR and/or FLC, the studies revealed that (i) FLC facilitated BBR to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), (ii) FLC enhanced the intranuclear accumulation of BBR, (iii) BBR decreased the extracellular rhodamine 123 (Rh123) via inhibiting efflux transporters, (iv) FLC assisted BBR to reduce ergosterol content, and (v) BBR in combined with FLC largely downregulated the expressions of Candida drug resistance 1 (CDR1) and CDR2 but impact slightly multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and upregulate the expression of ergosterol 11 (ERG11). These results suggested that BBR could become a potent antifungal drug to strengthen FLC efficacy in FLC-resistant C. tropicalis via ROS increase, intracellular BBR accumulation, ergosterol decrease and efflux inhibition. PMID:27721812

  9. 康复新液联合氧疗治疗压疮的护理体会%Nursing Experience of Kangfuxin Liquid Combined with Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Pressure Sore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓霞; 谢静

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨康复新液联合氧疗治疗压疮和护理方法。方法用0.9%生理盐水冲洗压疮的创面后,用康复新液湿敷创面后予以氧疗,2次/d。结论是康复新联合氧疗治疗压疮治疗效果好,值得临床借鉴和推广。%Objective To investigate the Kangfuxin Liquid Combined with oxygen therapy in the treatment of bedsore and nursing method.Methods Rinse the wound sorewith 0.9%saline,with Kangfuxin wet packing the wound to be oxygen therapy,two times a day.Conclusion Kangfuxin combined with oxygen therapy in the treatment of pressure sore treatment ef ect is good,worthy of clinical reference and promotion.

  10. Supplemental Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Lookup > COPD > Diagnosing and Treating COPD Supplemental Oxygen Sometimes with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung ... in people with severe lung disease Three Ways Oxygen Therapy Is Supplied Compressed oxygen gas and liquid ...

  11. The combined effect of dissolved oxygen and nitrite on N2O production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria in an enriched nitrifying sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lai; Ni, Bing-Jie; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-04-15

    Both nitrite [Formula: see text] and dissolved oxygen (DO) play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). However, few studies focused on the combined effect of them on N2O production by AOB as well as the corresponding mechanisms. In this study, N2O production by an enriched nitrifying sludge, consisting of both AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), was investigated under various [Formula: see text] and DO concentrations. At each investigated DO level, both the biomass specific N2O production rate and the N2O emission factor (the ratio between N2O nitrogen emitted and the ammonium nitrogen converted) increased as [Formula: see text] concentration increased from 3 mg N/L to 50 mg N/L. However, at each investigated [Formula: see text] level, the maximum biomass specific N2O production rate occurred at DO of 0.85 mg O2/L, while the N2O emission factor decreased as DO increased from 0.35 to 3.5 mg O2/L. The analysis of the process data using a mathematical N2O model incorporating both the AOB denitrification and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) oxidation pathways indicated that the contribution of AOB denitrification pathway increased as [Formula: see text] concentration increased, but decreased as DO concentration increased, accompanied by a corresponding change in the contribution of NH2OH oxidation pathway to N2O production. The AOB denitrification pathway was predominant in most cases, with the NH2OH oxidation pathway making a comparable contribution only at high DO level (e.g. 3.5 mg O2/L). PMID:25644626

  12. Development of variable pathlength UV-vis spectroscopy combined with partial-least-squares regression for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baisheng; Wu, Huanan; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the challenging task to select an appropriate pathlength for wastewater chemical oxygen demand (COD) monitoring with high accuracy by UV-vis spectroscopy in wastewater treatment process, a variable pathlength approach combined with partial-least squares regression (PLSR) was developed in this study. Two new strategies were proposed to extract relevant information of UV-vis spectral data from variable pathlength measurements. The first strategy was by data fusion with two data fusion levels: low-level data fusion (LLDF) and mid-level data fusion (MLDF). Predictive accuracy was found to improve, indicated by the lower root-mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) compared with those obtained for single pathlength measurements. Both fusion levels were found to deliver very robust PLSR models with residual predictive deviations (RPD) greater than 3 (i.e. 3.22 and 3.29, respectively). The second strategy involved calculating the slopes of absorbance against pathlength at each wavelength to generate slope-derived spectra. Without the requirement to select the optimal pathlength, the predictive accuracy (RMSEP) was improved by 20-43% as compared to single pathlength spectroscopy. Comparing to nine-factor models from fusion strategy, the PLSR model from slope-derived spectroscopy was found to be more parsimonious with only five factors and more robust with residual predictive deviation (RPD) of 3.72. It also offered excellent correlation of predicted and measured COD values with R(2) of 0.936. In sum, variable pathlength spectroscopy with the two proposed data analysis strategies proved to be successful in enhancing prediction performance of COD in wastewater and showed high potential to be applied in on-line water quality monitoring.

  13. Well-Combined Magnetically Separable Hybrid Cobalt Ferrite/Nitrogen-Doped Graphene as Efficient Catalyst with Superior Performance for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei; Hao, Qingli; Lei, Wu; Xia, Xifeng; Liu, Peng; Sun, Dongping; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xujie

    2015-11-18

    Catalysts with low-cost, high activity and stability toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are extremely desirable, but its development still remains a great challenge. Here, a novel magnetically separable hybrid of multimetal oxide, cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4), anchored on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (CoFe2O4/NG) is prepared via a facile solvothermal method followed by calcination at 500 °C. The structure of CoFe2O4/NG and the interaction of both components are analyzed by several techniques. The possible formation of Co/Fe-N interaction in the CoFe2O4/NG catalyst is found. As a result, the well-combination of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with NG and its improved crystallinity lead to a synergistic and efficient catalyst with high performance to ORR through a four-electron-transfer process in alkaline medium. The CoFe2O4/NG exhibits particularly comparable catalytic activity as commercial Pt/C catalyst, and superior stability against methanol oxidation and CO poisoning. Meanwhile, it has been proved that both nitrogen doping and the spinel structure of CoFe2O4 can have a significant contribution to the catalytic activity by contrast experiments. Multimetal oxide hybrid demonstrates better catalysis to ORR than a single metal oxide hybrid. All results make the low-cost and magnetically separable CoFe2O4/NG a promising alternative for costly platinum-based ORR catalyst in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. PMID:26390018

  14. Combined venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and transcatheter aortic valve implantation for the treatment of acute aortic prosthesis dysfunction in a high-risk patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolini, Amedeo; Zampi, Giordano; Tinti, Maria Denitza; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Pontillo, Daniele; Musumeci, Francesco; Luzi, Giampaolo

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a patient with acute bioprosthesis dysfunction in cardiogenic shock, in whom hemodynamic support was provided by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and successfully treated by transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

  15. Nitrogen transformations in the Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone as revealed by combined 15N-incubation experiments and functional gene expression analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P.; Jensen, M. M.; Lavik, G.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

    2009-04-01

    The Arabian Sea Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) is considered to be one of the three major regions in the world's Ocean where nitrogen loss occurs in the water column. However, the exact pathway and the microbial players involved in the dinitrogen gas production, as well as the cycling of other inorganic nitrogen species, are not entirely clear. We performed incubation experiments with 15N-labeled substrates to investigate the vertical distribution of nitrogen-loss (denitrification and anammox) and other nitrogen transformations through the OMZ from the Omani shelf offshore towards the Indian coast. Intriguingly, there was no evidence of either anammox or denitrification in the northeastern Arabian Sea, which has generally been considered the main region of N-loss in the Arabian Sea. Instead, our results pointed to a substantial N-loss due to anammox from the Omani upwelling area. Moreover, a close coupling was demonstrated in the Omani shelf waters between anammox and DNRA (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium), with the latter process providing a substantial proportion of ammonium for the former. The co-occurrence of these processes was further confirmed by independent expression analyses of the functional gene biomarkers (anammox-type nirS, denitrifier-nirS and nrfA) for all these processes. Nitrification occurred particularly in the upper part of the OMZ and on the Omani shelf, predominantly mediated by crenarchaea over bacteria as shown by the expression of their respective ammonia monooxygenase genes (amoA). When detected, nitrification could supply at least 12% of the nitrite required by anammox. Meanwhile, nitrate reduction, traditionally regarded as the first step in denitrification, could be detected at higher rates than anammox and even at regions where dinitrogen gas production was not detected. This is consistent with the expression analyses of its biomarker gene (narG). In the northeastern Arabian Sea, our combined results suggested that there was

  16. Combination of blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential recordings for abnormal visual cortex in two types of amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR-VEP of UTAS-E3000 techniques. Cortical activation by binocular viewing of reversal checkerboard patterns was examined in terms of the calcarine region of interest (ROI)-based and spatial frequency–dependent analysis. The correlation of cortical activation in fMRI and the P100 amplitude in VEP were analyzed using the SPSS 12.0 software package. Results In the BOLD-fMRI procedure, reduced areas and decreased activation levels were found in Brodmann area (BA) 17 and other extrastriate areas in subjects with amblyopia compared with the normal vision group. In general, the reduced areas mainly resided in the striate visual cortex in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. In subjects with strabismic amblyopia, a more significant cortical impairment was found in bilateral BA 18 and BA 19 than that in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia. The activation by high-spatial-frequency stimuli was reduced in bilateral BA 18 and 19 as well as BA 17 in subjects with anisometropic amblyopia, whereas the activation was mainly reduced in BA 18 and BA 19 in subjects with strabismic amblyopia. These findings were further confirmed by the ROI-based analysis of BA 17. During spatial frequency–dependent VEP detection, subjects with anisometropic amblyopia had reduced sensitivity for high spatial frequency compared to subjects with strabismic amblyopia. The cortical activation in fMRI with the calcarine ROI-based analysis of BA 17 was significantly correlated with the P100 amplitude in VEP

  17. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen - home use; COPD - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive airways disease - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive lung disease - home oxygen; Chronic bronchitis - home oxygen; Emphysema - home oxygen; Chronic respiratory ...

  18. Oxygen analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  19. Combining Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Metal-Organic Frameworks to Realize Effective Two-Photon Absorption for Singlet Oxygen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenxiang; Li, Bin; Ma, Heping; Zhang, Liming; Guan, Yunlong; Zhang, Yihe; Zhang, Xindan; Jing, Pengtao; Yue, Shumei

    2016-08-24

    Singlet oxygen ((1)O2), as a reactive oxygen species, has garnered serious attention in physical, chemical, and biological studies. In this paper, we designed and synthesized a new type of singlet-oxygen generation system by exchanging cationic ruthenium complexes (RCs) into anionic bio-MOF-1. The resulting bio-MOF-1&RCs can be used as effective photocatalysts for generation of singlet oxygen under both single-photon and two-photon excitation. Especially, the excellent two-photon absorption (TPA) behavior of bio-MOF-1&RCs aroused our interest greatly because their two-photon absorption band lies in the optical window of biological tissue. Here, we measured the ability of bio-MOF-1&RCs to generate (1)O2 by irradiation under both 490 and 800 nm wavelength light in DMF. 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) were used as typical (1)O2 traps to detect and evaluate the efficiency of generation of (1)O2 under single-photon and two-photon excitation, respectively. Results indicated that bio-MOF-1&[Ru(phen)3](2+) was able to effectively generate (1)O2 under both conditions. Our work creates a novel synergistic TPA system with the excellent photophysical properties of RCs and the unique microporous structure benefit of MOFs, which may open a new avenue for creation of a cancer treatment system with both photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy. PMID:27483010

  20. Microeukaryotic community and oxygen response in rice field soil revealed using a combined rRNA-gene and rRNA-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Jun; Takenouchi, Yuriko; Iwasaki, Kazufumi; Kimura, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Irrigated rice field soil is subjected to frequent changes in oxygen status due to the water regime by agricultural management. In this study, the community response of microeukaryotes in rice field soil to the oxygen status was explored in a microcosm experiment under defined conditions. Water-saturated soil was incubated under a two-level factorial design of oxygen and organic enrichment with plant residue. The eukaryotic microbial community composition, which was either present or potentially active in the soils, was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the 18S rRNA gene or reverse-transcribed 18S rRNA. Oxygen availability was a primary factor shaping the microeukaryotic community in both DNA- and RNA-based analyses, revealing a shift within a week of incubation. Plant residue also affected the microeukaryotic community, which was more notable in the active community showing rRNA expression with time. Sequences of amplicons in DGGE bands indicated that protozoa (ciliates, flagellates, and amoebae) were the most prominent microeukaryotes in water-saturated rice field soil both in DNA- and RNA-based analyses. The use of a modified primer for soil protozoa suggested the functional importance of Heterolobosea amoeba in rice field soil, particularly in anoxic soil with organic enrichment.

  1. 高压氧加药物综合治疗突发性耳聋疗效分析%Therapeutic Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined with Medical Treatment on Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄红星; 杨立; 黄远; 唐梓轩; 赵之栋

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨高压氧联合药物治疗突发性耳聋(sudden deafness,SD)的疗效.方法 2008年2月- 2010年7月,对174例SD患者采用高压氧(治疗压力0.2 MPa)及配合扩血管、营养神经等药物进行治疗,并观察其疗效.结果 高压氧联合药物治疗SD总有效率为85.7%,SD的发病就诊时间是影响预后的主要因素,发病就诊时间≤7d时,治疗有效率可达95.6%;≥15 d时,疗效明显降低.结论 高压氧联合药物治疗SD疗效确切,且高压氧治疗越早疗效越好.%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with medical treatment on sudden deafness. Methods Between February 2008 and July 2010, 174 patients with sudden deafness were treated by a combined therapy, including hyperbaric oxygen and medicals. The therapeutic effect was analyzed. Results The total effective rate was 85. 7%. The simultaneous phenomenon such as vertigo and vomiting and onset-diagnosis duration were the two major factors affecting the prognosis. When the onset-diagnosis duration was <[7 days, the effective rate reached 95. 6%; when the onset-diagnosis duration was≥15 days, the therapeutic effect decreased significantly. Conclusion Hyperbaric oxygen combined with medical treatment is effective for sudden deafness, and the hyperbaric oxygen treatment should be performed as earlier as possible.

  2. Characterization of phosphorus species in sediments from the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone: Combining sequential extractions and X-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kraal, Peter; Bostick, Benjamin C.; Behrends, Thilo; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2015-01-01

    The bulk phosphorus (P) distribution in sediment samples from the oxygen minimum zone of the northern Arabian Sea was determined using two methods: sequential chemical extraction (the ‘SEDEX’ procedure) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy of the phosphorus K-edge. Our results show good agreement between iron (Fe-)associated P and calcium phosphate minerals (Ca-P) determined by both methods. Furthermore, we find that SEDEX exchangeable P likely represents loosely Fe-b...

  3. Combination of blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential recordings for abnormal visual cortex in two types of amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinmei; Cui, Dongmei; Zheng, Ling; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Hui; Zeng, Junwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the different neuromechanisms of subjects with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia compared with normal vision subjects using blood oxygen level–dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and pattern-reversal visual evoked potential (PR-VEP). Methods Fifty-three subjects, age range seven to 12 years, diagnosed with strabismic amblyopia (17 cases), anisometropic amblyopia (20 cases), and normal vision (16 cases), were examined using the BOLD-fMRI and PR...

  4. 常温空分氧氮一体化联合分离系统%Design of Combined Air Separation System for Oxygen-Nitrogen at Normal Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛敏; 金正涛

    2011-01-01

    总结了目前船用分立制氧、制氮系统和氧、氮提纯系统的不足之处,得出开发常温空分氧氮一体化联合分离系统的必要性.在此基础上,探讨了常温空分氧氮一体化联合分离系统的总体设计,构建了一种基于常温空分的联合制氧、制氮的创新系统方案,即以变压吸附技术与膜分离技术耦合的工艺技术对空气组分进行分离,仅以空气为原料,无需任何辅料,在仅消耗电力资源的情况下同时获取氧气和氮气.最后指出了常温空分氧氮一体化联合分离系统的发展趋势和应用范围.%Current independent marine separators for individual oxygen & nitrogen generation along with purification system has many drawbacks, it necessitates the development of combined air separation system for oxygen-nitrogen. This paper gives a concept of overall design of such combined system at normal temperature condition. A novel scheme of combined solution for generating oxygen and nitrogen is presented. This design incorporates PSA-membrane separation technique, raw material used for separation process is air, consuming electric power and dispensing with any accessories. The paper also presents trends for the development of combined air separation system at normal temperature and indicates a range of applications possible in the future ship design.

  5. Pre-treatment ferritin level and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient can predict mortality rate due to acute/subacute interstitial pneumonia in dermatomyositis treated by cyclosporine a/glucocorticosteroid combination therapy: a case control study [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Isoda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute/subacute interstitial pneumonia in dermatomyositis (DM-A/SIP is a disease associated with a poor prognosis that resists treatment with glucocorticosteroids (GC and progresses rapidly in a period of weeks to months to death. We retrospectively studied outcomes, prognostic factors, and their relations with survival rate in patients with DM-A/SIP treated with early cyclosporine A (CSA/GC combination therapy and 2-hour postdose blood concentration monitoring. METHODS: This study comprised 32 DM-A/SIP patients who were simultaneously treated with CSA and prednisolone. Clinical and laboratory findings were compared between those who died due to DM-A/SIP and those surviving 24 weeks after beginning of therapy. Prognostic factors were extracted, and their relations with the survival rate were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 32 DM-A/SIP patients, 25 survived, 5 died of DM-A/SIP, and 2 died of infections. In those who died due to DM-A/SIP, ferritin level and the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient were significantly increased compared with the survivors (P<0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that ferritin and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient were independent prognostic factors of poor outcome. The survival rate 24 weeks after beginning of treatment was significantly lower in those with a ferritin level of ≥ 600 ng/ml and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient of ≥ 45 Torr (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively. All patients with both prognostic factors died, and the outcome was significantly poorer in these patients than in those with one or neither of the prognostic factors (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We identified pre-treatment high serum ferritin level and high alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient as poor prognostic factors in DM-A/SIP patients undergoing early CSA/GC combination therapy and showed that the outcomes were poor in patients with both factors.

  6. Oxygen transfer from an intramolecularly coordinated diaryltellurium oxide to acetonitrile. Formation and combined AIM and ELI-D analysis of a novel diaryltellurium acetimidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallow, Ole; Bolsinger, Jens; Finke, Pamela; Hesse, Malte; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Duthie, Andrew; Grabowsky, Simon; Luger, Peter; Mebs, Stefan; Beckmann, Jens

    2014-08-01

    The reaction of the intramolecularly coordinated diaryltellurium(IV) oxide (8-Me2NC10H6)2TeO with acetonitrile proceeds with oxygen transfer and gives rise to the formation of the novel zwitterionic diaryltelluronium(IV) acetimidate (8-Me2NC10H6)2TeNC(O)CH3 (1) in 57% yield. Hydrolysis of 1 with hydrochloric acid affords acetamide and the previously known diarylhydroxytelluronium(IV) chloride [(8-Me2NC10H6)2Te(OH)]Cl.

  7. Catalytic partial oxidation of coke oven gas to syngas in an oxygen permeation membrane reactor combined with NiO/MgO catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhibin; Ding, Weizhong; Zhang, Yunyan; Lu, Xionggang; Zhang, Yuwen; Shen, Peijun [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, No. 275 Mail box, 149 Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2010-06-15

    A high oxygen permeability and sufficient chemical and mechanical stability mixed ion and electron conductivity membrane to withstand the hash strong oxidation and reduction working conditions is significant for the membrane reactor to commercial-scale plant. In this paper, a disk-shaped Ba{sub 1.0}Co{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} membrane was applied to a membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane in coke oven gas (COG) to syngas. The reaction was carried out using NiO/MgO solid solution catalyst by feeding COG. The reforming process was performed successfully; 95% CH{sub 4} conversion, 80% H{sub 2} selectivity, 106% CO selectivity and 16.3 ml cm{sup -2} min{sup -1} oxygen permeation flux were achieved at 1148 K. The reaction has been steadily carried out for more than 100 h. The NiO/MgO catalyst used in the membrane reactor exhibited good catalytic activity and resistance to coking in the COG atmosphere. Characterization of the membrane surface by SEM and XRD after long life test showed that both the surface exposed to the air side and reaction side still preserved the Perovskite structure which is implied that the practical application of this membrane as membrane reactor for partial oxidation of COG is promising. (author)

  8. Cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation changes induced by inner and heard speech: a study combining functional near-infrared spectroscopy and capnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, Felix; Klein, Sabine D.; Gerber, Ursina; Wolf, Martin; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inner and heard speech on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and to test whether potential effects were caused by alterations in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2). Twenty-nine healthy adult volunteers performed six different tasks of inner and heard speech according to a randomized crossover design. During the tasks, we generally found a decrease in PaCO (only for inner speech), tissue oxygen saturation (StO), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentration and an increase in deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HHb]). Furthermore, we found significant relations between changes in [OHb], [HHb], [tHb], or StO and the participants' age, the baseline PETCO2, or certain speech tasks. We conclude that changes in breathing during the tasks led to lower PaCO (hypocapnia) for inner speech. During heard speech, no significant changes in PaCO occurred, but the decreases in StO, [OHb], and [tHb] suggest that changes in PaCO were also involved here. Different verse types (hexameter and alliteration) led to different changes in [tHb], implying different brain activations. In conclusion, StO, [OHb], [HHb], and [tHb] are affected by interplay of both PaCO reactivity and functional brain activity.

  9. The combination of hypoxia-response enhancers and an oxygen-dependent proteolytic motif enables real-time imaging of absolute HIF-1 activity in tumor xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transcriptional activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is associated with tumor malignancies; therefore, it is important to comprehend its dynamism in solid tumors. However, a molecular imaging strategy to accurately access it remains to be developed. We constructed here a novel HIF-1-dependent reporter gene, 5HREp-ODD-luc, in which 5 copies of the hypoxia-response element (5HRE) enhance expression of the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain and luciferase (luc) fusion under hypoxia. Because the ODD domain caused the oxygen-dependent degradation of the ODD-Luc protein, the novel reporter gene showed little leak of luminescence under normoxia. Such a property caused an increase of the hypoxia-responsiveness up to about 4.7 x 104-fold. Moreover, the ODD domain caused rapid degradation of the ODD-Luc protein under normoxia, the luminescence reflected the dynamism of HIF-1 activity in real-time. The superiority of the novel reporter gene will surely accelerate analysis of the intratumoral HIF-1 activity during tumor progression and cancer treatments

  10. 电针配合高压氧治疗脑卒中偏瘫患者50例%Electro- acupuncture combined hyperbaric oxygen treating hemiplegia after stroke in 50 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚; 孙毓

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Motor obstacle of limbs directly resulted from hemiplegia after stroke seriously affect patients′ daily work and living.Conventional medicine treatment can improve the function of hemiplegic limbs at some degree, but more and more studies confirm that conventional acupuncture therapy is an effective method to improve motor function of limbs.By point stimulating channel system, acupuncture therapy can regulate qi and smooth channel system, thus regulate whole body to achieve the goal of curing hemiplegia. Acupuncture combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy can accelerate regeneration of cerebral cells, and promote the recovery of motor function of paralyzed limbs.

  11. Protection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury in Cortical Neurons by Combining Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Acid with Lyciumbarbarum Polysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Zhe Shi; Di Wu; Jian-Ping Yao; Xiaoli Yao; Zhijian (James) Huang; Peng Li; Jian-Bo Wan; Chengwei He; Huanxing Su

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke, characterized by the disturbance of the blood supply to the brain, is a severe worldwide health threat with high mortality and morbidity. However, there is no effective pharmacotherapy for ischemic injury. Currently, combined treatment is highly recommended for this devastating injury. In the present study, we investigated neuroprotective effects of the combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) and Lyciumbarbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on cortical neurons u...

  12. Appreciating Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  13. Spatial distribution of neutral oxygen vacancies on ZnO nanowire surfaces: An investigation combining confocal microscopy and first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun Wong, Kin; Alay-e-Abbas, S. M.; Fang, Yaoguo; Shaukat, A.; Lei, Yong

    2013-07-01

    A qualitative approach using room-temperature confocal microscopy is employed to investigate the spatial distribution of shallow and deep oxygen vacancy (VO) concentrations on the polar (0001) and non-polar (101¯0) surfaces of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs). Using the spectral intensity variation of the confocal photoluminescence of the green emission at different spatial locations on the surface, the VO concentrations of an individual ZnO NW can be obtained. The green emission at different spatial locations on the ZnO NW polar (0001) and non-polar (101¯0) surfaces is found to have maximum intensity near the NW edges, decreasing to a minimum near the NW center. First-principles calculations using simple supercell-slab (SS) models are employed to approximate/model the defects on the ZnO NW (101¯0) and (0001) surfaces. These calculations give increased insight into the physical mechanism behind the green emission spectral intensity and the characteristics of an individual ZnO NW. The highly accurate density functional theory (DFT)-based full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW + lo) method is used to compute the defect formation energy (DFE) of the SSs. Previously, using these SS models, it was demonstrated through the FP-LAPW + lo method that in the presence of oxygen vacancies at the (0001) surface, the phase transformation of the SSs in the graphite-like structure to the wurtzite lattice structure will occur even if the thickness of the graphite-like SSs are equal to or less than 4 atomic graphite-like layers [Wong et al., J. Appl. Phys. 113, 014304 (2013)]. The spatial profile of the neutral VO DFEs from the DFT calculations along the ZnO [0001] and [101¯0] directions is found to reasonably explain the spatial profile of the measured confocal luminescence intensity on these surfaces, leading to the conclusion that the green emission spectra of the NWs likely originate from neutral oxygen vacancies. Another significant

  14. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon...

  15. 不同供氧流量对新生儿头罩吸氧的吸入氧浓度和动脉血二氧化碳分压的影响%Oxygen concentration analyzer combines with blood gas analysis to lead the choice of oxygen flow with oxygen hood for the newborn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋才好; 何燕

    2012-01-01

    目的 检测新生儿头罩吸氧时不同供氧流量下患儿血液中二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)与吸入氧浓度(FIO2)的变化关系,分析得出新生儿安全头罩用氧的规律.方法 调节氧气流量,测定在不同流量下新生儿头罩内FIO2.结果 氧气流量在3 L/min以下时,3组FIO2均小于35%,中小号头罩组有CO2潴留;氧流量在3~5 L/min时,中小号头罩组FIO2为35%左右,大号头罩组FIO2接近30%,小号头罩组有CO2潴留;氧流量在5~7 L/min时,中小头罩组FIO2为40%~50%,大号头罩组FIO2接近40%,3组均无CO2潴留;氧流量大于7 L/min时,3组FIO2均在50%以上,无CO2潴留.结论 纯氧下,选择流量在3~5 L/min,选择大中号头罩吸氧相对安全.对于没有空氧混合仪及氧浓度检测设备的基层医院进行氧气治疗有一定指导作用.%Objective By monitoring the relationship of change between pressure of carbon dioxide ( Paco2 ) and inspired oxygen concentration ( Fio2 ) when the newborn oxygen hood with different flow of oxygen, to analyze and obtain laws of newborn s safe oxygen hood. Methods The oxygen flow rate was adjusted, Fio, and Paco, in the hood under different oxygen flow were measured. Results When oxygen flow was under 3L/MIN, Fio2 of the all three groups was less than 35% , and medium and small hood groups had CO2 retention; when oxygen flow was between 3 -5L/MIN, the Fio2 of medium and small hood groups was around 35% and Fio2 of large hood group was close to 30% , and small group hood had CO2 retention; when oxygen flow was between 5 - 7L/MIN, the Fio, of medium and small hood groups was 40 -50% while the large hood group was close to 40% , and three groups had no CO2 retention; when oxygen flow was greater than 7L/MIN, the Fio2 of three groups was above 50% , without CO2 retention. Conclusion When pure oxygen is used, the oxygen flow is between 3 - 5L/ MIN, selection of the large and medium oxygen hood is relatively safe. It plays a guiding role for primary

  16. Curative effect observation on myogenic cream combined with oxygen in the treatment for bedsore%生肌膏配合吹氧治疗褥疮的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄少姬

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of myogenic cream combined with oxygen in the treatment for bedsore.Methods 28 cases of bedsore patients,with 42 Ⅱ phase to Ⅳ phase of the bedsore,were cleaned wounds with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution,and 0.9% saline solution after admission to hospital.And then coated myogenic cream after oxygen treatment.Results In this group of 28 patients,among 42 ulcers,35 were cured,5 excellent,2 effective,no invalid,the cure rate was 83.3%,the total efficiency was 100%.Conclusion Myogenic cream combined with oxygen in treatment for bedsore has convergence and export synergism,can promote wound healing,and it is a good method in treatment for bedsore.%目的 探讨生肌膏配合吹氧治疗褥疮的临床效果.方法 选取28例褥疮患者,42处Ⅱ期至Ⅳ期的褥疮,人院后用3%双氧水溶液和0.9%生理盐水溶液清洗创面,吹氧后创面外涂生肌膏治疗.结果 本组28例患者,42处褥疮中,痊愈35处,显效5处,有效2处,无效0处,治愈率83.3%,总有效率100%.结论 生肌膏配合吹氧治疗褥疮具有生肌、敛口等协同作用,促进创面愈合,是治疗褥疮的好方法.

  17. 典型增氧设备在养殖池塘中组合应用的研究%Research on combined application of typical oxygen equipments in aquaculture ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾海涛; 何雅萍; 王贤瑞

    2013-01-01

    叶轮式、水车式、射流式和曝气式增氧机是目前我国池塘养殖使用的主要增氧设备;由于结构形式和工作原理的不同,4种形式的增氧机有不同的特点和功能。为提高养殖池塘增氧设备的增氧效果,通过增氧设备对养殖池塘水体不同深度增氧效果的试验和养殖池塘自然增氧的试验,分析了4种典型的增氧设备的增氧性能和特点,提出了叶轮式增氧机与耕水机、水车式增氧机与耕水机、水车式增氧机与射流式增氧机以及曝气增氧机与耕水机组合配置使用的混合增氧模式,可以优势互补,充分发挥各种形式增氧设备功能。通过组合使用,达到对养殖池塘水体最大限度的增氧效果的目的。%In order to improve the oxygen effect of aeration equipment in aquaculture pond , through texts of different oxygen equipment effects on aquaculture pond water at different depths and oxygen on the effect of natural aeration pond experiment .Propounds , with the use of different aerators can give full use of the functions of different oxygen equipments , such as Impeller aerator and farming water machine , paddlewheel aerators and farming water machine , paddlewheel aerators and jet aerator , aeration machines and farming water machine . Used in combination for the objectives of achieving the maximum oxygen , and discovered a new way for improving the level of machinery of equipment ponds , aquaculture ponds utilization and unit of production .

  18. Structure, ligands and substrate coordination of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II in the S2 state: a combined EPR and DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmiller, Thomas; Krewald, Vera; Navarro, Montserrat Pérez; Retegan, Marius; Rapatskiy, Leonid; Nowaczyk, Marc M; Boussac, Alain; Neese, Frank; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Cox, Nicholas

    2014-06-28

    The S2 state of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, which consists of a Mn4O5Ca cofactor, is EPR-active, typically displaying a multiline signal, which arises from a ground spin state of total spin ST = 1/2. The precise appearance of the signal varies amongst different photosynthetic species, preparation and solvent conditions/compositions. Over the past five years, using the model species Thermosynechococcus elongatus, we have examined modifications that induce changes in the multiline signal, i.e. Ca(2+)/Sr(2+)-substitution and the binding of ammonia, to ascertain how structural perturbations of the cluster are reflected in its magnetic/electronic properties. This refined analysis, which now includes high-field (W-band) data, demonstrates that the electronic structure of the S2 state is essentially invariant to these modifications. This assessment is based on spectroscopies that examine the metal centres themselves (EPR, (55)Mn-ENDOR) and their first coordination sphere ligands ((14)N/(15)N- and (17)O-ESEEM, -HYSCORE and -EDNMR). In addition, extended quantum mechanical models from broken-symmetry DFT now reproduce all EPR, (55)Mn and (14)N experimental magnetic observables, with the inclusion of second coordination sphere ligands being crucial for accurately describing the interaction of NH3 with the Mn tetramer. These results support a mechanism of multiline heterogeneity reported for species differences and the effect of methanol [Biochim. Biophys. Acta, Bioenerg., 2011, 1807, 829], involving small changes in the magnetic connectivity of the solvent accessible outer MnA4 to the cuboidal unit Mn3O3Ca, resulting in predictable changes of the measured effective (55)Mn hyperfine tensors. Sr(2+) and NH3 replacement both affect the observed (17)O-EDNMR signal envelope supporting the assignment of O5 as the exchangeable μ-oxo bridge and it acting as the first site of substrate inclusion.

  19. Clinical Experience With Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined With Ginkge-dipyridamole infusion to Treat sudden Deaf ness%高压氧联合银杏达莫静滴治疗突发性耳聋临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟新宇; 刘明秋

    2012-01-01

      Objective Observation of Clinical effect hyperbaric oxygen combined with Ginkgo dipyridamole infusion in treatment of sudden deafness. Methods 60 cases of sudden deafness patients in experimental group and the control group, the experimental group used Ginkgo dipyridancole combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment, the control group using conventional treatment, the curative effect was observed in the two groups. Results The experimental group in 30 cases of ear number, hearing recovery in 13 cases of ear number, effective in 7 cases, effective in 9 cases, 1 cases are invalid, the total efficiency of 96.67%;than in the control group, the total efficiency of 86.67%,is much higher, the experimental group tinnitus disappeared and relieve ear number of 28 cases, the total effective rate was 90%, was 55%higher than in the control group. Conclusion Ginkgo-dipyridamole combined with hyperbaric oxygen on the treatment of sudden deafness with obvious therapeutic effect, and can alleviate the symptoms of tinnitus, can be used in the clinical treatment of sudden deafness.%  目的 观察高压氧联合银杏达莫静滴治疗突发性耳聋的临床疗效.结论 选取60例突发性耳聋的患者实验组及对照组,实验组使用银杏达莫联合高压氧治疗,对照组使用常规治疗,观察两组的疗效.结果 实验组中30例耳数,听力痊愈的有13例耳数,显效7例,有效9例,无效1例,总有效率96.67%;比对照组总有效率86.67%要高得多,实验组耳鸣消失和减轻的耳数为28例,总有效率为90%,明显比对照组的55%的高得多.结论 银杏达莫联合高压氧对治疗突发性耳聋有显著的临床疗效,并能明显减轻耳鸣的症状,可用于临床突发性耳聋的治疗.

  20. 高压氧联合护理干预对产后抑郁症的影响%Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with nursing intervention on the postpartum depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽艳

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨高压氧联合护理干预对产后抑郁症(PPD)的影响.方法:将120例产后抑郁症产妇随机分为对照组和观察组各60例,对照组给予常规治疗及护理;观察组给予高压氧联合护理干预治疗,治疗6周后进行疗效及抑郁评分(HAMD)比较.结果:治疗后观察组总有效率为96.67%,HAMD评分为(7.05±2.12)分;对照组总有效率为93.33%,HAMD评分为(8.34±3.45)分,两组疗效及HAMD评分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:应用高压氧联合护理干预对产后抑郁症的治疗具有较好的效果,可以显著缓解抑郁症状,提高产妇的生活质量.%Objective: To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with nursing intervention on the postpartum depression.Methods: 120 puerperant with postpartum depression were randomly divided into a control group and an observation group ( 60 puerperant for each group ).The puerperant in the control group received routine treatment and nursing care;the puerperant in the observation group received hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with nursing intervention.The treatment efficacy and depression scores ( HAMD ) were compared after treatment for 6 weeks.Results: After treatment, the total effective rate was 96.67% and HAMD scores were 7.05 ± 2.12 points in the observation group and 93.33%, 8.34 ± 3.45 points in the control group, the differences between the two groups were statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with nursing intervention has better effects in the treatment of postpartum depression, it can significantly relieve the symptoms of depression and improve the quality of life of puerperant.

  1. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment combined with drug therapy on sudden deafness%药物联合高压氧治疗突发性聋132例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李严; 雷玲; 李向晖; 马丽涛; 罗晓英

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨药物联合高压氧治疗(hyperbaric oxygen treatment,HBOT)突发性聋的效果.方法 连续就诊的261例突发性聋患者随机分为药物治疗组(对照组)和HBOT结合药物治疗组(CHBOT),对照组采用常规药物治疗,HBOT组除上述药物治疗外,在舱内压力达0.20 MPa下,吸纯氧30 min 2次(中间吸空气10 min),1/d.在治疗后第30天或其间结束治疗的时间点按预定疗效指标评价.结果 与对照组相比,CHBOT 组听力显著改善(P<0.01);耳鸣显著减轻,有效率为 76.8%, 对照组为56.63%(P<0.01).在有眩晕的患者中,CHBOT组98.11% 的患者消失,而对照组仅 83.3%消失(P<0.05).CHBOT组疗程明显短于对照组(P<0.01).分析显示,无论采用何种治疗方法,入院前病程长、听力丧失(PTA>55 dB)明显以及伴随眩晕的患者预后差.结论 CHBOT治疗突发性聋的疗效明显优于单纯药物治疗.尽早启动HBOT结合药物治疗是提高突发性聋治愈率的重要途径.

  2. Effect of combination of oxygen, ozone and VSD in healing traumatic wound surface%氧、臭氧及负压封闭引流联合应用对创面的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄显凯; 王韬; 朱渝军

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨联合应用负压封闭引流、局部氧疗及臭氧治疗对创伤创面的治疗作用.方法 选择2009年8月~2010年9月期间收治的50例胸腹壁、背部、四肢严重皮肤及软组织损伤病人,男性30例,女性20例;年龄16~58岁,平均35.8岁.平均创面面积124.5cm2.清创后30例采用氧、臭氧及负压封闭引流综合治疗(简称综合组):20例按常规方法换药(常规组).观察综合治疗和常规治疗对创伤性创面愈合的细菌及组织学变化影响.结果 综合组创面愈合时间及创面植皮时间均较常规组明显缩短(P<0 05);综合治疗组第5、7天创面细菌数显著低于常规组(P<0.01).光镜下观察综合治疗组肌纤维水肿程度较轻,炎性细胞浸润及血管扩张充血均较常规组轻.结论 联合应用负压封闭引流、局部氧疗及臭氧治疗可以优势互补,显著提高皮肤及软组织创面的治疗效果.%Objective To investigate the therapeutical effect of combination of oxygen, ozone and VSD on traumatic wound surface. Methods We studied fifty patients with severe skin and soft tissue injury in thoracic and abdominal wall,back and limbs,who admitted to our hospital from Aug. 2009 to Sep. 2010. There were 30 males and 20 females,aging from 16 to 58 ( average 35.8 ) years. The mean area of wound surface was 124.5cm2. Thirty patients(the combined therapy group) were debrided in common way and disposed by combined therapy of oxygen,ozone and VSD. While the other 20 patients ( the routine therapy ) were treated with the routine disposal. The effect of hemostasis and healing on wound surface was observed. Results The healing time and skin grafting time of the wound surface in the combined therapy group were all shortened apparently in contrast with the routine group (P <0. 05 ). The bacterial number of the wound surface in the combined therapy group in the 5th and 7th day ( P <0. 01) was remarkably less than the routine group. Under light

  3. Vibrational spectrum and structure of CoO6: a model compound for molecular oxygen reversible binding on cobalt oxides and salts; a combined IR matrix isolation and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Asma; Danset, Delphine; Zhou, Ming Fei; Gong, Yu; Alikhani, Mohammad E; Manceron, Laurent

    2011-08-18

    The formation and structure of a novel species, a disuperoxo-cobalt dioxide complex (CoO(6)), has been investigated using matrix isolation in solid neon and argon, coupled to infrared spectroscopy and by quantum chemical methods. It is found that CoO(6) can be formed by successive complexation of cobalt dioxide by molecular oxygen without activation energy by diffusion of ground state O(2) molecules at 9K in the dark. The IR data on one combination and seven fundamentals, isotopic effects, and quantum chemical calculations are both consistent with an asymmetrical structure with two slightly nonequivalent oxygen ligands complexing a cobalt dioxide subunit. Evidence for other, metastable states is also presented, but the data are not complete. The electronic structure and formation pathway of this unique, formally +VI oxidation state, complex has been investigated using several functionals of current DFT within the broken-symmetry unrestricted formalism. It has been shown that the M06L pure local functional well reproduce the experimental observations. The ground electronic state is predicted to be an open shell (2)A'' doublet with the quartet states above by more than 9 kcal/mol and the sextet lying even higher in energy. The ground state has a strong and complex multireference character that hinders the use of more precise multireference approaches and requires caution in the methodology to be used. The geometrical, energetic, and vibrational properties have been computed.

  4. Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined with Exercise Therapy on Function Recovery of Patients with Cerebral Infarction%高压氧联合运动疗法对脑梗死功能恢复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄君; 王雪晴; 耿建红; 钟明

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察高压氧联合运动疗法对急性脑梗死患者运动功能、日常生活能力的影响以及临床疗效.方法 选取100例急性脑梗死患者,将其随机分为综合组和对照组,每组各50例.两组患者均采用神经内科常规处理,并配合运动疗法,综合组另外给予高压氧治疗.分别于治疗前后根据简化的Fugl-Meyer运动功能量表(FMA)、改良的Barthel 指数(MBI)对患者的肢体运动功能、日常生活能力进行评分,比较两组间的差异,判定疗效.结果 经过治疗,两组患者的FMA、MBI评分均较治疗前有一定程度的改善(均P<0.01),但综合组的改善幅度明显高于对照组,组间比较,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.05).综合组的治疗有效率为88%,对照组的有效率为70%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高压氧联合运动疗法能够明显促进急性脑梗死患者肢体运动功能、日常生活能力的恢复,减少致残率,提高生活质量,改善预后.%Objective To observe the clinical effect and influences of hyperbaric oxygen combined with exercise therapy on the motor function and activity of daily living in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods 100 patients with acute cerebral infarction were randomly divided into combined group and control group, each 50 cases, All received routine treatment and exercise therapy,meanwhile for patients in combined group,hyperbaric oxygen training was applied additionally. Each patient was evaluated on limb motor function and activity of daily living by the simple Fugl-Meyer motor function assessment(FMA) and the modified Barthel Index ( MBI ) before and after treatment, the differences among two groups were compared, and therapeutic effects were evaluated. Results After treatment,the FMA score and MBI in two groups improved to a certain extent( P <0. 01 ) ,but the pace of improvement in combined group was significantly higher than control group, there were significant different

  5. 水氧联合丹参酮胶囊治疗中重度痤疮的疗效观察%To Observe the Curative Effect of Acne about Using the Water Oxygen Combined Oral Tanshinone Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房武宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative ef ect of acne about using the water oxygen combined oral tanshinone capsule.Methods Selected 88 cases of patients with moderately severe acne in the hospital dermatology clinic.Randomly divided into treatment group and control group.The treatment group treated with water oximeter and tanshinone capsule and control group used tanshinone capsule. Observed their curative ef ect after 2 months.Results Treatment group total ef ective rate was 88.64%,obviously much higher than the control group of 70.45%.The dif erence had statistical significance ( <0.05).Conclusion The curative ef ect of acne about using the water oxygen combined oral tanshinone capsule is remarkable.%目的观察水氧联合口服丹参酮胶囊治疗中重度痤疮的疗效。方法选取我院皮肤科门诊就诊的88例中重度痤疮患者,随机平分为两组,其中治疗组44例予水氧仪治疗联合口服丹参酮胶囊。对照组44例予丹参酮胶囊口服,治疗2个月后观察并对比其疗效。结果治疗组总有效率为88.64%,明显比对照组中的70.45%要高得多,其差异具有统计学上的意义(<0.05)。结论水氧联合丹参酮胶囊治疗中重度痤疮疗效较显著。

  6. Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined With Drug Treatment of Sudden Deafness%高压氧联合药物治疗突发性耳聋临床对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋武

    2015-01-01

    目的:重点探索高压氧联合药物应用于治疗突发性耳聋的有效性。方法挑选的研究对象是86例突发性耳聋患者,将患者分成两组,采用不同的方法治疗。结果对照组的有效率仅仅达到74.42%,显著低于观察组的97.67%。对照组的满意度较低,仅可达到72.09%,显著低于观察组的97.67%。结论高压氧联合药物应用于治疗突发性耳聋的有效性较高,值得推荐。%Objective To explore the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen combined with the focus of drug used in the treatment of sudden deafness. Methods The subjects were selected 86 cases of sudden deafness patients, the patients were divided into two groups, using different methods of treatment. Results The response rate in the control group reached only 74.42 percent, signiifcantly lower than the 97.67%in the observation group. Lower satisfaction with the control group, only up to 72.09%, signiifcantly lower than the 97.67% in the observation group. Conclusion The high effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen combined with drugs used in the treatment of sudden deafness, is recommended.

  7. 高压氧联合糖皮质激素治疗难治性突发性聋疗效观察%Therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen combined with glucocorticoid on refractory idiopathic sudden deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨; 张禹; 李航; 孟祥恩; 潘树义

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察高压氧(hyperbaric oxygen,HBO)联合糖皮质激素(glucocorticoid,GC)对难治性突发性聋临床疗效.方法 经患者知情同意,并经医院伦理委员会批准,根据患者是否使用GC治疗,将有完整临床资料的79例突发性聋患者分为HBO联合GC治疗组44例,单纯HBO组35例.另外,在我院同期耳鼻喉科收治的复诊就医的突发聋患者中,选取使用GC治疗但未进行HBO治疗患者32例,作为单纯GC组.通过分析治疗有效率、治愈率和听力改善率,对比联合治疗与单纯HBO治疗及单纯GC药物治疗的疗效差异.结果 HBO联合GC组患者的治疗有效率(59.52%)和听力改善率[(61.3±14.7)%]明显高于单纯HBO组[28.13%,(43.6±5.5)%]和单纯GC组[31.25%,(56.4±4.1)%].结论 对难治性突发性聋HBO联合GC较单纯HBO治疗或GC治疗效果更好.%Objective Observe the therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HB0) combined with glucocorticoid (GC) on refractory idiopathic sudden deafness.Methods Forty-two patients with sudden deafness (refractory idiopathic sudden deafness),who failed to recover after over one month of onset,were admitted into our Center from 2010 to 2013 for treatment with HBO combined with GC (referred to as the combined treatment group).Another 2 groups of patients with refractory idiopathic sudden deafness (each consisting of 32 patients),who were admitted into either our Center or the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the Navy General Hospital and treated with simple HBO or GC,were used as controls.Through analyses of effective rates,cure rates and improvement rates in hearing,differences in therapeutic effects were compared between the patient group treated with HB0 combined with GC and the 2 control groups.Results The effective rate (59.52%) and improvement rate [(61.3 ± 4.7)%] for the combined treatment group were obviously higher than those of the simple HBO group[28.13%,(43.6 ± 5.5)%] and the simple hormone group [31.25

  8. 高压氧配合药物治疗突发性耳聋作用观察%To observe the effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with drugs in the treatment of sudden deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金峰松; 潘统快

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析在临床对于突发性耳聋患者实施治疗过程中高压氧配合药物的治疗效果。方法收集在我院进行治疗的40例突发性耳聋患者,将患者分为观察组以及对照组,各20例。对照组患者使用常规药物治疗,观察组患者使用高压氧配合药物治疗的方法进行治疗。结果两组患者均能够取得一定的治疗效果,但观察组患者的临床治疗有效率明显高于对照组患者的临床治疗有效率,差异显著。结论对于突发性耳聋患者实施治疗的过程中使用高压氧配合药物治疗的形式能够取得更好的治疗效果,在临床上值得推广应用。%Objective: To analyze the clinical implementation of drug for patients with sudden deafness treatment with hy-perbaric oxygen treatment process. Methods: Collected 40 cases of sudden deafness patients in our hospital, the patients were di-vided into observation group and control group, 20 cases in each. The control group was treated with routine drug treatment, the observation group were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy with drug treatment.Results: Two groups of patients were able to achieve a certain therapeutic effect, but the clinical observation of patients in the treatment group, the effective rate was signifi-cantly higher than the control group in the treatment of patients with clinical efficiency, significant difference.Conclusion:The implementation of the treatment process of patients with sudden deafness with hyperbaric oxygen combined with drug treatment can achieve better therapeutic effect, worthy of clinical application.

