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Sample records for aplicada ao retinoblastoma

  1. Dosimetric intercomparison between protons and electrons therapies applied to retinoblastoma; Intercomparacao dosimetrica entre terapias de protons e eletrons aplicada ao retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Flavia Vieira

    2008-07-01

    In this work we propose a construction of a simple human eye model in order to simulate the dosimetric response for a treatment with protons and electrons in a retinoblastoma cancer. The computational tool used in this simulation was the Geant4 code, in the version 4.9.1, all these package are free and permit simulate the interaction of radiation with matter. In our simulation we use a box with 4 cm side, with water, for represent the human eye. The simulation was performed considering mono energetics beams of protons and electrons with energy range between 50 and 70 MeV for protons and 2 and 10 MeV for electrons. The simulation was based on the advanced hadron therapy example of the Geant 4 code. In these example the phantom is divided in voxels with 0.2 mm side and it is generated the energy deposited in each voxel. The simulation results show the energy deliver in each voxel, with these energie we can calculate the dose deposited in that region. We can see the dose profile of, proton and electron, and we can see in both cases that for protons the position of delivered dose is well know, that happen in the position where the proton stop, for electrons the energies is delivered along the way and pass the desired position for high dose deposition. (author)

  2. REALIDADE AUMENTADA APLICADA AO DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Bruno Chagas Alves; Sánchez, Joaquín Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta o atual estado da arte da Realidade Aumentada aplicada ao design. São apresentados exemplos de aplicações da Realidade Aumentada em áreas como design de produtos, arquitetura, indústria automotiva, educação e design colaborativo. Também é apresentada uma rápida visão geral sobre as tecnologias envolvidas na criação de aplicações de Realidade Aumentada.

  3. Realidade aumentada aplicada ao design

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Sánchez, Joaquín

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta o estado da arte da Realidade Aumentada aplicada ao design. São apresentados exemplos de aplicações da Realidade Aumentada em áreas como design de produtos, arquitetura, indústria automotiva, educação e design colaborativo. Também é apresentada uma rápida visão geral sobre as tecnologias envolvidas na criação de aplicações de Realidade Aumentada.

  4. REALIDADE AUMENTADA APLICADA AO DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Chagas Alves Fernandes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o atual estado da arte da Realidade Aumentada aplicada ao design. São apresentados exemplos de aplicações da Realidade Aumentada em áreas como design de produtos, arquitetura, indústria automotiva, educação e design colaborativo. Também é apresentada uma rápida visão geral sobre as tecnologias envolvidas na criação de aplicações de Realidade Aumentada.

  5. Biotecnologia aplicada ao desenvolvimento de vacinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Diniz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As vacinas representam a estratégia de intervenção com a melhor relação custo-benefício até hoje aplicada em saúde pública. Avanços biotecnológicos em diversas áreas de pesquisa têm contribuído para o desenvolvimento de formulações mais seguras e eficazes. Além disso, a aplicação de ferramentas biotecnológicas no desenvolvimento de vacinas tem provocado mudanças na maneira como pensamos e produzimos esses reagentes tanto para uso em humanos como em animais. Essas tecnologias trazem perspectivas de que, em futuro próximo, vacinas para o controle de doenças infecciosas e degenerativas ainda não passíveis de prevenção possam estar disponíveis. Em particular, vacinas com efeitos terapêuticos, embora representem um enorme desafio a ser vencido, tornam-se cada vez próximas da realidade e, certamente, terão um impacto enorme no tratamento de diversas doenças, como em algumas formas de câncer.Vaccines represent the intervention strategy with the best cost-benefit ratio so far applied in public health. Biotechnological advances in various areas of vaccine research have contributed to the development of safer and more effective formulations. Moreover, application of biotechnology tools to vaccine development has caused changes in the way we think and produce these reagents both for use in humans and animals. Such technologies bring renewed perspectives that, in the near future, vaccines for the control of several non-preventable infectious and degenerative diseases will be available. In particular, the development of vaccines with therapeutic effects, although representing a huge challenge, are getting closer to reality and will have a tremendous impact in the treatment of several diseases such as some cancer forms.

  6. Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2007-08-01

    Espera-se que o educando ao final da educação básica, adquira uma compreensão atualizada das hipóteses, modelos e formas de investigação sobre a origem e evolução do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre três práticas pedagógicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira série do Ensino Médio, da Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formação e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi através de um questionário onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento já existente acerca do tema em questão. O questionário é composto de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das três turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderão novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, já podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas são as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se já haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porém quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, não dependendo unicamente da escola. Até o presente momento, verificou-se que há interesse em

  7. Retinoblastoma

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    Aerts Isabelle

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinoblastoma is a rare eye tumor of childhood that arises in the retina. It is the most common intraocular malignancy of infancy and childhood; with an incidence of 1/15,000–20,000 live births. The two most frequent symptoms revealing retinoblastoma are leukocoria and strabismus. Iris rubeosis, hypopyon, hyphema, buphthalmia, orbital cellulites and exophthalmia may also be observed. Sixty per cent of retinoblastomas are unilateral and most of these forms are not hereditary (median age at diagnosis two years. Retinoblastoma is bilateral in 40% of cases (median age at diagnosis one year. All bilateral and multifocal unilateral forms are hereditary. Hereditary retinoblastoma constitutes a cancer predisposition syndrome: a subject constitutionally carrying an RB1 gene mutation has a greater than 90% risk of developing retinoblastoma but is also at increased risk of developing other types of cancers. Diagnosis is made by fundoscopy. Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT scans may contribute to diagnosis. Management of patients with retinoblastoma must take into account the various aspects of the disease: the visual risk, the possibly hereditary nature of the disease, the life-threatening risk. Enucleation is still often necessary in unilateral disease; the decision for adjuvant treatment is taken according to the histological risk factors. Conservative treatment for at least one eye is possible in most of the bilateral cases. It includes laser alone or combined with chemotherapy, cryotherapy and brachytherapy. The indication for external beam radiotherapy should be restricted to large ocular tumors and diffuse vitreous seeding because of the risk of late effects, including secondary sarcoma. Vital prognosis, related to retinoblastoma alone, is now excellent in patients with unilateral or bilateral forms of retinoblastoma. Long term follow-up and early counseling regarding the risk of second primary

  8. Retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjardins, L.; Doz, F.; Schlienger, P.; Validire, P.; Quintana, E.; Zucker, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Early symptoms of retinoblastoma (leukocoria, strabismus) and the various steps of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis are reviewed. Retrolental fibroplasia, larva migrans, Coats disease, and above all uveitis are the main differential diagnoses. Pathologic features that allow the diagnosis and have a bearing on the prognosis are described. Genetic factors involved in the genesis of retinoblastoma are reviewed, including recent data provides by molecular biology studies of chromosome 13. Currently available treatments include enucleation, external beam radiation, iodine-125 disks, xenon photo-coagulation, cryo-application, chemotherapy, and carbo-platinum combined with diode laser hyperthermia. The indications of each of these methods in intra- and extra-ocular retinoblastomas are discussed, as well as results and complications. Emphasis is put on the high risk of a second cancer. 47 refs., 4 figs

  9. Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaras, Helen; Kimani, Kahaki; Dimba, Elizabeth A O; Gronsdahl, Peggy; White, Abby; Chan, Helen S L; Gallie, Brenda L

    2012-04-14

    Retinoblastoma is an aggressive eye cancer of infancy and childhood. Survival and the chance of saving vision depend on severity of disease at presentation. Retinoblastoma was the first tumour to draw attention to the genetic aetiology of cancer. Despite good understanding of its aetiology, mortality from retinoblastoma is about 70% in countries of low and middle income, where most affected children live. Poor public and medical awareness, and an absence of rigorous clinical trials to assess innovative treatments impede progress. Worldwide, most of the estimated 9000 newly diagnosed patients every year will die. However, global digital communications present opportunities to optimise standards of care for children and families affected by this rare and often devastating cancer. Parents are now leading the effort for widespread awareness of the danger of leucocoria. Genome-level technologies could make genetic testing a reality for every family affected by retinoblastoma. Best-practice guidelines, online sharing of pathological images, point-of-care data entry, multidisciplinary research, and clinical trials can reduce mortality. Most importantly, active participation of survivors and families will ensure that the whole wellbeing of the child is prioritised in any treatment plan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, J.

    1980-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare, highly malignant tumour of the retina which predominantly affects young children. The growth originates from single or multiple foci in the retina of one or both eyes. The tumour may occur either sporadically or may be inherited. Retinoblastoma is extra-ordinary in its medical, genetic and therapeutic significance. The irradiation method which has been used for the conservative treatment of retinoblastoma at Utrecht since 1971 is described. Treatment is carried out on a 6 MeV or 8 MeV linear accelerator using a lateral D-shaped field of 26x32 mm 2 . This D-shaped field is especially contoured to irradiate the entire retina with sparing of the radiosensitive lens as much as possible. Between 1971 and 1980, 30 children with retinoblastoma have received irradiation to at least one eye using the accurate irradiation technique. The results of treatment of these patients are presented. In the treatment it is not always possible to entirely exclude the lens from the treatment field. As a consequence, cataract may be induced. (Auth.)

  11. Física Aplicada ao Trânsito: Uma revisão de Literatura

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    Patrick Alves Vizzotto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma das formas de se abordar a Física na Educação Básica para que sua aprendizagem possa ganhar maior significado é abordando fenômenos que façam parte da vida dos estudantes, como por exemplo as situações aplicadas no trânsito. Este artigo apresenta resultados obtidos de uma pesquisa bibliométrica sobre a produção acadêmica nacional da temática Física aplicada ao trânsito. O objetivo foi realizar uma revisão de literatura e analisar o estado da arte da produção acadêmica citada a fim de observar de que forma a temática vem sendo trabalhada na pesquisa e no ensino. A busca recuperou 2491 documentos, porém apenas 20 foram aproveitados na temática de interesse. Entre as ideias em comum levantadas, encontramos a importância de abordar o tema trânsito durante todos os anos da educação básica; a relevância da contextualização no Ensino de Física; e a influência dos aspectos emocionais na aprendizagem. Constatamos que, apesar do grande potencial para o ensino de Física, pouco tem se desenvolvido em pesquisas sobre o tema. Isso pode explicar a dificuldade na compreensão e assimilação de conceitos físicos amplamente utilizados no cotidiano do trânsito.

  12. Normas e práticas contábeis aplicadas ao Terceiro Setor

    OpenAIRE

    Franciane Santos Silva

    2009-01-01

    Observa-se um grande crescimento de organizações não-governamentais, que não visam ao lucro e produzem serviços para o atendimento das demandas da coletividade. Constitui um setor específico, para além do Estado - primeiro setor - e do setor privado - segundo setor -, que se convencionou chamar terceiro setor. O governo brasileiro tem buscado mecanismos para normatizar as ações desse setor, especialmente no que diz respeito ao repasse de recursos públicos. Neste contexto, a contabilidade pass...

  13. Análise do conceito de tecnologia educacional em enfermagem aplicada ao paciente

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    Aline Cruz Esmeraldo Áfio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue analizar el concepto de tecnología educacional, producido por la Enfermería, aplicada al paciente. Se utilizó el Modelo de Evolución de Análisis del Concepto, identificándose antecedentes, atributos, y consecuentes. Se seleccionaron 13 artículos para análisis, donde se identificaron los antecedentes: deficiencia de conocimiento, escasez de tiempo de los profesionales de enfermería, optimización del trabajo da enfermería, necesidad de alcanzar metas de pacientes; atributos: herramienta, estrategia, abordaje innovador, enfoque pedagógico, mediadora de conocimientos, forma creativa de estimular la adquisición de competencias, instrumento de producción de salud; consecuentes: mejora de calidad de vida, estímulo a comportamientos saludables, empoderamiento, reflexión y vínculo. Se enfatiza la importancia de las tecnologías educacionales para la atención de enfermería, al dinamizar actividades de educación en salud.

  14. Criptografia homomórfica aplicada ao voto eletrônico

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fábio Cristiano Souza

    2014-01-01

    A democracia representativa depende do planejamento e da execução adequada de uma eleição. Requisitos de segurança e restrições rigorosas são impostas na tentativa de evitar resultados duvidosos e fraudes dos mais variados tipos. Sistemas de votação eletrônica têm sido introduzidos visando mitigar os problemas associados aos métodos tradicionais. No entanto, a segurança desses sistemas ainda é insuficiente, principalmente, no que diz respeito à privacidade do eleitor e a verifi...

  15. Gestão baseada em valor aplicada ao terceiro setor

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Neto,Alexandre; Araújo,Adriana Maria Procópio de; Fregonesi,Mariana Simões Ferraz do Amaral

    2006-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, o mundo assistiu ao crescimento do assistencialismo e das preocupações sociais. Pessoas se reúnem e formam instituições cujo único objetivo é tentar amenizar problemas sociais. Surge o chamado Terceiro Setor, que vem crescendo e conseguindo ajudar no suprimento das carências resultantes da incapacidade do governo em exercer o seu papel. No entanto, muitas organizações desse setor apresentam problemas de gestão. A metodologia centra-se em revisão bibliográfica sobre os temas ...

  16. Normas e práticas contábeis aplicadas ao Terceiro Setor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Santos Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Observa-se um grande crescimento de organizações não-governamentais, que não visam ao lucro e produzem serviços para o atendimento das demandas da coletividade. Constitui um setor específico, para além do Estado - primeiro setor - e do setor privado - segundo setor -, que se convencionou chamar terceiro setor. O governo brasileiro tem buscado mecanismos para normatizar as ações desse setor, especialmente no que diz respeito ao repasse de recursos públicos. Neste contexto, a contabilidade passou a ser requerida pelos vários organismos governamentais e não-governamentais, para o fornecimento de demonstrações contábeis e outras informações por ela geradas. No entanto, verifica-se que, apesar da existência de alguns normativos contábeis, tais como as normas editadas pelo Conselho Federal de Contabilidade (NBC T 10.4, 10.16, 10.18 e 10.19, e a obrigatoriedade da observação dos princípios fundamentais de contabilidade, no existe uma uniformidade nos procedimentos contábeis adotados pelo terceiro setor.

  17. GEOTECNOLOGIAS APLICADAS AO MONITORAMENTO DA COBERTURA VEGETAL DO MACIÇO DE BATURITÉ - CE

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    Francisco Gessivaldo Regino Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido às condições edafoclimáticas, as serras úmidas do Ceará são propícias para a produção agrícola e para a concentração demográfica. O Maciço de Baturité constitui-se em um dos mais expressivos compartimentos de relevo com proximidade ao litoral, sendo que sua sub-região serrana tem sido alvo das ações humanas desde o início da ocupação da região. Os problemas ambientais identificados nessa região são causados pelos desmatamentos oriundos de práticas agrícolas com técnicas rudimentares, construções particulares de casas de veraneio, cultivos em áreas de acentuadas declividades e remoção da vegetação das nascentes dos rios. Além disso, um forte aumento da especulação imobiliária aliado aos diversos eventos culturais de abrangência nacional, também impulsionam o interesse pela mesma. Nesse sentido, a presente pesquisa faz uso das geotecnologias para analisar a perda da cobertura vegetal da sub-região serrana do Maciço de Baturité nos últimos 21 anos. Se a contínua remoção da cobertura vegetal do Maciço de Baturité não for contida, diversos problemas de cunho socioambiental serão realidade para as populações que o habitam. Portanto, a administração pública deve exercer papel fiscalizador, reduzindo a ação da especulação imobiliária e criar políticas voltadas para a geração de renda e inclusão social. A Educação Ambiental deve ser focada nas escolas e treinamentos devem ser aplicados aos pequenos agricultores para que possam utilizar o solo de maneira apropriada. Desta forma a ânsia por um desenvolvimento sustentável poderá tornar-se real e as gerações futuras também poderão usufruir das belezas naturais do Maciço de Baturité.

  18. Redes Colaborativas e Cadeia de Abastecimento: Uma Análise Regional Aplicada ao Setor Vitivinicula

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    Luísa Margarida Cagica Carvalho

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da complexidade e da competitividade dos mercados, assim como a imprevisibilidade gerada no actual contexto económico passaram a constituir factores envolventes de acrescida exigência para as empresas. Neste cenário, a colaboração entre empresas formando redes colaborativas assumiu-se como um tema dominante na gestão da cadeia de abastecimento e tem vindo a ser reconhecida como um factor determinante para melhorar a sua força competitiva. Este artigo tem por objectivo apresentar uma visão geral da evolução da investigação relacionada com a colaboração na cadeia de abastecimento, com particular aplicação ao setor vinícola, numa perspetiva de desenvolvimento regional. Este artigo pode dar contributos que permitem servir de referencial para o desenvolvimento de metodologias e de instrumentos que permitam monitorizar o desempenho da colaboração, bem como avaliar boas práticas que resultem da sinergia da colaboração inter-empresas e que sejam passíveis de disseminação e adopção, quer em termos de políticas públicas regionais, quer em termos empresariais.

  19. Meta heurística tabu search aplicada ao problema de projeto de redes de transporte

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    Leonardo Campo DalI'Orto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Na otimização clássica o problema de projetos de redes de serviço é formulado como um problema inteiro misto. Esta abordagem resulta em uma formulação com um número grande de variáveis e restrições. Utilizar técnicas de enumeração para resolver este problema é extremamente dispendioso em relação ao tempo computacional, quando se trabalha em um contexto dinâmico este problema é ainda mais contundente. Nossa idéia é decompor a rede em vários subproblemas enraizados em um terminal (nó e resolvê-los um a um. Cada subproblema representa a operação de um despachante em um dado período e iteração. A estratégia de solução para cada subproblema é encontrar uma solução inicial factível e aprimorá-la utilizando uma meta-heurística. No nosso caso, usaremos a idéia das cadeias de ejeção e técnicas de busca na vizinhança encontradas na meta-heurística tabu search. O objetivo é encontrar rapidamente uma solução de alta qualidade.

  20. Neonatal retinoblastoma

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    Tero T Kivelä

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From 7% to 10% of all retinoblastomas and from 44% to 71% of familial retinoblastomas in developed countries are diagnosed in the neonatal period, usually through pre- or post-natal screening prompted by a positive family history and sometimes serendipitously during screening for retinopathy of prematurity or other reasons. In developing countries, neonatal diagnosis of retinoblastoma has been less common. Neonatal retinoblastoma generally develops from a germline mutation of RB1, the retinoblastoma gene, even when the family history is negative and is thus usually hereditary. At least one-half of infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have unilateral tumors when the diagnosis is made, typically the International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (Murphree Group B or higher, but most germline mutation carriers will progress to bilateral involvement, typically Group A in the fellow eye. Neonatal leukokoria usually leads to the diagnosis in children without a family history of retinoblastoma, and a Group C tumor or higher is typical in the more advanced involved eye. Almost all infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have at least one eye with a tumor in proximity to the foveola, but the macula of the fellow eye is frequently spared. Consequently, loss of reading vision from both eyes is exceptional. A primary ectopic intracranial neuroblastic tumor known as trilateral retinoblastoma is no more common after neonatal than other retinoblastoma. For many reasons, neonatal retinoblastoma may be a challenge to eradicate, and the early age at diagnosis and relatively small tumors do not guarantee the preservation of both eyes of every involved child. Oncology nurses can be instrumental in contributing to better outcomes by ensuring that hereditary retinoblastoma survivors receive genetic counseling, by referring families of survivors to early screening programs when they are planning for a baby, and by providing psychological and practical support

  1. Neonatal Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Tero T.; Hadjistilianou, Theodora

    2017-01-01

    From 7% to 10% of all retinoblastomas and from 44% to 71% of familial retinoblastomas in developed countries are diagnosed in the neonatal period, usually through pre- or post-natal screening prompted by a positive family history and sometimes serendipitously during screening for retinopathy of prematurity or other reasons. In developing countries, neonatal diagnosis of retinoblastoma has been less common. Neonatal retinoblastoma generally develops from a germline mutation of RB1, the retinoblastoma gene, even when the family history is negative and is thus usually hereditary. At least one-half of infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have unilateral tumors when the diagnosis is made, typically the International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (Murphree) Group B or higher, but most germline mutation carriers will progress to bilateral involvement, typically Group A in the fellow eye. Neonatal leukokoria usually leads to the diagnosis in children without a family history of retinoblastoma, and a Group C tumor or higher is typical in the more advanced involved eye. Almost all infants with neonatal retinoblastoma have at least one eye with a tumor in proximity to the foveola, but the macula of the fellow eye is frequently spared. Consequently, loss of reading vision from both eyes is exceptional. A primary ectopic intracranial neuroblastic tumor known as trilateral retinoblastoma is no more common after neonatal than other retinoblastoma. For many reasons, neonatal retinoblastoma may be a challenge to eradicate, and the early age at diagnosis and relatively small tumors do not guarantee the preservation of both eyes of every involved child. Oncology nurses can be instrumental in contributing to better outcomes by ensuring that hereditary retinoblastoma survivors receive genetic counseling, by referring families of survivors to early screening programs when they are planning for a baby, and by providing psychological and practical support for parents when

  2. NORMAS BRASILEIRAS E INTERNACIONAIS DE CONTABILIDADE APLICADAS AO SETOR PÚBLICO E O DESAFIO DA CONVERGÊNCIA: UMA ANÁLISE COMPARATIVA – IPSAS E NBCTSP

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    Adriana Rodrigues Fragoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo analisar o estágio atual de convergência conceitual entre as normas brasileiras de contabilidade aplicadas ao setor público (NBCTSP e as International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS. A complexidade e diversidade de transações entre entidades do setor público ou privado, gerada pela internacionalização de mercados, demandam uma avaliação contínua e dinâmica dos eventos que promovem a modificação quantitativa ou qualitativa de um patrimônio. Para esse processo de avaliação, a observação dos princípios e normas de contabilidade é importante para garantir, entre outras características da informação, a compreensibilidade e comparabilidade, reduzindo custos aos investidores e usuários, em geral, considerando as barreiras encontradas na diversidade de idiomas, culturas, políticas fiscais e econômicas. Para a análise de convergência, foi efetuado um estudo comparativo do conteúdo das normas, a partir de uma análise descritiva, com o intuito de verificar a aderência existente entre as normas brasileiras e internacionais aplicadas ao setor público. Os resultados encontrados destacam que ainda há diversos aspectos a serem discutidos para uma efetiva convergência às normas internacionais; esta convergência atual é parcial. No entanto, verifica-se que as NBCTSPs apresentam uma exposição conceitual de qualidade enquanto as IPSAS apresentam um conteúdo mais focado em procedimentos operacionais.

  3. A proibição de comportamento contraditório aplicada ao Direito Processual Civil

    OpenAIRE

    Romeu, Talita Macedo

    2012-01-01

    124 p. A aplicação da boa-fé objetiva ao processo civil conduz à revalorização dos princípios da cooperação e da lealdade, inerentes à realização do contraditório, impondo aos sujeitos do processo o dever de atuar conforme o padrão de confiança esperado em dada relação jurídica. Quando o comportamento adotado por um sujeito processual (partes ou juiz) for contraditório ao seu comportamento anterior, é necessário investigar se tal conduta revela deslealdade, capaz de frustrar as expectativa...

  4. Objeto de aprendizagem como ferramenta de modelagem computacional exploratÃria aplicada ao ensino de fÃsica

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Herbert Lima Vasconcelos

    2008-01-01

    Pesquisas em InformÃtica Educativa demonstram novas possibilidades no desenvolvimento e na aprendizagem de conceitos fÃsicos mediados por ambientes computacionais. Recursos como a simulaÃÃo e a animaÃÃo interativa permitem aos alunos uma melhor construÃÃo de conceitos e novas formas de representaÃÃo mental do modelo fÃsico explorado. Dentre os ambientes computacionais desenvolvidos atualmente, destacam-se os Objetos de Aprendizagem (OA). Apenas a utilizaÃÃo de tais recursos nÃo...

  5. Geotecnologias aplicadas ao estudo de precipita??o e desmatamento na por??o Sul da Amaz?nia

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    Seixas, Ian Marins

    2011-01-01

    Na Amaz?nia, os impactos das diversas atividades (extra??o de madeira, minera??o e agropecu?ria) sobre a floresta geram a destrui??o da biodiversidade, a degrada??o dos solos e poss?veis altera??es clim?ticas. A floresta possui uma intensa intera??o com a atmosfera ao fornecer uma grande quantidade de calor e vapor d ?gua contribuindo para a umidade local. Considerando o atual cen?rio de desmatamento no sul da Amaz?nia (Arco do Desmatamento), tem-se como hip?tese que a transforma??o do uso da...

  6. ANÁLISE DAS NORMAS BRASILEIRAS DE CONTABILIDADE APLICADAS AO SETOR PÚBLICO (NBCASP: UM ESTUDO NAS UNIDADES DA FEDERAÇÃO DO BRASIL

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    Francisca Francivânia Rodrigues Ribeiro Macêdo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a aderência das Unidades da Federação do Brasil às Normas Brasileiras de Contabilidade Aplicadas ao Setor Público. A metodologia utilizada na pesquisa configura–se como descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, realizada por meio de pesquisa documental. Os dados da pesquisa revelam que no exercício de 2010, 2011 e 2012 o disclosure dos órgãos públicos do Estado no que concerne à aderência às Normas Brasileiras de Contabilidade Aplicadas ao Setor Público (NBCASP que convergem com as International Public Sector Accounting Standard (IPSAS ainda é incipiente. Ressalta-se que pontos importantes constantes nas normas NBCT 16.3 e NBCT 16.8, que versam, respectivamente, sobre a divulgação do PPA, LDO e Controle Interno ainda não são respeitados, mesmo que tais itens tenham sua divulgação obrigatória exigida na Constituição Federal e pela Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal. Observou-se também que das 27 unidades federativas, apenas os Estados de Minas Gerais, Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe, Bahia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Tocantins, Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul não evidenciaram a conta intitulada intangível. Nenhum dos Estados evidenciou a Demonstração do Fluxo de Caixa e a Demonstração do Resultado Econômico ou se mencionou algo sobre o sistema de custos ou a avaliação das disponibilidades e direitos e títulos de crédito. Conclui-se que os Estados brasileiros ainda não estão preparados para iniciar a divulgação obrigatória segundo as NBCASP, dado o nível de disclosure evidenciado até o momento.

