WorldWideScience

Sample records for aplysia

  1. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas

    2010-12-06

    Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal novel molecular components associated with life history transitions. Specifically, we identify more than 20 signal peptides, putative hormones, and transcription factors in association with early development and metamorphic stages-many of which seem to be evolutionarily conserved elements of signal transduction pathways. We also characterize genes related to biomineralization-a critical process of molluscan development. In summary, our experiment provides the first large-scale survey of gene expression in mollusc development, and complements previous studies on the regulatory mechanisms underlying body plan patterning and the formation of larval and juvenile structures. This study serves as a resource for further functional annotation of transcripts and genes in Aplysia, specifically and molluscs in general. A comparison of the Aplysia developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms that are likely a consequence of the different developmental modes of these organisms. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. Long-Term Sensitization Training Primes "Aplysia" for Further Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.; Antzoulatos, Evangelos G.; Wainwright, Marcy L.

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive, unilateral stimulation of "Aplysia" induces long-term sensitization (LTS) of ipsilaterally elicited siphon-withdrawal responses. Whereas some morphological effects of training appear only on ipsilateral sensory neurons, others appear bilaterally. We tested the possibility that contralateral morphological modifications may have…

  3. Sleep Supports Inhibitory Operant Conditioning Memory in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Albrecht P. A.; Born, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation as shown in mammals and invertebrates such as bees and "Drosophila." Here, we show that sleep's memory function is preserved in "Aplysia californica" with an even simpler nervous system. Animals performed on an inhibitory conditioning task ("learning that a food is inedible") three…

  4. Structural and functional analysis of Aplysia attractins, a family of water-borne protein pheromones with interspecific attractiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Painter, S.D.; Cummins, S.F.; Nichols, A.E.; Akalal, D.B.G.; Schein, C.H.; Braun, W.; Smith, J.S.; Susswein, A.J.; Levy, M.; de Boer, P.A.C.M.; ter Maat, A.; Miller, M.W.; Scanlan, C.; Milberg, R.M.; Sweedler, J.V.; Nagle, G.T.

    2004-01-01

    Mate attraction in Aplysia involves a long-distance water-borne signal (the protein pheromone attractin), which is released during egg laying. Aplysia californica attractin attracts species that produce closely related attractins, such as Aplysia brasiliana, whose geographic distribution does not

  5. Circadian modulation of complex learning in diurnal and nocturnal Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Katzoff, Ayelet; Susswein, Abraham J.; Eskin, Arnold

    2005-01-01

    Understanding modulation of memory, as well as the mechanisms underlying memory formation, has become a key issue in neuroscience research. Previously, we found that the formation of long-term, but not short-term, memory for a nonassociative form of learning, sensitization, was modulated by the circadian clock in the diurnal Aplysia californica. To define the scope of circadian modulation of memory, we examined an associative operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). Si...

  6. Neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs of Aplysia californica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia californica serves as a model organism in experimental neurobiology because of its simple and well-known nervous system. However, its nervous periphery has been less intensely studied. We have reconstructed the ontogeny of the cephalic sensory organs (labial...... tentacles, rhinophores, and lip) of planktonic, metamorphic, and juvenile developmental stages. FMRFamide and serotonergic expression patterns have been examined by immunocytochemistry in conjunction with epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We have also applied scanning electron...

  7. Neurogenesis in Aplysia californica resembles nervous system formation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of neurogenesis of the central nervous system of Aplysia californica was investigated by [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography. Large numbers of animals at a series of early developmental stages were labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine for 24 or 48 hr and were subsequently sampled at specific intervals throughout the life cycle. I found that proliferative zones, consisting of columnar and placodal ectodermal cells, are established in regions of the body wall adjacent to underlying mesodermal cells. Mitosis in the proliferative zones generates a population of cells which leave the surface and migrate inward to join the nearby forming ganglia. Tracing specific [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled cells from the body wall to a particular ganglion and within the ganglion over time suggests that the final genomic replication of the neuronal precursors occurs before the cells join the ganglion while glial cell precursors and differentiating glial cells continue to divide within the ganglion for some time. Ultrastructural examination of the morphological features of the few mitosing cells observed within the Aplysia central nervous system supports this interpretation. The pattern of neurogenesis in the Aplysia central nervous system resembles the proliferation of cells in the neural tube and the migration of neural crest and ectodermal placode cells in the vertebrate nervous system but differs from the pattern described for other invertebrates

  8. Reconsolidation of long-term memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Chen, Shanping; Glanzman, David L

    2012-10-09

    When an animal is reminded of a prior experience and shortly afterward treated with a protein synthesis inhibitor, the consolidated memory for the experience can be disrupted; by contrast, protein synthesis inhibition without prior reminding commonly does not disrupt long-term memory [1-3]. Such results imply that the reminding triggers reconsolidation of the memory. Here, we asked whether the behavioral and synaptic changes associated with the memory for long-term sensitization (LTS) of the siphon-withdrawal reflex in the marine snail Aplysia californica [4, 5] could undergo reconsolidation. In support of this idea, we found that when sensitized animals were given abbreviated reminder sensitization training 48-96 hr after the original sensitization training, followed by treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, LTS was disrupted. We also found that long-term (≥ 24 hr) facilitation (LTF) [6], which can be induced in the monosynaptic connection between Aplysia sensory and motor neurons in dissociated cell culture by multiple spaced pulses of the endogenous facilitatory transmitter serotonin (5-HT) [7, 8], could be eliminated by treating the synapses with one reminder pulse of 5-HT, followed by anisomycin, at 48 hr after the original training. Our results provide a simple model system for understanding the synaptic basis of reconsolidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogeny of the sea hares in the aplysia clade based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Timothy; Walsh, Patrick J.

    2004-02-20

    Sea hare species within the Aplysia clade are distributed worldwide. Their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships are, however, still poorly known. New molecular evidence is presented from a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene (cox1) that improves our understanding of the phylogeny of the group. Based on these data a preliminary discussion of the present distribution of sea hares in a biogeographic context is put forward. Our findings are consistent with only some aspects of the current taxonomy and nomenclatural changes are proposed. The first, is the use of a rank free classification for the different Aplysia clades and subclades as opposed to previously used genus and subgenus affiliations. The second, is the suggestion that Aplysia brasiliana (Rang, 1828) is a junior synonym of Aplysia fasciata (Poiret, 1789). The third, is the elimination of Neaplysia since its only member is confirmed to be part of the large Varria clade.

  10. Non-Ocular Circadian Oscillators and Photoreceptors Modulate Long Term Memory Formation in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Eskin, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    In Aplysia californica, memory formation for long-term sensitization (LTS) and for a more complex type of associative learning, learning that food is inedible (LFI), is modulated by a circadian clock. For both types of learning, formation of long-term memory occurs during the day and significantly less during the night. Aplysia eyes contain a well-characterized circadian oscillator that is strongly coupled to the locomotor activity rhythm. Thus, the authors hypothesized that the ocular circad...

  11. Sleep supports inhibitory operant conditioning memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorster, Albrecht P A; Born, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Sleep supports memory consolidation as shown in mammals and invertebrates such as bees and Drosophila. Here, we show that sleep's memory function is preserved in Aplysia californica with an even simpler nervous system. Animals performed on an inhibitory conditioning task ("learning that a food is inedible") three times, at Training, Retrieval 1, and Retrieval 2, with 17-h intervals between tests. Compared with Wake animals, remaining awake between Training and Retrieval 1, Sleep animals with undisturbed post-training sleep, performed significantly better at Retrieval 1 and 2. Control experiments testing retrieval only after ∼34 h, confirmed the consolidating effect of sleep occurring within 17 h after training. © 2017 Vorster and Born; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Digestive Gland from Aplysia depilans Gmelin: Leads for Inflammation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia P. Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of marine organisms for human nutritional and pharmaceutical purposes has revealed important chemical prototypes for the discovery of new drugs, stimulating compounds isolation and syntheses of new related compounds with biomedical application. Nowadays, it is well known that inflammatory processes are involved in many diseases and the interest in the search for marine natural products with anti-inflammatory potential has been increasing. The genus Aplysia belongs to the class Gastropoda, having a wide geographical distribution and including several species, commonly known as sea hares. Aplysia depilans Gmelin is usually found in the Mediterranean Sea and in the Atlantic Ocean, from West Africa to the French coast. In these marine organisms, most of the digestion and nutrient absorption occurs in the digestive gland. This work aimed to explore the chemical composition and bioactivity of the methanol extract from A. depilans digestive gland. Therefore, fatty acids and carotenoids were determined by GC-MS and HPLC-DAD, respectively. Twenty-two fatty acids and eight carotenoids were identified for the first time in this species. The A. depilans digestive gland revealed to be essentially composed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and xanthophylls. Regarding the anti-inflammatory potential in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, it was observed that this matrix has capacity to reduce nitric oxide (NO and L-citrulline levels, which suggests that its compounds may act by interference with inducible nitric oxide synthase. Taking into account the results obtained, A. depilans digestive gland may be a good source of nutraceuticals, due to their richness in health beneficial nutrients, such as carotenoids and long-chain PUFA.

  13. The species of Aplysia belonging to the subgenus Tullia Pruvot-Fol, 1933: On a generic character in statu nascendi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, H.; Eales, Nellie B.

    1957-01-01

    Mme PRUVOT-FOL, 1933, p. 400, established the subgenus Tullia for Aplysia juliana QUOY et GAIMARD, and 1934, p. 41 added other species of Aplysia with a distinct sucking disk at the end of the foot. Living animals have been figured and their variation has been described by BABA 1937a, p. 211, and

  14. Aging in Sensory and Motor Neurons Results in Learning Failure in Aplysia californica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kempsell

    Full Text Available The physiological and molecular mechanisms of age-related memory loss are complicated by the complexity of vertebrate nervous systems. This study takes advantage of a simple neural model to investigate nervous system aging, focusing on changes in learning and memory in the form of behavioral sensitization in vivo and synaptic facilitation in vitro. The effect of aging on the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR was studied in Aplysia californica at maturity and late in the annual lifecycle. We found that short-term sensitization in TWR was absent in aged Aplysia. This implied that the neuronal machinery governing nonassociative learning was compromised during aging. Synaptic plasticity in the form of short-term facilitation between tail sensory and motor neurons decreased during aging whether the sensitizing stimulus was tail shock or the heterosynaptic modulator serotonin (5-HT. Together, these results suggest that the cellular mechanisms governing behavioral sensitization are compromised during aging, thereby nearly eliminating sensitization in aged Aplysia.

  15. Rapid and Persistent Suppression of Feeding Behavior Induced by Sensitization Training in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Ama; Kelly, Kathleen; Shields-Johnson, Maria; Hajovsky, Julie; Wainwright, Marcy; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    In "Aplysia," noxious stimuli induce sensitization of defensive responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such stimuli also alter nondefensive behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of noxious stimuli on feeding. Strong electric shocks, capable of inducing sensitization, also led to the suppression of feeding. The use of…

  16. Transcriptional Correlates of Memory Maintenance Following Long-Term Sensitization of "Aplysia Californica"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Catherine; Herdegen, Samantha; Kamal, Saman; Patel, Jency; Patel, Ushma; Perez, Leticia; Rivota, Marissa; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.; Calin-Jageman, Irina E.

    2017-01-01

    We characterized the transcriptional response accompanying maintenance of long-term sensitization (LTS) memory in the pleural ganglia of "Aplysia californica" using microarray (N = 8) and qPCR (N = 11 additional samples). We found that 24 h after memory induction there is strong regulation of 1198 transcripts (748 up and 450 down) in a…

  17. Role of Proteasome-Dependent Protein Degradation in Long-Term Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lisa C.; Gardner, Jacob S.; Gandour, Catherine E.; Krishnan, Harini C.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the in vivo role of protein degradation during intermediate (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) in "Aplysia" using an operant learning paradigm. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 inhibited the induction and molecular consolidation of LTM with no effect on ITM. Remarkably, maintenance of steady-state protein levels through…

  18. Characterization of the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdegen, Samantha; Holmes, Geraldine; Cyriac, Ashly; Calin-Jageman, Irina E; Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    We used a custom-designed microarray and quantitative PCR to characterize the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Aplysia were exposed to repeated noxious shocks to one side of the body, a procedure known to induce a long-lasting, transcription-dependent increase in reflex responsiveness that is restricted to the side of training. One hour after training, pleural ganglia from the trained and untrained sides of the body were harvested; these ganglia contain the sensory nociceptors which help mediate the expression of long-term sensitization memory. Microarray analysis from 8 biological replicates suggests that long-term sensitization training rapidly regulates at least 81 transcripts. We used qPCR to test a subset of these transcripts and found that 83% were confirmed in the same samples, and 86% of these were again confirmed in an independent sample. Thus, our new microarray design shows strong convergent and predictive validity for analyzing the transcriptional correlates of memory in Aplysia. Fully validated transcripts include some previously identified as regulated in this paradigm (ApC/EBP and ApEgr) but also include novel findings. Specifically, we show that long-term sensitization training rapidly up-regulates the expression of transcripts which may encode Aplysia homologs of a C/EBPγ transcription factor, a glycine transporter (GlyT2), and a vacuolar-protein-sorting-associated protein (VPS36). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  20. Extending In Vitro Conditioning in "Aplysia" to Analyze Operant and Classical Processes in the Same Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Bjorn; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Operant and classical conditioning are major processes shaping behavioral responses in all animals. Although the understanding of the mechanisms of classical conditioning has expanded significantly, the understanding of the mechanisms of operant conditioning is more limited. Recent developments in "Aplysia" are helping to narrow the gap in the…

  1. PKG-Mediated MAPK Signaling Is Necessary for Long-Term Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Eskin, Arnold; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2011-01-01

    Signaling pathways necessary for memory formation, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, appear highly conserved across species and paradigms. Learning that food is inedible (LFI) represents a robust form of associative, operant learning that induces short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in "Aplysia." We investigated the…

  2. Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato B. Pereira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment is an important source of structurally-diverse and biologically-active secondary metabolites. During the last two decades, thousands of compounds were discovered in marine organisms, several of them having inspired the development of new classes of therapeutic agents. Marine mollusks constitute a successful phyla in the discovery of new marine natural products (MNPs. Over a 50-year period from 1963, 116 genera of mollusks contributed innumerous compounds, Aplysia being the most studied genus by MNP chemists. This genus includes 36 valid species and should be distinguished from all mollusks as it yielded numerous new natural products. Aplysia sea hares are herbivorous mollusks, which have been proven to be a rich source of secondary metabolites, mostly of dietary origin. The majority of secondary metabolites isolated from sea hares of the genus Aplysia are halogenated terpenes; however, these animals are also a source of compounds from other chemical classes, such as macrolides, sterols and alkaloids, often exhibiting cytotoxic, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and/or antifeedant activities. This review focuses on the diverse structural classes of secondary metabolites found in Aplysia spp., including several compounds with pronounced biological properties.

  3. Connecting Model Species to Nature: Predator-Induced Long-Term Sensitization in "Aplysia Californica"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Maria J.; Watkins, Amanda J.; Wakabayashi, Jordann; Buechler, Jennifer; Pepino, Christine; Brown, Michelle; Wright, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on sensitization in "Aplysia" was based entirely on unnatural noxious stimuli, usually electric shock, until our laboratory found that a natural noxious stimulus, a single sublethal lobster attack, causes short-term sensitization. We here extend that finding by demonstrating that multiple lobster attacks induce…

  4. Central representation of sensory inputs from the cardio-renal system in Aplysia depilans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsa, K S; Salánki, J; Véró, M; Kovacević, N; Konjevic, D

    1980-01-01

    Studying the central representation of sensory inputs originating from the heart in Aplysia depilans, it was found that: 1. Neurons responding to heart stimulation can be found in the abdominal, pedal and pleural ganglia alike. 2. The representation of heart input signals was more abundant in the left hemisphere of the abdominal ganglion and in the left pedal and pleural ganglia. 3. The giant neurons of Aplysia depilans can be compared to the homologous cells of Aplysia californica. Two motoneurons (RBHE, LDHI) and one interneuron (L10) proved to be identical in the two subspecies. 4. Sensory inputs originating from the heart may modify the pattern of both heart regulatory motoneurons and interneurons. 5. Nine giant and 19 small neurons of the abdominal ganglion, 3--3 neurons of the right and left pleural ganglion, 6 neurons of the left pedal ganglion responded to heart stimulation. 6. The bursting patterns of cells R15 and L4 were modified to tonic discharge in response to heart stimulation. 7. The representation of sensory inputs originating from the heart is scattered throughout the CNS of Aplysia depilans and heart regulation is based on a feedback mechanism similar to that found in other gastropod species.

  5. Ca2+-induced uncoupling of Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargaei, Zahra; Standage, Dominic; Groten, Christopher J; Blohm, Gunnar; Magoski, Neil S

    2015-02-01

    Electrical transmission is a dynamically regulated form of communication and key to synchronizing neuronal activity. The bag cell neurons of Aplysia are a group of electrically coupled neuroendocrine cells that initiate ovulation by secreting egg-laying hormone during a prolonged period of synchronous firing called the afterdischarge. Accompanying the afterdischarge is an increase in intracellular Ca2+ and the activation of protein kinase C (PKC). We used whole cell recording from paired cultured bag cell neurons to demonstrate that electrical coupling is regulated by both Ca2+ and PKC. Elevating Ca2+ with a train of voltage steps, mimicking the onset of the afterdischarge, decreased junctional current for up to 30 min. Inhibition was most effective when Ca2+ entry occurred in both neurons. Depletion of Ca2+ from the mitochondria, but not the endoplasmic reticulum, also attenuated the electrical synapse. Buffering Ca2+ with high intracellular EGTA or inhibiting calmodulin kinase prevented uncoupling. Furthermore, activating PKC produced a small but clear decrease in junctional current, while triggering both Ca2+ influx and PKC inhibited the electrical synapse to a greater extent than Ca2+ alone. Finally, the amplitude and time course of the postsynaptic electrotonic response were attenuated after Ca2+ influx. A mathematical model of electrically connected neurons showed that excessive coupling reduced recruitment of the cells to fire, whereas less coupling led to spiking of essentially all neurons. Thus a decrease in electrical synapses could promote the afterdischarge by ensuring prompt recovery of electrotonic potentials or making the neurons more responsive to current spreading through the network. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H.; Sturgeon, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K+ with Cs+. Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K+ channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K+ current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K+ current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K+ channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time. PMID:26864763

  7. Functional magnetic resonance microscopy at single-cell resolution in Aplysia californica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki, Guillaume; Nargeot, Romuald; Jelescu, Ileana Ozana; Le Bihan, Denis; Ciobanu, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show the feasibility of performing functional MRI studies with single-cell resolution. At ultrahigh magnetic field, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance microscopy allows the identification of most motor neurons in the buccal network of Aplysia at low, nontoxic Mn2+ concentrations. We establish that Mn2+ accumulates intracellularly on injection into the living Aplysia and that its concentration increases when the animals are presented with a sensory stimulus. We also show that we can distinguish between neuronal activities elicited by different types of stimuli. This method opens up a new avenue into probing the functional organization and plasticity of neuronal networks involved in goal-directed behaviors with single-cell resolution. PMID:24872449

  8. Target-Dependent Structural Changes Accompanying Long-Term Synaptic Facilitation in Aplysia Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.; Kandel, Eric R.; Schacher, Samuel

    1990-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying structural changes that accompany learning and memory have been difficult to investigate in the intact nervous system. In order to make these changes more accessible for experimental analysis, dissociated cell culture and low-light-level video microscopy were used to examine Aplysia sensory neurons in the presence or absence of their target cells. Repeated applications of serotonin, a facilitating transmitter important in behavioral dishabituation and sensitization, produced growth of the sensory neurons that paralleled the long-term enhancement of synaptic strength. This growth required the presence of the postsynaptic motor neuron. Thus, both the structural changes and the synaptic facilitation of Aplysia sensorimotor synapses accompanying long-term behavioral sensitization can be produced in vitro by applying a single facilitating transmitter repeatedly. These structural changes depend on an interaction of the presynaptic neuron with an appropriate postsynaptic target.

  9. Characterization, localization and function of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the nervous systems of Aplysia and Loligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, S.S.

    1989-01-01

    The author has characterized pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the nervous systems of the gastropod mollusc Aplysia and the cephalopod Loligo using [ 32 P]ADP-ribosylation and immunoblotting with G protein specific antisera. As in vertebrates, this class of G protein is associated with membranes and enriched in nervous tissue in Aplysia. Analysis of dissected Aplysia ganglia reveal that it is enriched in neuropil, a region containing most of the central nervous system synapses. Because both Aplysia and Loligo synaptosomes are enriched in pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, it is likely that they are found in synaptic terminals. Fractionation of Aplysia synaptosomes into membrane and vesicle fractions reveals that, although the majority of G protein is recovered in the plasma membrane fraction, a small proportion is recovered in the vesicle fraction. He shows that G proteins are on intracellular membranes by ADP-ribosylating extruded axoplasm with pertussis toxin. A plausible explanation for vesicular localization of G protein in axoplasm is that G proteins are transported to terminals on vesicles. He has shown, using ligature experiments with Aplysia connectives and temperature block experiments in the giant axon of Loligo, that G proteins move by anterograde fast axonal transport. Injection of pertussis toxin into the identified Aplysia neuron L10 blocks histamine-induced presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release. This suggests that pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins play a role in modulating transmitter release at synaptic terminals. In the giant synapse of Loligo, he presents preliminary data that demonstrates that the activation of G proteins in the presynaptic terminal results in decreased transmitter release

  10. Synaptic Mechanisms of Induction and Maintenance of Long-Term Sensitization Memory in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Glanzman, DL

    2013-01-01

    The marine snail Aplysia californica exhibits a simple defensive withdrawal reflex that can undergo several forms of learning. In particular, the reflex can exhibit long-term sensitization (LTS), a form of nonassociative memory. LTS is mediated by long-term facilitation (LTF) of the monosynaptic connection between the sensory and motor neurons that mediate the withdrawal reflex. LTS and LTF represent one of the best understood model systems of long-term memory extent. Furthermore, discoveries...

  11. Acute Sleep Deprivation Blocks Short- and Long-Term Operant Memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Gandour, Catherine E; Ramos, Joshua L; Wrinkle, Mariah C; Sanchez-Pacheco, Joseph J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-12-01

    Insufficient sleep in individuals appears increasingly common due to the demands of modern work schedules and technology use. Consequently, there is a growing need to understand the interactions between sleep deprivation and memory. The current study determined the effects of acute sleep deprivation on short and long-term associative memory using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica , a relatively simple model system well known for studies of learning and memory. Aplysia were sleep deprived for 9 hours using context changes and tactile stimulation either prior to or after training for the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible (LFI). The effects of sleep deprivation on short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) were assessed. Acute sleep deprivation prior to LFI training impaired the induction of STM and LTM with persistent effects lasting at least 24 h. Sleep deprivation immediately after training blocked the consolidation of LTM. However, sleep deprivation following the period of molecular consolidation did not affect memory recall. Memory impairments were independent of handling-induced stress, as daytime handled control animals demonstrated no memory deficits. Additional training immediately after sleep deprivation failed to rescue the induction of memory, but additional training alleviated the persistent impairment in memory induction when training occurred 24 h following sleep deprivation. Acute sleep deprivation inhibited the induction and consolidation, but not the recall of memory. These behavioral studies establish Aplysia as an effective model system for studying the interactions between sleep and memory formation. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Differential activation of an identified motor neuron and neuromodulation provide Aplysia's retractor muscle an additional function.

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    McManus, Jeffrey M; Lu, Hui; Cullins, Miranda J; Chiel, Hillel J

    2014-08-15

    To survive, animals must use the same peripheral structures to perform a variety of tasks. How does a nervous system employ one muscle to perform multiple functions? We addressed this question through work on the I3 jaw muscle of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica's feeding system. This muscle mediates retraction of Aplysia's food grasper in multiple feeding responses and is innervated by a pool of identified neurons that activate different muscle regions. One I3 motor neuron, B38, is active in the protraction phase, rather than the retraction phase, suggesting the muscle has an additional function. We used intracellular, extracellular, and muscle force recordings in several in vitro preparations as well as recordings of nerve and muscle activity from intact, behaving animals to characterize B38's activation of the muscle and its activity in different behavior types. We show that B38 specifically activates the anterior region of I3 and is specifically recruited during one behavior, swallowing. The function of this protraction-phase jaw muscle contraction is to hold food; thus the I3 muscle has an additional function beyond mediating retraction. We additionally show that B38's typical activity during in vivo swallowing is insufficient to generate force in an unmodulated muscle and that intrinsic and extrinsic modulation shift the force-frequency relationship to allow contraction. Using methods that traverse levels from individual neuron to muscle to intact animal, we show how regional muscle activation, differential motor neuron recruitment, and neuromodulation are key components in Aplysia's generation of multifunctionality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Arachidonic acid-mediated inhibition of a potassium current in the giant neurons of Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.O.