  9. 中西医药联合高压氧治疗突发性耳聋疗效观察%Clinic effect observation of traditional chinese medicine and western medicine combined hyperbaric oxygen in treatment of sudden hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张登科; 李正贤; 江文; 刘阳云; 冯秀荣

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinic effect of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine combined hyperbaric oxygen in treatment of sudden hearing loss.Methods 120 patients with sudden deafness were randomly divided into 2 groups.60 cases of group A treated by traditional Chinese medicine ( including radix bupleuri, rhynchophylla, salviae miltiorrbizae, radix gentianae, radix puerariae, rhizoma gastrodiae, hemlock parsley, phelledendron, rhizoma aeori tatarinowii, angelica, cedonopsis, gentian, cork, prunella, cyperus rotundus, etc.) and 60 cases of group B treated by western medicine ( including low molecular weight dextran, prostaglandin E1, adenosine triphosphate, coenzyme A, dexamethasone and vitamin, etc.) combined hyperbaric oxygen.Among these patients, there were74 males and46 females, rangingin age from 34 to72 yearn.Results A, 15 cases cured, 19 cases markedly, 17 cases effective, 9 healed cases, the total effective rate is 85%.In group B, 13 cases cured, 14 cases markedly, 16 cases effective, 17 healed cases.The total effective rate is 71.66%.The results in group A were better than that in group B ( P < 0.05).Conclusion The results showed that sudden hearing loss with traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine combined hyperbaric oxygen treatment is better than single western medicine treatment.%目的 观察中西医药联合高压氧治疗突发性耳聋的临床效果.方法 突发性耳聋患者120例,男74例,女46例,年龄34~72岁.随机分为中西医组(A组)和西医组(B组)各60例.两组均使用低分子右旋糖酐,前列腺素E1,三磷酸腺苷,辅酶A,地塞米松,维生素等.A组同时加服中药(柴胡、钩藤、丹参、龙胆草、党参,石菖蒲、当归、天麻、川芎、黄柏、夏枯草、葛根、香附等).两组均辅以高压氧治疗.结果 A组痊愈15例,显效19例,有效17例,无效9例,临床总有效率为85%.B组痊愈13例,显效14例,有效16例,无效17例,临床总有效率为71.66%.

  10. Effects of Dermlin and Mepilex Border combined with oxygen therapy on bedsore%德莫林及美皮康联合氧疗对压疮的治疗效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱连荣; 黄英; 王晓媛; 翟冰; 李谦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨德莫林及美皮康联合氧疗对压疮的疗效。方法 将60例由于各种原因所致压疮的老年血液肿瘤病患者随机分成两组,观察组30例,采用德莫林及美皮康联合氧疗的方法治疗处理;对照组30例,采用定时红外线灯照射及常规外科方法处理。比较两组治疗后压疮的恢复情况。结果 观察组压疮的有效率为100%明显高于对照组60%,差异有统计学意义(x2 =17.78,P<0.01),两组患者Ⅰ期压疮的治愈时间以及换药次数比较,差异有统计学意义[(11.4±1.13)h比(3.9±1.13)h,(21.2±1.39)次比(2.8±0.71)分;t分别为3.403,3.411;P<0.01]。结论 德莫林及美皮康联合氧疗的方法对各种原因引起的压疮有良好的治疗效果。%Objective To evaluate the effects of Dermlin and Mepilex Border combined with oxygen therapy on bedsore. Methods 60 neoplastic hematologic disorder patients suffering from bedsores arising from various causes were randomly divided into observational group (n =30) and control group (n =30). The former group was treated by Dermlin and Mepilex Border combined with oxygen therapy, the latter one was treated by timing irradiation of infrared lamp and routine surgical methods. The recovery conditions of bedsores were observed. Results The effective rate of the observational group was significantly higher than those of the control group [( 100% vs 60% ) ;x2 =17.78 ,P <0. 01]. There were significant differences in healing time and times of dressing change between both groups [( 11.4 ± 1.13 ) h vs ( 3.9 ± 1.13 ) h, (21.2 ± 1.39) vs (2.8 ± 0. 71 ) ;t =3. 403,3.411;P < 0. 01]. Conclusions Dermlin and Mepilex Border combined with oxygen therapy has satisfactory effects on treating bedsores arising from various causes.

  11. 高压氧联合放射性药物对大鼠移植瘤的抑制作用%The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen in Combination with Radioactive Drugs on Rats with Implanted Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志杰; 王峰; 谢耀萍; 高慧棋; 路宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To ohserve the effect of comhination of hyperbaric oxygen with 32p-colloid on rats with implanted tumor.Methods : Walker- 256 cancerous ascites injection was used to make a rat tumor-bearing model. Then the rats were randomly divived into control group, hyperharic oxygen group,32P-colloid group, hyperbaric oxygen and 32p-colloid group( comhination therapy group ) with 10 rats in each group. The tumor growth, tumor volume on 7th,12th and 20th day were observed to calculate its growth rate after treatment.The morphological changes were observed by pathological examination. The microvessel density( MVD ) and Caspase- 3 were detected hy immunohistochemistry method. Results : The tumor growth rates on the 12th and 20th day in control group, hyperbaric oxygen group , 32 P-colloid group and combination therapy group were ( 223. 21 ± 68. 43 )%、( 899. 45 ± 439. 63 )%;( 219. 32 ± 80. 87 )% 、889. 23± 625.14 )% ;( 163. 56 ±58. 73 )% 、( 505. 07 ±342. 69 )% ;( 103. 81 ±41. 57 )% 、( 114. 68 ±41. 83 )% respectively. The tumor growth rate of combination therapy group was significantly lower than those of the other three groups( P < 0. 05 ). The MVD of combination therapy group was significantly less than those of the other groups( P < 0. 05 ). The positive expression rate of Caspase-3 in combination therapy group was obviously higher than that of the other groups( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion : Hyperharic oxygen comhined with radioactive 32p-colloid can inhibite the growth of tumor xenograft of rats and the angiogenesis of blood vessels as well as increase the expression of Caspase-3 significantly. It can thus inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of cancer cells.%目的:观察高压氧联合放射性药物32P胶体对大鼠移植瘤的治疗作用.方法:完成实验动物肿瘤模型的制作后,将实验动物随机分为对照组、高压氧治疗组、32P胶体治疗组、32P胶体和高压氧治疗组(

  12. Changes in brain function and anatomical structure following treatment of hyperbaric oxygen for visual pathway abnormalities In 16 cases Evaluation of functional magnetic resonance Imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqian Chen; Ping Ni; Hui Xiao; Jinhua Chen; Gennian Qian; Youqiang Ye; Shangwen Xu; Jinliang Wang; Xizhang Yang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:There is a growing research focus on the combination of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging(BOLD-fMRI)and diffusion tensor imaging(DTI)to evaluate visual cortical function and structural changes in the cerebrum,as well as morphological changes to the white matter fiber tracks,after visual pathway lesions.However,the combined application of BOLD-fMRI and DTI in treating of visual pathway abnormalities still requires further studies. OBJECTIVE:To observe and evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on visual pathway abnormalities,and to evaluate the characteristics of cerebral function and anatomic structural changes by using BOLD-fMRI combined with DTI technique. DESIGN:Case contrast observation. SETTING:Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS:Sixteen patients(9 males and 7 females,15-77 years old)with lateral or bilateral visual disorder induced by visual pathway lesions were selected from the Department of Neurology,Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January 2006 to May 2007.These patients comprised the lesion group.Measures of interventional therapy:hyperbaric oxygen of two normal atmospheres for three courses(10 d/course)and routine internal medicine treatment.In addition,12 healthy subjects of similar sex and age to the lesion group were regarded as the control group.The control group underwent routine ophthalmological and ocular fundus examinations; diagnostic results were normal. The experiment received confirmed consent from the local ethic committee,and all patients provided informed consent.METHODS:BOLD-fMRI and DTI manifestations in the lesion group were observed before and after hyperbaric oxygen intervention,and the results were compared with the control group.The subjects were positioned on their back,and BOLD-fMRI images were collected with the following GRE EPI sequence:TR= 2 000 ms,TE=40 ms,layer thickness=5 mm

  13. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    a concentrated CO2 source that can be used for enhanced oil recovery, in combination with biomass gasification and electrolysis for synthesis gas production, or possibly sequestered. The cases with oxygen enriched air provide very promising economic figures of merit with discounted payback periods slightly......The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...

  14. Monitoring oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinghaus, John W

    2011-06-01

    Cyanosis was used for a century after dentists began pulling teeth under 100% N(2)O in 1844 because brief (2 min) severe hypoxia is harmless. Deaths came with curare and potent anesthetic respiratory arrest. Leland Clark's invention of a polarographic blood oxygen tension electrode (1954) was introduced for transcutaneous PO2 monitoring to adjust PEEP and CPAP PO2 to prevent premature infant blindness from excess O2 (1972). Oximetry for warning military aviators was tried after WW II but not used for routine monitoring until Takuo Aoyagi (1973) discovered an equation to measure SaO2 by the ratio of ratios of red and IR light transmitted through tissue as it changed with arterial pulses. Pulse oximetry (1982) depended on simultaneous technology improvements of light emitting red and IR diodes, tiny cheap solid state sensors and micro-chip computers. Continuous monitoring of airway anesthetic concentration and oxygen also became very common after 1980. Death from anesthesia fell 10 fold between 1985 and 2000 as pulse oximetry became universally used, but no proof of a causative relationship to pulse oximetry exists. It is now assumed that all anesthesiologist became much more aware of the dangers of prolonged hypoxia, perhaps by using the pulse oximeters. PMID:21717228

  15. Combination hyperbaric oxygen and temozolomide therapy in c6 rat glioma model Terapia combinada de oxigênio hiperbárico e temozomida no modelo C6 de glioma em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Dagıstan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Temozolomide (TMZ has anti-tumor activity in patients with malignant glioma. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO may enhance the efficacy of certain therapies that are limited because of the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. We examined the combined effects of TMZ-HBO in a rat glioma model. METHODS: After stereotactic injection of C6/LacZ rat glioma cells into the Wistar rats brain, the rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups [group 1, control treatment; group 2, TMZ alone; group 3, a combination of TMZ and HBO]. Rats were sacrificed 18 days after treatment, and number of intra-/peri-tumoral vessels, microendothelial proliferations, immunohistochemistry and necrotic area were evaluated. RESULTS: Tumoral tissue was stained only sparsely with GFAP. Temozolomide treatment was significantly decreased in tumor tissue intratumoral vessel number / total tumor area level. The level of Ki67 was significantly decreased in the tumor tissue of the group 3. Additionally, the total necrotic area / total tumor volume (% was decreased significantly in tumor tissue of the group 3 rats compared to group1 and 2. CONCLUSION: The combination of hyperbaric oxygen with temozolomide produced an important reduction in glioma growth and effective approach to the treatment of glioblastoma.OBJETIVO: A temozolomida (TMZ tem atividade anti-tumoral em pacientes com glioma maligno. Oxigênio hiperbárico (HBO pode aumentar a eficácia de terapias que são limitadas devido a um microambiente do tumor hipóxico. Foram examinados os efeitos combinados de TMZ-HBO em um modelo de glioma em rato. MÉTODOS: Após a injeção estereotáxica de células de glioma de rato C6/LacZ no cérebro de ratos Wistar, os ratos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos de tratamento: Grupo 1: tratamento de controle. Grupo 2: TMZ sozinho. Grupo 3: uma combinação de TMZ e HBO. Os ratos foram sacrificados 18 dias após o tratamento. Foram avaliados o número de vasos intra

  16. Influence of hyperbaric oxygen combining Temozolomide on human glioblastoma cell line U251%高压氧联合替莫唑胺对胶质瘤U251细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹侃; 袁志诚; 陆新宇; 李慧勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence and mechanism on hyperbarie oxygen ( HBO) combining Temozolomide with human glioblastoma cell line U251. Method The cells were divided into four groups,A group is HBO combining Temozolomide,B group is HBO,C group is Temozolomide and D group is control group. By simulation of hypoxia microenviroment in vitro, the rate of growth inhibiting is investigated by MTT method. The rate of cell death is observed by PI staining. The rate of apoptosis is analyzed by the flow cytometry. Elasia method is used to detect the expression of hypoxia-inducible factorl-α (HIFl-α) and Multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 ( MRP-1). Results The group of HBO combining Temozolomide is obviously higher than others in rate of growth inhibiting, rate of cell death, rate of apoptosis, the results have statistics differences(P 0. 05) , but to others it has statistics value (P < 0. 05). Conclusion HBO can enhance the chemotherapy effect of temozolomide, it can correct the hypoxic microenvironment and reduce the expression of HIFl-α and MRP-1 ,these may be the key to effect.%目的 研究高压氧( Hyperbaric Oxygen,HBO)联合替莫唑胺(Temozolomide)对人神经胶质瘤U251细胞株的的影响及其机制.方法 实验分为4组:A组高压氧联合替莫唑胺组、B组高压氧组、C组替莫唑胺组、D组对照组.通过体外模拟缺氧微环境,用四甲基偶氮唑蓝法(MTT法)、碘化丙啶(PI)染色法、流式细胞仪分别检测细胞生长抑制率、细胞死亡率、细胞凋亡率.Elisa法检测缺氧诱导因子1-α(HIF1-α)和多药耐药相关蛋白-1(MRP-1)的表达情况.结果 1高压氧联合替莫唑胺组在细胞生长抑制率、细胞死亡率和细胞凋亡率上明显高于其他组,数值均有统计学意义(P<0.05).2高压氧联合替莫唑胺组与高压氧组在HIF1-α和MRP-1上无统计学意义(P>0.05),与其他组有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高压氧够增强替莫唑胺化疗效果,高压氧纠

  17. 冰温结合不同比例氧气气调对冷却肉的保鲜效果%Effect of modified atmosphere package with varying oxygen concentrations combined with controlled freezing-point storage on pork fresh-keeping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晶; 李建雄; 潘迎捷

    2009-01-01

    试验研究了在冰温基础上结合不同含氧比例气调对冷却猪肉保鲜的影响,试验设置冰温、冷藏(4℃)、真空包装+冰温、20%CO_2+80%O_2(高氧)+冰温、20%CO_2+20%O_2+60%N_2(低氧)+冰温、20%CO_2+80%N_2(无氧)+冰温6个试验组,测定菌落总数、挥发性盐基氮、汁液流失率、保水能力和色差.结果表明:冰温条件下高氧和低氧的菌落总数24 d还未超过冷却肉卫生标准,且两组之间无显著差异(P>0.05);在整个贮藏期内高氧气调和低氧气调可以维持冷却肉的色泽在一个小的范围内变化;高氧气调和低氧气调8 d后汁液流失率显著高于单纯冰温和无氧气调(P<0.05),高氧气调12 d后汁液流失率显著高于低氧气调(P<0.05),同时高氧气调8 d后持水能力显著大于低氧气调(P<0.05).在冰温条件下,80%O_2和20%O_2都能长时间维护冷却肉的色泽,均能较好抑制微生物的增殖,但在汁液流失率、保水能力方面各有优势.%Effect of modified atmosphere packaging with varying oxygen concentrations combined controlled freezing-point storage on pork fresh-keeping was studied. By determining physicochemical parameters such as total plate count, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), drip loss, water holding capacity and color, the qualities of pork under controlled freezing-point storage, chill storage, vacuum package+controlled freezing-point storage, 20%CO_2+80%O_2 (high oxygen)+controlled freezing-point storage, 20%CO_2+20%O_2+60%N_2 (low oxygen)+controlled freezing-point storage and 20%CO_2+80%N_2(no oxygen)+controlled freezing-point storage were compared. It showed that total plate count under high oxygen and low oxygen did not exceed the hygiene standard of pork after twenty-four days, and there was no significant difference between them(P>0.05). High oxygen modified atmosphere package(MAP) and low oxygen MAP maintained the color better. The drip losses of high oxygen MAP and low oxygen MAP after eight

  18. OXYGEN-18 + OXYGEN-18 Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ren-Feng

    Cross sections for the ^{18 }O + ^{18}O reactions (fusion, inelastic excitation and transfer reactions) have been determined in the range 6.73 <=q E_{c.m}<=q 13.24 MeV by measuring the low-lying gamma-ray transitions in the residual nuclei with a high resolution Ge detector. A statistical model calculation of the populations of the residual nuclear states was employed in deducing cross sections from the measured gamma -yields. gamma-ray angular distributions were determined at E_{lab} = 20.0 MeV. The total fusion cross sections were compared with an IWBC calculation employing a parameter set obtained from fitting elastic scattering data. The interaction barrier shape has been obtained by means of the BKN inversion procedure and compared with the barriers for other oxygen isotopes. The inelastic scattering cross section and the two-neutron transfer reaction cross section are reproduced well by the DWBA approach.

  19. 高压氧联合化疗对卵巢上皮性癌疗效研究%Study of therapeutic efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen combined with chemotherapy on epithelial ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝俊秀; 高善霞

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨高压氧联合PC方案化疗对卵巢上皮性癌初治患者的疗效.方法 将58例卵巢上皮性癌术后患者采用随机数字表法分为研究组(30例)和对照组(28例),对照组给予环磷酰胺1000 mg/m2+顺铂75 mg/m2,21 d为1个疗程,至少6个疗程.研究组在高压氧2个标准大气压下暴露60 min,出舱25~30 min给予对照组方法化疗.比较两组的近期疗效和3年存活率、无进展生存时间以及不良反应等.结果 研究组近期总有效率、未控率、复发率、复发时间、3年存活率分别为83.3%(25/30)、6.7%(2/30)、33.3%(10/30)、(21.0±0.8)个月、43.3%(13/30),明显优于对照组的67.9%(19/28)、17.9%(5/28)、46.4%(13/28)、(18.0±0.6)个月、17.9%(5/28)(P<0.05).研究组无进展生存时间和总生存时间明显长于对照组(P<0.05),且不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(P<0.05).结论 卵巢上皮性癌的辅助化疗中,高压氧联合PC方案疗效优于单纯PC方案,且高压氧能明显减少PC方案不良反应.%Objective To discuss the therapentic efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen combined with PC program in newly diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Methods Fifty-eight patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were divided into two groups by random digits table: HBO group(30 cases) and PC group(28cases). HBO group were exposed to hyperbaric oxygen of 2 standard atmospheric pressure 60 min, then given chemotherapy 25-30 min after extravehicular: cyclophosphamide 1000 mg/m2 + cisplatin 75 mg/m2.PC group with the same regimen without hyperbaric oxygen therapy were analyzed. The two groups were compared in the efficacy and 3-year survival rate, progression-free survival and adverse reactions. Results The total effective rate, not controlled rate, recurrence rate,recurrence time, 3-year survival rate in HBO group [83.3%(25/30),6.7%(2/30),33.3%(10/30), (21.0 ± 0.8) months,43.3%(13/30)] were better than those in PC group [67.9% (19/28), 17.9% (5/28), 46

  20. Effect of moist healing therapy combined with hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers%湿性愈合疗法联合高压氧治疗糖尿病足溃疡的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪栋梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨湿性愈合疗法联合高压氧治疗糖尿病足溃疡的应用.方法 通过在临床实践中以传统换药为基础,再使用湿性愈合疗法联合高压氧治疗糖尿病足溃疡,评价患者对该疗法的满意度、切口愈合率、愈合时间、换药次数,并与单独使用传统换药相比较,进行两者之间的差异分析.结果 实验组显效18例(85.7%),有效3例(14.3%),对照组显效10例(47.6%),有效6例(28.6%),无效5例(23.8%),两组比较差异有统计学意义(x2=5.68,P<0.05);愈合时间实验组需要(27.8±3.75)d,对照组需要(38.6±3.81)d,两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=9.2,P<0.05);换药次数实验组需要(15.6±3.45)次,对照组需要(24.8±3.62)次,两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=8.4,P<0.05);患者满意度实验组为95.4%优于对照组的68.9%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(t=5.15,P<0.05).结论 采用以传统换药为基础,再使用湿性愈合疗法联合高压氧治疗糖尿病足溃疡能明显提高创面愈合率,减少换药次数,减轻护士工作量,其结果可为合理应用该疗法促进糖尿病足溃疡愈合又可减少患者的痛苦提供临床依据.%Objective To investigate the clinical application of moist healing therapy combined with hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.Methods The diabetic foot ulcers were treated by moist healing therapy combined with hyperbaric oxygen based on the traditional dressing in the clinical practice in the experimental group,and the control group received the traditional dressing alone.The patient satisfaction,the rate of wound healing,the healing time and the dressing change times were evaluated and compared,and the differences were analyzed between the two groups.Results The obvious effective and effective rates of wound healing were respectively 85.7% (18 cases) and 14.3% (3 cases) in the experimental group,and 47.6% (10 cases),28.6% (6 cases) in the control group

  1. Efecto de la mezcla ozono/oxigeno combinado con levofloxacina en un modelo de sepsis peritoneal en rata (Efect of ozone/oxygen mixture combined with levofloxacin in a model of peritoneal sepsis induced in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DMV. Zullyt Zamora Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la mezcla ozono/oxígeno combinado con antibiótico y aplicado terapéuticamente en un modelo de sepsis peritoneal en rata. El estudio fue realizado en ratas Wistar macho (200-250 g, los cuales fueron divididos aleatoriamente en cinco grupos: 1. inducción de la infección peritoneal, sin tratamiento alguno; 2. infectados y tratados con levofloxacina (25mg/kg; 3. infectados y tratados con la mezcla ozono/oxigeno por vía intraperitoneal, a la dosis de 1 mg/kg de peso; 4 y 5. infectados y tratados con Levofloxacina (25 mg/kg más la mezcla ozono/oxigeno i.p a 0,4 y 1 mg/kg, respectivamente. Se determinó el porciento de mortalidad de los animales mediante la observación diaria y también se registró el peso de los animales. Los resultados mostraron que los grupos de animales que recibieron tratamientos combinados de antibiótico y la mezcla ozono/oxígeno tuvieron un elevado porciento de sobrevivencia, siendo del 77 hasta el 100 % a las 120 h y entre el 66 y el 77 % a las 240 h. Sin embargo, en el grupo tratado con antibiótico fue de un 77% a las 120 h, pero ya a las 240 h el por ciento de sobrevivencia fue del 33 %. Este estudio demostró la efectividad de la combinación de la mezcla ozono/oxígeno con un antibiótico de última generación. Sin embargo, la aplicación sola de ozono de forma terapéutica, por vía intraperitoneal, en este modelo de sepsis no fue efectivo por lo cual se requiere evaluar otras dosis y vías de administración del ozono. AbstractThe aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ozone / oxygen mixture (OOM combined with an antibiotic and applied therapeutically in a model of peritoneal sepsis induced by rat faecal material. The study was performed in male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g. The animals were divided in five groups. The first one was the infected control with faecal material alone. The second was also infected and treated with

  2. Home Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oxygen Therapy Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy ... oxygen is so cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let ...

  3. The Partial Oxygen Therapy Combination of Borage Oil Treatment of Neonatal Red Buttocks%局部氧疗结合紫草油治疗新生儿红臀

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤小英

    2012-01-01

      目的观察局部氧疗结合紫草油治疗新生儿红臀的效果.方法 是将73例红臀新生儿随机分成2组,2组均在每次大小便后用温湿毛巾擦干净臀部,涂抹紫草油,增加换尿布次数.观察组在涂紫草油前先用未经湿化的纯氧(氧流量2~3L/min)吹臀红局部10~15min,并在纸尿裤内垫上一块灭菌的棉布.比较2组患儿红臀痊愈情况.结果 观察组治愈15例,显效18例,总有效率91.7%,经统计学处理,疗效明显优于对照组(χ2=8.89,P<0.01).结论 在做好红臀的一般护理时,加用纯氧吹局部10~15min,能有效地治愈各种原因所致的红臀,防止严重并发症的发生.%  Objective To observe the effect of local oxygen therapy combined with Lithospermum oil treatment of neonatal red buttocks. Methods 73 cases of red buttocks newborns were randomly divided into two groups, two groups all were wiped the buttocks with warm and wet towel after each toilet ,smear Lithospermum oil and increase the number of diaper changing. The observation group first blew local red hip for10~15min with the pure oxygen without humidification (oxygen flow 2~3L/min-) before smearing Lithospermum oil, and pad a sterilized cotton cloth in the diaper within. Compared the healed situation of red buttocks between two groups of children. Results There were 15 cases cured, markedly effective in 18 cases, the total efficiency of 91.7%, Statistically,  this treatment is much better than the control group (χ2 = 8.89, P <0.01). Conclusion when doing the general care of the red buttocks, blowing partial red buttocks with pure oxygen 10 ~ 15min, can effectively cure red buttocks caused by a variety of reasons  to prevent the occurrence of serious complications.

  4. Discussion of Clinical Effect of SPIRIVA Combined Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy for Treatment of Night Sleep Hypoxia of COPD Patients%噻托溴铵联合夜间氧疗对COPD患者夜间睡眠低氧的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田雨; 李杨

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察噻托溴铵联合夜间氧疗对COPD患者夜间睡眠低氧的治疗效果。方法:对我院87例存在不同程度夜间睡眠低氧情况的稳定期COPD患者进行随机分组研究,观察组采用噻托溴铵联合夜间氧疗,对照组单用夜间氧疗,对两组患者在夜间血氧饱和度和肺功能的变化进行处理分析。结果:两组患者治疗前血氧饱和度以及肺功能均较正常值低,治疗后两组患者的血氧饱和度及肺功能均有好转,观察组优于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:噻托溴铵联合夜间氧疗对COPD患者夜间睡眠低氧症有明显的治疗效果,能够有效改善患者的夜间血氧饱和度和肺功能,并且在疗效上优于单用夜间氧疗者。%Objective:To discuss the clinical effect of SPIRIVA combined nocturnal oxygen therapy for treatment of night sleep hypoxia of COPD patients. Method: 87 cases of COPD patients in steady stage with different extent of night sleep hypoxia were divided randomly and analyzed. Observation group was treated by SPIRIVA combined nocturnal oxygen therapy and control group was treated by pure nocturnal oxygen therapy. Night blood oxygen saturation and lung function of both groups were analyzed. Result: Night blood oxygen saturation and lung function of both groups improved and observation group was more significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: SPIRIVA combined nocturnal oxygen therapy has an obvious effect for COPD patient with night sleep hypoxia. It can effectively improve night blood oxygen saturation and lung function and is superior to pure nocturnal oxygen therapy.

  5. Longitudial observation of dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is initially used for visual cortex location.However, the application of fMRI in investigating the development of visual pathway lesions needs to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: This study is to longitudially observe the dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to analyze the characteristics of brain function and structural recombination at convalescent period of lesions.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disorder caused by visual pathway lesions,who admitted to Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to September 2006 were involved, and served as experimental subjects. The patients, 6 males and 2 females, were aged 16 - 67 years. They had visual disorder confirmed by clinical examination, i.e. visual pathway lesion, which was further diagnosed by MR or CT. Another 12 subjects generally matching to those patients of experimental group in gender, age and sight, who received health examination in synchronization were involved and served as controls. The subjects had no history of eye diseases. Their binocular visual acuity (or corrected visual acuity) was over 1.0. Both routine examination of ophthalmology and examination of fundus were normal. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: Signa Excite HD 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging system with 16 passages (GE Company,USA) and coil with 8 passages were used; brain functional stimulus apparatus (SAV-8800. Meide Company) was used for showing experimental mission. At the early stage

  6. 高压氧综合治疗突发性耳聋的疗效评价%An Effective Appraisal of Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined with Drugs Therapy for Sudden Deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽娜; 姚昭文; 杜玉琴

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of hyperbaricoxygen(HBO)combined with drugs therapy for sudden deafness(SD).Methods:Twenty-six patients(31ears)with SD were exposed to HBO[pure oxygen breathing at 250 kPa(2.5ATA)absolute for 30min,twice,with a 10 min air breathing breath in the chamber,once a day],meanwhile they were also given commonly used drugs(energy mixture,injectio salvia miltiorrhiza Co, dextran 40,vitamin B group and corticoids)for(17.5±6.73)days.Thirty patients(33 ears)for comparison(non-HBO group)were treated only by the above-mentioned drug without HBO.Results:HBO group:7 ears were cured,6 ears markedly improved,10 ears improved;non-HBO group:5 ears were cured,4 ears markedly improved,7 ears improved.The overall effective rate in HBO group(72.4%)was higher than that in non-HBO group(48.5%)(χ2=4.438,P<0.025).Conclusion:The therapeutic effect of HBO combined with drugs for SD is significantly better than that of simple drug treatment without HBO.%目的:探讨高压氧联合药物治疗突发性耳聋(突聋)的疗效。方法:26例(31耳)突发性耳聋患者(HBO组)在250kPa(2.5ATA)压力下吸纯氧30min共2次,中间吸空气10min,每日1次,同时配合能量合剂、复方丹参液、低分子右旋糖酐、B族维生素、皮质激素等药物治疗,平均疗程(17.5±6.73)天。将本组疗效与单纯使用同类药物治疗的30例(33耳)突聋(非HBO组)进行比较。结果:HBO组痊愈7耳,显效6耳,有效10耳,总有效率72.4%;非HBO组痊愈5耳,显效4耳,有效7耳,总有效率48.5%,两组比较χ2=4.438,P<0.025。结论:HBO联合药物治疗突聋的效果明显优于单纯药物治疗。

  7. Analysis of curative effect of Ginaton combined with hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of sudden deafness%金纳多联合高压氧治疗突发性聋的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张姝; 李玲香

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the curative effect of EGb761 combined with Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy on Sudden hearing loss and to explore relationship between some correlative influencing factors and the therapeutic effect. Methods summarize and analyze the clinical data of 150 Sudden hearing loss patients from Jan 2010 to Dec 2011 in a retrospective way and to evaluate the efficacy. Results 1. In the comparison group, the female、the middle-aged people、the mental work-ers、little movement persons、general tension persons、single ear unwell’person occupies the highest proportion.2. among the 150 patients, 49 cases is cured, 30 cases is markedly effective,27 cases ineffective and53 cases is failed, and the total effec-tive rate was 62.72%.3. Taking all factor into consideration in this study, puretone threshold , Accompanied by dizziness, the length of time between attack and reception of treatment in effect of sudden deafness are of statistical meaning(P0.05). Conclusion 1. Middle-aged people and younger one have higher risks of sudden deafness. The mental worker is the main group. The main factors are high pressure, tired and lower quality of sleep. 2. Patients with EGb761 combined with Hyperbaric Oxygen treatment on the hearing type of low-frequency steep drop will have a better curative effect. Patients with high-frequency hearing loss or complete deafness hearing curve type of ill have a bad curative effect. 3. The main factor influence the curative effect of sudden hearing loss are hearing type graphs and the length of time between attack and reception of treatment.%目的:分析金纳多联合高压氧治疗突发性聋的疗效,并探讨突发性聋的相关发病因素与疗效的关系。方法回顾性总结分析2010年1月至2011年12月在我院诊断并治疗的150例突发性聋患者的一般临床资料并进行疗效评估。结果1、150例患者发病构成比调查中:女性、中年人、脑力劳动者、很少运动者、一般紧张

  8. Assessment of the radiation burden of persons involved in the treatment of paediatric patients with neuroblastoma by means of 131I-MIBG in combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose equivalents to the parents, the drivers transporting the patients to oxygen therapy, and the hyperbaric chamber operating personnel were evaluated. The surface contamination of the oxygen chamber and masks and the contamination of the ambulances were also measured. The dose equivalents to the family members over the entire treatment period did not exceed 5 mSv. The dose equivalents received by the drivers and hyperbaric chamber personnel did not exceed the natural background level. No surface contamination was ever detected. It is recommended that the monitoring of the drivers and oxygen chamber personnel be dropped, whereas monitoring of the parents be continued in view of the high probability of repeated therapy. Surface contamination measurement is necessary because this risk can never be ruled out. Care of the patient during transport, as well as potential decontamination, could be the responsibility of a duly instructed and trained nurse

  9. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  10. Oxygen-enhanced combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Baukal, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    Combustion technology has traditionally been dominated by air/fuel combustion. However, two developments have increased the significance of oxygen-enhanced combustion-new technologies that produce oxygen less expensively and the increased importance of environmental regulations. Advantages of oxygen-enhanced combustion include less pollutant emissions as well as increased energy efficiency and productivity. Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion, Second Edition compiles information about using oxygen to enhance industrial heating and melting processes. It integrates fundamental principles, applications, a

  11. HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION AND AEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvine D. Prather

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuing desire to improve performance, particularly at the national and international levels, has led to the use of ergogenic aids. Ergogenic aids are defined as 'a procedure or agent that provides the athlete with a competitive edge beyond that obtained via normal training methods'. Random drug testing has been implemented in an effort to minimize an athlete's ability to gain an unfair advantage. However, other means of improving performance have been tried. Blood doping has been used to enhance endurance performance by improving oxygen delivery to working muscles. As oxygen is carried in combination with the hemoglobin, it seems logical that increasing the number of red blood cells (RBC's in the body would increase the oxygen carrying capacity to the tissues and result in improved performance. The first experiments of removing and then reinfusing blood showed a significant improvement in performance time

  12. Oxygen Incorporation in Rubrene Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiovanni, Daniel D. T.; Mayer, Jeff; Wan, Alan S.; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V.; Podzorov, Vitaly; Feldman, Leonard C.; Garfunkel, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Single crystal rubrene is a model organic electronic material showing high carrier mobility and long exciton lifetime. These properties are detrimentally affected when rubrene is exposed to intense light under ambient conditions for prolonged periods of time, possibly due to oxygen up-take. Using photoelectron, scanning probe and ion-based methods, combined with an isotopic oxygen exposure, we present direct evidence of the light-induced reaction of molecular oxygen with single crystal rubrene. Without a significant exposure to light, there is no reaction of oxygen with rubrene for periods of greater than a year; the crystal's surface (and bulk) morphology and chemical composition remain essentially oxygen-free. Grand canonical Monte Carlo computations show no sorbtion of gases into the bulk of rubrene crystal. A mechanism for photo-induced oxygen inclusion is proposed.

  13. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  14. Oxygen Chemistry in Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. H.; Atreya, S. K.

    2002-09-01

    Oxygen chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan is controlled by the presence of CO and a likely influx of extraplanetary oxygen. The presence of water vapor, corroborated by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) stratospheric detection [1], combined with CO induces the formation of CO2, which has also been observed [2]. However, the high CO/H2O ratio in Titan's atmosphere causes the propagation of oxygen chemistry to follow a different path than what is predicted for the Jovian planets. Specifically, the efficient CO recycling mechanisms serve to inhibit significant formation of larger oxygen compounds such as CH3OH (methanol) and CH2CO (ketene). The results of a 1-D photochemical model are presented in the context of identifying possible oxygen compounds that might be detected by the Cassini/Huygens mission which will arrive at Titan in 2004. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program and by the GCMS Project of the Cassini/Huygens mission. [1] A. Coustenis et al., Astron. Astrophys., 336, L85-L89, 1998. [2] A. Coustenis et al., Icarus, 80, 54-76, 1989.

  15. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  16. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002375.htm Hyperbaric oxygen therapy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase ...

  18. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  19. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  20. Saturn's Stratospheric Oxygen Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Paul N.; Delgado Díaz, Héctor E.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Hesman, Brigette; Achterberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    There are three known oxygenated species present in Saturn's upper atmosphere: H2O, CO and CO2. The ultimate source of the water must be external to Saturn as Saturn's cold tropopause effectively prevents any internal water from reaching the upper atmosphere. The carbon monoxide and dioxide source(s) could be internal, external, produced by the photochemical interaction of water with Saturn's stratospheric hydrocarbons or some combination of all of these. At this point it is not clear what the external source(s) are.Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) has detected emission lines of H2O and CO2 (Hesman et al., DPS 2015, 311.16 & Abbas et al. 2013, Ap. J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/2/73) on Saturn. CIRS also retrieves the temperature of the stratosphere using CH4 lines at 7.7 microns. Using CIRS retrieved temperatures, the mole fraction of H2O at the 0.5-5 mbar level can be retrieved and the CO2 mole fraction at ~1-10 mbar. Coupled with ground based observations of CO (Cavalié et al., 2010, A&A, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912909) these observations provide a complete oxygen compound data set to test photochemical models.Preliminary results will be presented with an emphasis on upper limit analysis to determine the percentage of stratospheric CO and CO2 that can be produced photochemically from CIRS observational constraints on the H2O profile.

  1. 高压氧联合药物治疗脑胶质瘤模型鼠效果研究%Study on the therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen combined with drugs on glioma in model mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆朝晖; 刘兵; 马笑宇; 戴纯刚; 贾敬云; 谢涛; 芮琴; 王爱东; 兰青

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of the chemotherapeutic drug ACNU combined with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of transplantation tumor of glioma stem/progenitor cells SU3.Methods The SU3 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into general NC nude mice which were kept in an independent ventilated cages (IVC).Following the development of the tumor,the tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed,and tumor tissues were harvested,then,inoculated subcutaneously into transgenic green fluorescence protein (GFP) nude mice.On the third day,the animals were randomly divided into 4 groups:the HBO group (n =7),the ACNU + HBO group (n =7),the ACNU group (n =7) and the control group (n =12).The first 2 groups were placed in the HBO-IVC without specific pathogens and treated with HBO,1 session a day for a duration of 100 minutes.The animals in the second and third groups were administered with ACNU abdominally at a dosage of 30 mg/kg,once a week for a duration of 3 weeks.The tumor volume was measured with the vernier caliper and the body mass of tumor-bearing mice was weighed with the balance weight,once every 3 days.At the end of the experiment,some tissues were collected to perform RT-PCR detection,the remaining tissues were used for pathological sections.Results As compared with those of the control group,changes in the transplantation tumor mass of various groups were as follows:The tumor mass for the ACNU + HBO group was (2 252.86 ± 1 062.54) mg (P =0.006);the tumor mass for the ACNU group was (1 914.28 ±744.55) mg (P=0.002);that for the HBO group was (4 680.00 ±2 538.40) mg(P =0.925);and that for the control group was (4 760.83 ± 1 989.18) mg.Histopathological examination indicated that necrotic hemorrhage foci in tumor tissues could be frequently observed in the control group,and numerous neoformative vessels around the hemorrhagic site could also be found.Proliferation of vascular endothelial cells was quite active under microscopy

  2. Drug Therapy and Combined with Hyperbaric Oxygen in the Treatment of Acute Cerebral Infarction Clinical Analysis%单纯药物治疗与联合高压氧治疗急性脑梗死临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑琴; 张泽萍

    2013-01-01

      Objective:To study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of cerebral infarction and clinical analysis. Method:A retrospective study of our hospital from 2010 July to 2012 March,80 patients with acute cerebral infarction. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, 40 cases in the control group only received drug therapy,The treatment group of 40 cases in addition to drug treatment,also given the hyperbaric oxygen therapy. According to the“European Stroke Scale”(ESS)in the treatment group and the control group before and after treatment,and observe the clinical curative effect,score. Result:Drug and hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction clinical curative effect is better than simple drug use. Conclusion:Early hyperbaric oxygen treatment,In many ways to better improve brain ischemia,hypoxia,so as to achieve the purpose of treatment.%  目的:探讨高压氧治疗脑梗死的效果并进行临床分析。方法:回顾性研究笔者所在医院2010年4月-2012年11月急性脑梗死住院病例80例。随机分为两组,对照组40例,仅单纯药物治疗。治疗组40例,单纯药物治疗+高压氧治疗。根据“欧洲卒中量表”(ESS)对治疗组和对照组于治疗前、后,进行评分并观察疗效。结果:药物联合高压氧治疗急性脑梗死临床疗效优于单纯使用药物。结论:及早进行高压氧的治疗,并配合康复锻炼对减少梗死后的残疾、提高生活质量有极大的帮助。

  3. Brain Oxygenation Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew A; Smith, Martin

    2016-09-01

    A mismatch between cerebral oxygen supply and demand can lead to cerebral hypoxia/ischemia and deleterious outcomes. Cerebral oxygenation monitoring is an important aspect of multimodality neuromonitoring. It is increasingly deployed whenever intracranial pressure monitoring is indicated. Although there is a large body of evidence demonstrating an association between cerebral hypoxia/ischemia and poor outcomes, it remains to be determined whether restoring cerebral oxygenation leads to improved outcomes. Randomized prospective studies are required to address uncertainties about cerebral oxygenation monitoring and management. This article describes the different methods of monitoring cerebral oxygenation, their indications, evidence base, limitations, and future perspectives. PMID:27521197

  4. Combined Treatment With Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Gamma Ligands and Gamma Radiation Induces Apoptosis by PPARγ-Independent Up-Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Signals in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Jong; Im, Chang-Nim; Park, Seon Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Eun-Yi [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hee, E-mail: gobrian@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate possible radiosensitizing activities of the well-known peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ ligand ciglitazone and novel PPARγ ligands CAY10415 and CAY10506 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity was assessed using a clonogenic cell survival assay. To investigate the mechanism underlying PPARγ ligand-induced radiosensitization, the subdiploid cellular DNA fraction was analyzed by flow cytometry. Activation of the caspase pathway by combined PPARγ ligands and γ-radiation treatment was detected by immunoblot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry. Results: The 3 PPARγ ligands induced cell death and ROS generation in a PPARγ-independent manner, enhanced γ-radiation–induced apoptosis and caspase-3–mediated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in vitro. The combined PPARγ ligand/γ-radiation treatment triggered caspase-8 activation, and this initiator caspase played an important role in the combination-induced apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands may enhance the γ-radiation-induced DNA damage response, possibly by increasing γ-H2AX expression. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly increased ROS generation, and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine inhibited the combined treatment-induced ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicated that the combined treatment of PPARγ ligands and γ-radiation synergistically induced DNA damage and apoptosis, which was regulated by ROS.

  5. Meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of treatment of sudden deafness using hyperbaric oxygen combined with drug in China%国内高压氧联合药物治疗突发性耳聋临床疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    库薇; 刘业海; 吴静; 王强; 童步生; 段茂利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of treatment of sudden deafness using hyperbaric oxygen com-bined with drug in recent years. Methods We searched nearly five years Chinese academic journals, Chinese digital library, VIP Information Resource System, Superstar Digital Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang database about hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined drug therapy of sudden deafness randomized controlled studies met the inclusion criteria for the evaluation of methodological literature from 2008 to 2012 , and RevMan5.1 software and the quality standards Meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies were included. Result 20 randomized controlled studies were analyzed, a to-tal of 2554 cases, of which 1,347 cases received hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with drug treatment as treatment group, in contrast 1,207 cases received drug therapy alone was the control group. We found that the treatment group had a signifi-cant clinical effect than contrast group (P<0. 00001), and in addition ,the early use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy had better effect than the patients with hyperbaric oxygen of treatment at late stage (P<0. 00001). Conclusion The application of hyper-baric oxygen therapy combined with drug show better than drug therapy alone was, and the introduction of hyperbaric oxygen therapy,at earlier stage shows better results.%目的:评价近几年来国内高压氧联合药物综合疗法治疗突发性耳聋的临床疗效。方法检索2008~2012年近五年来中国学术期刊、中国数字图书馆、维普信息资源系统、超星数字图书馆、中国生物医学文献数据库、万方数据库中关于高压氧联合药物综合治疗突发性耳聋的随机对照研究,对符合纳入标准的文献进行方法学的评价,并用RevMan5.1软件对符合质量标准的随机对照研究进行Meta分析。结果纳入了20个随机对照研究,患者总数为2554例,其中有1347例接受高压氧联合药

  6. Study of Pulmicort combined with the analysis of oxygen nebulizer inhalation adjuvant therapy on infant pneumonia%探讨普米克令舒结合氧气雾化器吸入辅助治疗小儿肺炎的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁树新

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Pulmicort Respules combined with oxygen nebulizer inhalation in adjuvant treatment of infan-tile pneumonia clinical curative effect were analyzed.Methods:Extraction in May 2013 to 2015 years 2 months in the hospital treatment of 140 cases of pneumonia were randomly divided into observation group and control group, 70 cases in each, which the observation group take Pulmicort Respules combined with oxygen nebulizer inhalation in the treatment, control group taken normal saline combined with oxygen nebulizer inhalation in the treatment, compared with two groups of clinical curative effect. Results: The total effective rate of the observation group was 58.57% significantly higher than that of the control group, the dif-ference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:Pulmicort Respules combined with oxygen nebulizer inhalation in ad-juvant treatment of infantile pneumonia is safe and effective, it is worth in clinical application.%目的:针对普米克令舒结合氧气雾化器吸入辅助治疗小儿肺炎的临床疗效进行研究分析。方法抽取2013年5月至2015年2月在本院救治的140例肺炎患儿,随机分成观察组和对照组,各70例,其中观察组采取普米克令舒结合氧气雾化器吸入辅助治疗,对照组采取生理盐水结合氧气雾化器吸入辅助治疗,比较两组的临床治疗效果。结果观察组治疗总有效率为为87.13%明显高于对照组的58.57%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论普米克令舒结合氧气雾化器吸入辅助治疗小儿肺炎安全有效,值得在临床医学上的推广运用。

  7. 低频电刺激联合高压氧对脑梗死后吞咽障碍的疗效观察%Effects of Low-Frequency Electric Stimulation Combined with Hyperbaric Oxygen on Swallow-ing Disorder after Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕铭新

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察低频电刺激联合高压氧对脑梗死后吞咽障碍的疗效。方法:选择首次发病的脑梗死伴有吞咽障碍的患者224例,随机分为常规训练组、电刺激组、高压氧组和联合组各56例。4组均行一般治疗和吞咽功能训练;同时,电刺激组给予低频电刺激治疗;高压氧组给予高压氧治疗;联合组给予低频电刺激和高压氧联合治疗。4组治疗前、后均采用洼田饮水试验、标准吞咽功能评价(SSA)量表和吞咽障碍特异性生存质量(SWAL-QOL)量表进行疗效评定。结果:治疗后4组吞咽障碍均有一定程度改善(均 P<0.05);治疗后,电刺激组、高压氧组和联合组有效率和 SWAL-QOL 评分高于常规训练组,SSA 评分低于常规训练组,且联合组较电刺激组、高压氧组更优(均 P<0.05);电刺激组与高压氧组治疗有效率、SSA 评分及 SWAL-QOL 评分差异无统计学意义(均 P>0.05)。结论:低频电刺激联合高压氧治疗脑梗死后吞咽障碍,可明显改善患者的吞咽功能。%Objective:To observe the effects of low-frequency electric stimulation combined with hyperbaric oxygen on swallowing disorder after cerebral infarction. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-four cases of cerebral infarction patients with swallowing disorder were recruited. According to the digital random list method, all patients were divided into regular training group, electrical stimulation group, hyperbaric oxygen group and combination group. All groups were given general treatment and swallowing function training was applied in regular training group; Patients in electrical stimulation group were implemented low-frequency electric stimulation; hyperbaric oxygen therapy was given in hyperbaric oxygen group; low-frequency electric stimulation combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy was applied in combination group. The effects were evaluated by using Kubota drinking water test

  8. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work? Oxygen therapy provides you with extra ... be delivered to your lungs in several ways. Oxygen Therapy Systems Oxygen is supplied in three forms: ...