  7. As Normas Brasileiras de Contabilidade aplicadas ao setor público e a legislação contábil pública brasileira: uma análise comparativa à luz da teoria contábil

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    Diana Vaz de Lima

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Em um contexto de desenvolvimento de diretrizes estratégicas para o aperfeiçoamento da ContabilidadePública brasileira, o Conselho Federal de Contabilidade publicou, em 2008, as primeiras Normas de Contabilidade Aplicadas ao Setor Público (NBC T 16, visando contribuir para o fortalecimento e a uniformização de procedimentos contábeis patrimoniais em âmbito nacional, de modo que, além de cumprir os aspectos legais e formais, a Contabilidade Pública brasileira reflita a essência das transações governamentais e seu impacto no patrimônio. Diante desse cenário, o presente estudo compara a Lei nº. 4.320/64, a Lei nº. 101/00 e as Normas Brasileiras de Contabilidade Aplicadas ao Setor Público para verificar a aderência da legislação vigente aos critérios contábeis de mensuração, reconhecimento e evidenciação presentes na teoria contábil. Os resultados mostraram que apesar de se apresentarem como marcos da legislação contábil pública brasileira, a Lei nº. 4.320/1964 e a Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF não incorporaram em sua essência os fundamentos da Teoria Contábil. Palavras-chave: Contabilidade aplicada ao setor público; legislação contábil pública; Normas Brasileiras de Contabilidade aplicadas ao setor público; teoria contábil.

  8. Altimetria GNSS de precisão aplicada ao monitoramento da dinâmica sedimentar costeira de curta duração em escala regional

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    Marcelo Soares Teles Santos

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta metodologia utilizada na altimetria GNSS de precisão aplicada em estudos costeiros de praias arenosas localizadas no Litoral Setentrional do Rio Grande do Norte, baseada em cálculo, modelagem e remoção da Componente Sistemática (CS do modelo geoidal. Os métodos foram aplicados e avaliados utilizando o modelo geoidal MAPGEO. O cálculo da CS foi realizado em Referências de Nível (RNs localizadas na área de estudo pela subtração entre as alturas geoidais gravimétricas, obtidas pelo modelo geoidal, e as geométricas, obtidas pelo posicionamento GNSS em RNs. Após modelagem e remoção da CS, por um modelo superfície polinomial quadrático, a CS calculada, com média de -0,498 m, Desvio Padrão (DP de 0,110 m e Erro Quadrático Médio (EQM de 0,509 m, passou a ter média nula, DP de 0,065 m e EQM de 0,062 m. Avaliações realizadas a partir de pontos de controle externos ao modelo mostraram que a metodologia forneceu acurácia decimétrica à altimetria GNSS, adequada ao monitoramento da elevada dinâmica sedimentar em ambientes costeiros, fato comprovado no estudo de caso apresentado.

  9. REDE CLIMATOLÓGICA DE MESOESCALA APLICADA AO ESTUDO DA ILHA DE CALOR URBANO: O CASO DE ARACAJU-SE

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    Max Anjos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo é apresentada uma rede climatológica local com o objetivo de efetuar uma correta avaliação das condições mesoclimáticas, nomeadamente das consequências do efeito da Ilha de Calor Urbano (ICU em Aracaju. A rede de mesoescala seguiu princípios e conceitos definidos para as áreas urbanas, particularmente no que concerne às questões relacionadas com as escalas climáticas, a exposição dos equipamentos, a morfologia urbana e os metadados. Os presentes resultados atualizaram a intensidade da ICU de Aracaju confrontando a tendência encontrada nos estudos iniciais. A ICU tanto diurna como noturna não foi expressiva em termos médios (entorno de 0,5ºC, refletindo um predomínio de intensidades baixas (diferenças térmicas de até 2ºC, cujas frequências superaram os 85% ao longo do ano. Adicionalmente, são apresentadas parcerias com setores estratégicos da sociedade que endossam as observações meteorológicas como mecanismo importante para o funcionamento da cidade.

  10. As medidas aplicadas aos acordos SPS e TBT sobre as exportações brasileiras de fumo

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    Carlos Otávio de Freitas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar os efeitos das medidas não tarifárias, especificamente as medidas sanitárias e fitossanitárias - SPS e medidas técnicas - TBT, sobre as exportações brasileiras de fumo e se tais efeitos permaneceram nos períodos subsequentes à emissão das notificações. Para tal, foi estimado um modelo gravitacional utilizando uma amostra de 89 países importadores do fumo do Brasil entre o período de 1997 a 2011. O método utilizado na estimação das equações foi o modelo Poisson-Pseudo Maximum Likehood-PPML. Os resultados obtidos mostram que as medidas ou SPS afetaram negativamente o fluxo internacional do comércio de fumo. Além disso, verificou-se que esses efeitos perduraram nos períodos posteriores à emissão da notificação, sendo que as empresas exportadores podem demorar até dois anos para se ajustarem às exigências requeridas. Dentre os objetivos das notificações SPS, a maior parte está relacionada a medidas para proteção da saúde humana e proteção da planta, o que pode explicar a maior dificuldade de adequação, pois são exigências que demandam grandes investimentos. Já as medidas TBT não foram estatisticamente significativas, confirmando o caráter não restritivo dessas notificações sobre o comércio internacional de fumo. Apesar da maior parte das notificações ao fumo estarem associadas a medidas técnicas, os resultados indicaram que elas não configuraram como barreiras ao comércio de fumo. Isso pode sugerir que as exigências a elas referidas, que, em sua grande maioria, foi referente à rotulagem e/ou embalagem, foram atendidas pelo Brasil sem maiores dificuldades. Dessa forma, torna-se importante a inclusão de questões referentes à regulamentação dessas medidas nas discussões e processos de tomada de decisão das empresas exportadoras de fumo. Em termos de ações governamentais, seria interessante a criação ou aperfeiçoamento de políticas no sentido

  11. Redes neurais artificiais aplicadas ao processo de coagulação Artificial neural networks applied to the coagulation process

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    Fábio Conceição de Menezes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A coagulação é uma etapa de tratamento da água, e para tal são realizados ensaios de teste de jarro que permitem determinar a dose necessária dos agentes coagulante e químico de ajuste de pH no processo de coagulação. Contudo, esses ensaios demoram a ser executados, não respondendo em tempo real às mudanças da qualidade da água bruta. Para superar tal limitação, redes neurais artificiais multicamadas foram construídas (e seus pesos sinápticos ajustados, validadas e testadas para predizer a dosagem do hidróxido de sódio e do sulfato de alumínio - utilizados como agentes químico de ajuste de pH e coagulante, respectivamente. Os resultados dos modelos obtidos são compatíveis com os dados experimentais tendo em vista que as incertezas das estimativas estão na mesma ordem de grandeza das faixas indicadas pelos ensaios realizados de testes de jarro ao longo de quase seis anos.Coagulation is a stage in water treatment and, for this, jar tests are performed, which allows determining the optimal coagulant and alkalizer doses in coagulation process. However, these tests are time-consuming and do not enable real-time responses to changes in raw water quality. To overcome these limitations, artificial multilayer perceptron neural networks were built, trained, validated and tested to predict the aluminum and sodium hydroxide doses - used as coagulant and alkalizer, respectively. The results of these models are encouraging to consider that the estimated uncertainties have the same order of the variation limits magnitude indicated by the jar tests for almost a six-year period.

  12. Gestão baseada em valor aplicada ao terceiro setor Value based management applied to the tertiary sector

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    Alexandre Assaf Neto

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o mundo assistiu ao crescimento do assistencialismo e das preocupações sociais. Pessoas se reúnem e formam instituições cujo único objetivo é tentar amenizar problemas sociais. Surge o chamado Terceiro Setor, que vem crescendo e conseguindo ajudar no suprimento das carências resultantes da incapacidade do governo em exercer o seu papel. No entanto, muitas organizações desse setor apresentam problemas de gestão. A metodologia centra-se em revisão bibliográfica sobre os temas principais do trabalho, além de uma pesquisa empírica. A pesquisa empírica mostrou que, na prática, é possível aplicar a GBV, sendo necessárias adaptações para a avaliação econômica da entidade. Este trabalho apresenta uma adequação da gestão baseada em valor, ferramenta sedimentada nas empresas lucrativas, para as empresas desse setor e apresenta o cálculo do EVA® para uma organização sem fins lucrativos.In recent years, the world has witnessed growing concern about social issues and assistance. People join to create organizations with the only goal of trying to mitigate social problems. This gives rise to the so-called Tertiary Sector, which is expanding and manages to help to fulfill the needs generated by the government's incapacity to play its role. Nevertheless, many organizations in this sector present management problems. The methodology focuses on a bibliographic review of the subject, as well as an empirical research. The empirical research has shown that it is actually possible to apply value based management, provided that modifications are made for the organization's economic assessment. This study presents an adaptation of value based management, a tool used by for-profit companies, to tertiary-sector organizations, as well as the calculation of EVA TM for not-for-profit organizations.

  13. Teoria da resposta ao item aplicada ao Inventário de Depressão Beck Item response theory applied to the Beck Depression Inventory

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    Stela Maris de Jezus Castro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Inventário de Depressão Beck (BDI, uma escala que mede o traço latente de intensidade de sintomas depressivos, pode ser avaliado através da Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI. Este estudo utilizou o modelo TRI de Resposta Gradual na avaliação da intensidade de sintomas depressivos de 4.025 indivíduos que responderam ao BDI, de modo a explorar eficientemente a informação disponível nos diferentes aspectos possibilitados pelo uso desta metodologia. O ajuste foi efetuado no software PARSCALE. Foram identificados 13 itens do BDI nos quais pelo menos uma categoria de resposta não tinha chance maior que as demais de ser escolhida, de modo que estes itens tiveram de ser recategorizados. Os itens com maior capacidade de discriminação são relativos à tristeza, pessimismo, sentimento de fracasso, insatisfação, auto-aversão, indecisão e dificuldade para trabalhar. Os itens mais graves são aqueles relacionados com perda de peso, retraimento social e idéias suicidas. O grupo dos 202 indivíduos com as maiores intensidades de sintomas depressivos foi composto por 74% de mulheres, e praticamente 84% possuíam diagnóstico de algum transtorno psiquiátrico. Os resultados evidenciam alguns dos inúmeros ganhos advindos da utilização da TRI na análise de traços latentes.The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, a scale that measures the latent trait intensity of depression symptoms, can be assessed by the Item Response Theory (IRT. This study used the Graded-Response model (GRM to assess the intensity of depressive symptoms in 4,025 individuals who responded to the BDI, in order to efficiently use the information available on different aspects enabled by the use of this methodology. The fit of this model was done in PARSCALE software. We identified 13 items of the BDI in which at least one response category was not more likely than others to be chosen, so that these items had to be categorized again. The items with greater power of

  14. ENGENHARIA DO CONHECIMENTO APLICADA AO SERVIÇO DE ATENDIMENTO AO CLIENTE NA INDÚSTRIA DO SOFTWARE KNOWLEDGE ENGINEERING APPLIED TO COSTUMER SERVICE IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY

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    Mauricio Uriona Maldonado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A representação do conhecimento apoia as técnicas e ferramentas de gestão e deve possuir uma compreensão substancial do negócio em que está inserido. A identificação e análise do negócio onde estão embutidos os aspectos de conhecimento são fundamentais para o sucesso da gestão do conhecimento nas organizações. Este artigo descreve a construção da primeira fase de um sistema de conhecimento para o serviço de atendimento ao usuário de uma software-house no Brasil. A metodología empregada é a engenharia do conhecimento e mais específicamente os modelos da camada contextual do CommonKADS. Inicialmente é apresentada uma revisão sobre o framework metodológico CommonKADS, com foco nos modelos de organização, tarefa e agente. Em seguida são descritas as etapas de construção do sistema de conhecimento e apresentado o local de aplicação. Conclui com as implicações do sistema de conhecimento para a software-house analizada bem como as recomendações dos próximos passos de aplicação do CommonKADS.Knowledge representation supports management tools and techniques and must possess a substantial comprehension of the business in which is inserted. This paper describes the first phase construction of a knowledge system for a Brazilian software-house´s customer service. The method applied is knowledge engineering and specifically the context-layer models of CommonKADS. First, a literature review is presented regarding the CommonKADS Methodology, focusing in the Organization, Tasks and Agent Models. Next, the development phases for the knowledge system are described as well as the company where the study was made. It concludes with the business implications of the knowledge system for the software-house as well as the next steps of application for CommonKADS.

  15. A terapia comunitária integrativa aplicada aos jovens: parceria entre o mismec-df e o programa jovem de expressão

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    Maria Henriqueta Camarotti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As autoras apresentam a sistematização da experiência da inclusão da Terapia Comunitária Integrativa (TCI no Programa Jovem de Expressão (JExp fruto de convênio entre a Caixa Seguros, Grupo Cultural Azulim e o Movimento Integrado de Saúde Comunitária do Distrito Federal- MISMEC-DF. Nesse Programa foram realizadas rodas de TCI, denominadas “Fala Jovem”, além das atividades socioeducativas e atração cultural. Objetivos: 1 – refletir sobre a prática e os resultados alcançados, bem como inspirar outros projetos de intervenção em saúde comunitária com jovens; 2 – analisar os resultados das Rodas de TCI (Fala Jovem e; 3 – compartilhar experiência com outros projetos que lidam com TCI aplicada aos jovens. Método: levantamento de dados dos relatórios mensais; apreciação da atuação dos terapeutas comunitários e da equipe envolvida; organização das informações das rodas de TCI e depoimentos dos participantes. Resultado: a TCI como instrumento de intervenção em projetos sociais com jovens, o impacto na melhoria das relações interpessoais, na mudança de atitude e comportamento no cotidiano desses jovens. Reflexão sobre a participação da TCI enquanto princípios e práticas no planejamento, execução e resultados do Programa Jovem de Expressão.

  16. IVF and retinoblastoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Marees, Tamara; Moll, Annette C.

    Objective: To evaluate the suggested association between IVF, retinoblastoma, and tumor methylation characteristics. Design: Laboratory analysis. Setting: National Retinoblastoma Center in the Netherlands. Patient(s): Retinoblastoma tumors from seven children conceived by IVF or intracytoplasmic

  17. Genetics Home Reference: retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Retinoblastoma is a rare type of eye cancer that ...

  18. IVF and retinoblastoma revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Marees, Tamara; Moll, Annette C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the suggested association between IVF, retinoblastoma, and tumor methylation characteristics. Design: Laboratory analysis. Setting: National Retinoblastoma Center in the Netherlands. Patient(s): Retinoblastoma tumors from seven children conceived by IVF or intracytoplasmic

  19. Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma.

  20. O Sistema Nacional de Combate ao Abuso e à Exploração Sexual Infantojuvenil e o Plano Nacional: um exemplo de política pública aplicada

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    Thaísa Veras

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo principal tratar de uma política pública aplicada, qual seja, o Sistema Nacional de Combate ao Abuso e à Exploração Sexual Infantojuvenil. Para tanto, inicialmente, é apresentada uma breve definição dos termos, com o intuito de esclarecer a forma como foram interpretados e utilizados no texto. Além disso, é definido o significado de políticas públicas, para que se tenha maior clareza sobre como estas podem auxiliar no entendimento do tema. Por fim, são apresentados os impactos sociais do Sistema Nacional e feito um breve relato sobre o Plano Nacional.

  1. Teoria das filas e da simulação aplicada ao embarque de minério de ferro e manganês no terminal marítimo de ponta da madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Rossa Camelo, Gustavo; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Sérgio Coelho, Antônio; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Massoli Borges, Renata; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; Maria de Souza, Rosimeri; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina

    2014-01-01

    10.12957/cadest.2010.15733Dentre as principais técnicas disponíveis utilizadas em processos de análise e resolução de problemas sobressaem a Teoria das Filas e a Teoria da Simulação: aquela, um método analítico para abordagem do assunto; esta, uma técnica de modelagem que busca melhor representar o sistema em estudo. Este trabalho investiga o uso da Teoria das Filas e da Simulação aplicadas ao embarque de minério de ferro e manganês no Terminal Marítimo de Ponta da Madeira. Com a T...

  2. Desenvolvimento de uma estrutura de controle de posição aplicada ao Manipulador Robótico RD5NT

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    Sergio Assis Galito Araujo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é desenvolvida uma estrutura de controle de posição do tipo RASTRO e aplicada no estudo de caso com uso do manipulador robótico modelo RD5NT do fabricante Didacta Itália. São detalhados a formulação matemática da estrutura de controle assim como os procedimentos adotados para gerar a trajetória desejada e para identificar em tempo real o modelo matemático do manipulador robótico. A seguir, a estrutura de controle apresentada é implementada numericamente e, através de simulações numéricas, é avaliada a qualidade do controlador proposto.

  3. Seleção combinada univariada e multivariada aplicada ao melhoramento genético da seringueira Univariate and multivariate combined selection applied to Hevea breeding

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    REGINALDO BRITO DA COSTA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estimar os coeficientes de herdabilidade e de predição genética, pelo método multivariado, e comparar os ganhos genéticos obtidos por meio da seleção entre e dentro de progênies, individual e combinada, em seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.. Vinte e duas progênies de meios-irmãos foram plantadas na Estação Experimental de Votuporanga, SP, no delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições e dez plantas por parcela. Aos três anos de idade foram avaliados os caracteres: número de anéis de vasos laticíferos (NA, produção de borracha seca (PB, espessura de casca (EC e circunferência do caule (CC. Os resultados demonstraram haver variabilidade significativa entre progênies quanto aos caracteres PB, EC e CC. As estimativas de coeficientes de herdabilidade e de predição genética foram mais elevadas nas progênies, com valores mais expressivos quanto aos coeficientes de predição genética. Ganhos genéticos adicionais foram obtidos pela seleção combinada. Embora os referidos ganhos tenham sido de pequena magnitude, recomenda-se o uso do método, por propiciar maior acurácia e ganho genético. Os valores mais expressivos de acurácia e ganho genético foram estimados pelo método multivariado.The objective of this paper was to estimate the heritability coefficients by the univariate method and genetic prediction by the multivariate method, as well as to compare the genetic gain obtained by individual and combined selection between and within progenies, in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.. Twenty two half-sib progenies were established at the Experimental Station, in Votuporanga, São Paulo State, Brazil, following the randomized block design, with five replications and ten plants per plot. Three years after planting, number of latex vessel rings (NR, yield of dry rubber (YB, bark thickness (BT and stalk circunference (SC were

  4. Uma metodologia de certificação de competências aplicada ao eletrecista de instalações prediais em baixa tensão

    OpenAIRE

    Favretto, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia de Produção De acordo com pesquisas, recentemente realizadas, os índices de produtividade em diversos setores da economia brasileira, entre os quais os da construção civil são considerados muito baixos em comparação aos de outros países. Este baixo desempenho não é devido somente à falta de qualificação dos trabalhadores, mas também, à ausência de métodos de trabalh...

  5. Pertinência da normativa estadual e distrital sobre logística reversa aplicada ao setor de medicamentos no Brasil

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    Ana Carolina Gomes Torres

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A forma inadequada do manejo dos resíduos de medicamento desperta a preocupação dos setores do meio ambiente e da saúde. Com a falta de norma federal vigente que estabeleça como proceder o recolhimento e descarte corretos, os estados produziram suas regras. O estudo analisa a profundidade material das normas, a conformidade com os regulamentos federais vigentes e a adaptação após a promulgação da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. Foi uma pesquisa exploratória com análise quali-quantitativa dos regulamentos estaduais sobre logísitica reversa de medicamentos. Foram encontradas 28 normas de 18 unidades federadas, promulgadas de 1994 a 2015. Observou-se o predomínio de lei ordinária como espécie normativa (93 % e duas abordagens distintas: as mais antigas estabelecem o compromisso entre indústria e estabelecimento para produto não comercializado, enquanto que, as mais recentes, com o advento da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, estendem a responsabilidade do correto descarte a todos os agentes envolvidos, inclusive ao consumidor. As normas variaram na objetividade quanto ao mérito, foram insuficientes nos temas de gestão administrativa e de projetos, responsabilidade dos agentes e gerenciamento dos resíduos, capacitação da população e não atenderam as necessidades locais. Apesar de os regramentos, em geral, não serem completos, haver lacunas e darem um tratamento superficial, algumas normas trazem contribuições relevantes para a efetiva e eficiente implementação da política nacional de descarte de medicamentos.

  6. Nanotecnologia farmacêutica aplicada ao tratamento da malária Application of pharmaceutical nanotechnology to the treatment of malaria

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    Lúcio Figueira Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do desenvolvimento tecnológico e científico, a malária permanece como um dos maiores problemas de saúde a serem combatidos. As estratégias modernas para o controle da doença prevêem ações conjuntas, como o combate do inseto vetor, diagnóstico rápido e preciso, garantia de terapêutica adequada, redução dos casos de resistência, além do desenvolvimento de novos agentes terapêuticos e vacina e através da otimização da ação de fármacos utilizados na atualidade. Os sistemas de liberação controlada de fármacos vêm recebendo atenção especial nesta área de pesquisa, com o desenvolvimento de estratégias para a veiculação de agentes bioativos e vacinas na forma de nanodispositivos tais como lipossomas, nanopartículas e micropartículas. Diversos nanossistemas já demonstraram eficácia na otimização de vacinas e quimioterápicos destinados ao controle da malária. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivo avaliar o estado da arte na terapêutica da malária e demonstrar o potencial da nanotecnologia farmacêutica como ferramenta destinada ao combate da doença.In spite of living in a scientific and technological era, malaria continues to be one of the worldwide greatest health challenges. The state-of-the-art policy to keep malaria under control is expected to comprise joint-strategies, such as the vector control, fast diagnosis, therapeutic guarantee, resistance cutback, drug optimization and development of new therapeutic agents and vaccines. Nano and microcarrier systems have been receiving a special attention, including the development of strategies for carrying bioactive agents, vaccines through nanodevices, such as liposomes and nanoparticles, and microdevices, such as microparticles and microemulsions. Numerous nanosystems have already substantiated their effectiveness to optimize vaccines, insecticides, and chemotherapeutic agents applied to the control of malaria. This review is intended to explain the

  7. Teoria das filas e da simulação aplicada ao embarque de minério de ferro e manganês no terminal marítimo de ponta da madeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossa Camelo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available 10.12957/cadest.2010.15733Dentre as principais técnicas disponíveis utilizadas em processos de análise e resolução de problemas sobressaem a Teoria das Filas e a Teoria da Simulação: aquela, um método analítico para abordagem do assunto; esta, uma técnica de modelagem que busca melhor representar o sistema em estudo. Este trabalho investiga o uso da Teoria das Filas e da Simulação aplicadas ao embarque de minério de ferro e manganês no Terminal Marítimo de Ponta da Madeira. Com a Teoria das Filas, pretende-se analisar características de atendimento aos navios que atracam no Píer I e Píer III para carregamento de minério de ferro e manganês, tais como: número médio de navios na fila e no sistema, tempo médio em que um navio permanece na fila e no sistema etc. E, com a técnica da Simulação, pretende-se simular a operação do Píer IV, que consumirá R$ 2 bilhões em investimento, aumentará a capacidade do terminal em 100 milhões de toneladas/ano e terá capacidade de carregar 53 navios por mês.

  8. DILEMA DALAM MANAJEMEN RETINOBLASTOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardizal Rahman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak:Retinoblastoma merupakan keganasan intraokular tersering pada anak-anak. Deteksi dini memegang peranan penting dalam manajemen retinoblastoma karena sangat mempengaruhi prognosa. Namun, hal ini sulit dilakukan di negara berkembang dengan tingkat sosioekonomi penduduk yang rendah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan profil retinoblastoma di RS Dr. M. Djamil Padang tahun 2003-2012, dan menunjukkan hubungan antara faktor sosioekonomi dengan manajemen retinoblastoma. Data diperoleh dari rekam medis pasien. Terdapat 99 pasien retinoblastoma dalam periode tersebut, 56 orang (56,56% laki-laki dan 43 orang (43,44% perempuan.Rentang umur terbanyak yaitu 3-4 tahun (40,40%. Retinoblastoma unilateral terdapat pada 76 pasien (76,76 %. Protusio merupakan keluhan tersering sebanyak 65,66% (65 orang. Kombinasi eksenterasi dan kemoterapi merupakan tindakan yang umum dilakukan (32,32%. Alasan terbanyak datang terlambat untuk berobat disebabkan oleh karena tidak punya biaya (42,42% dan tidak mengerti mengenai bahaya penyakitnya (35,35%. Kedua faktor tersebut menjadi dilemma, oleh karena di satu sisi kita berusaha mendeteksi dini penyakit retinoblastoma ini, sementara dari segi finansial dan faktor sosioekonomi keluarga penderita tidak mendukung.Abstract:Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in children. Early detection plays an important role in management of retinoblastoma because it significantly affects the prognosis. Unfortunately, early detection is difficult in developing country due tolow socioeconomic level. This study aims to describe the profile of retinoblastoma in Dr. M. Djamil Hospital Padang from 2003 to2012, and to show the relationship between socioeconomic factors and management of retinoblastoma. Data was obtained from patients’ medical records.There were 99 retinoblastoma patients in this period, 56 (56.56% male and 43 (43.44% female. The majority of patients aged 3-4 years (40.40%. Unilateral retinoblastoma

  9. A Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET aplicada ao trabalho na agricultura: experiências e reflexões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Funes Abrahão

    Full Text Available Objetivo: este trabalho resume a experiência do Grupo de Pesquisa em Ergonomia, Trabalho e Agricultura, do Programa de Pós-Graduação da Faculdade de Engenharia Agrícola da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP, sobre a análise do trabalho agrícola com a utilização da Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho (AET. Método: reflexão circunstanciada com base no referencial teórico-metodológico da AET. Resultados: apresentam-se reflexões sobre a utilização da AET em um contexto de pesquisa acadêmica, focado no estudo do trabalho na agricultura, por meio de estudos sobre o trabalho na fruticultura e horticultura orgânica, na colheita manual da cana-de-açúcar, na avicultura de corte, em unidades de beneficiamento de tomates e na colheita florestal. Conclusões: a AET mostrou-se apropriada como um meio de aproximação ao objeto da pesquisa e sua utilização auxiliou na lapidação das hipóteses iniciais e no detalhamento dos procedimentos metodológicos.