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical and electrophysiological approaches were used to investigate the role of arachidonic acid (AA) in the modulation of an inwardly rectifying potassium current (I R ) in the giant neurons of the marine snail, Aplysia californica. Using [ 3 H]AA as tracer, the intracellular free AA pool in Aplysia ganglia was found to be in a state of constant and rapid turnover through deacylation and reacylation of phospholipid, primarily phosphatidyl-inositol. This constant turnover was accompanied by a constant release of free AA and eicosanoids into the extracellular medium. The effects of three pharmacological agents were characterized with regard to AA metabolism in Aplysia ganglia. 4-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), an activator of protein kinase C, stimulated liberation of AA from phospholipid, and 4-bromophenacylbromide (BPB), an inhibitor of phospholipate A 2 , inhibited this liberation. Indomethacin at 250 μM was found to inhibit uptake of AA, likely through inhibition of acyl-CoA synthetase. These agents were also found to modulate I R in ways which were consistent with their biological effects: TPA inhibited I R , and both BPB and indomethacin stimulated I R . Modulation of I R by these substances was found not to involve cAMP metabolism. Acute application of exogenous AA did not affect I R ; however, I R in giant neurons was found to be inhibited after dialysis with AA or other unsaturated fatty acids. Also, after perfusion with BSA overnight, a treatment which strips the giant neurons of AA in lipid storage, I R was found to have increased over 2-fold. This perfusion-induced increase was inhibited by the presence of AA or by pretreatment of the giant neurons with BPB. These results suggest AA, provided through constant turnover from phospholipid, mediates constitutive inhibition of I R

  14. Monitoring changes in the intracellular calcium concentration and synaptic efficacy in the mollusc Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwar, Bjoern Ch; Evans, Colin G; Cropper, Elizabeth C

    2012-07-15

    It has been suggested that changes in intracellular calcium mediate the induction of a number of important forms of synaptic plasticity (e.g., homosynaptic facilitation). These hypotheses can be tested by simultaneously monitoring changes in intracellular calcium and alterations in synaptic efficacy. We demonstrate how this can be accomplished by combining calcium imaging with intracellular recording techniques. Our experiments are conducted in a buccal ganglion of the mollusc Aplysia californica. This preparation has a number of experimentally advantageous features: Ganglia can be easily removed from Aplysia and experiments use adult neurons that make normal synaptic connections and have a normal ion channel distribution. Due to the low metabolic rate of the animal and the relatively low temperatures (14-16 °C) that are natural for Aplysia, preparations are stable for long periods of time. To detect changes in intracellular free calcium we will use the cell impermeant version of Calcium Orange which is easily 'loaded' into a neuron via iontophoresis. When this long wavelength fluorescent dye binds to calcium, fluorescence intensity increases. Calcium Orange has fast kinetic properties and, unlike ratiometric dyes (e.g., Fura 2), requires no filter wheel for imaging. It is fairly photo stable and less phototoxic than other dyes (e.g., fluo-3). Like all non-ratiometric dyes, Calcium Orange indicates relative changes in calcium concentration. But, because it is not possible to account for changes in dye concentration due to loading and diffusion, it can not be calibrated to provide absolute calcium concentrations. An upright, fixed stage, compound microscope was used to image neurons with a CCD camera capable of recording around 30 frames per second. In Aplysia this temporal resolution is more than adequate to detect even a single spike induced alteration in the intracellular calcium concentration. Sharp electrodes are simultaneously used to induce and record

  15. Multiple Memory Processes Following Training That a Food Is Inedible in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Botzer, Dina; Markovich, Silvia; Susswein, Abraham J.

    1998-01-01

    In many organisms, memory after training can be separated into a number of processes. We now report that separable memory processes are also initiated by a training procedure affecting Aplysia feeding behavior, a model system for examining the neural mechanisms underlying the regulation of a complex behavior. Four distinct memory process were identified: (1) a very short-term memory that declines within 15 min, (2) a short-term memory that persists for 0.5–1.0 hr, (3) an intermediate-term mem...

  16. Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shanping; Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Sun, Philip Y-W; Roberts, Adam C; Glanzman, David L

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Cells called neurons allow information to travel quickly around the body so that we can rapidly respond to any changes that we sense in our environment. This includes non-conscious reactions, such as the knee-jerk reflex in humans. Reflexes and other behaviors can be influenced by long-term memory, and it is thought that long-term memory is stored by changes in the synapses that connect neurons to each other. The reflexes of a sea slug known as Aplysia are often used to study mem...

  17. Comparative analysis of early ontogeny in Bursatella leachii and Aplysia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zer Vue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opisthobranch molluscs exhibit fascinating body plans associated with the evolution of shell loss in multiple lineages. Sea hares in particular are interesting because Aplysia californica is a well-studied model organism that offers a large suite of genetic tools. Bursatella leachii is a related tropical sea hare that lacks a shell as an adult and therefore lends itself to comparative analysis with A. californica. We have established an enhanced culturing procedure for B. leachii in husbandry that enabled the study of shell formation and loss in this lineage with respect to A. californica life staging.

  18. PKA and PKC Are Required for Long-Term but Not Short-Term in Vivo Operant Memory in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Maximilian; Green, Charity L.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of PKA and PKC signaling in a negatively reinforced operant learning paradigm in "Aplysia", learning that food is inedible (LFI). In vivo injection of PKA or PKC inhibitors blocked long-term LFI memory formation. Moreover, a persistent phase of PKA activity, although not PKC activity, was necessary for long-term…

  19. Transforming Growth Factor ß Recruits Persistent MAPK Signaling to Regulate Long-Term Memory Consolidation in "Aplysia Californica"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Justin; Philips, Gary T.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explore the mechanistic relationship between growth factor signaling and kinase activity that supports the protein synthesis-dependent phase of long-term memory (LTM) consolidation for sensitization of "Aplysia." Specifically, we examine LTM for tail shock-induced sensitization of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal…

  20. Role of "Aplysia" Cell Adhesion Molecules during 5-HT-Induced Long-Term Functional and Structural Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Hee; Lim, Chae-Seok; Lee, Yong-Seok; Kandel, Eric R.; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2004-01-01

    We previously reported that five repeated pulses of 5-HT lead to down-regulation of the TM-apCAM isoform at the surface of "Aplysia" sensory neurons (SNs). We here examined whether apCAM down-regulation is required for 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation. We also analyzed the role of the cytoplasmic and extracellular domains by overexpressing…

  1. Possible Contributions of a Novel Form of Synaptic Plasticity in "Aplysia" to Reward, Memory, and Their Dysfunctions in Mammalian Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in "Aplysia" have identified a new variation of synaptic plasticity in which modulatory transmitters enhance spontaneous release of glutamate, which then acts on postsynaptic receptors to recruit mechanisms of intermediate- and long-term plasticity. In this review I suggest the hypothesis that similar plasticity occurs in…

  2. Implication of Dopaminergic Modulation in Operant Reward Learning and the Induction of Compulsive-Like Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedecarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Feeding in "Aplysia" provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated…

  3. Nitric Oxide and Histamine Signal Attempts to Swallow: A Component of Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Ayelet; Miller, Nimrod; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2010-01-01

    Memory that food is inedible in "Aplysia" arises from training requiring three contingent events. Nitric oxide (NO) and histamine are released by a neuron responding to one of these events, attempts to swallow food. Since NO release during training is necessary for subsequent memory and NO substitutes for attempts to swallow, it was suggested that…

  4. Localization of Molecular Correlates of Memory Consolidation to Buccal Ganglia Mechanoafferent Neurons after Learning that Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Training paradigms affecting "Aplysia" withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of…

  5. The potential role of postsynaptic phospholipase C activity in synaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Daniel; Condro, Michael C; Pearce, Kaycey; Glanzman, David L

    2008-07-01

    Previous findings indicate that synaptic facilitation, a cellular mechanism underlying sensitization of the siphon withdrawal response (SWR) in Aplysia, depends on a cascade of postsynaptic events, including activation of inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors and release of Ca2+ from postsynaptic intracellular stores. These findings suggest that phospholipase C (PLC), the enzyme that catalyzes IP3 formation, may play an important role in postsynaptic signaling during facilitation and learning in Aplysia. Using the PLC inhibitor U73122, we found that PLC activity is required for synaptic facilitation following a 10-min treatment with 5-HT, as measured at 20 min after 5-HT washout. Prior work has indicated that facilitation at this time is supported primarily by postsynaptic processes. To determine whether postsynaptic PLC activity is involved in 5-HT-mediated facilitatory actions, we examined the effect of U73122 on enhancement of the response of motor neurons isolated in cell culture to glutamate, the sensory neuron transmitter. A 10-min application of 5-HT induced persistent (>40 min) enhancement of glutamate-evoked potentials (Glu-EPs) recorded from isolated motor neurons, and this enhancement was blocked by U73122. Finally, we showed that injecting U73122 into intact animals before behavioral training impaired intermediate-term sensitization, indicating that PLC activity contributes to this form of nonassociative learning.

  6. The Unique Propulsive Wake Pattern of the Swimming Sea Slug Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuoyu; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-11-01

    The Aplysia, also sometimes referred to as the `Sea Hare,' is a sea slug that swims elegantly using large-amplitude flapping of its mantle. The Sea Hare has become a very valuable laboratory animal for investigation into nervous systems and brain behavior due to its simple neural system with large neurons and axons. Recently, attempts have also been made to develop biohybrid robots with both organic actuation and organic motor-pattern control inspired by the locomotion of Aplysia. While extensive works have been done to investigate this animal's neurobiology, relatively little is known about its propulsive mechanisms and swimming energetics. In this study, incompressible flow simulations with a simple kinematical model are used to gain insights into vortex dynamics, thrust generation and energetics of locomotion. The effect of mantle kinematics on the propulsive performance is examined, and simulations indicate a unique vortex wake pattern that is responsible for thrust generation. The research is supported by NSF Grant PLR-1246317 and NSF XSEDE Grant TG-CTS100002.

  7. Peroxisomes in the nervous system of Aplysia californica: a cytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, M E; Holtzman, E

    1985-08-01

    We have studied the distribution of peroxisomes in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica using electron microscopic cytochemical methods. Reaction product for catalase was observed in small ovoid or dumb-bell-shaped bodies in the perikarya of many of the neurons. The abundance of these catalase-reactive peroxisomes is considerably greater than is the case in vertebrate neurons. While the non-neuronal cells of the Aplysia abdominal ganglion do contain appreciable peroxisome populations, there were few peroxisomes in glial cytoplasm directly adjacent to the perikarya, again contrasting with vertebrate ganglia in which the satellite cells are a principal site of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are present throughout the perikaryal cytoplasm. In the regions in which lipochrome granules abound, peroxisomes are frequently seen closely associated with these granules; glycogen is abundant nearby. The association of peroxisomes, lipochrome granules and glycogen is interesting in view of the propinquities of peroxisomes to lipid droplets and lipofuscin granules reported for non-neuronal vertebrate tissues, and in view of the growing evidence indicating that some of the roles of peroxisomes are in lipid metabolism and in gluconeogenesis. Some of the lipochrome granules themselves show reaction product in ganglia incubated to demonstrate catalase activity and some react in tissue incubated to demonstrate acid phosphatase activity. Such observations suggest that the enzymatic capacities of the lipochrome granules merit further studies, and that the granules may be of complex or heterogeneous nature.

  8. Swimming performance and unique wake topology of the sea hare (Aplysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuoyu; Mittal, Rajat

    2018-03-01

    The Aplysia, commonly referred to as the "sea hare," is a marine mollusc that swims using large-amplitude flapping of its wide, winglike parapodia. In this study, flow simulations with a relatively simple kinematical model are used to gain insights into the vortex dynamics, thrust generation, and energetics of locomotion for this animal. A unique vortex pattern characterized by three distinct trains of vortex ringlike structures is observed in the wake of this animal. These vortex rings are associated with a positive momentum flux in the wake that counteracts the drag generated by the body. Simulations indicate propulsive efficiencies of up to 24% and terminal swimming speeds of about 0.9 body length per cycle. Swimming speeds are found to increase with increasing parapodial flapping amplitude as well as wavelength of undulation.

  9. Habituation in the tail withdrawal reflex circuit is impaired during aging in Aplysia californica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kempsell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of putative contributors to age-related memory loss are poorly understood. The tail withdrawal circuit of the sea hare, a straightforward neural model, was used to investigate the aging characteristics of rudimentary learning. The simplicity of this neuronal circuit permits attribution of declines in the function of specific neurons to aging declines. Memory was impaired in advanced age animals compared to their performance at the peak of sexual maturity, with habituation training failing to attenuate the tail withdrawal response or to reduce tail motoneuron excitability, as occurred in peak maturity siblings. Baseline motoneuron excitability of aged animals was significantly lower, perhaps contributing to a smaller scope for attenuation. Conduction velocity in afferent fibers to tail sensory neurons decreased during aging. The findings suggest that age-related changes in tail sensory and motor neurons result in deterioration of a simple form of learning in Aplysia.

  10. Synaptic remodeling, synaptic growth and the storage of long-term memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R

    2008-01-01

    Synaptic remodeling and synaptic growth accompany various forms of long-term memory. Storage of the long-term memory for sensitization of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia has been extensively studied in this respect and is associated with the growth of new synapses by the sensory neurons onto their postsynaptic target neurons. Recent time-lapse imaging studies of living sensory-to-motor neuron synapses in culture have monitored both functional and structural changes simultaneously so as to follow remodeling and growth at the same specific synaptic connections continuously over time and to examine the functional contribution of these learning-related structural changes to the different time-dependent phases of memory storage. Insights provided by these studies suggest the synaptic differentiation and growth induced by learning in the mature nervous system are highly dynamic and often rapid processes that can recruit both molecules and mechanisms used for de novo synapse formation during development.

  11. Use of the sea hare (Aplysia fasciata) in marine pollution biomonitoring of harbors and bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirrigl, Frank J; Badaoui, Zachariah; Tamez, Carlos; Vitek, Christopher J; Parsons, Jason G

    2017-10-27

    Our study evaluated heavy metal concentrations in soft tissues of sea hare, Aplysia fasciata, from the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas. Heavy metals in tissues followed Se>As>Pb>Cd. Concentrations ranged As (BDL-28.08), Cd (BDL-5.50), Pb (BDL-12.85) and Se (4.25-93.43ppm). Median As, Cd, Pb, and Se tissue levels exceeded exposure levels. Significant relationships occurred in metal-metal (AsCd, AsPb, CdPb, CdSe, and PbSe), metal-tissue (significant Se uptake by inhalant and exhalant siphons and As in the hepatopancreas), and metal-metal within tissue (AsPb in the hepatopancreas and CdPb in the digestive cecum) analyses (pmarine pollution in harbors and bays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic sleep deprivation differentially affects short and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J; Lyons, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    The induction, formation and maintenance of memory represent dynamic processes modulated by multiple factors including the circadian clock and sleep. Chronic sleep restriction has become common in modern society due to occupational and social demands. Given the impact of cognitive impairments associated with sleep deprivation, there is a vital need for a simple animal model in which to study the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica, with its simple nervous system, nocturnal sleep pattern and well-characterized learning paradigms, to assess the effects of two chronic sleep restriction paradigms on short-term (STM) and long-term (LTM) associative memory. The effects of sleep deprivation on memory were evaluated using the operant learning paradigm, learning that food is inedible, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with failed swallowing attempts. We found that two nights of 6h sleep deprivation occurring during the first or last half of the night inhibited both STM and LTM. Moreover, the impairment in STM persisted for more than 24h. A milder, prolonged sleep deprivation paradigm consisting of 3 consecutive nights of 4h sleep deprivation also blocked STM, but had no effect on LTM. These experiments highlight differences in the sensitivity of STM and LTM to chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, these results establish Aplysia as a valid model for studying the interactions between chronic sleep deprivation and associative memory paving the way for future studies delineating the mechanisms through which sleep restriction affects memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptional regulation of long-term memory in the marine snail Aplysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yong-Seok

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whereas the induction of short-term memory involves only covalent modifications of constitutively expressed preexisting proteins, the formation of long-term memory requires gene expression, new RNA, and new protein synthesis. On the cellular level, transcriptional regulation is thought to be the starting point for a series of molecular steps necessary for both the initiation and maintenance of long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF. The core molecular features of transcriptional regulation involved in the long-term process are evolutionally conserved in Aplysia, Drosophila, and mouse, and indicate that gene regulation by the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB acting in conjunction with different combinations of transcriptional factors is critical for the expression of many forms of long-term memory. In the marine snail Aplysia, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the storage of long-term memory have been extensively studied in the monosynaptic connections between identified sensory neuron and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex. One tail shock or one pulse of serotonin (5-HT, a modulatory transmitter released by tail shocks, produces a transient facilitation mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase leading to covalent modifications in the sensory neurons that results in an enhancement of transmitter release and a strengthening of synaptic connections lasting minutes. By contrast, repeated pulses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT induce a transcription- and translation-dependent long-term facilitation (LTF lasting more than 24 h and trigger the activation of a family of transcription factors in the presynaptic sensory neurons including ApCREB1, ApCREB2 and ApC/EBP. In addition, we have recently identified novel transcription factors that modulate the expression of ApC/EBP and also are critically involved in LTF. In this review, we examine the roles of these transcription factors during consolidation of LTF induced

  14. Transcriptional regulation of long-term memory in the marine snail Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Seok; Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2008-06-17

    Whereas the induction of short-term memory involves only covalent modifications of constitutively expressed preexisting proteins, the formation of long-term memory requires gene expression, new RNA, and new protein synthesis. On the cellular level, transcriptional regulation is thought to be the starting point for a series of molecular steps necessary for both the initiation and maintenance of long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF). The core molecular features of transcriptional regulation involved in the long-term process are evolutionally conserved in Aplysia, Drosophila, and mouse, and indicate that gene regulation by the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) acting in conjunction with different combinations of transcriptional factors is critical for the expression of many forms of long-term memory. In the marine snail Aplysia, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the storage of long-term memory have been extensively studied in the monosynaptic connections between identified sensory neuron and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex. One tail shock or one pulse of serotonin (5-HT), a modulatory transmitter released by tail shocks, produces a transient facilitation mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase leading to covalent modifications in the sensory neurons that results in an enhancement of transmitter release and a strengthening of synaptic connections lasting minutes. By contrast, repeated pulses of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) induce a transcription- and translation-dependent long-term facilitation (LTF) lasting more than 24 h and trigger the activation of a family of transcription factors in the presynaptic sensory neurons including ApCREB1, ApCREB2 and ApC/EBP. In addition, we have recently identified novel transcription factors that modulate the expression of ApC/EBP and also are critically involved in LTF. In this review, we examine the roles of these transcription factors during consolidation of LTF induced by different

  15. Sea Hare Aplysia punctata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Can Maintain Shell Calcification under Extreme Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Dupont, Sam; Sigwart, Julia D

    2016-10-01

    Ocean acidification is expected to cause energetic constraints upon marine calcifying organisms such as molluscs and echinoderms, because of the increased costs of building or maintaining shell material in lower pH. We examined metabolic rate, shell morphometry, and calcification in the sea hare Aplysia punctata under short-term exposure (19 days) to an extreme ocean acidification scenario (pH 7.3, ∼2800 μatm pCO 2 ), along with a group held in control conditions (pH 8.1, ∼344 μatm pCO 2 ). This gastropod and its congeners are broadly distributed and locally abundant grazers, and have an internal shell that protects the internal organs. Specimens were examined for metabolic rate via closed-chamber respirometry, followed by removal and examination of the shell under confocal microscopy. Staining using calcein determined the amount of new calcification that occurred over 6 days at the end of the acclimation period. The width of new, pre-calcified shell on the distal shell margin was also quantified as a proxy for overall shell growth. Aplysia punctata showed a 30% reduction in metabolic rate under low pH, but calcification was not affected. This species is apparently able to maintain calcification rate even under extreme low pH, and even when under the energetic constraints of lower metabolism. This finding adds to the evidence that calcification is a largely autonomous process of crystallization that occurs as long as suitable haeomocoel conditions are preserved. There was, however, evidence that the accretion of new, noncalcified shell material may have been reduced, which would lead to overall reduced shell growth under longer-term exposures to low pH independent of calcification. Our findings highlight that the chief impact of ocean acidification upon the ability of marine invertebrates to maintain their shell under low pH may be energetic constraints that hinder growth of supporting structure, rather than maintenance of calcification.

  16. Age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity rescued by activating PKA or PKC in sensory neurons of Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempsell, Andrew T; Fieber, Lynne A

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is associated with declines in synaptic function that contribute to memory loss, including reduced postsynaptic response to neurotransmitters and decreased neuronal excitability. To understand how aging affects memory in a simple neural circuit, we studied neuronal proxies of memory for sensitization in mature vs. advanced age Aplysia californica (Aplysia). L-Glutamate- (L-Glu-) evoked excitatory currents were facilitated by the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT) in sensory neurons (SN) isolated from mature but not aged animals. Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling rescued facilitation of L-Glu currents in aged SN. Similarly, PKA and PKC activators restored increased excitability in aged tail SN. These results suggest that altered synaptic plasticity during aging involves defects in second messenger systems.

  17. Long-term memory in Aplysia modulates the total number of varicosities of single identified sensory neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, C H; Chen, M

    1988-01-01

    The morphological consequences of long-term habituation and sensitization of the gill withdrawal reflex in Aplysia california were explored by examining the total number of presynaptic varicosities of single identified sensory neurons (a critical site of plasticity for the biochemical and biophysical changes that underlie both types of learning) in control and behaviorally trained animals. Sensory neurons from habituated animals had 35% fewer synaptic varicosities than did sensory neurons fro...

  18. Neurexin-Neuroligin Transsynaptic Interaction Mediates Learning-Related Synaptic Remodeling and Long-Term Facilitation in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Beom; Li, Hsiu-Ling; Kassabov, Stefan R.; Jin, Iksung; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.; Karl, Kevin A.; Lu, Yang; Kim, Joung-Hun; Bailey, Craig H.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Neurexin and neuroligin, which undergo heterophilic interactions with each other at the synapse, are mutated in some patients with autism spectrum disorder, a set of disorders characterized by deficits in social and emotional learning. We have explored the role of neurexin and neuroligin at sensory-to-motor neuron synapses of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia that undergoes sensitization, a simple form of learned fear. We find that depleting neurexin in the presynaptic sensory neuron or n...

  19. Investigating the Potential Signaling Pathways That Regulate Activation of the Novel PKC Downstream of Serotonin in Aplysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole A Farah

    Full Text Available Activation of the novel PKC Apl II in sensory neurons by serotonin (5HT underlies the ability of 5HT to reverse synaptic depression, but the pathway from 5HT to PKC Apl II activation remains unclear. Here we find no evidence for the Aplysia-specific B receptors, or for adenylate cyclase activation, to translocate fluorescently-tagged PKC Apl II. Using an anti-PKC Apl II antibody, we monitor translocation of endogenous PKC Apl II and determine the dose response for PKC Apl II translocation, both in isolated sensory neurons and sensory neurons coupled with motor neurons. Using this assay, we confirm an important role for tyrosine kinase activation in 5HT mediated PKC Apl II translocation, but rule out roles for intracellular tyrosine kinases, epidermal growth factor (EGF receptors and Trk kinases in this response. A partial inhibition of translocation by a fibroblast growth factor (FGF-receptor inhibitor led us to clone the Aplysia FGF receptor. Since a number of related receptors have been recently characterized, we use bioinformatics to define the relationship between these receptors and find a single FGF receptor orthologue in Aplysia. However, expression of the FGF receptor did not affect translocation or allow it in motor neurons where 5HT does not normally cause PKC Apl II translocation. These results suggest that additional receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs or other molecules must also be involved in translocation of PKC Apl II.

  20. Huntingtin is critical both pre- and postsynaptically for long-term learning-related synaptic plasticity in Aplysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Beom Choi

    Full Text Available Patients with Huntington's disease exhibit memory and cognitive deficits many years before manifesting motor disturbances. Similarly, several studies have shown that deficits in long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular basis of memory formation and storage, occur well before motor disturbances in the hippocampus of the transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease. The autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of Huntington's disease suggests the importance of the mutant protein, huntingtin, in pathogenesis of Huntington's disease, but wild type huntingtin also has been shown to be important for neuronal functions such as axonal transport. Yet, the role of wild type huntingtin in long-term synaptic plasticity has not been investigated in detail. We identified a huntingtin homolog in the marine snail Aplysia, and find that similar to the expression pattern in mammalian brain, huntingtin is widely expressed in neurons and glial cells. Importantly the expression of mRNAs of huntingtin is upregulated by repeated applications of serotonin, a modulatory transmitter released during learning in Aplysia. Furthermore, we find that huntingtin expression levels are critical, not only in presynaptic sensory neurons, but also in the postsynaptic motor neurons for serotonin-induced long-term facilitation at the sensory-to-motor neuron synapse of the Aplysia gill-withdrawal reflex. These results suggest a key role for huntingtin in long-term memory storage.