  9. Modeling Oxygen Transport in the Human Placenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Alexander; Filoche, Marcel; Salafia, Carolyn; Grebenkov, Denis

    Efficient functioning of the human placenta is crucial for the favorable pregnancy outcome. We construct a 3D model of oxygen transport in the placenta based on its histological cross-sections. The model accounts for both diffusion and convention of oxygen in the intervillous space and allows one to estimate oxygen uptake of a placentone. We demonstrate the existence of an optimal villi density maximizing the uptake and explain it as a trade-off between the incoming oxygen flow and the absorbing villous surface. Calculations performed for arbitrary shapes of fetal villi show that only two geometrical characteristics - villi density and the effective villi radius - are required to predict fetal oxygen uptake. Two combinations of physiological parameters that determine oxygen uptake are also identified: maximal oxygen inflow of a placentone and the Damköhler number. An automatic image analysis method is developed and applied to 22 healthy placental cross-sections demonstrating that villi density of a healthy human placenta lies within 10% of the optimal value, while overall geometry efficiency is rather low (around 30-40%). In a perspective, the model can constitute the base of a reliable tool of post partum oxygen exchange efficiency assessment in the human placenta. Also affiliated with Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

  10. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the adjuvant treatment of patients with severe hand-foot-mouth disease combined with encephalitis%高压氧辅助治疗手足口病合并脑炎患儿60例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵秀英; 阙利双; 陈实; 冯小伟; 廖锋; 李玲; 向伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen in the adjuvant treatment of patients with severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) combined with encephalitis. Methods One hundred and twenty patients with severe HFMD combined with encephalitis in the People's Hospital of Hainan Province from June 2008 to December 2011 were divided into the Hyperbaric oxygen group and control group, with 60 patients in each group, The Hyperbaric oxygen group received conventional therapy plus hyperbaric oxygen treatment, while the control group received conventional therapy only. The clinical efficacy in the two groups were compared. Results The total effective rate in the Hyperbaric oxygen group was 96.6%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (70.0%). The improvement rate of EEG in the Hyperbaric oxygen group was 55.2%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (35.7%). The cure rate of brain MRI in the Hyperbaric oxygen group was 50.0%, significantly better than that of the control group (20.0%). 'The sequela incidence was 18.33%, which was significantly decreased compared with the control group (35.0%). The differences were all statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen treatment can improve the clinical effect and cure rate, reduce the incidence of sequel and the disability rale of patients with severe HFMD disease, which is worthy to be extended in clinical practice.%目的 探讨高压氧辅助治疗重症手足口病合并脑炎患儿的临床效果.方法 以2008 年6 月至2011 年12 月期间我院收治的120 例重症手足口病合并脑炎患儿为研究对象,随机分为高压氧组和对照组各60 例.对照组给予常规治疗,高压氧组在常规治疗的基础上加用高压氧辅助治疗,对疗效进行对比分析.结果 高压氧组总有效率为96.6%,明显高于对照组的70.0%;高压氧组脑电图好转率为55.2%,高于对照组的35.7%;高

  11. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jack C.; Besecker, Charles J.; Chen, Hancun; Robinson, Earil T.

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  12. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  13. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  14. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  15. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  16. Solid state oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  17. Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined with Acupuncture and Moxibustion on Traumatic Peripheral Facial Nerve Injury:A Electromyography Study%高压氧联合针灸治疗外伤性周围性面神经损伤的效果及肌电图分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜炜; 蒋功达; 符静; 娄晓敏; 孙中武

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with acupuncture and moxibustion on traumatic peripheral facial nerve injury, and the results of electromyography. Methods From January, 2007 to January, 2013, a total of 160 patients with traumat-ic peripheral facial nerve injury were divided into treatment group (n=80) and control group (n=80). Both groups received routine drug treat-ment. Hyperbaric oxygen combined with acupuncture and moxibustion was applied to treatment group in addition. The clinical efficacy and the results of electromyography were analyzed before and 36 days after treatment. Results After treatment, the cure rate and total efficiency was significantly higher (χ2>7.657, P2.214, P3.116, P5.45, P7.657, P2.214, P3.116, P5.45, P<0.001)。结论高压氧联合针灸治疗可提高外伤性周围性面神经损伤的临床疗效。

  18. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  19. 赛百纤溶酶联合高压氧治疗对脑梗死急性期凝血功能及预后的影响%Influence of plasminogen combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy on prognosis and coagulation in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚汉玲; 杨珺

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of plasminogen combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy on prognosis and coagulation in patients with acute cerebral infarction.Methods 86 patients with acute cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups, hyperbaric oxygen combined fibrinolytic therapy( HBD group, n= 40 cases ) and hyperbaric oxygen therapy ( non-HBO group, n =46 cases ) were given respectively.Indexes of two groups of patients with coagulation, neurological deficit score and overall efficacy were recorded and analyzed.Results After treatment, the total efficacy in hyperbaric oxygen group( 92.5% )was significantly higher than non-HBO group ( 73.9% ), the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ).compared with before treatment, PT, APTT prolonged, and TT shortened in the 2 groups after treatment.Fib levels decreased and neurological deficit scores were significantly lower, the differences between them were statistically significant( P < 0.05 ), the hyperbaric oxygen group were superior to the non-HBO group( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Plasmin combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a effective and safe method on the coagulation of acute cerebral infarction, the neurological deficit score and overall effect were improved obviously.%目的 探讨纤溶酶联合高压氧治疗对脑梗死急性期凝血功能及预后的影响.方法 86例急性脑梗死患者随机分为2组,分别给予纤溶酶联合高压氧治疗(高压氧组,n=40)和非高压氧治疗(非高压氧组,n=46),分析2组患者的凝血功能、神经功能缺损评分及总体疗效.结果 治疗后高压氧组总有效率(92.5%)显著高于非高压氧组(73.9%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).2组治疗后与治疗前比较,PT、APTT延长,TT缩短,Fib含量下降,神经功能缺损评分降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),且高压氧组优于非高压氧组(P<0.05).结论 纤溶酶联合高压氧治疗对脑梗死急性期的凝血功能、神经功能缺损评

  20. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work well and may die. Your baby may not grow properly. Many of the developing organs, including the brain and heart, may be injured. Too much oxygen can also cause injury. Breathing too much oxygen can damage the lung. ...

  1. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...

  2. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequier, Laurance; Horton, Stephen B; McMullan, D Michael; Bartlett, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is made of a number of components that have been customized to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery in patients with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure for a prolonged period of time (days to weeks). A standard extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit consists of a mechanical blood pump, gas-exchange device, and a heat exchanger all connected together with circuit tubing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits can vary from simple to complex and may include a variety of blood flow and pressure monitors, continuous oxyhemoglobin saturation monitors, circuit access sites, and a bridge connecting the venous access and arterial infusion limbs of the circuit. Significant technical advancements have been made in the equipment available for short- and long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applications. Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits have greater biocompatibility and allow for more prolonged cardiopulmonary support time while minimizing the procedure-related complications of bleeding, thrombosis, and other physiologic derangements, which were so common with the early application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Modern era extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry and components are simpler, safer, more compact, and can be used across a wide variety of patient sizes from neonates to adults. PMID:23735989

  3. Highest Oxygen Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The world’s highest altitude Lhalu Wetland in Tibet is rebounding from past environmental damage In Lhasa, where the oxygen content is just 60 percent of that of the plain area, a place known as the "natural oxygen bar"is highly prized by residents.

  4. Traveling with Portable Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that is right for you depends on your travel plans, your health requirements, and your personal preferences. Compressed Oxygen Compressed ... notice before your ight if you plan to travel with oxygen. For this ... to review procedures and complete all necessary paperwork required by ...

  5. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  6. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  7. Clinical efficacy and safety of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of traumatic epilepsy%人脐带间充质干细胞移植联合高压氧治疗外伤性癫痫的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 王钦玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of traumatic epilepsy. Methods Forty-eight patients with traumatic epilepsy admitted in our hospital were selected as research objects. The patients were divided into two groups according to random number table. Patients in group A (n=24) were treated with human umbilical cord mesen chymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, while those in group B were treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The clinical efficacy and safety were compared between the two groups. Results After treatment, the clinical efficacy was significantly higher in group A than group B (95.83% vs 33.33%, P<0.05), and the safety was significantly better in group A (P<0.05). Conclusion For treating traumatic epilepsy, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy has high clinical efficacy and good safety, which is worthy to be extended in clinical practice.%目的 探讨人脐带间充质干细胞移植联合高压氧治疗外伤性癫痫的临床疗效和安全性.方法 选取我院收治的48例外伤性癫痫患者,应用随机数字表法分成联合治疗组和单一治疗组,每组各24例.联合治疗组采用人脐带间充质干细胞移植联合高压氧治疗方案,单一治疗组采用高压氧治疗方案.观察并分析两组患者的临床疗效及安全性.结果 两组患者经过不同的治疗方案治疗后,联合治疗组的疗效(95.83%)较单一治疗组疗效好(33.33%),安全性高,其差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 人脐带间充质干细胞移植联合高压氧治疗外伤性癫痫临床疗效较好,安全性高,值得临床推广应用.

  8. Effects of hyperbaric oxygenation on hemodynamics and oxygen balance in tissues of miners with vibration pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larin, Eh.N.; Samokhatko, E.V.; Dorogan' , N.A. (Institut Gigieny Truda i Profzabolevanii, Krivoi Rog (Ukraine))

    1992-08-01

    Studies antihypoxic and microcirculation-stimulating effects of hyperbaric oxygenation in patients suffering from vibration pathologies. Combined clinical and laboratory examinations were conducted on a group of 56 miners diagnosed with the first stage of vibration disease. Ages of the patients varied from 40 to 49 years and duration of work at vibratory type tools was over 15 years. Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy was performed for 40-50 minutes every day in an OKA-MT single-seat compression chamber at a pressure of 1.5-1.7 atm. Hyperbaric therapy was accompanied by treatment with vitamins, biogenic stimulators, ganglioplegics and spasmolytics. Detailed observational data are given. The following conclusions are presented: hyperbaric oxygenation produces a positive effect on oxygen balance in tissues and regional bloodstreams and increases physical endurance; further research for elaborating therapeutic conditions of hyperbaric oxygenation for patients suffering from accompanying diseases is justified. 7 refs.

  9. Clarification of the oxygen adsorption properties of YBaCo_4O_7 at high temperature by thermogravimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱保峰; 郝好山; 张勇; 贾建峰; 胡行

    2010-01-01

    The oxygen adsorption/desorption properties of YBaCo4O7 at high temperature were investigated by thermogravimetry(TG) method,in which two types of oxygen adsorption were combined.The first type adsorbed oxygen at about 700 °C and released the adsorbed oxygen at 880 °C.After the first type oxygen desorption,even the temperature and oxygen flow were kept the same,a second type oxygen adsorption at about 880 °C occurred and the adsorbed oxygen were released at above 980 °C.The combination of these two types of...

  10. Observation on the therapeutic effect of Budesonide combined with Terbutaline inhalation via oxygen-driven atomization in treatment of 208 children capillarity bronchitis and nursing care%布地奈德联合特布他林气动雾化吸入治疗小儿毛细支气管炎208例疗效观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家秀

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨布地奈德联合特布他林气动雾化吸入治疗小儿毛细支气管炎的疗效与护理方法.方法:将312例毛细支气管炎患儿随机分为治疗组208例和对照组104例,对照组采用抗感染、止咳、平喘、化痰等综合性治疗,治疗组在此基础上加用布地奈德联合特布他林雾化液气动雾化吸入,比较两组疗效.结果:治疗组显效率高于对照组(P<0.05),喘憋及哮鸣音消失时间、住院时间短于对照组(P<0.01).结论:布地奈德联合特布他林气动雾化治疗毛细支气管炎能缩短病程,减轻患儿痛苦,减少并发症发生.%Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect of Budesonide combined with Terbutaline inhalation via oxygen - driven at-omization in treatment of children capillarity bronchitis and nursing methods. Methods: 312 children patients with capillarity bronchitis were randomly divided into a treatment group( n = 208 )and a control group( n = 104 ). The comprehensive treatment like anti - infection, reliving cough and asthma and resolving phlegm was given to the patients in the control group and the patients in the treatment group received extra treatment with Budesonide combined with Terbutaline inhalation via oxygen - driven atomization based on the comprehensive treatment. The therapeutic effect was compared between the two groups. Results: The therapeutic effect in the treatment group was more efficient than the control group( P<0. 05 ); the disappearance time of breathlessness, wheezing and hospitalization time was shorter in the treatment group than the control group( P <0. 01 ). Conclusion: Budesonide combined with Terbutaline inhalation via oxygen - driven atomization in treatment of children capillarity bronchitis can shorten the course of disease, relieve childrens sufferings and reduce the occurrence of complications.

  11. Observation of Curative Effect on Nonorganic Insomnia Aged Patients with Combined Right Zopiclone and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy%药物联合高压氧治疗老年非器质性失眠症患者疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文惠; 努苏来提·艾合买提

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察右佐匹克隆联合高压氧治疗对老年非器质性失眠症患者睡眠的改善作用。方法应用右佐匹克隆片与高压氧联合药物治疗对31例入组的老年非器质性睡眠障碍患者做疗效对比,药物组单用右佐匹克隆片治疗,联合治疗组运用右佐匹克隆片联合高压氧治疗。联合治疗组均完成两个高压氧疗程。结果药物组治疗前、治疗后10天、治疗后20天总睡眠时间分别为(2.01±0.76、1.94±0.82、0.89±0.57),睡眠质量分别为(2.32±0.65、2.01±0.59、1.67±0.69),睡眠效率分别为(1.67±0.83、1.47±0.93、0.93±0.72)。联合组治疗前、治疗后10天、治疗后20天睡眠时间分别为(1.98±0.56、1.03±0.74、0.48±0.32),睡眠质量分别为(2.45±0.76、1.73±0.37、1.24±0.58),睡眠效率分别为(1.71±0.63、0.85±0.38、0.26±0.41),两组间比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论右佐匹克隆片联合高压氧治疗能够帮助老年非器质性睡眠障碍失眠症患者改善睡眠质量。%Objective To observe the hyperbaric oxygen therapy on nonorganic sleep disorders in elderly patients. Methods the drug treatment with hyperbaric oxygen combined drug therapy of 31 cases in the group do efficacy in elderly patients with nonorganic sleep disorders, drug group of Eszopiclone therapy, combined treatment group use the Eszopiclone with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Complete two hyperbaric oxygen treatment course for combined treatment group. Results The total sleep time, wake up delay time and number of nighttime awakening between two groups before and after treatment are significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion hyperbaric oxygen treatment can help elderly nonorganic sleep disorder patients to improve sleep quality.

  12. Oxygen therapy as an additional component of cytostatic treatment for recurrent cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    R. F. Savkova; L. E. Rotobelskaya; L. F. Yudina; M. A. Gerashchenko; A. S. Dzasokhov

    2012-01-01

    The data obtained by the authors suggest that the efficiency of standard cytostatic therapy for recurrent cervical cancer in combination with chemotherapy and oxygen therapy has increased and the tolerance of cytostatic treatment during oxygen therapy improved.

  13. Universality in Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysis on Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Isabela Costinela; Su, Hai-Yan; Vallejo, Federico Calle;

    2011-01-01

    Trends in electrocatalytic activity of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are investigated on the basis of a large database of HO* and HOO* adsorption energies on oxide surfaces. The theoretical overpotential was calculated by applying standard density functional theory in combination...... that was the same for a wide variety of oxide catalyst materials and a universal descriptor for the oxygen evolution activity, which suggests a fundamental limitation on the maximum oxygen evolution activity of planar oxide catalysts....

  14. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  15. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... transportation carrier (for example, the airline or bus company). If you need oxygen while traveling, plan in ... NEXT >> Updated: February 24, 2012 Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA OIG CONTACT ...

  16. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human......The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen...

  17. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T;

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  18. Practical procedures: oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Sandra

    Knowing when to start patients on oxygen therapy can save lives, but ongoing assessment and evaluation must be carried out to ensure the treatment is safe and effective. This article outlines when oxygen therapy should be used and the procedures to follow. It also describes the delivery methods applicable to different patient groups, along with the appropriate target saturation ranges, and details relevant nurse competencies.

  19. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas W. Hempel; Papkovsky, Dmitri B.; Joseph P. Kerry

    2013-01-01

    O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15%) was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa) and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa) (30% CO2/70% N2) settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days). This ...

  20. Electric and electrochemical properties of catalytically active oxygen electrode materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burggraaf, A.J.; Dijk, van M.P.; Vries, de K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical conductivity has been investigated of some oxygen ion and mixed conducting materials. Electrodes are prepared from thin sputtered layers of these oxides combined with a small Au or Pt strip. The kinetics of the oxygen reaction has been studied for temperatures of 820–1020 K and PO2 va

  1. Easy Fabrication of Dense Ceramic Membrane for Oxygen Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A combined EDTA-citrate complexing method was developed for the easy preparation of mixed oxygen-ionic and electronic conducting dense ceramic membrane for oxygen separation.The new method takes the advantage of lower calcination temperature for phase formation, lower membrane sintering temperature and higher relative density over the standard ceramic method.

  2. Enhancing aspergiolide A production from a shear-sensitive and easy-foaming marine-derived filamentous fungus Aspergillus glaucus by oxygen carrier addition and impeller combination in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Lu, Jian; Fan, Weimin; Niu, Chuanpeng; Zhou, Jiushun; Sun, Xueqian; Kang, Li; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2011-02-01

    Production enhancement of a novel antitumor compound aspergiolide A from shear-sensitive and easy-foaming marine-derived fungus Aspergillus glaucus HB1-19 in a 5-l stirred bioreactor was investigated. Two types of impellers, i.e., six-flat-blade disc turbine impeller (DT) and three-sector-blade pitched blade turbine impeller (PB) were used in this work. In cultures with fermentation medium, the combination of upper PB and lower DT led to the maximum dry biomass (13.8 g/l) and aspergiolide A production (19.3 mg/l). However, two PBs brought the highest aspergiolide A yield coefficient (1.9 mg/g dry biomass) despite it produced the lowest dry biomass (5.3 g/l). By contrast, two DTs and the upper DT and lower PB showed insignificant results. Feeding 0.35% (v/v) n-dodecane in cultures with upper PB and lower DT further improved aspergiolide A production by 31.0%, i.e., 25.3 mg/l, which is also 322% higher than that in the ordinary cultures with two DTs. PMID:21074418

  3. The effect observation of early hyperbaric oxygen combined music therapy on brain trauma coma wake and prognosis%早期高压氧联合音乐疗法对脑外伤昏迷促醒及预后的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄的; 徐斌

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察早期高压氧联合音乐疗法对脑外伤昏迷促醒率及预后程度。方法:将170例脑外伤昏迷的患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,各85例。对照组给予常规药物治疗及康复护理,观察组在此基础上给予高压氧及音乐疗法,随访6个月,比较两组患者清醒时间及格拉斯哥预后结局量表(Glasgow outcome scale,GOS)等级情况。结果:两组患者的清醒时间及格拉斯哥预后结局等级比较,差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。结论:早期高压氧联合音乐疗法对脑外伤昏迷促醒有较好的临床疗效,而且能减轻后遗症。%Objective:To observe the effect of early hyperbaric oxygen combined music therapy on brain trauma coma wake and prognosis. Nethods:170 cases of brain injury coma were randomly divided into control group(85 cases)and observation group(85cases). The control group was given conventional drugs and rehabilitation nursing,and the observation group with music therapy and hyperbaric oxygen treatment. After active treatment and follow - up for six months,the awake time,and Glasgow Outcome Scale for prognostic outcomes in the two groups were compared. Results:The comparison of awake time,and Glasgow Outcome Scale for prognostic outcomes between the two groups difference was statistically sig-nificant( P < 0. 05). Conclusion:Early hyperbaric oxygen combined music therapy on brain injury coma wake has better clinical curative effect, and can reduce sequel.

  4. A model analysis of arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Sands

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid arterial O(2 desaturation during apnea in the preterm infant has obvious clinical implications but to date no adequate explanation for why it exists. Understanding the factors influencing the rate of arterial O(2 desaturation during apnea (Sa(O₂ is complicated by the non-linear O(2 dissociation curve, falling pulmonary O(2 uptake, and by the fact that O(2 desaturation is biphasic, exhibiting a rapid phase (stage 1 followed by a slower phase when severe desaturation develops (stage 2. Using a mathematical model incorporating pulmonary uptake dynamics, we found that elevated metabolic O(2 consumption accelerates Sa(O₂throughout the entire desaturation process. By contrast, the remaining factors have a restricted temporal influence: low pre-apneic alveolar P(O₂causes an early onset of desaturation, but thereafter has little impact; reduced lung volume, hemoglobin content or cardiac output, accelerates Sa(O₂during stage 1, and finally, total blood O(2 capacity (blood volume and hemoglobin content alone determines Sa(O₂during stage 2. Preterm infants with elevated metabolic rate, respiratory depression, low lung volume, impaired cardiac reserve, anemia, or hypovolemia, are at risk for rapid and profound apneic hypoxemia. Our insights provide a basic physiological framework that may guide clinical interpretation and design of interventions for preventing sudden apneic hypoxemia.

  5. Study on the application of hyperbaric oxygen combined with iodized lecithin in the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy%中心性浆液性脉络膜视网膜病变患者应用高压氧联合卵磷脂络合碘治疗的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析中心性浆液性脉络膜视网膜病变(CSC)患者应用高压氧联合卵磷脂络合碘治疗的临床疗效及安全性。方法随机选取2012年12月~2013年12月本院诊治的98例(108眼)中心性浆液性脉络膜视网膜病变患者,按照随机双盲法分为两组,对照组49例予以高压氧治疗,研究组49例在对照组基础上联合卵磷脂络合碘治疗,分析两组患者视力恢复及不良反应情况。结果两组患者治疗后视力均明显恢复,且研究组患者的视力明显优于对照组,比较差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05),研究组治疗后复发情况明显少于对照组,比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时,两组患者的不良反应情况比较差异不明显,且均经临床对症治疗后缓解。结论应用高压氧联合卵磷脂络合碘治疗中心性浆液性脉络膜视网膜病变的临床疗效显著,且用药过程安全可靠。%Objective To analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of hyperbaric oxygen combined with iodized lecithin in the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy(CSC).Methods 98 cases(108 eyes) of patients with central serous chorioretinopathy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013 were randomly selected, which according to the randomized double blind method were divided into two groups, each with 49 cases. While the 49 cases of patients in the control group were given hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the 49 cases in the study group were treated with hyperbaric oxygen combined with iodized lecithin. The recovery of visual acuity and adverse reaction of the two groups were analyzed.Results After the treatment, visual acuity of patients in both the two groups were significantly restored, and that of the study group was significantly better than the control group, with statistically significant difference(P<0.05). Recurrence in the study group was significantly less than the control group after the

  6. Effect of Inhalation of Nitrous Oxide/Oxygen Mixture Combined with Lornoxicam on Wound Pain after Burn Injury%氧化亚氮/氧气混合气体吸入联合氯诺昔康用于烧伤后创面疼痛的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小花; 蔡爱英; 张爱萍; 彭燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察氧化亚氮/氧气混合气体吸入联合氯诺昔康用于烧伤后创面疼痛的临床疗效。方法将48例烧伤后创面疼痛的患者按治疗方法的不同分为2组:观察组(23例)和对照组(25例)。2组均采用注射用氯诺昔康8 mg加入0.9%氯化钠注射液100 mL中静脉滴注,2次·d-1。在此基础上,观察组采用Digital MDM氧化亚氮/氧气混合输出系统治疗。观察2组临床疗效的情况,并对2组进行目测类比疼痛评分(VAS评分)和疼痛问卷评分(疼痛感觉评分和疼痛情绪评分)。结果观察组总有效率明显高于对照组(91.3%比76.0%,P<0.05);与对照组比较,观察组治疗1 d后VAS、疼痛感觉和疼痛情绪得分均明显降低(均P<0.05)。结论氧化亚氮/氧气混合气体吸入联合氯诺昔康用于烧伤后创面疼痛有较好的镇痛效果,且无明显的不良反应。%Objective To observe the clinical effect of inhalation of nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture combined with lornoxicam on wound pain after burn injury. Methods Forty-eight patients with burn injury pain were divided into observation group(n=23) and control group(n=25). All patients were given 8 mg lornoxicam dissolved in 100 mL 0.9% sodium chloride injection via intravenous drip twice per day. In addition, patients in observation group were treated with the Digital MDM nitrous oxide/oxygen mixer . Clinical effects were observed and visual analogue scale ( VAS ) scores and pain questionnaire scores ( feeling and emotional pain scores ) were determined in both groups . Results Compared with control group,the inhalation of nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture combined with intravenous lornoxicam administration significantly increased the overall response rate ( 91 . 3% vs 76 . 0%, P<0 . 05 ) , and obviously decreased VAS , feeling pain and emotional scores after treatment for 1 day ( P<0 . 05 ) . Conclusion The inhalation of nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture combined

  7. Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors in Non-Destructively Determining the Levels of Oxygen Present in Combined Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaged Pre-Cooked Convenience-Style Foods and the Use of Ethanol Emitters to Extend Product Shelf-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Hempel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O2 sensors were used to non-destructively monitor O2 levels in commercially packed pre-cooked, convenience modified atmosphere packaging (MAP foods. A substantial level of O2 (>15% was present in packs resulting in a shorter than expected shelf-life, where the primary spoilage mechanism was found to be mould. Various combinations of vacuum (0–0.6 MPa and gas flush (0.02–0.03 MPa (30% CO2/70% N2 settings were assessed as treatments that result in the desired shelf-life (28 days. This was achieved using the combined treatment of vacuum 0.35 MPa and gas flush 0.02 MPa which resulted in a reduction of 6%–9% O2 in all three samples (battered sausages (BS, bacon slices (BA, and meat and potato pies (PP. Reduced O2 levels reflect the microbial quality of products, which has been successfully reduced. Duplicate samples of all product packs were produced using ethanol emitters (EE to see if shelf-life could be further extended. Results showed a further improvement in shelf-life to 35 days. Sensory analysis showed that ethanol flavour and aroma was not perceived by panellists in two of the three products assessed. This study demonstrates how smart packaging technologies, both intelligent and active, can be used to assist in the modification of conventional packaging systems in order to enhance product quality and safety and through the extension of product shelf-life.

  8. Therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen and swallowing training combined with acupuncture at Fengchi acu-point on dysphagia caused by pseudobulbar paralysis after stroke%高压氧、吞咽训练及针刺风池穴治疗脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹所致吞咽障碍的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光健; 王云甫; 何国厚; 罗国君; 王俊华; 李厚成; 席刚明

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy and swallowing training combined with Fengchi acupoint acupuncture on dysphagia caused by pseudobulbar paralysis after stroke. Methods Seventy-five patients were randomly divided into control group, HBO therapy group, swallow training group, acupuncture group and combined treatment group (n = 15). Patients in all groups were given cerebro-vascular disease routine treatment. In addition, the patients in HBO therapy group, swallowing training group and ac-upuncture group were given HBO therapy, swallowing training and Fengehi (GB20) acupoint acupuncture simultane-ously, respectively. The patients in combined treatment group were given HBO therapy combined with swallowing training and Fengchi acupoint acupuncture. Modified Kubota-Chiari's swallowing functional classification was used to assess swallowing function before and on the 3rd d,6th d,9th d, 12th d, 15th d, 18th d and 21st d after treatment. Results It was shown that the patients in all groups but the control group got significant improvement in swallowing after treatment, as demonstrated by the swallowing function scores (P acupuncture group > swal-low training group > HBO therapy group > control group(P 针刺组>吞咽训练组>高压氧组>对照组,组间差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高压氧、吞咽功能训练及针刺风池穴联合治疗脑卒中后假性延髓麻痹所致吞咽障碍具有协同效应,可进一步提高临床疗效,促进患者吞咽功能恢复.

  9. Oxygen mass transfer in fermentation of bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ríos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to obtain a correlation based on literature, depicting the relationships betwen the physical oxygen transfer rate (OTR and microbial oxygen uptake rate (OUR in order to determine the conditions (mass transfer coefficient, resulting on diferents combinations of aereations and agitations rates, under which growth will not be limited by oxygen. This correlation was adapted to culture with B. thuringiensis in order to estimate what biomass concentration are feasible for the physical limits set by operations conditions before microbial activity becomes limited by oxygen.

  10. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  11. Visible light optical coherence tomography measure retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ji; Liu, Wenzhong; Chen, Siyu; Backman, Vadim; Sheibani, Nader; Sorenson, Christine M.; Fawzi, Amani A.; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-03-01

    The lack of capability to quantify oxygen metabolism noninvasively impedes both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of a wide spectrum of diseases including all the major blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Using visible light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), we demonstrated accurate and robust measurement of retinal oxygen metabolic rate (rMRO2) noninvasively in rat eyes. The rMRO2 was calculated by concurrent measurement of blood flow and blood oxygen saturation (sO2). Blood flow was calculated by the principle of Doppler optical coherence tomography, where the phase shift between two closely spaced A-lines measures the axial velocity. The distinct optical absorption spectra of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin provided the contrast for sO2 measurement, combined with the spectroscopic analysis of vis-OCT signal within the blood vessels. We continuously monitored the regulatory response of oxygen consumption to a progressive hypoxic challenge. We found that both oxygen delivery, and rMRO2 increased from the highly regulated retinal circulation (RC) under hypoxia, by 0.28+/-0.08 μL/min (p<0.001), and 0.20+/-0.04 μL/min (p<0.001) per 100 mmHg systemic pO2 reduction, respectively. The increased oxygen extraction compensated for the deficient oxygen supply from the poorly regulated choroidal circulation (CC).

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, R. [Medical Univ. of Graz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R. [Whipps Cross Hospital, Leytonstone, London (United Kingdom). Hyperbaric Unit; Kleij, A.J. van der [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (NL). Dept. of Surgery] [and others

    2005-02-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  14. 骨髓间充质干细胞移植联合高压氧治疗兔脊髓冲击伤%Therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen on spinal cord blast injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴少保; 方健; 王海峰; 梅厚东; 张迪; 蒋传海

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用兔骨髓间充质干细胞联合高压氧治疗兔脊髓冲击伤,评价其治疗效果是否优于其两种治疗方法单独应用的效果.方法 建立T9-T10段大白兔脊髓冲击伤模型,通过Reuter、改良Tarlov评分和体感诱发电位选择脊髓损伤程度相同的48只大白兔,随机分为4组,每组12只.12 h后对各组分别作空白对照、高压氧治疗、骨髓间充质干细胞移植、两者联合治疗方面的干预.6周后行运动感觉功能评分、免疫荧光示踪、甲苯胺蓝染色、免疫组化染色(Bax、Bcl-2检测凋亡)等检测,比较各组指标的差异.结果 高压氧治疗组和骨髓间充质干细胞移植组的运动学评分及病理学指标均优于空白对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两者联合治疗组的相关指标较其他治疗组效果明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 单独应用干细胞移植和高压氧治疗均能对脊髓冲击伤产生一定的修复作用,两种治疗措施联合能发挥协同作用,增强治疗效果.%Objective To therapy spinal cord injury by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and hyperbaric oxygen, to evaluate whether their combined treatment effect is better than their respective effect when used separately or not. Methods Established the models of T9-T10 spinal cord injuries, evaluated the extent of injuries by making kinematics score and somatosensory evoked potential score of each rabbit after 12 h , then 48 rabbits were randomly divided into four groups( n = 12 ) , which treated nothing, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation , hyperbaric oxygen intervention,combined treatments .respectively. Six weeks later. evaluated with kinematics score,and immunofluorescence tracing method, toluidine blue stain, immunohistochemistry ( Bax, Bcl-2 detection of apoptosis ), and estimated the therapeutic efficacy of each group. Results After six weeks ,we found that the treatment of combined treatment on spinal cord injury was

  15. Observation on the Effect of Early Massage Combined with Hyperbaric Oxygen or Hydrotherapy on Recent Nerve Motor Function of Severe Neonatal HIE%早期抚触联合高压氧或水疗对重度新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病近期神经运动功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常文更

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of early massage combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy ,hydro-therapy on recent nerve motor function of severe neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy(HIE) .[Methods]Totally 497 patients with HIE were collected .According to the treatment methods ,all patients were divided into group A ,B and C .Group A received simple early massage ,and group B received massage combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy ,and group C received massage combined with hydrotherapy .Motor function ,nerve 20-item score criteria(NBNA) score ,body weight ,height ,daily milk intake after treatment were compared a-mong 3 groups .[Results]After treatment ,the proportion of taking grade Ⅲ action in group A was obviously lower than that in group B and group C( P 0 .05) .NBNA scores in group B and group C at 2 and 4 weeks after treatment were signifi-cantly higher than those in group A ( P 0 .05) .The weight ,height and daily milk intake in group B and group C at 4 weeks after treatment were significantly better than group A ( P 0 .05) .[Conclusion]Early massage combined with hyperbaric oxygen or hydrotherapy can promote neural motor function rehabilitation in pediatric patients with HIE and is condu-cive to neonatal growth and development .Therefore ,it is worthy of clinical promotion .%【目的】探讨早期抚触联合高压氧疗、水疗对重度新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病(HIE)近期神经运动功能的影响。【方法】收集 H IE患儿497例,按照治疗方法分为A、B、C三组,A组采用单纯早期抚触,B组抚触联合高压氧疗,C组采用抚触联合水疗。对比三组患儿运动功能、神经20项评分标准(NBNA )评分及治疗后体质量、身高、每日摄奶量情况。【结果】治疗后A组完成Ⅲ级动作比例明显低于B组和C组( P <0.05),其中B组与C组相比差异无统计学意义( P>0.05);治疗2周、4周后B组、C组NBNA评分显著高于A组( P<0.05),其中B、C两组间

  16. A Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Evolution and Oxygen Reduction Reactions in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschinger, Felix; Chattopadhyay, Samir; Bhakta, Snehadri; Mondal, Biswajit; Elemans, Johannes A. A. W.; Müllegger, Stefan; Tebi, Stefano; Koch, Reinhold; Klappenberger, Florian; Paszkiewicz, Mateusz; Barth, Johannes V.; Rauls, Eva; Aldahhak, Hazem; Schmidt, Wolf Gero

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen reduction and water oxidation are two key processes in fuel cell applications. The oxidation of water to dioxygen is a 4 H+/4 e− process, while oxygen can be fully reduced to water by a 4 e−/4 H+ process or partially reduced by fewer electrons to reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 and O2 −. We demonstrate that a novel manganese corrole complex behaves as a bifunctional catalyst for both the electrocatalytic generation of dioxygen as well as the reduction of dioxygen in aqueous media. Furthermore, our combined kinetic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical study of manganese corroles adsorbed on different electrode materials (down to a submolecular level) reveals mechanistic details of the oxygen evolution and reduction processes.

  17. Oxygen ion conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Skinner

    2003-03-01

    A very interesting subgroup of this class of materials are the oxides that display oxygen ion conductivity. As well as the intrinsic interest in these materials, there has been a continued drive for their development because of the promise of important technological devices such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, oxygen separation membranes, and membranes for the conversion of methane to syngas1. All of these devices offer the potential of enormous commercial and ecological benefits provided suitable high performance materials can be developed. In this article we will review the materials currently under development for application in such devices with particular reference to some of the newly discovered oxide ion conductors.

  18. The Appropriate Use of Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, Stan

    1988-01-01

    The scientific evidence for the efficacy of oxygen therapy in acute hypoxemia is limited. In chronic hypoxemia continuous oxygen therapy appears to decrease mortality. Current indications for oxygen treatment are PaO2 less than 60 in acute hypoxemia and less than 55 in chronic hypoxemia. Physical and physiological hazards of oxygen are reviewed. Three syndromes of pulmonary oxygen toxicity are described: tracheobronchitis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  19. Oxygen dynamics and transport in the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, F.; Røy, Hans; Bayer, K.;

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba kept in aquaria or cultivation tanks can stop pumping for several hours or even days. To investigate changes in the chemical microenvironments, we measured oxygen profiles over the surface and into the tissue of pumping and non-pumping A. aerophoba...... specimens with Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes (tip diameters 18-30 μm). Total oxygen consumption rates of whole sponges were measured in closed chambers. These rates were used to back-calculate the oxygen distribution in a finite-element model. Combining direct measurements with calculations of diffusive...... flux and modeling revealed that the tissue of non-pumping sponges turns anoxic within 15 min, with the exception of a 1 mm surface layer where oxygen intrudes due to molecular diffusion over the sponge surface. Molecular diffusion is the only transport mechanism for oxygen into non-pumping sponges...

  20. 不同种类有机酸及其配施对烤烟生长和叶片非酶促活性氧代谢的影响%Effect of different types of organic acids and their combined application on the growth and leaf non-enzymatic active oxygen metabolism of flue-cured tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡皓月; 许自成; 李志刚; 张蕊; 冉法芬; 王满

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different types of organic acids and their combined application on the growth and leaf non-enzymatic active oxygen metabolism of flue-cured tobacco were studied. The results showed that applying organic acids accelerated the plant height, the largest leaf length and width, the dry weight of steam and leaf, the dry weight of root to promote the growth of flue-cured tobacco, single application of oleic acid or malic acid, combined application of malic acid and oleic acid, or combined application of malic acid, oleic acid and humic acid had most obvious influence on it. Moreover, applying organic acids increased the content of ascorbic acid (ASA) and reduced glutathione ( GSH ), decreased the accumulation of superoxide radical ( O2- · ), which were beneficial for the balance of the leaf non-enzymatic active oxygen metabolism of tobacco.The results indicated that humic acid and oleic acid were most effective in single application of organic acids, the production rate of O2- · reduced by 35. 33% and 37. 08% than the control, the content of ASA increased by 28. 64% and 36. 03%,the content of GSH increased by 19. 75% and 15.24%; combined application of malic acid and humic acid , or combined application of malic acid and oleic acid were most effective in combined application of organic acids, the production rate of O2- · reduced by 31.00% and 29. 96% than the control, the content of ASA increased by 28. 31% and 34. 05%, the content of GSH increased by 13.87% and 10. 18%.%研究了不同种类有机酸及其组合对烤烟生长和非酶促活性氧代谢的影响.结果表明,施用有机酸有效提高了烤烟株高、最大叶长、最大叶宽、茎叶干重和根系干重,促进了烤烟的生长,其中以油酸、苹果酸、苹果酸+油酸配施、苹果酸+油酸+腐殖酸配施处理的效果较好.施用有机酸显著提高了抗氧化物质抗坏血酸(ASA)和还原性谷胱甘肽(GSH)的含量,减少了

  1. 自体血液回收联合控制性降压减少输血及对脑组织氧合和乳酸代谢的影响%Combined autologous transfusion with controlled hypotension to reduce blood transfusion and the influence on brain tissue oxygenation and lactate metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯南丽; 袁莉; 刘爱杰; 王世端; 武贞芝

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of blood salvage and controlled hypotension which can reduce allogeneic blood transfusion on brain tissue oxygenation and lactic acid metabolism in patients with spinal surgery, and to determine the efficacy and safety of combination. Methods Sixty patients scheduled for spinal surgery with ASA grade I-Ⅱ levels in our hospital from December 2011 to May 2013 were randomly divided into two groups with 30 cases in each:Experimental Group (blood salvage combing controlled hypotension) or Control Group. General anesthesia was chosen in all patients. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular bulb and radial arterial simultaneously before surgery (T0), the end of surgery(T2) and 24 hours after surgery (T3) for blood gas analysis. Arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), arterial oxygen saturation degree (SaO2), jugular bulb blood oxygen partial pressure (PjvO2), jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2), arterial and venous blood lactic acid (LacA, Lacjv) were recorded. Cerebral arterial oxygen content (CaO2), jugular bulb oxygen content (CjvO2), cerebral oxygen consumption C (ajv) O2 , cerebral oxygen uptake rate (CERO2) and difference in arterial and venous lactic acid content (ADVL) were calculated according to Fick formula. T1 is the stable point of intraoperative controlled hypotension. Patients' infusion volume,blood loss,autologous blood transfusion,allogeneic blood transfusion and the hemoglobin levels were recorded at each time point of these two groups. Results There was no significant difference in age, body weight, heart rate (HR), preoperative hemoglobin level (Hb) and preoperative coagulation index between two groups(P>0.05). Allogeneic blood transfusion volumes were significantly less in Experimental Group than those in Control Croup (P0.05). The CaO2, CjvO2 decreased significantly at the end of surgery(T2) and 24 hours after surgery (T3)compared with T0 (P0.05). Blood pressure was significantly lower in Control Group

  2. Effect of an oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device on the oxygen saturation of patients during dermatological methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, E; Allen, J; Thorn, C; Shore, A; Curnow, A

    2013-05-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) (a topical treatment used for a number of precancerous skin conditions) utilizes the combined interaction of a photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)), light of the appropriate wavelength, and molecular oxygen to produce singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species which induce cell death. During treatment, localized oxygen depletion occurs and is thought to contribute to decreased efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device had an effect on localized oxygen saturation levels and/or PpIX fluorescence of skin lesions during MAL-PDT. This study employed an OPI device to apply oxygen under pressure to the skin lesions of patients undergoing standard MAL-PDT. Optical reflectance spectrometry and fluorescence imaging were used to noninvasively monitor the localized oxygen saturation and PpIX fluorescence of the treatment area, respectively. No significant changes in oxygen saturation were observed when these data were combined for the group with OPI and compared to the group that received standard MAL-PDT without OPI. Additionally, no significant difference in PpIX photobleaching or clinical outcome at 3 months between the groups of patients was observed, although the group that received standard MAL-PDT demonstrated a significant increase (pMAL-PDT. Further investigation is therefore required to find a more effective method of MAL-PDT enhancement.

  3. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T;

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  4. Calibration Of Oxygen Monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalenski, M. A.; Rowe, E. L.; Mcphee, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Readings corrected for temperature, pressure, and humidity of air. Program for handheld computer developed to ensure accuracy of oxygen monitors in National Transonic Facility, where liquid nitrogen stored. Calibration values, determined daily, based on entries of data on barometric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. Output provided directly in millivolts.

  5. Effect of oxygen breathing and perfluorocarbon emulsion treatment on air bubbles in adipose tissue during decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, T; Hyldegaard, O

    2009-01-01

    effect of normobaric oxygen breathing and intravascular PFC infusion could lead to either enhanced extravascular bubble growth on decompression due to the increased oxygen supply, or that PFC infusion could lead to faster bubble elimination due to the increased solubility and transport capacity in blood...... combined with PFC infusion. All bubble observations were done at 101.3 kPa pressure. During oxygen breathing with or without combined PFC infusion, bubbles disappeared faster compared with air breathing. Combined oxygen breathing and PFC infusion caused faster bubble disappearance compared with oxygen...... breathing. The combined effect of oxygen breathing and PFC infusion neither prevented nor increased transient bubble growth time, rate, or growth ratio compared with oxygen breathing alone. We conclude that oxygen breathing in combination with PFC infusion causes faster bubble disappearance and does...

  6. Oxygen consumption by a coral reef sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, Eran; Ilan, Micha; Shpigel, Muki

    2008-07-01

    Oxygen consumption of the Red Sea coral reef sponge Negombata magnifica was measured using both incubation and steady-state methods. The latter method was found to be the more reliable because sponge activity remained stable over time. Oxygen consumption rate was measured during three levels of sponge activity: full activity, reduced activity and basal activity (starved). It was found that the active oxygen consumption rate of N. magnifica averaged 37.3+/-4.6 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass, which is within the upper range reported for other tropical marine sponges. Fully active N. magnifica individuals consumed an average of 41.8+/-3.2 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass. The mean basal respiration rate was 20.2+/-1.2 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass, which is 51.6+/-2.5% of the active respiration rate. Therefore, the oxygen used for water pumping was calculated to be at most 10.6+/-1.8 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass, which is 25.1+/-3.6% of the total respiration. Combined oxygen used for maintenance and water pumping activity was calculated to be 30.8 nmol O2 min(-1) g(-1) wet mass, which is approximately 74% of the sponge's total oxygen requirement. The remaining oxygen is directed to other physiological activities, mainly the energy requirement of growth. These findings suggest that only a relatively minor amount of energy is potentially available for growth, and thus might be a factor in controlling the growth rate of N. magnifica in oligotrophic coral reefs.