  10. Current treatment of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly malignant intraocular tumor of childhood which requires prompt treatment once the diagnosis has been established. The traditionally accepted methods include enucleation, external irradiation, scleral plaque irradiation, photocoagulation, cryotherapy, chemotherapy. This article will provide an update on the modern methods of treatment which are available for retinoblastoma. It is based largely on personal experience with approximately 200 new patients with retinoblastoma who were evaluated and treated between 1974 and 1984 in the Oncology Service of Wills Eye Hospital with an overall survival of 97%. This article will be an overall review which will not go into statistical detail. (Auth.)

  11. Computed tomography of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.

    1986-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in children. The clinical features are leucocoria and/or strabismus. The ophthalmic diagnosis is straight forward in clear eye media with a white gray mass in the fundus. With opaque ocular media, other diagnostic procedures such as CT and ultrasonography are important. In the present study the results of CT examinations of 23 patients with histologically proven retinoblastomas are presented. The mean age of the patients was two years. The characteristic CT finding is a partly calcified intravitreous mass lesion mostly confined within the eyeball. Two cases showed retrobulbar extension and two intracranical tumor extension. No metastasis was found in the brain, liver, spleen, long bones, chest or skull. The radiologic screening procedures for retinoblastoma metastasis are discussed. In patients suspected to have a retinoblastoma, it is recommended to perform CT of the orbits and brain in order to detect the tumor and its possible retrobulbar and intracranial extension. (orig.)

  12. Computed tomography of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, S.

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in children. The clinical features are leucocoria and/or strabismus. The ophthalmic diagnosis is straight forward in clear eye media with a white gray mass in the fundus. With opaque ocular media, other diagnostic procedures such as CT and ultrasonography are important. In the present study the results of CT examinations of 23 patients with histologically proven retinoblastomas are presented. The mean age of the patients was two years. The characteristic CT finding is a partly calcified intravitreous mass lesion mostly confined within the eyeball. Two cases showed retrobulbar extension and two intracranical tumor extension. No metastasis was found in the brain, liver, spleen, long bones, chest or skull. The radiologic screening procedures for retinoblastoma metastasis are discussed. In patients suspected to have a retinoblastoma, it is recommended to perform CT of the orbits and brain in order to detect the tumor and its possible retrobulbar and intracranial extension.

  13. Drugs Approved for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for retinoblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  14. Genetics of Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallipatna, Ashwin; Marino, Meghan; Singh, Arun D

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a malignant retinal tumor that affects young children. Mutations in the RB1 gene cause retinoblastoma. Mutations in both RB1 alleles within the precursor retinal cell are essential, with one mutation that may be germline or somatic and the second one that is always somatic. Identification of the RB1 germline status of a patient allows differentiation between sporadic and heritable retinoblastoma variants. Application of this knowledge is crucial for assessing short-term (risk of additional tumors in the same eye and other eye) and long-term (risk of nonocular malignant tumors) prognosis and offering cost-effective surveillance strategies. Genetic testing and genetic counseling are therefore essential components of care for all children diagnosed with retinoblastoma. The American Joint Committee on Cancer has acknowledged the importance of detecting this heritable trait and has introduced the letter "H" to denote a heritable trait of all cancers, starting with retinoblastoma (in publication). In this article, we discuss the clinically relevant aspects of genetic testing and genetic counseling for a child with retinoblastoma.

  15. SLOW-RELEASE UREA APPLIED TO SURFACE AND REGULAR UREA INCORPORATED TO SOIL ON MAIZE YIELD UREIA DE LIBERAÇÃO LENTA APLICADA SUPERFICIALMENTE E UREIA COMUM INCORPORADA AO SOLO NO RENDIMENTO DO MILHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloene Rodriges Godoy

    2011-01-01

    ="JUSTIFY">A ureia aplicada sobre a superfície do solo apresenta elevadas perdas de nitrogênio (N, por volatilização de NH3. O uso de polímeros recobrindo grânulos de ureia é uma alternativa de manejo para reduzir tais perdas. O trabalho, desenvolvido em Neossolo Quartzarênico, com 6% de argila, na safra 2007/2008, no município de Jataí (GO, teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência dos seguintes manejos: ureia incorporada ao solo e ureia revestida com polímeros, aplicada em superfície, nos aspectos agronômicos e econômicos da cultura do milho. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições, totalizando 24 parcelas. A adubação nitrogenada de cobertura foi realizada em uma única aplicação, no estádio V5. A ureia incorporada ao solo proporcionou maiores valores de comprimento da espiga, diâmetro da espiga, número de grãos por espiga, massa de cem grãos, produtividade de grãos e da relação entre a receita obtida e o valor investido. O maior rendimento de grãos e a maior lucratividade foram obtidos com a aplicação da ureia incorporada ao solo. Para cada real (R$ 1,00 investido na cultura, a ureia incorporada ao solo promoveu retorno de R$ 1,37.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Zea mays L.; fertilizante de liberação lenta; nitrogênio; polímeros; sistema plantio direto.

  16. MR imagig of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Takashi (Teikyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Ichihara Hospital)

    1994-02-01

    Fifteen patients (24 eyes) with retinoblastoma were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US). Seven (13 eyes) of the 15 patients were examined with gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. The advantage and disadvantage of MR imaging were evaluated, comparing with CT and US. Retinoblastoma was imaged with slight hyperintensity relative to the vitreous on T1-weighted image and hyperintensity on T2-weighted image. After intravenous Gd-DTPA injection, the tumors showed a significant signal increase, which improved the detectability. In the diagnosis of retinoblastoma, MR imaging was not as specific as CT and US because it could not detect calcification. Moreover, since MR imaging is slower than CT and US in scan time, it was not suitable for the examination of young children. However MR imaging proved useful in the detection and evaluation of associated retinal detachment. We conclude that MR imaging, including Gd-enhanced study, is as useful as CT and US in the diagnosis of retinoblastoma, except for the detection of calcification. We hope that a fast scanning MR technique could be used in the evaluation of retinoblastoma. (author).

  17. MR imagig of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen patients (24 eyes) with retinoblastoma were studied with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US). Seven (13 eyes) of the 15 patients were examined with gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. The advantage and disadvantage of MR imaging were evaluated, comparing with CT and US. Retinoblastoma was imaged with slight hyperintensity relative to the vitreous on T1-weighted image and hyperintensity on T2-weighted image. After intravenous Gd-DTPA injection, the tumors showed a significant signal increase, which improved the detectability. In the diagnosis of retinoblastoma, MR imaging was not as specific as CT and US because it could not detect calcification. Moreover, since MR imaging is slower than CT and US in scan time, it was not suitable for the examination of young children. However MR imaging proved useful in the detection and evaluation of associated retinal detachment. We conclude that MR imaging, including Gd-enhanced study, is as useful as CT and US in the diagnosis of retinoblastoma, except for the detection of calcification. We hope that a fast scanning MR technique could be used in the evaluation of retinoblastoma. (author)

  18. Retinoblastoma associated orbital cellulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, P.; Karcioglu, Z.; Huaman, A.; Al-Mesfer, S.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—Preseptal and orbital cellulitis are rare presenting features of intraocular retinoblastoma. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of retinoblastoma associated cellulitis, as well as to review its clinical and histopathological features.
METHODS—The medical records of 292 retinoblastoma patients in the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were reviewed. Those indicating a history of, or presenting with, cellulitis were retrieved and their clinical, radiological, and histopathological variables were assessed. Patients with definite extraocular tumour extension on clinical or radiological examination were excluded.
RESULTS—14 patients were found to have retinoblastoma associated cellulitis (4.8%); nine had bilateral and five had unilateral retinoblastoma. Conjunctival and blood cultures were performed in 10 cases and were negative. 10 children were treated with intravenous steroids, often in conjunction with antibiotics, resulting in a prompt decrease in inflammation. Three other children were treated with antibiotics alone and one received no treatment. Computed tomographic scanning depicted large intraocular tumours occupying between 80% and 100% of the globe in each case. In eight patients, periocular inflammation was radiologically interpreted as possible extraocular extension. In one patient serial computed tomographic scanning showed a reduction in intraocular calcification over time which occurred in the presence of cellulitis. 12 patients underwent enucleation and histopathological examination revealed large necrotic, poorly differentiated tumours associated with uveal involvement and early optic nerve invasion. Focal perilimbal destruction was seen in one patient, and in another peripapillary extrascleral extension was present. 12 patients are alive with a mean follow up of 56.4 months.
CONCLUSIONS—Radiological evaluation of scleral integrity may be hindered by periocular inflammatory

  19. A música terapêutica como uma tecnologia aplicada ao cuidado e ao ensino de enfermagem La música terapéutica como una tecnología aplicada al cuidado y a la enseñanza de la enfermería Therapeutic music as a technology applied to healthcare and to the nursing teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Brito Bergold

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A predominância das técnicas na assistência muitas vezes inviabiliza o estabelecimento de um cuidado expressivo que promova a humanização da prática assistencial. Este estudo abordou duas pesquisas que investigaram o uso da música como um recurso terapêutico aplicado ao cuidado e ao ensino de enfermagem: a visita musical e a dinâmica musical. Ancorou-se nas contribuições de Even Ruud sobre o contexto cultural relacionado à música e à saúde. Utilizou-se o Método Criativo-Sensível na produção de dados das duas pesquisas, realizadas respectivamente com clientes hospitalizados e enfermeiros. A visita musical constituiu-se como tecnologia para o cuidado expressivo, pois promoveu conforto, ludicidade, expressão emocional e integração entre os clientes e destes com o ambiente hospitalar. A dinâmica musical mobilizou a produção de subjetividades nos enfermeiros, que perceberam as possibilidades do uso criativo da música como um recurso tanto no âmbito do cuidado quanto no ensino de enfermagem.El predominio de la técnica en los cuidados y asistencia muchas veces dificulta el establecimiento de un cuidado expresivo que promueva la humanización de la práctica asistencial. Este estudio abordó dos pesquisas que investigaron el uso de la música como un recurso terapéutico aplicado al cuidado y a la enseñanza de la enfermería: la visita musical y la dinámica musical. Se basó en las contribuciones de Even Ruud sobre el contexto cultural relacionado a la música y a la salud. Se utilizó el Método Creativo-Sensible en la producción de datos de las dos pesquisas, realizadas respectivamente con clientes hospitalizados y enfermeros. La visita musical se constituyó como una tecnología para el cuidado expresivo, al promover bienestar, entretenimiento, expresión emocional y la integración entre los pacientes con el ambiente de hospital. La dinámica musical movilizó la producción de subjetividades en los enfermeros, quienes

  20. Radiation management of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemasa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Hisao; Nishiguchi, Iku; Hashimoto, Shozo; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Oguchi, Yoshihisa

    1992-01-01

    Forty-five patients with retinoblastoma were treated at Keio University Hospital from 1970 to 1990. Thirty-two patients had unilateral lesions and 13 had bilateral lesions. Twenty-nine patients with unilateral and 12 with bilateral lesions underwent enucleation for advanced tumor. As a result, 3 patients with unilateral retinoblastoma and all patients with bilateral disease were treated with radiotherapy (40-50 Gy) combined with or without cryotherapy and/or photocoagulation. One patient with unilateral lesion treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy had metastases at the first visit to our clinic and was excluded from this analysis. Among 16 eyes (15 patients) treated with radiotherapy, 6 eyes had recurrence and needed retreatment. Cataract occurred in 6 of 12 eyes and good vision was preserved in 5 of 10 eyes in which function could be evaluated. (author)

  1. Radiation management of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemasa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Hisao; Nishiguchi, Iku; Hashimoto, Shozo; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Oguchi, Yoshihisa (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Forty-five patients with retinoblastoma were treated at Keio University Hospital from 1970 to 1990. Thirty-two patients had unilateral lesions and 13 had bilateral lesions. Twenty-nine patients with unilateral and 12 with bilateral lesions underwent enucleation for advanced tumor. As a result, 3 patients with unilateral retinoblastoma and all patients with bilateral disease were treated with radiotherapy (40-50 Gy) combined with or without cryotherapy and/or photocoagulation. One patient with unilateral lesion treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy had metastases at the first visit to our clinic and was excluded from this analysis. Among 16 eyes (15 patients) treated with radiotherapy, 6 eyes had recurrence and needed retreatment. Cataract occurred in 6 of 12 eyes and good vision was preserved in 5 of 10 eyes in which function could be evaluated. (author).

  2. Radiation management of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemasa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Oguchi, Yoshihisa

    1991-01-01

    An analysis has been conducted of 45 patients treated for retinoblastoma at Keio University Hospital between 1970 and 1990. Of these patients, 32 had unilateral lesion and 13 had bilateral lesion. Further, since their disease was far advanced, 29 patients with unilateral lesion and 12 patients with bilateral lesion underwent enucleation. As a result, 3 patients with unilateral retinoblastoma and all patients with bilateral manifestation of the disease were treated with radiotherapy (45-50 Gy) with or without cryotherapy and photocoagulation. One patient with unilateral lesion, who had received both radiotherapy and chemotherapy, showed metastases at the first presentation at our clinic and thus was excluded from this analysis. Among 16 eyes of 15 patients who were given radiotherapy, 6 eyes developed recurrence and needed to have further treatment. In 6 eyes out of 12, cataract developed, and out of 10 eyes in which eye function was evaluable, good vision was able to be preserved in 5 eyes. (author)

  3. Growing up with Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Tom

    2005-01-01

    An account is given of growing up as a child blinded as a result of a cancer of the eye known as retinoblastoma. The role of his mother is brought out, variously as a source of objective knowledge, of one's personal worth, and of the worth of other people in one's community. The strengths and weaknesses of his first school in his home area and…

  4. Orbital retinoblastoma: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Santosh G; Manjandavida, Fairooz P; Reddy, Vijay Anand P

    2017-01-01

    Orbital extension is a major cause of death in children with retinoblastoma in the developing countries. Delayed detection and inappropriate management contribute to poor outcome. Conventional treatment including primary orbital exenteration or chemotherapy or radiotherapy alone result in mortality as high as 70%. The recent understanding on the role of sequential multimodal therapy with a combination of high-dose chemotherapy, followed by appropriate surgery, radiotherapy, and additional adjuvant chemotherapy has helped dramatically improve life salvage. PMID:28643706

  5. Retinoblastoma: a most unusual presentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. C. Pedro-Egbe

    Although leukocoria and strabismus are the most common presenting signs of retinoblastoma, a retrospective study by Abramson et al. identified 32 distinct presenting signs of retinoblastoma.6-8. A few other studies have also noted some distinct characteristics exhibited by children whose conditions were diagnosed in the ...

  6. Epigenetic regulation of human retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Usha; Malik, Manzoor Ahmad; Goswami, Sandeep; Shukla, Swati; Kaur, Jasbir

    2016-11-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare type of eye cancer of the retina that commonly occurs in early childhood and mostly affects the children before the age of 5. It occurs due to the mutations in the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) which inactivates both alleles of the RB1. RB1 was first identified as a tumor suppressor gene, which regulates cell cycle components and associated with retinoblastoma. Previously, genetic alteration was known as the major cause of its occurrence, but later, it is revealed that besides genetic changes, epigenetic changes also play a significant role in the disease. Initiation and progression of retinoblastoma could be due to independent or combined genetic and epigenetic events. Remarkable work has been done in understanding retinoblastoma pathogenesis in terms of genetic alterations, but not much in the context of epigenetic modification. Epigenetic modifications that silence tumor suppressor genes and activate oncogenes include DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone modification and noncoding RNA-mediated gene silencing. Epigenetic changes can lead to altered gene function and transform normal cell into tumor cells. This review focuses on important epigenetic alteration which occurs in retinoblastoma and its current state of knowledge. The critical role of epigenetic regulation in retinoblastoma is now an emerging area, and better understanding of epigenetic changes in retinoblastoma will open the door for future therapy and diagnosis.

  7. A Internet das Coisas aplicada ao conceito de eficiência energética: uma análise quantitativo-qualitativa do estado da arte da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Arildo Antônio Sônego; Roderval Marcelino; Vilson Gruber

    2017-01-01

    Introdução: A Internet das Coisas corresponde a um novo paradigma, que imputa aos objetos a capacidade de disponibilizar informações a respeito de seu funcionamento e ao ambiente no qual tais objetos estão inseridos, caracterizando-se como abrangentes e diversificados os universos de prováveis aplicações a ela relacionadas. Em uma época em que se evidenciam ações e discussões dedicadas à sustentabilidade e ao meio ambiente, este artigo objetiva apurar o estado atual das pesquisas envolvendo a...

  8. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollot, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours [fr

  9. Retinoblastoma protein partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, E J; Dyson, N J

    2001-01-01

    Studies of the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) have shown that its protein product (pRb) acts to restrict cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis, and promote cell differentiation. The frequent mutation of the Rb gene, and the functional inactivation of pRb in tumor cells, have spurred interest in the mechanism of pRb action. Recently, much attention has focused on pRb's role in the regulation of the E2F transcription factor. However, biochemical studies have suggested that E2F is only one of many pRb-targets and, to date, at least 110 cellular proteins have been reported to associate with pRb. The plethora of pRb-binding proteins raises several important questions. How many functions does pRb possess, which of these functions are important for development, and which contribute to tumor suppression? The goal of this review is to summarize the current literature of pRb-associated proteins.

  10. A transgenic mouse model for trilateral retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, J.M.; Marcus, D.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Carpenter, J.L.; Windle, J.J.; Mellon, P.; Albert, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a murine model of trilateral retinoblastoma. Ocular retinoblastoma and central nervous system tumors are observed in a line of mice formed by the transgenic expression of SV40 T-antigen. An oncogenic protein known to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product (p105-Rb) is specifically

  11. A Internet das Coisas aplicada ao conceito de eficiência energética: uma análise quantitativo-qualitativa do estado da arte da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arildo Antônio Sônego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A Internet das Coisas corresponde a um novo paradigma, que imputa aos objetos a capacidade de disponibilizar informações a respeito de seu funcionamento e ao ambiente no qual tais objetos estão inseridos, caracterizando-se como abrangentes e diversificados os universos de prováveis aplicações a ela relacionadas. Em uma época em que se evidenciam ações e discussões dedicadas à sustentabilidade e ao meio ambiente, este artigo objetiva apurar o estado atual das pesquisas envolvendo a Internet das Coisas associado ao conceito de “eficiência energética”. Método: Tendo como referência a base de dados Scopus procedeu-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura, acompanhada de uma análise quantitativo-qualitativa. Foram aferidas informações no período compreendido entre os anos de 2001 a 2016, além da análise das cinquenta publicações com maiores citações. Resultados: Constatou-se a existência de 895 documentos relacionados aos assuntos pesquisados. Contudo, poucos (foram identificados sete documentos discorrem sobre a efetiva aplicação da Internet das Coisas à “eficiência energética”. Conclusão: Além de se determinar o estado da arte das pesquisas a nível mundial dos temas propostos, foi possível ratificar os conceitos a eles associados, bem como identificar as publicações mais relevantes, para que possam servir de referência e ponto de partida a outros trabalhos do gênero.

  12. Retinoblastoma presenting with orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walinjkar, Jaydeep; Krishnakumar, S; Gopal, Lingam; Ramesh, Anita; Khetan, Vikas

    2013-06-01

    To study the effectiveness of pre-enucleation steroids in reducing inflammation in patients with retinoblastoma presenting as orbital cellulitis. Medical records of consecutive retinoblastoma patients presenting at a single tertiary eye care center during a period of 3 years were retrospectively reviewed. For those who presented with orbital cellulitis, clinical, radiological, and histopathological variables were assessed. The effect of pre-enucleation steroids was noted in this group of patients. Of 260 retinoblastoma cases reviewed, 14 had retinoblastoma-associated cellulitis (5.39%). Of these 14 patients, 4 received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 10 cases (mean age at presentation, 14.2 months; mean follow-up, 16.4 months), 9 presented with orbital cellulitis and were included in the study. Radiological imaging depicted intraocular tumors occupying 80% to 100% of the globe in each case. All patients underwent enucleation. Five children received pre-enucleation systemic steroids (mean, 5.4 days), which resulted in a prompt decrease in inflammation. Postenucleation chemotherapy was administered in 4 (6 cycles) and external beam radiation therapy in 1 patient with high-risk histopathological characteristics. Advanced necrotic retinoblastoma with anterior segment involvement may present as orbital cellulitis. Pre-enucleation systemic steroids can aid in the surgical management of these tumors. Copyright © 2013 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Análise do Ciclo de Vida (ACV aplicada ao agronegócio: uma revisão de literatura Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to agribusiness: a review

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    Edison S. Claudino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com a dimensão ambiental da sustentabilidade tem ganhado relevância em pesquisas científicas aplicadas no agronegócio. A necessidade de um framework robusto e confiável para mensuração dos impactos ambientais no agronegócio apresenta-se como tendência em países líderes na produção mundial de alimentos, como o Brasil. Neste contexto o presente artigo descreve uma revisão de literatura acerca do conceito de Análise de Ciclo de Vida - ACV, o qual está sendo amplamente utilizado e reconhecido por técnicos e pesquisadores mundiais para avaliação ambiental das cadeias de produção, permitindo várias aplicações nos sistemas produtivos. Este artigo foi elaborado a partir de uma pesquisa bibliográfica em artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais, sítios da internet e anais de congressos cujo objetivo é descrever a importância da aplicação e difusão do framework da ACV e suas possíveis aplicações no agronegócio brasileiro. O estudo conclui que este framework ainda é pouco difundido no agronegócio interno e o número de pesquisas com esta temática é reduzido.The concern with the environmental dimension of sustainability has become more and more relevant in studies related to agribusiness. The need of a robust and trusty framework to measure the environmental impacts in the agribusiness activities is being presented as a trend in countries leaders in food production worldwide, like Brazil. In this context, this paper describes a review related to the concept of Life Cycle Assessment - LCA which is being widely recognized and used by technicians and researchers all over the world to the environmental impacts of production chains and allowing various applications on the production systems. The paper was elaborated based on a bibliographical research carried out by accessing national and international publications, websites and proceedings of scientific events. Its main goal is to

  14. Ondaletas aplicadas à análise de variabilidade de baixa frequência em séries de afluência aos reservatórios hidrelétricos brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Sarah Lopes dos

    2016-01-01

    A análise da variabilidade espaço-temporal de séries históricas de vazão é de suma importância para a gestão dos recursos hídricos, pois leva a um melhor entendimento das flutuações naturais de sistemas hidrológicos e forma a base de conhecimento para construção e aperfeiçoamento de modelos de previsão e simulação de vazões. Neste trabalho, busca-se avaliar, nas séries de afluência aos reservatórios brasileiros, tendências cíclicas que ocorrem com períodos relativamente longos (a partir de...

  15. Implicações do conforto térmico no consumo energético – uma hipótese de modelo adaptativo aplicada ao Verão

    OpenAIRE

    Abrantes, João Bartolomeu Catarino

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Engenharia Civil – Perfil de Construção O consumo de energia no sector doméstico registou apenas um ligeiro abrandamento nos últimos 20 anos e prevê-se, no contexto de arrefecimento económico, um agravamento do esforço financeiro de energia no sector residencial. O parque habitacional é um dos sectores de intervenção prioritária ao nível do desempenho térmico. Com a entrada no passado recente da Directiva Europeia da Performance Energéti...

  16. Incluindo Funcionalidades no Modelo BRAMS para Simular o Transporte de Cinzas Vulcânicas: Descrição e Análise de Sensibilidade Aplicada ao Evento Eruptivo do Puyehue em 2011

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    Claudio Augusto Borges Pavani

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho possui dois objetivos principais, o primeiro é apresentar uma descrição de como o modelo atmosférico BRAMS foi estruturado com o intuito de capacitá-lo a simular a emissão, dispersão e sedimentação de cinzas vulcânicas; o segundo é fazer uma análise de sensibilidade com relação a diversas configurações do modelo, com o intuito de obter uma configuração adequada para prever a concentração de cinzas vulcânicas após eventos eruptivos. Avaliando os resultados do modelo com dados observados, principalmente com relação ao satélite CALIPSO, concluiu-se que o modelo BRAMS foi capaz de simular e prever com relativa precisão a posição e concentração das cinzas vulcânicas na atmosfera.