  1. Expression of diverse neuropeptide cotransmitters by identified motor neurons in Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, P.J.; Lloyd, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    Neuropeptide synthesis was determined for individual identified ventral-cluster neurons in the buccal ganglia of Aplysia. Each of these cells was shown to be a motor neuron that innervates buccal muscles that generate biting and swallowing movements during feeding. Individual neurons were identified by a battery of physiological criteria and stained with intracellular injection of a vital dye, and the ganglia were incubated in 35S-methionine. Peptide synthesis was determined by measuring labeled peptides in extracts from individually dissected neuronal cell bodies analyzed by HPLC. Previously characterized peptides found to be synthesized included buccalin, FMRFamide, myomodulin, and the 2 small cardioactive peptides (SCPs). Each of these neuropeptides has been shown to modulate buccal muscle responses to motor neuron stimulation. Two other peptides were found to be synthesized in individual motor neurons. One peptide, which was consistently observed in neurons that also synthesized myomodulin, is likely to be the recently sequenced myomodulin B. The other peptide was observed in a subset of the neurons that synthesize FMRFamide. While identified motor neurons consistently synthesized the same peptide(s), neurons that innervate the same muscle often express different peptides. Neurons that synthesized the SCPs also contained SCP-like activity, as determined by snail heart bioassay. Our results indicate that every identified motor neuron synthesizes a subset of these methionine-containing peptides, and that several neurons consistently synthesize peptides that are likely to be processed from multiple precursors

  2. Effective amino acid composition of seaweeds inducing food preference behaviors in Aplysia kurodai.

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    Nagahama, Tatsumi; Fujimoto, Kiyo; Takami, Shigemi; Kinugawa, Aiko; Narusuye, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    Aplysia kurodai feeds on Ulva but rejects Gelidium and Pachydictyon with distinct patterned jaw movements. We previously demonstrated that these movements are induced by taste alone. Thus some chemicals may contribute to induction of these responses. We explored the amino acids composition of Ulva, Gelidium and Pachydictyon extracts used during our taste-induced physiological experiments. These solutions contained many constituents. The concentrations of six amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Phe, Tau) were obviously different in the three extract solutions. We explored patterned jaw movements following application of solutions containing a pure amino acid. We statistically compared the occurrence numbers of ingestion-like and rejection-like patterned jaw movements (positive and negative values, respectively) for each amino acid. Our results suggested that L-Asn tends to induce ingestion-like responses, likely resulting in a preference of Ulva. In contrast, L-Asp tends to induce rejection-like responses, likely resulting in aversion towards Pachydictyon. In addition, we demonstrated that L-Asn and L-Asp solutions were sufficient to induce muscle activity associated with ingestion-like or rejection-like responses in the jaw muscles of a semi-intact preparation.

  3. Developmental emergence of different forms of neuromodulation in Aplysia sensory neurons.

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    Marcus, E A; Carew, T J

    1998-04-14

    The capacity for neuromodulation and biophysical plasticity is a defining feature of most mature neuronal cell types. In several cases, modulation at the level of the individual neuron has been causally linked to changes in the functional output of a neuronal circuit and subsequent adaptive changes in the organism's behavioral responses. Understanding how such capacity for neuromodulation develops therefore may provide insights into the mechanisms both of neuronal development and learning and memory. We have examined the development of multiple forms of neuromodulation triggered by a common neurotransmitter, serotonin, in the pleural sensory neurons of Aplysia californica. We have found that multiple signaling cascades within a single neuron develop sequentially, with some being expressed only very late in development. In addition, our data suggest a model in which, within a single neuromodulatory pathway, the elements of the signaling cascade are developmentally expressed in a "retrograde" manner with the ionic channel that is modulated appearing early in development, functional elements in the second messenger cascade appearing later, and finally, coupling of the second messenger cascade to the serotonin receptor appearing quite late. These studies provide the characterization of the development of neuromodulation at the level of an identified cell type and offer insights into the potential roles of neuromodulatory processes in development and adult plasticity.

  4. Reinstatement of long-term memory following erasure of its behavioral and synaptic expression in Aplysia.

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    Chen, Shanping; Cai, Diancai; Pearce, Kaycey; Sun, Philip Y-W; Roberts, Adam C; Glanzman, David L

    2014-11-17

    Long-term memory (LTM) is believed to be stored in the brain as changes in synaptic connections. Here, we show that LTM storage and synaptic change can be dissociated. Cocultures of Aplysia sensory and motor neurons were trained with spaced pulses of serotonin, which induces long-term facilitation. Serotonin (5HT) triggered growth of new presynaptic varicosities, a synaptic mechanism of long-term sensitization. Following 5HT training, two antimnemonic treatments-reconsolidation blockade and inhibition of PKM--caused the number of presynaptic varicosities to revert to the original, pretraining value. Surprisingly, the final synaptic structure was not achieved by targeted retraction of the 5HT-induced varicosities but, rather, by an apparently arbitrary retraction of both 5HT-induced and original synapses. In addition, we find evidence that the LTM for sensitization persists covertly after its apparent elimination by the same antimnemonic treatments that erase learning-related synaptic growth. These results challenge the idea that stable synapses store long-term memories.

  5. Efficient Expression of Acetylcholine-Binding Protein from Aplysia californica in Bac-to-Bac System

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    Bo Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system can efficiently produce recombinant proteins, but the system may have to be optimized to achieve high-level expression for different candidate proteins. We reported here the efficient expression of acetylcholine-binding proteins from sea hares Aplysia californica (Ac-AChBP and a convenient method to monitor protein expression level in this expression system. Three key factors affecting expression of Ac-AChBP were optimized for maximizing the yield, which included the cell density, volume of the infecting baculovirus inoculums, and the culturing time of postinfection. We have found it to reach a high yield of ∼5 mg/L, which needs 55 h incubation after infection at the cell density of 2 × 106 cells/mL with an inoculum volume ratio of 1 : 100. The optimized expression system in this study was also applied for expressing another protein Ls-AChBP from Lymnaea stagnalis successfully. Therefore, this established method is helpful to produce high yields of AChBP proteins for X-ray crystallographic structural and functional studies.

  6. Responses of cerebral GABA-containing CBM neuron to taste stimulation with seaweed extracts in Aplysia kurodai.

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    Narusuye, Kenji; Kinugawa, Aiko; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2005-11-01

    Aplysia kurodai distributed along Japan feeds well on Ulva pertusa but rejects Gelidium amansii with distinctive patterned movements of the jaws and radula. On the ventral side of the cerebral M cluster, four cell bodies of higher order neurons that send axons to the buccal ganglia are distributed (CBM neurons). We have previously shown that the dopaminergic CBM1 modulates basic feeding circuits in the buccal ganglia for rejection by firing at higher frequency after application of the aversive taste of seaweed such as Gelidium amansii. In the present experiments immunohistochemical techniques showed that the CBM3 exhibited gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactivity. The CBM3 may be equivalent to the CBI-3 involved in changing the motor programs from rejection to ingestion in Aplysia californica. The responses of the CBM3 to taste stimulation of the lips with seaweed extracts were investigated by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically introduced into a cell body of the CBM3 using a microelectrode. Application of Ulva pertusa or Gelidium amansii extract induced different changes in fluorescence in the CBM3 cell body, indicating that taste of Ulva pertusa initially induced longer-lasting continuous spike responses at slightly higher frequency compared with that of Gelidium amansii. Considering a role of the CBM3 in the pattern selection, these results suggest that elongation of the initial firing response may be a major factor for the CBM3 to switch the buccal motor programs from rejection to ingestion after application of different tastes of seaweeds in Aplysia kurodai. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Immediate and persistent transcriptional correlates of long-term sensitization training at different CNS loci in Aplysia californica.

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    Samantha Herdegen

    Full Text Available Repeated noxious stimulation produces long-term sensitization of defensive withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia californica, a form of long-term memory that requires changes in both transcription and translation. Previous work has identified 10 transcripts which are rapidly up-regulated after long-term sensitization training in the pleural ganglia. Here we use quantitative PCR to begin examining how these transcriptional changes are expressed in different CNS loci related to defensive withdrawal reflexes at 1 and 24 hours after long-term sensitization training. Specifically, we sample from a the sensory wedge of the pleural ganglia, which exclusively contains the VC nociceptor cell bodies that help mediate input to defensive withdrawal circuits, b the remaining pleural ganglia, which contain withdrawal interneurons, and c the pedal ganglia, which contain many motor neurons. Results from the VC cluster show different temporal patterns of regulation: 1 rapid but transient up-regulation of Aplysia homologs of C/EBP, C/EBPγ, and CREB1, 2 delayed but sustained up-regulation of BiP, Tolloid/BMP-1, and sensorin, 3 rapid and sustained up-regulation of Egr, GlyT2, VPS36, and an uncharacterized protein (LOC101862095, and 4 an unexpected lack of regulation of Aplysia homologs of calmodulin (CaM and reductase-related protein (RRP. Changes in the remaining pleural ganglia mirror those found in the VC cluster at 1 hour but with an attenuated level of regulation. Because these samples had almost no expression of the VC-specific transcript sensorin, our data suggests that sensitization training likely induces transcriptional changes in either defensive withdrawal interneurons or neurons unrelated to defensive withdrawal. In the pedal ganglia, we observed only a rapid but transient increase in Egr expression, indicating that long-term sensitization training is likely to induce transcriptional changes in motor neurons but raising the possibility of different

  8. Long-Term Sensitization Training in "Aplysia" Decreases the Excitability of a Decision-Making Neuron through a Sodium-Dependent Mechanism

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    Hernandez, John S.; Wainwright, Marcy L.; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    In "Aplysia," long-term sensitization (LTS) occurs concurrently with a suppression of feeding. At the cellular level, the suppression of feeding is accompanied by decreased excitability of decision-making neuron B51. We examined the contribution of voltage-gated Na[superscript +] and K[superscript +] channels to B51 decreased…

  9. Molecular Correlates of Separate Components of Training That Contribute to Long-Term Memory Formation after Learning That Food Is Inedible in "Aplysia"

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    Briskin-Luchinsky, Valeria; Levy, Roi; Halfon, Maayan; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2018-01-01

    Training "Aplysia" with inedible food for a period that is too brief to produce long-term memory becomes effective in producing memory when training is paired with a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Lip stimulation for the same period of time paired with an NO donor is ineffective. Using qPCR, we examined molecular correlates of brief training…

  10. Multiple neuropeptides in cholinergic motor neurons of Aplysia: evidence for modulation intrinsic to the motor circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cropper, E.C.; Lloyd, P.E.; Reed, W.; Tenenbaum, R.; Kupfermann, I.; Weiss, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in Aplysia biting responses during food arousal are partially mediated by the serotonergic metacerebral cells (MCCs). The MCCs potentiate contractions of a muscle utilized in biting, the accessory radula closer (ARCM), when contractions are elicited by stimulation of either of the two cholinergic motor neurons B15 or B16 that innervate the muscle. The authors have now shown that ARCM contractions may also be potentiated by peptide cotransmitters in the ARCM motor neurons. They found that motor neuron B15 contains small cardioactive peptides A and B (SCP/sub A/ and SCP/sub B/) i.e., whole B15 neurons were bioactive on the SCP-sensitive Helix heart, as were reverse-phase HPLC fractions of B15 neurons that eluted like synthetic SCP/sub A/ and SCP/sub B/. Furthermore, [ 35 S]methionine-labeled B15 peptides precisely coeluted with synthetic SCP/sub A/ and SCP/sub B/. SCP/sub B/-like immunoreactivity was associated with dense-core vesicles in the soma of B15 and in neuritic varicosities and terminals in the ARCM. B16 motor neurons did not contain SCP/sub A/ or SCP/sub B/ but contained an unidentified bioactive peptide. RP-HPLC of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled B16s resulted in one major peak of radioactivity that did not coelute with either SCP and which, when subject to Edman degradation, yielded [ 35 S]methionine in positions where there is no methionine in the SCPs. Exogenously applied B16 peptide potentiated ARCM contractions elicited by stimulation of B15 or B16 neurons. Thus, in this system there appear to be two types of modulation; one type arises from the MCCs and is extrinsic to the motor system, whereas the second type arises from the motor neurons themselves and hence is intrinsic

  11. Possible contributions of a novel form of synaptic plasticity in Aplysia to reward, memory, and their dysfunctions in mammalian brain.

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    Hawkins, Robert D

    2013-09-18

    Recent studies in Aplysia have identified a new variation of synaptic plasticity in which modulatory transmitters enhance spontaneous release of glutamate, which then acts on postsynaptic receptors to recruit mechanisms of intermediate- and long-term plasticity. In this review I suggest the hypothesis that similar plasticity occurs in mammals, where it may contribute to reward, memory, and their dysfunctions in several psychiatric disorders. In Aplysia, spontaneous release is enhanced by activation of presynaptic serotonin receptors, but presynaptic D1 dopamine receptors or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors could play a similar role in mammals. Those receptors enhance spontaneous release of glutamate in hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens. In all of those brain areas, glutamate can activate postsynaptic receptors to elevate Ca(2+) and engage mechanisms of early-phase long-term potentiation (LTP), including AMPA receptor insertion, and of late-phase LTP, including protein synthesis and growth. Thus, presynaptic receptors and spontaneous release may contribute to postsynaptic mechanisms of plasticity in brain regions involved in reward and memory, and could play roles in disorders that affect plasticity in those regions, including addiction, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  12. Asymmetric localization of natural antisense RNA of neuropeptide sensorin in Aplysia sensory neurons during aging and activity

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    Beena eKadakkuzha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in our understanding of transcriptome, regulation and function of its noncoding components continue to be poorly understood. Here we searched for natural antisense transcript for sensorin (NAT-SRN, a neuropeptide expressed in the presynaptic sensory neurons of gill-withdrawal reflex of the marine snail Aplysia californica. Sensorin (SRN has a key role in learning and long-term memory storage in Aplysia. We have identified NAT-SRN in the central nervous system (CNS and have confirmed its expression by northern blotting and fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis of NAT-SRN in micro dissected cell bodies and processes of sensory neurons suggest that NAT-SRN is present in the distal neuronal processes along with sense transcripts. Importantly, aging is associated with reduced levels of NAT-SRN in sensory neuron processes. Furthermore, we find that forskolin, an activator of CREB signaling, differentially alters the distribution of SRN and NAT-SRN. These studies reveal novel insights into physiological regulation of natural antisense RNAs.

  13. A cellular model of memory reconsolidation involves reactivation-induced destabilization and restabilization at the sensorimotor synapse in Aplysia.

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    Lee, Sue-Hyun; Kwak, Chuljung; Shim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Sun-Lim; Kim, Hyoung F; Jang, Deok-Jin; Lee, Jin-A; Lee, Kyungmin; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don; Miniaci, Maria Concetta; Bailey, Craig H; Kandel, Eric R; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2012-08-28

    The memory reconsolidation hypothesis suggests that a memory trace becomes labile after retrieval and needs to be reconsolidated before it can be stabilized. However, it is unclear from earlier studies whether the same synapses involved in encoding the memory trace are those that are destabilized and restabilized after the synaptic reactivation that accompanies memory retrieval, or whether new and different synapses are recruited. To address this issue, we studied a simple nonassociative form of memory, long-term sensitization of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia, and its cellular analog, long-term facilitation at the sensory-to-motor neuron synapse. We found that after memory retrieval, behavioral long-term sensitization in Aplysia becomes labile via ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent protein degradation and is reconsolidated by means of de novo protein synthesis. In parallel, we found that on the cellular level, long-term facilitation at the sensory-to-motor neuron synapse that mediates long-term sensitization is also destabilized by protein degradation and is restabilized by protein synthesis after synaptic reactivation, a procedure that parallels memory retrieval or retraining evident on the behavioral level. These results provide direct evidence that the same synapses that store the long-term memory trace encoded by changes in the strength of synaptic connections critical for sensitization are disrupted and reconstructed after signal retrieval.

  14. Asymmetric localization of natural antisense RNA of neuropeptide sensorin in Aplysia sensory neurons during aging and activity.

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    Kadakkuzha, Beena M; Liu, Xin-An; Narvaez, Maria; Kaye, Alexandra; Akhmedov, Komolitdin; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V

    2014-01-01

    Despite the advances in our understanding of transcriptome, regulation and function of its non-coding components continue to be poorly understood. Here we searched for natural antisense transcript for sensorin (NAT-SRN), a neuropeptide expressed in the presynaptic sensory neurons of gill-withdrawal reflex of the marine snail Aplysia californica. Sensorin (SRN) has a key role in learning and long-term memory storage in Aplysia. We have now identified NAT-SRN in the central nervous system (CNS) and have confirmed its expression by northern blotting and fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis of NAT-SRN in micro-dissected cell bodies and processes of sensory neurons suggest that NAT-SRN is present in the distal neuronal processes along with sense transcripts. Importantly, aging is associated with reduction in levels of NAT-SRN in sensory neuron processes. Furthermore, we find that forskolin, an activator of CREB signaling, differentially alters the distribution of SRN and NAT-SRN. These studies reveal novel insights into physiological regulation of natural antisense RNAs.

  15. Cerebral CBM1 neuron contributes to synaptic modulation appearing during rejection of seaweed in Aplysia kurodai.

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    Narusuye, Kenji; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2002-11-01

    The Japanese species Aplysia kurodai feeds well on Ulva but rejects Gelidium with distinctive rhythmic patterned movements of the jaws and radula. We have previously shown that the patterned jaw movements during the rejection of Gelidium might be caused by long-lasting suppression of the monosynaptic transmission from the multiaction MA neurons to the jaw-closing (JC) motor neurons in the buccal ganglia and that the modulation might be directly produced by some cerebral neurons. In the present paper, we have identified a pair of catecholaminergic neurons (CBM1) in bilateral cerebral M clusters. The CBM1, probably equivalent to CBI-1 in A. californica, simultaneously produced monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the MA and JC neurons. Firing of the CBM1 reduced the size of the inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the JC neuron, evoked by the MA spikes, for >100 s. Moreover, the application of dopamine mimicked the CBM1 modulatory effects and pretreatment with a D1 antagonist, SCH23390, blocked the modulatory effects induced by dopamine. It could also largely block the modulatory effects induced by the CBM1 firing. These results suggest that the CBM1 may directly modulate the synaptic transmission by releasing dopamine. Moreover, we explored the CBM1 spike activity induced by taste stimulation of the animal lips with seaweed extracts by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically loaded into a cell body of the CBM1 using a microelectrode. Application of either Ulva or Gelidium extract to the lips increased the fluorescence intensity, but the Gelidium extract always induced a larger change in fluorescence compared with the Ulva extract, although the solution used induced the maximum spike responses of the CBM1 for each of the seaweed extracts. When the firing frequency of the CBM1 activity after taste stimulation was estimated, the Gelidium extract induced a spike activity of ~30 spikes

  16. Age-related deficits in synaptic plasticity rescued by activating PKA or PKC in sensory neurons of Aplysia californica

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    Andrew T Kempsell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is associated with declines in synaptic function that contribute to memory loss, including reduced postsynaptic response to neurotransmitters and decreased neuronal excitability. To understand how aging affects memory in a simple neural circuit, we studied neuronal proxies of memory for sensitization in mature versus advanced age Aplysia. Glutamate- (L-Glu- evoked excitatory currents were facilitated by the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT in sensory neurons (SN isolated from mature but not aged animals. Activation of PKA and PKC signaling rescued facilitation of L-Glu currents in aged SN. Similarly, PKA and PKC activators restored increased excitability in aged tail SN. These results suggest that altered synaptic plasticity during aging involves defects in second messenger systems

  17. Monosynaptic connections made by the sensory neurons of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia participate in the storage of long-term memory for sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, William N.; Castellucci, Vincent F.; Hawkins, Robert D.; Kandel, Eric R.

    1985-01-01

    We have found that in the gill- and siphon- withdrawal reflex of Aplysia, the memory for short-term sensitization grades smoothly into long-term memory with increased amounts of sensitization training. One cellular locus for the storage of the memory underlying short-term sensitization is the set of monosynaptic connections between the siphon sensory cells and the gill and siphon motor neurons. We have now also found that these same monosynaptic connections participate in the storage of the m...

  18. Characterization of GdFFD, a d-Amino Acid-containing Neuropeptide That Functions as an Extrinsic Modulator of the Aplysia Feeding Circuit*

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    Bai, Lu; Livnat, Itamar; Romanova, Elena V.; Alexeeva, Vera; Yau, Peter M.; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.; Jing, Jian; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    During eukaryotic translation, peptides/proteins are created using l-amino acids. However, a d-amino acid-containing peptide (DAACP) can be produced through post-translational modification via an isomerase enzyme. General approaches to identify novel DAACPs and investigate their function, particularly in specific neural circuits, are lacking. This is primarily due to the difficulty in characterizing this modification and due to the limited information on neural circuits in most species. We describe a multipronged approach to overcome these limitations using the sea slug Aplysia californica. Based on bioinformatics and homology to known DAACPs in the land snail Achatina fulica, we targeted two predicted peptides in Aplysia, GFFD, similar to achatin-I (GdFAD versus GFAD, where dF stands for d-phenylalanine), and YAEFLa, identical to fulyal (YdAEFLa versus YAEFLa), using stereoselective analytical methods, i.e. MALDI MS fragmentation analysis and LC-MS/MS. Although YAEFLa in Aplysia was detected only in an all l-form, we found that both GFFD and GdFFD were present in the Aplysia CNS. In situ hybridization and immunolabeling of GFFD/GdFFD-positive neurons and fibers suggested that GFFD/GdFFD might act as an extrinsic modulator of the feeding circuit. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that GdFFD induced robust activity in the feeding circuit and elicited egestive motor patterns. In contrast, the peptide consisting of all l-amino acids, GFFD, was not bioactive. Our data indicate that the modification of an l-amino acid-containing neuropeptide to a DAACP is essential for peptide bioactivity in a motor circuit, and thus it provides a functional significance to this modification. PMID:24078634

  19. Toxic, antimicrobial and hemagglutinating activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828

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    Melo V.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, hemagglutinating and toxic activities of the purple fluid of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela are described. Intact or dialyzed purple fluid inhibited the growth of species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the action was not bactericidal but bacteriostatic. The active factor or factors were heat labile and sensitive to extreme pH values. The fluid preferentially agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes and, to a lesser extent, human blood cells, and this activity was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, a fact suggesting the presence of a lectin. The fluid was also toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (LD50 141.25 µg protein/ml and to mice injected intraperitoneally (LD50 201.8 ± 8.6 mg protein/kg, in a dose-dependent fashion. These toxic activities were abolished when the fluid was heated. Taken together, the data suggest that the activities of the purple fluid are due primarily to substance(s of a protein nature which may be involved in the chemical defense mechanism of this sea hare.

  20. Acidity enhances the effectiveness of active chemical defensive secretions of sea hares, Aplysia californica, against spiny lobsters, Panulirus interruptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Shkelzen; Yaldiz, Seymanur; Vu, Luan; Derby, Charles D

    2007-12-01

    Sea hares such as Aplysia californica, gastropod molluscs lacking a protective shell, can release a purple cloud of chemicals when vigorously attacked by predators. This active chemical defense is composed of two glandular secretions, ink and opaline, both of which contain an array of compounds. This secretion defends sea hares against predators such as California spiny lobsters Panulirus interruptus via multiple mechanisms, one of which is phagomimicry, in which secretions containing feeding chemicals attract and distract predators toward the secretion and away from the sea hare. We show here that ink and opaline are highly acidic, both having a pH of approximately 5. We examined if the acidity of ink and opaline affects their phagomimetic properties. We tested behavioral and electrophysiological responses of chemoreceptor neurons in the olfactory and gustatory organs of P. interruptus, to ink and opaline of A. californica within their natural range of pH values, from approximately 5 to 8. Both behavioral and electrophysiological responses to ink and opaline were enhanced at low pH, and low pH alone accounted for most of this effect. Our data suggest that acidity enhances the phagomimetic chemical defense of sea hares.

  1. A Single Aplysia Neurotrophin Mediates Synaptic Facilitation via Differentially Processed Isoforms Secreted as Mature or Precursor Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassabov, Stefan R.; Choi, Yun-Beom; Karl, Kevin A.; Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Bailey, Craig H.; Kandel, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neurotrophins control the development and adult plasticity of the vertebrate nervous system. Failure to identify invertebrate neurotrophin orthologs, however, has precluded studies in invertebrate models, limiting understanding of fundamental aspects of neurotrophin biology and function. We identified a neurotrophin (ApNT) and Trk receptor (ApTrk) in the mollusk Aplysia and find they play a central role in learning related synaptic plasticity. ApNT increases the magnitude and lowers the threshold for induction of long-term facilitation and initiates the growth of new synaptic varicosities at the monosynaptic connection between sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex. Unlike vertebrate neurotrophins, ApNT has multiple coding exons and exerts distinct synaptic effects through differentially processed and secreted splice isoforms. Our findings demonstrate the existence of bona-fide neurotrophin signaling in invertebrates and reveal a novel, post-transcriptional mechanism, regulating neurotrophin processing and the release of pro- and mature neurotrophins which differentially modulate synaptic plasticity. PMID:23562154

  2. The role of arachidonic acid metabolites in signal transduction in an identified neural network mediating presynaptic inhibition in Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, E.; Piomelli, D.; Feinmark, S.; Vogel, S.; Chin, G.; Schwartz, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a form of signal transduction that results in the biochemical control of neuronal excitability. Many neurotransmitters act through second messengers, and the examination of biochemical cascades initiated by neurotransmitter-receptor interaction has advanced the understanding of how information is acquired and stored in the nervous system. For example, 5-HT and other facilitory transmitters increase cAMP in sensory neurons of Aplysia, which enhances excitability and facilitates transmitter output. The authors have examined the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in a neuronal circuit mediating presynaptic inhibition. L32 cells are a cluster of putative histaminergic neurons that each make dual-action synaptic potentials onto two follower neurons, L10 and L14. The synaptic connections, biophysical properties, and roles in behavior of the L10 and L14 follower cells have been well studied. The types of ion channels causing each component of the L32-L10 and L32-L14 dual actions have been characterized and application of histamine mimics the effects of stimulating L32 in both L10 and L14

  3. Release properties of individual presynaptic boutons expressed during homosynaptic depression and heterosynaptic facilitation of the Aplysia sensorimotor synapse

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    Guy eMalkinson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Much of what we know about the mechanisms underlying Homosynaptic Depression (HSD and heterosynaptic facilitation is based on intracellular recordings of integrated postsynaptic potentials. This methodological approach views the presynaptic apparatus as a single compartment rather than taking a more realistic representation reflecting the fact that it is made up of tens to hundreds of individual and independent Presynaptic Release Boutons (PRBs. Using cultured Aplysia sensorimotor synapses, we reexamined HSD and its dishabituation by imaging the release properties of individual PRBs. We find that the PRB population is heterogeneous and can be clustered into three groups: approximately 25% of the PRBs consistently release neurotransmitter throughout the entire habituation paradigm (35 stimuli, 0.05Hz and have a relatively high quantal content, 36% of the PRBs display intermittent failures only after the tenth stimulation, and 39% are low quantal-content PRBs that exhibit intermittent release failures from the onset of the habituation paradigm. 5HT-induced synaptic dishabituation by a single 5HT application was generated by the enhanced recovery of the quantal content of the habituated PRBs and did not involve the recruitment of new release boutons. The characterization of the PRB population as heterogeneous in terms of its temporal pattern of release-probability and quantal content provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying HSD and its dishabituation.