  7. The efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen combined with Xingnaojing injection in the treatment of viral meningitis in children%高压氧联合醒脑静注射液对小儿病毒性脑膜炎的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林传琼

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高压氧联合醒脑静注射液对小儿病毒性脑膜炎运动功能及智力发育的影响。方法:选取我院收治的小儿病毒性脑膜炎患儿68例,随机分为观察组和对照组各34例,观察组给予高压氧联合醒脑静注射液治疗,对照组仅给予醒脑静注射液治疗。比较两组患儿运动功能及智力发育的改善情况。结果:两组患者治疗后上肢、下肢 FMA评分较治疗前均有明显改善,且观察组优于对照组;两组患者5个功能区发育商均有改善,观察组精细动作、适应能力、语言和社交能力发育商明显高于对照组。差异均有统计学意义。结论:高压氧联合醒脑静注射液治疗小儿病毒性脑膜炎,可明显提高患儿的运动功能及智力发育,提高生活质量。%Objective: To investigate the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen combined with Xingnaojing injection on the motor function and intelligence development of children with viral meningitis. Methods: Sixty-eight cases of children with viral meningitis in our hospital were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group with 34 cases each. Hyperbaric oxygen combined with Xingnaojing injection was given in the observation group while only Xingnaojing injection in the control group. The improvement of motor function and intelligence development were compared between two groups. Results: The FMA scores for upper and lower limbs in two groups were significantly improved after the treatment, and were much higher in the observation group than in the control group. The developmental quotient (DQ) of 5 function areas was all improved, however, DQ of fine motor, adaptive capacity, language and social skills was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group. All the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen combined with Xingnaojing injection in the treatment of children with viral meningitis can

  8. 凯时注射液联合高压氧治疗突发性耳聋患者的疗效观察%Observation of curative effects of Kaishi injection combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy in treatment of sudden deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王郁

    2016-01-01

    目的::观察凯时注射液联合高压氧治疗突发性耳聋患者的临床疗效。方法:以收治的80例突发性耳聋患者为研究对象,随机双盲法将其分为对照组和观察组,每组各40例。对照组患者采取常规治疗(即给予患者血管扩张剂、营养神经剂等);观察组患者在对照组基础上行凯时注射液联合高压氧治疗,比较两组患者治疗前后纯音听力水平。结果:观察组患者的治疗总有效率85.0%(34/40)高于对照组的65.0%(26/40),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗后,观察组患者纯音测听气导为(29.1±2.0) dB明显低于对照组的(36.3±2.4) dB,差异有显著性(P<0.01)。结论:在常规治疗基础上,凯时注射液联合高压氧治疗突发性耳聋患者的疗效优于单纯常规治疗。%Objective:To observe clinical curative effects of Kaishi injection combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy in treat-ment of sudden deafness. Methods:80 patients with sudden deafness were taken as the research objects and were divided into two groups by randomized double blind method with 40 cases in each group. The control group was treated with conventional therapy ( vaso-dilators and nerve nutrition agetns, etc. ) , while the experimental group with Kaishi injection combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy based on the treatment of the control group. The pure tone hearing levels of the two groups before and after the treatment were com-pared. Results:The total effective rate of the experimental group was 85% (34/40), that of the control group was 65. 0% (26/40), and the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 05). The air conduction of pure tone audiometry of the experimental group after the treatment was (29. 1±2. 0) dB, compared with (36. 3±2. 4)dB of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 01). Conclusions:The curative effects of Kaishi injection combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy based on the conventional

  9. Curative effecive observation of incontinence dermatitis using oxygen therapy combined with stoma powder and Algoplaque%氧疗联合造口粉及安普贴的使用治疗失禁性皮炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪飞; 黄莉莎; 陈文姿; 云燕

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the clinical curative effect of oxygen therapy combined with stoma powder and Algoplaque in treatment of incontinence dermatitis.Methods80 cases of incontinence dermatitis patients admitted in our hospital from January 2013 to October 2014 as the research object, were randomly divided into two groups, patients in control group were treated with ostomy powder +3M wound protective membrane treatment, patients in observation group was for oxygen therapy combined with stoma powder and Algoplaque treatment, compared two groups of clinical curative effect and nursing time and healing time.Results In the observation group, the cure rate and total effective rate was 100.00%, there was statistically significant difference in the control group 82.50%, 90.00% (P<0.05). Average care time of two groups [(2.35±1.05)d VS(4.45±1.34)d], nursing times [(1.51±0.60)times VS(11.40±2.78)times] and healing time [(2.78±1.00)d VS(4.69±0.88)d]were significantly different (P<0.05). In ad dition, the incidence in observation group was significantly less than control group (P<0.05).Conclusion The effect of oxygen therapy combined with stoma powder and Algoplaque in treatment of incontinence dermatitis is clear, can effectively shorten the healing time, reduce the nursing workload, is worth the clinical promotion.%目的:观察氧疗联合造口粉及安普贴治疗失禁性皮炎的临床疗效。方法以我院2013年1月~2014年10月收治的80例失禁性皮炎患者为研究对象,随机将其分为两组,对照组患者给予造口粉+3M伤口保护膜治疗,观察组患者则行氧疗联合造口粉及安普贴治疗,比较两组临床疗效、护理时间、护理次数及愈合时间。结果观察组治愈率、总有效率均为100.00%,与对照组的82.50%、90.00%比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。两组平均护理时间[(2.35±1.05)d VS(4.45±1.34)d]、护理次数[(1.51±0.60)次VS (11.40±2.78

  10. Observation on curative effect of oxygen combined with ginger nasal therapy for prevention of acute vomiting in breast cancer patients after chemotherapy%吸氧联合生姜鼻疗法预防乳腺癌化疗后急性呕吐的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付攸缘; 黄丽梅; 陈凯霓; 蒋翠芳

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察吸氧联合生姜鼻疗法预防乳腺癌化疗后急性呕吐的疗效。[方法]将60例乳腺癌首次使用 TAC 方案化疗病人,随机分为观察组与对照组,观察组在常规给予止吐药物治疗外予吸氧联合生姜鼻疗法,对照组予常规止吐药物治疗,运用世界卫生组织(WHO)关于化疗药物急性及亚急性毒性反应分级标准评估疗效,并对比观察组与对照组急性呕吐的发生程度。[结果]两组急性呕吐发生程度及有效率比较,观察组有效率为86.66%,对化疗后急性呕吐的缓解程度高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。[结论]在病人化疗开始给予吸氧联合生姜鼻疗法能有效预防乳腺癌化疗后急性呕吐反应。%Obj ective:To observe the curative effect of oxygen combined with ginger nasal therapy for the prevention of acute vomiting in breast cancer pa-tients after chemotherapy.Methods:A total of 60 cases of breast cancer pa-tients receiving the first TAC chemotherapy were randomly divided into ob-servation group and control group,patients in observation group was given oxygen combined with ginger nasal therapy on the basis of routine antiemetic drug treatment,and patients in control group received routine antiemetic therapy.The acute and subacute chemotherapy drugs'toxicity classification standard of in WHO was used to assess the curative effect,and to compare the incidence of acute vomiting between observation group and control group.Results:In acute vomiting degree and efficiency comparison,the ef-fective rate in observation group was 86.66%,the alleviation degree of acute vomiting in observation group after chemotherapy was higher than that in control group,and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01 ). Conclusion:oxygen combined with ginger nasal therapy at the beginning of patients’chemotherapy can effectively prevent acute vomiting in patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy.

  11. 高压氧联合布地奈德福莫特罗粉吸入剂治疗成人支气管哮喘的临床观察%Clinical observation of hyperbaric oxygen combined budesonide and formoterol fumarate powder for inhalation treatment of adult patients with bronchial asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任伟波; 许婷; 邓世忠; 涂彩坤; 陈永丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高压氧联合布地奈德福莫特罗粉吸入剂治疗成人支气管哮喘的临床疗效。方法分析我院2013年1月~2014年8月收治的60例支气管哮喘的患者临床资料,依据治疗方法不同进行临床随机分组,常规治疗组30例和联合治疗组30例。结果两组支气管哮喘患者治疗前动脉血气分析结果、肺功能无明显差异(P>0.05),联合治疗组治疗后动脉血气分析结果、肺功能均优于常规治疗组,联合治疗组发作频率和程度均优于常规治疗组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论高压氧联合布地奈德福莫特罗粉吸入剂治疗成人支气管哮喘临床症状改善明显,预后良好,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To study the clinical effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined budesonide and formoterol fumarate powder for inhalation in the treatment of adult patients with bronchial asthma. Methods 60 adult patients with bronchial asthma who were treated in our hospital from January 2013 to August 2014, were analyzed as the clinical data, were randomly divided into two groups according to the different treatment methods, with 30 cases in routine treatment group and 30 cases in combined treatment group. Results The analysis results of arterial blood gas and pulmonary function before the treatment of adult patients with bronchial asthma between the two groups were no significant differences(P>0.05), while which after treatment in combined treatment group was better than which in routine treatment group(P < 0.05). The seizure frequency and degree in combined treatment group was better than which in routine treatment group, the difference was statically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Hyperbaric oxygen combined budesonide and formoterol fumarate powder for inhalation in the treatment of adult patients with bronchial asthma has obviously improved the clinical effect, has favourable prognosis, is worthy of clinical popularization and

  12. Determining the Source of Water Vapor in a Cerium Oxide Electrochemical Oxygen Separator to Achieve Aviator Grade Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John; Taylor, Dale; Martinez, James

    2014-01-01

    ]. Combined with a mechanical compressor, a Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Separator (SEOS) should be capable of producing ABO grade oxygen at pressures >2400 psia, on the space station. Feasibility tests using a SEOS integrated with a mechanical compressor identified an unexpected contaminant in the oxygen: water vapour was found in the oxygen product, sometimes at concentrations higher than 40 ppm (the ABO limit for water vapour is 7 ppm). If solid electrolyte membranes are really "infinitely selective" to oxygen as they are reported to be, where did the water come from? If water is getting into the oxygen, what other contaminants might get into the oxygen? Microscopic analyses of wafers, welds, and oxygen delivery tubes were performed in an attempt to find the source of the water vapour contamination. Hot and cold pressure decay tests were performed. Measurements of water vapour as a function of O2 delivery rate, O2 delivery pressure, and process air humidity levels were the most instructive in finding the source of water contamination (Fig 3). Water contamination was directly affected by oxygen delivery rate (doubling the oxygen production rate cut the water level in half). Water was affected by process air humidity levels and delivery pressure in a way that indicates the water was diffusing into the oxygen delivery system.

  13. 普米克令舒联合博利康尼氧气雾化吸入治疗毛细支气管炎120例%Pulmicort combined Bricanyl inhalation of oxygen in treatment of bronchiolitis 120 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫伯强

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察普米克联合博利康尼以氧气作动力雾化吸入治疗毛细支气管炎的疗效.方法 将240例毛细支气管炎患儿随机分为两组,观察组120例在常规治疗的基础上辅以普米克令舒联合博利康尼氧驱雾化吸入;对照组120例仅进行常规治疗.结果 观察组咳喘消失时间、肺部湿啰音消失时间和住院时间均优于对照组(P<0.05),观察组总有效率91.7%,对照组总有效率55%,两组疗效差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 普米克令舒联合博利康尼治疗小儿毛细支气管炎的临床疗效确切,值得临床推广使用.%Objective To observe the effect of Pulmicort combined Bricanyl with oxygen inhalation therapy for bronchiolitis. Methods Totally 240 patients with bronchiolitis were randomly divided into two groups, 120 patients in the observation group on the basis of conventional therapy supplemented by joint Bricanyl Pulmicort inhalation of oxygen flooding; Control group, only routine treatment of 120 cases. Results The study group cough lost time, pulmonary auscultation and hospital stay were betler than that of the control group (P < 0. 05 ) , observation group the total effective rate was 91. 7% , that of the control group the total efficiency 55% , the difference between the two groups efficacy was statistically significant (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions The combined Pulmicort and Bricanyl clinical treatment of children with bronchiolitis is effective, is worthy of clinical use.

  14. Emergency oxygen: What? Who? When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, L M

    1994-01-01

    1. While the need for oxygen to support ill or injured clients is well established, confusion exists about oxygen devices and legal and training requirements. 2. The FDA recognizes both emergency and prescription oxygen. Emergency devices may be used legally by a non-health care workplace first aider who has completed a course in oxygen administration. Training sources for oxygen administration training are identified. 3. Workplace first aiders may assist a client and occupational health nurse by administering emergency oxygen. The appropriate use of these devices for cases of cardiac distress/arrest, shock, COPD, and hyperventilation is reviewed. PMID:8147981

  15. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... different for stationary oxygen equipment than for portable oxygen equipment, the flow rate for the stationary equipment is used. (ii) If the prescribed flow rate is different for the patient at rest than for... amounts are separately calculated for the following items: (i) Stationary oxygen equipment and...

  16. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    of instrument automation and online data treatment, and provides welldefined mass transport conditions enabling kinetic measurements. A modified electrochemical / spectroscopic interface is presented allowing the exclusive investigation of the Pt/C catalyst layer. Three types of potential dependent adsorption...... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration....... The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...

  17. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......-SIGHT were compared on 12 term newborns delivered by elective caesarean section. During the 10 min following umbilical cord clamping, cStO2 was measured simultaneously with the neonatal sensors from each device. Repeated measurements were taken the following day. RESULTS: Three and 8 min after clamping......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  18. High pressure oxygen furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Donald E.

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  19. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  20. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  1. 高压氧联合山莨菪碱治疗时间点选择对突发性耳聋疗效的影响%Effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with anisodamine treatment time point selection on curative effect of sudden deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓雯; 姜永珊

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同时间点高压氧联合山莨菪碱治疗突发性耳聋对疗效的影响。方法将166例采用高压氧治疗( HBO)的突发性耳聋患者,分为山莨菪碱组88例与对照组78例,两组均给予常规药物治疗,山莨菪碱组每日治疗前30 min肌注山莨菪碱,比较不同时间点治疗前后听力的变化。结果在发病1天内开始治疗,山莨菪碱组38例,显效率90.48%;对照组28例,显效率80.00%;两组均可收到较好疗效;发病1天~1周内开始治疗,山莨菪碱组26例,显效率76.47%;对照组16例,显效率51.61%;山莨菪碱组比对照组效果好,差异有显著性意义( P<0.05);发病2周后开始治疗,两组疗效均较差。结论高压氧联合山莨菪碱在有效时间点内治疗突发性耳聋,临床疗效肯定。%Objective To observe the effect of different time points of hyperbaric oxygen combined with anisodamine in the treatment of sudden deafness on curative effect .Methods A total of 166 patients with sudden deafness treated by hyperbaric oxygen ( HBO) were divided into anisodamine group of 88 cases and control group of 78 cases.The two groups were given routine drug treatment.In addition, the anisodamine group received intramuscular injection of anisodamine 30 minutes be-fore treatment.The changes of hearing before and after treatment were compared at different time points .Results Two groups had excellent curative effects when the treatment initiated within the first 24 hours.In anisodamine group of 38 ca-ses, the effective rate was 90.48%;in control group of 28 cases, the effective rate was 80%.Anisodamine group had bet-ter curative effects than control group within the first week , with significant difference (P<0.05).In anisodamine group of 26 cases, the effective rate was 76.47%;in control group of 16 cases, the effective rate was 51.61%.The outcome can not be improved in both groups if the treatment was

  2. 高压氧联合山莨菪碱治疗时间点选择对突发性耳聋疗效的影响%Effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with anisodamine treatment time point selection on curative effect of sudden deafness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔晓雯; 姜永珊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of different time points of hyperbaric oxygen combined with anisodamine in the treatment of sudden deafness on curative effect .Methods A total of 166 patients with sudden deafness treated by hyperbaric oxygen ( HBO) were divided into anisodamine group of 88 cases and control group of 78 cases.The two groups were given routine drug treatment.In addition, the anisodamine group received intramuscular injection of anisodamine 30 minutes be-fore treatment.The changes of hearing before and after treatment were compared at different time points .Results Two groups had excellent curative effects when the treatment initiated within the first 24 hours.In anisodamine group of 38 ca-ses, the effective rate was 90.48%;in control group of 28 cases, the effective rate was 80%.Anisodamine group had bet-ter curative effects than control group within the first week , with significant difference (P<0.05).In anisodamine group of 26 cases, the effective rate was 76.47%;in control group of 16 cases, the effective rate was 51.61%.The outcome can not be improved in both groups if the treatment was initiated after 2 weeks.Conclusion Hyperbaric oxygen combined with anisodamine in the treatment of sudden deafness within the effective time has clinical curative effect affirmation .%目的:观察不同时间点高压氧联合山莨菪碱治疗突发性耳聋对疗效的影响。方法将166例采用高压氧治疗( HBO)的突发性耳聋患者,分为山莨菪碱组88例与对照组78例,两组均给予常规药物治疗,山莨菪碱组每日治疗前30 min肌注山莨菪碱,比较不同时间点治疗前后听力的变化。结果在发病1天内开始治疗,山莨菪碱组38例,显效率90.48%;对照组28例,显效率80.00%;两组均可收到较好疗效;发病1天~1周内开始治疗,山莨菪碱组26例,显效率76.47%;对照组16例,显效率51.61%;山莨菪碱组比对照组效果好

  3. Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Woodward W.; Hemp, James; Johnson, Jena E.

    2016-06-01

    The origin of oxygenic photosynthesis was the most important metabolic innovation in Earth history. It allowed life to generate energy and reducing power directly from sunlight and water, freeing it from the limited resources of geochemically derived reductants. This greatly increased global primary productivity and restructured ecosystems. The release of O2 as an end product of water oxidation led to the rise of oxygen, which dramatically altered the redox state of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and permanently changed all major biogeochemical cycles. Furthermore, the biological availability of O2 allowed for the evolution of aerobic respiration and novel biosynthetic pathways, facilitating much of the richness we associate with modern biology, including complex multicellularity. Here we critically review and synthesize information from the geological and biological records for the origin and evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Data from both of these archives illustrate that this metabolism first appeared in early Paleoproterozoic time and, despite its biogeochemical prominence, is a relatively late invention in the context of our planet's history.

  4. Ancient Oceans Had Less Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    The amount of dissolved oxygen in the oceans in the mid-Proterozoic period has evolutionary implications since essential trace metals are redox sensitive. The findings suggest that there is global lack of oxygen in seawater.

  5. SINGLET OXYGEN IN NATURAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singlet oxygen is a reactive, electronically excited form of molecular oxygen that rapidly oxidizes a wide variety of organic substances, such as the polycyclic aromatics in petroleum hydrocarbon and the amino acids, histidine, tryptophan, and methionine. Studies of water samples...

  6. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orion Propulsion, Inc. proposes to develop an Oxygen and Methane RCS Thruster to advance the technology of alternate fuels. A successful Oxygen/CH4 RCS Thruster...

  7. 氨溴特罗口服液联合复方异丙托溴铵氧气雾化吸入治疗小儿毛细支气管炎的临床价值%Clinical Value of Ambrocol Oral Liquid Combined With Ipratropium Bromide Oxygen Inhalation in the Treatment of Children With Bronchiolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜燕

    2016-01-01

    Objective Analysis of Ambrocol oral liquid combined with ipratropium bromide oxygen inhalation in the treatment of children with bronchiolitis. Methods 78 cases of bronchiolitis in our hospital were divided into two groups,comparing the clinical effect. Results The total efficiency of the observation group was significantly better than the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion Children with bronchiolitis by ipratropium bromide and ambrocol oral solution for atomizing inhalation treatment can obtain the exact effect.%目的:探析小儿毛细支气管炎采用复方异丙托溴铵与氨溴特罗口服液给予雾化吸入治疗的效果。方法将我院收治的78例毛细支气管炎患儿分成两组,对比分析其临床效果。结果观察组治疗总有效率优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论小儿毛细支气管炎通过复方异丙托溴铵、氨溴特罗口服液联合给予雾化吸入治疗可获得确切的效果。

  8. Oxygen Isotopic and Petrological Constraints on the Origin and Relationship of IIE Iron Meteorites and H Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, K. H.; Greenwood, R. C.; Franchi, I. A.; Anand, M.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2011-03-01

    New oxygen isotopic measurements of IIEs and H chondrites are indistinguishable — strengthening a possible common origin for these groups. Combining oxygen results with mineralogy, the nature of their parent body or bodies can be explored.

  9. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  10. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  11. Limitations of potentiometric oxygen sensors operating at low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels;

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical processes that limit the range of oxygen partial pressures in which potentiometric oxygen sensors can be used, were analysed using a theoretical and an experimental approach. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on porous Pt/yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ......) electrodes between 10−6 and 0.2 bar and at temperatures between 500 and 950 °C. The flow of oxide ions and electron holes through a sensor cell, with a YSZ electrolyte, were calculated under similar conditions. The oxygen permeation of the sensor cell was insignificant at an oxygen partial pressure of 10...... that gas phase mass transport processes were dominating. The time constant of the gas phase mass transport processes was found to be inversely proportional to the oxygen partial pressure. The response time of these processes therefore limits the oxygen partial pressure range in which potentiometric oxygen...

  12. Analysis of therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on neuropsychological disorders in senile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus combined with cerebral infarction%高压氧治疗老年2型糖尿病并存脑梗死患者神经心理障碍的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灶萍; 刘军; 查英; 盛励; 史莉华

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) in the treatment of neuropsychological disorders in senile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus combined with cerebral infarction. Methods A total of 70 senile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus combined with cerebral infarction were randomly divided into two groups: treatment group receiving HBO plus routine medicine treatment and control group receiving routing medicine treatment only. A suit of senile neuropsychological tests was administered pre and post treatment by an experienced psychometrician who was blinded to treatment group assignments. Results Neuropsychological disorders were improved partly in control group while the efficacy in treatment group was markedly improved(P<0.01). Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed that the improvement degree of neuropsychological disorders was positively correlated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) (r= 0.502,P<0.05), the time of test before therapy (r=0.260, P<0.05) and the time of test after therapy (r=0.386, P<0.05), and was negatively correlated with hyperlipoidemia (r=-0.261, P< 0.05), glycosylated hemoglobin(GHbAlc) (r=-0.321,P<0.05) and body mass index(BMI) (r= 0.360,P<0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that HBO and hyperlipoidemia were the independent predictors for the improvement degree of neuropsychological disorders. Conclusions HBO is an efficacious way to treat neuropsychological disorders in senile patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus combined with cerebral infarction.%目的 探讨高压氧治疗老年2型糖尿病并存脑梗死患者神经心理障碍的有效性. 方法 将70例入选患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组在常规药物治疗基础上联合10次高压氧治疗.选用老年成套心理测验,对所有患者治疗前后进行测试. 结果 对照组患者神经心理障碍得到部分改善,治疗组患者改善程度明显提高(P<0.01).Spearman相关分析显示

  13. Observation on the Therapeutic Effect of Budesonide Inhalation Via Oxygen-Driven Atomization Combined with Tanreqing Injection in Treatment of 100 Children Capillarity Bronchitis%布地奈德联合痰热清治疗婴幼儿毛细支气管炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓秋; 沈琪; 杨彤; 黄献文

    2013-01-01

    目的观察布地奈德雾化雾化吸入联合痰热清静脉滴注治疗婴幼儿毛细支气管炎的临床疗效。方法将100例婴幼儿毛细支气管炎患儿随机分为治疗组和对照组各50例,两组均采用吸氧、镇静、解痉平喘、纠正水及电解质平衡紊乱等常规治疗。在常规治疗基础上,治疗组给予布地奈德混悬液(普米克令舒,lmg/2mL)1mL氧气驱动雾化,2次/日,5-7d为1疗程;痰热清注射液0.3-0.5mL/kg,最大剂量10mL,加入5%GS或0.9%NS100-200mL静脉滴注,控制滴速20-30滴/分,1次/日,3-5d为1疗程。对照组给予头孢他啶50-100mg/(kg· d)、利巴韦林10-15mg/(kg· d)分别加入5%GS100-150 mL静脉滴注,1次/日,治疗5-7 d。观察并比较两组总有效率和咳喘、哮鸣音、湿啰音消失时间及住院时间等。结果治疗组总有效率96.0%,高于对照组的74.0%(P<0.05);治疗组咳喘、哮鸣音、湿啰音消失时间及住院时间均短于对照组(P均<0.05);两组均未发现明显不良反应。结论布地奈德雾化吸入联合痰热清静脉滴注对婴幼儿毛细支气管炎疗效良好,可明显改善其临床症状,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of Budesonide inhalation via oxygen -driven atomization combined with Tanreqing injection in treatment of 100 children capillarity bronchitis.Methods 100 children patients with capillarity bronchitis were randomly divided into a treatment group (n=50)and a control group (n=50).All children patients were given with oxygen,sedative,asthma and symptomatic treatment,the treatment group received extra treatment with budesonide inhala-tion via oxygen-driven atomization combined with Tanreqing injection treatment ,the control group received extra treatment with ribavirin and ceftazidime for injection treatment.Comparative analysis of total effective rate,disappearance time of cough

  14. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

    2006-12-31

    Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs

  15. Oxygen transport and degradation processes in mixed conducting perovskites

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, S J

    2002-01-01

    surface exchange between the ceramic and oxygen ions in the carbon dioxide and water has been investigated using sup 1 sup 8 O isotopically labelled species combined with SIMS. Also presented in Part 2 is an overview of the principles involved in the application of MIEC ceramics in oxygen separation membranes, with respect to the optimisation of oxygen fluxes and membrane performance. The application of oxide ion conducting ceramics in solid oxide electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells, air separation membranes and oxygen sensors, is an area currently of great commercial interest. Much recent research has focused on the optimisation of the structural and electrical properties of these ceramics. However little is known about the long term stability of these materials under the realistic operating conditions of the systems, and it is this concern which has provided the motivation for this project. The study has been divided into two sections. Part 1 deals with the measurement of the oxygen tran...

  16. The long-term effect of ambulatory oxygen in normoxaemic COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbaek, Thomas; Martinez, Gerd; Lange, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To study the long-term benefits of ambulatory oxygen (AO) in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing exertional desaturation.......To study the long-term benefits of ambulatory oxygen (AO) in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing exertional desaturation....

  17. Influence of chromium, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen on iron viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic viscosity of 70 beforehand melted iron samples with additions of chromium (up to 2%) and carbon (up to 1%) has been investigated. Different conditions of melting brought about differences in oxygen and nitrogen contents. Viscosity of most samples has been determined in the 1550-1650 deg C temperature range. It is stated that small additions to pure iron of each of the investigated elements (O, Cr, C, N) decrease its viscosity. Combined effect of these additions on viscosity is inadditive. Simultaneous introduction of oxygen and carbon may result in increase of melt viscosity. The same fact is observed at combined introduction of chromium and nitrogen. Simultaneous introduction of other impurities-chromium with oxygen or carbon, nitrogen with oxygen causes amplification of their individual effect. Reasons for the observed regularities result from changes in energies of interparticle interactions in the melt and therefore rebuilding of structure of its short-range order

  18. Oxygen isotopes and lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Melanie; Dean, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Isotopes are variations of a particular chemical element. It is all to do with the number of neutrons. Oxygen has two main isotopes: 18O which has 10 neutrons and 8 protons; and 16O which has 8 neutrons and 8 protons. Although these variants have a different number of neutrons (and therefore a different atomic mass), the number of protons remains the same, and they are still classed as the same element. Isotopes are analysed in terms of ratios such as 18O/16O which is shortened to δ18O (δ...

  19. Oxygen Isotopes in Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. N.

    2003-12-01

    Oxygen isotope abundance variations in meteorites are very useful in elucidating chemical and physical processes that occurred during the formation of the solar system (Clayton, 1993). On Earth, the mean abundances of the three stable isotopes are 16O: 99.76%, 17O: 0.039%, and 18O: 0.202%. It is conventional to express variations in abundances of the isotopes in terms of isotopic ratios, relative to an arbitrary standard, called SMOW (for standard mean ocean water), as follows:The isotopic composition of any sample can then be represented by one point on a "three-isotope plot," a graph of δ17O versus δ18O. It will be seen that such plots are invaluable in interpreting meteoritic data. Figure 1 shows schematically the effect of various processes on an initial composition at the center of the diagram. Almost all terrestrial materials lie along a "fractionation" trend; most meteoritic materials lie near a line of "16O addition" (or subtraction). (4K)Figure 1. Schematic representation of various isotopic processes shown on an oxygen three-isotope plot. Almost all terrestrial materials plot along a line of "fractionation"; most primitive meteoritic materials plot near a line of "16O addition." The three isotopes of oxygen are produced by nucleosynthesis in stars, but by different nuclear processes in different stellar environments. The principal isotope, 16O, is a primary isotope (capable of being produced from hydrogen and helium alone), formed in massive stars (>10 solar masses), and ejected by supernova explosions. The two rare isotopes are secondary nuclei (produced in stars from nuclei formed in an earlier generation of stars), with 17O coming primarily from low- and intermediate-mass stars (radiation in the wavelength range 90-100 nm. The reaction proceeds by a predissociation mechanism, in which the excited electronic state lives long enough to have well-defined vibrational and rotational energy levels. As a consequence, the three isotopic species - C16O, C17O

  20. Oxygen therapy in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, S; Morris, I; Evans, J; Kotecha, S

    2014-06-01

    Despite being the most widely used and vital therapy in neonatology, optimal strategies for the use of oxygen in preterm infants remain controversial. Achieving the balance between attaining adequate tissue oxygenation and avoiding oxygen toxicity is challenging. There remains a paucity of clear evidence based guidance for clinicians on safe oxygen saturation targets. What does seem apparent is that these targets vary over time in the life of a preterm infant. This article summarises the evidence behind current practice of oxygen monitoring and administration from the first few minutes after birth, through to the acute neonatal and later convalescent periods. Finally, we review the use of home oxygen for preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia including administration and weaning from domically home oxygen.

  1. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    of oxygen treatment. One study is observational and the remaining five are RCTs. Another five studies were on hyperbaric oxygen treatment hereof two case studies. CONCLUSION: Oxygen therapy can be administered at different flow rates. Three studies investigate the effect of low-flow oxygen, 6-7 l....../min, and found a positive response in 56%, 75% and 82%, respectively, of the patients. One study investigates high-flow oxygen, 12 l/min, and found efficacy in 78% of attacks. The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been investigated in a few small studies and there is evidence only for an acute......PURPOSE: Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. METHOD: A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy...

  2. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lewis M; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Fischer, Woodward W

    2016-03-01

    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis-autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight-by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.

  3. Oxygen transport and degradation processes in mixed conducting perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of oxide ion conducting ceramics in solid oxide electrochemical devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells, air separation membranes and oxygen sensors, is an area currently of great commercial interest. Much recent research has focused on the optimisation of the structural and electrical properties of these ceramics. However little is known about the long term stability of these materials under the realistic operating conditions of the systems, and it is this concern which has provided the motivation for this project. The study has been divided into two sections. Part 1 deals with the measurement of the oxygen transport properties of the mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) perovskite, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) using the oxygen isotope exchange-depth profiling technique, combined with Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The oxygen surface exchange data obtained from these measurements have enabled inferences to be made regarding the mechanism of the surface exchange process. Part 2 is concerned with the chemical stability of LSCF under the operating conditions of an oxygen separation membrane. The membrane may be operating at temperatures of 750-800 deg C, under an aggressive atmosphere of steam, carbon dioxide and oxygen. A study of the degradation of the material when exposed to these atmospheres for varying periods of time has been undertaken. The oxygen surface exchange between the ceramic and oxygen ions in the carbon dioxide and water has been investigated using 18O isotopically labelled species combined with SIMS. Also presented in Part 2 is an overview of the principles involved in the application of MIEC ceramics in oxygen separation membranes, with respect to the optimisation of oxygen fluxes and membrane performance. (author)

  4. Mechanism of oxygen releasing of copper ferrite in the formation of the corresponding oxygen-deficient compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; YU Bo; ZHANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Copper ferrite is a promising material for hydrogen production through thermochemical water splitting. In this work, the cation distribution of copper ferrite and the corresponding oxygen-deficient compound of spinel structure was analyzed based on the crystal structural chemistry theory. The mechanism of oxygen releasing of CuO, Fe2O3, CuFe2O4 and metal (M=Ni, Mn or Zn) doped copper ferrite in the proc-ess of temperature rising was investigated by differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG). By combining the theoretical analysis with experimental results, the mechanism of oxygen releasing of copper ferrite is proposed, which is different from that of other ferrites. For copper ferrite, the oxygen releasing caused by Cu(Ⅱ)→Cu(I) plays a predominant role, while for other ferrites, the oxygen releas-ing resulting from Fe(ⅡI)→Fe(Ⅱ) is dominant.

  5. Mechanism of oxygen releasing of copper ferrite in the formation of the corresponding oxygen-deficient compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Copper ferrite is a promising material for hydrogen production through thermochemical water splitting.In this work,the cation distribution of copper ferrite and the corresponding oxygen-deficient compound of spinel structure was analyzed based on the crystal structural chemistry theory.The mechanism of oxygen releasing of CuO,Fe2O3,CuFe2O4 and metal(M=Ni,Mn or Zn) doped copper ferrite in the proc-ess of temperature rising was investigated by differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry(DTA-TG).By combining the theoretical analysis with experimental results,the mechanism of oxygen releasing of copper ferrite is proposed,which is different from that of other ferrites.For copper ferrite,the oxygen releasing caused by Cu(Ⅱ)→Cu(Ⅰ) plays a predominant role,while for other ferrites,the oxygen releas-ing resulting from Fe(Ⅲ)→Fe(Ⅱ) is dominant.

  6. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  7. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M. [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-7215 (United States); Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V., E-mail: luck@fafnir.astr.cwru.edu, E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua, E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua, E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua [Department of Astronomy and Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Odessa Branch, Shevchenko Park, 65014 Odessa (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  8. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richard Bain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  9. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  10. Malignant brain tumor treatments and hyperbaric oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohshi, Kiyotaka [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Malignant brain tumor treatment and hyperbaric oxygenation: Combined hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) therapy and radiation therapy of malignant gliomas is reviewed. Malignant glioma tissue is hypoxic, and the efficacy of radiation therapy is increased by raising the oxygen density in glioma tissue. Residual tumor was reduced by a radiation dose of approximately 40 Gy in many cases when radiation therapy was begun within 15 minutes after HBO. In the experiment in animal models with different hypoxic fractions (HFs) of cells (SCCVII and 9L gliosarcoma), the tumor reduction effect was more significant in the SCCVII model, which has a higher HF. When the SCCVII model was irradiated within 30 minutes after HBO, the improvement effect was more significant (1.60-1.78 times) than by irradiation alone. HBO was effective in the treatment of radionecrosis of the brain. However, there were some cases in which radionecrosis progressed when the HBO treatments were discontinued, and the optimal duration of HBO treatment should be determined. It is difficult to differentiate between radionecrosis and tumor recurrence after radiosurgery of a malignant intracranial tumor. When no lesion reduction is observed in response to HBO treatment and steroid administration for about one month, the lesion is concluded to be a recurrence of the tumor, and additional irradiation should be performed. HBO treatment in combination with chemotherapy is also discussed. (K.H.)

  11. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  12. Intraoperative blood oxygenation continuous pulmonary artery perfusion lung protection of ventricular septal defect combined children with pulmonary hypertension%术中氧合血持续肺动脉灌注对室间隔缺损合并肺动脉高压患儿的肺保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章晔; 李春玲; 胡建明; 林庆; 陈艰

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究在体外循环手术中使用氧合血进行持续肺动脉灌注对合并肺动脉高压的室间隔缺损患儿的肺保护作用。方法30例室间隔缺损合并肺动脉高压的患儿,随机均分为试验组和对照组。均在体外循环下进行室间隔缺损修补手术。试验组在体外循环中采用氧合血持续肺动脉灌注,对照组未行肺动脉灌注。两组患儿在体外循环前,主动脉开放后6、12、24h时抽取动脉血3ml.采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA法)检测丙二醛(MDA)的水平。并抽取动脉血进行血气分析,计算体外循环前,主动脉开放后6、12、24h时的氧合指数(QI),并记录气道峰压和呼吸机辅助时间,进行统计分析。结果试验组术后12、24h的 QI高于对照组(P<0.05),试验组术后6、12h的气道峰压明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。试验组术后呼吸机辅助时间明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。试验组术后6、12、24h时MDA水平均低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论氧合血持续肺动脉灌注能减轻室间隔缺损合并肺动脉高压患儿在体外循环中的肺损伤。%Objective To study the effects of blood oxygenation in extracorporeal circulation operation on continuous pul-monary artery perfusion of merger pulmonary hypertension of ventricular septal defect with pulmonary protection. Methods 30 cases of ventricular septal defect combined pulmonary hypertension were randomly divided into experimental group and control group,15 cases in each group. Both ventricular septal defect repair surgery under extracorporeal circulation. Patients with blood oxygenation in extracorporeal circulation continuous pulmonary artery perfusion, the control group no pulmonary artery perfusion. Two groups of children in front of the extracorporeal circulation, aorta open after 6,12 and 24 h when extracting arterial blood 3 ml. By using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) to detect malondialdehyde (MDA

  13. 依达拉奉和银杏叶提取物注射液联合高压氧治疗急性一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病疗效观察%The study of edaravone and extract of gingo biloba leaves injection combined hyperbaric oxygen for treatment of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锡波; 陈澎; 高茜; 李炳选

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the clinical curative effect of edaravone and extract of gingo biloba leaves injection combined hyperbaric oxygen for treatment of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods Sixty-four patients with DEACMP were randomly divided into treatment group of 32 cases and control group of 32 cases. The basic treatments of two groups were identical. Based on the basic treatments, treatment group was treated with edaravone 30 mg/d, intravenously drip for 14 days, plug extract of gingo biloba leaves injection 70 mg/d, intravenously drip for 30 days. The changes of HDS were measured and the total effective rate were counted in two groups before and after treatment. Results The total effective rate in treatment group was 87.5% , and while control group was 62. 5%. The total effective rate had a significant difference in two groups (P<0.05). The improvement of HDS in the treatment group was more significant than that in control group (P< 0. 05). Conclusion Edaravone and extract of gingo biloba leaves injection combined hyperbaric oxygen has favorable cognitive effect on DEACMP.%目的 探讨依达拉奉、银杏叶提取物注射液联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒后迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的临床疗效.方法 将2007年1月至2010年6月我院64例DEACMP患者完全随机分为治疗组及对照组,各32例.对照组给予高压氧等常规治疗,治疗30 d.治疗组在高压氧等常规治疗基础上加用依达拉奉30 mg/次,2次/d静脉滴注,连用14 d;银杏叶提取物注射液70 mg,加入0.9%氯化钠注射液250 ml静脉滴注,1次/d,连用30 d.治疗前后均用长谷川智能量表(HDS)检测智能评分,并统计2组治疗总有效率.结果 治疗组有效28例,总有效率为87.5%;对照组有效20例,总有效率为62.5%,2组疗效比较差异有统计学意义(x2=5.33,P<0.05),治疗组治疗后HDS评分明显高于对照组[治疗后15 d:(13.6±2.3)分比(9.4±2.1)分,P<0.05;治疗后30 d:(19

  14. Which blood oxygen can sensitively indicate shock severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Li, Kai; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Clinical shock-monitoring mainly depends on measuring oxygen saturations from SVC blood samples invasively. The golden standard indicator is the central internal jugular vein oxygenation (SjvO2). Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) also can monitor shock in some papers published, but there is no discussion about which oxygen saturation (cerebral venous oxygen saturation, ScvO2; tissue oxygen saturation of internal jugular area; tissue oxygen saturation of extremities areas) can monitor shock patient more sensitively and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to examine which one is most effective. In order to discuss the problem, we continuously detected 56 critical patients who may be into shock state using NIRS oximeter at prefrontal, internal jugular vein area and forearm, and chose 24 patients who were into shock and then out of shock from the 56 critical patients. Combined with the patients' condition, the pulse oxygen saturation is most sensitively to monitoring shock than the others, and the internal jugular vein area oxygen saturation is most effective.

  15. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of oxygen in dental biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerritsen, Hans C.; de Grauw, Cees J.

    2000-12-01

    Dental biofilm consists of micro-colonies of bacteria embedded in a matrix of polysaccharides and salivary proteins. pH and oxygen concentration are of great importance in dental biofilm. Both can be measured using fluorescence techniques. The imaging of dental biofilm is complicated by the thickness of the biofilms that can be up to several hundred micrometers thick. Here, we employed a combination of two-photon excitation microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging to quantify the oxygen concentration in dental biofilm. Collisional quenching of fluorescent probes by molecular oxygen leads to a reduction of the fluorescence lifetime of the probe. We employed this mechanism to measure the oxygen concentration distribution in dental biofilm by means of fluorescence lifetime imaging. Here, TRIS Ruthenium chloride hydrate was used as an oxygen probe. A calibration procedure on buffers was use to measure the lifetime response of this Ruthenium probe. The results are in agreement with the Stern-Volmer equation. A linear relation was found between the ratio of the unquenched and the quenched lifetime and the oxygen concentration. The biofilm fluorescence lifetime imaging results show a strong oxygen gradient at the buffer - biofilm interface and the average oxygen concentration in the biofilm amounted to 50 μM.

  16. 基于神经网络和遗传算法的池塘溶解氧预测模型%A prediction model for dissolved oxygen level in a fish pond based on combination of neural network and genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪新颖; 葛廷友; 高; 王建彬

    2011-01-01

    水产养殖池塘是一个多变量、非线性和大时延系统,其中溶解氧的预测也是一个复杂的问题.针对大连某水产养殖池塘,作者建立了一个基于Levenberg-Marquardt(LM)神经网络和遗传算法(GA)的溶解氧预测模型GA-LM,并将该模型与传统的BP神经网络进行比较分析.结果表明:使用本研究中建立的GA-LM模型预测的溶解氧值和实际测定值吻合较好,预测更为精准,运行时间明显减少.%The prediction of dissolved oxygen (DO) level is complicated in aquaculture ponds as a complex system with multi-variables, nonlinearity and long-time lag. In this study, GA-LM, a hybrid neural network model combining Levenberg Marquardt(LM) algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) was developed for DO level predicting in an aquaculture pond at Dalian, China. The The comparison of performance of GA-LM with the conventional Back -Propagation (BP) algorithm revealed that the predicted DO values using GA-LM model are in good agreement with the measured data, indicating that the model is capable of predicting DO accurately and rapidly.

  17. Functional Oxygen Sensitivity of Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Plamena R; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Christie, Isabel; Sheikhbahaei, Shahriar; Turovsky, Egor; Marina, Nephtali; Korsak, Alla; Zwicker, Jennifer; Teschemacher, Anja G; Ackland, Gareth L; Funk, Gregory D; Kasparov, Sergey; Abramov, Andrey Y; Gourine, Alexander V

    2015-07-22

    In terrestrial mammals, the oxygen storage capacity of the CNS is limited, and neuronal function is rapidly impaired if oxygen supply is interrupted even for a short period of time. However, oxygen tension monitored by the peripheral (arterial) chemoreceptors is not sensitive to regional CNS differences in partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 ) that reflect variable levels of neuronal activity or local tissue hypoxia, pointing to the necessity of a functional brain oxygen sensor. This experimental animal (rats and mice) study shows that astrocytes, the most numerous brain glial cells, are sensitive to physiological changes in PO2 . Astrocytes respond to decreases in PO2 a few millimeters of mercury below normal brain oxygenation with elevations in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i). The hypoxia sensor of astrocytes resides in the mitochondria in which oxygen is consumed. Physiological decrease in PO2 inhibits astroglial mitochondrial respiration, leading to mitochondrial depolarization, production of free radicals, lipid peroxidation, activation of phospholipase C, IP3 receptors, and release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores. Hypoxia-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in astrocytes trigger fusion of vesicular compartments containing ATP. Blockade of astrocytic signaling by overexpression of ATP-degrading enzymes or targeted astrocyte-specific expression of tetanus toxin light chain (to interfere with vesicular release mechanisms) within the brainstem respiratory rhythm-generating circuits reveals the fundamental physiological role of astroglial oxygen sensitivity; in low-oxygen conditions (environmental hypoxia), this mechanism increases breathing activity even in the absence of peripheral chemoreceptor oxygen sensing. These results demonstrate that astrocytes are functionally specialized CNS oxygen sensors tuned for rapid detection of physiological changes in brain oxygenation. Significance statement: Most, if not all, animal cells possess mechanisms that allow them to

  18. 高压氧联合神经节苷脂对脑出血患者凝血酶、血清髓鞘碱性蛋白、D-二聚体的影响%Effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with ganglion glycosides on thrombin, serum myelin basic protein and D-dimer in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 王茂德; 王宁; 鲍刚; 王拓

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with ganglion glycosides on thrombin, se-rum myelin basic protein and D-dimer in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.Methods Selected from June 2014 to June 2015, 100 cases of cerebral hemorrhage patients in Xi'an Jiaotong University First Affiliated Hospital neurosurgery department as the research object, according to the order of admission, they were randomly divided into control group and observation group, each group of 50 cases, on the basis of conventional therapy patients in control group were treated with ganglioside treatment, the observation group given hyperbaric oxygen combined with ganglioside treatment.Before and after treatment, thrombin, serum myelin basic protein, D-dimer, hematoma volume, neurological function defect score ( NIHSS) , daily life a-bility score ( ADL) were observed, and the clinical effect was evaluated.Results Before treatment, 2 groups of thrombin, serum myelin basic protein ( MBP) , D-dimer, volume of hematoma, NIHSS and ADL score differences had no statistical sig-nificance ( P >0.05), after treatment, two groups of thrombin, serum myelin basic protein (MBP), D-dimer, hematoma volume and NIHSS score compared with those before treatment were significantly decreased ( P <0.05), ADL score before treatment were significantly higher ( P <0.05) , and the observation group was more obvious than that of the control group, the above indicators improved ( P <0.05).The control group cured rate, significant progress rate, improvement rate were 24.00%, 36.00%, 24.00%, the observation group were 30.00%and 40.00%, 24.00%observed group, the total efficien-cy is remarkably higher than that of the control group (94.00%vs.84.00%,χ2 =3.55, P <0.05).Conclusion Hyperbaric oxygen combined with ganglion glycosides can reduce the level of thrombin, serum myelin basic protein and D-dimer levels in patients with cerebral hemorrhage,and improve the therapeutic effect.%目的:观察高压

  19. 低剂量健择同步高-低氧放射治疗局部晚期胰腺癌的临床价值%Value of low doses of gemcitabine chemotherapy combined with high-low oxygen radiotherapy synchronously for therapy of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁兆军; 孙衍伟; 陈希平; 安永恒

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of low doses gemcitabine chemotherapy combined with synchronous high-low oxygen radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer.Methods Fifty-six patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer were randomly divided into two groups by envelop method:radio-chemotherapy group or chemotherapy group.Patients in radio-chmotherapy group were treated with low doses of gemcitabine chemotherapy ( 600 mg/m2 ) combined with high-low oxygen radiotherapy synchronously,paients in chmotherapy group were treated with full doses of gemcitabine chemotherapy ( 1000 mg/m2).The short-term effect,distant metastasis rate,clinical benefit rate,survival rate and adverse events of two groups were observed.Results There was one patient achievedcomplete relief and 15 patients achieved partial relief in radio-chemotherapy group with an overall effective rate of 66.7% (16/24) ; there were 9 patients achieved partial relief in chemotherapy group with an overall effective rate of 36.0% (9/25),the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (X2 =4.6082,P =0.0318 ).The clinical benefit rates were 83.3 % ( 20/24 ) and 60% ( 15/25 ),respectively,the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant ( P =0.070).The distant metastasis rates were 66.7%(16/24) and 72% (18/25),respectively,the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P =0.6855).The 12,24 months survival rates were 62.5% vs 32%,37.5% vs 12%,the difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( P =0.0325,0.0380).The incidence of serious adverse events was 45.8% and 4 0 % without statistical difference.Conclusions Low doses of gemcitabine chemotherapy combined with high-low oxygen radiotherapy synchronously is better than full doses of gemcitabine chemotherapy with regard to total effective rates and 12,24 months survival rates,with no obvious increase in the

  20. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2005-01-01

    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  1. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  2. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  3. The safety and efficacy of outpatient midazolam intravenous sedation for oral surgery with and without fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, P.; Beirne, O. R.; Fiset, L.; Weinstein, P.; Tay, K. M.; Martin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined midazolam and midazolam plus fentanyl in a placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. It tested the hypothesis that combined drug therapy results in significantly poorer safety but no difference in efficacy compared to the single drug approach. Subjects were among 207 mildly anxious young adults having their third molars removed. Fentanyl had a significant depressant effect on respiration. Fifty of 79 (63%) subjects who received a midazolam-fentanyl combination became apneic, while only two of 78 (3%) who received midazolam alone were apneic (Fisher's Exact Test, P < 0.001). Two subjects (2.5%) in the combination group and none in the midazolam alone group had oxygen saturations drop below 90%. About twice as many subjects in the combination group had end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) levels greater than 25% above baseline. While these results are consistent with those for apnea, contingency analyses of the oxygen saturation and EtCO2 results were not statistically significant. Subjects in the combination group were more than four times as likely to have excellent versus good, fair, or poor sedation at a given level of intraoperative pain, and behavioral (movement and verbalization) but not cognitive measures of anxiety were attenuated. PMID:7645789

  4. Demonstration of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide Propellants for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1997-01-01