  17. Inteligência computacional aplicada ao controle externo da administração pública: aplicações da classificação de padrões utilizando redes neurais artificiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Martins de Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento do poder computacional e da disponibilidade de grandes bases de dados governamentais tem levado a um crescente interesse no uso da inteligência computacional em áreas ainda não muito exploradas, como as atividades de auditoria relacionadas ao controle da administração pública. Este artigo tem por objetivo mostrar que a capacidade das redes neurais artificiais de classificar padrões pode ajudar as Cortes de Contas a desempenhar suas competências de forma mais eficiente. Aplicações típicas de auditoria estão relacionadas à detecção de fraudes, auditoria de demonstrações contábeis e avaliação de risco, dentre outras. O Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU tem realizado diversas ações para desenvolver habilidades relacionadas à análise de dados, dentre as quais se destaca a inauguração de um Centro de Pesquisa e Inovação (CePI.

  18. Desenvolvimento de uma arquitetura embarcada reativa para agentes autônomos inteligentes, aplicada ao futebol de robôs - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v31i2.371

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    Claudio Jose Biazus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais dificuldades encontradas para a construção de sistemas multiagentes em que existe a disponibilidade de um sistema de visão local, como é o caso de algumas categorias de futebol de robôs, destacam-se: necessidade de resposta em tempo real para identificação dos objetos em cena, conhecimento do ambiente, distribuição das competências de controle entre os comportamentos reativos a cargo de cada agente. O presente artigo descreve a implementação de uma arquitetura embarcada reativa para controle de Sistemas Multiagentes equipados com sistema de visão local e dotados de sensores, e sua aplicação em ambientes de futebol de robôs. Neste trabalho, foram descritas as técnicas de processamento digital de imagens e a arquitetura proposta para satisfazer às restrições relacionadas ao problema.

  19. Refractive index matching applied to fecal smear clearing Homogeneidade de índices de refração aplicada ao clareamento de esfregaços de fezes

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    Cláudio S. Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick smears of human feces can be made adequate for identification of helminth eggs by means of refractive index matching. Although this effect can be obtained by simply spreading a fleck of feces on a microscope slide, a glycerol solution has been routinely used to this end. Aiming at practicability, a new quantitative technique has been developed. To enhance both sharpness and contrast of the images, a sucrose solution (refractive index = 1.49 is used, which reduces the effect of light-scattering particulates. To each slide a template-measured (38.5 mm³ fecal sample is transferred. Thus, egg counts and sensitivity evaluations are easily made.Os esfregaços espessos de fezes humanas podem tornar-se adequados para a identificação de ovos e larvas de helmintos por meio da busca de homogeneidade de índices de refração. Embora seja possível obter esse efeito por meio de simples espalhamento de um fragmento de fezes sobre uma lâmina de microscopia, uma solução de glicerol tem sido usada rotineiramente para este fim. Visando à praticabilidade, elaborou-se uma técnica quantitativa em que é usada uma solução de sacarose (Índice de refração = 1,49 para reduzir o efeito da difusão da luz produzido por material particulado. O volume da amostra fecal a examinar em uma lâmina corresponde ao da cavidade cilíndrica da placa medidora (38,5 mm². Avaliações de sensibilidade e contagens de ovos tornam-se, portanto, de fácil execução.

  20. Desenvolvimento de uma arquitetura embarcada reativa para agentes autônomos inteligentes, aplicada ao futebol de robôs = Development of an onboard reactive architecture for intelligent autonomous agents, applied to robot soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Jose Biazus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais dificuldades encontradas para a construção de sistemas multiagentes em que existe a disponibilidade de um sistema de visão local, como é o caso de algumas categorias de futebol de robôs, destacam-se: necessidade de resposta em tempo realpara identificação dos objetos em cena, conhecimento do ambiente, distribuição das competências de controle entre os comportamentos reativos a cargo de cada agente. O presente artigo descreve a implementação de uma arquitetura embarcada reativa paracontrole de Sistemas Multiagentes equipados com sistema de visão local e dotados de sensores, e sua aplicação em ambientes de futebol de robôs. Neste trabalho, foram descritas as técnicas de processamento digital de imagens e a arquitetura proposta para satisfazer às restrições relacionadas ao problema.There are a lot of difficulties that must be faced during the development of multi-agent systems equipped with local vision, as is the case of some robotic soccer leagues, such as: the real-time constraints for recognition of scene objects, acquisition of environment knowledge, and the distribution and allocation ofcontrol competencies among reactive behaviors under the responsibility of each agent. This article describes the implementation of an onboard reactive control architecture for a multiagent system, equipped with local vision camera and local sensors. This multiple agent system is applied in robot soccer environments. The work describes the digital image processing techniques as well as the proposed control architecture that satisfy the constraints related with this kind of application.

  1. Nested-PCR do gene que codifica o antígeno b aplicada ao diagnóstico da tuberculose pulmonar Nested-PCR for gene that encodes the antigen b applied to the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Valéria Batista Lima

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A reação em cadeia da polimerase usada para amplificação de uma seqüência interna de um fragmento previamente amplificado (nested-PCR foi investigada como uma alternativa complementar a pesquisa de bacilos álcool ácido resistentes e a cultura do Mycobacterium tuberculosis em meio de Lowenstein-Jensen. Foram investigadas 144 amostras de escarro de pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose encaminhados ao Laboratório de Tuberculose do Instituto Evandro Chagas em Belém, no período de junho de 2002 a dezembro de 2003. Das 144 amostras, 121 foram caracterizadas como tuberculose, 119 foram positivas na cultura, 95 na baciloscopia e 128 na nested-PCR. A sensibilidade da nested-PCR foi 96% (116/121, enquanto a especificidade foi 48% (11/23. A nested-PCR poderá ser uma ferramenta complementar para o diagnóstico da tuberculose, pois apresenta sensibilidade equivalente à cultura, no entanto, necessita de maiores avaliações visando minimizar o número de resultados falso-positivos.The polymerase chain reaction used for amplifying an internal sequence of a previously amplified fragment (nested-PCR was investigated as a complementary alternative for searching for alcohol-acid resistant bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures in Lowenstein-Jensen medium. 144 sputum samples were investigated from patients with suspected tuberculosis that were sent to the Tuberculosis Laboratory of the Evandro Chagas Institute in Belém, between June 2002 and December 2003. From the 144 samples, 121 were characterized as tuberculosis: 119 were positive in cultures, 95 under bacilloscopy and 128 using nested-PCR. The sensibility of the nested-PCR was 96% (116/121, while the specificity was 48% (11/23. Nested-PCR may be a complementary tool for diagnosing tuberculosis, since it presents sensitivity equivalent to that of cultures. However, further evaluations are needed with the aim of minimizing the number of false-positive results.

  2. Validação de limpeza de zidovudina: estratégia aplicada ao processo de fabricação de medicamentos anti-retrovirais Cleaning validation of zidovudine: strategy applied to the process manufacture of antiretroviral medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rui Barbosa de Alencar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A validação de limpeza é parte integrante do conjunto de normas que compõem as boas práticas de fabricação de medicamentos. Trata-se de sistemática utilizada para assegurar que os procedimentos de limpeza de equipamentos, efetivamente, removam os resíduos existentes até um nível de aceitação pré-determinado. Poucos trabalhos abordando a validação de limpeza estão disponíveis na literatura concernente à área. Neste, apresenta-se estratégia para validação do processo de limpeza utilizado na fabricação do medicamento zidovudina, produzido pelo LAFEPE® (Recife - PE, Brasil largamente prescrito no tratamento da AIDS. Utilizou-se um método analítico por via espectrofotométrica e técnica de amostragem de superfícies por swab. O critério de aceitação da limpeza utilizado foi de 10 ppm de zidovudina no produto subseqüente (estavudina. Os resíduos de zidovudina encontrados nos equipamentos após a limpeza foram inferiores aos critérios de aceitação da limpeza, bem como do menor nível de concentração capaz de provocar ação farmacológica.The cleaning validation is integrant part of the laws of good manufacturing practices of medicines. Cleaning validation procedures are carried out in order to assure that residues are within acceptable limits after the cleaning process. Very little has been published regarding practices within the pharmaceutical industry. This work presents a strategy for cleaning validation of the process equipments of the medicine zidovudine produced by LAFEPE (Recife - PE, Brazil utilized in AIDS treatment. An analytical method by spectrofotometry and samples surfaces by swab was utilized. The acceptance criteria from the cleaning utilized was 10 ppm of zidovudine in the subsequent product (stavudine. The residues of zidovudine found in the equipment after cleaning were lower that limits established as well as to the smaller level of concentration capable of producing pharmacological effects.

  3. A metodologia dos máximos de precipitação aplicada ao estudo de eventos extremos diários nos municípios de Crato, Fortaleza e Sobral-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jander Barbosa Monteiro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, eventos extremos máximos de precipitação são constantemente noticiados pela mídia devido ao grande poder deflagrador de impactos socioambientais que possuem. Como existem muitos fatores e variáveis que dificultam a identificação de um evento como extremo, este artigo objetiva identificar e avaliar eventos extremos máximos diários de chuva a partir da aplicação da metodologia estatística dos máximos de precipitação nos municípios cearenses de Crato, Fortaleza e Sobral (altamente urbanizados e localizados em contextos geoambientais diferentes. No período de janeiro de 1980 a junho de 2017 identificou-se eventos de grande intensidade, sistemas atmosféricos relacionados e impactos associados a estes. A maioria dos eventos ocorreu entre fevereiro e maio, geralmente associados à Zona de Convergência Intertropical - ZCIT. Dentre os impactos registrados destacam-se alagamentos, desabrigo, feridos e até mortes. Ainda que tais episódios ocorram, o planejamento e a gestão adequados podem contribuir para a adoção de estratégias de adaptação e prevenção. Abstract THE PRECIPITATION CAPITAL LEVEL METHODOLOGY ENFORCED TO DAILY EXTREME EVENT STUDIES IN CRATO, FORTALEZA AND SOBRAL CITY IN BRAZIL In Brazil, capital extreme events of precipitation are often broadcasted by press due to their big exploder force of environmental impacts into society. This work has the goal of identify and assess the daily capital extreme events of rain from the application of the stastistic methodology of precipitation capital levels in the cearence cities of Crato, Fortaleza and Sobral (highly urbanized and located into different geo-environmental contexts facing factors and different situations which hinder the identification of an event as an extreme event. From January of 1980 to july of 2017 has been identified events of huge intensity, connected atmospheric systems and related impacts. Most of these events has occurred between february

  4. QUANTIFICAÇÃO E ANÁLISE DA GEODIVERSIDADE APLICADA AO GEOTURISMO NA ÁREA DE PROTEÇÃO AMBIENTAL SUL DA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE BELO HORIZONTE, MINAS GERAIS

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    Eric Oliveira Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A geodiversidade, cujo significado do termo é análogo à biodiversidade, designa a diversidade natural da componente abiótica da natureza, composta pelos seguintes elementos: solo, rochas, formas de relevo, dentre outros. Apesar de recentes, os estudos em geodiversidade já apresentam uma discussão teórica bastante significativa. Contudo, a aplicação de métodos quantitativos, geralmente desenvolvidos com uso de Sistemas de Informação Geográficas (SIG ainda é incipiente, especialmente no Brasil. A Área de Proteção Ambiental Sul da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (APA Sul da RMBH, localizada no Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF - Minas Gerais, possui um rico patrimônio natural, principalmente no que se refere aos elementos geológicos. Sua geodiversidade inclui afloramentos, solos, cachoeiras e diversas feições de relevo. Além disso, a área em questão apresenta grande importância para a Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (RMBH, uma vez que nela estão localizados os principais mananciais de água potável para abastecimento da população. Deste modo, o principal objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os procedimentos adotados para o cálculo e geração do mapa de geodiversidade à partir da utilização de um Sistema de Informação Geográfica, para a região da APA Sul da RMBH. Como resultado foi obtido o mapa de geodiversidade bem como a quantificação relativa das áreas de muito alta, alta, média e baixa diversidade abiótica que podem ser propostas futuramente como área prioritárias para a conservação.  O uso do SIG viabilizou o cálculo do índice de geodiversidade da APA Sul bem como a sua representação cartográfica.

  5. The estimated magnitude of AIDS in Brazil: a delay correction applied to cases with lost dates Estimativa da magnitude da AIDS no Brasil: uma correção de atraso aplicada aos casos com data perdida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza S. Barbosa

    2002-02-01

    bivariada para estimar o padrão de atraso, fazendo uma suposição de um atraso não estacionário. Nas etapas seguintes, estes modelos foram aplicados para imputar novos dados substituindo as informações perdidas e para estimar a magnitude da epidemia de AIDS no país. Os modelos estimaram que havia entre 36 mil e 50 mil casos de AIDS já diagnosticados e ainda não notificados. A epidemia era, portanto, de 20 a 30% maior do que a conhecida pelas informações disponíveis em fevereiro de 1999. Para ser útil aos que planejam as políticas de saúde, o sistema de vigilância que se baseia nas notificações oficiais de AIDS deve ser continuamente melhorado.

  6. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Chawla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management.

  7. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bhavna; Jain, Amit; Azad, Rajvardhan

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management. PMID:24104705

  8. The family of retinoblastoma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, P; Giordano, A

    2001-01-01

    Our understanding of how the retinoblastoma family members, pRB/p105, pRB2/p130, and pRBL1/p107, regulate cellular properties has progressed significantly. Mechanisms have been described regarding how these proteins utilize properties of additional factors, such as histone deacetylases, to negatively regulate transcription. More importantly, the retinoblastoma proteins have been integrated within multiple cellular pathways, and a complex view has emerged on how the individual members respond to various external and internal stimuli. pRB/p105 is best described in its biochemical properties as well as in the resulting cellular functions. Less is known about pRB2/p130 and pRBL1/p107, but an improved map of their individual as well as redundant functions has been drawn over the last years. In this review we describe general aspects of the properties and functions of the three retinoblastoma family members and their protein-binding partners in cellular growth control.

  9. Clinicopathological pattern and management of retinoblastoma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the pattern of presentation and the mode of management of retinoblastoma seen in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano from 2001 to 2005. Materials and Methods: Theclinic register was used to obtain the case folders of all children treated for retinoblastoma and this was ...

  10. Clinicopathological pattern and management of retinoblastoma in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of the study is to evaluate the pattern of presentation and the mode of management of retinoblastoma seen in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano from 2001 to 2005. Materials and Methods: The clinic register was used to obtain the case folders of all children treated for retinoblastoma and this was ...

  11. The genomic landscape of retinoblastoma: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thériault, Brigitte L; Dimaras, Helen; Gallie, Brenda L; Corson, Timothy W

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a paediatric ocular tumour that continues to reveal much about the genetic basis of cancer development. Study of genomic aberrations in retinoblastoma tumours has exposed important mechanisms of cancer development, and identified oncogenes and tumour suppressors that offer potential points of therapeutic intervention. The recent development of next-generation genomic technologies has allowed further refinement of the genomic landscape of retinoblastoma at high resolution. In a relatively short period of time, a wealth of genetic and epigenetic data has emerged on a small number of tumour samples. These data highlight the inherent molecular complexity of this cancer, despite the fact that most retinoblastomas are initiated by the inactivation of a single tumour suppressor gene. Here, we review the current understanding of the genomic, genetic and epigenetic changes in retinoblastoma, highlighting recent genome-wide analyses that have identified exciting candidate genes worthy of further validation as potential prognostic and therapeutic targets. PMID:24433356

  12. Diagnosis and management of secondary epipapillary retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ido Didi; Puccinelli, Francesco; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Munier, Francis L

    2017-10-01

    Reports on retinoblastoma relapse at the optic nerve head (ONH) are anecdotal and include only treatments by external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or enucleation. We aimed to describe such cases, termed secondary epipapillary retinoblastoma, diagnosed and monitored with the assistance of hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography (HHSD-OCT) and treated with intraophthalmic artery chemotherapy (IAC) and/or intravitreous chemotherapy (IViC). A retrospective analysis of secondary epipapillary retinoblastoma cases treated conservatively. Four males and two females were included, diagnosed with secondary epipapillary retinoblastoma at a median time of 8.6 months (mean 24.0) from initial retinoblastoma diagnosis. HHSD-OCT was used in all cases for accurate diagnosis; in 2/6, the epipapillary relapse was detected only by means of HHSD-OCT. Treatments for secondary epipapillary retinoblastoma included IAC and IViC (n=4), IAC alone (n=1) and IViC alone (n=1). HHSD-OCT demonstrated complete epipapillary tumour regression in all cases, achieved in a median time of 1.6 months (mean 1.8). The median time from secondary epipapillary retinoblastoma resolution to last visit was 29.2 months (mean 27.5). At last visit, all eyes were tumour-free and no cases of metastasis recorded. Cases of retinoblastoma relapse at the ONH show common clinical features and represent specific diagnostic and therapeutic challenge; hence, we propose to consider this condition as a subset of retinoblastoma, termed secondary epipapillary retinoblastoma. HHSD-OCT is an invaluable diagnostic tool in the initial diagnosis as well as in monitoring these lesions, and IAC and IViC are efficient modalities for this clinical scenario, obviating the need for EBRT or enucleation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Retinoblastoma genetics in India: From research to implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaras, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the prototypic genetic cancer. India carries the biggest burden of retinoblastoma globally, with an estimated 1500 new cases annually. Recent advances in retinoblastoma genetics are reviewed, focusing specifically on information with clinical significance to patients. The Indian literature on retinoblastoma clinical genetics is also highlighted, with a comment on challenges and future directions. The review concludes with recommendations to help clinicians implement and translate retinoblastoma genetics to their practice. PMID:25971166

  14. Realidade virtual aplicada ao tratamento da ansiedade social

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Tânia Cristina Martins

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho de projecto de mestrado em Engenharia Informática (Engenharia de Software), apresentado à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2012 A ansiedade social é uma patologia debilitante que prejudica e diminui a qualidade de vida. O tratamento existe e ´e composto por várias terapias realizadas em simultâneo, sendo uma delas a terapia de exposição¸. Com a evolução tecnológica, surgiu a possibilidade de aplicar a Realidade Virtual `a terapia de exposição¸ (Terapia de ...

  15. Realidade aumentada aplicada ao ensino pré-escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Órfão, João Pedro dos Santos Nobre

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação apresentado à Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestão do IPL para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Engenharia Informática - Computação Móvel, orientada pelo Doutor Luis Marcelino. Neste projeto foi abordado o tema da Realidade Aumentada e a sua aplicação no ensino a crianças em idade pré-escolar. Baseado nos desenvolvimentos já efetuados na área, os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a capacidade da framework YVision em produzir jogos que recorressem à realidade aume...

  16. Cytogenetics and cytology of retinoblastomas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Kozubek, Stanislav; Gajová, H.; Jirsová, Pavla; Žlůvová, Jitka; Taslerová, R.; Koutná, I.; Kozubek, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 129, č. 2 (2003), s. 89-99 ISSN 0171-5216 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5004010; GA AV ČR IAB5004102; GA AV ČR IAA5004306; GA ČR GA301/01/0186; GA MZd NC6987 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920; CEZ:MSM 143300002 Keywords : chromosomal aberrations * retinoblastoma * Y79 cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2003

  17. Recent Trends in the Management of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood. Significant progress has been made in the past few years in the management of retinoblastoma. Thus, the patients’ survival and ocular salvage rates have shown marked improvement. The current treatment strategies for retinoblastoma include enucleation, intravenous chemoreduction, and intra-arterial chemotherapy. Enucleation is generally reserved for eyes with extensive retinoblastoma, in which there is no hope for useful vision. From mid-1990s, intravenous chemoreduction has been used efficiently in the management of group A, B, or C, and some D eyes according to the International Classification of Retinoblastoma. Intravenous chemoreduction combined with focal treatments (cryotherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy, and brachytherapy have provided favorable tumor control for most of these eyes. In 2008, superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy has been popularized. This treatment involves injection of a chemotherapeutic agent (mostly melphalan after selective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery under neuroradiologic intervention. This provides higher success in advanced group D and Group E eyes that have relatively lower rate of tumor control with conventional intravenous chemoreduction. In conclusion, significant advances that have emerged recently in the management of retinoblastoma led to an increase in ocular salvage rates. Recently, popularized modality of intra-arterial chemotherapy offers hope in the control of eyes with advanced retinoblastoma. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 71-6

  18. Genomic landscape of retinoblastoma in Rb-/-p130-/-mice resembles human retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Irsan E; van Mil, Saskia E; MacPherson, David; Mol, Berber M; Moll, Annette C; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Cloos, Jacqueline; Te Riele, Hein; Dorsman, Josephine C

    2017-03-01

    Several murine retinoblastoma models have been generated by deleting the genes encoding for retinoblastoma susceptibility protein pRb and one of its family members p107 or p130. In Rb -/- p107 -/- retinoblastomas, somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) like Mdm2 amplification or Cdkn2a deletion targeting the p53-pathway occur, which is uncommon for human retinoblastoma. In our study, we determined SCNAs in retinoblastomas developing in Rb -/- p130 -/- mice and compared this to murine Rb -/- p107 -/- tumors and human tumors. Chimeric mice were made by injection of 129/Ola-derived Rb -/- p130 -/- embryonic stem cells into wild type C57BL/6 blastocysts. SCNAs of retinoblastoma samples were determined by low-coverage (∼0.5×) whole genome sequencing. In Rb -/- p130 -/- tumors, SCNAs included gain of chromosomes 1 (3/23 tumors), 8 (1/23 tumors), 10 (1/23 tumors), 11 (2/23 tumors), and 12 (4/23 tumors), which could be mapped to frequently altered chromosomes in human retinoblastomas. While the altered chromosomes in Rb -/- p130 -/- tumors were similar to those in Rb -/- p107 -/- tumors, the alteration frequencies were much lower in Rb -/- p130 -/- tumors. Most of the Rb -/- p130 -/- tumors (16/23 tumors, 70%) were devoid of SCNAs, in strong contrast to Rb -/- p107 -/- tumors, which were never (0/15 tumors) SCNA-devoid. Similarly, to human retinoblastoma, increased age at diagnosis significantly correlated with increased SCNA frequencies. Additionally, focal loss of Cdh11 was observed in one Rb -/- p130 -/- tumor, which enforces studies in human retinoblastoma that identified CDH11 as a retinoblastoma suppressor. Moreover, based on a comparison of genes altered in human and murine retinoblastoma, we suggest exploring the role of HMGA1 and SRSF3 in retinoblastoma development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Late onset retinoblastoma presenting with vitreous haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Mette; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Heegard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    in the retina. A vascularized gelatinous mass was revealed after vitrectomy. Later the patient developed white cysts in the anterior chamber and histological findings were indicative of a retinoblastoma. The patient was enucleated and the diagnosis of retinoblastoma was confirmed. Intraocular surgery in young...... people with unknown retinoblastoma enhances the risk of metastasis development, orbital recurrence and death. Unexplained vitreous haemorrhage can obscure the view of a tumour but ultrasonic findings of a retinal mass calls for further imaging e.g. through MRI. The case illustrates the importance...