  4. Differential effects of ionizing radiation on the circadian oscillator and other functions in the eye of Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolum, J.C.; Strumwasser, F.

    1980-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been used to selectively separate the circadian oscillator function of the eye of Aplysia from some of its other functions-synchronous compound action potential (CAP) generation, the light response, synaptic transmission between photoreceptors and output neurons, and the bursting pacemaker mechanism. Doses of 4-krad (50 kV peak) x-rays have a minimal effect on the circadian rhythm of CAP frequency, measured from the optic nerve, whereas irradiation with a 40-krad dose abolishes the rhythm without affecting any of the four other functions of this eye. We estimate a 50% survival of the oscillator function at doses of about 6 krad. The results, including those from selective irradiation of the anterior or posterior poles of the eye, suggest that there are a number of circadian oscillators in the eye-most of them in the posterior portion near the optic nerve. An approximate target size has been obtained from target theory, approx. =10 8 A 3 , which is somewhat larger than the target size for viral infectivity function, as one example. However, this approximate target size and the fact that recovery or repair can occur in vivo suggest that the oscillator may involve nucleic acid molecules

  5. Differential role of calpain-dependent protein cleavage in intermediate and long-term operant memory in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lisa C; Gardner, Jacob S; Lentsch, Cassidy T; Gandour, Catherine E; Krishnan, Harini C; Noakes, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    In addition to protein synthesis, protein degradation or protein cleavage may be necessary for intermediate (ITM) and long-term memory (LTM) to remove molecular constraints, facilitate persistent kinase activity and modulate synaptic plasticity. Calpains, a family of conserved calcium dependent cysteine proteases, modulate synaptic function through protein cleavage. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica to investigate the in vivo role of calpains during intermediate and long-term operant memory formation using the learning that food is inedible (LFI) paradigm. A single LFI training session, in which the animal associates a specific netted seaweed with the failure to swallow, generates short (30min), intermediate (4-6h) and long-term (24h) memory. Using the calpain inhibitors calpeptin and MDL-28170, we found that ITM requires calpain activity for induction and consolidation similar to the previously reported requirements for persistent protein kinase C activity in intermediate-term LFI memory. The induction of LTM also required calpain activity. In contrast to ITM, calpain activity was not necessary for the molecular consolidation of LTM. Surprisingly, six hours after LFI training we found that calpain activity was necessary for LTM, although this is a time at which neither persistent PKC activity nor protein synthesis is required for the maintenance of long-term LFI memory. These results demonstrate that calpains function in multiple roles in vivo during associative memory formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MicroRNA-22 Gates Long-Term Heterosynaptic Plasticity in Aplysia through Presynaptic Regulation of CPEB and Downstream Targets

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    Ferdinando Fiumara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance phase of memory-related long-term facilitation (LTF of synapses between sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia depends on a serotonin (5-HT-triggered presynaptic upregulation of CPEB, a functional prion that regulates local protein synthesis at the synapse. The mechanisms whereby serotonin regulates CPEB levels in presynaptic sensory neurons are not known. Here, we describe a sensory neuron-specific microRNA 22 (miR-22 that has multiple binding sites on the mRNA of CPEB and inhibits it in the basal state. Serotonin triggers MAPK/Erk-dependent downregulation of miR-22, thereby upregulating the expression of CPEB, which in turn regulates, through functional CPE elements, the presynaptic expression of atypical PKC (aPKC, another candidate regulator of memory maintenance. Our findings support a model in which the neurotransmitter-triggered downregulation of miR-22 coordinates the regulation of genes contributing synergistically to the long-term maintenance of memory-related synaptic plasticity.

  7. Transforming growth factor β recruits persistent MAPK signaling to regulate long-term memory consolidation in Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Justin; Philips, Gary T; Carew, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we explore the mechanistic relationship between growth factor signaling and kinase activity that supports the protein synthesis-dependent phase of long-term memory (LTM) consolidation for sensitization ofAplysia Specifically, we examine LTM for tail shock-induced sensitization of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal (T-SW) reflex, a form of memory that requires both (i) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2; MAPK) activity within identified sensory neurons (SNs) that mediate the T-SW and (ii) the activation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. We now report that repeated tail shocks that induce intermediate-term (ITM) and LTM for sensitization, also induce a sustained post-training phase of MAPK activity in SNs (lasting at least 1 h). We identified two mechanistically distinct phases of post-training MAPK: (i) an immediate phase that does not require ongoing protein synthesis or TGFβ signaling, and (ii) a sustained phase that requires both protein synthesis and extracellular TGFβ signaling. We find that LTM consolidation requires sustained MAPK, and is disrupted by inhibitors of protein synthesis and TGFβ signaling during the consolidation window. These results provide strong evidence that TGFβ signaling sustains MAPK activity as an essential mechanistic step for LTM consolidation. © 2016 Shobe et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. MicroRNA-22 Gates Long-Term Heterosynaptic Plasticity in Aplysia through Presynaptic Regulation of CPEB and Downstream Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiumara, Ferdinando; Rajasethupathy, Priyamvada; Antonov, Igor; Kosmidis, Stylianos; Sossin, Wayne S; Kandel, Eric R

    2015-06-30

    The maintenance phase of memory-related long-term facilitation (LTF) of synapses between sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia depends on a serotonin (5-HT)-triggered presynaptic upregulation of CPEB, a functional prion that regulates local protein synthesis at the synapse. The mechanisms whereby serotonin regulates CPEB levels in presynaptic sensory neurons are not known. Here, we describe a sensory neuron-specific microRNA 22 (miR-22) that has multiple binding sites on the mRNA of CPEB and inhibits it in the basal state. Serotonin triggers MAPK/Erk-dependent downregulation of miR-22, thereby upregulating the expression of CPEB, which in turn regulates, through functional CPE elements, the presynaptic expression of atypical PKC (aPKC), another candidate regulator of memory maintenance. Our findings support a model in which the neurotransmitter-triggered downregulation of miR-22 coordinates the regulation of genes contributing synergistically to the long-term maintenance of memory-related synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Change in excitability of a putative decision-making neuron in Aplysia serves as a mechanism in the decision not to feed following food satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Kathy J; Wainwright, Marcy L; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2015-03-15

    Although decision making is a ubiquitous function, the understanding of its underlying mechanisms remains limited, particularly at the single-cell level. In this study, we used the decision not to feed that follows satiation in the marine mollusk Aplysia to examine the role of putative decision-making neuron B51 in this process. B51 is a neuron in the feeding neural circuit that exhibits decision-making characteristics in vitro, which bias the circuit toward producing the motor programs responsible for biting behavior. Once satiated, Aplysia decided not to bite for a prolonged period of time (≥24h) when presented with a food stimulus that normally elicits feeding in non-satiated animals. Twenty-four hours after satiation, suppressed feeding was accompanied by a significant decrease of B51 excitability compared to the control group of unfed animals. No differences were measured in B51 resting membrane properties or synaptic input to B51 between the satiated and control groups. When B51 properties were measured at a time point in which feeding had recovered from the suppressive effects of satiation (i.e., 96 h after satiation), no difference in B51 excitability was observed between satiated and control groups. These findings indicate that B51 excitability changes in a manner that is coherent with the modifications in biting resulting from food satiation, thus implicating this neuron as a site of plasticity underlying the decision not to bite following food satiation in Aplysia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Recovery of function, peripheral sensitization and sensory neurone activation by novel pathways following axonal injury in Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, M F; Steffensen, I; Morris, C E; Walters, E T

    1995-10-01

    Recovery of behavioural and sensory function was examined following unilateral pedal nerve crush in Aplysia californica. Nerve crush that transected all axons connecting the tail to the central nervous system (CNS) eliminated the ipsilateral tail-evoked siphon reflex, whose sensory input travels in the crushed tail nerve (p9). The first reliable signs of recovery of this reflex were observed within 1 week, and most animals displayed tail-evoked siphon responses within 2 weeks. Wide-dynamic-range mechanosensory neurons with somata in the ventrocaudal (VC) cluster of the ipsilateral pleural ganglion exhibited a few receptive fields (RFs) on the tail 3 weeks after unilateral pedal nerve crush, indicating that the RFs had either regenerated or been reconnected to the central somata. These RFs were smaller and sensitized compared with corresponding RFs on the contralateral, uncrushed side. Centrally conducted axon responses of VC sensory neurones to electrical stimulation distal to the nerve crush site did not reappear until at least 10 days after the crush. Because the crush site was much closer to the CNS than to the tail, the failure of axon responses to be restored earlier than the behavioural responses indicates that early stages of reflex recovery are not due to regeneration of VC sensory neurone axons into the tail. Following nerve crush, VC sensory neurones often could be activated by stimulating central connectives or peripheral nerves that do not normally contain the sensory neurone's axons. These results suggest that recovery of behavioral function after nerve injury involves complex mechanisms, including regenerative growth of axotomized VC sensory neurones, sensitization of regenerating RFs and sprouting of VC sensory neurone fibres within the CNS. Furthermore, the rapidity of behavioural recovery indicates that its initial phases are mediated by additional mechanisms, perhaps centripetal regeneration of unidentified sensory neurones having peripheral

  11. Effects of internal and external factors on the budgeting between defensive and non-defensive responses in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leod, Kaitlyn A Mac; Seas, Alexandra; Wainwright, Marcy L; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2018-04-25

    Following exposure to aversive stimuli, organisms budget their behaviors by augmenting defensive responses and reducing/suppressing non-defensive behaviors. This budgeting process must be flexible to accommodate modifications in the animal's internal and/or external state that require the normal balance between defensive and non-defensive behaviors to be adjusted. When exposed to aversive stimuli, the mollusk Aplysia budgets its behaviors by concurrently enhancing defensive withdrawal reflexes (an elementary form of learning known as sensitization) and suppressing feeding. Sensitization and feeding suppression are consistently co-expressed following different training protocols and share common temporal domains, suggesting that they are interlocked. In this study, we attempted to uncouple the co-expression of sensitization and feeding suppression using: 1) manipulation of the animal's motivational state through prolonged food deprivation and 2) extended training with aversive stimuli that induces sensitization lasting for weeks. Both manipulations uncoupled the co-expression of the above behavioral changes. Prolonged food deprivation prevented the expression of sensitization, but not of feeding suppression. Following the extended training, sensitization and feeding suppression were co-expressed only for a limited time (i.e., 24 h), after which feeding returned to baseline levels as sensitization persisted for up to seven days. These findings indicate that sensitization and feeding suppression are not interlocked and that their co-expression can be uncoupled by internal (prolonged food deprivation) and external (extended aversive training) factors. The different strategies, by which the co-expression of sensitization and feeding suppression was altered, provide an example of how budgeting strategies triggered by an identical aversive experience can vary depending on the state of the organism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Serotonin induces memory-like, rapamycin-sensitive hyperexcitability in sensory axons of aplysia that contributes to injury responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragoda, Ramal M S; Walters, Edgar T

    2007-09-01

    The induction of long-term facilitation (LTF) of synapses of Aplysia sensory neurons (SNs) by serotonin (5-HT) has provided an important mechanistic model of memory, but little is known about other long-term effects of 5-HT on sensory properties. Here we show that crushing peripheral nerves results in long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) of the axons of these nociceptive SNs that requires 5-HT activity in the injured nerve. Serotonin application to a nerve segment induces local axonal (but not somal) LTH that is inhibited by 5-HT-receptor antagonists. Blockade of crush-induced axonal LTH by an antagonist, methiothepin, provides evidence for mediation of this injury response by 5-HT. This is the first demonstration in any axon of neuromodulator-induced LTH, a phenomenon potentially important for long-lasting pain. Methiothepin does not reduce axonal LTH induced by local depolarization, so 5-HT is not required for all forms of axonal LTH. Serotonin-induced axonal LTH is expressed as reduced spike threshold and increased repetitive firing, whereas depolarization-induced LTH involves only reduced threshold. Like crush- and depolarization-induced LTH, 5-HT-induced LTH is blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis. Blockade by rapamycin, which also blocks synaptic LTF, is interesting because the eukaryotic protein kinase that is the target of rapamycin (TOR) has a conserved role in promoting growth by stimulating translation of proteins required for translation. Rapamycin sensitivity suggests that localized increases in translation of proteins that promote axonal conduction and excitability at sites of nerve injury may be regulated by the same signals that increase translation of proteins that promote neuronal growth.

  13. Localization of molecular correlates of memory consolidation to buccal ganglia mechanoafferent neurons after learning that food is inedible in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, David; Saada-Madar, Ravit; Teplinsky, Anastasiya; Susswein, Abraham J

    2012-10-15

    Training paradigms affecting Aplysia withdrawal reflexes cause changes in gene expression leading to long-term memory formation in primary mechanoafferents that initiate withdrawal. Similar mechanoafferents are also found in the buccal ganglia that control feeding behavior, raising the possibility that these mechanoafferents are a locus of memory formation after a training paradigm affecting feeding. Buccal ganglia mechanoafferent neurons expressed increases in mRNA expression for the transcription factor ApC/EBP, and for the growth factor sensorin-A, within the first 2 h after training with an inedible food. No increases in expression were detected in the rest of the buccal ganglia. Increased ApC/EBP expression was not elicited by food and feeding responses not causing long-term memory. Increased ApC/EBP expression was directly related to a measure of the efficacy of training in causing long-term memory, suggesting that ApC/EBP expression is necessary for the expression of aspects of long-term memory. In behaving animals, memory is expressed as a decrease in the likelihood to respond to food, and a decrease in the amplitude of protraction, the first phase of consummatory feeding behaviors. To determine how changes in the properties of mechanoafferents could cause learned changes in feeding behavior, synaptic contacts were mapped from the mechanoafferents to the B31/B32 neurons, which have a key role in initiating consummatory behaviors and also control protractions. Many mechanoafferents monosynaptically and polysynaptically connect with B31/B32. Monosynaptic connections were complex combinations of fast and slow excitation and/or inhibition. Changes in the response of B31/B32 to stimuli sensed by the mechanoafferent could underlie aspects of long-term memory expression.

  14. Long-term habituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia requires gene transcription, calcineurin and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eEsdin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Although habituation is possibly the simplest form of learning, we still do not fully understand the neurobiological basis of habituation in any organism. To advance the goal of a comprehensive understanding of habituation, we have studied long-term habituation (LTH of the gill-withdrawal reflex (GWR in the marine snail Aplysia californica. Previously, we showed that habituation of the GWR in a reduced preparation lasts for up to 12 hr, and depends on protein synthesis, as well as activation of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A and postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Here, we have used the reduced preparation to further analyze the mechanisms of LTH in Aplysia. We found that LTH of the GWR depends on RNA synthesis because it was blocked by both the irreversible transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin-D and the reversible transcriptional inhibitor, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside (DRB. In addition, LTH requires activation of protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin, because it was disrupted by ascomycin. Finally, LTH was blocked by nitrendipine, which indicates that activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is required for this form of learning. Together with our previous results, the present results indicate that exclusively presynaptic mechanisms, although possibly sufficient for short-term habituation, are insufficient for LTH. Rather, LTH must involve postsynaptic, as well as presynaptic, mechanisms.

  15. Repeated pulses of serotonin required for long-term facilitation activate mitogen-activated protein kinase in sensory neurons of Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Dan; Martin, Kelsey C.; Seger, Rony; Ning, Ming-Ming; Baston, Rene; Kandel, Eric R.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term facilitation of the connections between the sensory and motor neurons of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia requires five repeated pulses of serotonin (5-HT). The repeated pulses of 5-HT initiate a cascade of gene activation that leads ultimately to the growth of new synaptic connections. Several genes in this process have been identified, including the transcriptional regulators apCREB-1, apCREB-2, apC/EBP, and the cell adhesion molecule apCAM, which is thought to be involved in the formation of new synaptic connections. Here we report that the transcriptional regulators apCREB-2 and apC/EBP, as well as a peptide derived from the cytoplasmic domain of apCAM, are phosphorylated in vitro by Aplysia mitogen-activated protein kinase (apMAPK). We have cloned the cDNA encoding apMAPK and show that apMAPK activity is increased in sensory neurons treated with repeated pulses of 5-HT and by the cAMP pathway. These results suggest that apMAPK may participate with cAMP-dependent protein kinase during long-term facilitation in sensory cells by modifying some of the key elements involved in the consolidation of short- to long-lasting changes in synaptic strength. PMID:9465108

  16. Characterization of a GHF45 cellulase, AkEG21, from the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2014-08-01

    The common sea hare Aplysia kurodai is known to be a good source for the enzymes degrading seaweed polysaccharides. Recently four cellulases, i.e., 95 kDa, 66 kDa, 45 kDa and 21 kDa enzymes, were isolated from A. kurodai (Tsuji et al., PLoS ONE, 8, e65418, 2013). The former three cellulases were regarded as glycosyl-hydrolase-family 9 (GHF9) enzymes, while the 21 kDa cellulase was suggested to be a GHF45 enzyme. The 21 kDa cellulase was significantly heat stable, and appeared to be advantageous in performing heterogeneous expression and protein-engineering study. In the present study, we determined some enzymatic properties of the 21 kDa cellulase and cloned its cDNA to provide the basis for the protein engineering study of this cellulase. The purified 21 kDa enzyme, termed AkEG21 in the present study, hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose with an optimal pH and temperature at 4.5 and 40oC, respectively. AkEG21 was considerably heat-stable, i.e., it was not inactivated by the incubation at 55oC for 30 min. AkEG21 degraded phosphoric-acid-swollen cellulose producing cellotriose and cellobiose as major end products but hardly degraded oligosaccharides smaller than tetrasaccharide. This indicated that AkEG21 is an endolytic ?-1,4-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4). A cDNA of 1,013 bp encoding AkEG21 was amplified by PCR and the amino-acid sequence of 197 residues was deduced. The sequence comprised the initiation Met, the putative signal peptide of 16 residues for secretion and the catalytic domain of 180 residues, which lined from the N-terminus in this order. The sequence of the catalytic domain showed 47-62% amino-acid identities to those of GHF45 cellulases reported in other mollusks. Both the catalytic residues and the N-glycosylation residues known in other GHF45 cellulases were conserved in AkEG21. Phylogenetic analysis for the amino-acid sequences suggested the close relation between AkEG21 and fungal GHF45 cellulases.

  17. Characterization of a GHF45 cellulase, AkEG21, from the common sea hare Aplysia kurodai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Matiur Rahman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The common sea hare Aplysia kurodai is known to be a good source for the enzymes degrading seaweed polysaccharides. Recently four cellulases, i.e., 95 kDa, 66 kDa, 45 kDa and 21 kDa enzymes, were isolated from A. kurodai (Tsuji et al., PLoS ONE, 8, e65418, 2013. The former three cellulases were regarded as glycosyl-hydrolase-family 9 (GHF9 enzymes, while the 21 kDa cellulase was suggested to be a GHF45 enzyme. The 21 kDa cellulase was significantly heat stable, and appeared to be advantageous in performing heterogeneous expression and protein-engineering study. In the present study, we determined some enzymatic properties of the 21 kDa cellulase and cloned its cDNA to provide the basis for the protein engineering study of this cellulase. The purified 21 kDa enzyme, termed AkEG21 in the present study, hydrolyzed carboxymethyl cellulose with an optimal pH and temperature at 4.5 and 40oC, respectively. AkEG21 was considerably heat-stable, i.e., it was not inactivated by the incubation at 55oC for 30 min. AkEG21 degraded phosphoric-acid-swollen cellulose producing cellotriose and cellobiose as major end products but hardly degraded oligosaccharides smaller than tetrasaccharide. This indicated that AkEG21 is an endolytic -1,4-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4. A cDNA of 1,013 bp encoding AkEG21 was amplified by PCR and the amino-acid sequence of 197 residues was deduced. The sequence comprised the initiation Met, the putative signal peptide of 16 residues for secretion and the catalytic domain of 180 residues, which lined from the N-terminus in this order. The sequence of the catalytic domain showed 47-62% amino-acid identities to those of GHF45 cellulases reported in other mollusks. Both the catalytic residues and the N-glycosylation residues known in other GHF45 cellulases were conserved in AkEG21. Phylogenetic analysis for the amino-acid sequences suggested the close relation between AkEG21 and fungal GHF45 cellulases.

  18. A quantitative analysis of 2-D gels identifies proteins in which labeling is increased following long-term sensitization in Aplysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellucci, V.F.; Kennedy, T.E.; Kandel, E.R.; Goelet, P.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term memory for sensitization of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia, produced by 4 days of training, is associated with increased synaptic efficacy of the connection between the sensory and motor neurons. This training is also accompanied by neuronal growth; there is an increase in the number of synaptic varicosities per sensory neuron and in the number of active zones. Such structural changes may be due to changes in the rates of synthesis of certain proteins. We have searched for proteins in which the rates of [ 35 S]methionine labeling are altered during the maintenance phase of long-term memory for sensitization by using computer-assisted quantitative 2-D gel analysis. This method has allowed us to detect 4 proteins in which labeling is altered after 4 days of sensitization training

  19. An ALS-Associated Mutant SOD1 Rapidly Suppresses KCNT1 (Slack) Na+-Activated K+ Channels in Aplysia Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalan; Ni, Weiming; Horwich, Arthur L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2017-02-22

    Mutations that alter levels of Slack (KCNT1) Na + -activated K + current produce devastating effects on neuronal development and neuronal function. We now find that Slack currents are rapidly suppressed by oligomers of mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which are associated with motor neuron toxicity in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We recorded from bag cell neurons of Aplysia californica , a model system to study neuronal excitability. We found that injection of fluorescent wild-type SOD1 (wt SOD1YFP) or monomeric mutant G85R SOD1YFP had no effect on net ionic currents measured under voltage clamp. In contrast, outward potassium currents were significantly reduced by microinjection of mutant G85R SOD1YFP that had been preincubated at 37°C or of cross-linked dimers of G85R SOD1YFP. Reduction of potassium current was also seen with multimeric G85R SOD1YFP of ∼300 kDa or >300 kDa that had been cross-linked. In current clamp recordings, microinjection of cross-linked 300 kDa increased excitability by depolarizing the resting membrane potential, and decreasing the latency of action potentials triggered by depolarization. The effect of cross-linked 300 kDa on potassium current was reduced by removing Na + from the bath solution, or by knocking down levels of Slack using siRNA. It was also prevented by pharmacological inhibition of ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1) or of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but not by an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results suggest that soluble mutant SOD1 oligomers rapidly trigger a kinase pathway that regulates the activity of Na + -activated K + channels in neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Slack Na + -activated K + channels (KCNT1, K Na 1.1) regulate neuronal excitability but are also linked to cytoplasmic signaling pathways that control neuronal protein translation. Mutations that alter the amplitude of these currents have devastating effects on neuronal

  20. Temporal phases of activity-dependent plasticity and memory are mediated by compartmentalized routing of MAPK signaling in aplysia sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Justin L; Zhao, Yali; Stough, Shara; Ye, Xiaojing; Hsuan, Vickie; Martin, Kelsey C; Carew, Thomas J

    2009-01-15

    An activity-dependent form of intermediate memory (AD-ITM) for sensitization is induced in Aplysia by a single tail shock that gives rise to plastic changes (AD-ITF) in tail sensory neurons (SNs) via the interaction of action potential firing in the SN coupled with the release of serotonin in the CNS. Activity-dependent long-term facilitation (AD-LTF, lasting >24hr) requires protein synthesis dependent persistent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and translocation to the SN nucleus. We now show that the induction of the earlier temporal phase (AD-ITM and AD-ITF), which is translation and transcription independent, requires the activation of a compartmentally distinct novel signaling cascade that links second messengers, MAPK and PKC into a unified pathway within tail SNs. Since both AD-ITM and AD-LTM require MAPK activity, these collective findings suggest that presynaptic SNs route the flow of molecular information to distinct subcellular compartments during the induction of activity-dependent long-lasting memories.