    Currently, proposed planetary exploration missions must be small, with low costs and a short development time. Relatively high-risk technologies are being accepted for such missions if they meet these guidelines. For a Mars sample-return mission, one of the higher risk technologies is the use of return propellants produced from indigenous materials such as the Martian atmosphere. This consists of 96 percent carbon dioxide, which can be processed into oxygen and carbon monoxide. This year, the NASA Lewis Research Center completed the experimental evaluation and subscale technology development of an oxygen/carbon monoxide propellant combination. Previous research included ignition characterization, combustion performance, and heat transfer characterization with gaseous propellants at room temperature. In this year s tests, we studied the ignition characteristics and combustion of oxygen and carbon monoxide at near liquid temperatures. The mixture ratio boundaries for oxygen and carbon monoxide were determined as a function of propellant temperature in a spark torch igniter. With both propellants at room temperature, the ignition range was between 0.50 and 1.44; and with both propellants chilled to near-liquid temperatures, it was between 2.4 and 3.1. Statistical analysis of the mean value of the ignition boundaries provided models that describe the combination of oxygen temperature, carbon monoxide temperature, and mixture ratio that resulted in ignition. This range is the larger boxed area shown in the figure. The smaller boxed area indicates the range at which there is a 90-percent confidence that ignition will occur. The relatively small range at only 90-percent confidence indicates that using the oxygen/carbon monoxide combination as its own ignition source may not be the best design for a remote engine operating on Mars. Tests also were performed in a simulated small rocket engine that used oxygen/hydrogen combustion gases as the ignition source for oxygen

  5. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG)

  6. Curative effect observations of paroxetine combined with hyerbaric oxygen in patients of depression with sleep disorders%帕罗西汀联合高压氧治疗抑郁症患者睡眠障碍的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕊; 王志峰; 游道峰; 李幼东; 王冉; 王岚; 王学义

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of paroxetine combined with hyperbaric oxygen in treatment of depression in patients with sleep disorders. Methods A total of 80 patients with sleep disorder of depression were randomly divided into control group and observation group, each group had forty patients, the two groups of patients were given paroxetine therapy , observation group was separately given hyperbaric oxygen treatment , the course was four weeks in both groups. The curative effect was compared between two groups of patients, HAMD scale score was observed and recorded in two groups of patients with sleep latency, total sleep time and wake-up time and the number of awakening. Results After four weeks' treatment,the observation group in comparison with control group was statistically significant in sleep latency,total sleep time and wake-up time and the number of awakening, respectively sleep latency (0. 50 ± 0. 23) h vs (2. 55 ±1. 43) h, total sleep time (7. 35 ±4. 45) h vs (3. 76 ±2. 32) h, wake-up time (1. 20 ± 0. 82) h vs (3. 15 ± 2. 13) h,the number of awakening (1.91 ± 1. 38) times vs (3. 48± 1. 25) times( P <0. 01). The two groups in comparison showed statistical significance in HAMD scale score,the clinical cure rate and the incidence of adverse reactions, respectively HAMD scale score (6.69 ± 5.01) marks vs (14.85 ± 5.46) marks , the clinical cure rate 95.0% vs 77. 5 % , the incidence of adverse reactions 7.5% vs 27.5%(P <0.05 or < 0. 01). Conclusion Paroxetine combined with hyperbaric oxygen in treatment of depression with sleep disorders works faster,sleep disorder symptoms are improved obviously, the two joint application shows good effect, reduces the incidence of adverse reactions.%目的 观察帕罗西汀联合高压氧治疗郁症患者睡眠障碍临床疗效.方法 选择80例伴有睡眠障碍的抑郁症患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,每组40例,两组患者均给予帕罗西汀治疗,观察

  7. 不同时间窗Schuell刺激疗法联合高压氧舱治疗对脑梗死所致运动性失语患者言语功能的影响研究%Effectiveness of the Combination of Schuell Excitation Therapy and Hyperbaric Oxygenation Therapy within Different Time Windows in Treating Patients with Motor Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁旭峰; 杜玉玲; 余蓝; 刘萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of Schuell excitation therapy and hyperbaric oxygenation therapy in treating patients with motor aphasia caused by acute ischemic stroke. Methods Totally 105 patients with motor aphasia who were treated in our hospital from August 2008 to September 2011 were equally divided into five groups using the random number table: normal control group, early treatment group Ⅰ ( the rehabilitation time window < 24 h ), early treatment group Ⅱ ( 24 h ≤ time window < 7 d ), early treatment group Ⅲ ( 7 d ≤ time window < 14 d ), and late treatment group ( time window ≥14 d ). The normal control group treated with routine treatment and Schuell excitation therapy, whereas the four treatment groups treated with Schuell excitation therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation therapy, and routine treatment. The severity of a-phasia was assessed after treatment. Results The total score and the scores of retelling, speaking, and reading were significantly improved after treatment in all these groups ( P <0. 05 ). There were significant differences in early treatment group Ⅰ , Ⅱ , Ⅲ and late treatment groups when comparised to the normal control group ( P <0. 05 ). Compared with the late treatment group, the early treatment group Ⅰ had significantly better total score of aphasia and score of retelling ( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The combination of Schuell excitation therapy and hyperbaric oxygenation therapy is effective and safe in improving motor aphasia and reducing disability. Early ( < 24 h ) intervention can achieve better prognosis.%目的 探讨不同时间窗Schuell刺激疗法联合高压氧舱治疗对脑梗死所致运动性失语患者言语功能的影响.方法 选择2008年8月-2011年9月我院住院的大动脉粥样硬化型脑梗死后运动性失语患者105例,采用随机数字表分为对照组、早期治疗Ⅰ组(时间窗<24 h)、早期治疗Ⅱ组(24 h≤时间窗<7 d)、早期治疗Ⅲ组(7 d

  8. Combination Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  9. Body mass scaling of passive oxygen diffusion in endotherms and ectotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, James F; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V; Rong, Yue; McLamore, Eric S

    2016-05-10

    The area and thickness of respiratory surfaces, and the constraints they impose on passive oxygen diffusion, have been linked to differences in oxygen consumption rates and/or aerobic activity levels in vertebrates. However, it remains unclear how respiratory surfaces and associated diffusion rates vary with body mass across vertebrates, particularly in relation to the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption rates. Here we address these issues by first quantifying the body mass dependence of respiratory surface area and respiratory barrier thickness for a diversity of endotherms (birds and mammals) and ectotherms (fishes, amphibians, and reptiles). Based on these findings, we then use Fick's law to predict the body mass scaling of oxygen diffusion for each group. Finally, we compare the predicted body mass dependence of oxygen diffusion to that of oxygen consumption in endotherms and ectotherms. We find that the slopes and intercepts of the relationships describing the body mass dependence of passive oxygen diffusion in these two groups are statistically indistinguishable from those describing the body mass dependence of oxygen consumption. Thus, the area and thickness of respiratory surfaces combine to match oxygen diffusion capacity to oxygen consumption rates in both air- and water-breathing vertebrates. In particular, the substantially lower oxygen consumption rates of ectotherms of a given body mass relative to those of endotherms correspond to differences in oxygen diffusion capacity. These results provide insights into the long-standing effort to understand the structural attributes of organisms that underlie the body mass scaling of oxygen consumption. PMID:27118837

  10. Analysis on the effect of hyperbaric oxygen combined with swallowing function training on the recovery of dysphagia following acute stroke%高压氧联合吞咽功能训练对急性脑卒中后吞咽障碍的康复效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽华; 柳尧花

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨高压氧(hyperbaric oxygen,HBO)治疗联合吞咽功能训练对急性脑卒中后吞咽功能障碍患者的康复效果及机制.方法 经患者知情同意,并经医院伦理委员会批准后,将68例患者分为HBO治疗组(HBO组)和对照组,每组34例,2组均行常规药物治疗和吞咽训练,治疗组在此基础上加用HBO治疗.2组治疗前、治疗后1个月进行洼田氏饮水评分、藤岛一郎吞咽(VFS)评分,并用经颅多普勒(TCD)检测治疗前后脑血流.结果 洼田氏饮水评分、VFS评分显示,2组患者的吞咽障碍治疗后均较治疗前明显改善(HBO组P<0.01,对照组P<0.05);与对照组比,HBO组治疗后改善较更明显.洼田氏饮水评分:治疗前4.05±0.91,治疗后1.68±0.54;VFS评分:治疗前3.96±1.29,治疗后7.15±1.93(均P<0.01).TCD检查结果显示,2组治疗后较治疗前脑血流量明显增加(治疗组P<0.01,对照组P<0.05).结论 HBO治疗对急性脑卒中后吞咽功能障碍患者康复效果显著,并能改善脑血流量.%Objective To explore the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) combined with swallowing function training on the recovery of dysphagia following acute stroke and also to analyze the mechanism involved.Methods With the knowledge and consent of the patients and following approval by the Hospital Ethics Committee,68 patients were divided into the HBO group and the control group,each consisting of 34 patients.The two groups all received routine drug therapy and swallowing function training,but the HBO group had supplementary HBO treatment in addition to drug therapy.Scores of WaTian's Drinking Water and Cane Island Ichiro Swallowing (VFS) were assessed for the 2 groups both before and after treatment,and 1 month after treatment.Transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection was made to monitor cerebral blood flow both before and after treatment.Results After treatment,scores of WaTian 's Drinking Water and Cane Island Ichiro Swallowing (VFS) for the 2 groups were

  11. A combined neuropsychological and brain imaging study of obstructive sleep apnea.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaouhi, Khalid; Bertran, Françoise; Clochon, Patrice; Mézenge, Florence; Denise, Pierre; Foret, Jean; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) show neuropsychological impairments ranging from vigilance decrements, attentional lapses and memory gaps to decreased motor coordination, but their cognitive profile, and the origin of the impairments, remain unclear. We sought to establish the neuropsychological profile of 16 newly diagnosed apneics and to highlight both their morphological and functional brain abnormalities. We used an extensive neuropsychological test battery to investigate atte...

  12. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  13. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  14. The Oxygen a Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Hoo, Jiajun; Hodges, Joseph; Long, David A.; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Okumura, Mitchio; Bui, Thinh Quoc; Rupasinghe, Priyanka

    2014-06-01

    The oxygen A band is used for numerous atmospheric experiments, but spectral line parameters that sufficiently describe the spectrum to the level required by OCO2 and other high precision/accuracy experiments are lacking. Fourier transform spectra from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and cavity ring down spectra from the National Institute of Standards and Technology were fitted simultaneously using the William and Mary multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting technique into a single solution including the entire band. In addition, photoacoustic spectra already available from the California Institute of Technology will be added to the solution. The three types of spectrometers are complementary allowing the strengths of each to fill in the weaknesses of the others. With this technique line positions, intensities, widths, shifts, line mixing, Dicke narrowing, temperature dependences and collision induced absorption have been obtained in a single physically consistent fit. D. Chris Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. M. Devi, M. A. H. Smith, and D. Atkins, JQSRT 1995;53:705-21. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at The College of William and Mary, the, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contracts and cooperative agreements with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Support for the National Institute of Standards and Technology was provided by the NIST Greenhouse Gas Measurements and Climate Research Program and a NIST Innovations in Measurement Science (IMS) award.

  15. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Weenqing

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  16. Oxygen variability and meridional oxygen supply in the tropical North East Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Johannes; Brandt, Peter; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Krahmann, Gerd; Körtzinger, Arne

    2013-04-01

    The oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical North East Atlantic (TNEA) is located between the oxygen-rich equatorial region and the Cape Verde Frontal Zone at about 20°N in a depth range of 300 - 700 m. Its horizontal extent is predominantly defined by the North Equatorial Current and by the equatorial zonal current system ventilating the region to the north and south of the OMZ, respectively. The interior of the OMZ is characterized by a sluggish flow regime, where mesoscale eddies play a major role in the ventilation. In this study we focus on the oxygen variability in the TNEA as well as the eddy driven lateral ventilation of the TNEA OMZ across its southern boundary. During recent years an intense measurement program was executed along 23°W cutting meridionally through the TNEA OMZ. Hydrographic and velocity data has been acquired from ship sections and moorings, together covering the latitude range between 6°S and 14°N with particularly high meridional resolution of shipboard and high temporal resolution of moored observations. Based on shipboard data we derived a meridional section of oxygen variance, which reveals numerous local maxima of oxygen variability. Exemplary, strong oxygen variability is observed at the upper (300m, 5° - 12°N) and the southern boundary (400m - 700m, 5°N - 8°N) of the OMZ, whereas the interior of the OMZ is characterized by weak variability. An application of the extended Osborn-Cox model shows that the strong oxygen variability at the southern boundary is mainly generated by mesoscale eddies. The strong variability at the upper boundary is generated by mesoscale eddies as well as microscale turbulence. We apply two methods to estimate the meridional oxygen flux: 1) a flux gradient parameterization and 2) a correlation of oxygen and velocity mooring time series. From the analysis of the 5°N mooring data we find a northward oxygen flux directed towards the OMZ at its core depth, that is mainly due to variability of

  17. Effect of oxygen concentration on singlet oxygen luminescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longchao; Lin, Lisheng; Li, Yirong; Lin, Huiyun; Qiu, Zhihai [MOE Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Gu, Ying [Department of Laser Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Buhong, E-mail: bhli@fjnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2014-08-01

    Singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) is a major phototoxic component in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and its generation is dependent on the availability of tissue oxygen. To examine the effect of oxygen concentration on {sup 1}O{sub 2} detection, two hydrophilic photosensitizer (PS), rose bengal (RB) and meso-metra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMPyP) were used as model PS. Irradiation was carried out using 523 nm under hypoxic (2%, 13%), normoxic (21%) and hyperoxic (65%) conditions. The spectral and spatial resolved {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence was measured by near-infrared (NIR) photomultiplier tube (PMT) and camera, respectively. Upon the irradiation, the emission signal mainly consisted of background scattering light, PS fluorescence and phosphorescence, and {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence. The PS phosphorescence was evidently dependent on the oxygen concentration and PS type, which resulted in the change of emission profile of {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence. This change was further demonstrated on {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence image. The present study suggests that the low oxygen concentration could affect {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence detection. - Highlights: • Both spectral and spatial resolved {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence measurements were performed. • Effect of oxygen concentration on {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation was quantitatively evaluated. • Low oxygen concentration could affect {sup 1}O{sub 2} luminescence detection.

  18. Dissolved oxygen imaging to investigate biodegradation at lab scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, D. N.; Rees, H.; Huang, W. E.; Smith, C. C.; Oswald, S. E.

    2003-04-01

    A novel combination of a non-invasive imaging method with an oxygen sensitive fluorescent indicator was developed to investigate the biodegradation processes occurring at the fringe of a solute plume. A thin transparent porous matrix was made from quartz plates and quartz sand and acetate was continuously injected in the uniform flow field containing dissolved oxygen. Ruthenium (II)-dichlorotris(1,10-phenanthroline) (Ru(phen)3Cl2), a water soluble fluorescent dye, was used as an indicator of dissolved oxygen concentration as its fluorescence intensity is dependent on the concentration of oxygen. The oxygen distribution within the matrix was interpreted from images recorded by a CCD camera. These two-dimensional experimental results show quantitatively how the oxygen concentrations decrease strongly at the narrow plume fringe and that oxygen was exhausted at the core of the plume. Separately, dispersivity was measured in a series of non-reactive transport experiments, and biodegradation parameters were evaluated by batch experiments. This measurement method provides a novel approach to investigate details of behavior of solute transport and biodegradation in porous media.

  19. Cerebral oxygenation is reduced during hyperthermic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, P.; Nybo, Lars; Volianitis, Stefanos;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension (P(mito)O(2)) is elevated during moderate exercise, while it is reduced when exercise becomes strenuous, reflecting an elevated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)) combined with hyperventilation-induced attenuation of cerebral blood flow...... (CBF). Heat stress challenges exercise capacity as expressed by increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods: This study evaluated the effect of heat stress during exercise on P(mito)O(2) calculated based on a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF and the arterial-to-jugular venous oxygen differences...... in eight males [27 +/- 6 years (mean +/- SD) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) 63 +/- 6 mL kg(-1) min(-1)]. Results: The CBF, CMRO(2) and P(mito)O(2) remained stable during 1 h of moderate cycling (170 +/- 11 W, approximately 50% of VO(2max), RPE 9-12) in normothermia (core temperature of 37.8 +/- 0...

  20. Properties of Reactive Oxygen Species by Quantum Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Zen, Andrea; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of Chemistry, Biology and Atmospheric Science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab-initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal ...

  1. 磷酸肌酸钠联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病疗效观察%Curative effect observation of creatine phosphate sodium combined with high pressure oxygen in the treatment of chronic encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 台立稳

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the curative effect of creatine phosphate sodium combined with high pressure oxygen in the treatment of chronic encephalopathy of carbon monoxide poisoning(DEACMP).Methods:43 patients with DEACMP were selected. They were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group.Patients in the control group were given conventional treatment.Patients in the treatment group were given injection creatine phosphate sodium treatment on the basis of the control group.The curative effects of two groups were observed.Results:The cure rate and effective rate of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group,and the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The creatine phosphate sodium can improve the cell energy supply of DEACMP patients,protect the brain function,improve the hypoxia tolerance of brain cells,improve the life quality of DEACMP patients.%目的:探讨磷酸肌酸钠联合高压氧治疗一氧化碳中毒迟发性脑病(DEACMP)的疗效。方法:收治DEACMP患者43例,随机分为治疗组和对照组。对照组给予常规治疗,治疗组则在对照组的基础上加注射用磷酸肌酸钠治疗。观察两组患者的疗效。结果:治疗组治愈率及有效率均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:磷酸肌酸钠可以改善DEACMP患者的细胞能量供应,保护脑功能,提高脑细胞对缺氧的耐受性,提高DEACMP患者的生活质量。

  2. Clinical applications of transcutaneous oxygen pressure combined with ankle-brachial index in Type 2 diabetics with peripheral arterial disease%经皮氧分压联合踝臂指数在2型糖尿病合并下肢动脉病变中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梦娟; 李素梅; 汝燕; 王芳; 王菊梅; 荆春艳; 王东; 董林; 任安

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较经皮氧分压(transcutaneous oxygen pressure,TcPO2)与踝臂指数(ankle--brachial index,ABI)在2型糖尿病(Type 2 diabetes mellitus,T2DM)合并下肢动脉病变(peripheral arterial disease,PAD)中的应用价值,探讨TcPO2与ABI在PAD诊断及治疗中的意义.方法:368例T2DM患者(男性188例,女性180例),采用多通道经皮氧分压检测仪测定足背TcPO2.依据TcPO2水平分为无受损组、轻度受损组、重度受损组.同时,采用彩色双功能超声诊断仪测定踝动脉压/肱动脉压比值即ABI,依据ABI水平分为无病变组(ABI≥0.9)和PAD组(ABI <0.9).结果:PAD组与无病变组相比,年龄增大,病程延长,合并冠心痛者增多,空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白、尿肌酐均升高,TcPO2减低(p<0.05).相关分析显示:年龄、病程、空腹血糖、三酰甘油、糖化血红蛋白Alc、体质量指数与TcPO2水平呈负相关(P<0.05),高密度脂蛋白、ABI与TcPO2水平呈正相关(P<0.05);TcPO2与ABI检测结果的符合率为93.9%,敏感度为90.2%,特异度约为95.2%.结论:随着年龄、病程的延长以及尿白蛋白肌酐比值的增加,糖尿病患者PAD程度越严重,PAD程度随着ABI和TcPO2减低而加重;TcPO2联合ABI对早期诊断糖尿病PAD具有较高的临床价值.%Objective To compare the clinical application in diagnosis and therapy for Type 2 diabetes patients with perpheral arterial diease ( PAD) between transcutaneous oxygen pressure ( TcPO2 ) determination and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Methods A total of 368 Type 2 diabetics (188 males and 180 females) were recruited into the study. TcPO2 of the acrotarsium was detected by multiple-channel transcutaneous tissue oxygen tension survey meter. According to die TcPO2 level, diese patients were divided into a non-injury group, a mild injury group, and a severe injury group. Moreover,the ankle artery pressure and brachial artery pressure were determined by Doppler color ultrasonography

  3. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  4. Oxygen labelled CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were carried out as to whether additional information concerning pulmonary gas exchange could be obtained from the application of oxygen labelled carbon dioxide. Single breath experiments were performed on two healthy subjects with 0.1 percent C16O18O and 2.8 percent C18O2 in the inspiratory gas. Breath-hold time was varied between 0.5-20s in different experiments. The 18O-concentration of the end-expired gas bi-exponentially decreased with increasing breath-hold time. The high and low rate constants 4s-1 and 0.12s-1 for C18O2 and 2.5s-1 and 0.87s-1 for C16O18O were derived, respectively. These results, together with model calculations, suggest: 1) the rapid disappearance of C18O2 from the alveolar space is primarily limited by diffusion, so that this isotopic species can be applied to quantify pulmonary diffusing conditions; 2) the lower disappearance rate of C16O18O is caused by a lower equilibration kinetics in blood, so that this isotopic species offers a possibility to study carbonic anhydrase activity of the red cells in vivo; 3) the slow phase of label decay is influenced by both alveolar dead space and carbonic anhydrase activity of the pulmonary tissues. Pathological dead spaces are expected to be sensitively detectable by C16O18O as well as by C18O2. (author). 4 refs.; 4 figs

  5. Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

    1999-04-01

    Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double

  6. Observation on the curative effect of the stroke unit combined with hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of conscious disorder associated with acute cerebral hemorrhage%卒中单元联合高压氧治疗急性脑出血意识障碍的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王轶群; 夏添; 杨世泉; 余本松; 程晋成

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of the stroke unit combined with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in the treatment of patients with conscious disorder associated with acute cerebral hemorrhage . Methods The patients were divided into the stroke unit group (or the SU group) and the control group.Thepatients of the 2 groups all received routine mini-traumatic trepanation and drug treatment.In addition, thecontrol group received routine medical treatment , HBO therapy and rehabilitation treatment, while the SU groupreceived comprehensive rehabilitation treatment and HBO therapy in accordance with standard operatingprocedures.Clinical therapeutic effects both before and after treatment were compared between the 2 groups,evaluated with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores and neurologic impairment scores, and changes in cerebralvascular function were detected as well.Results After treatment, neurological impairment of the SU group(6.57 ±2.24)was improved more significantly than that of the control group (8.93 ±3.41).GCS scores of theSU group(14.56 ±2.71) were significantly increased than those of the control group (10.25 ±2.32).Inaddition, the indexes of cerebral vascular function were greatly improved , with that of the SU group beingobviously better than that of the control group .Conclusions Stroke unit treatment combined with HBO couldsignificantly improve conscious disorder of the patients associated with acute cerebral hemorrhage , and thetherapeutic efficacy was significantly superior to that of ordinary hospitalization mode .%目的:观察卒中单元联合高压氧治疗急性脑出血伴发意识障碍患者的临床疗效。方法将500例研究对象分为卒中单元组(stroke unit,SU组,280例)和对照组(220例),均常规采用颅内血肿微创清除术及药物治疗,对照组采用常规内科及高压氧和康复治疗,卒中单元组按标准化操作程序,给予综合康复及高压氧治疗。在治疗前后通过Glasgow评

  7. 高渗氯化钠羟乙基淀粉40注射液联合控制性降压对脑膜瘤手术影响%Effect of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection combined with blood pressure control on cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with meningioma during surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义轩; 马传根; 宋冬梅; 李爱香; 刘星; 刁玉领

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxylethyl starch 40 injection(HH40) combined with blood pressure control on cerebral oxygen metabolism in meningioma patients during surgery. Methods Forty patients were randomly divided into observation group (H group) and control group (C group), 20 patients in each group. Meningioma was removed in patients under general anesthesia with their blood pressure controlled. Patients in H group were infused with HH4O(8ml/kg) for 30min while those in C group were infused with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (8ml/kg) for 30min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and central venous pressure (CVP) were recorded, respectively, before HH40 infusion(T0), 15(T1) and 60(T2) after HH40 infusion, 60min(T3) before completion of the surgery and at the time when the surgery was completed(T4). Blood samples were collected from radial artery and jugular vein bulb for detection of Na+, K+ and pH, analysis of blood gas, and measurement of Da-jvO2 and CERO2. Hct and Hb were detected at T0-T4. Volumes of infused blood, loss of blood and urine were recorded. Results The Da-jvO2 and CERO2 were significantly lower in H group than in C group at T3-T4. Conclusion HH40 combined with blood pressure control is safely for metabolism patients during surgery.%目的 探讨静注高渗氯化钠羟乙基淀粉40注射液(HH40)联合控制性降压对脑膜瘤切除术患者术中脑氧代谢的影响.方法 择期行脑膜瘤切除术患者40例,随机分为观察组(H组)和对照组(C组),两组均施行全麻和控制性降压;H组输注HH40 8ml/kg,30min内输完;C组输注6%羟乙基淀粉,方法同H组,监测并记录输注前即刻(T0)、输注后15(T1)、60(T2)、术毕前60min(T3)和术毕时(T4)平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、中心静脉压(CVP),采集颈静脉球部和桡动脉血测定血浆Na+、K+、pH,进行血气分析,并计算T0、T2-4时脑动脉-静脉氧含量差(Da-jvO2)、脑氧摄取率(CERO2);分别于T0

  8. 体外膜肺氧合联合持续肾脏替代治疗对健康小猪细胞因子表达的影响及意义%Effects of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation combined with continuous renal replacement treatment on cytokines in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何长生; 虞文魁; 石佳靓; 陈启仪; 沈娟红; 胡益民; 殷红珍; 李宁; 黎介寿

    2013-01-01

    Objective Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ( ECMO ) can reduce mortality in critically-ill patients, but almost all patients treated by ECMO develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome ( SIRS ) characterized by a " cytokine storm" , leukocyte activation, and multisystem organ dysfunction. We investigated the effects of ECMO and its combination with continuous renal replacement treatment ( CRRT ) on the plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in piglets. Methods We randomly divided 24 piglets into four groups of equal number: control, sham, ECMO, and ECMO + CRRT. We collected blood samples from the piglets 1 h before and 2,6, 12 and 24 h after treatment, and determined the plasma levels of TNF-ct, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 by ELISA. Results There were no significant differences in the plasma levels of the cytokines before treatment, nor in the control and sham groups after it. The levels of TNF-ct, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were increased after ECMO and ECMO + CRRT, more significantly after ECMO than after ECMO + CRRT ( P <0.05 ). However, the IL-10 concentration of the ECMO group first went up and then down, to the similar level of the control and sham groups at 24 h, and it rose, too, in the ECMO + CRRT group and maintained at a higher level though decreased a little at 12h, with statistically significant differences from the control group ( P < 0. 05 ) as well as from the ECMO group at 12 and 24 h ( P < 0.05 ). Conclusion ECMO can increase the release of proinflammation cytokines and attenuate anti-inflammatory cytokine, while its combination with CRRT can keep a balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the body, and ameliorate ECMO related SIRS.%目的 体外膜肺氧合(extracorporeal membrane oxygenation,ECMO)治疗的患者均会发生不同程度的全身炎症反应,而持续肾脏替代治疗(continuous renal replacement treatment,CRRT)可以清除各种炎性递质,文中通过观察ECMO联合CRRT对健康小猪

  9. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF DSA-GUIDING COMBINED USE OF OXYGEN-OZONE THERAPY WITH PERCUTANEOUS INTRADISCAL RADIOFREQUENCY THERMOCOAGULATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF CERVICAL DISC HERNIATIONS%DSA引导臭氧联合射频热凝术治疗颈椎间盘突出症的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琳; 杨晓秋; 周泽军; 刘茂林; 邓琼; 陈世玉

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价数字减影血管造影(digital subtraction angiography,DSA)引导经皮穿刺椎间盘臭氧联合射频热凝术治疗颈椎间盘突出症的临床疗效与安全性.方法:回顾性分析49例颈椎间盘突出症患者,分为两组:DSA引导经皮椎间盘臭氧联合射频热凝术组(O组,n=30),在DSA引导下行经皮椎间盘射频热凝术,5 min后经射频针于椎间盘内注射臭氧(浓度:40 ug/ml)5~8 ml; DSA引导经皮椎间盘射频热凝术组(P组,n=19),仅行颈椎间盘射频热凝术.根据疼痛视觉模拟评分量表(visual analogue scale,VAS)、改良MacNab评价法及患者满意度指标,在术后2周、1个月、3个月评估临床疗效,观察患者不良反应.结果:两组患者术后VAS评分与基线值相比均显著下降(P< 0.05),O组患者VAS评分较P组在2周、1个月、3个月显著降低(P<0.05);O组优良率在2周,1个月,3个月显著高于P组(P<0.05);O组患者满意度较P组显著提高(P<0.05).两组患者均无严重不良反应发生.结论:DSA引导经皮椎间盘臭氧联合射频热凝术治疗颈椎间盘突出症能更有效地降低患者疼痛评分,改善患者颈肩功能;患者满意度高于单纯经皮椎间盘射频热凝术.DSA引导下两种治疗方法的安全性均较高.%Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and security of DSA-guiding combined use of oxygen-ozone therapy with percutaneous intradiscal radiofrequency thermocoagulation (PIRFT) for the treatment of cervical disc herniations. Methods: To analyze retrospectively the clinical material about 49 cases of patients with cervical disc herniations into two groups. P group (n = 19) received DSA-guiding PIRFT; 0 group (n = 30) received a combination of oxygen-ozone therapy after PIRFT. Primary outcome measures included visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and the modified MacNab evaluation method, complication and patient's satisfaction. Clinical assessment of these outcome measures was performed at 2 weeks, 1

  10. Towards stable bifunctional oxygen electrodes and corrosion resistant gas diffusion layers for regenerative fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, R A; Soares, C. O.; Carvalho, M. D.; Jorge, M. E. Melo; Gomes, A.; Pereira, M. I. da Silva; C. M. Rangel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) can provide very high energy storage at minimal weight in a dual mode system, by combining an electrolyzer and a fuel cell. Although RFCs are an appealing technology their development is still at an early stage. One key issue is the search for highly active electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction and water oxidation. Presently, platinum is the best electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but has a poor oxygen evolution (OER) perform...

  11. What Are the Risks of Oxygen Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Risks of Oxygen Therapy? Oxygen therapy can cause complications and side effects. These ... problem, your doctor may need to change your oxygen flow rate or the length of time you' ...

  12. Oxygen-Methane Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two main innovations will be developed in the Phase II effort that are fundamentally associated with our gaseous oxygen/gaseous methane RCS thruster. The first...

  13. Echocardiography in military oxygen divers.

    OpenAIRE

    Boussuges, Alain; Riera, Florence; Rossi, Pascal; Castagna, Olivier; Galland, François; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oxygen divers undergo environmental stressors such as immersion, ventilation with scuba, cold exposure, and increased ambient pressure. All of these stressors may be responsible for acute hemodynamic modifications. We hypothesized that repeated hyperbaric hyperoxia exposure induces long-term cardiovascular modifications. METHODS: A Doppler echocardiography was conducted on 20 military oxygen divers (average 12 yr diving experience) and compared with 22 controls. Parameters known t...

  14. Oxygen Regulates Tissue Nitrite Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Erin; Hsu, Lewis L.; Noguchi, Audrey C.; Geary, Lisa; Shiva, Sruti

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Once dismissed as an inert byproduct of nitric oxide (NO) auto-oxidation, nitrite (NO2-) is now accepted as an endocrine reservoir of NO that elicits biological responses in major organs. While it is known that tissue nitrite is derived from NO oxidation and the diet, little is known about how nitrite is metabolized by tissue, particularly at intermediate oxygen tensions. We investigated the rates and mechanisms of tissue nitrite metabolism over a range of oxygen concentrations. Results...

  15. Wet steam treatment with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruehle, W.; Enkler, G. [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    After many years of excellent results using high all volatile treatment (HAVT) for operation of the secondary system of a PWR, flow assisted corrosion in the heating pipes of the intermediate steam reheaters has been experienced. Oxygen addition into the heating steam before the reheater is expected to improve the protective oxide layers formation. The reaction of oxygen with the alkalizing steam ingredients is described. (orig.)

  16. Oxygen and Early Animal Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, S.

    2012-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that the rise of animals was triggered by an increase in O2 levels in the atmosphere and oceans. However, this hypothesis is remarkably difficult to test, because the timing of animal divergences is poorly resolved, the physiology of early animals is often unknown, estimates of past pO2 levels come with large error bars, and causal relationships between oxygenation and animal evolution are difficult to establish. Nonetheless, existing phylogenetic, paleontological, and geochemical data indicate that the evolution of macroscopic animals and motile macrometazoans with energetically expensive lifestyles may be temporally coupled with ocean oxygenation events in the Ediacaran Period. Thus, it is plausible that ocean oxygenation may have been a limiting factor in the early evolution of macroscopic, complex, and metabolically aggressive animals (particularly bilaterian animals). However, ocean oxygenation and animal evolution were likely engaged in two-way interactions: Ediacaran oxygenation may have initially lifted a physiological barrier for the evolution of animal size, motility, and active lifestyles, but subsequent animal diversification in the Paleozoic may have also changed oceanic redox structures. Viewed in a broader context, the early evolutionary history of animals was contingent upon a series of events, including genetic preparation (developmental genetics), environmental facilitation (oceanic oxygenation), and ecological escalation (Cambrian explosion), but the rise of animals to ecological importance also had important geobiological impacts on oceanic redox structures, sedimentary fabrics, and global geochemical cycles.

  17. Oxygen transport kinetics of the misfit layered oxide Ca3Co4O9+d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoréton, V.; Hu, Y.; Pirovano, C.; Capoen, E.; Nuns, N.; Mamede, A.S.; Dezanneau, G.; Yoo, C.-Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Vannier, R.N.

    2014-01-01

    The oxygen transport kinetics of the misfit-layered cobaltite, Ca3Co4O9+d, known for its thermoelectric properties, was investigated by combined application of 18O/16O isotope exchange and electrical conductivity relaxation techniques. Although oxygen diffusion is found to be two orders of magnitude

  18. Single Cell Responses to Spatially Controlled Photosensitized Production of Extracellular Singlet Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Sinks, Louise E.; Breitenbach, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    The response of individual HeLa cells to extracellularly produced singlet oxygen was examined. The spatial domain of singlet oxygen production was controlled using the combination of a membrane-impermeable Pd porphyrin-dendrimer, which served as a photosensitizer, and a focused laser, which serve...

  19. Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Postharvest Control of Western Flower Thrips on Head Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were subjected to ULO treatments with different combinations of oxygen level, temperature, and treatment duration in plastic jars. Oxygen levels used ranged from 0.0015% to 0.01%. Temperatures ranged from 1 to 10°C. Treatme...

  20. COMPARISON OF METHODS TO DETERMINE OXYGEN DEMAND FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A FUEL CONTAMINATED AQUIFER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four analytical methods were compared for estimating concentrations of fuel contaminants in subsurface core samples. The methods were total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, and a solvent extraction of fuel hydrocarbons combined with a gas chromatographic te...

  1. [Anesthesia and sedation by admixture of xenon-oxygen in dentistry. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, S A; Zavodilenko, L A; Babikov, A S

    2014-01-01

    The modern out-patient dental treatment which is performed under combined anesthesia with of xenon-oxygen inhalations provides comfortable conditions for the doctor and the patient, effective anesthesia and safe level of the sedation controlled by dentist.

  2. High resolution mapping of oxygen reduction reaction kinetics at polycrystalline platinum electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.H.; Meadows, K.E.; Cuharuc, A.; Lai, S.C.S.; Unwin, P.R.

    2014-01-01

    The scanning droplet-based technique, scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM), combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), is demonstrated as a powerful approach for visualizing surface structure effects on the rate of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at polycrystalline platin

  3. Clinical evaluation of contemporary oxygenators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzel, Roger D P; Henderson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Advances in cardiopulmonary bypass equipment have played a critical role in improving outcomes for cardiac surgery patients. Recent advancements include reduced priming volumes, biocompatible coatings and gaseous microemboli handling, as well as the incorporation of an arterial filter into the oxygenator.The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive clinical evaluation of adult oxygenators on the market. Oxygenators assessed included the Sorin Synthesis(®) (n = 30), the Sorin Inspire 6F(®) (n = 10) and Inspire 8F(®) (n = 30), the Terumo FX15(®) (n = 13) and FX25(®) (n = 30), the Maquet Quadrox-i(®) (n = 30) and the Medtronic Fusion(®) (n = 30). Parameters assessed included functional prime volumes, gas exchange, pressure gradients and the effects on patient hematology.The Synthesis had the largest functional prime volume (1426 ml), the FX15 the lowest (956 ml). The Inspire 6F, 8F and Fusion had the greatest O2 transfer. The Sorin oxygenators required the lowest sweep gas flows to obtain a PaCO2 of 40 mmHg. The Sorin oxygenators had the largest pressure gradients. While no differences were observed for hemoglobin and platelet levels post cross-clamp removal, the Sorin Synthesis and Inspire 8F had the largest increases in white blood cell (WBC) counts (122% and 141% of baseline, respectively) and neutrophils (162% and 185% of baseline, respectively).The data demonstrate that no single product is superior in all aspects. The choice of ideal oxygenator depends on the aspect(s) of oxygenator performance the perfusion team believes most clinically acceptable based on available data. PMID:26407816

  4. Co-evolution of eukaryotes and ocean oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Boyle, Richard A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Shields-Zhou, Graham A.; Butterfield, Nicholas J.

    2014-04-01

    The Neoproterozoic era (about 1,000 to 542 million years ago) was a time of turbulent environmental change. Large fluctuations in the carbon cycle were associated with at least two severe -- possible Snowball Earth -- glaciations. There were also massive changes in the redox state of the oceans, culminating in the oxygenation of much of the deep oceans. Amid this environmental change, increasingly complex life forms evolved. The traditional view is that a rise in atmospheric oxygen concentrations led to the oxygenation of the ocean, thus triggering the evolution of animals. We argue instead that the evolution of increasingly complex eukaryotes, including the first animals, could have oxygenated the ocean without requiring an increase in atmospheric oxygen. We propose that large eukaryotic particles sank quickly through the water column and reduced the consumption of oxygen in the surface waters. Combined with the advent of benthic filter feeding, this shifted oxygen demand away from the surface to greater depths and into sediments, allowing oxygen to reach deeper waters. The decline in bottom-water anoxia would hinder the release of phosphorus from sediments, potentially triggering a potent positive feedback: phosphorus removal from the ocean reduced global productivity and ocean-wide oxygen demand, resulting in oxygenation of the deep ocean. That, in turn, would have further reinforced eukaryote evolution, phosphorus removal and ocean oxygenation.

  5. Cardiogenic Shock: Failure of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoong Sern

    2016-08-01

    Cardiogenic shock remains a highly lethal condition. Conventional therapy including revascularization and mechanical circulatory support aims to improve cardiac output and oxygen delivery, but increasing basic and clinical observations indicate wider circulatory and cellular abnormalities, particularly at the advanced stages of shock. Progressive cardiogenic shock is associated with microcirculatory and cellular abnormalities. Cardiogenic shock is initially characterized by a failure to maintain global oxygen delivery; however, progressive cardiogenic shock is associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, derangement of the regulation of regional blood flow, microcirculatory abnormalities, and cellular dysoxia. These abnormalities are analogous to septic shock and may not be reversed by increase in oxygen delivery, even to supranormal levels. Earlier mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic shock may limit the development of microcirculatory and cellular abnormalities. PMID:27509355

  6. Cardiogenic Shock: Failure of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoong Sern

    2016-08-01

    Cardiogenic shock remains a highly lethal condition. Conventional therapy including revascularization and mechanical circulatory support aims to improve cardiac output and oxygen delivery, but increasing basic and clinical observations indicate wider circulatory and cellular abnormalities, particularly at the advanced stages of shock. Progressive cardiogenic shock is associated with microcirculatory and cellular abnormalities. Cardiogenic shock is initially characterized by a failure to maintain global oxygen delivery; however, progressive cardiogenic shock is associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, derangement of the regulation of regional blood flow, microcirculatory abnormalities, and cellular dysoxia. These abnormalities are analogous to septic shock and may not be reversed by increase in oxygen delivery, even to supranormal levels. Earlier mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic shock may limit the development of microcirculatory and cellular abnormalities.

  7. Real-Time Monitoring of Singlet Oxygen and Oxygen Partial Pressure During the Deep Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weitao; Huang, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yangyang; Gu, Yueqing; Qian, Zhiyu

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective noninvasive method for the tumor treatment. The major challenge in current PDT research is how to quantitatively evaluate therapy effects. To our best knowledge, this is the first time to combine multi-parameter detection methods in PDT. More specifically, we have developed a set of system, including the high-sensitivity measurement of singlet oxygen, oxygen partial pressure and fluorescence image. In this paper, the detection ability of the system was validated by the different concentrations of carbon quantum dots. Moreover, the correlation between singlet oxygen and oxygen partial pressure with laser irradiation was observed. Then, the system could detect the signal up to 0.5 cm tissue depth with 660 nm irradiation and 1 cm tissue depth with 980 nm irradiation by using up-conversion nanoparticles during PDT in vitro. Furthermore, we obtained the relationship among concentration of singlet oxygen, oxygen partial pressure and tumor cell viability under certain conditions. The results indicate that the multi-parameter detection system is a promising asset to evaluate the deep tumor therapy during PDT. Moreover, the system might be potentially used for the further study in biology and molecular imaging. PMID:26833036

  8. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald

    2003-01-01

    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  9. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  10. Make Liquid Oxygen in Your Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. M. J.; Hibbert, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen is one of the component gases of air at room temperature, making up around 20% of the atmosphere. But can oxygen be liquified? This article details a method for making small amounts of liquid oxygen in the classroom if there is no access to a cylinder of compressed oxygen gas, and two methods for identifying the fact that it is liquid…

  11. 49 CFR 172.530 - OXYGEN placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OXYGEN placard. 172.530 Section 172.530... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.530 OXYGEN placard. (a) Except for size and color, the OXYGEN placard must... background color on the OXYGEN placard must be yellow. The symbol, text, class number and inner border...

  12. 46 CFR 197.326 - Oxygen safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen safety. 197.326 Section 197.326 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.326 Oxygen safety. (a) Equipment used with oxygen or oxygen mixtures greater than 40 percent by volume must be designed for such use. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device placed over a patient's nose, mouth, or tracheostomy to administer oxygen or aerosols. (b)...

  14. 封闭负压引流联合局部给氧治疗兔耳缺血性创面的实验研究%Block Negative Pressure Drainage Combined with Local Oxygen for Ischemic Wound Healing of Rabbit Ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自鹏; 陈绍宗; 李学拥; 李金清; 吕小星; 雷战军; 王晓琳

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察封闭负压引流联合局部给氧促进兔耳缺血性创面愈合的效果.方法:28只大耳白兔,双耳背各造成直径2.5cm全层皮肤缺损,结扎中央血管神经束及后边缘动静脉,形成缺血创面.56个创面随机分为七组:A组(-50mmHg负压同时给氧,浓度为40%±5%,每日4小时)、B组(持续-50mmHg负压4小时继之局部给氧1小时)、C组(负压治疗4min,停止1min,每日4小时,之后给氧1小时),D组(-50mmHg负压治疗每日4小时)、E组(-125mmHg负压治疗每日4小时)、F组(单纯给40%±5%氧1小时)和G组(空白对照).在创面形成第0、1、3、5、7、10、14、18天拍照,测量创面面积,计算创面愈合率及创面愈合时间;在各时相点切取创面标本,组织学观察创面肉芽、上皮生长、水肿和炎细胞,Ki67免疫组化标记增殖细胞并计算增殖指数,TUNEL法计算凋亡指数.结果:负压给氧组在相同时相点创面愈合率高于单纯负压、氧疗或空白组(P<0.05),创面肉芽生长快,水肿和炎症轻,细胞增殖指数高于对照组(P<0.05),而细胞凋亡指数显著低于对照组(P<0.05).结论:负压联合局部给氧能显著促进兔耳缺血创面的愈合.%Objective: To investigate the effect of negative pressure therapy (NPT) in combination with Topical oxygen therapy (TOT) on the treatment ofiscbemic wound in rabbit dorsal ear. Method: There were 56 wounds on both ears of 28 rabbits, and the central neurovascular bundle and the posterior peripheral artery and vein were ligated. They were divided into seven groups: Group A were treated with ONPr for four hours every day; Group B was treated with continuous NPT (-50mmHg) for four hours and an hour TOT;Group C was treated with intermittent NPT (-50mmHg) for four hours and an hour TOT; Group D was treated with NPT (-50mmHg) fur four hours; Group E were treated with NPT (-125mmHg) for four hours; Group F was treated with TOT for one hour and group G was treated with conventional

  15. Effect of initial low oxygen stress combined with 1-methylcyclopropene in ‘Royal Gala’ apple quality stored under ultralow O2
    Efeito do estresse inicial por baixo O2 combinado com 1-metilciclopropeno na conservação de maçãs ‘Royal Gala’ armazenadas com ultrabaixo O2

    OpenAIRE

    Auri Brackmann; Rogério de Oliveira Anese; Anderson Weber; Vanderlei Both; Adriano Roque de Gasperin; Elizandra Pivotto Pavanello

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluated initial low oxygen stress (ILOS) and the interaction with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) during ultralow oxygen (ULO) storage in maintenance of ‘Royal Gala’ apple quality. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with two-factor. Each ILOS was applied for 14 days with 0.4 kPa O2. The treatments evaluated were: [1] 1.2 kPa O2 + 2.0 kPa CO2 (control); [2] 0.6 kPa O2 + 1.0 kPa CO2 (without stress); [3] 0.6 kPa O2 + 1.0 kPa CO2 (one stress)...

  16. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  17. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen combined with reinhartdt and sea cumber capsule therapy on abilities of learning and memory in vascular dementia rats%高压氧联合复方海蛇胶囊对血管性痴呆大鼠学习记忆能力行为学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕平; 寇雪莲; 何松彬; 唐维国

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect's of hyperbaric oxygen(HBO) combined with reinhartdt and sea cumber capsule (RSC) therapy on abilities of learning and memory in vascular dementia rats.Method: In forty Sprague-Dawly rats weighted 250—300g, the reperfusion middle cerebral artery occlusion (rM-CAO) models were established with thread embolism method. These model rats were divided into five groups: sham-operated(SHAM) group, MCAO mode(MCAO), HBO treatment(HBO) group, reinhartdt and sea cumber capsule treatment(RSC) group and HBO combined with RSC treatment(HBO + RSC) group, 8 rats in each group. At the end of 4 week treatment with HBO and/or RSC, the abilities of learning and memory of rats were assessed with Morris water maze. Result: ①In Morris water maze test, the average escape latencies in HBO group(41.15 ± 6.75s),RSC group(44.11± 6.05s) and HBO+RSC group(29.32 ± 3.72s) were significantly shorter than that in MCAO group(67.05 ± 9.00s) (P0.05). ② The average swimming path lengths in HBO group(7631.89 ± 1277.73mm),RSC group(8114.48 ± 1091.82mm)anrl HBO+RSC group (5699.27 ± 1339.82mm) were significantly shorter than that in MCAO group(12492.46 ± 2161.74mm) (P0.05). ③The striding platform times in HBO group(2.74 ± 0.65 times),RSC group(2.25 ± 0.87 times) and HBO+ RSC(3.82 ± 0.96 times) were significantly longer than that in MCAO group(1.06 ± 0.55 times) (P0.05).④The platform detention time in HBO group (30.05 ± 3.58s),RSC group(30.24± 5.13s) and HBO + RSC group(35.29 ± 3.51s) increased significantly than that in MCAO group (24.52 ± 4.05s)(P<0.05); the platform detention time in HBO+RSC group increased significantly than that in HBO group or RSC group(P<0.05); no significant difference was found between RSC group and HBO group. Conclusion: HBO and/or RSC therapy could improve learning and memory abilities in vascular dementia rats effectively. The effect of HBO combined with RSC therapy in vascular dementia rats was much better than either

  18. Comparison of pulse sequences for R1-based electron paramagnetic resonance oxygen imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.