  20. Nanotecnologia aplicada aos alimentos e biocombustíveis: interações sociotécnicas e impactos sociais | Risk analysis and regulatory frameworks for nanotechnology applied to food and biofuels, new socio-technical interactions and impacts on social life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Elias Magno da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A presente comunicação tem por base os resultados preliminares da discussão no campo da sociologia feitas para a pesquisa “Nanotecnologias aplicadas aos alimentos e aos biocombustíveis: reconhecendo os elementos essenciais para o desenvolvimento de indicadores de riscos e de marcos regulatórios que resguardem a saúde e o meio ambiente” (Edital o4/CII – 2008 – Nanobiotecnologia - CAPES. Parte-se da premissa de que ao analisar as diferentes dimensões da vida social afetadas pelas nanotecnologias, é preciso refletir sobre os novos valores sociais que decorrem deste avanço tecnológico e das inúmeras possibilidades que são apresentadas à sociedade como decorrentes desta chamada “nova revolução” científica. Os desafios no campo das ciências sociais, em especial no campo da sociologia da ciência e tecnologia, aumentarão proporcionalmente na medida em que conhecimentos científicos e tecnológicos de áreas de fronteira aceleram sua entrada no mundo da vida através de inovações tecnológicas e organizacionais. As novas configurações sociais decorrentes de um mundo em mudança constante, marcado pela liquidez, como afirma Bauman (2001, são cada vez mais prementes. Este processo tem efeitos sobre as estruturas psicossociais dos indivíduos, pressionando a capacidade explicativa das teorias e ferramentas conceituais tradicionais das ciências sociais. Palavras chave Sociologia, nanotecnologia, Ciências Sociais, transumanismo Abstract This communication is based on the preliminary results of the discussion in the field of Sociology made to the survey "Nanotechnologies applied to food and biofuels, recognizing the essential elements for the development of risk indicators and regulatory frameworks that protect health and the environment" (Edital o4/CII – 2008 – Nanobiotecnologia - CAPES. It starts with the premise that when analyzing the different dimensions of social life affected by nanotechnology, we must

  1. Evolução da terapêutica do retinoblastoma Development in the treatment of retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Beatriz Gianotti Antoneli

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar a evolução do tratamento do retinoblastoma ao longo de uma década e suas implicações na sobrevida global e na preservação da visão. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e dezenove pacientes foram avaliados no estudo. Analisamos 257 pacientes portadores de retinoblastoma admitidos no Hospital do Câncer, entre janeiro de 1986 a dezembro de 1996, divididos em dois grupos de acordo com tratamento a que foram submetidos (1986 a 1990 e 1991 a 1996. Analisamos ainda 62 pacientes portadores de retinoblastoma intra-ocular entre janeiro de 1996 e maio de 2000 que foram submetidos a quimiorredução, aliada a medidas oftalmológicas, sem enucleação ou radioterapia externa. RESULTADOS: Em pacientes com doença intra-ocular, nos dois períodos, não houve significância estatística com relação à sobrevida. Analisamos 59 pacientes com retinoblastoma extra-ocular, de acordo com a classificação do CCG (Children´s Cancer Group, e a sobrevida global em 5 anos foi maior no 2º período, (63,7% vs. 41%; p= 0,059. Entre 1996 e 2000 analisamos 62 pacientes com retinoblastoma intra-ocular com visão preservada, sendo 47 (75,8% com doença bilateral e 15 (24,2% com tumor unilateral. Os portadores de tumor bilateral tiveram uma taxa de preservação de visão de 49,8%, versus 26,7% para os pacientes com tumor unilateral. CONCLUSÕES: Tumores intra-oculares mantêm altas taxas de cura e preservação da visão. Novas combinações de drogas poderão melhorar a sobrevida dos extra-oculares. Quanto às perspectivas futuras, há pesquisas envolvendo terapia gênica/molecular e terapêutica anti-angiogênese. Apesar de toda a evolução, o diagnóstico precoce é a arma mais poderosa, na cura dos portadores deste tumor.PURPOSE: The management of retinoblastoma (Rb has gradually changed over the past years achieving a satisfactory result (increasing overall survival and avoiding enucleations. METHODS: Three hundred and nineteen patients with retinoblastoma

  2. Trabeculectomy in eyes with unsuspected retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bhavna; Hada, Maya; Seth, Rachna; Sen, Seema; Gupta, Viney; Kashyap, Seema; Narasimhaiah, Pinto C

    2016-12-01

    To report the management and clinical outcome of children with unsuspected retinoblastoma who underwent trabeculectomy surgery. Three children who presented to us after trabeculectomy surgery were diagnosed with retinoblastoma. They were treated with enucleation of the affected eye. Histopathology of the enucleated eyeball showed tumor infiltration into the iris and the ciliary body in two cases, and massive choroidal invasion in the third case. Six cycles of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin, vincristine and etoposide were given. The follow-up ranged from 18-48 months. At last follow-up, all children were alive and well, with no local recurrence or systemic metastasis. The management of retinoblastoma with operated trabeculectomy is challenging due to risk of tumor dissemination. Timely intervention can result in good clinical outcome. Nevertheless, a meticulous posterior segment evaluation to rule out retinoblastoma in children presenting with buphthalmos or secondary glaucoma should always be considered.

  3. Necrotic intraocular retinoblastoma associated with orbital cellulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalcı, Hilal; Gündüz, Kaan; Erden, Esra

    Orbital cellulitis associated with retinoblastoma is uncommon and is characterized by noninfectious inflammation of the periorbital structures. The underlying mechanism is thought to be necrosis of the intraocular tumor, leading to intraocular and periorbital inflammation. We report 2 retinoblastoma patients who presented with an orbital cellulitis-like picture and discuss clinical characteristics, histopathologic features, and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunohistochemical demonstration of glial markers in retinoblastomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D

    1987-01-01

    Twenty retinoblastomas were studied immunohistochemically in order to visualize glial cells. In the retina, the glial cells in the ganglion cell layer and the Müller cells were GFAP positive, while only the glial cells of the ganglion cell layer expressed S-100 reactivity. In the tumours S-100/GFAP...... cells reactive for both S-100 and GFAP were demonstrated. The latter findings may represent differentiation in a glial direction in the more mature parts of retinoblastoma....

  5. La neuroplasticidad aplicada al deporte

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    Me decidí a realizar la siguiente ponencia, para analizar y reconocer la importancia que implica el trabajo cognitivo en el entrenamiento deportivo. El abordaje que efectuaré, está enfocado en el desarrollo del entrenamiento cognitivo, su fundamento y el desarrollo de la neuroplasticidad. Analizaré el concepto de neuroplasticidad y neurogénesis como base al sustento teórico de la neurociencia aplicada al deporte. También remarcaré diversas metodologías prácticas, con su fundamento teóri...

  6. Knowledge of genetics in familial retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh E; ElManhaly, Mostafa; Dimaras, Helen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate knowledge of retinoblastoma inheritance among parents of children with familial retinoblastoma, and to compare this to timing of eye examination for at-risk children, disease severity at diagnosis, treatment burden, and outcome. A retrospective review of familial retinoblastoma cases that presented at Alexandria Main University Hospital was performed. Primary outcome measures were parental knowledge of familial retinoblastoma (disease, heritability) and subsequent action (early screening or not) and their impact on tumor burden (classification at diagnosis, potential threat to vision, ocular salvage, and life), treatment burden, and treatment success (avoidance of enucleation and irradiation). Twenty-three eyes of 13 familial retinoblastoma cases were included. Probands were parents in 9 (69%) and older siblings in 4 (31%) cases. At time of diagnosis of the first affected children, none (0%) of the parental probands knew that newborns should be screened, in contrast to all parents with a child proband (4/4, 100%; p = 0.004). Early eye screening was significantly associated with lower tumor burden (p = 0.03), lower treatment burden (p = 0.04), higher rate of ocular salvage (p = 0.01), and better visual outcome (p = 0.01). Parental knowledge of retinoblastoma nature and heritability is crucial to good patient outcomes, but translating this knowledge into appropriate action (i.e. screening of at-risk children) is still deficient.

  7. Estudo comparativo da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo do revestimento de três ligas metálicas utilizadas na indústria, aplicadas por soldagem com arames tubulares Comparative study of the wear resistance of three metal cored wire welded coatings used in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinícius de Melo Leite

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As ligas metálicas aplicadas por soldagem em superfícies, objetivando a proteção contra o desgaste e o conseqüente aumento da vida útil de peças e equipamentos, têm sido utilizadas em larga escala nas indústrias de bens de consumo e nos setores de mineração e sucroalcooleiro. O desgaste abrasivo em peças e equipamentos representa, nestas industriais, um dos principais fatores de depreciação de capital e uma importante fonte de despesas com manutenção. Para a aplicação do revestimento por soldagem, os arames tubulares têm sido uma alternativa cada vez mais viável, devido à sua alta produtividade e qualidade de solda, substituindo, em parte, o uso do eletrodo revestido. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer um estudo comparativo da resistência ao desgaste abrasivo do revestimento aplicado por soldagem com arames tubulares autoprotegidos de três ligas metálicas utilizadas na indústria, uma do tipo Fe-Cr-C, outra do tipo Fe-Cr-C com adição de nióbio e boro e a terceira, do tipo Fe-Cr-C com adição de nióbio. Os revestimentos anti-desgaste, conhecidos como revestimento duro, foram aplicados em chapas de aço carbono, com os mesmos parâmetros e procedimentos de soldagem. Os corpos de prova foram obtidos por corte e retificação e foram submetidos a ensaios de desgaste abrasivo, em um abrasômero Roda de Borracha, conforme procedimento estabelecido pela norma ASTM G65-91. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a liga Fe-Cr-C com adição de Nióbio e Boro apresentou desempenho superior em relação ao desgaste abrasivo.The metal alloys deposited by welding on the components surface, with the objective of protection against wear and the consequent increase in the lifetime of parts and equipments, have been used extensively in the consumer products industry and sectors of Mining and Sugar & alcohol. The abrasive wear on parts and equipments represents one of the main depreciation factors of capital and the major source of

  8. Retinoblastoma: genetic considerations and report of a new animal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, D.M.; O'Brien, J.M.; Marcus, D.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary, intraocular neoplasm of childhood. Histologically, retinoblastoma resembles, in many respects, other pediatric malignancies such as medulloblastoma and neuroblastoma. These tumors are composed of small, basophilic cells with scanty cytoplasm and often

  9. Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to sight-saving treatments and plays a key role in reducing visual impairment and blindness. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social ...

  10. Pediatric second primary malignancies after retinoblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temming, Petra; Viehmann, Anja; Arendt, Marina; Eisele, Lewin; Spix, Claudia; Bornfeld, Norbert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Lohmann, Dietmar R

    2015-10-01

    Children with retinoblastoma carry a high risk to develop second primary malignancies in childhood and adolescence. This study characterizes the type of pediatric second primary malignancies after retinoblastoma treatment and investigates the impact of different treatment strategies and prognostic factors at presentation. All national patients treated for retinoblastoma at the German referral center with a current age of 6-27 years were invited to participate in a study to characterize late effects. Data on pediatric second primary malignancies were recorded from 488 patients. Ten developed a malignancy before the age of 18 years. For children with heterozygous oncogenic RB1 alteration (heritable retinoblastoma), the cumulative incidence to develop a second malignancy at the age of 10 years was 5.2% (95% CI 1.7; 8.7%). This results in an elevated risk for sarcoma (n = 4) (SIR 147.98; 95% CI 39.81; 378.87) and leukemia (n = 4) (SIR 41.38; 95% CI 11.13; 105.95). Neither the functional type of the RB1 alteration nor its origin showed a significant impact. Treatment modality influenced incidence, latency, and type of malignancy. Previous radiotherapy increased the risk for solid tumors and 3 of 91 children developed acute leukemia after chemotherapy. However, 2 of 10 malignancies were diagnosed in patients with heritable retinoblastoma but without previous chemotherapy or external beam radiotherapy. Screening for second primary malignancy is an important part of pediatric oncological follow-up in patients with heritable retinoblastoma. For patients with sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma, genetic information influences treatment decisions and allows tailoring of follow-up schedules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Retinoblastoma in Adults: a Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sharifzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Case report: Herein, we present an adult retinoblastoma case who was misdiagnosed as melanoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy with intravitreal hemorrhage and later neovascular glaucoma after biopsy. The diagnosis of retinoblastoma was confirmed after enucleation. Conclusion: Retinoblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intraocular mass in adults, especially when media haziness precludes adequate ophthalmoscopic visualization.

  12. Ensaios sobre macroeconometria bayesiana aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Genta dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Os três artigos que compõe esta Tese possuem em comum a utilização de técnicas macroeconométricas bayesianas, aplicadas a modelos dinâmicos e estocásticos de equilíbrio geral, para a investigação de problemas específicos. Desta forma, esta Tese busca preencher importantes lacunas presentes na literatura nacional e internacional. No primeiro artigo, estimou-se a importância do canal de custo da política monetária por meio de um modelo novo-keynesiano dinâmico e estocástico de equilíbrio geral....

  13. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in bilateral retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalar, Banu; Ozyar, Enis; Gunduz, Kaan; Gungor, Gorkem

    2010-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for retinoblastoma has traditionally been done with conventional radiotherapy techniques which resulted high doses to the surrounding normal tissues. A 20 month-old girl with group D bilateral retinoblastoma underwent intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to both eyes after failing chemoreduction and focal therapies including cryotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. In this report, we discuss the use of IMRT as a method for reducing doses to adjacent normal tissues while delivering therapeutic doses to the tumour tissues compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). At one year follow-up, the patient remained free of any obvious radiation complications. Image guided IMRT provides better dose distribution than 3DCRT in retinoblastoma eyes, delivering the therapeutic dose to the tumours and minimizing adjacent tissue damage

  14. Transcriptional inhibition by the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattaey, A; Helin, K; Harlow, E

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein, pRB, appears to play a key role in coordinating the regulation of cell cycle position and transcriptional events. pRB undergoes specific cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation, being underphosphorylated in G1 and heavily phosphorylated in S, G2, and M. The underphosphory......The retinoblastoma protein, pRB, appears to play a key role in coordinating the regulation of cell cycle position and transcriptional events. pRB undergoes specific cell-cycle-dependent phosphorylation, being underphosphorylated in G1 and heavily phosphorylated in S, G2, and M......-mediated transcription would be lost by mutation in the retinoblastoma gene in human tumours, by pRB's interaction with DNA tumour virus oncoproteins, or by phosphorylation during the cell cycle....

  15. Genetics and Molecular Diagnostics in Retinoblastoma--An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh E; Racher, Hilary; Zhang, Chengyue; MacDonald, Heather; Gallie, Brenda L

    2017-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the prototype genetic cancer: in one or both eyes of young children, most retinoblastomas are initiated by biallelic mutation of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene, RB1, in a developing retinal cell. All those with bilateral retinoblastoma have heritable cancer, although 95% have not inherited the RB1 mutation. Non-heritable retinoblastoma is always unilateral, with 98% caused by loss of both RB1 alleles from the tumor, whereas 2% have normal RB1 in tumors initiated by amplification of the MYCN oncogene. Good understanding of retinoblastoma genetics supports optimal care for retinoblastoma children and their families. Retinoblastoma is the first cancer to officially acknowledge the seminal role of genetics in cancer, by incorporating "H" into the eighth edition of cancer staging (2017): those who carry the RB1 cancer-predisposing gene are H1; those proven to not carry the familial RB1 mutation are H0; and those at unknown risk are HX. We suggest H0* be used for those with residual retinoblastoma, and cancer progression ensues with increasing genomic disarray. Looking forward, novel therapies are anticipated from studies of retinoblastoma and metastatic tumor cells and the second primary cancers that the carriers of RB1 mutations are at high risk to develop. Here, we summarize the concepts of retinoblastoma genetics for ophthalmologists in a question/answer format to assist in the care of patients and their families. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  16. Lesions Simulating Retinoblastoma at a Tertiary Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Makateb, Ali

    2015-01-01

    To determine the types and frequency of ocular conditions simulating retinoblastoma (pseudo-retinoblastoma) at Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. We reviewed data of patients who were referred with a diagnosis of retinoblastoma to Farabi Eye Hospital oncology clinic, from January 2009 to July 2013. Examination under general anesthesia was performed for all patients. Other investigations, such as ultrasonography, were performed as required. Of a total of 331 patients (aged 1-60 months), 138 (42%) were found to be suffering from a benign disorder. Among these pseudo-retinoblastoma cases, Coats' disease was the most prevalent codition (n = 36, 26%); persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) and familial exudative vitreo-retinopathy (FEVR) were the next two common pseudo-retinoblastoma cases in our series. The rate of misdiagnosis upon referral to our center was close to 40%. The most common pseudo-retinoblastomas entities include Coats' disease, PHPV and FEVR. An accurate diagnosis is essential for management of pseudo-retinoblastoma cases.

  17. Herramienta para la Deteccion de Retinoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Cuentas , Natalia Indira; Roman-Gonzalez , Avid

    2015-01-01

    International audience; El retinoblastoma, es un tumor que se presenta en la retina de las personas, especialmente en los niños. Una detección temprana del mismo, podría ser muy útil y salvar la vida del niño. Es en ese sentido, que el presente trabajo propone una herramienta sencilla para la detección de retinoblastoma analizando fotografías tomadas con flash en las cuales, en el ojo del niño se puede detectar la presencia de leucoria. Esta detección se realiza utilizando las funciones de de...

  18. Tumor regression patterns in retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.N.; Siddique, S.N.; Zaheer, N.

    2016-01-01

    To observe the types of tumor regression after treatment, and identify the common pattern of regression in our patients. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from October 2011 to October 2014. Methodology: Children with unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma were included in the study. Patients were referred to Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, for chemotherapy. After every cycle of chemotherapy, dilated funds examination under anesthesia was performed to record response of the treatment. Regression patterns were recorded on RetCam II. Results: Seventy-four tumors were included in the study. Out of 74 tumors, 3 were ICRB group A tumors, 43 were ICRB group B tumors, 14 tumors belonged to ICRB group C, and remaining 14 were ICRB group D tumors. Type IV regression was seen in 39.1% (n=29) tumors, type II in 29.7% (n=22), type III in 25.6% (n=19), and type I in 5.4% (n=4). All group A tumors (100%) showed type IV regression. Seventeen (39.5%) group B tumors showed type IV regression. In group C, 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type II regression and 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type IV regression. In group D, 6 tumors (42.9%) regressed to type II non-calcified remnants. Conclusion: The response and success of the focal and systemic treatment, as judged by the appearance of different patterns of tumor regression, varies with the ICRB grouping of the tumor. (author)

  19. [The results of multimodal treatment in retinoblastoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, M; Voinea, S; Dragomir, M; Blidaru, A

    1998-01-01

    The paper is a retrospective study about complex treatment (surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy) in a group of 25 patients with retinoblastoma. The best results were in patients with early diagnosis, who came soon after surgery for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Non presentation for chemotherapy and radiotherapy was the main cause of therapeutical fail.

  20. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Shukla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. METHODS: Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. RESULTS: Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1 expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  1. Expression of multidrug resistance proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Swati; Srivastava, Arpna; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Usha; Goswami, Sandeep; Chawla, Bhavna; Bajaj, Mandeep Singh; Kashyap, Seema; Kaur, Jasbir

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of multidrug resistance in retinoblastoma, and to acquire more insights into in vivo drug resistance. Three anticancer drug resistant Y79 human RB cells were generated against vincristine, etoposide or carboplatin, which are used for conventional chemotherapy in RB. Primary cultures from enucleated eyes after chemotherapy (PCNC) were also prepared. Their chemosensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin) were measured using MTT assay. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate the expression of p53, Bcl-2 and various multidrug resistant proteins in retinoblastoma cells. Following exposure to chemotherapeutic drugs, PCNC showed less sensitivity to drugs. No significant changes observed in the p53 expression, whereas Bcl-2 expression was found to be increased in the drug resistant cells as well as in PCNC. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was observed in drug resistant Y79 cells; however there was no significant change in the expression of P-gp found between primary cultures of primarily enucleated eyes and PCNC. Multidrug resistance protein 1 (Mrp-1) expression was found to be elevated in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. No significant change in the expression of lung resistance associated protein (Lrp) was observed in the drug resistant Y79 cells as well as in PCNC. Our results suggest that multidrug resistant proteins are intrinsically present in retinoblastoma which causes treatment failure in managing retinoblastoma with chemotherapy.

  2. Retinoblastoma: might photodynamic therapy be an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixo, Ricardo; Laranjo, Mafalda; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Brites, Gonçalo; Serra, Arménio; Proença, Rui; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2015-12-01

    Retinoblastoma is a tumor that mainly affects children under 5 years, all over the world. The origin of these tumors is related with mutations in the RB1 gene, which may result from genetic alterations in cells of the germ line or in retinal somatic cells. In developing countries, the number of retinoblastoma-related deaths is higher due to less access to treatment, unlike what happens in developed countries where survival rates are higher. However, treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although quite effective in treating this type of cancer, do not avoid high indices of mortality due to secondary malignances which are quite frequent in these patients. Additionally, treatments such as cryotherapy, thermotherapy, thermochemotherapy, or brachytherapy represent other options for retinoblastoma. When all these approaches fail, enucleation is the last option. Photodynamic therapy might be considered as an alternative, particularly because of its non-mutagenic character. Photodynamic therapy is a treatment modality based on the administration of photosensitizing molecules that only upon irradiation of the tumor with a light source of appropriate wavelength are activated, triggering its antitumor action. This activity may be not only due to direct damage to tumor cells but also due to damage caused to the blood vessels responsible for the vascular supply of the tumor. Over the past decades, several in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of retinoblastoma, and very promising results were achieved.

  3. The retinoblastoma protein as a transcriptional repressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Ed, H

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is one of the best-studied tumour suppressor gene products. Its loss during the genesis of many human tumours, its inactivation by several DNA tumour virus oncoproteins, and its ability to inhibit cell growth when introduced into dividing cells all suggest that p...

  4. Retinoblastoma and Superior Verbal IQ Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Michael; Hill, Eileen; Hill, John

    2010-01-01

    Experienced teachers have long asserted that children blind from retinoblastoma (Rb), a rare cancer of the eye, are of above average intelligence. To test this hypothesis, standardized verbal intelligence tests were administered to a sample of 85 children and adults, all diagnosed with the early infancy form of this condition. For 42 of the Rb…

  5. Guidelines for imaging retinoblastoma: imaging principles and MRI standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graaf, Pim de; Rodjan, Firazia; Castelijns, Jonas A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Goericke, Sophia [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany); Galluzzi, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliera e Universitaria Senese, Policlinico ' ' Le Scotte' ' , Unit of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Neuroradiology, Siena (Italy); Maeder, Philippe [CHUV, Service de Radiodiagnostic et Radiologie Interventionelle, Lausanne (Switzerland); Brisse, Herve J. [Institut Curie, Departement d' Imagerie, Paris (France)

    2012-01-15

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. The diagnosis is usually established by the ophthalmologist on the basis of fundoscopy and US. Together with US, high-resolution MRI has emerged as an important imaging modality for pretreatment assessment, i.e. for diagnostic confirmation, detection of local tumor extent, detection of associated developmental malformation of the brain and detection of associated intracranial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (trilateral retinoblastoma). Minimum requirements for pretreatment diagnostic evaluation of retinoblastoma or mimicking lesions are presented, based on consensus among members of the European Retinoblastoma Imaging Collaboration (ERIC). The most appropriate techniques for imaging in a child with leukocoria are reviewed. CT is no longer recommended. Implementation of a standardized MRI protocol for retinoblastoma in clinical practice may benefit children worldwide, especially those with hereditary retinoblastoma, since a decreased use of CT reduces the exposure to ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  6. Retinoblastoma: genetics, diagnosis, treatment and sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, Edward C.

    1995-01-01

    There has been a conceptual breakthrough in our understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of the origins of human neoplasia. Mutations in three broad categories of genes have been shown to contribute to the origins and progression of neoplasia in humans: the oncogenes, the tumor suppressor genes, and the mutator genes. The retinoblastoma gene (RB1) is the best characterized tumor suppressor gene. It was first localized by Knudson and coworkers who observed an association between a deletion on the long arm of chromosome 13 and an inherited predisposition to retinoblastoma. The RB1 gene is composed of 27 exons encompassing more than 200 kilobases of genomic DNA. The product of the RB1 gene is a 105-107 kDa nuclear phosphoprotein which plays a part in regulating cellular DNA synthesis. Tumors arise, as predicted by Knudson's 'two-hit' hypothesis, as a result of bi-allelic mutation of the RB1 gene. Inactivating mutations of the RB1 gene have been identified in various tumors, showing the RB1 gene product has an important role in regulating cell proliferation beyond its effect on retinoblasts. The RB1 gene was cloned and identified in 1986. Returning the RB1 gene to a retinoblastoma cell in culture reduces its tumorgenic potential. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumor of childhood. The tumor consists of undifferentiated small anaplastic cells which may be round or polygonal. Both Flexner and Wintersteiner described the arrangement of the more differentiated malignant retinoblastoma cells in neuroepithelial rosettes which appear to represent an attempt to differentiate into photoreceptor cells. The tumor commonly presents with a white pupillary light reflex. The diagnosis is generally made based on physical examination, confirmatory photographs and diagnostic imaging studies and, in many cases, a supportive family history. The most widely used grouping system was proposed by Algernon Reese and Robert Ellsworth. The primary goal of

  7. Retinoblastoma: Genetics, diagnosis, treatment and sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    There has been a conceptual breakthrough in our understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of the origins of human neoplasia. Mutations in three broad categories of genes have been shown to contribute to the origins and progression of neoplasia in humans: the oncogenes, the tumor suppressor genes, and the mutator genes. The retinoblastoma gene (RB1) is the best characterized tumor suppressor gene. It was first localized by Knudson and coworkers who observed an association between a deletion on the long arm of chromosome 13 and an inherited predisposition to retinoblastoma. The RB1 gene is composed of 27 exons encompassing more than 200 kilobases of genomic DNA. The product of the RB1 gene is a 105-107 kDa nuclear phosphoprotein which plays a part in regulating cellular DNA synthesis. Tumors arise, as predicted by Knudson's 'two-hit' hypothesis, as a result of biallelic mutation of the RB1 gene. Inactivating mutations of the RB1 gene have been identified in various tumors, showing the RB1 gene product has an important role in regulating cell proliferation beyond its effect on retinoblasts. The RB1 gene was cloned and identified in 1986. Returning the RB1 gene to a retinoblastoma cell in culture reduces its tumorgenic potential. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumor of childhood. The tumor consists of undifferentiated small anaplastic cells which may be round or polygonal. Both Flexner and Wintersteiner described the arrangement of the more differentiated malignant retinoblastoma cells in neuroepithelial rosettes which appear to represent an attempt to differentiate into photoreceptor cells. The tumor commonly presents with a white pupillary light reflex. The diagnosis is generally made based on physical examination, confirmatory photographs and diagnostic imaging studies and, in many cases, a supportive family history. The most widely used grouping system was proposed by Algernon Reese and Robert Ellsworth. The primary goal of

  8. Cross-species genomic and epigenomic landscape of retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavente, Claudia A.; McEvoy, Justina D.; Finkelstein, David; Wei, Lei; Kang, Guolian; Wang, Yong-Dong; Neale, Geoffrey; Ragsdale, Susan; Valentine, Virginia; Bahrami, Armita; Temirov, Jamshid; Pounds, Stanley; Zhang, Jinghui; Dyer, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of human cancer are important for advancing our understanding of tumor initiation and progression as well as for testing novel therapeutics. Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the developing retina that initiates with biallelic inactivation of the RB1 gene. GEMMs faithfully recapitulate the histopathology, molecular, cellular, morphometric, neuroanatomical and neurochemical features of human retinoblastoma. In this study, we analyzed the genomic and epigenomic landscape of murine retinoblastoma and compared them to human retinoblastomas to gain insight into shared mechanisms of tumor progression across species. Similar to human retinoblastoma, mouse tumors have low rates of single nucleotide variations. However, mouse retinoblastomas have higher rates of aneuploidy and regional and focal copy number changes that vary depending on the genetic lesions that initiate tumorigenesis in the developing murine retina. Furthermore, the epigenetic landscape in mouse retinoblastoma was significantly different from human tumors and some pathways that are candidates for molecular targeted therapy for human retinoblastoma such as SYK or MCL1 are not deregulated in GEMMs. Taken together, these data suggest there are important differences between mouse and human retinoblastomas with respect to the mechanism of tumor progression and those differences can have significant implications for translational research to test the efficacy of novel therapies for this devastating childhood cancer. PMID:23765217

  9. Atraso diagnóstico do retinoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues,Karla E. S.; Latorre,Maria do Rosário D. O.; Camargo,Beatriz de

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Identificar os principais sinais e sintomas do retinoblastoma e determinar o tempo médio entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, com revisão dos prontuários das crianças diagnosticadas com retinoblastoma entre janeiro de 1991 e junho de 2000 no Departamento de Pediatria do Hospital do Câncer de São Paulo. Análise estatística: teste t de Student, análise e variância, teste de Tukey-HSD (honest significant differences), teste de Levene, análise de ...