  1. Investigation of the subcellular architecture of L7 neurons of Aplysia californica using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) at 7.8 microns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong H; Flint, Jeremy J; Hansen, Brian; Blackband, Stephen J

    2015-06-10

    Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool which is well-suited to directly resolve cellular structures in ex vivo and in vitro tissues without use of exogenous contrast agents. Recent advances in its capability to visualize mammalian cellular structure in intact tissues have reinvigorated analytical interest in aquatic cell models whose previous findings warrant up-to-date validation of subcellular components. Even if the sensitivity of MRM is less than other microscopic technologies, its strength lies in that it relies on the same image contrast mechanisms as clinical MRI which make it a unique tool for improving our ability to interpret human diagnostic imaging through high resolution studies of well-controlled biological model systems. Here, we investigate the subcellular MR signal characteristics of isolated cells of Aplysia californica at an in-plane resolution of 7.8 μm. In addition, direct correlation and positive identification of subcellular architecture in the cells is achieved through well-established histology. We hope this methodology will serve as the groundwork for studying pathophysiological changes through perturbation studies and allow for development of disease-specific cellular modeling tools. Such an approach promises to reveal the MR contrast changes underlying cellular mechanisms in various human diseases, for example in ischemic stroke.

  2. NO is required for memory formation and expression of memory, and for minor behavioral changes during training with inedible food in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briskin-Luchinsky, Valeria; Tam, Shlomit; Shabbat, Shlomit; Hurwitz, Itay; Susswein, Abraham J

    2018-05-01

    A learning experience may lead to changes in behavior during the experience, and also to memory expressed at a later time. Are signals causing changes in behavior during the learning experience related to the formation and expression of memory? We examined this question, using learning that food is inedible in Aplysia Treatment of an isolated buccal ganglia preparation with an NO donor elicited rejection-like motor programs. Rejection initiated by NO production is consistent with aspects of behavioral changes seen while animals learn, and with memory formation. Nonetheless, applying the NO donor during training had only minor effects on behavior during the training, and did not improve memory, indicating that the induction of rejection in the buccal ganglia is unlikely to be the means by which NO during training contributes to memory formation. Block of NO during memory retrieval prevented the expression of memory, as measured by a lack of savings in time to stop responding to food. Applying an NO donor to the cerebral ganglion while eliciting fictive feeding inhibited the expression of feeding activity, indicating that some NO effects on memory consolidation and on expression of memory may be via effects on the cerebral ganglion. © 2018 Briskin-Luchinsky et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. The requirement for enhanced CREB1 expression in consolidation of long-term synaptic facilitation and long-term excitability in sensory neurons of Aplysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the transcriptional activator CREB1 is important for serotonin (5-HT)-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) of the sensorimotor synapse in Aplysia. Moreover, creb1 is among the genes activated by CREB1, suggesting a role for this protein beyond the induction phase of LTF. The time course of the requirement for CREB1 synthesis in the consolidation of long-term facilitation was examined using RNA interference (RNAi) techniques in sensorimotor co-cultures. Injection of CREB1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) immediately or 10 h after 5-HT treatment blocked LTF when measured at 24 h and 48 h after treatment. In contrast, CREB1 siRNA did not block LTF when injected 16 h after 5-HT treatment. These results demonstrate that creb1 expression must be sustained for a relatively long time in order to support the consolidation of LTF. In addition, LTF is also accompanied by a long-term increase in the excitability (LTE) of sensory neurons (SNs). Because LTE was observed in the isolated SN after 5-HT treatment, this long-term change was intrinsic to that element of the circuit. LTE was blocked when CREB1 siRNA was injected into isolated SNs immediately after 5-HT treatment. These data suggest that 5-HT-induced CREB1 synthesis is required for consolidation of both LTF and LTE. PMID:21543617

  4. Evaluation of the cholinomimetic actions of trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kerchove

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylsulfonium, a compound present in the midgut gland of the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana, negatively modulates vagal response, indicating a probable ability to inhibit cholinergic responses. In the present study, the pharmacological profile of trimethylsulfonium was characterized on muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In rat jejunum the contractile response induced by trimethylsulfonium (pD2 = 2.46 ± 0.12 and maximal response = 2.14 ± 0.32 g was not antagonized competitively by atropine. The maximal response (Emax to trimethylsulfonium was diminished in the presence of increasing doses of atropine (P<0.05, suggesting that trimethylsulfonium-induced contraction was not related to muscarinic stimulation, but might be caused by acetylcholine release due to presynaptic stimulation. Trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate from rat cortex membranes with a low affinity (Ki = 0.5 mM. Furthermore, it caused contraction of frog rectus abdominis muscles (pD2 = 2.70 ± 0.06 and Emax = 4.16 ± 0.9 g, which was competitively antagonized by d-tubocurarine (1, 3 or 10 µM with a pA2 of 5.79, suggesting a positive interaction with nicotinic receptors. In fact, trimethylsulfonium displaced [³H]-nicotine from rat diaphragm muscle membranes with a Ki of 27.1 µM. These results suggest that trimethylsulfonium acts as an agonist on nicotinic receptors, and thus contracts frog skeletal rectus abdominis muscle and rat jejunum smooth muscle via stimulation of postjunctional and neuronal prejunctional nicotinic cholinoreceptors, respectively.

  5. Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica'

    KAUST Repository

    Heyland, Andreas; Vue, Zer; Voolstra, Christian R.; Medina, Mó nica; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2010-01-01

    developmental transcriptome with similar studies in the zebra fish Danio rerio, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and other studies on molluscs suggests an overall highly divergent pattern of gene regulatory mechanisms

  6. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of the sea hare, Aplysia kurodai: Unique properties of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Tsuji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa is a nuisance species of green algae that is found all over the world. East-Asian species of the marine gastropod, the sea hare Aplysia kurodai, shows a clear feeding preference for sea lettuce. Compared with cellulose, sea lettuce contains a higher amount of starch as a storage polysaccharide. However, the entire amylolytic system in the digestive fluid of A. kurodai has not been studied in detail. We purified α-amylases and α-glucosidases from the digestive fluid of A. kurodai and investigated the synergistic action of these enzymes on sea lettuce. A. kurodai contain two α-amylases (59 and 80 kDa and two α-glucosidases (74 and 86 kDa. The 59-kDa α-amylase, but not the 80-kDa α-amylase, was markedly activated by Ca2+ or Cl−. Both α-amylases degraded starch and maltoheptaose, producing maltotriose, maltose, and glucose. Glucose production from starch was higher with 80-kDa α-amylase than with 59-kDa α-amylase. Kinetic analysis indicated that 74-kDa α-glucosidase prefers short α-1,4-linked oligosaccharide, whereas 86-kDa α-glucosidase prefers large α-1,6 and α-1,4-linked polysaccharides such as glycogen. When sea lettuce was used as a substrate, a 2-fold greater amount of glucose was released by treatment with 59-kDa α-amylase and 74-kDa α-glucosidase than by treatment with 45-kDa cellulase and 210-kDa β-glucosidase of A. kurodai. Unlike mammals, sea hares efficiently digest sea lettuce to glucose by a combination of two α-amylases and two α-glucosidases in the digestive fluids without membrane-bound maltase–glucoamylase and sucrase–isomaltase complexes.

  7. Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the cellulolytic system in digestive fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient glucose release from sea lettuce by synergistic action of 45 kDa endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-glucosidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Tsuji

    Full Text Available Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds. In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa. Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU-ß-glucoside, 4MU-ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K

  8. A Presynaptic Role for FMRP during Protein Synthesis-Dependent Long-Term Plasticity in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Sally M.; Li, Hsiu-Ling; Miniaci, Maria Concetta; Kandel, Eric R.; Choi, Yun-Beom

    2011-01-01

    Loss of the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is associated with presumed postsynaptic deficits in mouse models of Fragile X syndrome. However, the possible presynaptic roles of FMRP in learning-related plasticity have received little attention. As a result, the mechanisms whereby FMRP influences synaptic function remain poorly…

  9. Exogenous mRNA encoding tetanus or botulinum neurotoxins expressed in Aplysia neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mochida, Sumiko; Poulain, Bernard; Eisel, Ulrich; Binz, Thomas; Kurazono, Hisao; Niemann, Heiner; Tauc, Ladislav; Bullock, Theodore H.

    1990-01-01

    Injection of exogenous mRNA purified from various tissue preparations into cellular translation systems such as Xenopus oocytes has allowed expression of complex proteins (e.g., receptors for neurotransmitters). No evidence for expression of injected exogenous mRNA, however, has been reported in

  10. From Aplysia to the constitution: evolution of concepts in behavior analysis / Da Aplysia à constituição: evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Claudio Todorov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the evolution of concepts in behavior analysis, especially in the writings of Skinner, from the definition of operant behavior and reinforcement contingency to processes of selection by consequences, following the development of a conceptual language that covers both the behavior of molluscs and the metacontingencies included in the constitution of a country. Skinner's first papers used the terminology developed by Pavlov in his studies of conditioned reflexes to deal with behavior in general. From Skinner's doctoral dissertation to the papers published in the 80's there was an evolution, followed by the field of behavior analysis, which today uses the same, sophisticated language to deal with complex issues like cultural practices and the survival of cultures.

  11. Da Aplysia à constituição: evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento From Aplysia to the constitution: evolution of concepts in behavior analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Claudio Todorov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se apresentar a evolução de conceitos na análise do comportamento, especialmente nos trabalhos de Skinner, desde a definição do conceito de operante, de contingência de reforço, até os processos de seleção por conseqüências, seguindo o desenvolvimento de uma linguagem teórica que abarca desde o comportamento de moluscos até o texto da Constituição, enquanto metacontingência. Os trabalhos iniciais de Skinner usavam a linguagem desenvolvida por Pavlov no estudo de reflexos condicionados para abranger todo o comportamento. De sua dissertação de doutorado até os trabalhos publicados nos anos 1980, Skinner evoluiu e com ele toda a análise do comportamento, que hoje usa a mesma linguagem mais sofisticada para abordar temas complexos como práticas culturais e a sobrevivência de culturas.This work presents the evolution of concepts in behavior analysis, especially in the writings of Skinner, from the definition of operant behavior and reinforcement contingency to processes of selection by consequences, following the development of a conceptual language that covers both the behavior of molluscs and the metacontingencies included in the constitution of a country. Skinner's first papers used the terminology developed by Pavlov in his studies of conditioned reflexes to deal with behavior in general. From Skinner's doctoral dissertation to the papers published in the 80's there was an evolution, followed by the field of behavior analysis, which today uses the same, sophisticated language to deal with complex issues like cultural practices and the survival of cultures.

  12. Myogenesis in Aplysia californica (Cooper, 1863) (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) with special focus on muscular remodeling during metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2008-01-01

    To date only few comparative approaches tried to reconstruct the ontogeny of the musculature in invertebrates. This may be due to the difficulties involved in reconstructing three dimensionally arranged muscle systems by means of classical histological techniques combined with light or transmissi...

  13. MOLECULAR-BIOLOGY OF CLOSTRIDIAL TOXINS - EXPRESSION OF MESSENGER-RNAS ENCODING TETANUS AND BOTULINUM NEUROTOXINS IN APLYSIA NEURONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOCHIDA, S; POULAIN, B; EISEL, U; BINZ, T; KURAZONO, H; NIEMANN, H; TAUC, L

    1990-01-01

    mRNAs encoding the light chain of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins were transcribed, in vitro, from the cloned and specifically truncated genes of Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum, respectively, and injected into presynaptic identified cholinergic neurons of the buccal ganglia of

  14. Role of protein synthesis and DNA methylation in the consolidation and maintenance of long-term memory in Aplysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Kaycey; Cai, Diancai; Roberts, Adam C; Glanzman, David L

    2017-01-01

    eLife digest The formation of long-term memory depends on new proteins being made in the brain. These new proteins are used partly to build the new connections among neurons that essentially store the memory, and must be made within a critical period of time. Experiments on animals have found that new proteins must be made during or shortly after training to form a stable memory; if protein synthesis is blocked during this period, the memory will not be stabilized (a process also known as mem...

  15. Structural studies of the 'Aplysia Brasiliana' and 'Dermochelis Coriacea' myoglobins by optical and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baffa Filho, O.

    1984-01-01

    The myoglobins of 'Applysia Brasiliana' (MbApB) and of the sea turtle 'Dermochelis Coriacea' (MbT) are studied with special attention devoted to the acid-alkalyne transition (AAT), the interaction with transition metals and temperature induced conformational changes in order to characterize structural differences in these proteins. The AAT of MbApB has a pK = 7.2 obtained from the EPR spectra of Fe 3+ at g (perpendicular) = 5.83 and a pK = 7.5 obtained from optical absorption (lambda = 590 nm). The EPR Spectrum of Fe 3+ at alkalyne pH shows a rhombic distortion of the ion crystal field which is in agreement with the absence in this protein of the distal histidine residue. The ESR lines associated with the low spin configuration are considerably broadened. This effect can be explained by fluctuations on the heme position relative to the symmetry axis. MbApB forms complexes with both Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ only one binding site is obtained for both metals in the protein. This site probably has common ligands for mN 2+ and Cu 2+ as the binding is competitive, suggesting also the at the Cu 2+ complex is more stable than the Mn 2+ one (K sub(A) sup(M) sub(n 2+ )) = (11,5 + - 0,8).10 3 M -1 . (Author) [pt

  16. Isolation and purification of a novel anticancer 60 K daltons protein from the Persian Gulf sea hare, Aplysia Dactylomela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zandi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea hares have attracted the interest of many workers investigating chemical defense substances. Most of these substances are low molecular weight compounds derived from algal diets. Anticancer effects of a novel protein isolated from purple fluid of A. dactylomela are reported. The purification procedure consisted basically of ammonium sulphate fractionation, ion exchange and ultrafiltration techniques. For cytotoxicity effects, L929, K562, HL60 and NB4 cell lines and MTT assay were used. A protein of 60000 Da of the purple fluid of A. dactylomela had antiproliferative effects on the cell lines it was maximally active at 0.5-1.5 microgram/ml on NB4 cell line. Therefore, the purple fluid of A. dactylomela has a novel antiproliferative agent.

  17. A PKM Generated by Calpain Cleavage of a Classical PKC Is Required for Activity-Dependent Intermediate-Term Facilitation in the Presynaptic Sensory Neuron of "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Carole A.; Hastings, Margaret H.; Dunn, Tyler W.; Gong, Katrina; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Sossin, Wayne S.

    2017-01-01

    Atypical PKM, a persistently active form of atypical PKC, is proposed to be a molecular memory trace, but there have been few examinations of the role of PKMs generated from other PKCs. We demonstrate that inhibitors used to inhibit PKMs generated from atypical PKCs are also effective inhibitors of other PKMs. In contrast, we demonstrate that…

  18. Occurrence of the Spotted Sea Hare Aplysia dactylomela (Rang 1828, Aplysiidae in the Yeşilovacık Bay, Norteastern Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Ayas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The first record of the A. dactylomela from the Mediterranean Sea, in the Strait of Sicily waters was reported in 2002 (Trainito, 2003. Some reports of the A. dactylomela are given in the Mediterranean Sea in Table 1. A specimen of spotted sea hare was seen in a rock pool which was covered with algea. It was first recorded from Yeşilovacık Bay in 2017. Previous record of the species was noted in the Hatay coast of Turkey (Çinar et al. 2006. The present rapid communication reported the first record of A. dactylomela from the Yeşilovacık Bay. One specimen of A. dactylomela was photographed at the infralittoral zone of the Bay on 26 March, 2017, at a depth of 1 m in a rock pool togetter with Padina pavonica (Linnaeus and other algea.

  19. Chronically Increased G[subscript s][alpha] Signaling Disrupts Associative and Spatial Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Patterson, Susan L.; Kelly, Michele P.; Kreibich, Arati; Kandel, Eric R.; Abel, Ted

    2006-01-01

    The cAMP/PKA pathway plays a critical role in learning and memory systems in animals ranging from mice to "Drosophila" to "Aplysia." Studies of olfactory learning in "Drosophila" suggest that altered expression of either positive or negative regulators of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway beyond a certain optimum range may be deleterious. Here we…

  20. Analysis and Synthesis of Adaptive Neural Elements and Assembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-30

    of an Aplysia sensory neuron was developed that reflects the subcellular processes underlying activity-dependent neuromodulation . This single- Page -3... neuromodulation learning rule could simulate some higher-order features of classical conditioning, such second-order conditioning and blocking. During the...reporting period, simulations were used to test the hypothesis that activity-dependent neuromodulation could also support operant conditioning. A

  1. Isolation of a 60 kDa protein with in vitro anticancer activity against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sea hares have greatly attracted the interest of all those investigating chemical defense substances. Most of these substances are low molecular weight compounds derived from algal diets. In vitro anticancer effect of a 60 kDa protein isolated from the purple fluid of Aplysia dactylomela on four human cancer cell lines was ...

  2. Savings Memory Is Accompanied by Transcriptional Changes That Persist beyond the Decay of Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leticia; Patel, Ushma; Rivota, Marissa; Calin-Jageman, Irina E.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Most long-term memories are forgotten. What happens, then, to the changes in neuronal gene expression that were initially required to encode and maintain the memory? Here we show that the decay of recall for long-term sensitization memory in "Aplysia" is accompanied both by a form of savings memory (easier relearning) and by persistent…

  3. The zinc fingers of the Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain bind polyubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Margaret H; Qiu, Alvin; Zha, Congyao; Farah, Carole A; Mahdid, Yacine; Ferguson, Larissa; Sossin, Wayne S

    2018-05-28

    The Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain is a highly conserved member of the calpain family expressed in the nervous system. A dominant negative form of the SOL calpain inhibited consolidation of one form of synaptic plasticity, non-associative facilitation, in sensory-motor neuronal cultures in Aplysia, presumably by inhibiting cleavage of protein kinase Cs (PKCs) into constitutively active protein kinase Ms (PKMs) (Hu et al, 2017a). SOL calpains have a conserved set of 5-6 N-terminal zinc fingers. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that these zinc fingers could bind to ubiquitin. In this study, we show that both the Aplysia and mouse SOL calpain (also known as Calpain 15) zinc fingers bind ubiquitinated proteins, and we confirm that Aplysia SOL binds poly- but not mono or di-ubiquitin. No specific zinc finger is required for polyubiquitin binding. Neither polyubiquitin nor calcium was sufficient to induce purified Aplysia SOL calpain to autolyse or to cleave the atypical PKC to PKM in vitro. In Aplysia, overexpression of the atypical PKC in sensory neurons leads to an activity-dependent cleavage event and an increase in nuclear ubiquitin staining. Activity-dependent cleavage is partially blocked by a dominant negative SOL calpain, but not by a dominant negative classical calpain. The cleaved PKM was stabilized by the dominant negative classical calpain and destabilized by a dominant negative form of the PKM stabilizing proteinKIdney/BRAin protein(KIBRA). These studies provide new insight into SOL calpain's function and regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LEARNING-RELATED NEUROMODULATION IN MOLLUSCAN MECHANOSENSORY NEURONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William G; Kirschman, David; Rozen, Danny; Maynard, Barbara

    1996-12-01

    In spite of significant advances in our understanding of mechanisms of learning and memory in a variety of organisms, little is known about how such mechanisms evolve. Even mechanisms of simple forms of learning, such as habituation and sensitization, have not been studied phylogenetically. Here we begin an evolutionary analysis of learning-related neuromodulation in species related to the well-studied opisthobranch gastropod, Aplysia californica. In Aplysia, increased spike duration and excitability in mechanosensory neurons contribute to several forms of learning-related changes to defensive withdrawal reflexes. The modulatory transmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT), is thought to play a critical role in producing these firing property changes. In the present study, we tested mechanosensory homologs of the tail-withdrawal reflex in species related to Aplysia for 5-HT-mediated increases in spike duration and excitability. Criteria used to identify homologous tail-sensory neurons included position, relative size, resting electrical properties, expression of a sensory neuron-specific protein, neuroanatomy, and receptive field. The four ingroup species studied (Aplysia californica, Dolabella auricularia, Bursatella leachii, and Dolabrifera dolabrifera) belong to two clades (two species each) within the family Aplysiidae. In the first clade (Aplysia/Dolabella), we found that the tail-sensory neurons of A. californica and tail-sensory homologs of a closely related species, D. auricularia, responded to bath-applied serotonin in essentially similar fashion: significant increases in spike duration as well as excitability. In the other clade (Dolabrifera/Bursatella), more distantly related to Aplysia, one species (B. leachii) showed spike broadening and increased excitability. However, the other species (D. dolabrifera) showed neither spike broadening nor increased excitability. The firing properties of tail-sensory homologs of D. dolabrifera were insensitive

  5. Protein phosphatase dependent circadian regulation of intermediate-term associative memory

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Maximilian; Gardner, Jacob S.; Green, Charity L.; Organ, Chelsea L.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous circadian clock is a principal factor modulating memory across species. Determining the processes through which the circadian clock modulates memory formation is a key issue in understanding and identifying mechanisms to improve memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica to investigate circadian modulation of intermediate-term memory (ITM) and the mechanisms through which the circadian clock phase specifically suppresses memory using the operant learning paradigm, l...

  6. Schistosoma mansoni c-AMP-dependent Protein Kinase (PKA): A Potential New Drug Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-07

    subunits from other eukaryotic organisms (Aplysia californica, S. japonicum, Caenorhabditis 143 elegans Mus musculus, Onchocerca volvulus , and Homo...Caenorhabditis elegans PKA-R (J05220); OvR, Onchocerca volvulus PKA-R (AY159364). 156 157 Figure 19: RNAi of Sm04765 in...PKA cancer chemotherapeutics [12]. Interestingly, the PKA-R subunit homologue in Onchocerca volvulus , causative agent of river blindness, is being

  7. Flotillin-1 is an evolutionary-conserved memory-related protein up-regulated in implicit and explicit learning paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Francisco J; Divisch, Isabella; Demit, Marvie; Lubec, Gert; Pollak, Daniela D

    2013-06-01

    Studies of synaptic plasticity using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica as model system have been successfully used to identify proteins involved in learning and memory. The importance of molecular elements regulated by the learning- related neurotransmitter serotonin in Aplysia can then be explored in rodent models and finally tested for their relevance for human physiology and pathology. Herein, 2-DE gel-based electrophoresis has been used to investigate protein level changes after treatment with serotonin in Aplysia abdominal ganglia. Twenty-one proteins have been found to be regulated by serotonin, and protein level changes of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), deleted in azoospermia associated protein (DAZAP-1), and Flotillin-1 have been verified by Western blotting. Flotillin-1, a member of the flotillin/reggie family of scaffolding proteins, has been previously found to be involved in neuritic branching and synapse formation in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, its importance for hippocampal- dependent learning and memory in the mouse has not been examined. Here, elevated levels of Flotillin-1 in hippocampal tissue of mice trained in the Morris water maze confirmed the relevance of Flotillin-1 for memory-related processes in a mammalian system. Thus, a translational approach-from invertebrates to rodents-led to the identification of Flotillin-1 as evolutionary-conserved memory-related protein.

  8. In vitro antibacterial, alpha-amylase inhibition potential of three nudibranchs extracts from South East coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giji Sadhasivam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antiamylase properties of methanol and acetone extracts of nudibranchs including Bursatella leachii (B. leachii, Kalinga ornata (K. ornata, Aplysia sp. Methods: Crude methanol and acetone extracts of sea slugs were tested for inhibition of fish bacterial pathogens' growth through disc diffusion method. The activity was measured based on the formation of inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with crude extracts. The α-amylase inhibitory effect was also measured calorimetrically. The chemical fingerprinting of the extract was recorded with HPTLC and GC-MS. Results: The solvent extracts of all the three sea slugs showed antibacterial property. The maximum zone of inhibition (>15-20 mm was recorded for methanol and acetone extracts of K. ornata. The methanol extract of Aplysia sp. exhibited 93% inhibition against α-amylase, following by B. leachii (methanol 70.6% and K. ornata (methanol 49.03% inhibition respectively. The acetone extracts didn' t show any notable inhibition. The presence of free amino acids like lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine etc., terpenoids and pigents were confirmed through HPTLC analysis. The presence of siloxanes and propanoic acid were also revealed through GC-MS. Conclusions: This study suggests that further scrutinisation of the B. leachii, K. ornata and Aplysia sp. will pave the way for development of antibacterial and α-amylase inhibitory agent for therapeutic application.