    2015-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) oxygen imaging has proven to be an indispensable tool for assessing oxygen partial pressure in live animals. EPR oxygen images show remarkable oxygen accuracy when combined with high precision and spatial resolution. Developing more effective means for obtaining SLR rates is of great practical, biological and medical importance. In this work we compared different pulse EPR imaging protocols and pulse sequences to establish advantages and areas of applicability for each method. Tests were performed using phantoms containing spin probes with oxygen concentrations relevant to in vivo oxymetry. We have found that for small animal size objects the inversion recovery sequence combined with the filtered backprojection reconstruction method delivers the best accuracy and precision. For large animals, in which large radio frequency energy deposition might be critical, free induction decay and three pulse stimulated echo sequences might find better practical usage.

  19. MR Imaging-derived Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curves and Fetal-Placental Oxygen-Hemoglobin Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Reut; Golani, Ofra; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Cohen, Yonni; Biton, Inbal; Garbow, Joel R; Neeman, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To generate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived, oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and to map fetal-placental oxygen-hemoglobin affinity in pregnant mice noninvasively by combining blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) T2* and oxygen-weighted T1 contrast mechanisms under different respiration challenges. Materials and Methods All procedures were approved by the Weizmann Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Pregnant mice were analyzed with MR imaging at 9.4 T on embryonic days 14.5 (eight dams and 58 fetuses; imprinting control region ICR strain) and 17.5 (21 dams and 158 fetuses) under respiration challenges ranging from hyperoxia to hypoxia (10 levels of oxygenation, 100%-10%; total imaging time, 100 minutes). A shorter protocol with normoxia to hyperoxia was also performed (five levels of oxygenation, 20%-100%; total imaging time, 60 minutes). Fast spin-echo anatomic images were obtained, followed by sequential acquisition of three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*- and T1-weighted images. Automated registration was applied to align regions of interest of the entire placenta, fetal liver, and maternal liver. Results were compared by using a two-tailed unpaired Student t test. R1 and R2* values were derived for each tissue. MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves were constructed by nonlinear least square fitting of 1 minus the change in R2*divided by R2*at baseline as a function of R1 to a sigmoid-shaped curve. The apparent P50 (oxygen tension at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated) value was derived from the curves, calculated as the R1 scaled value (x) at which the change in R2* divided by R2*at baseline scaled (y) equals 0.5. Results The apparent P50 values were significantly lower in fetal liver than in maternal liver for both gestation stages (day 14.5: 21% ± 5 [P = .04] and day 17.5: 41% ± 7 [P MR imaging-based oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves with a shorter protocol that excluded the hypoxic periods was demonstrated

  20. Reactive oxygen species in redox cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lingying; Chuang, Chia-Chen; Wu, Shiyong; Zuo, Li

    2015-10-10

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells has been intensively studied for the past two decades. Cancer cells mostly have higher basal ROS levels than their normal counterparts. The induction of ROS has been shown to be associated with cancer development, metastasis, progression, and survival. Various therapeutic approaches targeting intracellular ROS levels have yielded mixed results. As widely accepted dietary supplements, antioxidants demonstrate both ROS scavenging ability and anti-cancer characteristics. However, antioxidants may not always be safe to use since excessive intake of antioxidants could lead to serious health concerns. In this review, we have evaluated the production and scavenging systems of ROS in cells, as well as the beneficial and harmful roles of ROS in cancer cells. We also examine the effect of antioxidants in cancer treatment, the effect of combined treatment of antioxidants with traditional cancer therapies, and the side effects of excessive antioxidant intake.

  1. Development of a Supersonic Atomic Oxygen Nozzle Beam Source for Crossed Beam Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibener, S. J.; Buss, R. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    A high pressure, supersonic, radio frequency discharge nozzle beam source was developed for the production of intense beams of ground state oxygen atoms. An efficient impedance matching scheme was devised for coupling the radio frequency power to the plasma as a function of both gas pressure and composition. Techniques for localizing the discharge directly behind the orifice of a water-cooled quartz nozzle were also developed. The above combine to yield an atomic oxygen beam source which produces high molecular dissociation in oxygen seeded rare gas mixtures at total pressures up to 200 torr: 80 to 90% dissociation for oxygen/argon mixtures and 60 to 70% for oxygen/helium mixtures. Atomic oxygen intensities are found to be greater than 10{sup 17} atom sr{sup -1} sec{sup -1}. A brief discussion of the reaction dynamics of 0 + IC1 ..-->.. I0 + C1 is also presented.

  2. Microbial respiration and gene expression as a function of very low oxygen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiano, Laura

    on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and the expression of their terminal oxidases genes. The results from this project show that it is indeed possible, by combining high resolution sensor technology (the STOX sensor) and all-glass bottle incubation (Appendix A) to achieve an extreme high sensitivity in O2...... to pure cultures (Manuscript III), in order to assess the response of three species of NOB (Nitrospira defluvvi, N. moscoviensis and Nitrospina gracilis) to low O2 concentrations, and the oxygen regulation on the expression of the terminal oxidases genes in N.moscoviensis. The oxygen affinities...... recently, due to the lack of high-resolution methods for O2 concentration determination, several oxygen-related processes, such as aerobic respiration in pelagic aquatic ecosystems and in naturally oxygen poor waters (e.g. Oxygen Minimum Zones, OMZs), or the oxygen regulation of nitrification...

  3. Novel Molten Oxide Membrane for Ultrahigh Purity Oxygen Separation from Air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousov, Valery V; Kulbakin, Igor V; Fedorov, Sergey V; Klimashin, Anton A

    2016-08-31

    We present a novel solid/liquid Co3O4-36 wt % Bi2O3 composite that can be used as molten oxide membrane, MOM ( Belousov, V. V. Electrical and Mass Transport Processes in Molten Oxide Membranes. Ionics 22 , 2016 , 451 - 469 ), for ultrahigh purity oxygen separation from air. This membrane material consists of Co3O4 solid grains and intergranular liquid channels (mainly molten Bi2O3). The solid grains conduct electrons, and the intergranular liquid channels predominantly conduct oxygen ions. The liquid channels also provide the membrane material gas tightness and ductility. This last property allows us to deal successfully with the problem of thermal incompatibility. Oxygen and nitrogen permeation fluxes, oxygen ion transport number, and conductivity of the composite were measured by the gas flow, volumetric measurements of the faradaic efficiency, and four-probe dc techniques, accordingly. The membrane material showed the highest oxygen selectivity jO2/jN2 > 10(5) and sufficient oxygen permeability 2.5 × 10(-8) mol cm(-1) s(-1) at 850 °C. In the range of membrane thicknesses 1.5-3.3 mm, the oxygen permeation rate was controlled by chemical diffusion. The ease of the MOM fabrication, combined with superior oxygen selectivity and competitive oxygen permeability, shows the promise of the membrane material for ultrahigh purity oxygen separation from air. PMID:27482771

  4. Measuring Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Dissolved Oxygen in Streambed Sediments Using Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, K. T.; Salus, A.; Xie, M.; Roche, K. R.; Packman, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure sensitive paints (PSP) have been largely used in aerodynamic applications to measure pressure distributions on complex bodies such as aircraft. One common family of PSPs employ fluorescent pigments that are quenched in the presence of oxygen, yielding an inverse relationship between fluorescence intensity and oxygen concentration that is used to measure pressure in aerodynamic applications through the partial pressure of oxygen. These PSPs offer unexplored potential for visualizing dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration distributions on surfaces underwater. PSP was used to measure dissolved oxygen concentrations in streambed sediments in a laboratory flume. Two PSP-coated 2.5 cm diameter spheres were emplaced in a bed of similar material, and imaged under varying DO concentrations. Calibration curves relating fluorescence intensity to dissolved oxygen concentration were developed on a pixel-by-pixel basis, enabling spatial patterns of oxygen to be resolved in the sediment bed. This method of measuring dissolved oxygen concentration is advantageous because of its fast response time and ability to measure heterogeneous oxygen distributions in sediments. Future work will explore the combined effects of stream flow and biofilm growth on oxygen distributions in streambed sediments.

  5. Evaluation of different oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen combinations employed to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut collard greens Avaliação de diferentes combinações de oxigênio, gás carbônico e nitrogênio utilizadas no aumento de vida de prateleira de couve minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso L. Moretti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala "Manteiga" were harvested in commercial fields in Brasilia, Brazil, aiming to evaluate different oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen combinations to extend the shelf life of the fresh-cut product. After harvest, leaves were taken to the postharvest laboratory, selected for external blemishes and minimally processed (3 mm thick inside a cold room (13±2°C. After processing, fresh-cut collard greens were stored under two controlled atmosphere (CA conditions (3% O2, 4% CO2; 5% O2, 5% CO2/balance N2, and normal air (control, at 5°C (95±2% RH, for six days. Daily, minimally processed collard greens were evaluated for total vitamin C, total chlorophyll, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. Total vitamin C content decreased for all treatments during the storage period. Storage under CA conditions delayed total vitamin C degradation for both atmospheres studied. At the end of the storage period, fresh-cut collard greens stored under 3% O2, 4% CO2 showed around 25% and 56% more vitamin C than the material stored under 5% O2, 5% CO2 and control, respectively. Total chlorophyll content decreased during the storage period. At the end of the experiment, fresh-cut collard greens stored under 3% O2, 4% CO2 showed 24% and 45% more total chlorophyll than the product stored under 5% O2, 5% CO2 and control, respectively. CA storage delayed organic acid degradation. On the sixth day, fresh-cut collard greens stored under 3% O2, 4% CO2 presented around 44% more organic acids than control. Total soluble solids content were not significantly affected.Folhas de couve (Brassica oleracea var. acephala "Manteiga" foram obtidas em campos de produção comercial em Brasília, DF, com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes combinações de oxigênio, dióxido de carbono e nitrogênio para estender a vida de prateleira do produto minimamente processado. Após colhidas, as folhas foram levadas ao laboratório de p

  6. A combined biological-chemical approach supported by granulated iron and methanol for nitrate removal from oxygen rich groundwater%粒状铁与甲醇支持的生物-化学联用法去除富氧地下水中硝酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国鑫; H.FALLOWFIELD; H.GUAN; 刘菲

    2012-01-01

    According to the target contaminant-nitrate (NO3) in oxygen rich groundwater, a combined biological-chemical approach supported by granulated iron and methanol was put forward. Batch tests were conducted to optimize denitrification reaction parameters, and preliminarily explode the capacities and pathways of deoxygenation and denitrification. The results indicated, the optimal parameters, i.e., granulated iron type of Gl-Beijing, granulated iron: water ratio of 3: 800 (in weight), granulated iron particle size of 0.425~1.0 mm, reaction time of 5 day, methanol mass concentration of 210.59 mg·L-1, were identified. 174 min, 206 min and 2746 min were needed to completely remove DO for the biological-chemical approach, granulated iron and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, respectively. The deoxygenation of the approach depended on granulated iron-based chemical reduction and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria-based aerobic respiration, and the former played a key role. With increasing reaction time, NO3 percent removal by respective heterotrophic denitrification (HD), autotrophic denitrification (AD) and chemical reduction (CR) increased. The percent removal efficiencies by AD and CR were lower than 10% at reaction time < 5 days, whereas the corresponding value by the approach was close to 100% at reaction time of 5 days. The biological-chemical approach relied on 3 denitrification pathways-HD, AD and CR, and HD was the most important pathway. There existed symbiotic, synergistic and promotive effects of CR, HD and AD within the system of the approach. Nitrate reduction rate was greater than (or equal to) nitrite reduction rate during denitrification by the approach. It's feasible and effective for the biological-chemical approach to remove nitrate from groundwater.%针对富氧地下水中硝酸盐,采用粒状铁和甲醇支持的生物-化学联用法开展了批实验研究,优化了脱氮反应参数,初步探讨了脱氧脱氮的能力及途径.结果表明,该法

  7. Diffusion of oxygen in cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Simon, Jean-Marc; Paulin, Christian; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2012-04-01

    This work reports measurements of effective oxygen diffusion coefficient in raw cork. Kinetics of oxygen transfer through cork is studied at 298 K thanks to a homemade manometric device composed of two gas compartments separated by a cork wafer sample. The first compartment contains oxygen, whereas the second one is kept under dynamic vacuum. The pressure decrease in the first compartment is recorded as a function of time. The effective diffusion coefficient D(eff) is obtained by applying Fick's law to transient state using a numerical method based on finite differences. An analytical model derived from Fick's law applied to steady state is also proposed. Results given by these two methods are in close agreement with each other. The harmonic average of the effective diffusion coefficients obtained from the distribution of 15 cork wafers of 3 mm thickness is 1.1 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) with a large distribution over four decades. The statistical analysis of the Gaussian distribution obtained on a 3 mm cork wafer is extrapolated to a 48 mm cork wafer, which length corresponds to a full cork stopper. In this case, the probability density distribution gives a mean value of D(eff) equal to 1.6 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). This result shows that it is possible to obtain the effective diffusion coefficient of oxygen through cork from short time (few days) measurements performed on a thin cork wafer, whereas months are required to obtain the diffusion coefficient for a full cork stopper. Permeability and oxygen transfer rate are also calculated for comparison with data from other studies.

  8. Applications of quantum dots in optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Pedro A. S.; Mayeh, Mona; Benrashid, Ramazan; Caldas, Paulo; Santos, José L.; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-06-01

    The potential applications of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals to optical oxygen sensing are explored. The suitability of quantum dots to provide a reference signal in luminescence-based chemical sensors is addressed. A CdSe-ZnS nanocrystal, with an emission peak at 520 nm, is used to provide a reference signal. Measurements of oxygen concentration, which are based on the dynamic quenching of the luminescence of a ruthenium complex, are performed. Both the dye and the nanocrystal are immobilized in a solgel matrix and are excited by a blue LED. Experimental results show that the ratio between the reference and the sensor signals is highly insensitive to fluctuations of the excitation optical power. The use of CdTe, near-infrared quantum dots with an emission wavelength of 680 nm, in combination with a ruthenium complex to provide a new mechanism for oxygen sensing, is investigated. The possibility of creating oxygen sensitivity in different spectral regions is demonstrated. The results obtained clearly show that this technique can be applied to develop a wavelength division multiplexed system of oxygen sensors.

  9. Oxygen carrying microbubbles for enhanced sonodynamic therapy of hypoxic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Conor; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor; Fowley, Colin; Nesbitt, Heather; Cochrane, David; Coussios, Constantin C; Borden, M; Nomikou, Nikolitsa; McHale, Anthony P; Callan, John F

    2015-04-10

    Tumour hypoxia represents a major challenge in the effective treatment of solid cancerous tumours using conventional approaches. As oxygen is a key substrate for Photo-/Sono-dynamic Therapy (PDT/SDT), hypoxia is also problematic for the treatment of solid tumours using these techniques. The ability to deliver oxygen to the vicinity of the tumour increases its local partial pressure improving the possibility of ROS generation in PDT/SDT. In this manuscript, we investigate the use of oxygen-loaded, lipid-stabilised microbubbles (MBs), decorated with a Rose Bengal sensitiser, for SDT-based treatment of a pancreatic cancer model (BxPc-3) in vitro and in vivo. We directly compare the effectiveness of the oxygen-loaded MBs with sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)-loaded MBs and reveal a significant improvement in therapeutic efficacy. The combination of oxygen-carrying, ultrasound-responsive MBs, with an ultrasound-responsive therapeutic sensitiser, offers the possibility of delivering and activating the MB-sensitiser conjugate at the tumour site in a non-invasive manner, providing enhanced sonodynamic activation at that site.

  10. Three-oxygen therapy combined with intensity modulated radiation therapy used for treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer and its influence on patients' serum hypoxia inducible factor-1αand vascular endothelial growth factors%三氧治疗联合调强适形放疗治疗鼻咽癌及对患者血清乏氧诱导因子-1α及血管内皮生长因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀文; 易基群; 潘兆军; 梁继珍

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究分析三氧治疗联合调强适形放疗治疗鼻咽癌的疗效及对患者血清乏氧诱导因子-1α(HIF-1α)及血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)的影响。方法选取我院2010年1月~2013年12月收治的鼻咽癌放疗患者50例进行治疗观察,随机分为两组,每组各25例。对照组行调强放疗,观察组在对照组治疗基础上行三氧联合治疗。结果治疗后,观察组鼻咽癌患者血清HIF-1α水平显著下降,对照组则显著升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01~0.05)。治疗后,观察组鼻咽癌患者血清HIF-1α水平显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。治疗后,观察组鼻咽癌患者血清VEGF水平显著下降,对照组则显著升高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。治疗后,观察组鼻咽癌患者血清VEGF水平显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论三氧治疗联合调强适形放疗治疗鼻咽癌的疗效显著,能改善患者的血清乏氧诱导因子-1α及血管内皮生长因子水平。%Objective To study and analyze the efficacy of three-oxygen therapy combined with intensity modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer and its influence on the patients' serum hypoxia inducible factor-1(HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factors(VEGF). Methods Fifty patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated in our hospital from January 2010 to December 2013 were selected to receive treatment and randomly divided into two groups.The control group received intensity modulated radiation therapy and the observation group received three-oxygen therapy on the basis of the control group. Results After treatment, the serum HIF-1α level of the observation group reduced significantly and that of the control group elevated significantly,with statistically significant differences for both(P < 0.01-0.05).After treatment, the serum HIF-1α level of the observation group

  11. Efficacy comparison of oral steroid, intratympanic steroid, hyperbaric oxygen and oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen treatments in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimoglu, Yalcin; Inci, Ender; Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Ozdilek, Alper; Aslan, Mehmet

    2011-12-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a rare disorder of unknown pathogenesis in which hearing is lost partially or totally. About 60 treatment modalities have been described. We aimed to compare the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen, oral steroid, intratympanic steroid therapy and their combinations in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients. Files of patients who were followed up between 2004 and 2010 in our clinic were examined retrospectively. Patients were divided into four groups according to the therapy received: Oral steroid, oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen, intratympanic steroid and hyperbaric oxygen. Treatment success was assessed by Siegel criteria and mean gains using pre-treatment and post-treatment audiograms. 217 patients and 219 ears were examined. The proportion of patients responding to therapy was the highest in the oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen group with 86.88% (53/61) followed by the oral steroid group with 63.79% (37/58), the intratympanic steroid group with 46,51% (20/43) and the hyperbaric oxygen group with 43.85% (25/57). The proportion of patients who had complete recovery was the highest in the oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen group with 42.6% (26/61) followed by the oral steroid group with 19.0% (11/58), the hyperbaric oxygen group with 17.5% (10/57) and the intratympanic steroid group with 11.6% (5/43). The oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen group has the highest mean hearing gain among all groups (p hearing loss patients receiving oral steroid + hyperbaric oxygen combination therapy have a higher likelihood of recovery than patients receiving oral steroids, hyperbaric oxygen or intratympanic steroids alone.

  12. Oxygen supply and consumption in soilless culture: evaluation of an oxygen simulation model for cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Wever, G.; Koolen, A.J.; Tariku, E.; Stol, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    A soil oxygen simulation model (OXSI) was tested and evaluated for evaluating growing media with respect to aeration. In the model, local oxygen concentrations are calculated from coefficients of diffusion and consumption (respiration), assuming equilibrium conditions. Apparent oxygen diffusion coef

  13. Synthesis gas production using oxygen storage materials as oxygen carrier over circulating fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiaoping; YU Changchun; LI Ranjia; WU Qiong; HAO Zhengping

    2008-01-01

    A novel process for synthesis gas production over Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) using oxygen storage materials as oxygen carrier was reported. First, oxygen in the air was chemically fixed and converted to lattice oxygen of oxygen storage materials over regenerator, and then methane was selectively oxidized to synthesis gas with lattice oxygen of oxygen storage materials over riser reactor. The results from simulation reaction of CFB by sequential redox reaction on a fixed bed reactor using lanthanum-based perovskite LaFeO3 and La0.8Sr0.2Fe0.9Co0.1O3 oxides prepared by sol-gel, suggested that the depleted oxygen species could be regenerated, and methane could be oxidized to synthesis gas by lattice oxygen with high selectivity. The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over CFB using lattice oxygen of the oxygen storage materials instead of gaseous oxygen should be possibly applicable.

  14. Oxygenation-sensitive CMR for assessing vasodilator-induced changes of myocardial oxygenation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Jiun; Dharmakumar Rohan; Green Jordin D; Flewitt Jacqueline A; Vöhringer Matthias; Tyberg John V; Friedrich Matthias G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background As myocardial oxygenation may serve as a marker for ischemia and microvascular dysfunction, it could be clinically useful to have a non-invasive measure of changes in myocardial oxygenation. However, the impact of induced blood flow changes on oxygenation is not well understood. We used oxygenation-sensitive CMR to assess the relations between myocardial oxygenation and coronary sinus blood oxygen saturation (SvO2) and coronary blood flow in a dog model in which hyperemia ...

  15. Investigation of Oxygen Vacancy and Interstitial Oxygen Defects in ZnO Films by Photoluminescence and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hai-Bo; YANG Shao-Yan; ZHANG Pan-Feng; WEI Hong-Yuan; LIU Xiang-Lin; JIAO Chun-Mei; ZHU Qin-Sheng; CHEN Yong-Hai; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2007-01-01

    ZnO films prepared at different temperatures and annealed at 900 C in oxygen are studied by photoluminescence (PL) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is observed that in the PL of the as-grown films the green luminescence (GL) and the yellow luminescence (YL) are related, and after annealing the GL is restrained and the YL is enhanced. The O 1s XPS results also show the coexistence of oxygen vacancy (Vo) and interstitial oxygen (Oi) before annealing and the quenching of the Vo after annealing. By combining the two results it is deduced that the GL and YL are related to the Vo and Oi defects, respectively.

  16. Effect of epidural blockade and oxygen therapy on changes in subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, U; Erichsen, C J;

    1994-01-01

    The effect of oxygen therapy (37% by face mask) and epidural local anesthetic blockade (9 ml 0.5% bupivacaine at Th9-11 level) on wound oxygenation was evaluated in eight otherwise healthy patients undergoing elective colorectal resection. The patients were monitored continuously for subcutaneous...... any of the measured values. Oxygen therapy before epidural blockade increased median subcutaneous oxygen tension from 60 to 71 mmHg (P oxygen tension with oxygen therapy was 30 (15-55) min...... without epidural blockade and 15 (10-20) min with blockade (P oxygen tension with or without oxygen therapy after elective uncomplicated major abdominal surgery....

  17. 高压氧结合脑活素治疗新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病148例疗效分析%Hyperbaric Oxygen Combined with Cerebrolysin in Treatment of 148 Cases of Neonatal Hypoxic- Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虎; 万俊; 凌厉; 刘桂华; 刘静

    2011-01-01

    The effect of hyperbaric oxygen for the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy was abserved. 296 cases of children with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy diagnosis and sub-standard in light, medium and severe were chosen for the study in our hospital neonatal wards from October 1999 to October 2006. They were divided into two groups randomly: control group (148 cases for the cerebrolysin group) and observation group (148 cases for the hyperbaric oxygen and cerebrolysin group). The YLCO. 5 - 1 infant hyperbaric oxygen chamber was setected, with the entire cabin of oxygen, and pressure 0. 05~0. 06 Mpa. Boost and buck 0. 5 hour, and the regulator one hour, during which a regulator in the 20 minute ventilation, one time per day, 7 times for a course of treatment. The earliest of the observation group getting-into the cabin for the first time was 25 hours after birth, while the average time for the first time getting-into the cabin was 60. 8 hours after birth. The effect of the observation group was better. According to the statistical analysis (x2 = 3. 95, P < 0. 05) , significant difference was showed, and the follow-up screening DDST NBNAp score and the observation group were significantly better than the control group. Early application of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of neonatal hypoxicischemic encephalopathy is effective, safe and reliable.%探讨高压氧治疗新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病的疗效.选择1999年10月至2006年10月我院新生儿病房中符合新生儿缺氧缺血性脑病诊断及分度标准的轻、中、重度患儿296例为研究对象.随机分成两组,对照组148例为脑活素治疗组,观察组148例为高压氧加脑活素治疗组,选用YLC0.5-1型婴儿高压氧舱,全舱给氧,压力0.05~0.06 Mpa.升压及降压各0.5 h,稳压1 h,其间稳压换气1次20 min,每天1次,7次为1疗程.本组首次入舱时间最早为生后25 h,平均首次人舱时间为60.8 h.观察组疗效明显高于

  18. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.LNguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching isassociated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent thatthe loss of the cellulose DPis strongly affected by(degree ofpolymisation) the extent of thedelignification. A strong linear correlation can beestablished between the DP of cellulose chains andthe residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growthconcept and Percolation Theory for heterogenoussystem can be combined to formulate kinetic modelsfor both the delignification and the degradation ofcarbohydrate. The models prediction is statisticallyrobust and can be applied to different pulps atdifferent bleachin~ conditions.

  19. Oxygen permeation and thermo-chemical stability of oxygen separation membrane materials for the oxyfuel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellett, Anna Judith

    2009-07-01

    The reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, generally held to be one of the most significant contributors to global warming, is a major technological issue. CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (CCS) techniques applied to large stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants could efficiently contribute to the global carbon mitigation effort. The oxyfuel process, which consists in the burning of coal in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to produce a flue gas highly concentrated in CO{sub 2}, is a technology considered for zero CO{sub 2} emission coal-fired power plants. The production of this O{sub 2}-rich combustion gas from air can be carried out using high purity oxygen separation membranes. Some of the most promising materials for this application are mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) materials with perovskite and K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4} perovskite-related structures. The present work examines the selection of La{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF58), La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+{delta}}, Pr{sub 0.58}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (PSCF58) and Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF50) as membrane materials for the separation of O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} in the framework of the oxyfuel process with flue gas recycling. Annealing experiments were carried out on pellets exposed to CO{sub 2}, water vapour, O{sub 2} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in order to determine the thermo-chemical resistance to the atmospheres and the high temperature conditions present during membrane operation in a coal-fired power plant. The degradation of their microstructure was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in combination with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Also, the oxygen permeation fluxes of selected membranes were investigated as a function of temperature. The membrane materials selected were characterised using thermo-analytical techniques such as precision thermogravimetric

  20. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  1. Synthesis and characterization of gallium-based perovskite- type dense membrane with oxygen semipermeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    La0.15Sr0.85Ga0.3Fe0.7O3-d (LSGFO) and La0.15Sr0.85Co0.3Fe0.7O3-d (LSCFO) mixed oxygen-ion and electron conducting oxides were synthesized by using a combined EDTA and citrate complexing method, and the corresponding dense membranes were fabricated. The properties of the oxide powders and membranes were characterized with combined SEM, XRD, H2-TPR, O2-TPD techniques, mechanical strength and oxygen permeation measurement. The results showed that LSGFO had much higher thermochemical stability than LSCFO due to the higher valence stability of Ga3+. After the temperature-programmed reduction by 5% H2 in Ar from 20℃ to 1020℃, the basic perovskite structure of LSGFO was successfully preserved. LSGFO also favors the oxygen vacancy formation better than LSCFO. Oxygen permeation measurement demonstrated that LSGFO had higher oxygen permeation flux than LSCFO, but they had similar activation energy for oxygen transportation, with a value of 110 and 117 kJ omol-1, respectively. The difference in oxygen permeation fluxes was correlated with the difference in oxygen vacancy concentrations for the two materials.

  2. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  3. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fan (Inventor); Pearton, Stephen John (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a CO.sub.2 or O.sub.2 sensor is disclosed, hi one implementation, a polymer solar cell can be connected to the HEMT for use in an infrared detection system. In a second implementation, a selective recognition layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. For carbon dioxide sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, PEI/starch. For oxygen sensing, the selective recognition layer can be, in one example, indium zinc oxide (IZO). In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of carbon dioxide and oxygen in exhaled breath or blood.

  4. Effects of prone position ventilation combined with recruitment maneuver on oxygenation and intrapulmonary shunt in canines with acute respiratory distress syndrome%俯卧位通气联合肺复张手法对急性呼吸窘迫综合征犬氧合及肺内分流的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许启霞; 詹庆元; 王辰; 庞宝森; 李一鸣

    2008-01-01

    2.75、2.99,P均<0.05).结论 在小潮气量+呼气末正压的肺保护性通气基础上,俯卧位通气联合肺复张手法可以更有效地改善氧合,减少分流.%Objective To evaluate the effects of prone position ventilation(PPV)combined with recruitment maneuver(RM) on oxygenation and intrapulmonary shunting in oleic acid-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)in canines while ventilated with lung protective ventilation strategy.Methods ARDS was induced by oleic acid in 24 dogs,and the animals were ventilated with volume controlled ventilation(VCV),16 em H2O(1 cm H2O:0.098 kPa)of positive end-expiratory pressure(PEEP)and small tidal volumes(VT 10 ml/kg).All the dogs were randomly divided by random digit table into 4 groups(6 each),a control group(supine position,SP group),a prone position group(PP group),a supine position+RM group(SPRM group),and a prone position+RM group(PPRM group),and then were ventilated by VCV for 4 h.Arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses were measured.Data were analyzed using the SPSS for windows(version 11.5).Results were expressed as (-x) ±s.Homogeneity of variance test was performed.The differences in means were calculated using one-way ANOVA.Post-hoc multiple comparisons of means were performed using Least Significant Difference.Nonparametric tests for several independent samples were performed to compare differences between the ranks in the groups studied.P value of<0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results (1) At 15 min,PaO2/FiO2 in the SPRM group,the PP group and the PPRM group[(368±45)mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa),(349±80)mm Hg,(423±43)mm Hg,respectively] was significantly higher than that in the SP group[(269±72)mm Hg,q=2.77,2.23,4.31,respectively,all P<0.05].At 2 h,PaO2/FiO2 in the PP group and the PPRM group[(401±82)mm Hg,(416±23)mm Hg,respectively] was significantly higher than that in the SP group[(232±40)mm Hg,q=3.99,4.35,respectively,all P<0.05].At 4 h,PaO2/FiO2 in the PPRM group[(384

  5. Oxygen clamps in gold nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes, Frederico D.; da Silva, Antonio J. R.; da Silva, E. Z.; Fazzio, A.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how the insertion of an oxygen atom in an atomically thin gold nanowire can affect its rupture. We find, using ab initio total energy density functional theory calculations, that O atoms when inserted in gold nanowires form not only stable but also very strong bonds, in such a way that they can extract atoms from a stable tip, serving in this way as a clamp that could be used to pull a string of gold atoms.

  6. Analysis of factors which affect the relationship between inspired oxygen partial pressure and arterial oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, P G; Jones, J G

    1993-10-01

    The adoption of pulse oximetry in anaesthesia and intensive care has resulted in oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SaO2) becoming an important and widely used clinical descriptor of gas exchange, although its full potential has not been realized. We have explored the effect of impaired gas exchange on the relationship between PIO2 and SaO2. A curve of oxygen content vs PIO2 for an ideal lung was constructed using the oxygen dissociation curve and allowing for the effect of dissolved oxygen in plasma. A plot of PIO2 vs SaO2 was derived from this content curve. The effect of impaired gas exchange (shunt and V/Q effects) on this relationship was then modelled using for shunt the equation Qs/Qt = (Cc' O2-CaO2)/(Cc' O2-CvO2) and for V/Q, a graphical method using the equation V/Q = k(Cc' O2-CvO2)/ (PIO2-PAO2) and the oxygen content curve to model the effect of a spread of V/Q ratios. A total of nine compartments were used to model the scatter of V/Q, and the size of these compartments were determined by their relative blood supply. Plots of PIO2 vs SaO2 were derived for different values of shunt and V/Q. The PIO2 vs SaO2 curve reflected the shape of the oxygen dissociation curve but lay to the right by PIO2-PAO2. Shunt caused a depression of the plateau of this curve with relatively little lateral movement, whereas a low mean V/Q ratio caused a marked rightwards lateral displacement. Increased IogSD Q caused a flattening of the relationship. The combined effect of shunt and a spread of V/Q ratios caused both lateral and vertical displacements. Thus a series of simple measurements of PIO2 and SaO2 gave information about both shunt and V/Q abnormality. PMID:8260294

  7. Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy or Alone Antibiotherapy? Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mediastinitis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kurt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: In the post-sternotomy mediastinitis patients, Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogenic microorganism encountered most often. In our study, we aimed to determine the efficacy of antibiotic treatment with vancomycin and tigecycline, alone or in combination with hyperbaric oxygen treatment, on bacterial elimination in experimental S. aureus mediastinitis. METHODS: Forty-nine adult female Wistar rats were used. They were randomly divided into seven groups, as follows: non-contaminated, contaminated control, vancomycin, tigecycline, hyperbaric oxygen, hyperbaric oxygen + vancomycin and hyperbaric oxygen + tigecycline. The vancomycin rat group received 10 mg/kg/day of vancomycin twice a day through intramuscular injection. The tigecycline group rats received 7 mg/kg/day of tigecycline twice a day through intraperitoneal injection. The hyperbaric oxygen group underwent 90 min sessions of 100% oxygen at 2.5 atm pressure. Treatment continued for 7 days. Twelve hours after the end of treatment, tissue samples were obtained from the upper part of the sternum for bacterial count assessment. RESULTS: When the quantitative bacterial counts of the untreated contaminated group were compared with those of the treated groups, a significant decrease was observed. However, comparing the antibiotic groups with the same antibiotic combined with hyperbaric oxygen, there was a significant reduction in microorganisms identified (P<0.05. Comparing hyperbaric oxygen used alone with the vancomycin and tigecycline groups, it was seen that the effect was not significant (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: We believe that the combination of hyperbaric oxygen with antibiotics had a significant effect on mediastinitis resulting from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus mediastinitis can be treated without requiring a multidrug combination, thereby reducing the medication dose and concomitantly decreasing the side effects.

  8. [The story of oxygen (2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, F; Radin, S; Tenchini, P

    1985-04-01

    The authors, in this second part of the oxygen story, resolutely cross the borders of the biophysical field, and face the origins and becoming of life, the stages of which are synthesized in "casket" terms, unusual for surgeons: "protobionts", "procariots", "cyanobacteria", "chlorophyll", "caroteonides", "fermentation", "anaerobic glycolysis", "eucariots", "respiratory chain", "mitocondria". This is not an unconventional biological exercise, but the effort to give clinics a more legible ground, a sort of common denominator of the most different pathologies, and, among these ones, at the first place, just those of the specialistic branch, also less frequenter of biology, that is, surgery. This common denominator, the oxygen radicals represent the emerging apex of, like the peak of an iceberg, in fact, can be only investigated through an exasperated "philogenetic" recovering. Such process of "archaeology" seems to be the only suitable to supply us the cipher-key of the ambiguous, shifty character of oxygen, and entrust us with a cultural patrimony being unique as it is spendable in an immediate clinical future. PMID:4017137

  9. Magnetocaloric Pumping of Liquid Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, Christopher; Kandula, Max; Lane, John; Youngquist, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The field-induced force density on a magnetic fluid is proportional to the magnetic susceptibility times the gradient of the magnetic field squared. The direction of the force is towards increasing magnetic field (positive gradient). Applying a magnetic field to a magnetic fluid will result in a force from all directions towards the location of peak field. Since the magnetic field is conservative and there are no magnetic monopoles, the net field-induced force on any fluid of constant susceptibly will be zero. The only manner to obtain a nonzero net field-induced force is to vary the susceptibility of the fluid. At the gas/liquid interface of liquid oxygen, the susceptibility varies drastically, and the exploitation of the resultant large net forces. An alternative method of varying the magnetic susceptibility is to vary the temperature of the fluid. The magnetic susceptibility of paramagnetic liquid oxygen obeys the Curie-Weiss law: it is inversely proportional to temperature. By applying a temperature gradient in the presence of a symmetric magnetic field, a nonzero net force results. Much of the theory of the so-called Magnetocaloric Effect has previously been developed for and applied to ferromagnetic fluids, or ferrofluids, but is readily applied to paramagnetic liquid oxygen.

  10. Oxygen Gas Phase Abundance Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    André, M K; Howk, J C; Ferlet, R; Désert, J M; Hébrard, G; Lacour, S; Lecavelier-des-Etangs, A; Vidal-Madjar, A; Moos, H W

    2003-01-01

    We present new measurements of the interstellar gas-phase oxygen abundance along the sight lines towards 19 early-type galactic stars at an average distance of 2.6 kpc. We derive O {\\small I} column densities from {\\it HST}/STIS observations of the weak 1355 \\AA intersystem transition. We derive total hydrogen column densities [N(H {\\small I})+2N(H$_2$)] using {\\it HST}/STIS observations of \\lya and {\\it FUSE} observations of molecular hydrogen. The molecular hydrogen content of these sight lines ranges from f(H$_2$) = 2N(H$_2$)/[N(H {\\small I})+2N(H$_2$)] = 0.03 to 0.47. The average $$ of 6.3$\\times10^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ mag$^{-1}$ with a standard deviation of 15% is consistent with previous surveys. The mean oxygen abundance along these sight lines, which probe a wide range of galactic environments in the distant ISM, is 10$^6$ \\oh = $408 \\pm 13$ (1 $\\sigma$ in the mean). %$({\\rm O/H})_{gas} = 408 \\pm 14$(1 $\\sigma$). We see no evidence for decreasing gas-phase oxygen abundance with increasing molecular hydroge...

  11. Kinetic bottlenecks to chemical exchange rates for deep-sea animals – Part 1: Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Peltzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocean warming will reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations which can pose challenges to marine life. Oxygen limits are traditionally reported simply as a static concentration thresholds with no temperature, pressure or flow rate dependency. Here we treat the oceanic oxygen supply potential for heterotrophic consumption as a dynamic molecular exchange problem analogous to familiar gas exchange processes at the sea surface. A combination of the purely physico-chemical oceanic properties temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and oxygen concentration defines the ability of the ocean to supply oxygen to any given animal. This general oceanic oxygen supply potential is modulated by animal specific properties such as the diffusive boundary layer thickness to define and limit maximal oxygen supply rates. Here we combine all these properties into formal, mechanistic equations defining novel oceanic properties that subsume various relevant classical oceanographic parameters to better visualize, map, comprehend, and predict the impact of ocean deoxygenation on aerobic life. By explicitly including temperature and hydrostatic pressure into our quantities, various ocean regions ranging from the cold deep-sea to warm, coastal seas can be compared. We define purely physico-chemical quantities to describe the oceanic oxygen supply potential, but also quantities that contain organism-specific properties which in a most generalized way describe general concepts and dependencies. We apply these novel quantities to example oceanic profiles around the world and find that temperature and pressure dependencies of diffusion and partial pressure create zones of greatest physical constriction on oxygen supply typically at around 1000 m depth, which coincides with oxygen concentration minimum zones. In these zones, which comprise the bulk of the world ocean, ocean warming and deoxygenation have a clear negative effect for aerobic life. In some shallow and warm waters the

  12. Susceptibility weighted imaging of stroke brain in response to normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Iris Y.; Igarashi, Takahiro; Guo, Yingkun; Sun, Phillip Z.

    2015-03-01

    The neuroprotective effect of oxygen leads to recent interest in normobaric oxygen (NBO) therapy after acute ischemic stroke. However, the mechanism remains unclear and inconsistent outcomes were reported in human studies. Because NBO aims to improve brain tissue oxygenation by enhancing oxygen delivery to ischemic tissue, monitoring the oxygenation level changes in response to NBO becomes necessary to elucidate the mechanism and to assess the efficacy. Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) which provides a new MRI contrast by combining the magnitude and phase images is fit for purpose. SWI is sensitive to deoxyhemoglobin level changes and thus can be used to evaluate the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. In this study, SWI was used for in vivo monitoring of oxygenation changes in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) before, during and after 30 min of NBO treatment. Regions of interest in ischemic core, penumbra and contralateral normal area were generated based on diffusionweighted imaging and perfusion imaging. Significant differences in SWI indicating different oxygenation levels were generally found: contralateral normal > penumbra > ischemic core. Ischemic core showed insignificant increase in oxygenation during NBO and returned to pre-treatment level after termination of NBO. Meanwhile, the oxygenation levels slightly increased in contralateral normal and penumbra regions during NBO and significantly decreased to a level lower than pre-treatment after termination of NBO, indicating secondary metabolic disruption upon the termination of transient metabolic support from oxygen. Further investigation of NBO effect combined with reperfusion is necessary while SWI can be used to detect hemorrhagic transformation after reperfusion.

  13. Oxygen Delivering Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Ashley L.; Rindone, Alexandra N.; Grayson, Warren L.

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering (TE) has provided promising strategies for regenerating tissue defects, but few TE approaches have been translated for clinical applications. One major barrier in TE is providing adequate oxygen supply to implanted tissue scaffolds, since oxygen diffusion from surrounding vasculature in vivo is limited to the periphery of the scaffolds. Moreover, oxygen is also an important signaling molecule for controlling stem cell differentiation within TE scaffolds. Various technologies have been developed to increase oxygen delivery in vivo and enhance the effectiveness of TE strategies. Such technologies include hyperbaric oxygen therapy, perfluorocarbon- and hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, and oxygen-generating, peroxide-based materials. Here, we provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms and how these technologies have been utilized for in vivo TE applications. Emerging technologies and future prospects for oxygen delivery in TE are also discussed to evaluate the progress of this field towards clinical translation.

  14. Medical Oxygen Concentrator for Microgravity Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have all seen people carrying portable oxygen tanks or concentrators to provide critical life support respiratory oxygen. Heavy, bulky, and for O2 concentrators,...

  15. High-Pressure Oxygen Concentrator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA desires to generate and store gases including oxygen and nitrogen at sub-critical conditions as a part of its lunar and spacecraft atmospheric systems. Oxygen...

  16. A Novel Electrochemical Oxygen Sensor for Determination of Ultra-low Oxygen Contents in Molten Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel electrochemical oxygen sensor has been developed by using La-Al2O3 as solid electrolyte and Cr+Cr2O3 as reference electrode. The sensor not only can be used as normal oxygen sensor but also as an ultra-low oxygen sensor. Especially, it is very sensitive to measure ultra-low oxygen in molten metal. For estimating the accuracy of La-Al2O3 oxygen sensor, two series of oxygen activities in molten iron at different oxygen contents and different temperature were measured by both La-Al2O3 oxygen sensor and ZrO2 oxygen sensor. The theoretical values of oxygen activities in molten iron (3.30%C, in mass fraction) at 1723K and 1745K were also evaluated for comparing the measuring results of two sensors. At last, the error of measurement for La-Al2O3 oxygen sensor was discussed too.

  17. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-01-01

    There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebra...

  18. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Fermor, B.; Christensen, S. E.; I Youn; J M Cernanec; C M Davies; Weinberg, J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO), a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O...

  19. The role of beaded activated carbon's surface oxygen groups on irreversible adsorption of organic vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of surface oxygen groups to irreversible adsorption (aka heel formation) during cyclic adsorption/regeneration of organic vapors commonly found in industrial systems, including vehicle-painting operations. For this purpose, three chemically modified activated carbon samples, including two oxygen-deficient (hydrogen-treated and heat-treated) and one oxygen-rich sample (nitric acid-treated) were prepared. The samples were tested for 5 adsorption/regeneration cycles using a mixture of nine organic compounds. For the different samples, mass balance cumulative heel was 14 and 20% higher for oxygen functionalized and hydrogen-treated samples, respectively, relative to heat-treated sample. Thermal analysis results showed heel formation due to physisorption for the oxygen-deficient samples, and weakened physisorption combined with chemisorption for the oxygen-rich sample. Chemisorption was attributed to consumption of surface oxygen groups by adsorbed species, resulting in formation of high boiling point oxidation byproducts or bonding between the adsorbates and the surface groups. Pore size distributions indicated that different pore sizes contributed to heel formation - narrow micropores (<7Å) in the oxygen-deficient samples and midsize micropores (7-12Å) in the oxygen-rich sample. The results from this study help explain the heel formation mechanism and how it relates to chemically tailored adsorbent materials. PMID:27295065

  20. Oxygen-carbon nanotubes as a chemotherapy sensitizer for paclitaxel in breast cancer treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkun Wang

    Full Text Available To study the in vivo and in vitro effects of adding oxygen carbon nanotubes (CNTs to chemotherapy for breast cancer.MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with paclitaxel and then exposed to oxygen-CNTs under hypoxic conditions. Cell proliferation, viability, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α expression was measured using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and western blot. Nude mice were used as a human breast cancer model to explore the impact of oxygen-CNTs on the in vivo chemotherapeutic effect of paclitaxel.Oxygen-CNTs had no significant effects on the growth of breast cancer cells under normoxia and hypoxia. However, in the hypoxic environment, oxygen-CNTs significantly enhanced the inhibitory effect of paclitaxel on cell proliferation, as well as the apoptosis rate. Under hypoxia, downregulation of HIF-1α and upregulation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, LC3 and Beclin-1 were observed when paclitaxel was combined with oxygen-CNT. Furthermore, addition of oxygen-CNTs to chemotherapy was found to significantly reduce tumor weight in the tumor-bearing mice model.Oxygen-CNTs can significantly increase the chemotherapeutic effect of paclitaxel on breast cancer cells. Oxygen-CNTs may be a potential chemosensitizer in breast cancer therapy.

  1. 30 CFR 57.5015 - Oxygen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen deficiency. 57.5015 Section 57.5015..., Physical Agents, and Diesel Particulate Matter Air Quality-Underground Only § 57.5015 Oxygen deficiency. Air in all active workings shall contain at least 19.5 volume percent oxygen....

  2. 46 CFR 154.1360 - Oxygen analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen analyzer. 154.1360 Section 154.1360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Instrumentation § 154.1360 Oxygen analyzer. The vessel must have a portable analyzer that measures oxygen...

  3. 46 CFR 197.452 - Oxygen cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen cleaning. 197.452 Section 197.452 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS....452 Oxygen cleaning. The diving supervisor shall ensure that equipment used with oxygen or...

  4. 41 CFR 50-204.67 - Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Oxygen. 50-204.67 Section..., Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists § 50-204.67 Oxygen. The in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and utilization of oxygen as a liquid or a compressed gas shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas...

  5. 46 CFR 147.85 - Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen. 147.85 Section 147.85 Shipping COAST GUARD... Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.85 Oxygen. (a) Eighty five cubic meters (3000 standard cubic feet) or less of oxygen may be on board any vessel. (b) More than 85 m3 (3000 standard cubic...

  6. Transcutaneous oxygen tension in imminent foot gangrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H

    1978-01-01

    with moderate obstruction, the oxygen tension reached zero at a toe systolic blood pressure of 5--10 mmHg (tilt toe up) and reached arterial oxygen tension at about 50 to 70 mmHg (tilt toe down). In legs withsevere arterial obstruction and ischaemic rest pain, oxygen tension rose from zero not before systolic...