  10. Radiation management of retinoblastoma; An analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemasa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Oguchi, Yoshihisa (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-12-01

    An analysis has been conducted of 45 patients treated for retinoblastoma at Keio University Hospital between 1970 and 1990. Of these patients, 32 had unilateral lesion and 13 had bilateral lesion. Further, since their disease was far advanced, 29 patients with unilateral lesion and 12 patients with bilateral lesion underwent enucleation. As a result, 3 patients with unilateral retinoblastoma and all patients with bilateral manifestation of the disease were treated with radiotherapy (45-50 Gy) with or without cryotherapy and photocoagulation. One patient with unilateral lesion, who had received both radiotherapy and chemotherapy, showed metastases at the first presentation at our clinic and thus was excluded from this analysis. Among 16 eyes of 15 patients who were given radiotherapy, 6 eyes developed recurrence and needed to have further treatment. In 6 eyes out of 12, cataract developed, and out of 10 eyes in which eye function was evaluable, good vision was able to be preserved in 5 eyes. (author).

  11. Postirradiation sarcoma in retinoblastoma. Induction or predisposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, M.B.; Burgess, L.P.; Fee, W.E. Jr.; Donaldson, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    An alarmingly high rate of postirradiation sarcomas following treatment for retinoblastoma has been described in the literature. We present four new cases and report 57 others from the English literature. Osteogenic sarcoma was the predominant histologic type (58%), followed by fibrosarcoma (21%) and various other sarcomas (21%). The average latency period between irradiation and development of the second primary (sarcoma) was 12.4 years. Irrespective of irradiation, a genetic linkage between retinoblastoma and osteogenic sarcoma on the 13q14 chromosome is recognized. Through a pleiotropic effect of this same chromosome, a predisposition for other sarcomas may exist as well. Finally, a strong role for radiation induction is proposed for all of these postirradiation sarcomas. This is based on the increased number of sarcomas arising in the field of prior irradiation (sites uncharacteristic of spontaneously occurring primary sarcomas) and the prolonged latency periods.13 references

  12. Genetic screening in Iranian patients with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, K; Ahani, A; Sharma, P; Faranoush, M; Bahoush, G; Torktaz, I; Gahl, W A; Naseripour, M; Behnam, B

    2017-04-01

    PurposeThe most common intraocular tumor in childhood, retinoblastoma, is largely associated with mutations in the RB1 gene. In the most comprehensive RB1 screening in Iran, we evaluated the RB1 mutations in 106 patients with retinoblastoma, including 73 bilateral (heritable) and 33 unilateral (sporadic) cases.Patients and methodsMutations were identified using amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) PCR and direct sequencing of the 27 coding exons of RB1 and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA).Results and ConclusionWe found 33 (31%) and 64 (60%) patients with sporadic unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma, respectively as well as 9 (8.5%) cases with hereditary bilateral retinoblastoma. In total, we identified 52 causative RB1 mutations in 106 patients (global mutation rate of 49%). Of the 52 patients, 48 (92%) had sporadic and familial bilateral and 4 (8%) had sporadic unilateral RB. Therefore, the detection rate of RB1 mutations was 66% (48/73) and 12% (4/33) in bilateral and unilateral cases, respectively. Mutations were classified as nonsense in 31 (60%), missense in 1 (2%), large deletion in 11 (21%), small deletion in the 7 novel (15%) and splice site mutation in 2 (4%) patients with RB. Of 31 nonsense mutations, 23 (74%) occurred in the 11 Arginine codons of the RB1. Seven mutations (13%) were novel, and 45 (87%) had been previously reported. Thirty-three mutations were single-base substitutions leading to 31 nonsense amino acid changes and 2 splice site mutations in introns 12 and 16 of RB1. The altered 3D model structures of the RB1 novel mutant proteins are also predicted in this study.

  13. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  14. MicroRNAs horizon in retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mirakholi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the retinoblastoma research, it is of great interest to identify molecular markers associated with the genetics of tumorigenesis. microRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that play a regulatory role in many crucial cellular pathways such as differentiation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. A body of evidences showed dysregulation of miRNAs in tumor biology and many diseases. They potentially play a significant role in tumorigenesis processes and have been the subject of research in many types of cancers including retinal tumorigenesis. miRNA expression profiling was found to be associated with tumor development, progression and treatment. These associations demonstrate the putative applications of miRNAs in monitoring of different aspect of tumors consisting diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic. Herein, we review the current literature concerning to the study of miRNA target recognition, function to tumorigenesis and treatment in retinoblastoma. Identification the specific miRNA biomarkers associated with retinoblastoma cancer may help to establish new therapeutic approaches for salvage affected eyes in patients.

  15. Tratamiento conservador en pacientes con retinoblastoma bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Suárez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar el tratamiento convencional del retinoblastoma bilateral, usado hasta hace algunos años, consistente en radioterapia o enucleación bilateral, con el tratamiento conservador actual que incluye termoterapia transpupilar (TTT o TTT/quimioterapia al menos en un ojo, en niños con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral. DISEÑO: estudio retrospectivo descriptivo. MUESTRA: 20 pacientes con diagnóstico de retinoblastoma bilateral que consultaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre 1997 y 2007. MÉTODO: se hizo enucleación del ojo con el tumor de mayor tamaño. En el otro ojo se hizo tratamiento con TTT, con el láser diodo (810 nm, spot amplio, solo o combinado con otras terapias. RESULTADOS: se dividió a los pacientes en dos grupos: 16 pacientes (32 ojos en el grupo 1 tratados conservadoramente y 4 pacientes (8 ojos en el grupo 2 con tratamiento convencional. El rango de edad fue de 1-72 meses en el grupo 1 y de 1-12 meses en el grupo 2. El tiempo de seguimiento fue de 7-67 meses para el grupo 1 y de 13-73 meses para el grupo 2. En el grupo 1 se hizo enucleación de 16 ojos (50%, radioterapia externa de uno (3,1%, quimioterapia más termoterapia de 5 (15,6% y quimioterapia más termoterapia más crioterapia de 10 (31,3%. En todos los pacientes se logró preservar al menos un ojo. En el grupo 2, se enuclearon 7 ojos (87,5% y se hizo radioterapia externa más enucleación en un paciente (12.5%. Además, todos los pacientes recibieron quimioterapia. CONCLUSIÓN: la terapia conservadora actual consistente en tratamiento local (termoterapia, crioterapia o braquiterapia y quimiorreducción permite preservar al menos un ojo y en algunos casos de los dos, muchas veces con buena agudeza visual, en niños con retinoblastoma bilateral; se evitan así la enucleación bilateral y la radioterapia externa usada en el tratamiento convencional con todos sus efectos secundarios. La enucleación contin

  16. Retinoblastoma: Assessing the Level of Knowledge of Tumour By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For 60% leucocoria was the only sign suspect of retinoblastoma, for 80% strabismus was the only sign of retinoblastoma, only 10% had associated leucocoria and strabismus as two early signs of this cancer. Twelve percent had a score equal to 3/3, eight (8%) had a score equal to 2/3, and 80% had a score of less than or ...

  17. Inhibitory effect of puerarin on proliferation of retinoblastoma cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 71.4 ± 4.5 % for control and Bmi-1 siRNA-treated groups, respectively. Conclusions: The results show that puerarin exert suppressive effects on human retinoblastoma Y79 cells and therefore may find application in the treatment of intraocular tumor. Keywords: Cancer, Puerarin, Retinoblastoma Y79 cells, mTOR inhibition, ...

  18. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development.

  19. Molecular-genetic analysis of two cases with retinoblastoma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Effective counselling and management of retinoblastoma families using genetic information is presently practised in many parts of the world. We studied histopathological, chromosomal and molecular-genetic data of two retinoblastoma pa- tients from India. The two patients, one with bilateral and the other with unilateral ...

  20. Targeting Notch signaling as a novel therapy for retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaghi, Laura; Tripathy, Arushi; Yang, Qian; Kaur, Harpreet; Hanaford, Allison; Yu, Wayne; Eberhart, Charles G

    2016-10-25

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy of childhood. Notch plays a key role in retinal cells from which retinoblastomas arise, and we therefore studied the role of Notch signaling in promoting retinoblastoma proliferation. Moderate or strong nuclear expression of Hes1 was found in 10 of 11 human retinoblastoma samples analyzed immunohistochemically, supporting a role for Notch in retinoblastoma growth. Notch pathway components were present in WERI Rb1 and Y79 retinoblastoma lines, with Jag2 and DLL4 more highly expressed than other ligands, and Notch1 and Notch2 more abundant than Notch3. The cleaved/active form of Notch1 was detectable in both lines. Inhibition of the pathway, achieved using a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) or by downregulating Jag2, DLL4 or CBF1 using short hairpin RNA, potently reduced growth, proliferation and clonogenicity in both lines. Upregulation of CXCR4 and CXCR7 and downregulation of PI3KC2β were identified by microarray upon Jag2 suppression. The functional importance of PI3KC2β was confirmed using shRNA. Synergy was found by combining GSI with Melphalan at their IC50. These findings indicate that Notch pathway is active in WERI Rb1 and Y79, and in most human retinoblastoma samples, and suggest that Notch antagonists may represent a new approach to more effectively treat retinoblastoma.

  1. Cooperation between Rb and Arf in suppressing mouse retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkrite, Karina; Sundby, Maggie; Mu, David; Mukai, Shizuo; MacPherson, David

    2012-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a pediatric cancer that has served as a paradigm for tumor suppressor gene function. Retinoblastoma is initiated by RB gene mutations, but the subsequent cooperating mutational events leading to tumorigenesis are poorly characterized. We investigated what these additional genomic alterations might be using human retinoblastoma samples and mouse models. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization studies revealed deletions in the CDKN2A locus that include ARF and P16INK4A, both of which encode tumor suppressor proteins, in both human and mouse retinoblastoma. Through mouse genetic analyses, we found that Arf was the critical tumor suppressor gene in the deleted region. In mice, inactivation of one allele of Arf cooperated with Rb and p107 loss to rapidly accelerate retinoblastoma, with frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the Arf locus. Arf has been reported to exhibit p53-independent tumor suppressor roles in other systems; however, our results showed no additive effect of p53 and Arf coinactivation in promoting retinoblastoma. Moreover, p53 inactivation completely eliminated any selection for Arf LOH. Thus, our data reveal important insights into the p53 pathway in retinoblastoma and show that Arf is a key collaborator with Rb in retinoblastoma suppression. PMID:22484813

  2. Molecular-genetic analysis of two cases with retinoblastoma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effective counselling and management of retinoblastoma families using genetic information is presently practised in many parts of the world. We studied histopathological, chromosomal and molecular-genetic data of two retinoblastoma patients from India. The two patients, one with bilateral and the other with unilateral ...

  3. Notas sobre a segunda avaliação externa do programa de treinamento em epidemiologia aplicada aos serviços do sistema único de saúde do Brasil - EPISUS: potencialidades do enfoque qualitativo-participativo Notes on the second external evaluation of the training program in epidemiology applied to the services of brazil's national health system - EPISUS: potentialities of the qualitative-participatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Magalhães Bosi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva relatar o emprego do enfoque qualitativo-participativo, bem como discutir seus fundamentos e potencialidades, tomando como base a participação dos autores na segunda avaliação externa do Programa de Treinamento em Epidemiologia Aplicada aos Serviços do Sistema Único de Saúde - EPISUS. Finalizada em outubro de 2007, em parceria com a Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde e o Center for Diseases Control (CDC/Atlanta, a referida avaliação incorporou o enfoque da chamada quarta geração (fourth generation evaluation, no qual os avaliadores operam como mediadores, substituindo, assim, os fundamentos do enfoque tradicional antes utilizado. Para tanto, tornou-se necessária uma demarcação conceitual referente aos conceitos avaliação, qualitativo e participativo que orientariam o processo avaliativo focalizado. Quanto ao conceito avaliação, sua natureza conflui para as propostas de quarta geração e, portanto, transita de um caráter punitivo para um caráter construtivo. A dimensão participativa aponta para diferentes sentidos do que seja participar e, na experiência aqui relatada, adotou-se o sentido decisório, onde se busca reverter assimetrias de poder. O qualitativo é concebido na interface com a subjetividade, referindo-se a informações que não se submetem à quantificação. Tal modelo permitiu desvelar aspectos que, muitas vezes, se ocultam nos números e nas generalizações abstratas, tornando possível focalizar as relações que constituem o cotidiano dos programas e práticas em saúde, subsidiando, assim, sua transformação.This paper aims to present the authors' experience concerning the use of the qualitative-participatory approach in the second external evaluation of the Training Program in Epidemiology Applied to the Services of the National Health System - EPISUS. Completed in October 2007, in partnership with the Health Surveillance Department and the Center for Diseases Control (CDC

  4. The effects of BSO on GSH contents and radiosensitivity of retinoblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Xanjin; Ding Li; Jin Yizun; Ni Chuo; Wang Wenji; Yi Yuzhen

    1995-01-01

    The radiobiological effects of thiol modifier BSO on retinoblastoma were studied using cultured retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79 and So-Rb 50 and retinoblastoma bearing nude mouse. The preliminary results showed that BSO can deplete intracellular GSH contents of retinoblastoma cells in vitro and vivo. In vitro data demonstrated that low and nontoxic concentration BSO increased the retinoblastoma cells radiosensitivity especially under the hypoxic condition

  5. Retinoblastoma bilateral de aparecimento tardio: relato de caso Late presentation of bilateral retinoblastoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Santos Cavalcanti Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de retinoblastoma de aparecimento tardio, com características pouco freqüentes, com o objetivo de melhorar o controle da afecção. Em 1993, SJMMF, nove meses, masculino, leucodermo, apresentou tumor na retina esquerda. O paciente tinha história familiar de retinoblastoma. A enucleação foi realizada, comprovando-se retinoblastoma. Os exames para estadiamento sistêmico foram normais. O olho direito evoluiu normal por dez anos. Em exame de rotina, foram constatadas três lesões de retinoblastoma na retina nasal. Foi feita termoterapia transpupilar, com laser de diodo de 810 nm. Após 30 dias, as lesões regrediram. Após 60 dias houve recidiva na borda da lesão, onde foi realizada crioterapia transescleral, com regressão do tumor por seis meses. Durante o controle, observaram-se condensações próximas à lesão tumoral atrófica (sementes vítreas. Foi feito braquiterapia com Iodo125, havendo desaparecimento das mesmas após 30 dias. Novas sementes surgiram três meses pós-braquiterapia, depositadas na superfície retiniana, sendo tratadas com crioterapia transescleral e termoterapia transpupilar, havendo regressão. O paciente evoluiu com nova semente vítrea após seis meses, a qual, após depositar-se na superfície da retina, foi tratada com termoterapia transpupilar. Está em seguimento há 38 meses desde o aparecimento do tumor bilateral, mantendo acuidade visual de 20/20 e exames clínicos normais. Considera-se importante este caso pela pouca freqüência de aparecimento da doença nesta idade. Julga-se necessário o alerta para os casos de retinoblastoma já considerados curados.A case of retinoblastoma with uncommon features is reported, aiming at improving follow-up. In 1993, SJMMF, 9-month-old white boy, presented a squint in the left eye. A retinal tumor was detected. The patient had a family history of retinoblastoma. Enucleation was performed and retinoblastoma was proved. The patient underwent

  6. Prenatal versus Postnatal Screening for Familial Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh E; Dimaras, Helen; Khetan, Vikas; Gardiner, Jane A; Chan, Helen S L; Héon, Elise; Gallie, Brenda L

    2016-12-01

    To compare overall outcomes of conventional postnatal screening of familial retinoblastoma and prenatal RB1 mutation identification followed by planned early-term delivery. Retrospective, observational study. Twenty children with familial retinoblastoma born between 1996 and 2014 and examined within 1 week of birth. Cohort 1 included spontaneously delivered neonates examined within 1 week of birth and confirmed postnatal to carry their family's RB1 mutant allele. Cohort 2 included infants identified by amniocentesis to carry their family's RB1 mutant allele, and therefore scheduled for early-term delivery (36-38 weeks' gestation). Treatment for retinoblastoma was performed at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada. Age at first tumor in each eye, eye stage, treatments given, ocular salvage, treatment success (defined as avoidance of enucleation, external-beam irradiation, or both), visual outcome, number of anesthetics, pregnancy or delivery complications, and estimated treatment burden. Vision-threatening tumors were present at birth in 4 of 8 infants in cohort 1 and in 3 of 12 infants in cohort 2. Eventually, all infants demonstrated tumors in both eyes. At the first treatment, 1 of 8 infants in cohort 1 had eyes in stage cT1a/cT1a or cT1a/cT0 (smallest and least vision-threatening tumors), compared with 8 of 12 infants in cohort 2 (P = 0.02). Null RB1 germline alleles induced earlier tumors than low-penetrance alleles (P = 0.03). Treatment success was achieved in 3 of 8 children in cohort 1 compared with 11 of 12 children in cohort 2 (P = 0.002). Acceptable vision (better than 0.2 decimal) was achieved for 8 of 16 eyes in cohort 1 compared with 21 of 24 eyes in cohort 2 (P = 0.014). Useful vision (better than 0.1, legal blindness) was achieved for 8 of 9 children in cohort 1 compared with 12 of 12 children in cohort 2. There were no complications related to early-term delivery. Median follow-up was 5.6 years, cohort 1 and 5.8 years, cohort 2. When

  7. Clinical Value of CD24 Expression in Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The expression of CD24 has been detected in a wide variety of human malignancies. Downregulation of CD24 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells, whereas its upregulation increases tumor growth and metastasis. However, no data on CD24 protein levels in retinoblastoma are available, and the mechanism of CD24 involvement in retinoblastoma progress has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the expression profile of CD24 in the retinoblastoma tumor samples and to correlate with clinicopathological parameters. Methods. Immunohistochemistry was performed for CD24 on the archival paraffin sections of retinoblastoma and correlated with clinicopathological features. Western blotting was performed to confirm immunoreactivity results. Results. CD24 immunoreactivity was observed in 72.0% (36/50 of the retinoblastoma specimens. Among the 35 low-risk tumors, CD24 was expressed in 62.9% (22/35 tumors and among the 15 high-risk tumors, CD24 was expressed in 93.3% (14/15 tumors. High-risk tumors showed significantly increased expression of CD24 compared to tumors with low-risk (<0.05. Conclusions. This is the first correlation between CD24 expression and histopathology in human retinoblastoma. Our study showed increased expression of CD24 in high risk tumors compared to low risk tumors. Further functional studies are required to explore the role of CD24 in retinoblastoma.

  8. Multifocal osteosarcoma as second tumor after childhood retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potepan, P.; Laffranchi, A.; Danesini, G.M.; Spagnoli, I.; Luksch, R.; Sozzi, G.; Testi, A.; Parafioriti, A.; Giardini, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of multifocal osteosarcoma (MFOS) arising 11.5 years after successful treatment of bilateral retinoblastoma. The clinical, imaging and pathological findings at onset, after therapy, and during follow-up are described. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not reveal a deletion of the RB-1 retinoblastoma gene, although the presence of an inactivating mutation invisible to this method cannot be ruled out. The MFOS may have been a second multifocal tumor associated with the original retinoblastoma or a post-irradiation sarcoma with extensive metastases. (orig.)

  9. Descolamento da retina após tratamento do retinoblastoma Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after succesful treatment of retinoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    João Alberto Holanda de Freitas; Hélio Fernando Heitmann de Abreu; Maristela Amaral Palazzi

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a apresentação de descolamento de retina nos pacientes tratados de retinoblastoma no Centro Infantil Dr. Domingos Boldrini - Campinas (SP), Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 220 pacientes submetidos a tratamento clínico e cirúrgico de retinoblastoma, no período de janeiro de 1978 a dezembro de 2008. RESULTADOS: Encontramos dois pacientes com descolamento de retina após tratamento de retinoblastoma sem atividade tumoral, corrigidos com sucesso pelo método cirúrgico de ...

  10. Gbadebo, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbadebo, AO. Vol 7, No 1 (2014) - Articles Investigating the effects of sewage on the groundwater quality in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 2 (2015) - Articles Impacts of land use change on peatland degradation: a review. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-0507. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  11. Ige, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ige, AO. Vol 9, No 1-2 (2013) - Articles Relationship Between Body Weight and Growth Traits of Crossbred Fulani Ecotype Chicken in Derived Savannah Zone of Nigeria. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0331-5428. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  12. Badejo, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Badejo, AO. Vol 3, No 2 (2010) - Articles Predisposing Factors Towards Examination Malpractice Among Students in Lagos Universities: Implications for Counselling Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2006-7593. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  13. Adewuya, AO

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adewuya, AO. Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles Late Identification of Autistic Disorder in Nigeria: An Illustration with 2 Case Reports Abstract. ISSN: 0189-1774. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  14. Distant metastatic retinoblastoma without central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in children, with a reported incidence ranging from 1 in 15,000 to 1 in 18,000 live births. Metastatic retinoblastoma is rare in developed countries, with a reported range from 4.8% in the United States to 5.8% in the United Kingdom. However, the frequency reported from developing countries varies from 9 to 11% at presentation. The mortality is very high owing to late presentations, delayed diagnosis compounded by socio-economic factors. The management of metastatic retinoblastoma is evolving, but it is still a challenge in pediatric oncology. We present a case of an extensive skeletal metastasis that initially presented as a massive orbital retinoblastoma.

  15. Eficiência térmica de telhas onduladas de fibrocimento aplicadas em abrigos individuais para bezerros expostos ao sol e à sombra Thermal efficiency of fiber cement corrugated sheets applied to individual housing for calves exposed to sun and shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um estudo da eficiência térmica de coberturas de bezerreiros individuais expostas ao sol e à sombra, por meio de termografia infravermelha, temperatura interna e índices de conforto térmico. Foram avaliados quatro bezerreiros, três expostos ao sol, a saber: (i cobertos com telhas de fibrocimento sem amianto - pintadas de branco, (ii sem pintura e (iii com sombrite posicionado internamente aos bezerreiros, à distância de 0,10m da face inferior da telha. O quarto bezerreiro foi instalado em área sombreada e coberto com telhas de fibrocimento sem pintura. As coletas de dados foram realizadas durante 21 dias, nos horários das 11h00min, 14h00min e 17h00min. Os resultados mostraram variações significativas na temperatura de superfície das coberturas e nos índices de conforto térmico, entre os tratamentos expostos ao sol e à sombra, para todos os horários avaliados. As imagens termográficas infravermelhas mostraram-se eficientes para melhor compreensão dos processos de transferência de calor da cobertura para o interior das instalações.This research presents a study of roof thermal efficiency in individual housing for calves exposed to sun and shade through infrared thermography, internal temperature and thermal comfort indexes. Four different individual housing for calves covered with asbestos-free fiber-cement corrugated sheets were evaluated. Three of them were directly exposed to the sun: (i corrugated sheets painted white in the external surface, (ii corrugated sheets without painting and (iii with screen shade fabric installed 0.10m under de internal surface of the corrugated sheet. The fourth individual housing was installed in the shade area and covered with unpainted corrugated fiber-cement sheets. The analysis was taken for 21 days at 11h00min, 14h00min and 17h00min. The results indicate significant variations in the roofing surface temperature and thermal comfort indexes among the treatments

  16. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in patients with retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzney, S.M.; Pruett, R.C.; Regan, C.D.; Walton, D.S.; Smith, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Three children (two girls and one boy) with bilateral retinoblastoma each developed a presumed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in one eye. All three eyes had previously received radiation and cryotherapy. In each case the retinal detachment responded promptly to conventional surgical methods via scleral buckling in the area of treated retinoblastoma and presumed retinal break. All three eyes have retained useful vision for follow-up periods of 3.5 to 12 years

  17. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in patients with retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzney, S.M.; Pruett, R.C.; Regan, C.D.; Walton, D.S.; Smith, T.R.

    1984-10-15

    Three children (two girls and one boy) with bilateral retinoblastoma each developed a presumed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in one eye. All three eyes had previously received radiation and cryotherapy. In each case the retinal detachment responded promptly to conventional surgical methods via scleral buckling in the area of treated retinoblastoma and presumed retinal break. All three eyes have retained useful vision for follow-up periods of 3.5 to 12 years.

  18. Craniospinal Irradiation for Trilateral Retinoblastoma Following Ocular Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Bentel, Gunilla; Sherouse, George W.; Spencer, David P.; Light, Kim

    2015-01-15

    A case study is presented. Craniospinal radiotherapy and a three-field pineal boost for trilateral retinoblastoma were delivered to a patient previously irradiated for ocular retinoblastoma. The availability of CT-based three-dimensional treatment planning provided the capability of identifying the previously irradiated volume as a three-dimensional anatomic structure and of designing a highly customized set of treatment beams that minimized reirradiation of that volume.