  9. Role of the Digestive Gland in Ink Production in Four Species of Sea Hares: An Ultrastructural Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Prince

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the digestive gland of several sea hare species that produce different colored ink (Aplysia californica produces purple ink, A. juliana white ink, A. parvula both white and purple ink, while Dolabrifera dolabrifera produces no ink at all was compared to determine the digestive gland’s role in the diet-derived ink production process. Rhodoplast digestive cells and their digestive vacuoles, the site of digestion of red algal chloroplast (i.e., rhodoplast in A. californica, were present and had a similar ultrastructure in all four species. Rhodoplast digestive cell vacuoles either contained a whole rhodoplast or fragments of one or were empty. These results suggest that the inability to produce colored ink in some sea hare species is not due to either an absence of appropriate digestive machinery, that is, rhodoplast digestive cells, or an apparent failure of rhodoplast digestive cells to function. These results also propose that the digestive gland structure described herein occurred early in sea hare evolution, at least in the common ancestor to the genera Aplysia and Dolabrifera. Our data, however, do not support the hypothesis that the loss of purple inking is a synapomorphy of the white-ink-producing subgenus Aplysia.

  10. Dissociation between sensitization and learning-related neuromodulation in an aplysiid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erixon, N J; Demartini, L J; Wright, W G

    1999-06-14

    Previous phylogenetic analyses of learning and memory in an opisthobranch lineage uncovered a correlation between two learning-related neuromodulatory traits and their associated behavioral phenotypes. In particular, serotonin-induced increases in sensory neuron spike duration and excitability, which are thought to underlie several facilitatory forms of learning in Aplysia, appear to have been lost over the course of evolution in a distantly related aplysiid, Dolabrifera dolabrifera. This deficit is paralleled by a behavioral deficit: individuals of Dolabrifera do not express generalized sensitization (reflex enhancement of an unhabituated response after a noxious stimulus is applied outside of the reflex receptive field) or dishabituation (reflex enhancement of a habituated reflex). The goal of the present study was to confirm and extend this correlation by testing for the neuromodulatory traits and generalized sensitization in an additional species, Phyllaplysia taylori, which is closely related to Dolabrifera. Instead, our results indicated a lack of correlation between the neuromodulatory and behavioral phenotypes. In particular, sensory neuron homologues in Phyllaplysia showed the ancestral neuromodulatory phenotype typified by Aplysia. Bath-applied 10 microM serotonin significantly increased homologue spike duration and excitability. However, when trained with the identical apparatus and protocols that produced generalized sensitization in Aplysia, individuals of Phyllaplysia showed no evidence of sensitization. Thus, this species expresses the neuromodulatory phenotype of its ancestors while appearing to express the behavioral phenotype of its near relative. These results suggests that generalized sensitization can be lost during the course of evolution in the absence of a deficit in these two neuromodulatory traits, and raises the possibility that the two traits may support some other form of behavioral plasticity in Phyllaplysia. The results also raise the

  11. Specific activity of 129I in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, P.M.; Iyer, M.R.; Bhat, I.S.; Somasundaram, S.; Subramanian, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    129 I finds its way into the environment as a result of man-made nuclear operations. It is also formed by the interaction of cosmic rays with xenon isotopes and spontaneous fission of naturally occurring uranium. 129 I and stable 127 I contents of thyroid, milk, seaweed and aplysia cell samples collected from around a fuel reprocessing plant were estimated by neutron activation analysis method. The annual 129 I intake of an individual works out to be about 0.3 Bq as compared to the natural radioactivity content in human body of about 5000 Bq. (author). 3 tabs

  12. Infrared neural stimulation (INS) inhibits electrically evoked neural responses in the deaf white cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Rajguru, Suhrud M.; Robinson, Alan; Young, Hunter K.

    2014-03-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been used in the past to evoke neural activity from hearing and partially deaf animals. All the responses were excitatory. In Aplysia californica, Duke and coworkers demonstrated that INS also inhibits neural responses [1], which similar observations were made in the vestibular system [2, 3]. In deaf white cats that have cochleae with largely reduced spiral ganglion neuron counts and a significant degeneration of the organ of Corti, no cochlear compound action potentials could be observed during INS alone. However, the combined electrical and optical stimulation demonstrated inhibitory responses during irradiation with infrared light.

  13. Dehydroepiandrosterone: an ancestral ligand of neurotrophin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediaditakis, Iosif; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Theologidis, Ioannis; Delivanoglou, Nickoleta; Margioris, Andrew N; Charalampopoulos, Ioannis; Gravanis, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), the most abundant steroid in humans, affects multiple cellular functions of the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. However, up to quite recently, no receptor has been described specifically for it, whereas most of its physiological actions have been attributed to its conversion to either androgens or estrogens. DHEA interacts and modulate a variety of membrane and intracellular neurotransmitter and steroid receptors. We have recently reported that DHEA protects neuronal cells against apoptosis, interacting with TrkA, the high-affinity prosurvival receptor of the neurotrophin, nerve growth factor. Intrigued by its pleiotropic effects in the nervous system of a variety of species, we have investigated the ability of DHEA to interact with the other two mammalian neurotrophin receptors, ie, the TrkB and TrkC, as well as their invertebrate counterparts (orthologs) in mollusks Lymnaea and Aplysia and in cephalochordate fish Amphioxus. Amazingly, DHEA binds to all Trk receptors, although with lower affinity by 2 orders of magnitude compared with that of the polypeptidic neurotrophins. DHEA effectively induced the first step of the TrkA and TrkC receptors activation (phosphorylation at tyrosine residues), including the vertebrate neurotrophin nonresponding invertebrate Lymnaea and Aplysia receptors. Based on our data, we hypothesize that early in evolution, DHEA may have acted as a nonspecific neurotrophic factor promoting neuronal survival. The interaction of DHEA with all types of neurotrophin receptors offers new insights into the largely unidentified mechanisms of its actions on multiple tissues and organs known to express neurotrophin receptors.

  14. Ultrastructural Comparison of Processing of Protein and Pigment in the Ink Gland of Four Species of Sea Hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Prince

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ink glands of four sea hare species (Aplysia californica, A. parvula, A. juliana, and Dolabrifera dolabrifera were compared to determine where ink protein is synthesized, how it is incorporated into protein storage vesicles, and the degree of variation in the structure of the ink gland. Ink protein was synthesized in RER cells and stored in amber and white vesicles. Lack of competent RER cells in the ink gland of D. dolabrifera was correlated with the absence of ink protein. Ink protein had similar characteristics in all three Aplysia species but, again, it was absent in D. dolabrifera. Its uptake involved pinocytosis by protein vesicle cell membranes. Granulate cells showed little variation in structure among the four species, the opposite was the case for RER cells. The conversion of the red algal pigment, phycoerythrin, to phycoerythrobilin (PEB occurs in the digestive gland but the change of PEB to aplysioviolin (APV, the form of pigment released by the ink gland, occurs in the ink gland itself by both granulate cells and pigment vesicles. The literature describes five types of vesicles based upon color and contents in the ink gland of these four species. We report only three types of vesicle: colored (purple, protein (white and amber, and transparent (includes clear vesicles.

  15. Event timing in associative learning: from biochemical reaction dynamics to behavioural observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Yarali

    Full Text Available Associative learning relies on event timing. Fruit flies for example, once trained with an odour that precedes electric shock, subsequently avoid this odour (punishment learning; if, on the other hand the odour follows the shock during training, it is approached later on (relief learning. During training, an odour-induced Ca(++ signal and a shock-induced dopaminergic signal converge in the Kenyon cells, synergistically activating a Ca(++-calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase, which likely leads to the synaptic plasticity underlying the conditioned avoidance of the odour. In Aplysia, the effect of serotonin on the corresponding adenylate cyclase is bi-directionally modulated by Ca(++, depending on the relative timing of the two inputs. Using a computational approach, we quantitatively explore this biochemical property of the adenylate cyclase and show that it can generate the effect of event timing on associative learning. We overcome the shortage of behavioural data in Aplysia and biochemical data in Drosophila by combining findings from both systems.

  16. Biogeographical homogeneity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea - I: the opisthobranchs (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reviewed knowledge of the opisthobranch species from Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean Sea, based on literature records (scattered throughout various papers published over a period of more than 150 years and recently collected material (1999-2002 within the CEDRE framework and other samples, is presented, yielding a total number of 35 taxa recorded from the Lebanese shores identified to species level. Special emphasis has mainly been given to the alien species, for which scattered notes are also given. The known opisthobranch biota is composed of 22 native (~ 63%, 12 alien (~ 34% and one cryptogenic (~ 3% taxa. Eleven of these (Berthella aurantiaca, B. ocellata, Aplysia fasciata, Felimare picta, Felimida britoi, F. luteorosea, F. purpurea, Phyllidia flava, Dendrodoris grandiflora, D. limbata and Aeolidiella alderi constitute new records for the Lebanese fauna, whilst the examined material of a further seven species (Elysia grandifolia, Pleurobranchus forskalii, Aplysia dactylomela, Bursatella leachii, Syphonota geographica, Goniobranchus annulatus, Flabellina rubrolineata anecdotally cited from Lebanon on the basis of the samples here studied, is here first explained. One additional taxon belonging to the genus Haminoea has been identified to genus level only. Despite the searching effort poning the basis of the material analyzed here, data reported clearly suggest that strong investments are still needed for a better understanding of the eastern Mediterranean opisthobranch fauna.

  17. Associative Learning in Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Robert D.; Byrne, John H.

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews research on neural mechanisms of two types of associative learning in the marine mollusk Aplysia, classical conditioning of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex and operant conditioning of feeding behavior. Basic classical conditioning is caused in part by activity-dependent facilitation at sensory neuron–motor neuron (SN–MN) synapses and involves a hybrid combination of activity-dependent presynaptic facilitation and Hebbian potentiation, which are coordinated by trans-synaptic signaling. Classical conditioning also shows several higher-order features, which might be explained by the known circuit connections in Aplysia. Operant conditioning is caused in part by a different type of mechanism, an intrinsic increase in excitability of an identified neuron in the central pattern generator (CPG) for feeding. However, for both classical and operant conditioning, adenylyl cyclase is a molecular site of convergence of the two signals that are associated. Learning in other invertebrate preparations also involves many of the same mechanisms, which may contribute to learning in vertebrates as well. PMID:25877219

  18. Latent memory facilitates relearning through molecular signaling mechanisms that are distinct from original learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Steven A; Riepe, Joshua R; Philips, Gary T

    2015-09-01

    A highly conserved feature of memory is that it can exist in a latent, non-expressed state which is revealed during subsequent learning by its ability to significantly facilitate (savings) or inhibit (latent inhibition) subsequent memory formation. Despite the ubiquitous nature of latent memory, the mechanistic nature of the latent memory trace and its ability to influence subsequent learning remains unclear. The model organism Aplysia californica provides the unique opportunity to make strong links between behavior and underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Using Aplysia, we have studied the mechanisms of savings due to latent memory for a prior, forgotten experience. We previously reported savings in the induction of three distinct temporal domains of memory: short-term (10min), intermediate-term (2h) and long-term (24h). Here we report that savings memory formation utilizes molecular signaling pathways that are distinct from original learning: whereas the induction of both original intermediate- and long-term memory in naïve animals requires mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and ongoing protein synthesis, 2h savings memory is not disrupted by inhibitors of MAPK or protein synthesis, and 24h savings memory is not dependent on MAPK activation. Collectively, these findings reveal that during forgetting, latent memory for the original experience can facilitate relearning through molecular signaling mechanisms that are distinct from original learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Persistent Associative Plasticity at an Identified Synapse Underlying Classical Conditioning Becomes Labile with Short-Term Homosynaptic Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangyuan; Schacher, Samuel

    2015-12-09

    Synapses express different forms of plasticity that contribute to different forms of memory, and both memory and plasticity can become labile after reactivation. We previously reported that a persistent form of nonassociative long-term facilitation (PNA-LTF) of the sensorimotor synapses in Aplysia californica, a cellular analog of long-term sensitization, became labile with short-term heterosynaptic reactivation and reversed when the reactivation was followed by incubation with the protein synthesis inhibitor rapamycin. Here we examined the reciprocal impact of different forms of short-term plasticity (reactivations) on a persistent form of associative long-term facilitation (PA-LTF), a cellular analog of classical conditioning, which was expressed at Aplysia sensorimotor synapses when a tetanic stimulation of the sensory neurons was paired with a brief application of serotonin on 2 consecutive days. The expression of short-term homosynaptic plasticity [post-tetanic potentiation or homosynaptic depression (HSD)], or short-term heterosynaptic plasticity [serotonin-induced facilitation or neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFa)-induced depression], at synapses expressing PA-LTF did not affect the maintenance of PA-LTF. The kinetics of HSD was attenuated at synapses expressing PA-LTF, which required activation of protein kinase C (PKC). Both PA-LTF and the attenuated kinetics of HSD were reversed by either a transient blockade of PKC activity or a homosynaptic, but not heterosynaptic, reactivation when paired with rapamycin. These results indicate that two different forms of persistent synaptic plasticity, PA-LTF and PNA-LTF, expressed at the same synapse become labile when reactivated by different stimuli. Activity-dependent changes in neural circuits mediate long-term memories. Some forms of long-term memories become labile and can be reversed with specific types of reactivations, but the mechanism is complex. At the cellular level, reactivations that induce a

  20. Memory Synapses Are Defined by Distinct Molecular Complexes: A Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossin, Wayne S

    2018-01-01

    Synapses are diverse in form and function. While there are strong evidential and theoretical reasons for believing that memories are stored at synapses, the concept of a specialized "memory synapse" is rarely discussed. Here, we review the evidence that memories are stored at the synapse and consider the opposing possibilities. We argue that if memories are stored in an active fashion at synapses, then these memory synapses must have distinct molecular complexes that distinguish them from other synapses. In particular, examples from Aplysia sensory-motor neuron synapses and synapses on defined engram neurons in rodent models are discussed. Specific hypotheses for molecular complexes that define memory synapses are presented, including persistently active kinases, transmitter receptor complexes and trans-synaptic adhesion proteins.

  1. Phylogenetic study of the oxytocin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of oxytocin (OXT)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Oncidium verrucosum, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; and Baratha brassica of the Arthropoda. 3. No immunoreactive cells were found in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Bradybaena similaris and Achatina fulica of the Mollusca; and Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Procambarus clarkii, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Helice tridens and Gryllus bimaculatus of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 4. These results demonstrate that an OXT-immunoreactive substance is widely present not only in vertebrates but also in invertebrates. 5. OXT seems to have been introduced into these invertebrates at an early stage of their phylogenetic history.

  2. Phylogenetic study of the arginine-vasotocin/arginine-vasopressin-like immunoreactive system in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Takeda, N

    1988-01-01

    1. A phylogenetic study of arg-vasotocin (AVT)/arg-vasopressin (AVP)-like immunoreactive cells was performed by the PAP method in the central nervous system of invertebrates. 2. The immunoreactivity was detected in the nerve cells of Hydra magnipapillata of the Coelenterata; Neanthes japonica and Pheretima communissima of the Annelida; Pomacea canaliculata, Aplysia kurodai, Oncidium verrucosum, Bradybaena similaris, Achatina fulica, Limax marginatus and Meretrix lamarckii of the Mollusca; Gnorimosphaeroma rayi, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Gryllus bimaculatus and Baratha brassicae of the Arthropoda; Asterina pectinifera of the Echinodermata; and Halocynthia roretzi of the Protochordata. 3. No immunoreactivity was detected in Bipalium sp. of the Platyhelminthes, or in Procambarus clarkii and Helice tridens of the Arthropoda. 4. From these results, it appears that AVT/AVP is a phylogenetically ancient peptide which is present in a wide variety of invertebrates. 5. The actions of AVT/AVP and its presence in invertebrates are discussed.

  3. Reproduction-associated immunoreactive peptides in the nervous systems of prosobranch gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, J L; Gallardo, C S; Ram, M L; Croll, R P

    1998-12-01

    Antibodies against reproductive peptides of Aplysia and Lymnaea were used to localize homologous immunoreactive peptides in the nervous systems of three prosobranch species: Busycon canaliculatum, Concholepas concholepas, and Tegula atra. Positive control experiments in L. stagnalis demonstrated the broad species range of the anti-egg-laying hormone (anti-ELH) antibody used in this study, and showed binding of anti-alpha-caudodorsal-cell peptide (anti-alpha-CDCP) to the same cells in cerebral and buccal ganglia. Dot immunoassays with synthetic ELH confirmed the reactivity and sensitivity (concholepas and T atra, ELH-like immunoreactivity was found in cerebral ganglia, and in T. atra in fibers in the cerebral ganglia and cerebral-pedal connectives. Thus, cerebral ganglia are the major locus of the ELH-like immunoreactivity in prosobranchs.

  4. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-12-06

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory.

  5. Analysis of 3D models of octopus estrogen receptor with estradiol: evidence for steric clashes that prevent estrogen binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael E; Chandsawangbhuwana, Charlie

    2007-09-28

    Relatives of the vertebrate estrogen receptor (ER) are found in Aplysia californica, Octopus vulgaris, Thais clavigera, and Marisa cornuarietis. Unlike vertebrate ERs, invertebrate ERs are constitutively active and do not bind estradiol. To investigate the molecular basis of the absence of estrogen binding, we constructed a 3D model of the putative steroid-binding domain on octopus ER. Our 3D model indicates that binding of estradiol to octopus ER is prevented by steric clashes between estradiol and amino acids in the steroid-binding pocket. In this respect, octopus ER resembles vertebrate estrogen-related receptors (ERR), which have a ligand-binding pocket that cannot accommodate estradiol. Like ERR, octopus ER also may have the activation function 2 domain (AF2) in a configuration that can bind to coactivators in the absence of estrogens, which would explain constitutive activity of octopus ER.

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05047-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( FC248291 ) CAGH5240.fwd CAGH Nematostella vectensis Nemve La... 42 4e-10 4 ( FL973986 ) CCHY11996.g1 CCHY Panicum virgatum cal...3f09.y2 TBN95TM-SSFH Strongyloides stercoralis... 40 1e-04 2 ( FM992692 ) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chromoso...ynana_abdomen_nosize Bicyclus anyn... 50 0.10 1 ( GD193438 ) G1045P3111FM5.T1 Aplysia californica Pooled...3J15-MGRbd1. 44 6.5 1 ( CK149624 ) CsmgEST00052 Culicoides sonorensis female serum-f... 44 6.5 1 ( CI528724 ) Oryza sativa Japonica...ficus YJ016 DNA, ch... 63 6e-09 CP001071_944( CP001071 |pid:none) Akkermansia muciniphila ATCC BAA..

  7. Development of a high specific activity radioligand, 125I-LSD, and its application to the study of serotonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadan, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    125 I-Labeled receptor ligands can be synthesized with specific activities exceeding 2000 Ci/mmol, making them nearly 70-fold more sensitive in receptor site assays than (mono) tritiated ligands. We have synthesized and characterized 125 I-lysergic acid diethylamide ( 125 I-LSD), the first radioiodinated ligand for serotonin receptor studies. The introduction of 125 I at the 2 position of LSD increased both the affinity and selectivity of this compound for serotonin 5-HT 2 receptors in rat cortex. The high specific activity of 125 I-LSD and its high ratio of specific to nonspecific binding make this ligand especially useful for autoradiographic studies of serotonin receptor distribution. We have found that 125 I-LSD binds with high affinity to a class of serotonin receptors in the CNS of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica

  8. Cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms in non-associative conditioning: implications for pain and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Elizabeth J; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; David Sweatt, J

    2013-10-01

    Sensitization is a form of non-associative conditioning in which amplification of behavioral responses can occur following presentation of an aversive or noxious stimulus. Understanding the cellular and molecular underpinnings of sensitization has been an overarching theme spanning the field of learning and memory as well as that of pain research. In this review we examine how sensitization, both in the context of learning as well as pain processing, shares evolutionarily conserved behavioral, cellular/synaptic, and epigenetic mechanisms across phyla. First, we characterize the behavioral phenomenon of sensitization both in invertebrates and vertebrates. Particular emphasis is placed on long-term sensitization (LTS) of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia following aversive stimulation or injury, although additional invertebrate models are also covered. In the context of vertebrates, sensitization of mammalian hyperarousal in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as mammalian models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain is characterized. Second, we investigate the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. We focus our discussion on serotonin-mediated long-term facilitation (LTF) and axotomy-mediated long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in reduced Aplysia systems, as well as mammalian spinal plasticity mechanisms of central sensitization. Third, we explore recent evidence implicating epigenetic mechanisms in learning- and pain-related sensitization. This review illustrates the fundamental and functional overlay of the learning and memory field with the pain field which argues for homologous persistent plasticity mechanisms in response to sensitizing stimuli or injury across phyla. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of neuronal excitability by interaction of fragile X mental retardation protein with slack potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalan; Brown, Maile R; Hyland, Callen; Chen, Yi; Kronengold, Jack; Fleming, Matthew R; Kohn, Andrea B; Moroz, Leonid L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2012-10-31

    Loss of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) represents the most common form of inherited intellectual disability. Studies with heterologous expression systems indicate that FMRP interacts directly with Slack Na(+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Na)), producing an enhancement of channel activity. We have now used Aplysia bag cell (BC) neurons, which regulate reproductive behaviors, to examine the effects of Slack and FMRP on excitability. FMRP and Slack immunoreactivity were colocalized at the periphery of isolated BC neurons, and the two proteins could be reciprocally coimmunoprecipitated. Intracellular injection of FMRP lacking its mRNA binding domain rapidly induced a biphasic outward current, with an early transient tetrodotoxin-sensitive component followed by a slowly activating sustained component. The properties of this current matched that of the native Slack potassium current, which was identified using an siRNA approach. Addition of FMRP to inside-out patches containing native Aplysia Slack channels increased channel opening and, in current-clamp recordings, produced narrowing of action potentials. Suppression of Slack expression did not alter the ability of BC neurons to undergo a characteristic prolonged discharge in response to synaptic stimulation, but prevented recovery from a prolonged inhibitory period that normally follows the discharge. Recovery from the inhibited period was also inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. Our studies indicate that, in BC neurons, Slack channels are required for prolonged changes in neuronal excitability that require new protein synthesis, and raise the possibility that channel-FMRP interactions may link changes in neuronal firing to changes in protein translation.

  10. Flexible microelectrode array for interfacing with the surface of neural ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Zachariah J.; Na, Kyounghwan; Parizi, Saman S.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Seymour, John; Yoon, Euisik; Bruns, Tim M.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are promising nerve structures for sensory neural interfaces because they provide centralized access to primary afferent cell bodies and spinal reflex circuitry. In order to harness this potential, new electrode technologies are needed which take advantage of the unique properties of DRG, specifically the high density of neural cell bodies at the dorsal surface. Here we report initial in vivo results from the development of a flexible non-penetrating polyimide electrode array interfacing with the surface of ganglia. Approach. Multiple layouts of a 64-channel iridium electrode (420 µm2) array were tested, with pitch as small as 25 µm. The buccal ganglia of invertebrate sea slug Aplysia californica were used to develop handling and recording techniques with ganglionic surface electrode arrays (GSEAs). We also demonstrated the GSEA’s capability to record single- and multi-unit activity from feline lumbosacral DRG related to a variety of sensory inputs, including cutaneous brushing, joint flexion, and bladder pressure. Main results. We recorded action potentials from a variety of Aplysia neurons activated by nerve stimulation, and units were observed firing simultaneously on closely spaced electrode sites. We also recorded single- and multi-unit activity associated with sensory inputs from feline DRG. We utilized spatial oversampling of action potentials on closely-spaced electrode sites to estimate the location of neural sources at between 25 µm and 107 µm below the DRG surface. We also used the high spatial sampling to demonstrate a possible spatial sensory map of one feline’s DRG. We obtained activation of sensory fibers with low-amplitude stimulation through individual or groups of GSEA electrode sites. Significance. Overall, the GSEA has been shown to provide a variety of information types from ganglia neurons and to have significant potential as a tool for neural mapping and interfacing.