  7. Effect of oxygen concentration in modified atmosphere packaging on color and texture of beef patties cooked to different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yulong; Puolanne, Eero; Ertbjerg, Per

    2016-11-01

    Patties were made from raw minced beef after storage for 6days in modified atmosphere (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% oxygen) to study the combined effect of oxygen concentration and cooking temperature on hardness and color. Increased oxygen concentrations generally led to larger (P<0.01) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, greater (P<0.01) loss of free thiols and more formation of cross-linked myosin heavy chain. Hardness of cooked patties was generally lower (P<0.01) without oxygen. Premature browning of cooked patties was observed already at a relative low oxygen concentration of 20%. The internal redness of cooked patties decreased (P<0.05) with increasing oxygen concentrations and increasing cooking temperatures. Mean particle size (D(3,2)) of homogenized cooked meat generally increased (P<0.05) with increasing cooking temperatures and increasing oxygen concentrations, and particle size was correlated (r=0.80) with hardness of cooked patties. PMID:27341620

  8. 亚低温联合高压氧治疗新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病的临床研究%Clinical research of mild hypothermia combined with hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长芹

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨亚低温联合高压氧治疗新生儿缺血缺氧性脑病(HIE)的临床效果.方法 将75例新生儿HIE患者随机分为高压氧联合亚低温治疗组(治疗组)40例和对照组35 例;对照组接受常规综合治疗,治疗组在此基础上行早期高压氧联合亚低温治疗.两组患儿在生后4、14 d进行新生儿神经行为测定,3、6、12个月进行婴幼儿智能运动发育检查测定.结果 两组患儿出生后4 d测定值比较差异无统计学意义(t=0126,P>0.05),生后14 d测定值高压氧组与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(t=2.48,P0.05).The NBNA score when the newborns were 14 days had obvious difference between the two groups(t=2.48,P<0.05).The index of mental and psychomotor development when the newborns were 3 months,6months and 12 months in mild hypothermia complicated with heperbaric oxygen therapy group was obviously higher than that in control group.There were obvious difference between the two groups(P<0.05).Conclusions Mild hypothermia complicated with heperbaric oxygen therapy have obvious near ang long neurological protective action on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and can improve the living quality.The treatment effect is positive.

  9. Iridium-Doped Ruthenium Oxide Catalyst for Oxygen Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Thomas I.; Narayan, Sri R.; Billings, Keith J.

    2011-01-01

    NASA requires a durable and efficient catalyst for the electrolysis of water in a polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) cell. Ruthenium oxide in a slightly reduced form is known to be a very efficient catalyst for the anodic oxidation of water to oxygen, but it degrades rapidly, reducing efficiency. To combat this tendency of ruthenium oxide to change oxidation states, it is combined with iridium, which has a tendency to stabilize ruthenium oxide at oxygen evolution potentials. The novel oxygen evolution catalyst was fabricated under flowing argon in order to allow the iridium to preferentially react with oxygen from the ruthenium oxide, and not oxygen from the environment. Nanoparticulate iridium black and anhydrous ruthenium oxide are weighed out and mixed to 5 18 atomic percent. They are then heat treated at 300 C under flowing argon (in order to create an inert environment) for a minimum of 14 hours. This temperature was chosen because it is approximately the creep temperature of ruthenium oxide, and is below the sintering temperature of both materials. In general, the temperature should always be below the sintering temperature of both materials. The iridium- doped ruthenium oxide catalyst is then fabricated into a PEM-based membrane- electrode assembly (MEA), and then mounted into test cells. The result is an electrolyzer system that can sustain electrolysis at twice the current density, and at the same efficiency as commercial catalysts in the range of 100-200 mA/sq cm. At 200 mA/sq cm, this new system operates at an efficiency of 85 percent, which is 2 percent greater than commercially available catalysts. Testing has shown that this material is as stable as commercially available oxygen evolution catalysts. This means that this new catalyst can be used to regenerate fuel cell systems in space, and as a hydrogen generator on Earth.

  10. Properties of reactive oxygen species by quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zen, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, La Sapienza - Università di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Trout, Bernhardt L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Guidoni, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli studi de L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2014-07-07

    The electronic properties of the oxygen molecule, in its singlet and triplet states, and of many small oxygen-containing radicals and anions have important roles in different fields of chemistry, biology, and atmospheric science. Nevertheless, the electronic structure of such species is a challenge for ab initio computational approaches because of the difficulties to correctly describe the statical and dynamical correlation effects in presence of one or more unpaired electrons. Only the highest-level quantum chemical approaches can yield reliable characterizations of their molecular properties, such as binding energies, equilibrium structures, molecular vibrations, charge distribution, and polarizabilities. In this work we use the variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and the lattice regularized Monte Carlo (LRDMC) methods to investigate the equilibrium geometries and molecular properties of oxygen and oxygen reactive species. Quantum Monte Carlo methods are used in combination with the Jastrow Antisymmetrized Geminal Power (JAGP) wave function ansatz, which has been recently shown to effectively describe the statical and dynamical correlation of different molecular systems. In particular, we have studied the oxygen molecule, the superoxide anion, the nitric oxide radical and anion, the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals and their corresponding anions, and the hydrotrioxyl radical. Overall, the methodology was able to correctly describe the geometrical and electronic properties of these systems, through compact but fully-optimised basis sets and with a computational cost which scales as N{sup 3} − N{sup 4}, where N is the number of electrons. This work is therefore opening the way to the accurate study of the energetics and of the reactivity of large and complex oxygen species by first principles.

  11. Earliest land plants created modern levels of atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Dahl, Tais W.; Daines, Stuart J.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.; Ozaki, Kazumi; Saltzman, Matthew R.; Porada, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    The progressive oxygenation of the Earth’s atmosphere was pivotal to the evolution of life, but the puzzle of when and how atmospheric oxygen (O2) first approached modern levels (˜21%) remains unresolved. Redox proxy data indicate the deep oceans were oxygenated during 435-392 Ma, and the appearance of fossil charcoal indicates O2 >15-17% by 420-400 Ma. However, existing models have failed to predict oxygenation at this time. Here we show that the earliest plants, which colonized the land surface from ˜470 Ma onward, were responsible for this mid-Paleozoic oxygenation event, through greatly increasing global organic carbon burial—the net long-term source of O2. We use a trait-based ecophysiological model to predict that cryptogamic vegetation cover could have achieved ˜30% of today’s global terrestrial net primary productivity by ˜445 Ma. Data from modern bryophytes suggests this plentiful early plant material had a much higher molar C:P ratio (˜2,000) than marine biomass (˜100), such that a given weathering flux of phosphorus could support more organic carbon burial. Furthermore, recent experiments suggest that early plants selectively increased the flux of phosphorus (relative to alkalinity) weathered from rocks. Combining these effects in a model of long-term biogeochemical cycling, we reproduce a sustained +2‰ increase in the carbonate carbon isotope (δ13C) record by ˜445 Ma, and predict a corresponding rise in O2 to present levels by 420-400 Ma, consistent with geochemical data. This oxygen rise represents a permanent shift in regulatory regime to one where fire-mediated negative feedbacks stabilize high O2 levels.

  12. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kiko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ. At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2 and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2 compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2 and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply considerably fuels bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation – a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2 does not result in a downregulation of ammonium excretion. Here we show that exposure to OMZ conditions can result in strong depression of respiration and ammonium excretion in calanoid copepods and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. These physiological responses need to be taken into account when estimating DVM-mediated fluxes of carbon and nitrogen into OMZs.

  13. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, R.; Hauss, H.; Buchholz, F.; Melzner, F.

    2015-10-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2 and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply considerably fuels bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a downregulation of ammonium excretion. Here we show that exposure to OMZ conditions can result in strong depression of respiration and ammonium excretion in calanoid copepods and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. These physiological responses need to be taken into account when estimating DVM-mediated fluxes of carbon and nitrogen into OMZs.

  14. Influence of oxygen on wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wai Lam

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen has an important role in normal wound healing. This article reviews the evidence concerning the role of oxygen in wound healing and its influence on the different stages of wound healing. The evidence reviewed has demonstrated that improving oxygenation may be helpful in limiting wound infection, although there is a lack of good quality studies on the role of oxygen in the proliferative phase and in reepithelialisation. Overall, the relationship between oxygen and wound healing is complex. Knowledge of this aspect is important as many treatment modalities for refractory wounds are based on these principles.

  15. Oxygen-18 surface exchange and diffusion in Li 2O-deficient single crystalline lithium niobate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielitz, Peter; Borchardt, Günter; De Souza, Roger A.; Martin, Manfred; Masoud, Muayad; Heitjans, Paul

    2008-06-01

    18O/ 16O isotope exchange in combination with SIMS depth profiling was used to investigate oxygen transport in Li 2O-deficient single crystalline LiNbO 3 in the temperature range 983 ≤ T/K ≤ 1188 at 200 mbar oxygen. Within the limit of experimental error and for the investigated range of temperatures no significant differences between transport parallel and transport perpendicular to the c-axis were found. The following temperature dependencies were determined: for oxygen tracer diffusion D = 6.4 × 10 -3exp[-333 kJ/mol/( RT)] m 2/s; and for oxygen surface exchange k = 7.8 × 10 2exp[-288 kJ mol -1/( RT)] m/s. The activation enthalpy obtained for tracer diffusion can be interpreted as the enthalpy of migration of extrinsic oxygen vacancies induced by impurities with lower valency on niobium sites.

  16. Atomic structures and oxygen dynamics of CeO2 grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Sugiyama, Issei; Hojo, Hajime; Ohta, Hiromichi; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Material performance is significantly governed by grain boundaries (GBs), a typical crystal defects inside, which often exhibit unique properties due to the structural and chemical inhomogeneity. Here, it is reported direct atomic scale evidence that oxygen vacancies formed in the GBs can modify the local surface oxygen dynamics in CeO2, a key material for fuel cells. The atomic structures and oxygen vacancy concentrations in individual GBs are obtained by electron microscopy and theoretical calculations at atomic scale. Meanwhile, local GB oxygen reduction reactivity is measured by electrochemical strain microscopy. By combining these techniques, it is demonstrated that the GB electrochemical activities are affected by the oxygen vacancy concentrations, which is, on the other hand, determined by the local structural distortions at the GB core region. These results provide critical understanding of GB properties down to atomic scale, and new perspectives on the development strategies of high performance electrochemical devices for solid oxide fuel cells.

  17. Investigation of novel zirconium based perovskite-type mixed conducting membranes for oxygen separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of BaZr0.2Co0.8-xFexO3-δ materials for oxygen separation were synthesized through a citric and EDTA acid combined complexing method,and their crystal structures,oxygen permeabilities,sintering and sealing abilities were investigated. The results showed that the cubic perovskite structure was formed for materials in the composition range investigated. Oxygen permeation flux and stability,as well as sintering and sealing abilities of the synthesized materials were increased or improved apparently due to the introduction of zirconium. For example,the oxygen permeation flux reached 0.8 mL/min·cm2 when x = 0.2 or 0.3 at 950℃,and a stable time-related oxygen permeation flux was found for the BaZr0.2Co0.3Fe0.5O3-δ membrane at 800℃.

  18. Influences of oxygen partial pressure on YBCO grain growth by a zone melting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports investigation on influences of Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O compounds solidification under different oxygen partial pressures by a zone melting method. In Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O system, P(O2) ranged from 0.02 to 1 atm, following reaction occurred during heating: YBa2Cu3O6+δ(Y123)→Y2BaCuO5(Y211)+L. With an increase of oxygen partial pressure or decrease of pulling rate, the morphology of solidified interface changed from mushy to equiaxed, cellular, and planar. The continuous Y123 grains were readily obtained under high oxygen partial pressure. Based on the constitutional supercooling theory and combining the result of the yttrium solubility limit for different oxygen partial pressures, the influences of oxygen partial pressure on Y123 morphological evolution were clarified. copyright 1996 Materials Research Society

  19. 汽车氧传感器故障检修%Automobile oxygen sensor troubleshooting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕天维

    2013-01-01

    Articles for the automotive oxygen sensor, the analysis of the oxygen sensor location, function and type, structure, principle, on the basis of system summarized oxygen sensor fault detection method, and combined with the author emphasizes the "non-faulty oxygen sensor oxygen sensor fault" overhaul maintenance considerations .%文章针对汽车氧传感器,在分析了氧传感器位置、作用以及种类、结构、原理的基础上,系统归纳总结了氧传感器的故障检测方法,并结合笔者实际维修经验强调了“非氧传感器故障的氧传感器故障”检修维修注意事项。

  20. Identifying combustion intermediates in premixed MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flame probed via synchrotron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Chunde; QI Fei; LI Jing; LI Qi; JI Qing; HUANG Chaoqun; WEI Lixia; WANG Jing; TIAN Zhenyu; LI Yuyang

    2007-01-01

    Molecular-beam sampling mass spectrometry (MBMS) combined with tunable synchrotron radiation photoionization technique offers obvious advantages for the study of flame chemistry over other techniques because of the precision measurement of the combustion intermediates and products in flame.In this paper,the results to identify combustion intermediates in low-pressure premixed gasoline/oxygen flame with the synchrotron radiation were reported.Based on the results obtained,the formation process of five products and the difference between gasoline/oxygen and MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flame were emphatically analyzed.The results achieved provide data basis for the analysis of intermediates and radicals in flame,and are helpful to establish the kinetic modeling of gasoline/oxygen and MTBE/gasoline/oxygen flames.

  1. A growing fire hazard concern in communities: home oxygen therapy and continued smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, Catherine J; Markkanen, Pia K; Fantasia, Linda M; Gore, Rebecca J; Sama, Susan R; Quinn, Margaret M

    2015-02-01

    The Safe Home Care Project investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively a range of occupational safety and health hazards, as well as injury and illness prevention practices, among home care aides in Massachusetts. This article reports on a hazard identified by aides during the study's initial focus groups: smoking by home care clients on long-term oxygen therapy. Following the qualitative phase we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,249 aides and found that medical oxygen was present in 9 percent of aide visits (314 of aides' 3,484 recent client visits) and that 25 percent of clients on oxygen therapy were described as smokers. Based on our findings, the Board of Health in a local town conducted a pilot study to address fire hazards related to medical oxygen. Medical oxygen combined with smoking or other sources of ignition is a serious fire and explosion hazard that threatens not only workers who visit homes but also communities.

  2. Separation of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes by membrane method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water enriched with deuterium or heavy oxygen plays an important role in research and technology. Heavy water (HDO, D2O) is used in nuclear technology and research and its role will become even more important should nuclear fusion ever be used for energy production. Over the past few years the world has witnessed a continuously increasing demand for enriched oxygen isotopes, especially 18O, due to a large consumption of H218O by positron emission tomography (PET), a new medical diagnostic technique used principally for tumour detection. PET uses short-lived positron emitters, like carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18 incorporated into biochemically active tracer molecules absorbed preferentially by the tumour. Several different target materials are used for a production of these isotopes, among them water enriched in 18O. The methods of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes enrichment are expensive and energy-consuming; the separation processes are characterised by low separation factors, which very often introduce hazardous substances, poisonous or explosive (H2S, NH3, H2). There is a need to explore new methods, less energy-consuming and more safe. In this work, the unit H/D and 16O/18O separation factors in permeation of natural water with phase transition (membrane distillation) were determined and the influence of process parameters on their values was defined. Isotope effects of permeation were compared with vapour pressure isotope effects (VPIE). The experimental separation factors of H/D and 16O/18O in permeation through hydrophobic PTFE membrane were higher than those for water distillation. Since distillation is the only method for heavy oxygen production the process has particular importance for separation. The description of phenomena occurring in permeation of water isotopomers through porous PTFE membranes was presented. The isotope effect of permeation was performed as a combination of two effects: VPIE and the effect related to the transport of

  3. Long-term oxygen therapy: battling breathlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 1 million of the 1.4 million Americans (71%) receiving long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) are Medicare beneficiaries, confirming that LTOT is most often prescribed for individuals 65 years of age or older. Although several conditions create a need for supplemental oxygen, the majority of patients have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). People with healthy lungs can extract the oxygen from air, while those with damaged lungs need higher oxygen concentrations. They can supplement their oxygen using one of three options: high-pressure oxygen tanks, liquid oxygen, or oxygen concentrators. The multicenter Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial and the smaller Medical Research Council study identified LTOT as an intervention that improved survival in patients with COPD or chronic respiratory failure, approximately doubling survival at 19 months in patients who were adherent to oxygen. Despite its advantages, LTOT is plagued with problems: compliance with clinical guidelines, patient adherence, and cost. Fires associated with smoking in the vicinity of supplemental oxygen are the leading cause of residential fire deaths in the United States.

  4. Pulmonary ventilation: dynamic MRI with inhalation of molecular oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatabu, Hiroto E-mail: hatabu@oasis.rad.upenn.edu; Tadamura, Eiji; Chen Qun; Stock, Klaus W.; Li, Wei; Prasad, Pottumarthi V.; Edelman, Robert R

    2001-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated a non-invasive technique to visualize pulmonary ventilation in humans with inhalation of molecular oxygen as a paramagnetic contrast agent. In the current study, T1 shortening of lung tissue by inhalation of oxygen was observed (P<0.001). The T1 values of lung tissue were also correlated with arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO{sub 2}) in a pig, resulting in excellent correlation (r{sup 2}=0.997). Dynamic wash-in and wash-out MR ventilation images as well as dynamic wash-in wash-out signal intensity versus time curves were obtained. The mean wash-in decay constants were 26.8{+-}10.5 s in the right lung, and 26.3{+-}9.5 s in the left lung. The mean wash-out decay constants were 23.3{+-}11.3 s in the right lung, and 20.8{+-}10.5 s in the left lung. Dynamic assessment of pulmonary ventilation is feasible using oxygen-enhanced MR imaging, which could provide dynamic MR ventilation-perfusion imaging in combination with recently developed MR perfusion imaging technique, and thus a robust tool for the study of pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology.

  5. Direct Oxygen Abundances for Low Luminosity LVL Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Danielle A; Marble, Andrew R; van Zee, Liese; Engelbracht, Charles W; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Jr.,; Calzetti, Daniela; Dale, Daniel A; Johnson, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    We present MMT spectroscopic observations of HII regions in 42 low luminosity galaxies in the LVL. For 31 galaxies, we measured the temperature sensitive [O III] line at a strength of 4 sigma or greater, and thus determine direct oxygen abundances. Our results provide the first direct estimates of oxygen abundance for 19 galaxies. Oxygen abundances were compared to B-band and 4.5 micron luminosities and stellar masses in order to characterize the luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) and mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationships at low-luminosity. We present and analyze a "Combined Select" sample composed of 38 objects (drawn from our parent sample and the literature) with direct oxygen abundances and reliable distance determinations (TRGB or Ceph). Consistent with previous studies, the B-band and 4.5 micron L-Z relationships were found to be 12+log(O/H)=(6.27+/-0.21)+(-0.11+/-0.01)M_B and 12+log(O/H)=(6.10+/-0.21)+(-0.10+/-0.01)M_[4.5] (sigma=0.15 and 0.14). For this sample, we derive a M-Z relationship of 12+log(O/H)=(5....

  6. Photoacoustic lifetime imaging of dissolved oxygen using methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Shai

    2010-07-01

    Measuring distribution of dissolved oxygen in biological tissue is of prime interest for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy optimization. Tumor hypoxia indicates poor prognosis and resistance to radiotherapy. Despite its major clinical significance, no current imaging modality provides direct imaging of tissue oxygen. We present preliminary results demonstrating the potential of photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) for noninvasive, 3-D imaging of tissue oxygen. The technique is based on photoacoustic probing of the excited state lifetime of methylene blue (MB) dye. MB is an FDA-approved water soluble dye with a peak absorption at 660 nm. A double pulse laser system (pump probe) is used to excite the dye and probe its transient absorption by detecting photoacoustic emission. The relaxation rate of MB depends linearly on oxygen concentration. Our measurements show high photoacoustic signal contrast at a probe wavelength of 810 nm, where the excited state absorption is more than four times higher than the ground state absorption. Imaging of a simple phantom is demonstrated. We conclude by discussing possible implementations of the technique in clinical settings and combining it with photodynamic therapy (PDT) for real-time therapy monitoring.

  7. Calibrated BOLD using direct measurement of changes in venous oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Ian D; Hall, Emma L; Wharton, Samuel J; Pritchard, Susan E; Francis, Susan T; Gowland, Penny A

    2012-11-15

    Calibration of the BOLD signal is potentially of great value in providing a closer measure of the underlying changes in brain function related to neuronal activity than the BOLD signal alone, but current approaches rely on an assumed relationship between cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). This is poorly characterised in humans and does not reflect the predominantly venous nature of BOLD contrast, whilst this relationship may vary across brain regions and depend on the structure of the local vascular bed. This work demonstrates a new approach to BOLD calibration which does not require an assumption about the relationship between cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow. This method involves repeating the same stimulus both at normoxia and hyperoxia, using hyperoxic BOLD contrast to estimate the relative changes in venous blood oxygenation and venous CBV. To do this the effect of hyperoxia on venous blood oxygenation has to be calculated, which requires an estimate of basal oxygen extraction fraction, and this can be estimated from the phase as an alternative to using a literature estimate. Additional measurement of the relative change in CBF, combined with the blood oxygenation change can be used to calculate the relative change in CMRO(2) due to the stimulus. CMRO(2) changes of 18 ± 8% in response to a motor task were measured without requiring the assumption of a CBV/CBF coupling relationship, and are in agreement with previous approaches.

  8. A Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Presently, the Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) conducted from the Quest Joint Airlock on the International Space Station use high pressure, high purity oxygen that is delivered to the Space Station by the Space Shuttle. When the Space Shuttle retires, a new method of delivering high pressure, high purity oxygen to the High Pressure Gas Tanks (HPGTs) is needed. One method is to use a cabin air separator to sweep oxygen from the cabin air, generate a low pressure/high purity oxygen stream, and compress the oxygen with a multistage mechanical compressor. A main advantage to this type of system is that the existing low pressure oxygen supply infrastructure can be used as the source of cabin oxygen. ISS has two water electrolysis systems that deliver low pressure oxygen to the cabin, as well as chlorate candles and compressed gas tanks on cargo vehicles. Each of these systems can feed low pressure oxygen into the cabin, and any low pressure oxygen source can be used as an on-board source of oxygen. Three different oxygen separator systems were evaluated, and a two stage Pressure Swing Adsorption system was selected for reasons of technical maturity. Two different compressor designs were subjected to long term testing, and the compressor with better life performance and more favorable oxygen safety characteristics was selected. These technologies have been used as the basis of a design for a flight system located in Equipment Lock, and taken to Preliminary Design Review level of maturity. This paper describes the Cabin Air Separator for EVA Oxygen (CASEO) concept, describes the separator and compressor technology trades, highlights key technology risks, and describes the flight hardware concept as presented at Preliminary Design Review (PDR)

  9. Effect of chest physiotherapy on oxygen saturation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, J A; Webber, B. A.; Hodson, M E

    1990-01-01

    Decreasing arterial oxygen saturation has been reported in patients with cystic fibrosis during postural drainage when this was combined with other manoeuvres, which did not, however, include thoracic expansion exercises or pauses for relaxation and breathing control. When these features were included in an active cycle of breathing techniques during postural drainage in 20 patients with cystic fibrosis there was no fall in arterial oxygen saturation during the procedure (mean values 87.1%, 8...

  10. Effect of Oxygen Content on the Sintering Behaviour of Silver Nanopowders Produced by Inert Gas Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRKER, Mehmet

    2002-01-01

    Polymer-based materials are made electrically conductive by combining with a particulate conductive material. Instead of using high aspect-ratio conventional fillers, such as fibres and flakes, highly porous silver nanopowders were produced for using in polymer matrix composites. Such powders were produced by inert gas condensation (IGC) in a helium atmosphere with or without additional oxygen. The effect of oxygen content on the size, morphology and specific surface area of the particle...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of gallium-based perovskitetype dense membrane with oxygen semipermeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛铀; 邵宗平; 杨维慎; 熊国兴; 林励吾

    2001-01-01

    La0.15Sr0.85Ga0.3Fe0.7O3-δ(LSGFO) and La0.15Sr0.85Co0.3Fe0.7O3-δ(LSCFO) mixed oxygen-ion and electron conducting oxides were synthesized by using a combined EDTA and citrate complexing method, and the corresponding dense membranes were fabricated. The properties of the oxide powders and membranes were characterized with combined SEM, XRD, H2-TPR, O2-TPD techniques, mechanical strength and oxygen permeation measurement. The results showed that LSGFO had much higher thermochemical stability than LSCFO due to the higher valence stability of Ga3+. After the temperature-programmed reduction by 5% H2 in Ar from 20℃to 1020℃, the basic perovskite structure of LSGFO was successfully preserved. LSGFO also favors the oxygen vacancy formation better than LSCFO. Oxygen permeation measurement demonstrated that LSGFO had higher oxygen permeation flux than LSCFO, but they had similar activation energy for oxygen transportation, with a value of 110 and 117 kJ ?mol-1, respectively. The difference in oxygen permeation f

  12. Estimation of Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand for Combined Sewer Systems Using Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Dae-Hee Park; Tae-Hwan Lee; Bo-Mi Lee; Jin Hur

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the es...

  13. Hydrocodone Combination Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiclear DH® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... EndaCof XP® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone) ... Entuss® (as a combination product containing Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone)

  14. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  15. Research on Technology of Pressure Pretreatment with Oxygen for Refractory Gold Ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shengming; Sun Tichang; Chen Jinghe; Wang Dianzuo

    2007-01-01

    An combined technology of pressure pretreatment with oxygen on refractory gold ores is pointed out and discussed on this paper, according to the experiments included the test in 1kg grade batch pressure pretreatment with oxygen of the concentrate from the refractory gold ores of Dongbeizhai in Sichuan province, which is called the most refractory gold ores in China. It is shown that gold recovery reach 91.73% in the combined process which is described as follows: The flotation of the sulphide gold ores is under controlled conditions, producing the concentrate for pressure pretreatment with oxygen in acidic medium and the middling for the pressure pretreatment with oxygen in alkaline medium. The thickening and washing process substitute the pressure filtration process of the pulp after pressure pretreatment. The thick slimes of the two kinds of pressure pretreatment were mixed and then enter the CIL process for simplifying the flowsheet. The possible superabundance of acid of pressure pretreatment with oxygen in acidic medium was neutralized by the tailings of flotation and the cost of neutralization will be lower. The combined technology of pressure pretreatment with oxygen has the same advantages as the normal technology of pressure pretreatment and both is helpful for environment protection.

  16. Measuring tissue oxygen saturation using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircan-Kucuksayan, Aslinur; Uyuklu, Mehmet; Canpolat, Murat

    2014-05-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) is known quite useful parameter for medical applications. A spectroscopic method has been developed to diagnose pathologic tissues due to lack of normal blood circulation by measuring tissue oxygen saturation. In the study, human blood samples with different level of oxygen saturations have been prepared and spectra were taken using an optical fiber probe to investigate correlation between the oxygen saturations and the spectra. The experimental set up for the spectroscopic measurements was consists of a miniature NIR light spectrometer, an optical fiber probe, a halogen-tungsten light source and a laptop. A linear correlation between the oxygen saturation of the blood samples and the ratio of the light of wavelengths 660 nm to 790 nm has been found from the spectra. Then, oxygen saturations of the blood samples were estimated from the spectroscopic measurements within an error of 2.9%. Furthermore, it has been shown that the linear dependence between the ratio and the oxygen saturation of the blood samples was valid for the blood samples with different hematocrits. Tissue oxygen saturation has been estimated from the spectroscopic measurements were taken from the fingers of healthy volunteers using the correlation between the spectra and blood oxygen saturation. The tissue StO2 measured was 80% as expected. The technique developed to measure tissue oxygen saturation has potential to diagnose premalignant tissues, follow up prognosis of cancerous tissues, and evaluation of ischemia reperfusion tissues.

  17. Noninvasive tumor oxygen imaging by photoacoustic lifetime imaging integrated with photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi; Biel, Merrill A.; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2014-03-01

    Oxygen plays a major role in cancer biology and tumor progression. In PDT, the reduction in efficacy is directly related to lack of oxygen because its molecular mechanism relies on oxygen as an energy mediator. Measuring tumor oxygenation can provide physicians with better diagnosis and optimization of treatment plans. However, clinical tools for directly assessing tissue oxygenation are limited. The gold standard is oxygen needle electrode, which is invasive and measures oxygen level at a single location. We present our work on developing a combined treatment-imaging modality that integrates PDT and photoacoustic oxygen imaging. We propose a system designed for clinical treatments of cancer of the oral cavity. Tissue oxygen imaging is performed by applying Photoacoustic Lifetime Imaging (PALI). This technology relies on photoacoustic probing of oxygen-dependent excitation lifetime of Methylene Blue. The dye is excited by the same wavelength of illumination source for PDT. Once excited, the population of photosensitizer molecules at triplet state has a lifetime depending on the oxygen level. The transition from excited triplet state to ground state can be probe by another laser, which generate photoacoustic signal that is used to map the lifetime. The lifetime map is then converted to pO2 distribution. We expect that PDT efficacy can be improved by applying PALI imaging feedback in real-time to determine, and individually optimize, O2-enriched gas breathing parameters and PDT light-dose during treatment. Successful implementation of PALI in PDT can also drive its application in guiding other cancer treatments that are affected by hypoxia.

  18. Taurus Littrow Pyroclastic Deposit-An Optimum Feedstock for Lunar Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    2014-01-01

    Future human habitation of the Moon will likely require the use of locally derived materials because of the high cost of transportation from Earth. Oxygen, extracted from oxides and silicates, is a potentially abundant lunar resource vital for life support and spacecraft propulsion. The anticipated costs of supplying all oxygen needs for a lunar base from Earth are high enough to warrant serious study of oxygen production from local resources. Over 20 different processes have been proposed for oxygen production on the Moon. Among the simplest and best studied of these processes is the reduction of oxides in lunar minerals and glass using hydrogen gas. Oxygen can be extracted from lunar soils and pyroclastic glass beads by exposing the samples to flowing hydrogen at subsolidus temperatures (approx. 1050 C). Total oxygen yield is directly correlated to the sample's abundance of FeO, but is not correlated to the abundance of any other oxide. Oxygen is extracted predominantly from FeO, with lesser contributions from TiO2 and SiO2. Oxygen yield is independent of soil maturity. All major FeO-bearing phases contribute oxygen, with extraction from ilmenite and glass significantly more efficient than from olivine and pyroxene. This study demonstrates that the optimum location for a lunar resources demonstration mission can be identified, and that the oxygen yield can be predicted, using a combination of high-resolution imaging and thermal-infrared data. A mission to Taurus Littrow will encounter a deposit at least 10 m in depth with few landing hazards, a uniform composition, and a predicted oxygen yield of approximately 3 wt. %, among the highest values on the Moon.

  19. The influence of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation on oxygen free radicals metabolism in rabbits with soman intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation (UBIO) on the metabolism of oxygen free radicals in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. Methods: One hundred rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group, UBIO therapy group and combined therapy group. After 14 d, the concentration of malondiadehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathionperoxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT)and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) in serum were determined respectively. Results: Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of MDA and activity of CAT in the intoxication group were significantly higher (P < 0. 05 ), but SOD, GSH-Px activity and T-AOC were significantly lower (P<0.05). After UBIO or combined therapy, serum MDA level was significantly lower in comparison with intoxication group (P<0.05), but the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T AOC were higher than intoxication group(P<0.05). Conclusion: There is an obvious oxygen free radical injury in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. UBIO can improve the antioxidation ability of rabbits and may be applied to treat acute soman intoxication as adjunctive therapy.

  20. Fuelling the palaeoatmospheric oxygen debate: how much atmospheric oxygen is required for ignition and propagation of smouldering fires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Claire M.; Hadden, Rory; McElwain, Jennifer C.; Rein, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Fire is a natural process integral to ecosystems at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales and is a key driver of change in the Earth system. Fire has been a major influence on Earth's systems since the Carboniferous. Whilst, climate is considered the ultimate control on global vegetation, fire is now known to play a key role in determining vegetation structure and composition, such that many of the world's ecosystems can be considered fire-dependant. Products of fire include chars, soots and aromatic hydrocarbon species all of which can be traced in ancient through to modern sediments. Atmospheric oxygen has played a key role in the development of life on Earth, with the rise of oxygen in the Precambrian being closely linked to biological evolution. Variations in the concentration of atmospheric oxygen throughout the Phanerozoic are predicted from models based on geochemical cycling of carbon and sulphur. Such models predict that low atmospheric oxygen concentrations prevailed in the Mesozoic (251-65ma) and have been hypothesised to be the primary driver of at least two of the ‘big five' mass extinction events in the Phanerozoic. Here we assess the levels of atmospheric oxygen required to ignite a fire and infer the likely levels of atmospheric oxygen to support smouldering combustion. Smouldering fire dynamics and its effects on ecosystems are very different from flaming fires. Smouldering fires propagate slowly, are usually low in temperature and represent a flameless form of combustion. These fires creep through organic layers of forest ground and peat lands and are responsible for a large fraction of the total biomass consumed in wildfires globally and are also a major contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Once ignited, they can persist for long periods of time (months, years) spreading over very extensive areas of forest and deep into soil. Smouldering fires are therefore, the oldest continuously burning fires on Earth. We have combined

  1. Oxygen-18 studies of atmospheric sulfate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, B.D.; Kumar, R.

    1986-06-01

    An analytical method was developed for the determination of the delta/sup 18/O of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (ppB range) in rainwater. According to our new method, rainwater, collected in 25-L plastic bottles by four 1-m/sup 2/ funnels (inverted plastic skylights, connected to the bottles by plastic hose), was acidified and kept refrigerated to prevent autodecomposition of the peroxide until the time of analysis. Dissolved air was removed from a 20-L sample of the rainwater by combined evacuation, ultrasonic agitation, and helium sparge (VUS). The peroxide in the rainwater was then oxidized to O/sub 2/ by KMnO/sub 4/; the O/sub 2/ was removed from the water sample by the VUS treatment, and carried in the helium stream through a bed of charcoal and platinum where it was quantitatively converted to CO/sub 2/. The CO/sub 2/, containing the oxygen atoms derived from the peroxide, was measured to determine the concentration of peroxide in the atmosphere and analyzed mass spectromically to determine its delta/sup 18/O.

  2. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status. PMID:26747521

  3. Oxygenation properties and isoform diversity of snake hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storz, Jay F.; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Moriyama, Hideaki;

    2015-01-01

    Available data suggest that snake hemoglobins (Hbs) are characterized by a combination of unusual structural and functional properties relative to the Hbs of other amniote vertebrates, including oxygenation-linked tetramer- dimer dissociation. However, standardized comparative data are lacking...... for snake Hbs, and the Hb isoform composition of snake red blood cells has not been systematically characterized. Here we present the results of an integrated analysis of snake Hbs and the underlying - and -type globin genes to characterize 1) Hb isoform composition of definitive erythrocytes, and 2......) the oxygenation properties of isolated isoforms as well as composite hemolysates. We used species from three families as subjects for experimental studies of Hb function: South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus (Viperidae); Indian python, Python molurus (Pythonidae); and yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis...

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Lavoie, H; Piper, S; Moon, R E; Legros, T

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is the newest indication approved by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society's Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Committee. Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss appears to be characterized by hypoxia in the perilymph and therefore the scala tympani and the organ of Corti. A review of the literature reveals more than 100 publications evaluating the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) for the treatment of ISSHL, including eight randomized controlled trials. The best and most consistent results are obtained when HBO2 is initiated within two weeks of symptom onset and combined with corticosteroid treatment. The average hearing gain is 19.3 dB for moderate hearing loss and 37.7 dB for severe cases. This improvement brings hearing deficits from the moderate/severe range into the slight/no impairment range. This is a significant gain that can markedly improve a patient's quality of life, both clinically and functionally.

  5. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Studies of the Marine Nitrogen Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciotti, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    The marine nitrogen cycle is a complex web of microbially mediated reactions that control the inventory, distribution, and speciation of nitrogen in the marine environment. Because nitrogen is a major nutrient that is required by all life, its availability can control biological productivity and ecosystem structure in both surface and deep-ocean communities. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite have provided new insights into the rates and distributions of marine nitrogen cycle processes, especially when analyzed in combination with numerical simulations of ocean circulation and biogeochemistry. This review highlights the insights gained from dual-isotope studies applied at regional to global scales and their incorporation into oceanic biogeochemical models. These studies represent significant new advances in the use of isotopic measurements to understand the modern nitrogen cycle, with implications for the study of past ocean productivity, oxygenation, and nutrient status.

  6. Oxygen supply maps for hypoxic microenvironment visualization in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Niels J.; Schüffler, Peter J.; Zhong, Qing; Falkner, Florian; Rechsteiner, Markus; Rüschoff, Jan H.; Fankhauser, Christian; Drach, Matthias; Largo, Remo; Tremp, Mathias; Poyet, Cedric; Sulser, Tullio; Kristiansen, Glen; Moch, Holger; Buhmann, Joachim; Müntener, Michael; Wild, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intratumoral hypoxia plays an important role with regard to tumor biology and susceptibility to radio- and chemotherapy. For further investigation of hypoxia-related changes, areas of certain hypoxia must be reliably detected within cancer tissues. Pimonidazole, a 2-nitroimindazole, accumulates in hypoxic tissue and can be easily visualized using immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: To improve detection of highly hypoxic versus normoxic areas in prostate cancer, immunoreactivity of pimonidazole and a combination of known hypoxia-related proteins was used to create computational oxygen supply maps of prostate cancer. Pimonidazole was intravenously administered before radical prostatectomy in n = 15 patients, using the da Vinci robot-assisted surgical system. Prostatectomy specimens were immediately transferred into buffered formaldehyde, fixed overnight, and completely embedded in paraffin. Pimonidazole accumulation and hypoxia-related protein expression were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Oxygen supply maps were created using the normalized information from pimonidazole and hypoxia-related proteins. Results: Based on pimonidazole staining and other hypoxia.related proteins (osteopontin, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, and glucose transporter member 1) oxygen supply maps in prostate cancer were created. Overall, oxygen supply maps consisting of information from all hypoxia-related proteins showed high correlation and mutual information to the golden standard of pimonidazole. Here, we describe an improved computer-based ex vivo model for an accurate detection of oxygen supply in human prostate cancer tissue. Conclusions: This platform can be used for precise colocalization of novel candidate hypoxia-related proteins in a representative number of prostate cancer cases, and improve issues of single marker correlations. Furthermore, this study provides a source for further in situ tests and biochemical investigations PMID:26955501

  7. Can erythropoietin improve tumor oxygenation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, D.K.; Thews, O.; Vaupel, P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physiology and Pathophysiology

    1998-12-01

    Tumor growth, oxygenation and radiosensitivity were investigated in a series of studies in which anemia was induced in rats either by the development of a hemorrhagic ascites or by a single dose of carboplatin, which resulted in reductions in the hemoglobin concentration of 30%. The development of both the tumor- and chemotherapy-induced forms of anemia could be prevented by the s.c. administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO; 1000 IU/kg, 3 times per week over 14 days). Seven days before pO{sub 2} measurements, DS-sarcomas were implanted s.c. on the hind foot dorsum. With both anemia models, tumor growth did not differ between anemic animals and animals treated with rhEPO. Tumor oxygenation was measured polarographically using O{sub 2}-sensitive needle electrodes and pO{sub 2} histography. In anemic animals, tumor oxygenation was poorer compared to untreated controls. The reduction could be partially reversed by rhEPO treatment, but not fully compensated. These findings suggested that rhEPO treatment can improve tumor oxygenation by increasing the O{sub 2} availability to tumor tissue. Further experiments therefore assessed the possibility of enhancing the efficacy of a single radiation dose (10 Gy) by rhEPO treatment of anemic animals. While anemic animals showed decreased radiosensitivity, prevention of anemia by rhEPO treatment resulted in a significant increase in tumor radiosensitivity, although again a full recovery to radiosensitivity levels found in non-anemic animals was not achieved. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um den Einfluss einer Anaemie auf das Wachstum, die Gewebeoxygenierung und die Strahlensensibilitaet von Tumoren der Ratte zu untersuchen, wurde entweder durch Erzeugung eines haemorrhagischen Tumoraszites oder durch einmalige Gabe von Carboplatin (45 mg/kg i.v.) die Haemoglobinkonzentration des Blutes um 30% erniedrigt (normochrome normozytaere Anaemie). In einer zweiten Versuchsgruppe konnte sowohl beim Vorliegen eines haemorrhagischen

  8. Plant respiration under low oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Toro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiration is an oxidative process controlled by three pathways: glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS. Respiratory metabolism is ubiquitous in all organisms, but with differences among each other. For example in plants, because their high plasticity, respiration involves metabolic pathways with unique characteristics. In this way, in order to avoid states of low energy availability, plants exhibit great flexibility to bypass conventional steps of glycolysis, TCA cycle, and OXPHOS. To understand the energetic link between these alternative pathways, it is important to know the growth, maintenance, and ion uptake components of the respiration in plants. Changes in these components have been reported when plants are subjected to stress, such as oxygen deficiency. This review analyzes the current knowledge on the metabolic and functional aspects of plant respiration, its components and its response to environmental changes.

  9. Oxygen - A Four Billion Year History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    The air we breathe is twenty-one percent oxygen, an amount higher than on any other known world. While we may take our air for granted, Earth was not always an oxygenated planet. How did it become this way? Oxygen is the most current account of the history of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Donald...... Canfield--one of the world's leading authorities on geochemistry, earth history, and the early oceans--covers this vast history, emphasizing its relationship to the evolution of life and the evolving chemistry of the Earth. With an accessible and colorful first-person narrative, he draws from a variety...... of fields, including geology, paleontology, geochemistry, biochemistry, animal physiology, and microbiology, to explain why our oxygenated Earth became the ideal place for life. Describing which processes, both biological and geological, act to control oxygen levels in the atmosphere, Canfield traces...

  10. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the "Great Oxidation" of the Earth's surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  11. Aerobic growth at nanomolar oxygen concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolper, Daniel Aaron; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2010-01-01

    known. These capabilities also provide a framework for reconstructing a critical period in the history of life, because low, but not negligible, atmospheric oxygen levels could have persisted before the “Great Oxidation” of the Earth’s surface about 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago. Here, we show......Molecular oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant gas in the Earth’s atmosphere, but in many natural environments, its concentration is reduced to low or even undetectable levels. Although low-oxygen-adapted organisms define the ecology of low-oxygen environments, their capabilities are not fully...... that Escherichia coli K-12, chosen for its well-understood biochemistry, rapid growth rate, and low-oxygen-affinity terminal oxidase, grows at oxygen levels of ≤ 3 nM, two to three orders of magnitude lower than previously observed for aerobes. Our study expands both the environmental range and temporal history...

  12. Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Ward, Lewis M.; Jones, CarriAyne;

    2014-01-01

    Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635-542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first...... appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5-4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans......A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth's surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late...

  13. Oxygen diffusion in bilayer polymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars; Zebger, Ingo; Tofte, Jannik Pentti;

    2004-01-01

    Experiments to quantify oxygen diffusion have been performed on polymer samples in which a film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) was cast onto a film of polystyrene which, in turn, was cast onto an oxygen-impermeable substrate. In the technique employed, the time evolution of oxygen transport...... through the film of poly(ethylene-co-norbornene) and into the polystyrene film was monitored using the phosphorescence of singlet oxygen as a spectroscopic probe. To analyze the data, it was necessary to solve Fick's second law of diffusion for both polymer films. Tractable analytical and numerical...... solutions were obtained for the problem. Moreover, the numerical solution is sufficiently general that it can be used to simulate oxygen concentration profiles in films consisting of more than two layers. Data obtained from the bilayer films yield a diffusion coefficient for oxygen in poly...

  14. Mitigation strategies of intergranular corrosion in systems of reactors of water boiling (BWR). Combined action of the chemistry of the hydrogen and the oxygen; Estrategias de mitigacion de la corrosion intergranular en sistemas de reactores de agua en ebullicion (BWR). Accion combinada de la quimica del hidrogeno y del oxigeno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdugo, M.

    2015-07-01

    Inter-Granular Stress Corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in austenitic stainless steel and in austenitic nickel-based alloys has been the subject of many studies the aim of which was to resolve one of the main problems faced by BWR nuclear power plants since the 1960s. This corrosion phenomenon is the result of the combined action of three factors: sensitization of the material, high local stresses and an aggressive medium. This paper deals with these factors separately and analyzes the oxidative chemistry of BWR reactors (aggressivity of the medium) as one the main causes if IGSCC. (Author)

  15. Turbulent oxygen flames in type Ia supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Aspden, Andrew; Bell, J.; Woosley, S.

    2011-01-01

    In previous studies, we examined turbulence-flame interactions in carbon-burning thermonuclear flames in Type Ia supernovae. In this study, we consider turbulence-flame interactions in the trailing oxygen flames. The two aims of the paper are to examine the response of the inductive oxygen flame to intense levels of turbulence, and to explore the possibility of transition to detonation in the oxygen flame. Scaling arguments analogous to the carbon flames are presented and then compared agains...

  16. Oxygen neutronization in accreting white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Isern Vilaboy, Jordi; Labay, Javier; Canal Masgoret, Ramon

    1983-01-01

    Solid carbon-oxygen white dwarf cores have been shown to be likely initial configurations for collapse to neutron star densities. Solidification seems to entail carbon/oxygen separation, with oxygen settling at the star's center and carbon being confined to more external, lower-density layers. Electron captures on 16O are then the triggering mechanism for collapse. The authors elucidate the outcome of the complete reaction network started by those captures and derive simple expressions for ac...

  17. Arterialisation of transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Broadhurst, E; Helms, P; Vyas, H; Cheriyan, G

    1988-01-01

    We compared previously calculated global correction factors for oxygen and carbon dioxide arterial/transcutaneous ratios with individual in vivo calibrations from the first arterial sample. In infants beyond the neonatal period and older children in vivo calibration confers little benefit over the use of a global calibration correction factor for transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and may reduce the precision with which arterial oxygen can be estimated from transcutaneous oxygen.

  18. Zaria Universal Oxygenator Holder Phase I

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday Adoga Edaigbini; Ibrahim Zira Delia; Muhammad Balarabe Aminu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery requires the use of equipment and devices like the oxygenator. The oxygenator comes in different makes and each manufacturer customizes the carrier or ′holder′ of this device specific to their design. Aim: This paper presents an innovation designed to overcome the need to purchase a different holder for every oxygenator thereby cutting the cost. Materials and Methods: A sheet of iron measuring 1.9 cm (width) × 0.1 cm (thickness) was ...

  19. Maintaining Optimal Oxygen Saturation in Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Yoke Yen; Tay, Yih Yann; Shah, Varsha Atul; Chang, Pisun; Loh, Khuan Tai

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Advances in technology have resulted in increasing survival rates for premature infants. Oxygen therapy is commonly used in neonatal units as part of respiratory support. The number of premature infants in our institution surviving with severe (stage ≥3) retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) prompted a review of oxygen therapy as a contributing factor. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of oxygen may cause irreversible damage to the eyes of very-low-birth-weight preterm infant...