  19. Genetic analysis in retinoblastoma and peripheral blood correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz del Río, N; Abelairas Gómez, J M; Alonso García de la Rosa, F J; Peralta Calvo, J M; de las Heras Martín, A

    2015-12-01

    To determine the importance of intratumoral genetic analysis in the diagnosis of germ-line mutations in patients with retinoblastoma. To underline the importance of performing these genetic tests in every case of retinoblastoma. Intratumoral genetic analysis of RB1 mutation was performed on 17 enucleated eyes that were non-responsive to conservative treatment. Patients had no family history of retinoblastoma, and lesions were always single. The identified mutations were then also studied in peripheral blood analysis. There were 12 (70.6%) cases with positive results in intratumoral analysis. In 8 cases (47.1%) mutation of both RB1 alelli were detected, and in 4 (23.5%) cases only one allele was found mutated. In 5 patients (29.4%) no mutation was identified. In the first hit, mutations comprised 7 frameshift or nonsense and 2 splice, whereas in the second hit, one splice mutation, 2 nonsense and 8 loss of heterozygosity were identified. Among 6 patients where intratumoral analysis detected a single mutation associated with a loss of heterozygosity, the peripheral blood analysis was able to detect the same mutation in 3 cases (50%). Intratumoral genetic analysis of sporadic retinoblastoma can detect germ-line mutations. These patients are at higher risk of bilateralization and development of second tumors or trilateral retinoblastoma. Genetic screening is recommended in every patient diagnosed with retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Progress in Small Molecule Therapeutics for the Treatment of Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Eleanor M.; Dyer, Michael A.; Guy, R. Kiplin

    2017-01-01

    While mortality is low for intraocular retinoblastoma patients in the developed world who receive aggressive multimodal therapy, partial or full loss of vision occurs in approximately 50% of patients with advanced bilateral retinoblastoma. Therapies that preserve vision and reduce late effects are needed. Because clinical trials for retinoblastoma are difficult due to the young age of the patient population and relative rarity of the disease, robust preclinical testing of new therapies is critical. The last decade has seen advances towards identifying new therapies including the development of animal models of retinoblastoma for preclinical testing, progress in local drug delivery to reach intraocular targets, and improved understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that give rise to retinoblastoma. This review discusses advances in these areas, with a focus on discovery and development of small molecules for the treatment of retinoblastoma, including novel targeted therapeutics such as inhibitors of the MDMX-p53 interaction (nutlin-3a), histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitors. PMID:26202204

  1. Regulation of transcription by the retinoblastoma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, J M

    1993-02-01

    The product of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) is believed to function as a negative regulator of cell growth. Recent experimental results suggest that RB1 may exert its growth-suppressing activity by regulating the transcription of a variety of growth-related genes, including FOS, MYC, and TGFBI. A series of biochemical and molecular analyses suggest that RB1 indirectly affects gene expression via cell-cycle-regulated interactions with transcription factors, such as E2F and SPI. Determination of the mechanisms regulating such protein-protein interactions and the identification of additional targets of RB1 function will provide vital insights into the role of this tumor-suppressor gene in mammalian cell proliferation.

  2. Retinoblastoma: concerning its initiation and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Ping Deng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma (RB is the most common intraocular cancer of infancy and childhood. This cancer is initiated by mutation on RB1, the tumor suppressor gene that is responsible for the regulation of both cell cycle and gnome stability in retinal cells. Patients with a constitutional mutation on RB1 can be inherited. RB occurs approximately 1 in every 15 000-20 000 live births. The worldwide mortality for this cancer is about 5%-11%. However, this rate rises to about 40%-70% in developing countries due to a delay in diagnosis. A wide variety of options are available for the treatment, but often a combination of therapies is adopted to optimize individualized care.

  3. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 {times} 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications.

  4. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R.

    1991-01-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 x 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications

  5. Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piatti Oiticica de Paiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra das usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press, utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas.This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning horizon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

  6. Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for eyes with advanced retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David H; Fabius, Armida W M; Francis, Jasmine H; Marr, Brian P; Dunkel, Ira J; Brodie, Scott E; Escuder, Anna; Gobin, Y Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Surgical removal of one or both eyes has been the most common way to treat children with retinoblastoma worldwide for more than 100 years. Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) was introduced 10 years ago and it has been used as an alternative to enucleation for eyes with advanced retinoblastoma. The purpose of this report is to analyze our 9-year experience treating advanced retinoblastoma eyes with OAC. Single-arm retrospective study from a single center of 226 eyes with eyes of retinoblastoma patients with advanced intraocular disease defined as both Reese-Ellsworth (RE) "Va" or "Vb" and International Classification Retinoblastoma (ICRb) group "D" or "E" (COG Classification). Ocular survival, patient survival, second cancers, and electroretinography (ERG) were assessed. Ocular survival at five years for these advanced eyes was 70.2% (95% confidence interval, 57.3%-79.8%). When eyes were divided into groups either by RE classification or ICRb, no significant differences in ocular survival were seen. Ocular survival was significantly better in naïve compared to non-naïve eyes (80.2% vs 58.4%, p = 0.041). The ERG distribution was very similar before and after OAC treatment for the patient population that did not receive intravitreal chemotherapy. Three patients (1.5%) have developed metastatic retinoblastoma (previously reported) and were successfully treated (no deaths). Using OAC for advanced eyes (the majority of such eyes have been enucleated in the past) enables 70% 5-year ocular survival. Treated eyes have a similar ERG distribution before and after treatment. No patient has died of metastatic retinoblastoma.

  7. Multimodal Therapy for Stage III Retinoblastoma (International Retinoblastoma Staging System): A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Bhavna; Hasan, Fahmi; Seth, Rachna; Pathy, Sushmita; Pattebahadur, Rajesh; Sharma, Sanjay; Upadhyaya, Ashish; Azad, Rajvardhan

    2016-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of 2 chemotherapeutic drug combinations as part of multimodal therapy for orbital retinoblastoma. Prospective, comparative, study. Patients with stage III retinoblastoma (International Retinoblastoma Staging System). Demographic and clinical features were recorded at presentation. Treatment consisted of a multimodal protocol with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, enucleation, orbital external-beam radiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. For chemotherapy, patients were randomized into 2 groups: group A patients were treated with vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin (VEC) and group B patients were treated with carboplatin and etoposide, alternating with cyclophosphamide, idarubicin, and vincristine. Treatment outcomes and adverse effects were recorded. Efficacy parameters were compared between the groups. Survival probability, cause of death, and chemotherapy-related toxicity. A total of 54 children were recruited (27 in each group). The mean ± SD follow-up was 21.3±11.34 months. The overall Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-0.89) and 42% (95% CI, 0.24-0.59) at 1 year and 4 years, respectively. There were 9 deaths in group A and 15 deaths in group B. The Kaplan-Meier survival probability at 1 year was similar between the groups: 81% (95% CI, 0.60-0.91) and 79% (95% CI, 0.58-0.9) for groups A and B, respectively. At 4 years, the survival probability for group A was higher (63% [95% CI, 0.41-0.79] vs. 25% [95% CI, 0.08-0.46] for groups A and B, respectively), with a strong trend of better survival in group A over time (P = 0.05). The major cause of death was central nervous system relapse (8 patients in group A and 7 patients in group B). Two patients in group B died of sepsis after febrile neutropenia. Grade 3 and grade 4 hematologic toxicities were more common in group B, with a significant difference in grade 4 neutropenia (P = 0.002). This study compared the outcomes of VEC chemotherapy with a 5

  8. Caos, complexidade e Lingüística Aplicada: diálogos transdisciplinares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Soares Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto, apresentamos um panorama de estudos na área da Lingüística Aplicada que discutem questões relativas ao processo de desenvolvimento de segunda língua, bem como aspectos relacionados aos ambientes interacionais de aprendizagem na perspectiva das teorias do Caos e Complexidade. Para isso, discutimos as principais noções da perspectiva da complexidade, retomando alguns aspectos da física clássica e contemporânea.In this paper, we present a panorama of studies in the area of Applied Linguistics that discuss questions regarding second language development as well as aspects related to interactional learning environments in the light of Chaos and Complexity theories. To accomplish this, we discuss the main notions of complexity through the rethinking of some aspects of classic and contemporary physics.

  9. Secondary Craniofacial Sarcomas Following Retinoblastoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Ryuya; Hayano, Azusa

    2017-05-01

    We conducted the largest systematic review of individual patient data to characterize secondary craniofacial sarcomas following retinoblastoma. We conducted a systemic search of the PubMed databases and compiled a comprehensive literature review. Student t tests were used to evaluate differences between variables. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival. Statistical significance was assessed using a log-rank test. We analyzed 220 cases of secondary craniofacial sarcomas, including 112 osteosarcomas. The average age (±SD) of onset for retinoblastoma was 1.20 ± 2.77 years. External-beam radiotherapy was delivered in 207 patients (94.0%) and chemotherapy was delivered in 53 patients (24.0%) patients. The latency period between retinoblastoma diagnosis and the onset of secondary sarcomas was 12 years. Cranial extension was found in 66 patients (30.0%). The median overall survival was worse with cranial extension (P = 0.0073). In cranial extended patients, the median survival in patients who received chemotherapy was 41 months, whereas patients who did not receive chemotherapy had a median survival of 12 months (P = 0.0020). The risk of incidence of secondary sarcomas in retinoblastoma patients warrants longer follow-up periods. Moreover, chemotherapy should be considered as a potential treatment option for secondary cranial sarcomas following retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Focal laser treatment in addition to chemotherapy for retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ido D; Johnson, Kenneth P; Stacey, Andrew W; Sagoo, Mandeep S; Reddy, M A

    2017-06-07

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. Systemic chemotherapy is a common treatment for intraocular retinoblastoma, and laser treatment is used as adjuvant therapy during or immediately after chemotherapy courses in selected cases. To compare the effectiveness and safety of adding focal laser therapy to systemically-delivered chemotherapy in treating intraocular retinoblastoma. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 9), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 20 October 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 20 October 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to 20 October 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch); searched 20 October 2016, ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 20 October 2016, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 20 October 2016. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of systemic chemotherapy with versus without adjuvant laser therapy for postequatorial retinoblastoma. We planned to use standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We planned to meta-analyse the primary outcome, that is the proportion of eyes with recurrence of tumours within three years from treatment MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. No evidence from randomised controlled trials was found to support or refute laser therapy in addition to systemic chemotherapy for postequatorial retinoblastoma.

  11. Outcomes of Cataract Surgery Following Treatment for Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeong Min; Lee, Byung Joo; Kim, Jeong Hun; Yu, Young Suk

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term visual outcomes and complications of cataract surgery in eyes previously treated for retinoblastoma. We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation at Seoul National University Children's Hospital for a secondary cataract that developed after retinoblastoma treatment. During the period between 1990 and 2014, 208 eyes of 147 patients received eye-salvaging treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and local therapy) for retinoblastoma at Seoul National University Children's Hospital. Among these eyes, a secondary cataract was detected in 17 eyes of 14 patients, and five eyes of five patients underwent cataract surgery. The median age of cataract formation was 97 months (range, 38 to 153 months). The medial interval between the diagnosis of retinoblastoma and cataract formation was 79 months (range, 29 to 140 months). All patients received posterior chamber intraocular lens insertion after irrigation and aspiration of the lens through a scleral tunnel incision. Anterior vitrectomy and posterior capsulotomy were performed in two eyes and a laser capsulotomy was subsequently performed in one eye. No intraoperative and postoperative complications occurred. The median follow-up after surgery was 36 months (range, 14 to 47 months). The final best corrected visual acuities were improved in all five eyes. No intraocular tumor recurrences or metastases occurred. After retinoblastoma regression, cataract extraction in our series was not associated with tumor recurrence or metastasis. Visual improvement was noted in every patient.

  12. The role of intravitreal chemotherapy for retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairooz P Manjandavida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapy in retinoblastoma (RB is widely accepted as the current management tool with an aim of increasing drug availability at the tumor location. Inevitably the effect is several times higher compared to systemic delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and carries less systemic toxicity. Despite tremendous advancement in saving life, eye salvage in advanced RB especially with active vitreous seeds remains a challenge. The hypoxic environment of the vitreous and reduced vitreous concentration of the drugs delivered makes these tumor seeds resistant to chemotherapy. Direct delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into the vitreous cavity aids to overcome these challenges and is progressively being accepted worldwide. However, intraocular procedure in RB was abandoned due to high risk of extraocular tumor dissemination. Recently, the forbidden therapeutic technique was re-explored and modified for safe use. Although eye salvage rate has tremendously improved after intravitreal chemotherapy (IVitC, retinal toxicity, and vision salvage are yet to be validated. In our preliminary report of intravitreal melphalan in 11 eyes, we reported 100% eye salvage and 0% recurrence with an extended 15 months mean follow-up. In this review, we analyzed published reports on IVitC in RB via PubMed, Medline, and conference proceedings citation index, electronic database search, without language restriction that included case series and reports of humans and experimental animal eyes with RB receiving IVitC.

  13. Current Trends in the Management of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayyam Kıratlı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor of early childhood, and 95% of all cases are diagnosed before the age of 5 years. Tumors are evaluated and classified based on laterality, genetic features, the number, location and size of foci. Currently, systemic and intaarterial chemotherapy are the most commonly used management options worldwide. Group A tumors are treated with focal techniques including transpupillary thermotherapy, cryotherapy, or laser photocoagulation. Groups B and C tumors are managed with systemic chemotherapy and focal consolidation techniques. Group D lesions are best treated with systemic chemotherapy, subtenon carboplatin injection or external beam radiotherapy. Alternatively, groups B, C and D tumors can be primarily treated with intraarterial chemotherapy. Intravitreal melphalan injection can be an alternative treatment for eyes with recurrent or persistent vitreous seeding. Group E eyes are often enucleated, however, depending on the fellow eye, systemic or intraarterial chemotherapy may be administered. Systemic chemotherapy is also mandatory if high-risk histopathological features are found after enucleation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 22-8

  14. Análise de risco aplicada ao manejo precaucionário das pescarias artesanais na região do reservatório da UHE-Tucuruí (Pará, Brasil Risk analysis applied to the precautionary management of artisanal fisheries in the region of Tucuruí reservoir (Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Aily Franco de Camargo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available As pescarias no reservatório da UHE-Tucuruí no rio Tocantins, Pará, envolvem cerca de 6.000 pescadores e movimentam cerca de R$ 4,2 milhões/ano. A atividade se concentra em três espécies principais: tucunaré Cichla monoculus (capturado com anzol, pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus (capturado com rede e/ou anzol e mapará Hypophthalmus marginatus (capturado com rede. Com o objetivo de caracterizar os pescadores e as pescarias do reservatório, criar cenários de aumento do esforço pesqueiro e prever os momentos de conflito pela escassez de recursos, foram levantadas informações da literatura e realizadas duas campanhas de coleta de dados nos anos de 1999 e 2000, envolvendo entrevistas com líderes comunitários e pescadores. As seguintes variáveis foram consideradas: desembarque por espécie-alvo (de acordo com os registros fornecidos pelas colônias de pescadores, artes de pesca, estratégias dos pescadores, conflitos e formas de apropriação do espaço e rendimentos da atividade. Estas variáveis foram inseridas em um modelo dinâmico, simulado no software Vensim PLE para um período de 10 anos a partir de 1999. Os resultados indicam que a pesca de anzol é a estratégia mais rentável, e que possíveis momentos de conflito devido à escassez de recursos podem acontecer em curto prazo (2005. A metodologia utilizada para as simulações e análises de risco também se revelou adequada à realidade local e ao conjunto de dados disponíveis.The fisheries in the reservoir of UHE-Tucuruí employ about 6.000 fishermen generating approximately R$ 4.2 million/year. There are three main target-species: Tucunaré Cichla monoculus (caught with hook and line, Pescada Plagioscion squamosissimus (caught with gill net and/or hook and line and Mapará Hypophthalmus marginatus (caught with gill net. Published information was reviewed and data collected during two field trips in 1999 and 2000 that included interviews with community leaders and

  15. Retinoblastoma frontiers with intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C L; Fulco, E M; Arias, J D; Alarcon, C; Pellegrini, M; Rishi, P; Kaliki, S; Bianciotto, C G; Shields, J A

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we explore retinoblastoma diagnostic accuracy and review chemotherapy alternatives for retinoblastoma using intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. A review of 2775 patients referred for management of retinoblastoma, disclosed 78% with confirmed retinoblastoma and 22% with simulating lesions, termed pseudoretinoblastomas. Children ≤2 years old showed leading pseudoretinoblastomas of persistent fetal vasculature, Coats disease, and vitreous haemorrhage, whereas those >5 years showed simulators of Coats, toxocariasis, and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. The diagnosis of retinoblastoma should be established before planning therapeutic strategy. Chemotherapy strategy depends on tumour laterality and stage of disease. If bilateral retinoblastoma, intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) is important as first-line therapy for control of intraocular disease, prevention of metastasis, and reduction in prevalence of pinealoblastoma and long-term second malignant neoplasms. Bilateral groups D and E retinoblastoma receive additional subtenon's carboplatin boost for improved local control. If unilateral disease is present, then intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) is often considered. IAC can be salvage therapy following chemoreduction failure. Unilateral retinoblastoma of groups D and E are managed with enucleation or globe-conserving IVC and/or IAC. Intravitreal chemotherapy is cautiously reserved for recurrent vitreous seeds following other therapies. In conclusion, the strategy for retinoblastoma management with chemotherapy depends on tumour laterality and stage of disease. Bilateral retinoblastoma is most often managed with IVC and unilateral retinoblastoma with IAC, but if advanced stage, combination IVC plus IAC or enucleation. PMID:22995941

  16. Danish retinoblastoma patients 1943-2013 - genetic testing and clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Pernille A; Urbak, Steen F; Funding, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In heritable retinoblastoma there is a 50% risk of transmitting the RB1 mutation, and offspring carriers have more than 90% risk of developing retinoblastoma. Today, all newly diagnosed retinoblastoma patients in Denmark are screened for mutations in RB1, as opposed to only a minority...... of patients diagnosed before DNA testing was offered. Knowledge of heredity increases the chance of early diagnosis in offspring, leading to improved prognosis. We present data from the Danish retinoblastoma patients that emphasize the need for genetic counseling and RB1 screening in all untested...... retinoblastoma survivors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data are extracted from The Danish Ocular Oncology Group Database, a national population database containing data on all Danish retinoblastoma patients since 1943. RESULTS: In total 323 retinoblastoma patients have been diagnosed between 1943 and 2013. Since 1963...

  17. Neutrongraphy technique applied to the narcotics and terrorism enforcement; Neutrongrafia aplicada no combate ao narcotrafico e ao terrorismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ademir X. da; Hacidume, Leo R.; Crispim, Verginia R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    1999-03-01

    Among the several methods of non-destructive essays that may be used for the detection of both drugs and explosives, the ones that utilize nuclear techniques have demonstrated to possess essential qualities for an efficient detection system. These techniques allow the inspection of a large quantity of samples fast, sensibly, specifically and with automatic decision, for they utilize radiation of great power of penetration. This work aims to show the neutron radiography and computed tomography potentiality for the detection of the drugs and explosives even when they are concealed by heavy materials. In the radiographic essays with thermal neutrons, samples of powder cocaine and explosives were inspected, concealed by several materials or not. The samples were irradiated during 30 minutes in the J-9 channel of the Argonauta research reactor of the IEN/CNEN in a neutron flux of 2:5 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.s. We used two sheets of gadolinium converter with a thickness of 25 {mu}m each one and a Kodak Industrex A5 photographic plaque. A comparative analysis among the tomographic images experimental and simulated obtained by X-ray, fast and thermal neutron is presented. The thermal neutron tomography demonstrate to be the best. (author)

  18. [Pathological profiles of retinoblastoma in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C; Doh, K; Thiam, I; Ndoye Roth, P; Moreira, C; Woto-Gaye, G

    2016-11-01

    Describe the macroscopic and microscopic profiles of retinoblastoma (RB) in Senegal and correlate histological criteria with progression to establish severity factors. We realized a retrospective study over 10 years (January 2005-December 2014). Only patients (n=67) who underwent histological analysis of the enucleation specimen (n=68) were followed until the end of the study. The tumor measured an average of 3.8cm (2/4.5). Endophytic tumor development was observed in 55 cases (80.8%), exophytic in 6 cases (8.9%) and mixed in 7 cases (10.3%). Retinal detachment was present in 13 cases (19.2%). The RB was well differentiated in 11 cases (16.2%), moderately differentiated in 31 cases (45.6%) and undifferentiated in 26 cases. Optic nerve (ON) invasion was present in 18 cases (26.5%). The tumor was extraretinal in 37 cases (54.4%). The anterior chamber was invaded in 6 cases (8.8%). The global survival at 2 years was 84% and 70% at 5 years. On multivariate analysis, well differentiated tumors and stage pT1 were associated with remission. Retrolaminar ON invasion, massive choroidal invasion and stage pT3 were risk factors for recurrence. Poor tumor differentiation, invasion of the ON resection margin, tumor invasion through the sclera, and stage pT4 were predictive of death. The pathologist is a principal actor in the management of RB because his account guide the post-surgical management strategy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Presenting signs of retinoblastoma at a tertiary level teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest presenting sign was proptosis 22(53.7%) followed by leucocorea nine (22%),ocular inflammation four (9.0 %), strabismus three (7.3%), glaucoma one (2.4%), loss of vision one (2.4%)and hyphemaone (2.4%). Conclusion: The commonest presenting signs of retinoblastoma in our set up were Proptosis ...

  20. Retinoblastoma: a most unusual presentation – Case report | Pedro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... huge right ocular tumour, solid in consistency with heterogeneous architecture, which appeared to be growing from the superior margin of the globe; the finding was reported to be consistent with retinoblastoma. Due to the rapidly progressive and necrotic nature of the tumour, a lid-sparing modified exenteration was done.

  1. Metachronous sarcomas in bilateral retinoblastomas a patIent with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formation, mitotic activity, and extensive rumour necrosis were seen. Rhabdomyoblastic differentiation was not noted and the diagnosis of retinoblastoma was made. In June 1980, at the age of 8 years, the child presented to hospital with a large soft-tissue swelling below the right orbit. A biopsy specimen was removed from ...

  2. Next generation sequencing in sporadic retinoblastoma patients reveals somatic mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, Sara; Marozza, Annabella; Somma, Serena; Imperatore, Valentina; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; De Francesco, Sonia; Toti, Paolo; Galimberti, Daniela; Meloni, Ilaria; Cetta, Francesco; Piu, Pietro; Di Marco, Chiara; Dosa, Laura; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Carignani, Giulia; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    In about 50% of sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, no constitutive RB1 mutations are detected by conventional methods. However, recent research suggests that, at least in some of these cases, there is somatic mosaicism with respect to RB1 normal and mutant alleles. The increased availability of next generation sequencing improves our ability to detect the exact percentage of patients with mosaicism. Using this technology, we re-tested a series of 40 patients with sporadic retinoblastoma: 10 of them had been previously classified as constitutional heterozygotes, whereas in 30 no RB1 mutations had been found in lymphocytes. In 3 of these 30 patients, we have now identified low-level mosaic variants, varying in frequency between 8 and 24%. In 7 out of the 10 cases previously classified as heterozygous from testing blood cells, we were able to test additional tissues (ocular tissues, urine and/or oral mucosa): in three of them, next generation sequencing has revealed mosaicism. Present results thus confirm that a significant fraction (6/40; 15%) of sporadic retinoblastoma cases are due to postzygotic events and that deep sequencing is an efficient method to unambiguously distinguish mosaics. Re-testing of retinoblastoma patients through next generation sequencing can thus provide new information that may have important implications with respect to genetic counseling and family care.

  3. Immunohistochemistry of apoptosis-related proteins in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalino, Renato José Mendonça; Antoneli, Célia Beatriz Gianotti; Ribeiro, Karina de Cássia Braga; Campos, Antônio Hugo José Fróes Marques; Soares, Fernando Augusto

    2016-12-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignant neoplasia during childhood and results from the partial or total inactivity of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). In the absence of pRb, the E2F transcription factors increase the levels of cell cycle proteins as well as some pro-apoptotic proteins. We intended to study the immunohistochemistry profile of apoptotic-related proteins in retinoblastoma. We also evaluated the association between the expression of apoptotic protein and stage of tumor or survivor after a 5year follow up. Apoptosis-related proteins (Apaf-1, Bak, Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bim-long, MDM2, p53, pro-caspase-3, PUMA, Smac/DIABLO and cleaved caspase-3) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays which contained samples of retinoblastoma tumors taken from ninety-three patients without any treatment previous to surgery. The immunohistochemistry reactions were evaluated using an optical microscope as well as the ACIS III ® platform. The pro-apoptotic proteins (APAF-1, Bax, p53, PUMA, Smac/DIABLO) were more frequently expressed than the anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and MDM2). The protein Bcl-xL had a negative correlation with cleaved caspase-3, a marker of cell apoptosis. Bcl-xL may be implicated in an apoptosis block. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Marees, Tamara; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Ringens, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Moll, Annette C.

    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199

  5. Multiple malignancies in a patient with bilateral retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceha, H. M.; Balm, A. J.; de Jong, D.; van 't Veer, L. J.