  11. Proximate composition of marine invertebrates from tropical coastal waters, with emphasis on the relationship between nitrogen and protein contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S Diniz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical profiles of Desmapsamma anchorata, Hymeniacidon heliophila (Porifera, Bunodosoma caissarum, Renilla muelleri (Cnidaria, Aplysia brasiliana, Eledone massyae, Isognomon bicolor (Mollusca, Echinaster brasiliensis, Echinometra lucunter, Holothuria grisea, Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata, and Phallusia nigra (Chordata were determined. Hydrosoluble protein was the most abundant class of substances for all species, except for the ascidian Phallusia nigra, in which the carbohydrate content was higher. The percentages of hydrosoluble protein (dry weight, dw varied widely among the invertebrates, ranging from 5.88% (R. muelleri to 47.6% (Eledone massyae of the dw .The carbohydrate content fluctuated from 1.3% (R. muelleri to 18.4% (Aplysia brasiliana of the dw. For most of the species, lipid was the second most abundant class of substances, varying from 2.8% (R. muelleri to 25.3% (Echinaster brasiliensis of the dw. Wide variations were also found for the invertebrates nitrogen content, with the lowest value recorded in the cnidarian R. muelleri (2.02% of the dw and the highest in the molluscan E. massyae (12.7% of the dw. The phosphorus content of the dw varyed from 0.24% (R. muelleri to 1.16% (E. massyae. The amino acid composition varied largely among the species, but for most of the species glycine, arginine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were the most abundant amino acids, with histidine and tyrosine among the less abundant amino acids. The actual content of total protein in the samples was calculated by the sum of amino acid residues, establishing dw values that fluctuated from 11.1% (R. muelleri to 66.7% (E. massyae. The proteinaceous nitrogen content was high in all species, with an average value of 97.3% of the total nitrogen. From data of total amino acid residues and total nitrogen, specific nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated for each species. The nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors ranged from 5.10 to

  12. New learning while consolidating memory during sleep is actively blocked by a protein synthesis dependent process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roi; Levitan, David; Susswein, Abraham J

    2016-01-01

    Brief experiences while a memory is consolidated may capture the consolidation, perhaps producing a maladaptive memory, or may interrupt the consolidation. Since consolidation occurs during sleep, even fleeting experiences when animals are awakened may produce maladaptive long-term memory, or may interrupt consolidation. In a learning paradigm affecting Aplysia feeding, when animals were trained after being awakened from sleep, interactions between new experiences and consolidation were prevented by blocking long-term memory arising from the new experiences. Inhibiting protein synthesis eliminated the block and allowed even a brief, generally ineffective training to produce long-term memory. Memory formation depended on consolidative proteins already expressed before training. After effective training, long term memory required subsequent transcription and translation. Memory formation during the sleep phase was correlated with increased CREB1 transcription, but not CREB2 transcription. Increased C/EBP transcription was a correlate of both effective and ineffective training and of treatments not producing memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17769.001 PMID:27919318

  13. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Neto, Ana Isabel; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  14. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Wynne, J; Garner, M M; Nyaoke, A; Keel, M K

    2016-05-01

    Despite increasing concern for coral reef ecosystem health within the last decade, there is scant literature concerning the histopathology of diseases affecting the major constituents of coral reef ecosystems, particularly marine invertebrates. This study describes histologic findings in 6 species of marine invertebrates (California sea hare [Aplysia californica], purple sea urchin [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with experimentally induced copper toxicosis, and 1 unexposed control of each species listed. The primary lesions in the California sea hare with copper toxicosis were branchial and nephridial necrosis. Affected echinoderms shared several histologic lesions, including epidermal necrosis and ulceration and increased numbers of coelomocytes within the water-vascular system. The sunburst anemone with copper toxicosis had necrosis of both epidermis and gastrodermis, as well as expulsion of zooxanthellae from the gastrodermis. In addition to the lesions attributed to copper toxicosis, our results describe normal microscopic features of these animals that may be useful for histopathologic assessment of marine invertebrates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A new photosensory function for simple photoreceptors, the intrinsically photoresponsive neurons of the sea slug Onchidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Gotow

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Simple photoreceptors, namely intrinsically light-sensitive neurons without microvilli and/or cilia, have long been known to exist in the central ganglia of crayfish, Aplysia, Onchidium, and Helix. These simple photoreceptors are not only first-order photosensory cells, but also second-order neurons (interneurons, relaying several kinds of sensory synaptic inputs. Another important issue is that the photoresponses of these simple photoreceptors show very slow kinetics and little adaptation. These characteristics suggest that the simple photoreceptors of the Onchidium have a function in non-image-forming vision, different from classical eye photoreceptors used for cording dynamic images of vision. The cited literature provides evidence that the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing photoresponses of simple photoreceptors play a role in the long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission of excitatory and inhibitory sensory inputs, and as well as in the potentiation and the suppression of the subsequent behavioral outputs. In short, we suggest that simple photoreceptors operate in the general potentiation of synaptic transmission and subsequent motor output; i.e., they perform a new photosensory function.

  16. NMDA receptor expression and C terminus structure in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and long-term potentiation across the Metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Nathan J; Dearden, Peter K

    2013-12-01

    The C termini of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2 subunits are thought to play a major role in the molecular establishment of memory across the Bilateria, via the phenomenon known as long-term potentiation (LTP). Despite their long history of use as models in the study of memory, the expression and structure of the NR2 subunit in the Lophotrochozoa has remained uncategorized. Here, we report the phylogenic relationships of NR subunits across the Bilateria, and the cloning and in situ analysis of expression of NMDA NR1 and NR2 subunits in the monogont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. RNA in situ hybridization suggests expression of NMDA receptor subunits in B. plicatilis is neural, consistent with expression observed in other species, and ours is the first report confirming NR2 expression in the lophotrochozoan clade. However, the single NR2 subunit identified in B. plicatilis was found to lack the long C terminal domain found in vertebrates, which is believed to modulate LTP. Further investigation revealed that mollusc and annelid NR2 subunits possess long intracellular C terminal domains. As data from molluscs (and particularly Aplysia californica) are the basis for much of our understanding of LTP, understanding how these diverse lophotrochozoan C termini function in vivo will have many implications for how we consider the evolution of the molecular control of learning and memory across the Metazoa as a whole and interpret the results of experiments into this vital component of cognition.

  17. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  18. PKC in motorneurons underlies self-learning, a form of motor learning in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Colomb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tethering a fly for stationary flight allows for exquisite control of its sensory input, such as visual or olfactory stimuli or a punishing infrared laser beam. A torque meter measures the turning attempts of the tethered fly around its vertical body axis. By punishing, say, left turning attempts (in a homogeneous environment, one can train a fly to restrict its behaviour to right turning attempts. It was recently discovered that this form of operant conditioning (called operant self-learning, may constitute a form of motor learning in Drosophila. Previous work had shown that Protein Kinase C (PKC and the transcription factor dFoxP were specifically involved in self-learning, but not in other forms of learning. These molecules are specifically involved in various forms of motor learning in other animals, such as compulsive biting in Aplysia, song-learning in birds, procedural learning in mice or language acquisition in humans. Here we describe our efforts to decipher which PKC gene is involved in self-learning in Drosophila. We also provide evidence that motorneurons may be one part of the neuronal network modified during self-learning experiments. The collected evidence is reminiscent of one of the simplest, clinically relevant forms of motor learning in humans, operant reflex conditioning, which also relies on motorneuron plasticity.

  19. Synaptic heterogeneity and stimulus-induced modulation of depression in central synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J D; Milton, J G

    2001-08-01

    Short-term plasticity is a pervasive feature of synapses. Synapses exhibit many forms of plasticity operating over a range of time scales. We develop an optimization method that allows rapid characterization of synapses with multiple time scales of facilitation and depression. Investigation of paired neurons that are postsynaptic to the same identified interneuron in the buccal ganglion of Aplysia reveals that the responses of the two neurons differ in the magnitude of synaptic depression. Also, for single neurons, prolonged stimulation of the presynaptic neuron causes stimulus-induced increases in the early phase of synaptic depression. These observations can be described by a model that incorporates two availability factors, e.g., depletable vesicle pools or desensitizing receptor populations, with different time courses of recovery, and a single facilitation component. This model accurately predicts the responses to novel stimuli. The source of synaptic heterogeneity is identified with variations in the relative sizes of the two availability factors, and the stimulus-induced decrement in the early synaptic response is explained by a slowing of the recovery rate of one of the availability factors. The synaptic heterogeneity and stimulus-induced modifications in synaptic depression observed here emphasize that synaptic efficacy depends on both the individual properties of synapses and their past history.

  20. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  1. Differential staining of Western blots of human secreted glycoproteins from serum, milk, saliva, and seminal fluid using lectins displaying diverse sugar specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Garber, Nechama; Lerrer, Batya; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Dgani, Orly

    2005-12-01

    Human milk, serum, saliva, and seminal fluid glycoproteins (gps) nourish and protect newborn and adult tissues. Their saccharides, which resemble cell membrane components, may block pathogen adhesion and infection. In the present study, they were examined by a battery of lectins from plants, animals, and bacteria, using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses. The lectins included galactophilic ones from Aplysia gonad, Erythrina corallodendron, Maclura pomifera (MPL), peanut, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IL); fucose-binding lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IIL), Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), and mannose/glucose-binding Con A. The results demonstrated the chosen lectin efficiency for differential analysis of human secreted gps as compared to CBB staining. They unveiled the diversity of these body fluid gp glycans (those of the milk and seminal fluid being highest): the milk gps interacted most strongly with PA-IIL, followed by RSL; the saliva gps with RSL, followed by PA-IIL and MPL; the serum gps with Con A and MPL, followed by PA-IIL and RSL, and the seminal plasma gps with RSL and MPL, followed by UEA-I and PA-IIL. The potential usage of these lectins as probes for scientific, industrial, and medical purposes, and for quality control of the desired gps is clearly indicated.

  2. A feasibility study of multi-site,intracellular recordings from mammalian neurons by extracellular gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojovan, Silviya M; Rabieh, Noha; Shmoel, Nava; Erez, Hadas; Maydan, Eilon; Cohen, Ariel; Spira, Micha E

    2015-09-14

    The development of multi-electrode array platforms for large scale recording of neurons is at the forefront of neuro-engineering research efforts. Recently we demonstrated, at the proof-of-concept level, a breakthrough neuron-microelectrode interface in which cultured Aplysia neurons tightly engulf gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (gMμEs). While maintaining their extracellular position, the gMμEs record synaptic- and action-potentials with characteristic features of intracellular recordings. Here we examined the feasibility of using gMμEs for intracellular recordings from mammalian neurons. To that end we experimentally examined the innate size limits of cultured rat hippocampal neurons to engulf gMμEs and measured the width of the "extracellular" cleft formed between the neurons and the gold surface. Using the experimental results we next analyzed the expected range of gMμEs-neuron electrical coupling coefficients. We estimated that sufficient electrical coupling levels to record attenuated synaptic- and action-potentials can be reached using the gMμE-neuron configuration. The definition of the engulfment limits of the gMμEs caps diameter at ≤2-2.5 μm and the estimated electrical coupling coefficients from the simulations pave the way for rational development and application of the gMμE based concept for in-cell recordings from mammalian neurons.

  3. MIPs are ancestral ligands for the sex peptide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Bartalska, Katarina; Audsley, Neil; Yamanaka, Naoki; Yapici, Nilay; Lee, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yong-Chul; Markovic, Milica; Isaac, Elwyn; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Dickson, Barry J

    2010-04-06

    Upon mating, females of many animal species undergo dramatic changes in their behavior. In Drosophila melanogaster, postmating behaviors are triggered by sex peptide (SP), which is produced in the male seminal fluid and transferred to female during copulation. SP modulates female behaviors via sex peptide receptor (SPR) located in a small subset of internal sensory neurons that innervate the female uterus and project to the CNS. Although required for postmating responses only in these female sensory neurons, SPR is expressed broadly in the CNS of both sexes. Moreover, SPR is also encoded in the genomes of insects that lack obvious SP orthologs. These observations suggest that SPR may have additional ligands and functions. Here, we identify myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs) as a second family of SPR ligands that is conserved across a wide range of invertebrate species. MIPs are potent agonists for Drosophila, Aedes, and Aplysia SPRs in vitro, yet are unable to trigger postmating responses in vivo. In contrast to SP, MIPs are not produced in male reproductive organs, and are not required for postmating behaviors in Drosophila females. We conclude that MIPs are evolutionarily conserved ligands for SPR, which are likely to mediate functions other than the regulation of female reproductive behaviors.

  4. Twelve invertebrate and eight fish species new to the marine fauna of Madeira, and a discussion of the zoogeography of the area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Peter

    1998-06-01

    The benthic ctenophore Vallicula multiformis, a large undescribed flatworm species of the genus Pseudoceros, the prosobranch gastropod Tonna maculosa, the opisthobranch gastropods Placida cf. dendritica, Caloria elegans, Aeolidiella sanguinea, Janolus cristatus, the decapod Balssia gasti, the sea urchin Schizaster canaliferus and the tunicates Clavelina lepadiformis, Clavelina dellavallei and Pycnoclavella taureanensis are recorded from Madeira for the first time. This is the first record of a platyctenid ctenophore in the eastern Atlantic. The teleost fishes Pomatoschistus pictus, Vaneaugobius canariensis, Chromogobius sp., Nerophis ophidion, Hippocampus hippocampus, Acanthocybium solandri, Sphyraena viridensis and Sphyraena barracuda are recorded from Madeira for the first time. The presence of the sea-hare Aplysia dactylomela at Madeira is confirmed; the species has increased tremendously in abundance in the last four years. The crocodile fish Grammoplites gruveli can occasionally be found in the mantle cavity of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) sold at the fish market of Funchal, but does not originate from Madeiran waters. An analysis of 100 new records from the coastal fauna of Madeira shows that, while predominantly of lusitanian, mediterranean and mauritanian affinity, Madeira’s shallow water fauna contains a large component of tropical species.

  5. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-12-08

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues.

  6. Selection of shrimp breeders free of white spot syndrome and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cesar de Mello Junior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to select surviving breeders of Litopenaeus vannamei from white spot syndrome virus (WSSV outbreak, adapted to local climatic conditions and negatively diagnosed for WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, and to evaluate if this strategy is a viable alternative for production in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 800 males and 800 females were phenotypically selected in a farm pond. Nested-PCR analyses of 487 sexually mature females and 231 sexually mature males showed that 63% of the females and 55% of the males were infected with IHHNV. Animals free of IHHNV were tested for WSSV, and those considered double negative were used for breeding. The post-larvae produced were stocked in nine nursery tanks for analysis. From the 45 samples, with 50 post-larvae each, only two were positive for IHHNV and none for WSSV. Batches of larvae diagnosed free of virus by nested-PCR were sent to six farms. A comparative analysis was carried out in growth ponds, between local post-larvae and post-larvae from Northeast Brazil. Crabs (Chasmagnathus granulata, blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus, and sea hares (Aplysia brasiliana, which are possible vectors of these viruses, were also evaluated. The mean survival was 55% for local post-larvae against 23.4% for post-larvae from the Northeast. Sea hares showed prevalence of 50% and crabs of 67% of WSSV.

  7. Functional neuroanatomy of the rhinophore of Archidoris pseudoargus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, Adrian; Rössler, Wolfgang; Obermayer, Malu; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2007-06-01

    For sea slugs, chemosensory information represents an important sensory modality, because optical and acoustical information are limited. In the present study, we focussed on the neuroanatomy of the rhinophores and processing of olfactory stimuli in the rhinophore ganglion of Archidoris pseudoargus, belonging to the order of Nudibranchia in the subclass of Opisthobranchia. Histological techniques, fluorescent markers, and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse neuroanatomical features of the rhinophore. A large ganglion and a prominent central lymphatic channel are surrounded by longitudinal muscles. Many serotonin-immunoreactive (IR) processes were found around the centre and between the ganglion and the highly folded lobes of the rhinophore, but serotonin-IR cell bodies were absent inside the rhinophore. In contrast to the conditions recently found in Aplysia punctata, we found no evidence for the presence of olfactory glomeruli within the rhinophore. Using calcium-imaging techniques with Fura II as a calcium indicator, we found differential calcium responses in various regions within the ganglion to stimulation of the rhinophore with different amino acids. The lack of glomeruli in the rhinophores induces functional questions about processing of chemical information in the rhinophore.

  8. Structural Components of Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig H.; Kandel, Eric R.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2015-01-01

    Consolidation of implicit memory in the invertebrate Aplysia and explicit memory in the mammalian hippocampus are associated with remodeling and growth of preexisting synapses and the formation of new synapses. Here, we compare and contrast structural components of the synaptic plasticity that underlies these two distinct forms of memory. In both cases, the structural changes involve time-dependent processes. Thus, some modifications are transient and may contribute to early formative stages of long-term memory, whereas others are more stable, longer lasting, and likely to confer persistence to memory storage. In addition, we explore the possibility that trans-synaptic signaling mechanisms governing de novo synapse formation during development can be reused in the adult for the purposes of structural synaptic plasticity and memory storage. Finally, we discuss how these mechanisms set in motion structural rearrangements that prepare a synapse to strengthen the same memory and, perhaps, to allow it to take part in other memories as a basis for understanding how their anatomical representation results in the enhanced expression and storage of memories in the brain. PMID:26134321

  9. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  10. Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loram, Jeannette; Raudonis, Renee; Chapman, Jecar; Lortie, Mae [Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, Bermuda, GE 01 (Bermuda); Bodnar, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bodnar@bios.edu [Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences, St. George' s, Bermuda, GE 01 (Bermuda)

    2012-11-15

    Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD{sub 50} values determined for coelomocytes after 24 h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals.

  11. Deep mRNA sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea brain transcriptome provides access to gene homologues for neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and peptidergic signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level.We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes. BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA.Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain.

  12. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Broderick

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI, based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs, serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of

  13. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Patricia A

    2013-06-21

    The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI), based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata) and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum) of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs), serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of static parameters

  14. Sea urchin coelomocytes are resistant to a variety of DNA damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loram, Jeannette; Raudonis, Renee; Chapman, Jecar; Lortie, Mae; Bodnar, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Increasing anthropogenic activities are creating environmental pressures that threaten marine ecosystems. Effective environmental health assessment requires the development of rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tools to predict negative impacts at the individual and ecosystem levels. To this end, a number of biological assays using a variety of cells and organisms measuring different end points have been developed for biomonitoring programs. The sea urchin fertilization/development test has been useful for evaluating environmental toxicology and it has been proposed that sea urchin coelomocytes represent a novel cellular biosensor of environmental stress. In this study we investigated the sensitivity of coelomocytes from the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus to a variety of DNA-damaging agents including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). LD 50 values determined for coelomocytes after 24 h of exposure to these DNA damaging agents indicated a high level of resistance to all treatments. Significant increases in the formation of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP or abasic) sites in DNA were only detected using high doses of H 2 O 2 , MMS and UV radiation. Comparison of sea urchin coelomocytes with hemocytes from the gastropod mollusk Aplysia dactylomela and the decapod crustacean Panulirus argus indicated that sensitivity to different DNA damaging agents varies between species. The high level of resistance to genotoxic agents suggests that DNA damage may not be an informative end point for environmental health assessment using sea urchin coelomocytes however, natural resistance to DNA damaging agents may have implications for the occurrence of neoplastic disease in these animals.

  15. Defense through sensory inactivation: sea hare ink reduces sensory and motor responses of spiny lobsters to food odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love-Chezem, Tiffany; Aggio, Juan F; Derby, Charles D

    2013-04-15

    Antipredator defenses are ubiquitous and diverse. Ink secretion of sea hares (Aplysia) is an antipredator defense acting through the chemical senses of predators by different mechanisms. The most common mechanism is ink acting as an unpalatable repellent. Less common is ink secretion acting as a decoy (phagomimic) that misdirects predators' attacks. In this study, we tested another possible mechanism--sensory inactivation--in which ink inactivates the predator's reception of food odors associated with would-be prey. We tested this hypothesis using spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, as model predators. Ink secretion is composed of two glandular products, one being opaline, a viscous substance containing concentrations of hundreds of millimolar of total free amino acids. Opaline sticks to antennules, mouthparts and other chemosensory appendages of lobsters, physically blocking access of food odors to the predator's chemosensors, or over-stimulating (short term) and adapting (long term) the chemosensors. We tested the sensory inactivation hypotheses by treating the antennules with opaline and mimics of its physical and/or chemical properties. We compared the effects of these treatments on responses to a food odor for chemoreceptor neurons in isolated antennules, as a measure of effect on chemosensory input, and for antennular motor responses of intact lobsters, as a measure of effect on chemically driven motor behavior. Our results indicate that opaline reduces the output of chemosensors by physically blocking reception of and response to food odors, and this has an impact on motor responses of lobsters. This is the first experimental demonstration of inactivation of peripheral sensors as an antipredatory defense.

  16. Mycosporine-like amino acids are multifunctional molecules in sea hares and their marine community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicklighter, Cynthia E.; Kamio, Michiya; Nguyen, Linh; Germann, Markus W.; Derby, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    Molecules of keystone significance are relatively rare, yet mediate a variety of interactions between organisms. They influence the distribution and abundance of species, the transfer of energy across multiple trophic levels, and thus they play significant roles in structuring ecosystems. Despite their potential importance in facilitating our understanding of ecological systems, only three molecules thus far have been proposed as molecules of keystone significance: saxitoxin and dimethyl sulfide in marine communities and tetrodotoxin in riparian communities. In the course of studying the neuroecology of chemical defenses, we identified three mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs)—N-ethanol palythine (= asterina-330), N-isopropanol palythine (= aplysiapalythine A), and N-ethyl palythine (= aplysiapalythine B)—as intraspecific alarm cues for sea hares (Aplysia californica). These alarm cues are released in the ink secretion of sea hares and cause avoidance behaviors in neighboring conspecifics. Further, we show that these three bioactive MAAs, two [aplysiapalythine A (APA) and -B (APB)] being previously unknown molecules, are present in the algal diet of sea hares and are concentrated in their defensive secretion as well as in their skin. MAAs are known to be produced by algae, fungi, and cyanobacteria and are acquired by many aquatic animals through trophic interactions. MAAs are widely used as sunscreens, among other uses, but sea hares modify their function to serve a previously undocumented role, as intraspecific chemical cues. Our findings highlight the multifunctionality of MAAs and their role in ecological connectivity, suggesting that they may function as molecules of keystone significance in marine ecosystems. PMID:21709250

  17. Nucleolar integrity is required for the maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D Allen

    Full Text Available Long-term memory (LTM formation requires new protein synthesis and new gene expression. Based on our work in Aplysia, we hypothesized that the rRNA genes, stimulation-dependent targets of the enzyme Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1, are primary effectors of the activity-dependent changes in synaptic function that maintain synaptic plasticity and memory. Using electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, pharmacology and molecular biology techniques, we show here, for the first time, that the maintenance of forskolin-induced late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP in mouse hippocampal slices requires nucleolar integrity and the expression of new rRNAs. The activity-dependent upregulation of rRNA, as well as L-LTP expression, are poly(ADP-ribosylation (PAR dependent and accompanied by an increase in nuclear PARP-1 and Poly(ADP ribose molecules (pADPr after forskolin stimulation. The upregulation of PARP-1 and pADPr is regulated by Protein kinase A (PKA and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK--two kinases strongly associated with long-term plasticity and learning and memory. Selective inhibition of RNA Polymerase I (Pol I, responsible for the synthesis of precursor rRNA, results in the segmentation of nucleoli, the exclusion of PARP-1 from functional nucleolar compartments and disrupted L-LTP maintenance. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that new rRNAs (28S, 18S, and 5.8S ribosomal components--hence, new ribosomes and nucleoli integrity--are required for the maintenance of long-term synaptic plasticity. This provides a mechanistic link between stimulation-dependent gene expression and the new protein synthesis known to be required for memory consolidation.

  18. Persistent long-term facilitation at an identified synapse becomes labile with activation of short-term heterosynaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang-Yuan; Schacher, Samuel

    2014-04-02

    Short-term and long-term synaptic plasticity are cellular correlates of learning and memory of different durations. Little is known, however, how these two forms of plasticity interact at the same synaptic connection. We examined the reciprocal impact of short-term heterosynaptic or homosynaptic plasticity at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia in cell culture when expressing persistent long-term facilitation (P-LTF) evoked by serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]. Short-term heterosynaptic plasticity induced by 5-HT (facilitation) or the neuropeptide FMRFa (depression) and short-term homosynaptic plasticity induced by tetanus [post-tetanic potentiation (PTP)] or low-frequency stimulation [homosynaptic depression (HSD)] of the sensory neuron were expressed in both control synapses and synapses expressing P-LTF in the absence or presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. All forms of short-term plasticity failed to significantly affect ongoing P-LTF in the absence of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, P-LTF reversed to control levels when either 5-HT or FMRFa was applied in the presence of rapamycin. In contrast, P-LTF was unaffected when either PTP or HSD was evoked in the presence of either rapamycin or anisomycin. These results indicate that synapses expressing persistent plasticity acquire a "new" baseline and functionally express short-term changes as naive synapses, but the new baseline becomes labile following selective activations-heterosynaptic stimuli that evoke opposite forms of plasticity-such that when presented in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors produce a rapid reversal of the persistent plasticity. Activity-selective induction of a labile state at synapses expressing persistent plasticity may facilitate the development of therapies for reversing inappropriate memories.

  19. Spike-adding in parabolic bursters: The role of folded-saddle canards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Mathieu; Krupa, Martin; Rodrigues, Serafim

    2016-09-01

    The present work develops a new approach to studying parabolic bursting, and also proposes a novel four-dimensional canonical and polynomial-based parabolic burster. In addition to this new polynomial system, we also consider the conductance-based model of the Aplysia R15 neuron known as the Plant model, and a reduction of this prototypical biophysical parabolic burster to three variables, including one phase variable, namely the Baer-Rinzel-Carillo (BRC) phase model. Revisiting these models from the perspective of slow-fast dynamics reveals that the number of spikes per burst may vary upon parameter changes, however the spike-adding process occurs in an explosive fashion that involves special solutions called canards. This spike-adding canard explosion phenomenon is analysed by using tools from geometric singular perturbation theory in tandem with numerical bifurcation techniques. We find that the bifurcation structure persists across all considered systems, that is, spikes within the burst are incremented via the crossing of an excitability threshold given by a particular type of canard orbit, namely the true canard of a folded-saddle singularity. However there can be a difference in the spike-adding transitions in parameter space from one case to another, according to whether the process is continuous or discontinuous, which depends upon the geometry of the folded-saddle canard. Using these findings, we construct a new polynomial approximation of the Plant model, which retains all the key elements for parabolic bursting, including the spike-adding transitions mediated by folded-saddle canards. Finally, we briefly investigate the presence of spike-adding via canards in planar phase models of parabolic bursting, namely the theta model by Ermentrout and Kopell.