  20. Quantification of oxygen and carbon in high Tc superconducting films by (α,α) elastic resonance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantification of oxygen and carbon in high-temperature (Tc) superconducting oxide thin films was made by employing elastic resonance in He backscattering analysis. A method combining the oxygen resonance technique and channeling was presented for measuring the nature of the oxygen disorder near the surface and the interface in a YBCO superconducting film grown on an MgO substrate. The oxygen resonance technique was used to quantify the oxygen profiling in the metal/YBCO contacts, showing that Zr and Nb act as sinks to oxygen from YBCO films and are oxidized in the forms Zr/ZrO2/YBCO/MgO and Nb0.2O/YBCO/MgO after annealing in a vacuum at 350oC. We combined the carbon and oxygen resonances to determine the carbon contamination and oxygen concentration changes on the YBCO surface after coating and baking the photoresist. Residual carbon on the surface and a thin layer of oxygen depletion near the YBCO surface have been observed. The residual carbon in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 films made by the decomposition of metallo-organic precursors was quantified using carbon resonance. (author)

  1. Tissue oxygen monitoring by photoacoustic lifetime imaging (PALI) and its application to image-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qi; Morgounova, Ekaterina; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2015-03-01

    The oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption, is a key component of the physiological state of a tissue. Images of oxygen distribution can provide essential information for identifying hypoxic tissue and optimizing cancer treatment. Previously, we have reported a noninvasive in vivo imaging modality based on photoacoustic lifetime. The technique maps the excited triplet state of oxygen-sensitive dye, thus reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of tissue oxygen. We have applied PALI on tumor on small animals to identify hypoxia area. We also showed that PALI is able monitor changes of tissue oxygen, in an acute ischemia and breathing modulation model. Here we present our work on developing a treatment/imaging modality (PDT-PALI) that integrates PDT and a combined ultrasound/photoacoustic imaging system. The system provides real-time feedback of three essential parameters namely: tissue oxygen, light penetration in tumor location, and distribution of photosensitizer. Tissue oxygen imaging is performed by applying PALI, which relies on photoacoustic probing of oxygen-dependent, excitation lifetime of Methylene Blue (MB) photosensitizer. Lifetime information can also be used to generate image showing the distribution of photosensitizer. The level and penetration depth of PDT illumination can be deduced from photoacoustic imaging at the same wavelength. All images will be combined with ultrasound B-mode images for anatomical reference.

  2. Effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia in small tidal volume combined with low positive end-expiratory pressure on intrapulmonary shunt, oxygenation and inflammatory cytokines during one-lung ventilation%七氟醚和丙泊酚在小潮气量联合低呼气末正压对单肺通气时肺内分流、氧合和炎性因子的影响比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志云; 查本俊; 王永盛; 谢平; 庄海滨

    2015-01-01

    目的 比较单肺通气过程中,七氟醚和丙泊酚对实施小潮气量联合低呼气末正压通气(positive end-expiratorypressure,PEEP)患者肺内分流、氧合和炎性因子的影响.方法 择期行右侧开胸手术的食管癌患者76例,美国麻醉医师协会(ASA)分级Ⅰ~Ⅲ级,采用随机数字表法将患者分为丙泊酚组(P组)和七氟醚组(S组),每组38例.P组持续输注丙泊酚,S组持续吸入七氟醚,维持脑电双频指数(bispectal index,BIS)40~50,其他用药两组相同.分别在手术开始前(T0)和单肺通气后30(T1)、60(T2)、90 min(T3)以及膨肺后双肺通气30(T4)、60 min(T5),采集颈内静脉和桡动脉血样进行血气分析,计算肺内分流率(Qs/Qt)、相邻两个时间点动脉血氧分压(arterial partial pressure of oxygen,PaO2)和Qs/Qt的变化值(△PaO2和△Qs/Qt),并测定白细胞介素(interleukin,IL)-8、IL-10和肿瘤坏死因子(tumor necrosis factor,TNF)-α的浓度.结果 与T0比较:两组T1~T5时Qs/Qt、IL-8、IL-10、TNF-α均升高,PaO2降低(P<0.05).与T1比较:两组T4、T5时PaO2明显升高,Qs/Qt明显降低(P<0.05);P组IL-8、IL-10、TNF-α在T3~T5时升高,而S组在T2~T5时升高(P<0.05).两组间比较:△PaO2[P组(-1.3±7.7)、(-1.9±6.0),S组(-4.3±4.3)、(-3.1±5.3)]和△Qs/Qt[P组(0.06-±0.57)、(0.07±0.34),S组(0.71±0.86)、(0.72±0.95)]在T1~T2、T2~T3时间段比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05),S组IL-8、IL-10、TNF-α在T2~T5时均高于P组(P<0.05).结论 单肺通气期间实施小潮气量联合低PEEP时,丙泊酚比七氟醚对肺内分流和氧合影响更小,产生炎性因子少.%Objective To compare the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on intrapulmonary shunt,oxygenation and inflammatory cytokines in small tidal volume combined with low positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during one-lung ventilation.Methods Seventy-six ASA Ⅰ-Ⅲ patients undergoing elective esophagus cancer resection via right

  3. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1‑x O x ). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths.

  4. Oxygen Saturation Targeting and Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Brian A; Morley, Colin J

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen saturation targeting is widely used in neonatal intensive care, but the optimal target range in very preterm infants has been uncertain and is the subject of recent debate and research. This review briefly discusses the technology of oxygen monitoring and the role of oxygen toxicity in preterm infants. The background to the recent trials of oxygen saturation targeting in acute and continuing care of very preterm infants is reviewed, and the findings and implications of the recent trials, particularly with respect to bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are discussed. PMID:26593080

  5. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  6. Benefits of oxygen incorporation in atomic laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic laminates such as MAX phases benefit from the addition of oxygen in many ways, from the formation of a protective oxide surface layer with self-healing capabilities when cracks form to the tuning of anisotropic conductivity. In this paper oxygen incorporation and vacancy formation in M 2AlC (M  =  Ti, V, Cr) MAX phases have been studied using first-principles calculations where the focus is on phase stability and electronic structure for different oxygen and/or vacancy configurations. Oxygen prefers different lattice sites depending on M-element and this can be correlated to the number of available non-bonding M d-electrons. In Ti2AlC, oxygen substitutes carbon while in Cr2AlC it is located interstitially within the Al-layer. I predict that oxygen incorporation in Ti2AlC stabilizes the material, which explains the experimentally observed 12.5 at% oxygen (x  =  0.5) in Ti2Al(C1−xOx). In addition, it is also possible to use oxygen to stabilize the hypothetical Zr2AlC and Hf2AlC. Hence, oxygen incorporation may be beneficial in many ways. Not only can it make a material more stable, but it also can act as a reservoir for internal self-healing with shorter diffusion paths. (paper)

  7. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riding, Dr Robert E [University of Tennessee (UT); Fralick, Dr Philip [Lakehead University, Canada; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  8. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Fermor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular oxygen is required for the production of nitric oxide (NO, a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. To date there has been little consideration of the role of oxygen tension in the regulation of nitric oxide production associated with arthritis. Oxygen tension may be particularly relevant to articular cartilage since it is avascular and therefore exists at a reduced oxygen tension. The superficial zone exists at approximately 6% O2, while the deep zone exists at less than 1% O2. Furthermore, oxygen tension can alter matrix synthesis, and the material properties of articular cartilage in vitro.The increase in nitric oxide associated with arthritis can be caused by pro-inflammatory cytokines and mechanical stress. Oxygen tension significantly alters endogenous NO production in articular cartilage, as well as the stimulation of NO in response to both mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mechanical loading and pro-inflammatory cytokines also increase the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. There is a complex interaction between NO and PGE2, and oxygen tension can alter this interaction. These findings suggest that the relatively low levels of oxygen within the joint may have significant influences on the metabolic activity, and inflammatory response of cartilage as compared to ambient levels. A better understanding of the role of oxygen in the production of inflammatory mediators in response to mechanical loading, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, may aid in the development of strategies for therapeutic intervention in arthritis.

  9. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  10. Alarm points for fixed oxygen monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen concentration monitors were installed in a vault where numerous pipes carried inert cryogens and gases to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) experimental vessel at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The problems associated with oxygen-monitoring systems and the reasons why such monitors were installed were reviewed. As a result of this review, the MFTF-B monitors were set to sound an evacuation alarm when the oxygen concentration fell below 18%. We chose the 18% alarm criterion to minimize false alarms and to allow time for personnel to escape in an oxygen-deficient environment

  11. Alterations in oxygen transport following WR-2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the Phase I clinical trials of WR-2721 and alkylating agent chemotherapy, venous blood samples were obtained prior to and immediately following the WR-2721 infusion. The authors have observed a marked increase in the oxygen saturation of venous blood following WR-2721. The highest values generally occurred within the first 2 hours after the completion of the WR-2721 infusion. No significant differences were found between the pre and post WR-2721 values for either the venous pH, CO2, or bicarbonate levels. Despite increased P/sub v/O2, the patient's heart rates, blood pressures, or respiratory rates did not change pre and post WR-2721. In 12 patients oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curves and intracellular red cell pH's were obtained before and after WR-2721. Despite the significant increase in oxygenation of venous blood after WR-2721, there were no changes in either oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation or intracellular red cell pH to account for this increase. The oxygen consumption of peripheral blood granulocytes was measured prior to and following 15 courses of WR-2721. A marked decrease in granulocyte oxygen consumption was observed in 6/8 patients who had a significant increase in P/sub v/O2. Our preliminary investigations suggest that the increased venous blood oxygen content may be secondary to a reduction in normal tissue oxygen consumption. WR-2721 may afford protection by both decreasing oxygen consumption and delivery to normal tissues and increasing intracellular sulfhydryls

  12. Insulating ferromagnetic oxide films: the controlling role of oxygen vacancy ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salafranca Laforga, Juan I [ORNL; Salafranca, Juan [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Biskup, Nevenko [ORNL; Mehta, Virat [University of California, Berkeley; Oxley, Mark P [ORNL; Suzuki, Yuri [Stanford University; Pennycook, Stephen J [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in strained epitaxial LaCoO3 films has been a long-standing mystery. Here, we combine atomically resolved Z-contrast imaging, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to demonstrate that, in epitaxial LaCoO3 films, oxygen-vacancy superstructures release strain, control the film s electronic properties, and produce the observed ferromagnetism via the excess electrons in the Co d states. Although oxygen vacancies typically dope a material n-type, we find that ordered vacancies induce Peierls-like minigaps which, combined with strain relaxation, trigger a nonlinear rupture of the energy bands, resulting in insulating behavior.

  13. The reduction and oxidation of ceria: A natural abundance triple oxygen isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayles, Justin; Bao, Huiming

    2015-06-01

    Ceria (CeO2) is a heavily studied material in catalytic chemistry for use as an oxygen storage medium, oxygen partial pressure regulator, fuel additive, and for the production of syngas, among other applications. Ceria powders are readily reduced and lose structural oxygen when subjected to low pO2 and/or high temperature conditions. Such dis-stoichiometric ceria can then re-oxidize under higher pO2 and/or lower temperature by incorporating new oxygen into the previously formed oxygen site vacancies. Despite extensive studies on ceria, the mechanisms for oxygen adsorption-desorption, dissociation-association, and diffusion of oxygen species on ceria surface and within the crystal structure are not well known. We predict that a large kinetic oxygen isotope effect should accompany the release and incorporation of ceria oxygen. As the first attempt to determine the existence and the degree of the isotope effect, this study focuses on a set of simple room-temperature re-oxidation experiments that are also relevant to a laboratory procedure using ceria to measure the triple oxygen isotope composition of CO2. Triple-oxygen-isotope labeled ceria powders are heated at 700 °C and cooled under vacuum prior to exposure to air. By combining results from independent experimental sets with different initial oxygen isotope labels and using a combined mass-balance and triangulation approach, we have determined the isotope fractionation factors for both high temperature reduction in vacuum (⩽10-4 mbar) and room temperature re-oxidation in air. Results indicate that there is a 1.5‰ ± 0.8‰ increase in the δ18O value of ceria after being heated in vacuum at 700 °C for 1 h. When the vacuum is broken at room temperature, the previously heated ceria incorporates 3-19% of its final structural oxygen from air, with a δ18O value of 2.1-4.1+7.7 ‰ for the incorporated oxygen. The substantial incorporation of oxygen from air supports that oxygen mobility is high in vacancy

  14. Effect of initial low oxygen stress combined with 1-methylcyclopropene in ‘Royal Gala’ apple quality stored under ultralow O2Efeito do estresse inicial por baixo O2 combinado com 1-metilciclopropeno na conservação de maçãs ‘Royal Gala’ armazenadas com ultrabaixo O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri Brackmann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluated initial low oxygen stress (ILOS and the interaction with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP during ultralow oxygen (ULO storage in maintenance of ‘Royal Gala’ apple quality. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with two-factor. Each ILOS was applied for 14 days with 0.4 kPa O2. The treatments evaluated were: [1] 1.2 kPa O2 + 2.0 kPa CO2 (control; [2] 0.6 kPa O2 + 1.0 kPa CO2 (without stress; [3] 0.6 kPa O2 + 1.0 kPa CO2 (one stress; [4] 0.8 kPa O2 + 1.0 kPa CO2 (one stress; [5] 0.6 kPa O2 + 1.0 kPa CO2 (two stresses; [6] 0.6 kPa O2 + 1.0 kPa CO2 (three stresses. The fruits were kept at 0.5 ºC (±0.1 and relative humidity of 97% (±2.0. After seven months of storage plus seven days of self-life at 20 ºC, the following variables were assessed: internal breakdown, mealiness, crack, healthy fruits, flesh firmness, decay, ethylene production, ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase activity and respiration. ILOS and ULO do not decrease internal breakdown, mealiness and crack. ILOS associated to ULO, with or without 1-MCP, is not efficient in maintaining quality and reduce physiological disorders during ‘Royal Gala’ apple storage harvested at advanced maturity stage, besides induce more decay.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a realização de estresse inicial por baixo O2 e sua interação com 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP durante o armazenamento com pressões parciais ultrabaixas de O2 (ULO na conservação de maçãs ‘Royal Gala’. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, organizado em bifatorial. Os frutos foram submetidos a um estresse inicial por baixo O2 por um período de 14 dias cada, com pressão parcial de 0,4 kPa de O2. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: [1] 1,2 kPa O2 + 2,0 kPa CO2 (padrão; [2] 0,6 kPa O2 + 1,0 kPa CO2 (sem estresse; [3] 0,6 kPa O2 + 1,0 kPa CO2 (um estresse; [4] 0,8 kPa O2 + 1,0 kPa CO2 (um estresse, [5] 0,6 kPa O2

  15. Carbon mineralization and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, Lake Superior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiying; Crowe, Sean Andrew; Miklesh, David;

    2012-01-01

    To understand carbon and oxygen dynamics in sediments with deep oxygen penetration, we investigated eight locations (160–318-m depth) throughout Lake Superior. Despite the 2–4 weight percent organic carbon content, oxygen penetrated into the sediment by 3.5 to > 12 cm at all locations. Such deep......, suggesting that temporal variability in deeply oxygenated sediments may be greater than previously acknowledged. The oxygen uptake rates (4.4–7.7 mmol m−2 d−1, average 6.1 mmol m−2 d−1) and carbon mineralization efficiency (∼ 90% of deposited carbon) were similar to those in marine hemipelagic and pelagic...... penetration is explained by low sedimentation rates (0.01–0.04 cm yr−1), high solubility of oxygen in freshwater, and a shallow (∼ 2 cm) bioturbation zone. In response mainly to oxygen variations in the bottom waters, the sediment oxygen penetration varied seasonally by as much as several centimeters...

  16. IMPACT OF OXYGENATED FUEL ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehman, Andre L.

    2000-08-20

    As evidenced by recent lawsuits brought against operators of large diesel truck fleets [1] and by the Consent Decree brought against the heavy-duty diesel manufacturers [2], the environmental and health effects of diesel engine emissions continue to be a significant concern. Reduction of diesel engine emissions has traditionally been achieved through a combination of fuel system, combustion chamber, and engine control modifications [3]. Catalytic aftertreatment has become common on modern diesel vehicles, with the predominant device being the diesel oxidation catalytic converter [3]. To enable advanced after-treatment devices and to directly reduce emissions, significant recent interest has focused on reformulation of diesel fuel, particularly the reduction of sulfur content. The EPA has man-dated that diesel fuel will have only 15 ppm sulfur content by 2007, with current diesel specifications requiring around 300 ppm [4]. Reduction of sulfur will permit sulfur-sensitive aftertreatment devices, continuously regenerating particulate traps, NOx control catalysts, and plasma assisted catalysts to be implemented on diesel vehicles [4]. Another method of reformulating diesel fuel to reduce emissions is to incorporate oxygen in the fuel, as was done in the reformulation of gasoline. The use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in reformulated gasoline has resulted in contamination of water resources across the country [5]. Nonetheless, by relying on the lessons learned from MTBE, oxygenation of diesel fuel may be accomplished without compromising water quality. Oxygenation of diesel fuel offers the possibility of reducing particulate matter emissions significantly, even for the current fleet of diesel vehicles. The mechanism by which oxygen content leads to particulate matter reductions is still under debate, but recent evidence shows clearly that ''smokeless'' engine operation is possible when the oxygen content of diesel fuel reaches roughly 38% by

  17. Dissolved oxygen imaging in a porous medium to investigate biodegradation in a plume with limited electron acceptor supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei E; Oswald, Sascha E; Lerner, David N; Smith, Colin C; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2003-05-01

    A novel combination of noninvasive imaging with an oxygen sensitive fluorescent indicator was developed to investigate the biodegradation processes occurring at the fringe of a solute plume, where the supply of oxygen was limited. A thin transparent porous matrix (156 x 120 x 3 mm) was made from quartz plates and quartz sand (212-300 microm) and enriched with acetate-degrading bacteria. A degrading plume developed from a continuous acetate source in the uniform flow field containing dissolved oxygen. Ruthenium (II)-dichlorotris(1,10-phenanthroline) (Ru(phen)3Cl2), a water-soluble fluorescent dye, was used as an indicator of dissolved oxygen. The fluorescence intensity was dependent on the concentration of oxygen because the dissolved oxygen acted as collisional quencher. The oxygen distribution was interpreted from images recorded by a CCD camera. These two-dimensional experimental results showed quantitatively how the oxygen concentrations decreased strongly at the narrow plume fringe and that oxygen was depleted at the core of the plume. Separately, dispersivity was measured in a series of nonreactive transport experiments, and biodegradation parameters were evaluated by batch experiments. Two-dimensional numerical simulations with MT3D/RT3D used these parameters, and the predicted oxygen distributions were compared with the experimental results. This measurement method provides a novel approach to investigate details of solute transport and biodegradation in porous media. PMID:12775064

  18. Zirconium metal--water oxidation kinetics. II. Oxygen-18 diffusion in. beta. -Zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R.A.

    1976-07-01

    The diffusion of oxygen-18 in ..beta..-Zircaloy-4 was measured from 900 to 1500/sup 0/C and survey measurements were made for ..beta..-zirconium and ..beta..-Zircaloy-2. The tracer diffusivity was measured over the entire temperature range and the chemical diffusivity from 1100 to 1500/sup 0/C. The experiments were performed by using oxygen-18 as the tracer and activating it by proton bombardment. Complementary measurements were also made using Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Results indicated that the tracer and chemical diffusivity of oxygen in ..beta..-Zircaloy-4 are statistically identical, and there is no oxygen concentration dependence over the oxygen concentration range studied, 0.1 to 0.6 wt percent. The temperature dependence of the diffusivity from 1000 to 1500/sup 0/C is D = 2.48 x 10/sup -2/ exp (-28200/RT) cm/sup 2//s. Below 1000/sup 0/C, the diffusivity dropped sharply because a two-phase ..cap alpha.. + ..beta.. mixture was present. Results for the ..beta..-Zircaloy-2 and ..beta..-zirconium indicated that the alloying additions have no influence upon the oxygen diffusivity. Combination of three sets of boundary conditions (thin-film tracer diffusion, single-phase chemical diffusion couple, and phase-boundary-movement chemical diffusion couple) and two methods of oxygen profiling (oxygen-18 radioactivation and Auger Electron Spectroscopy) were used to increase the confidence in the results. Current results are about 50 percent lower than the previous results of Mallett, Albrecht, and Wilson. The diffusivity of oxygen-16 is expected to be 6 percent greater than that for oxygen-18. (auth)

  19. Oxygen permeation through oxygen ion oxide-noble metal dual phase composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.S.; Kruidhof, H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.M.; Verweij, H.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen permeation behaviour of three composites, yttria-stabilized zirconia-palladium, erbia-stabilized bismuth oxidenoble metal (silver, gold) was studied. Oxygen permeation measurements were performed under controlled oxygen pressure gradients at elevated temperatures. Air was supplied at one side

  20. Measuring microvascular and mitochondrial oxygen tension: novel techniques for studying tissue oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G. Mik

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the implementation of novel approaches for measuring tissue oxygenation based on oxygen-dependent quenching of the triplet-state lifetime of porphyrins. Ultimately we created a tool for assessment of mitochondrial oxygen tension in vivo. The first measurements indicate much hig

  1. Biochemical requirements for singlet oxygen production by purified human myeloperoxidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanofsky, J R; Wright, J; Miles-Richardson, G E; Tauber, A I

    1984-01-01

    The myeloperoxidase (MPO)-hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-halide systems were found to produce chemiluminescence at 1,268 nm, a characteristic emission band for singlet oxygen (1O2). The emission was enhanced by a factor of 29 +/- 5 in deuterium oxide and was inhibited by the 1O2 quenchers, histidine and azide ion. Inactivation of MPO with heat or with cyanide ion prevented light production. The combined weight of all data strongly supported the production of 1O2 by these enzyme systems. The amount ...

  2. KINETICS OF DELIGNIFICATION AND CARBOHYDRATE DEGRADATION DURING OXYGEN BLEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. L Nguyen

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate degradation during oxygen bleaching is associated with cleavage reactions. It is apparent that the loss of the cellulose DP (degree ofpolymisation)is strongly affected by the extent of the delignification. A strong linear correlation can be established between the DP of cellulose chains and the residual lignin in the pulp. The Nuclear Growth concept and Percolation Theory for heterogenous system can be combined to formulate kinetic models for both the delignification and the degradation of carbohydrate. The models prediction is statistically robust and can be applied to different pulps at different bleaching conditions.

  3. Some Applications of Fast Neutron Activation Analysis of Oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owrang, Farshid

    2003-07-01

    In this thesis we focus on applications of neutron activation of oxygen for several purposes: A) measuring the water level in a laboratory tank, B) measuring the water flow in a pipe system set-up, C) analysing the oxygen in combustion products formed in a modern gasoline SI engine, and D) measuring on-line the amount of oxygen in bulk liquids. A) Water level measurements. The purpose of this work was to perform radiation based water level measurements, aimed at nuclear reactor vessels, on a laboratory scale. A laboratory water tank was irradiated by fast neutrons from a neutron generator. The water was activated at different water levels and the water level was decreased. The produced gamma radiation was measured using two detectors at different heights. The results showed that the method is suitable for measurement of water level and that a relatively small experimental set-up can be used for developing methods for water level measurements in real boiling water reactors based on activated oxygen in the water. B) Water flows in pipe. The goal in this work was to investigate the asymmetric distribution of activity in flow measurements with pulsed neutron activation (PNA) in a laboratory piping system. Earlier investigations had shown a discrepancy between the measured velocity of the activated water by PNA and the true mean velocity in the pipe. This discrepancy decreased with larger distances from the activation point. It was speculated that the induced activity in the pipe did not distribute homogeneously. With inhomogeneous radial distribution of activity in combination with a velocity profile in the pipe, the activated water may not have the same velocity as the mean velocity of water in the pipe. To study this phenomenon, a water-soluble colour was injected into a transparent pipe for simulation of the transport of the activated water. The radial concentration of the colour, at different distances from the activation point, was determined. The result

  4. Scheele's Priority for the Discovery of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassebaum, H.; Schufle, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Concludes that Carl Scheele first observed oxygen and clearly understood what he was observing in June 1771, when he heated manganese dioxide with concentrated sulfuric acid. This was more than three years before Lavoisier or Priestley (who is usually credited with the discovery of oxygen) made similar observations. (Author/MLH)

  5. Oxygen requirement and tolerance of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered a microaerophile, yet it has been shown to grow in vitro under atmospheres with elevated oxygen tensions. Hence, a better understanding of the oxygen requirement and tolerance of C. jejuni is required. Bacterial growth was measured under various ...

  6. Oxygen Assessments Ensure Safer Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A team at White Sands Test Facility developed a test method to evaluate fire hazards in oxygen-enriched environments. Wendell Hull and Associates, located in Las Cruces, New Mexico, entered a Space Act Agreement with NASA and now provides services including fire and explosion investigations, oxygen testing and training, and accident reconstruction and forensic engineering.

  7. A rechargeable carbon-oxygen battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable battery and a method to operate a rechargeable battery having high efficiency and high energy density for storing energy. The battery stores electrical energy in the bonds of carbon and oxygen atoms by converting carbon dioxide into solid carbon and oxygen....

  8. Bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen/air electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nano-Silver powder was prepared by chemical method. • Ag catalyst was characterized by SEM and XRD studies. • Ag was investigated as bi-functional electrocatalyst for oxygen/air electrodes. • Ag shows good electrochemical activity towards OER and ORR reactions. - Abstract: Nano-Silver powder has been studied as bi-functional electrocatalyst for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline medium. Ag nano-powder has been prepared by a simple wet chemical method with Silver nitrate as precursor and Glucose as reducing agent. X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were carried out to characterize the Silver catalyst. Electrochemical oxygen evolution characterization shows anodic peak typically at the range between 0.350 and 0.514 V Vs Hg/HgO corresponding to Silver oxidation followed by the onset of oxygen evolution at 0.706 V. Oxygen reduction reaction studies carried out using Rotating Disc Electrode (RDE) confirm the four electron reaction mechanism. Ag catalyst shows promising characteristics for oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction

  9. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  10. Improved Zirconia Oxygen-Separation Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John V.; Zwissler, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Cell structure distributes feed gas more evenly for more efficent oxygen production. Multilayer cell structure containing passages, channels, tubes, and pores help distribute pressure evenly over zirconia electrolytic membrane. Resulting more uniform pressure distribution expected to improve efficiency of oxygen production.

  11. Oxygen dynamics in choanosomal sponge explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, F.; Larsen, O.; Rapp, H.T.; Osinga, R.

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen microprofiles were measured over the boundary layer and into the tissue of 10-day-old cultivated tissue fragments (explants of 2-4 cm 3) from the choanosome of the cold-water sponge Geodia barretti with oxygen-sensitive Clark-type microelectrodes. At this time of cultivation, the surface tiss

  12. History of Oxygen Therapy and Retrolental Fibroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. Stanley, Ed.; Lanman, Jonathan T., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Presented is a historical report on the use of oxygen therapy with premature infants and the development of retrolental fibroplasia (RLF), a condition leading to detachment of the retina and arrest of growth of the eye. Covered are the following topics: the early history of oxygen use for premature infants (such as for prevention of cyanotic…

  13. Oxygen isotopic anomaly and solar nebular photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the cool periphery of the solar nebula, oxygen could photochemically be formed from water. The mixing of 17O and 18O enriched by the self-shielding effect of 16O2 to the dust grain melted by the shock waves there would explain the oxygen isotopic anomaly in the high-temperature mineral of the carbonaceous meteorites. (Auth.)

  14. Neuroradiology of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a new method of treating respiratory diseases, especially meconium aspiration, in newborns. It requires continued heparinization of the infant and carries the risk of intracranial bleeding. At the author's institution this risk is monitored with daily US examinations. CT is routinely performed at the end of treatment, or at other times to confirm the presence of any pathology that might require the cessation of ECMO treatment. Of the first 62 newborns receiving ECMO therapy, all underwent daily US examinations; 48 underwent CT. In ten patients (16%) hemorrhages developed that were detected on US; the incidence was evenly distributed between primary intraventricular and parenchymal bleeding. Five of these patients died without CT having been performed. Follow-up CT scans in another five also showed hemorrhage. In five patients CT scans showed definite small punctate areas of bleeding in unusual locations, not visible on US. CT scans in another four patients were suspicious for similar bleeding. One subarachnoid hemorrhage was found. In three infants performed widening of the interhemispheric fissure was seen, and six others had probable abnormal widening of the fissure. Overall, 14 (29%) CT scans were definitely abnormal and 21% probably abnormal. Follow-up has not been significantly long enough to allow evaluation the significance of the smaller bleeding areas and interhemispheric fissure widening seen on CT. At this time, both US and CT have a definite role in the care of newborn infants undergoing ECMO

  15. Oxygen transfer in human carotid artery bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.G.Zhang; Y.B.Fan; X.Y.Deng

    2007-01-01

    Arterial bifurcations are places where blood flow may be disturbed and slow recirculation flow may occur.To reveal the correlation between local oxygen transfer and atherogenesis, a finite element method was employed to simulate the blood flow and the oxygen transfer in the human carotid artery bifurcation. Under steady-state flow conditions, the numerical simulation demonstrated a variation in local oxygen transfer at the bifurcation, showing that the convective condition in the disturbed flow region may produce uneven local oxygen transfer at the blood/wall interface.The disturbed blood flow with formation of slow eddies in the carotid sinus resulted in a depression in oxygen supply to the arterial wall at the entry of the sinus, which in turn may lead to an atherogenic response of the arterial wall, and contribute to the development of atherosclerotic stenosis there.

  16. Robust high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders

    conducting gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (CGO). The addition of CGO was found to decrease the polarisation resistance of the oxygen reaction by up to an order of magnitude compared with a single phase platinum electrode by increasing the effective triple phase boundary (TPB) length. It did not have any......Platinum is the most widely used material in high temperature oxygen sensor electrodes. However, platinum is expensive and the platinum electrode may, under certain conditions, suffer from poisoning, which is detrimental for an oxygen sensor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate electrode...... materials as candidates for robust oxygen sensor electrodes. The present work focuses on characterising the electrochemical properties of a few electrode materials to understand which oxygen electrode processes are limiting for the response time of the sensor electrode. Three types of porous platinum...

  17. Oxygen measurements in thin ribbon silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, S. L.; Ast, D. G.; Baghdadi, A.

    1987-03-01

    The oxygen content of thin silicon ribbons grown by the dendritic web technique was measured using a modification of the ASTM method based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Web silicon was found to have a high oxygen content, ranging from 13 to 19 ppma, calculated from the absorption peak associated with interstitial oxygen and using the new ASTM conversion coefficient. The oxygen concentration changed by about 10 percent along the growth direction of the ribbon. In some samples, a shoulder was detected on the absorption peak. A similar shoulder in Czochralski grown material has been variously interpreted in the literature as due to a complex of silicon, oxygen, and vacancies, or to a phase of SiO2 developed along dislocations in the material. In the case of web silicon, it is not clear which is the correct interpretation.

  18. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  19. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  20. Oxygen diffusion in vanadium-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental study of transport and equilibrium properties of oxygen in vanadium-based alloys was made by EMF measurements on solid electrolytic cells over the temperature range of 873 to 14230K. The oxygen diffusion in vanadium was not significantly modified by small additions of Ti, Cr, Ni, Nb and Ta. The increase in the activation energy for oxygen diffusion in the V-based alloys containing Cr, Ni, Nb and Ta probably reflects the effect of these substitutional solutes on the activity coefficient of oxygen. The oxygen activity was increased by the addition of 1 at % of Cr, Ni and Nb, and decreased by the addition of Ti and Ta. However, the effects in the alloys containing Nb and Ta are very small

  1. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  2. Transcutaneous oxygen tension in imminent foot gangrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H

    1978-01-01

    Transcutaneous oxygen tension at 44 degree C and maximal isotope clearance (90m Tc-pretechnetate + histramine) just proximal to the 1st toe and systolic toe blood pressure (strain gauge) were studied on a tilt table in patients with various degrees of obstructive arteriosclerotic disease. In legs...... with moderate obstruction, the oxygen tension reached zero at a toe systolic blood pressure of 5--10 mmHg (tilt toe up) and reached arterial oxygen tension at about 50 to 70 mmHg (tilt toe down). In legs withsevere arterial obstruction and ischaemic rest pain, oxygen tension rose from zero not before systolic...... toe blood pressure reached 20--50 mmHg. Significant isotope clearance was seen at pressures below the limits just mentioned for both types of patients. This phenomenon here seen of a perfusion without oxygen supply is explained by a gas leak (rendered significant because of the slow flow rate) from...

  3. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  4. Rule of oxygen transmission in dump leaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    According to the chemical equations, the flux and concentration of oxygen required during bacterial leaching sulfuric mineral were investigated; the rule of air bubble transmitted in granular was researched in the Dump Leaching Plant of Dexing Copper Mine. The results show that lack of oxygen in dump leaching is the critical factor of restricting leaching reaction. Pyrite is the primary oxygen-consuming mineral in bioleaching. When its content is too high, it needs a great deal of oxygen for reaction and competes for the finite oxygen with objective minerals, and thus the leaching velocity decreases greatly. The average size of ore particles and diameter of bubbles are the key parameters affecting the mass transfer coefficient. Reverse analysis was adopted, and it shows that 44.8 m3 air per unit ore can meet the requirement of production if the molar ratio of pyrite to chalcopyrite is 10.

  5. Do large predatory fish track ocean oxygenation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Tais W; Hammarlund, Emma U

    2011-01-01

    The Devonian appearance of 1-10 meter long armored fish (placoderms) coincides with geochemical evidence recording a transition into fully oxygenated oceans.1 A comparison of extant fish shows that the large individuals are less tolerant to hypoxia than their smaller cousins. This leads us to hypothesize that Early Paleozoic O(2) saturation levels were too low to support >1 meter size marine, predatory fish. According to a simple model, both oxygen uptake and oxygen demand scale positively with size, but the demand exceeds supply for the largest fish with an active, predatory life style. Therefore, the largest individuals may lead us to a lower limit on oceanic O(2) concentrations. Our presented model suggests 2-10 meter long predators require >30-50% PAL while smaller fish would survive at oxygen pressure acted as an evolutionary barrier for fish to grow much above ∼1 meter before the Devonian oxygenation.

  6. Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink while the well-developed pycnocline isolates autotrophic surface waters from the heterotrophic and hypoxic waters below. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e. primary production and water column respiration. In this experiment below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

  7. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  8. Simulation studies of diesel engine performance with oxygen enriched air and water emulsified fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assanis, D.N.; Baker, D. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA)); Sekar, R.R.; Siambekos, C.T.; Cole, R.L.; Marciniak, T.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    A computer simulation code of a turbocharged, turbocompound diesel engine was modified to study the effects of using oxygen-enriched combustion air and water-emulsified diesel fuels. Oxygen levels of 21 percent to 40 percent by volume in the combustion air were studied. Water content in the fuel was varied from 0 percent to 50 percent mass. Simulation studies and a review and analysis of previous work in this area led to the following conclusions about expected engine performance and emissions: the power density of the engine is significantly increased by oxygen enrichment. Ignition delay and particulate emissions are reduced. Combustion temperatures and No{sub x} emissions are increased with oxygen enrichment but could be brought back to the base levels by introducing water in the fuel. The peak cylinder pressure which increases with the power output level might result in mechanical problems with engine components. Oxygen enrichment also provides an opportunity to use cheaper fuel such as No. 6 diesel fuel. Overall, the adverse effects of oxygen enrichment could be countered by the addition of water and it appears that an optimum combination of water content, oxygen level, and base diesel fuel quality may exist. This could yield improved performance and emissions characteristics compared to a state-of-the-art diesel engine. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Acceleration of oxygen decline in the tropical Pacific over the past decades by aerosol pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Nenes, A.; Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Deutsch, C.

    2016-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen in the mid-depth tropical Pacific Ocean has declined in the past several decades. The resulting expansion of the oxygen minimum zone has consequences for the region's ecosystem and biogeochemical cycles, but the causes of the oxygen decline are not yet fully understood. Here we combine models of atmospheric chemistry, ocean circulation and biogeochemical cycling to test the hypothesis that atmospheric pollution over the Pacific Ocean contributed to the redistribution of oxygen in deeper waters. We simulate the pollution-induced enhancement of atmospheric soluble iron and fixed nitrogen deposition, as well as its impacts on ocean productivity and biogeochemical cycling for the late twentieth century. The model reproduces the magnitude and large-scale pattern of the observed oxygen changes from the 1970s to the 1990s, and the sensitivity experiments reveal the reinforcing effects of pollution-enhanced iron deposition and natural climate variability. Despite the aerosol deposition being the largest in mid-latitudes, its effect on oceanic oxygen is most pronounced in the tropics, where ocean circulation transports added iron to the tropics, leading to an increased regional productivity, respiration and subsurface oxygen depletion. These results suggest that anthropogenic pollution can interact and amplify climate-driven impacts on ocean biogeochemistry, even in remote ocean biomes.

  10. Pulmonary ventilation: dynamic MRI with inhalation of molecular oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently demonstrated a non-invasive technique to visualize pulmonary ventilation in humans with inhalation of molecular oxygen as a paramagnetic contrast agent. In the current study, T1 shortening of lung tissue by inhalation of oxygen was observed (P2) in a pig, resulting in excellent correlation (r2=0.997). Dynamic wash-in and wash-out MR ventilation images as well as dynamic wash-in wash-out signal intensity versus time curves were obtained. The mean wash-in decay constants were 26.8±10.5 s in the right lung, and 26.3±9.5 s in the left lung. The mean wash-out decay constants were 23.3±11.3 s in the right lung, and 20.8±10.5 s in the left lung. Dynamic assessment of pulmonary ventilation is feasible using oxygen-enhanced MR imaging, which could provide dynamic MR ventilation-perfusion imaging in combination with recently developed MR perfusion imaging technique, and thus a robust tool for the study of pulmonary physiology and pathophysiology

  11. Methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis in anoxic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milucka, Jana; Kirf, Mathias; Lu, Lu; Krupke, Andreas; Lam, Phyllis; Littmann, Sten; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schubert, Carsten J

    2015-09-01

    Freshwater lakes represent large methane sources that, in contrast to the Ocean, significantly contribute to non-anthropogenic methane emissions to the atmosphere. Particularly mixed lakes are major methane emitters, while permanently and seasonally stratified lakes with anoxic bottom waters are often characterized by strongly reduced methane emissions. The causes for this reduced methane flux from anoxic lake waters are not fully understood. Here we identified the microorganisms and processes responsible for the near complete consumption of methane in the anoxic waters of a permanently stratified lake, Lago di Cadagno. Interestingly, known anaerobic methanotrophs could not be detected in these waters. Instead, we found abundant gamma-proteobacterial aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria active in the anoxic waters. In vitro incubations revealed that, among all the tested potential electron acceptors, only the addition of oxygen enhanced the rates of methane oxidation. An equally pronounced stimulation was also observed when the anoxic water samples were incubated in the light. Our combined results from molecular, biogeochemical and single-cell analyses indicate that methane removal at the anoxic chemocline of Lago di Cadagno is due to true aerobic oxidation of methane fuelled by in situ oxygen production by photosynthetic algae. A similar mechanism could be active in seasonally stratified lakes and marine basins such as the Black Sea, where light penetrates to the anoxic chemocline. Given the widespread occurrence of seasonally stratified anoxic lakes, aerobic methane oxidation coupled to oxygenic photosynthesis might have an important but so far neglected role in methane emissions from lakes. PMID:25679533

  12. Structure of Greyhound hemoglobin: origin of high oxygen affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Veer S; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Harris, David R; Couto, C Guillermo; Wang, Peng G; Palmer, Andre F

    2011-05-01

    This study presents the crystal structure of Greyhound hemoglobin (GrHb) determined to 1.9 Å resolution. GrHb was found to crystallize with an α₁β₁ dimer in the asymmetric unit and belongs to the R2 state. Oxygen-affinity measurements combined with the fact that GrHb crystallizes in the R2 state despite the high-salt conditions used for crystallization strongly indicate that GrHb can serve as a model high-oxygen-affinity hemoglobin (Hb) for higher mammals, especially humans. Structural analysis of GrHb and its comparison with the R2-state of human Hb revealed several regions that can potentially contribute to the high oxygen affinity of GrHb and serve to rationalize the additional stability of the R2-state of GrHb. A previously well studied hydrophobic cluster of bar-headed goose Hb near α119 was also incorporated in the comparison between GrHb and human Hb. Finally, a structural comparison with generic dog Hb and maned wolf Hb was conducted, revealing that in contrast to GrHb these structures belong to the R state of Hb and raising the intriguing possibility of an additional allosteric factor co-purifying with GrHb that can modulate its quaternary structure. PMID:21543841

  13. Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in Low Metallicity Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D.; Henry, Richard B. C.; Erb, Dawn K.; Carigi, Leticia

    2016-08-01

    The study of carbon and oxygen abundances yields information on the time evolution and nucleosynthetic origins of these elements, yet they remain relatively unexplored. At low metallicities, (12+log(O/H) complemented by optical SDSS spectra, from which we measured the nebular physical conditions and oxygen abundances using the direct method. At low metallicity, (12+log(O/H) < 8.0), no clear trend is evident in C/O versus O/H for the present sample given the large dispersion observed. When combined with recombination line observations at higher values of O/H, a general trend of increasing C/O with increasing O/H is also viable but with some significant outliers. Additionally, we find the C/N ratio appears to be constant (but with significant scatter) over a large range in oxygen abundance, indicating that carbon is predominantly produced by similar nucleosynthetic mechanisms as nitrogen. If true, and our current understanding of nitrogen production is correct, this would indicate that primary production of carbon (a flat trend) dominates at low metallicity, but quasi-secondary production (an increasing trend) becomes prominent at higher metallicities. A larger sample will be needed to determine the true nature and dispersion of the relation.

  14. Distribution and mass transfer of dissolved oxygen in a multi-habitat membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bing; Qiu, Bing; Huang, Shaosong; Yang, Kanghua; Bin, Liying; Fu, Fenglian; Yang, Huiwen

    2015-04-01

    This work investigated the DO distribution and the factors influencing the mass transfer of DO in a multi-habitat membrane bioreactor. Through the continuous measurements of an on-line automatic system, the timely DO values at different zones in the bioreactor were obtained, which gave a detailed description to the distribution of oxygen within the bioreactor. The results indicated that the growth of biomass had an important influence on the distribution of oxygen. As the extension of operational time, the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kLa) was generally decreased. With the difference in DO values, a complex environment combining anoxic and oxic state was produced within a single bioreactor, which provided a fundamental guarantee for the total removal of TN. Aeration rate, the concentration and apparent viscosity of MLSS have different influences on kLa, but adjusting the viscosity is a feasible method to improve the mass transfer of oxygen in the bioreactor.

  15. Theoretical analysis of ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L. S.; Zhou, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-08-01

    The use of very short high-voltage pulses combined with a dielectric layer results in high-energy electrons that dissociate oxygen molecules into atoms, which are a prerequisite for the subsequent production of ozone by collisions with oxygen molecules and third particles. The production of ozone depends on both the electrical and the physical parameters. For ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen, a mathematical model, which describes the relation between ozone concentration and these parameters that are of importance in its design, is developed according to dimensional analysis theory. A formula considering the ozone destruction factor is derived for predicting the characteristics of the ozone generation, within the range of the corona inception voltage to the gap breakdown voltage. The trend showing the dependence of the concentration of ozone in oxygen on these parameters generally agrees with the experimental results, thus confirming the validity of the mathematical model.

  16. Oxygenation and EMG in the proximal and distal vastus lateralis during submaximal isometric knee extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crenshaw, Albert G.; Bronee, Lars; Krag, Ida;

    2010-01-01

    Muscle oxygenation responses are reportedly greater in the distal muscle region than in the proximal muscle region. We combined near infrared spectroscopy and electromyography (EMG) to determine whether regional differences in oxygenation are associated with differences in (1) muscle activation and....../or (2) fatigue development. Nine males performed 2-min sustained isometric knee extensions at 15% and 30% maximum voluntary contraction during which oxygenation and EMG were recorded simultaneously from proximal and distal locations of the vastus lateralis muscle. Near infrared spectroscopy variables...... for oxygen saturation (StO(2)%) were initial slope at contraction onset, peak drop, and recovery slope at contraction end. Electromyography produced the root mean square to indicate muscle activation and mean power frequency changes over time (decreasing slope) to indicate fatigue development. For StO(2...

  17. COMBINE 2 seminar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Jacobsen, Kim

    1995-01-01

    A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2......A seminar about the COMBINE project was described. Further, the project was described in generel, i.e. the COMBINE´s data model (IDM), the data exchange system (DES) and the different I/O-systems included in COMBINE 2...

  18. Oxygen and animal evolution: Did a rise of atmospheric oxygen trigger the origin of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, Daniel Brady; Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies challenge the classical view that the origin of animal life was primarily controlled by atmospheric oxygen levels. For example, some modern sponges, representing early-branching animals, can live under 200 times less oxygen than currently present in the atmosphere - levels commonly...... thought to have been maintained prior to their origination. Furthermore, it is increasingly argued that the earliest animals, which likely lived in low oxygen environments, played an active role in constructing the well-oxygenated conditions typical of the modern oceans. Therefore, while oxygen is still...

  19. Enhanced optical oxygen sensing using a newly synthesized ruthenium complex together with oxygen carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Kadriye; Kocak, Suleyman; Sabih Ozer, M; Aycan, Sule; Cetinkaya, Bekir

    2003-11-12

    In this article, an emission based, simple and fast method is proposed for the determination of gaseous oxygen. A newly synthesized fluorophore, dichloro-{2,6-bis[1-(4-dimethylamino-phenylimino) ethyl]pyridine}ruthenium(II) has been used for oxygen sensing together with oxygen carrier perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in silicon matrix. It should be noted that the solubility of oxygen in fluorocarbons is about three to ten times large as that observed in the parent hydrocarbons or in water, respectively. Employed PFCs are chemically and biochemically inert, have high dissolution capacities for oxygen, and, once doped into sensing film, considerably enhance the response of sensing agent. PMID:18969220

  20. Recovery function of light quantum autohemo-oxygen therapy combined with decoction of activating blood circulation on stroke patients%光量子自血氧疗合通窍活血汤对脑卒中的康复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银清; 刘卫平

    2001-01-01

    @@Background:Drug therapy of hypertension is common in clinic.But hypertension will reocur when drug treatment is arrested.Hypertension belongs to headache and dizziness in chinese medicine.The liver-gas,stagnated fire,fire-transmission,deficiency of the kidney-yin,hyperactivity of the liver-yang may contributed to its development. Objective:To treat hypertension with exercise combined with drugs. Design:173 patients with hypertension were randomly divided into two groups,treatment group and control group.Patients in treatment group recepted exercise therapy,for patients with severe hypertension,Xaiozhiyin was administered.Patients in control group recepted oral Xiaozhiyin. Unit:Hangzhou Tianmushan Pharmacy Company,Hangzhou Subjects:173 hypertension patients,79 male,94 female,aged from 35~ 70 years.Disease variated between 1~ 32 years.Grade of hypertension is I in 36 cases,II in 69 patients,III in 48 patients and IV in 20 patients.All patients underwent different levels of headache,dissziness,insomnia and fatigue.They were randomly divided into treatment group and control group.There were no significant differences in age,sex,blood pressure,signs and symptoms between two groups.Intervention:(1)Patients in treatment group carried out exercise such as swimming,dancing,jogging and shadow boxing.Exercise intensity was determined according to patients'endurance and time.Exercise duration lasted for 30~ 60 min.For patients with severe hypertension in treatment group,Xaiozhiyin consisted of 15 mg cassia seed,10 mg Hawthorn fruit,Long fleece-flower root,10 mg Bighead atractylodes rhizome,1 dosage/day,total 8 weeks was administered.(2)patients in control group received oral Xiaozhiyin.