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  1. A low-cost microwell device for high-resolution imaging of neurite outgrowth in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Mlodzianoski, Michael J.; Cheun Lee, Aih; Huang, Fang; Suter, Daniel M.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Current neuronal cell culture is mostly performed on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which lack many of the important features of the native environment of neurons, including topographical cues, deformable extracellular matrix, and spatial isotropy or anisotropy in three dimensions. Although three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems provide a more physiologically relevant environment than 2D systems, their popularity is greatly hampered by the lack of easy-to-make-and-use devices. We aim to develop a widely applicable 3D culture procedure to facilitate the transition of neuronal cultures from 2D to 3D. Approach. We made a simple microwell device for 3D neuronal cell culture that is inexpensive, easy to assemble, and fully compatible with commonly used imaging techniques, including super-resolution microscopy. Main results. We developed a novel gel mixture to support 3D neurite regeneration of Aplysia bag cell neurons, a system that has been extensively used for quantitative analysis of growth cone dynamics in 2D. We found that the morphology and growth pattern of bag cell growth cones in 3D culture closely resemble the ones of growth cones observed in vivo. We demonstrated the capability of our device for high-resolution imaging of cytoskeletal and signaling proteins as well as organelles. Significance. Neuronal cell culture has been a valuable tool for neuroscientists to study the behavior of neurons in a controlled environment. Compared to 2D, neurons cultured in 3D retain the majority of their native characteristics, while offering higher accessibility, control, and repeatability. We expect that our microwell device will facilitate a wider adoption of 3D neuronal cultures to study the mechanisms of neurite regeneration.

  2. Vibrational dynamics of thiocyanate and selenocyanate bound to horse heart myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, Michał; Oh, Younjun; Park, Kwanghee; Lee, Jooyong; Cho, Minhaeng, E-mail: mcho@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Kyung-Won [Department of Chemistry, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, SouthKorea (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-21

    The structure and vibrational dynamics of SCN- and SeCN-bound myoglobin have been investigated using polarization-controlled IR pump-probe measurements and quantum chemistry calculations. The complexes are found to be in low and high spin states, with the dominant contribution from the latter. In addition, the Mb:SCN high spin complex exhibits a doublet feature in the thiocyanate stretch IR absorption spectra, indicating two distinct molecular conformations around the heme pocket. The binding mode of the high spin complexes was assigned to occur through the nitrogen atom, contrary to the binding through the sulfur atom that was observed in myoglobin derived from Aplysia Limacina. The vibrational energy relaxation process has been found to occur substantially faster than those of free SCN{sup −} and SeCN{sup −} ions and neutral SCN- and SeCN-derivatized molecules reported previously. This supports the N-bound configurations of MbNCS and MbNCSe, because S- and Se-bound configurations are expected to have significantly long lifetimes due to the insulation effect by heavy bridge atom like S and Se in such IR probes. Nonetheless, even though their lifetimes are much shorter than those of corresponding free ions in water, the vibrational lifetimes determined for MbNCS and MbNCSe are still fairly long compared to those of azide and cyanide myoglobin systems studied before. Thus, thiocyanate and selenocyanate can be good local probes of local electrostatic environment in the heme pocket. The globin dependence on binding mode and vibrational dynamics is also discussed.

  3. Functional validation of Ca2+-binding residues from the crystal structure of the BK ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshatri, Aravind S; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Alberto J; Giraldez, Teresa

    2018-04-01

    BK channels are dually regulated by voltage and Ca 2+ , providing a cellular mechanism to couple electrical and chemical signalling. Intracellular Ca 2+ concentration is sensed by a large cytoplasmic region in the channel known as "gating ring", which is formed by four tandems of regulator of conductance for K + (RCK1 and RCK2) domains. The recent crystal structure of the full-length BK channel from Aplysia californica has provided new information about the residues involved in Ca 2+ coordination at the high-affinity binding sites located in the RCK1 and RCK2 domains, as well as their cooperativity. Some of these residues have not been previously studied in the human BK channel. In this work we have investigated, through site directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology, the effects of these residues on channel activation by voltage and Ca 2+ . Our results demonstrate that the side chains of two non-conserved residues proposed to coordinate Ca 2+ in the A. californica structure (G523 and E591) have no apparent functional role in the human BK Ca 2+ sensing mechanism. Consistent with the crystal structure, our data indicate that in the human channel the conserved residue R514 participates in Ca 2+ coordination in the RCK1 binding site. Additionally, this study provides functional evidence indicating that R514 also interacts with residues E902 and Y904 connected to the Ca 2+ binding site in RCK2. Interestingly, it has been proposed that this interaction may constitute a structural correlate underlying the cooperative interactions between the two high-affinity Ca 2+ binding sites regulating the Ca 2+ dependent gating of the BK channel. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Beyond the Structure-Function Horizon of Membrane Proteins edited by Ute Hellmich, Rupak Doshi and Benjamin McIlwain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of the peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) from the venom ducts of neogastropods, Conus bullatus and Conus geographus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Hasan, Sabah; Burgess, Daniel M; Gajewiak, Joanna; Li, Qing; Hu, Hao; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K

    2013-11-01

    Cone snails, genus Conus, are predatory marine snails that use venom to capture their prey. This venom contains a diverse array of peptide toxins, known as conotoxins, which undergo a diverse set of posttranslational modifications. Amidating enzymes modify peptides and proteins containing a C-terminal glycine residue, resulting in loss of the glycine residue and amidation of the preceding residue. A significant fraction of peptides present in the venom of cone snails contain C-terminal amidated residues, which are important for optimizing biological activity. This study describes the characterization of the amidating enzyme, peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), present in the venom duct of cone snails, Conus bullatus and Conus geographus. PAM is known to carry out two functions, peptidyl α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidylamido-glycolate lyase (PAL). In some animals, such as Drosophila melanogaster, these two functions are present in separate polypeptides, working as individual enzymes. In other animals, such as mammals and in Aplysia californica, PAM activity resides in a single, bifunctional polypeptide. Using specific oligonucleotide primers and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction we have identified and cloned from the venom duct cDNA library, a cDNA with 49% homology to PAM from A. californica. We have determined that both the PHM and PAL activities are encoded in one mRNA polynucleotide in both C. bullatus and C. geographus. We have directly demonstrated enzymatic activity catalyzing the conversion of dansyl-YVG-COOH to dansyl-YV-NH2 in cloned cDNA expressed in Drosophila S2 cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential roles of nonsynaptic and synaptic plasticity in operant reward learning-induced compulsive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieling, Fred; Bédécarrats, Alexis; Simmers, John; Prinz, Astrid A; Nargeot, Romuald

    2014-05-05

    Rewarding stimuli in associative learning can transform the irregularly and infrequently generated motor patterns underlying motivated behaviors into output for accelerated and stereotyped repetitive action. This transition to compulsive behavioral expression is associated with modified synaptic and membrane properties of central neurons, but establishing the causal relationships between cellular plasticity and motor adaptation has remained a challenge. We found previously that changes in the intrinsic excitability and electrical synapses of identified neurons in Aplysia's central pattern-generating network for feeding are correlated with a switch to compulsive-like motor output expression induced by in vivo operant conditioning. Here, we used specific computer-simulated ionic currents in vitro to selectively replicate or suppress the membrane and synaptic plasticity resulting from this learning. In naive in vitro preparations, such experimental manipulation of neuronal membrane properties alone increased the frequency but not the regularity of feeding motor output found in preparations from operantly trained animals. On the other hand, changes in synaptic strength alone switched the regularity but not the frequency of feeding output from naive to trained states. However, simultaneously imposed changes in both membrane and synaptic properties reproduced both major aspects of the motor plasticity. Conversely, in preparations from trained animals, experimental suppression of the membrane and synaptic plasticity abolished the increase in frequency and regularity of the learned motor output expression. These data establish direct causality for the contributions of distinct synaptic and nonsynaptic adaptive processes to complementary facets of a compulsive behavior resulting from operant reward learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of 5-(1-Methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)thiophene-2-Carboxamides as Novel and Selective Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors Used to Improve Memory and Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alan P; Keenan, Terence; Scott, Roderick; Zhou, Xianbo; Bourchouladze, Rusiko; McRiner, Andrew J; Wilson, Mark E; Romashko, Darlene; Miller, Regina; Bletsch, Matthew; Anderson, Gary; Stanley, Jennifer; Zhang, Adia; Lee, Dong; Nikpur, John

    2017-12-20

    Initial work in Drosophila and mice demonstrated that the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) is a master control gene for memory formation. The relationship between CREB and memory has also been found to be true in other species, including aplysia and rats. It is thus well-established that CREB activation plays a central role in memory enhancement and that CREB is activated during memory formation. On the basis of these findings, a phenotypic high-throughput screening campaign utilizing a CRE-luciferase (CRE-Luci) SK-N-MC cell line was performed to identify compounds that enhance transcriptional activation of the CRE promoter with a suboptimal dose of forskolin. A number of small-molecule hits of unknown mechanisms of action were identified in the screening campaign, including HT-0411. Follow-up studies suggested that the CREB activation by HT-0411 is attributed to its specific and selective inhibition of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B). Further, HT-0411 was shown to improve 24 h memory in rodents in a contextual fear conditioning model. This report describes the lead optimization of a series of 5-(1-methyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl) thiophene-2-carboxamides that were identified as novel, potent, and selective inhibitors of MAO-B. Extensive SAR studies and in vivo behavioral evaluations of this and other related analogue series identified a number of potential clinical development candidates; ultimately, compound 8f was identified as a candidate molecule with high selectivity toward MAO-B (29-56 nM) over MAO-A (19% inhibition at a screening concentration of 50 μM), an excellent profile against a panel of other enzymes and receptors, good pharmacokinetic properties in rodents and dogs, and efficacy in multiple rodent memory models.

  7. DockoMatic: automated peptide analog creation for high throughput virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Reed B; Bullock, Casey W; Andersen, Tim; McDougal, Owen M

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is threefold: (1) to describe an update to DockoMatic that allows the user to generate cyclic peptide analog structure files based on protein database (pdb) files, (2) to test the accuracy of the peptide analog structure generation utility, and (3) to evaluate the high throughput capacity of DockoMatic. The DockoMatic graphical user interface interfaces with the software program Treepack to create user defined peptide analogs. To validate this approach, DockoMatic produced cyclic peptide analogs were tested for three-dimensional structure consistency and binding affinity against four experimentally determined peptide structure files available in the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics database. The peptides used to evaluate this new functionality were alpha-conotoxins ImI, PnIA, and their published analogs. Peptide analogs were generated by DockoMatic and tested for their ability to bind to X-ray crystal structure models of the acetylcholine binding protein originating from Aplysia californica. The results, consisting of more than 300 simulations, demonstrate that DockoMatic predicts the binding energy of peptide structures to within 3.5 kcal mol(-1), and the orientation of bound ligand compares to within 1.8 Å root mean square deviation for ligand structures as compared to experimental data. Evaluation of high throughput virtual screening capacity demonstrated that Dockomatic can collect, evaluate, and summarize the output of 10,000 AutoDock jobs in less than 2 hours of computational time, while 100,000 jobs requires approximately 15 hours and 1,000,000 jobs is estimated to take up to a week. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Roles in early development and immunity-related transcriptional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants. AbMAPK1 harbors a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 23 bps, a coding sequence of 1104 bps, and a 3' UTR of 448 bp. The putative peptide comprises a predicted molecular mass of 42.2 kDa, with a theoretical pI of 6.28. Based on the in silico analysis, AbMAPK1 possesses two N-glycosylation sites, one S_TK catalytic domain, and a conserved His-Arg-Asp domain (HRD). In addition, a conservative glycine rich ATP-phosphate-binding loop and a threonine-x-tyrosine motif (TEY) important for the autophosphorylation were also identified in the protein. Homology assessment of AbMAPK1 showed several conserved regions, and ark clam (Aplysia californica) showed the highest sequence identity (87.9%). The phylogenetic analysis supported close evolutionary kinship with molluscan orthologs. Constitutive expression of AbMAPK1 was observed in six different tissues of disk abalone, with the highest expression in the digestive tract, followed by the gills and hemocytes. Highest AbMAPK1 mRNA expression level was detected at the trochophore developmental stage, suggesting its role in abalone cell differentiation and proliferation. Significant modulation of AbMAPK1 expression under pathogenic stress suggested its putative involvement in the immune defense mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Repetition priming of motor activity mediated by a central pattern generator: the importance of extrinsic vs. intrinsic program initiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, Michael J.; Jing, Jian; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition priming is characterized by increased performance as a behavior is repeated. Although this phenomenon is ubiquitous, mediating mechanisms are poorly understood. We address this issue in a model system, the feeding network of Aplysia. This network generates both ingestive and egestive motor programs. Previous data suggest a chemical coding model: ingestive and egestive inputs to the feeding central pattern generator (CPG) release different modulators, which act via different second messengers to prime motor activity in different ways. The ingestive input to the CPG (neuron CBI-2) releases the peptides feeding circuit activating peptide and cerebral peptide 2, which produce an ingestive pattern of activity. The egestive input to the CPG (the esophageal nerve) releases the peptide small cardioactive peptide. This model is based on research that focused on a single aspect of motor control (radula opening). Here we ask whether repetition priming is observed if activity is triggered with a neuron within the core CPG itself and demonstrate that it is not. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that effects of modulatory neurotransmitters that induce repetition priming persist. This suggests that it should be possible to “prime” motor programs triggered from within the CPG by first stimulating extrinsic modulatory inputs. We demonstrate that programs triggered after ingestive input activation are ingestive and programs triggered after egestive input activation are egestive. We ask where this priming occurs and demonstrate modifications within the CPG itself. This arrangement is likely to have important consequences for “task” switching, i.e., the cessation of one type of motor activity and the initiation of another. PMID:27466134

  10. Associations and propositions: the case for a dual-process account of learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, I P L; Forrest, C L D; McLaren, R P; Jones, F W; Aitken, M R F; Mackintosh, N J

    2014-02-01

    We review evidence that supports the conclusion that people can and do learn in two distinct ways - one associative, the other propositional. No one disputes that we solve problems by testing hypotheses and inducing underlying rules, so the issue amounts to deciding whether there is evidence that we (and other animals) also rely on a simpler, associative system, that detects the frequency of occurrence of different events in our environment and the contingencies between them. There is neuroscientific evidence that associative learning occurs in at least some animals (e.g., Aplysia californica), so it must be the case that associative learning has evolved. Since both associative and propositional theories can in principle account for many instances of successful learning, the problem is then to show that there are at least some cases where the two classes of theory predict different outcomes. We offer a demonstration of cue competition effects in humans under incidental conditions as evidence against the argument that all such effects are based on cognitive inference. The latter supposition would imply that if the necessary information is unavailable to inference then no cue competition should occur. We then discuss the case of unblocking by reinforcer omission, where associative theory predicts an irrational solution to the problem, and consider the phenomenon of the Perruchet effect, in which conscious expectancy and conditioned response dissociate. Further discussion makes use of evidence that people will sometimes provide one solution to a problem when it is presented to them in summary form, and another when they are presented in rapid succession with trial-by trial information. We also demonstrate that people trained on a discrimination may show a peak shift (predicted by associative theory), but given the time and opportunity to detect the relationships between S+ and S-, show rule-based behavior instead. Finally, we conclude by presenting evidence that

  11. The genome sequence of the protostome Daphnia pulex encodes respective orthologues of a neurotrophin, a Trk and a p75NTR: Evolution of neurotrophin signaling components and related proteins in the bilateria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Karen HS

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins and their Trk and p75NTR receptors play an important role in the nervous system. To date, neurotrophins, Trk and p75NTR have only been found concomitantly in deuterostomes. In protostomes, homologues to either neurotrophin, Trk or p75NTR are reported but their phylogenetic relationship to deuterostome neurotrophin signaling components is unclear. Drosophila has neurotrophin homologues called Spätzles (Spz, some of which were recently renamed neurotrophins, but direct proof that these are deuterostome neurotrophin orthologues is lacking. Trks belong to the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK family and among RTKs, Trks and RORs are closest related. Flies lack Trks but have ROR and ROR-related proteins called NRKs playing a neurotrophic role. Mollusks have so far the most similar proteins to Trks (Lymnaea Trk and Aplysia Trkl but the exact phylogenetic relationship of mollusk Trks to each other and to vertebrate Trks is unknown. p75NTR belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR superfamily. The divergence of the TNFR families in vertebrates has been suggested to parallel the emergence of the adaptive immune system. Only one TNFR representative, the Drosophila Wengen, has been found in protostomes. To clarify the evolution of neurotrophin signaling components in bilateria, this work analyzes the genome of the crustacean Daphnia pulex as well as new genetic data from protostomes. Results The Daphnia genome encodes a neurotrophin, p75NTR and Trk orthologue together with Trkl, ROR, and NRK-RTKs. Drosophila Spz1, 2, 3, 5, 6 orthologues as well as two new groups of Spz proteins (Spz7 and 8 are also found in the Daphnia genome. Searching genbank and the genomes of Capitella, Helobdella and Lottia reveals neurotrophin signaling components in other protostomes. Conclusion It appears that a neurotrophin, Trk and p75NTR existed at the protostome/deuterostome split. In protostomes, a "neurotrophin superfamily" includes

  12. Cell-Specific PKM Isoforms Contribute to the Maintenance of Different Forms of Persistent Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangyuan; Adler, Kerry; Farah, Carole Abi; Hastings, Margaret H; Sossin, Wayne S; Schacher, Samuel

    2017-03-08

    Multiple kinase activations contribute to long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular mechanism mediating long-term memory. The sensorimotor synapse of Aplysia expresses different forms of long-term facilitation (LTF)-nonassociative and associative LTF-that require the timely activation of kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC). It is not known which PKC isoforms in the sensory neuron or motor neuron L7 are required to sustain each form of LTF. We show that different PKMs, the constitutively active isoforms of PKCs generated by calpain cleavage, in the sensory neuron and L7 are required to maintain each form of LTF. Different PKMs or calpain isoforms were blocked by overexpressing specific dominant-negative constructs in either presynaptic or postsynaptic neurons. Blocking either PKM Apl I in L7, or PKM Apl II or PKM Apl III in the sensory neuron 2 d after 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) treatment reversed persistent nonassociative LTF. In contrast, blocking either PKM Apl II or PKM Apl III in L7, or PKM Apl II in the sensory neuron 2 d after paired stimuli reversed persistent associative LTF. Blocking either classical calpain or atypical small optic lobe (SOL) calpain 2 d after 5-HT treatment or paired stimuli did not disrupt the maintenance of persistent LTF. Soon after 5-HT treatment or paired stimuli, however, blocking classical calpain inhibited the expression of persistent associative LTF, while blocking SOL calpain inhibited the expression of persistent nonassociative LTF. Our data suggest that different stimuli activate different calpains that generate specific sets of PKMs in each neuron whose constitutive activities sustain long-term synaptic plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Persistent synaptic plasticity contributes to the maintenance of long-term memory. Although various kinases such as protein kinase C (PKC) contribute to the expression of long-term plasticity, little is known about how constitutive activation of specific kinase isoforms sustains long

  13. Construction of a medicinal leech transcriptome database and its application to the identification of leech homologs of neural and innate immune genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wincker Patrick

    2010-06-01

    evolutionarily conserved sequences, representing all known pathways involved in these important functions. Conclusions The sequences obtained for Hirudo transcripts represent the first major database of genes expressed in this important model system. Comparison of translated open reading frames (ORFs with the other openly available leech datasets, the genome and transcriptome of Helobdella robusta, shows an average identity at the amino acid level of 58% in matched sequences. Interestingly, comparison with other available Lophotrochozoans shows similar high levels of amino acid identity, where sequences match, for example, 64% with Capitella capitata (a polychaete and 56% with Aplysia californica (a mollusk, as well as 58% with Schistosoma mansoni (a platyhelminth. Phylogenetic comparisons of putative Hirudo innate immune response genes present within the Hirudo transcriptome database herein described show a strong resemblance to the corresponding mammalian genes, indicating that this important physiological response may have older origins than what has been previously proposed.

  14. Construction of a medicinal leech transcriptome database and its application to the identification of leech homologs of neural and innate immune genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macagno, Eduardo R; Gaasterland, Terry; Edsall, Lee; Bafna, Vineet; Soares, Marcelo B; Scheetz, Todd; Casavant, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Salzet, Michel

    2010-06-25

    , representing all known pathways involved in these important functions. The sequences obtained for Hirudo transcripts represent the first major database of genes expressed in this important model system. Comparison of translated open reading frames (ORFs) with the other openly available leech datasets, the genome and transcriptome of Helobdella robusta, shows an average identity at the amino acid level of 58% in matched sequences. Interestingly, comparison with other available Lophotrochozoans shows similar high levels of amino acid identity, where sequences match, for example, 64% with Capitella capitata (a polychaete) and 56% with Aplysia californica (a mollusk), as well as 58% with Schistosoma mansoni (a platyhelminth). Phylogenetic comparisons of putative Hirudo innate immune response genes present within the Hirudo transcriptome database herein described show a strong resemblance to the corresponding mammalian genes, indicating that this important physiological response may have older origins than what has been previously proposed.

  15. A critical period for gravitational effects on otolith formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, M.; Harrison, J.

    Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in fish by the saccule, utricle (as in mammals) and lagena, each with a solid otolith. Previous experiments in which eggs or larvae of a marine mollusk ( plysia) or fish larvae were raised on aA centrifuge, demonstrated that the size of the otolith or statoconia (in Aplysia) were reduced, in a graded manner, as the gfield was increased, suggesting that some- control mechanism was acting to normalize the weight of the mass. Pre-mated adult female swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) were flown in the CEBAS aquarium system on space shuttle missions STS 89 and STS-90 (Neurolab). Developing- larvae were removed from the adult ovaries after shuttle landing. Otolith sizes were compared between ground- and flight -reared larvae of similar sizes. For later-stage swordtail larvae, with spine lengths from 3 to 6 mm from STS-90 (16 days), the growth of the otolith with increasing spine length was significantly greater in the flight - reared fish for all three otoliths, from the saccule (saggita), utricle (lapillus) and lagena (astericus). However, juvenile fish, 1 cm long at launch, showed no significant difference in otolith size between flight - and ground-reared animals. In very early stage larvae from STS-89 (9 days), with spine length of 1.5 to 3.5 mm, the utricular and saccular otoliths were actually larger in the ground-reared larvae. Thus, it appears that late-stage fish embryos reared in space do produce larger-than - normal otoliths, apparently in an attempt to c mpensate for the reduced weight ofo the test mass in space. However, the results from very early-stage larvae and juvenile fish suggest that there is a fairly short critical period during which altered gravity can affect the size of the test mass. Recent studies on the development of the inner ear of the zebrafish (Danio raria) may explain the critical period for gravitational effects on otolith growth. By 16 hours after zebrafish fertilization (at 28.5 o

  16. EDITORIAL: Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology Special issue on optical neural engineering: advances in optical stimulation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Shy; Deisseroth, Karl

    2010-08-01

    and Chalazonitis N 1961 Excitatiory and inhibitory processes initiated by light and infra-red radiations in single identifiable nerve cells Nervous Inhibition ed. E Florey (New York: Pergamon) pP 194-231 [5] Fork R L 1971 Laser stimulation of nerve cells in Aplysia Science 171 907-8 [6] Allegre G, Avrillier S and Albe-Fessard D 1994 Stimulation in the rat of a nerve fiber bundle by a short UV pulse from an excimer laser Neurosci. Lett. 180 261-4 [7] Hirase H, Nikolenko V, Goldberg J H and Yuste R 2002 Multiphoton stimulation of neurons J. Neurobiol. 51 237-47 [8] Callaway E M and Yuste R 2002 Stimulating neurons with light Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12 587-92 [9] Ellis-Davies G C 2007 Caged compounds: photorelease technology for control of cellular chemistry and physiology Nat. Methods 4 619-28 [10] Shoham S, O'Connor D H, Sarkisov D V and Wang S S 2005 Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns Nat. Methods 2 837-43 [11] Nikolenko V, Poskanzer K E and Yuste R 2007 Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits Nat. Methods 4 943-50 [12] Lutz C, Otis T S, DeSars V, Charpak S, DiGregorio D A and Emiliani V 2008 Holographic photolysis of caged neurotransmitters Nat. Methods 5 821-7 [13] Nikolenko V, Watson B O, Araya R, Woodruff A, Peterka D S and Yuste R 2008 SLM microscopy: scanless two-photon imaging and photostimulation with spatial light modulators Front. Neural Circuits 2 5 [14] Zahid M, Velez-Fort M, Papagiakoumou E, Ventalon C, Angulo M C and Emiliani V Holographic photolysis for multiple cell stimulation in mouse hippocampal slices PLoS One 5 e9431 [15] Boyden E S, Zhang F, Bamberg E, Nagel G and Deisseroth K 2005 Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity Nat. Neurosci. 8 1263-8 [16] Zhang F, Aravanis A M, Adamantidis A, de Lecea L and Deisseroth K 2007 Circuit-breakers: optical technologies for probing neural signals and systems Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 577-81 [17] Gradinaru V, Zhang F, Ramakrishnan