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented of a patient with bilateral retinoblastoma, treated at infancy with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, who subsequently developed at least four additional histologically distinct malignancies: a Ewing sarcoma of the left fibula, two extraskeletal osteosarcomas of the left

  6. Clinico-surgical histopathological findings of retinoblastoma cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Retinoblastoma is a primitive embryonal anaplastic tumour composed of undifferentiated retinal elements. It is the most common primary, intraocular malignancy of childhood. After enucleation of the diseased eye, histopathological findings determine the secondary management of the patient. Histopathological ...

  7. Retinoblastoma in Adolescence: Report of an Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khalili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the clinical, pathologic and photographic findings of a 16year-old girl who presented with gradual enlargement of a vascularized, hemorrhagicperipapillary mass that eventually led to vitreous hemorrhage and rubeosis iridis.Histopathological findings after enucleation were positive for retinoblastoma. Thepatient did not have any metastasis during her 20 months of follow up.

  8. RB1 mutations and second primary malignancies after hereditary retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommering, Charlotte J.; Marees, Tamara; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Imhof, Saskia M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Ringens, Peter J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Moll, Annette C.

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma have a high risk of second primary malignancies, but it has not been investigated whether specific RB1 germline mutations are associated with greater risk of second primary malignancies in a large cohort. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199

  9. Retinoblastoma-like RRB gene of arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Tim; Feiler, Heidi; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Jenkins, Susan; Roe, Judith; Zambryski, Patricia

    2004-02-24

    This invention provides methods and compositions for altering the growth, organization, and differentiation of plant tissues. The invention is based on the discovery that, in plants, genetically altering the levels of Retinoblastoma-related gene (RRB) activity produces dramatic effects on the growth, proliferation, organization, and differentiation of plant meristem.

  10. Retinoblastoma outcome at a single institution in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common eye cancer in children. Early detection is necessary for cure. Objective. To compare stage and outcome of children with RB treated at Kalafong Hospital, Pretoria, South Africa (SA), during two time periods (1993 - 2000 and 2001 - 2008, after outreach interventions in ...

  11. Modes of presentation, management and outcome of retinoblastoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To establish the presentation, management and short-term outcomes of retinoblastoma treatment at UTH from January 2006- December 2012. treatment outcomes 6 months after initiation of treatment at The statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package SPSS version 20. Method: This was a ...

  12. Five DNA tumor viruses undetectable in human retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, E.; Marcus, D.M.; O'Brien, J.; Albert, D.; Bernards, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RT) is a childhood eye cancer that arises when a retinal cell lacks a functional RB gene. Recent data indicate that the transforming proteins of adenovirus, papillomavirus, and the polyomaviruses BK and JC all can bind to the product of the RB gene. Furthermore, adenovirus 12, JC

  13. Ethnic variations of a retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 1-2. Ethnic variations of a retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1) polymorphism in eight Asian populations. Priya Kadam-Pai Xin-Yi Su Jasmin Jiji Miranda Agustinus Soemantri Nilmani Saha Chew-Kiat Heng Poh-San Lai. Volume 82 Issue 1-2 April-August 2003 pp ...

  14. Presentation of retinoblastoma at a paediatric eye clinic in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Retinobalstoma, the commonest childhood malignant intraocular tumour, is usually diagnosed early with over 90% survival rate in developed countries. In developing countries, the diagnosis is late resulting in less than 50% survival. Objective: To determine retinoblastoma stages at presentation and patients¡¦ ...

  15. Optimized lens-sparing treatment of retinoblastoma with electron beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, RJHM; Altschuler, MD; DAngio, GJ; Goldwein, JW; Kassaee, A

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The ideal lens-sparing radiotherapy technique for retinoblastoma calls for 100% dose to the entire retina including the ora serrata and zero dose to the lens, Published techniques, most of which use photons, have not accomplished this ideal treatment. We describe here a technique that

  16. Inhibitory effect of puerarin on proliferation of retinoblastoma cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    need to develop new therapeutic options to improve the outcomes of ... them promising targets for future drug discovery. [8]. Out of the millions ... derivatives, topothecan, irinothecan [13], and anthracycline [14]. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the anti- proliferative effects of Puerarin on retinoblastoma cells [15]. Puerarin is a ...

  17. L1 increases adhesion-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Lee, Kyungmin; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Jun, Hyoung Oh; Kim, Younghoon; Cho, Young-Lai; Yu, Young Suk; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2017-02-28

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular cancer in children, affecting 1/20,000 live births. Currently, children with retinoblastoma were treated with chemotherapy using drugs such as carboplatin, vincristine, and etoposide. Unfortunately, if conventional treatment fails, the affected eyes should be removed to prevent extension into adjacent tissues and metastasis. This study is to investigate the roles of L1 in adhesion-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of retinoblastoma. L1 was differentially expressed in 30 retinoblastoma tissues and 2 retinoblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, the proportions of L1-positive cells in retinoblastoma tumors were negatively linked with the number of Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes, a characteristic of differentiated retinoblastoma tumors, in each tumor sample. Following in vitro experiments using L1-deleted and -overexpressing cells showed that L1 increased adhesion-mediated proliferation of retinoblastoma cells via regulation of cell cycle-associated proteins with modulation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 pathways. In addition, L1 increased resistance against carboplatin, vincristine, and esoposide through up-regulation of apoptosis- and multidrug resistance-related genes. In vivo tumor formation and chemoresistance were also positively linked with the levels of L1 in an orthotopic transplantation model in mice. In this manner, L1 increases adhesion-mediated proliferation and chemoresistance of retinoblastoma. Targeted therapy to L1 might be effective in the treatment of retinoblastoma tumors, especially which rapidly proliferate and demonstrate resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs.

  18. Proton Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouw, Kent W. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sethi, Roshan V.; Yeap, Beow Y.; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I.; Munzenrider, John E.; Adams, Judith [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Grabowski, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mukai, Shizuo [Retina Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Shih, Helen A., E-mail: hshih@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate long-term disease and toxicity outcomes for pediatric retinoblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT). Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective analysis of 49 retinoblastoma patients (60 eyes) treated with PRT between 1986 and 2012. Results: The majority (84%) of patients had bilateral disease, and nearly half (45%) had received prior chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 8 years (range, 1-24 years), no patients died of retinoblastoma or developed metastatic disease. The post-PRT enucleation rate was low (18%), especially in patients with early-stage disease (11% for patients with International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma [ICIR] stage A-B disease vs 23% for patients with ICIR stage C-D disease). Post-PRT ophthalmologic follow-up was available for 61% of the preserved eyes (30 of 49): 14 of 30 eyes (47%) had 20/40 visual acuity or better, 7 of 30 (23%) had moderate visual acuity (20/40-20/600), and 9 of 30 (30%) had little or no useful vision (worse than 20/600). Twelve of 60 treated eyes (20%) experienced a post-PRT event requiring intervention, with cataracts the most common (4 eyes). No patients developed an in-field second malignancy. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up of retinoblastoma patients treated with PRT demonstrates that PRT can achieve high local control rates, even in advanced cases, and many patients retain useful vision in the treated eye. Treatment-related ocular side effects were uncommon, and no radiation-associated malignancies were observed.

  19. Can preoperative MR imaging predict optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo, E-mail: kdsong0308@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Hong, E-mail: rtombow@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hye, E-mail: jhkate.kim@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, So-Young, E-mail: sy1131.yoo@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Yeon, E-mail: hathor97.jeon@samsung.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-Dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of pre-operative MRI for the detection of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent were waived for this retrospective study. A total of 41 patients were included. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven retinoblastoma, availability of diagnostic-quality preoperative MR images acquired during the 4 weeks before surgery, unilateral retinoblastoma, and normal-sized optic nerve. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the MR images independently. Five imaging findings (diffuse mild optic nerve enhancement, focal strong optic nerve enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, tumor location, and tumor size) were evaluated against optic nerve invasion of retinoblastoma. The predictive performance of all MR imaging findings for optic nerve invasion was also evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: Optic nerve invasion was histopathologically confirmed in 24% of study population (10/41). The differences in diffuse mild enhancement, focal strong enhancement, optic sheath enhancement, and tumor location between patients with optic nerve invasion and patients without optic nerve invasion were not significant. Tumor sizes were 16.1 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) and 14.9 mm (SD: 3.6 mm) in patients with and without optic nerve involvement, respectively (P = 0.444). P-Values from binary logistic regression indicated that all five imaging findings were not significant predictors of tumor invasion of optic nerve. The AUC values of all MR imaging findings for the prediction of optic nerve invasion were 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.499–0.879) and 0.653 (95% confidence interval: 0.445–0.861) for observer 1 and observer 2, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of MRI in patients with normal-sized optic nerves have limited usefulness in preoperatively predicting the presence of optic nerve invasion in retinoblastoma.

  20. Retinoblastoma atípico: a propósito de un caso Atypic retinoblastoma: apropos of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz N. Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En una niña de 11 años de edad se presentó un caso atípico de retinoblastoma unilateral y se consultó inicialmente por una hemorragia vítrea. El ultrasonido no orientó diagnóstico. Posteriormente apareció un hifema total espontáneo con hipertensión ocular incontrolable que decidió la enucleación. El estudio anátomo-patológico concluyó un retinoblastoma poco diferenciado con extensa área de necrosis y hemorragia intratumoral.An atypic case of unilateral retinoblastoma was reported in an 11-year-old girl that was seen due to a vitreal hemorrhage at first. The ultrasound did not help to make a diagnosis. Later on, a total spontaneous hyphema with uncontrollable ocular hypertension appeared that led surgeons to perform enucleation. By the anatomopathological study, it was concluded that it was a little differentiated retinoblastoma with an extensive area of necrosis and intratumoral hemorrhage.

  1. Estatística Multivariada Aplicada ao Estudo da Qualidade do Ar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Campos Leoni

    Full Text Available Resumo O estudo da qualidade do ar de uma cidade envolve diferentes aspectos, como as emissões, as transformações físico-químicas, a meteorologia e a topografia, tornando esse estudo altamente não linear. Em particular, as cidades brasileiras experimentam um mosaico bem distinto do panorama mundial, em função do uso de diferentes combustíveis por nossa frota veicular. Neste estudo, utilizou-se um conjunto de dados coletados por uma estação de monitoramento da qualidade do ar na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, no bairro da Gávea, entre julho e outubro de 2011, em um total de 2240 observações de médias horárias de 11 variáveis. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente, de forma descritiva e multivariada, de modo a elucidar a correlação entre as variáveis envolvidas. A estatística multivariada empregou a análise dos componentes principais e agrupamentos euclidianos e critérios de Ward. Os resultados indicaram uma alta correlação entre os poluentes primários óxidos de nitrogênio e monóxido de carbono (0,71, evidenciando que possuem a mesma origem veicular e que o monóxido de nitrogênio e o ozônio (0,66 e este com a radiação solar também estão correlacionados (0,41, corroborando a formação fotoquímica do ozônio. Outras correlações são entre a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar (0,64 e que o ozônio possui uma contribuição de localidades vizinhas, em função da dependência deste com a velocidade do vento (0,59.

  2. Redes neurais aplicadas ao reconhecimento de regiões promotoras na família Mycoplasmataceae

    OpenAIRE

    Joao Francisco Valiati

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho apresenta o estudo, investigação e realização de experimentos práticos, empregados na resolução do problema de reconhecimento de regiões promotoras em organismos da família Mycoplasmataceae. A partir disso, é proposta uma metodologia para a solução deste problema baseada nas Redes Neurais Artificiais. Os promotores são considerados trechos de uma seqüência de DNA que antecedem um gene, podem ser tratados como marcadores de uma seqüência de letras que sinalizam a uma determinada ...

  3. A METODOLOGIA DE CALLISTA ROY APLICADA EM CLIENTES SUBMETIDOS À INTERVENÇAO HEMODINÂMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Maroso Krauzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo exploratório descritiva, que identificou o perfil de saúde dos clientes em tratamento hemodinâmico e desenvolveu o Processo de Enfermagem (PE, fundamentado em Callista Roy. Realizou-se com 52 clientes, no Centro de Hemodinâmica de um hospital privado, de fevereiro a maio de 2010. Utilizouse um questionário semiestruturado para coleta de dados. A maioria tinha mais de 60 anos, aposentados, casados, moradores de Chapecó, com ensino fundamental. Os fatores de risco principais foram: idade acima de 60 anos, a Hipertensão Arterial Sistêmica (HAS,obesidade e vida sedentária. Os principais diagnósticos de enfermagem foram: ansiedade relacionada à morte (100%; risco de dor aguda (85% e integridade da pele prejudicada (75%. Os resultados obtidos podem contribuir para a enfermagem embasar o cuidado no PE, identificar os fatores de risco, atuar na prevenção e num serviço de alta complexidade que exige conhecimentos especializados.

  4. Eletroflotação aplicada ao tratamento de esgoto sanitário

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Alonso Palomino Romero

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho avaliou o desempenho de um reator piloto de eletroflotação, que utilizou placas de alumínio em arranjo monopolar em paralelo como eletrodos de sacrifício para o tratamento de esgoto sanitário. O processo foi auxiliado pela adição de cloreto de sódio para melhorar a condutividade do esgoto bruto. Preliminarmente, testaram-se em ensaios de eletroflotação em bancada, densidades de corrente entre 8 e 21 A m-2 e determinou-se que o melhor desempenho na diminuição da turbidez era obti...

  5. Chromosome damage in G0 X-irradiated lymphocytes from patients with hereditary retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morten, J.E.; Harnden, D.G.; Taylor, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes following 400 rads G0 X-irradiation in 10 of 11 hereditary retinoblastoma patients was shown to be intermediate between that in normals and damage in trisomy 21 patients. The difference between normals and hereditary retinoblastoma patients was small, it varied between hereditary retinoblastoma patients, and no difference was detected following 200 rads G0 X-irradiation. No difference was found in levels of spontaneous chromosome damage in hereditary retinoblastoma patients, trisomy 21 patients, and normals. These results suggest that, although sensitivity to ionizing radiation may be associated with hereditary retinoblastoma, the observed difference is so small that it is probably not the major effect of the gene predisposing to retinoblastoma

  6. MicroRNAs-449a and -449b exhibit tumor suppressive effects in retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Alissa [Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Jones, Aunica [Cancer Biology and Epigenomics Program, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Bryar, Paul J. [Departments of Ophthalmology and Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Mets, Marilyn [Division of Ophthalmology, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Weinstein, Joanna [Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Stem Cell Transplantation, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Zhang, Gang [Biostatistics Research Core, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Laurie, Nikia A., E-mail: n-laurie@northwestern.edu [Cancer Biology and Epigenomics Program, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •We validate miR-449a/b expression in primary human retinoblastomas and cell lines. •Exogenous miRs-449a/b inhibited proliferation in retinoblastoma cell lines. •Exogenous miRs-449a/b increased apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. •miRs-449a/b could serve as viable therapeutic targets for retinoblastoma treatment. -- Abstract: Retinoblastoma is the most common pediatric cancer of the eye. Currently, the chemotherapeutic treatments for retinoblastoma are broad-based drugs such as vincristine, carboplatin, or etoposide. However, therapies targeted directly to aberrant signaling pathways may provide more effective therapy for this disease. The purpose of our study is to illustrate the relationship between the expressions of miRs-449a and -449b to retinoblastoma proliferation and apoptosis. We are the first to confirm an inhibitory effect of miR-449a and -449b in retinoblastoma by demonstrating significantly impaired proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells when these miRNAs are overexpressed. This study suggests that these miRNAs could serve as viable therapeutic targets for retinoblastoma treatment.

  7. Orbital sarcomas in retinoblastoma patients: recommendations for screening and treatment guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Meredith S; McConnell, Lindsay K; Kleinberg, Teri T; Shriver, Erin M; Bilyk, Jurij R; Allen, Richard C

    2016-09-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy in children. Although currently retinoblastoma has an excellent survival rate in developed countries, hereditary retinoblastoma survivors as well as those with a history of radiation therapy as children are at an increased risk for second primary tumors (SPTs), and specifically, for orbital sarcomas. Despite the known increased risk for SPTs in retinoblastoma survivors and the associated morbidity and mortality, no screening or treatment guidelines exist. Understanding of retinoblastoma tumorigenesis and genomic expression has expanded significantly, and treatment has evolved with a shift away from radiotherapy. Until the last two decades, however, radiation was the therapy of choice for patients with bilateral disease. Because both hereditary retinoblastoma and radiation are independent risk factors for the development of SPTs such as sarcomas and these SPTs are often fatal, appropriate surveillance for retinoblastoma survivors is crucial. As a result of the excellent survival rates for retinoblastoma patients, it is important to: recognize the risk of sarcoma, particularly in patients with hereditary retinoblastoma and/or prior radiation therapy; establish a screening protocol, such as the one proposed, to maximize early detection; and discuss and develop treatment guidelines for high-risk patients. Future directions of research for these patients will involve the development of molecularly targeted agents and the use of proton radiotherapy.

  8. Naturally death-resistant precursor cells revealed as the origin of retinoblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Emmanuelle; Lazzerini Denchi, Eros; Helin, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and the cell-of-origin leading to retinoblastoma are not well defined. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Bremner and colleagues describe the first inheritable model of retinoblastoma, revealing that loss of the pocket proteins pRb and p107 deregulates cell cycle exit in retinal...... precursors. The authors show that a subset of these precursors contain an inherent resistance to apoptosis, and that while most terminally differentiate, some are likely to acquire additional mutations, leading to tumor formation. Thus, this work defines the cell-of-origin of retinoblastoma and suggests...... that mutations giving increased proliferative capacity are required for retinoblastoma development....

  9. A case of retinoblastoma metastasizing to the mandible and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Tanizawa, Akihiko; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Shinpei; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this case report and review was to determine the characteristics of retinoblastoma. One case report was introduced along with previous reports on retinoblastoma metastasizing to the mandible. Sixteen cases from 14 reports were included in this study. Including the present case, 11 of 16 patients died within 8 months. Retinoblastoma rarely metastasizes to the mandible. However, metastasis to other organs should be considered, and specialists should be consulted if retinoblastoma metastasis to the mandible is observed. Moreover, it is necessary to follow up patients after multidisciplinary therapy is completed, because subsequent complications of the teeth and jawbones associated with therapy could occur.

  10. Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. The authors used a ca...

  11. Regulation of the retinoblastoma-E2F pathway by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Satyaki; Henry, R William

    2015-10-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (RB) and its related family members p107 and p130 regulate cell proliferation through the transcriptional repression of genes involved in cellular G1 to S phase transition. However, RB proteins are functionally versatile, and numerous genetic and biochemical studies point to expansive roles in cellular growth control, pluripotency, and apoptotic response. For the vast majority of genes, RB family members target the E2F family of transcriptional activators as an integral component of its gene regulatory mechanism. These interactions are regulated via reversible phosphorylation by Cyclin/Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes, a major molecular mechanism that regulates transcriptional output of RB/E2F target genes. Recent studies indicate an additional level of regulation involving the ubiquitin-proteasome system that renders pervasive control over each component of the RB pathway. Disruption of the genetic circuitry for proteasome-mediated targeting of the RB pathway has serious consequences on development and cellular transformation, and is associated with several forms of human cancer. In this review, we discuss the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in proteolytic control of RB-E2F pathway components, and recent data that points to surprising non-proteolytic roles for the ubiquitin-proteasome system in novel transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reprogramming of retinoblastoma cancer cells into cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengming; Hirashima, Kanji; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Takizawa-Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2017-01-22

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in pediatric patients. It develops rapidly in the retina and can be fatal if not treated promptly. It has been proposed that a small population of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), initiate tumorigenesis from immature tissue stem cells or progenitor cells. Reprogramming technology, which can convert mature cells into pluripotent stem cells (iPS), provides the possibility of transducing malignant cancer cells back to CSCs, a type of early stage of cancer. We herein took advantage of reprogramming technology to induce CSCs from retinoblastoma cancer cells. In the present study, the 4 Yamanaka transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-myc, were transduced into retinoblastoma cells (Rbc51). iPS-like colonies were observed 15 days after transduction and showed significantly enhanced CSC properties. The gene and protein expression levels of pluripotent stem cell markers (Tra-1-60, Oct4, Nanog) and cancer stem cell markers (CD133, CD44) were up-regulated in transduced Rbc51 cells compared to control cells. Moreover, iPS-like CSCs could be sorted using the Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) method. A sphere formation assay demonstrated spheroid formation in transduced Rbc51 cells cultured in serum free media, and these spheroids could be differentiated into Pax6-, Nestin-positive neural progenitors and rhodopsin- and recoverin-positive mature retinal cells. The cell viability after 5-Fu exposure was higher in transduced Rbc51 cells. In conclusion, CSCs were generated from retinoblastoma cancer cells using reprogramming technology. Our novel method can generate CSCs, the study of which can lead to better understanding of cancer-specific initiation, cancer epigenetics, and the overlapping mechanisms of cancer development and pluripotent stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Retinoblastoma: a recent experience at the National University Hospital, Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, LeLe; Chan, Yiong Huak; Yeoh, Eng Juh; Tan, Poh Lin; Quah, Thuan Chong

    2009-08-01

    Retinoblastoma is a very rare disease. There were 30 cases of retinoblastoma diagnosed and treated at National University Hospital (NUH). A retrospective chart review was performed on the medical records of 30 patients who were diagnosed with retinoblastoma between 1995 and 2008 at the Department of Paediatrics, National University Hospital, Singapore. The median age at diagnosis was 1.6 years (range, 0-5.9) with a median follow-up of 1.8 years (range, 0.1 to 11.6). The median time from presenting signs to the time of diagnosis was 5.2 months (range, 0-25.2). Common presenting signs of retinoblastoma were identified; the most common of which were leukocoria (50.0%), squinting (13.3%), poor vision (10.0%), strabismus (6.6%) and unknown (33.3%). Of the 30 patients, 10 were from Singapore whilst the other 20 patients were from the surrounding countries. Twelve patients had bilateral disease at the time of diagnosis, while 18 had unilateral disease. Staging information was available in 27 patients. Enucleation was performed in 25 of 30 patients. Radiation therapy was given in 3 patients in 1995 (bilateral disease), 2001 (bilateral disease) and 2003 (unilateral disease). At the time of analysis, 19 patients were alive with no evidence of disease. Overall 5-year survival for the cohort was 88.1% [95% confidence interval (CI), 88.0-100] and event-free survival for the whole cohort was 74.2% (95% CI, 55.8-92.6). In our limited experience, the importance of collaboration and standardisation of the staging system, raising awareness and education of primary healthcare providers and parents are strongly stressed.

  14. Causes, outcome and prevention of abandonment in retinoblastoma in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Archana; Moulik, Nirmalya Roy; Mishra, Ravi Krishna; Kumar, Dipak

    2013-05-01

    The high-cure rates of 90% in retinoblastoma are not replicated in developing countries due to late presentation and poor compliance to treatment. The present study takes a closer look at causes of abandonment of therapy and effectiveness of counselling in reducing abandonment. A retrospective study of children with retinoblastoma registered at our centre from March 2008 through August 2011. Fifty (49.50%) of 101 children registered for treatment abandoned therapy. Abandonment rates were significantly higher in rural as compared to urban children (P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in rate of abandonment between stages or laterality of disease and other socio-demographic factors. Telephone calls were more effective than letters in tracing patients (31.2% vs. 2.4%). Major reasons cited behind abandonment were financial problems (30%) and unwillingness to enucleate (20%). Of the 12 children who returned and were retreated 6 (50%) died of progressive disease. Nineteen (73%) of those who did not return died at home. Abandonment rates steadily declined from 71.42% in 2008 to 16.66% in 2011 (P = 0.01) due to effective pre-abandonment counselling by a support team under the National Retinoblastoma Registry of India from 2009. Abandonment rates for children with retinoblastoma continue to be unacceptably high. Rural background, financial constraints and hesitancy to enucleate were important causes behind abandonment. Outcome of patients who abandoned treatment was uniformly dismal. Inclusion of support team and intensified initial counselling helped in improving compliance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Efficient photodynamic therapy on human retinoblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Jan; Schastak, Stanislas; Dukic-Stefanovic, Sladjana; Wiedemann, Peter; Neuhaus, Jochen; Claudepierre, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown to be a promising technique to treat various forms of malignant neoplasia. The photodynamic eradication of the tumor cells is achieved by applying a photosensitizer either locally or systemically and following local activation through irradiation of the tumor mass with light of a specific wavelength after a certain time of incubation. Due to preferential accumulation of the photosensitizer in tumor cells, this procedure allows a selective inactivation of the malignant tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue to the greatest extent. These features and requirements make the PDT an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of retinoblastoma, especially when surgical enucleation is a curative option. This extreme solution is still in use in case of tumours that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy or handled too late due to poor access to medical care in less advanced country. In this study we initially conducted in-vitro investigations of the new cationic water-soluble photo sensitizer tetrahydroporphyrin-tetratosylat (THPTS) regarding its photodynamic effect on human Rb-1 and Y79 retinoblastoma cells. We were able to show, that neither the incubation with THPTS without following illumination, nor the sole illumination showed a considerable effect on the proliferation of the retinoblastoma cells, whereas the incubation with THPTS combined with following illumination led to a maximal cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells. Moreover the phototoxicity was lower in normal primary cells from retinal pigmented epithelium demonstrating a higher phototoxic effect of THPTS in cancer cells than in this normal retinal cell type. The results at hand form an encouraging foundation for further in-vivo studies on the therapeutic potential of this promising photosensitizer for the eyeball and vision preserving as well as potentially curative therapy of retinoblastoma.

  16. Efficient photodynamic therapy on human retinoblastoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Walther

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT has shown to be a promising technique to treat various forms of malignant neoplasia. The photodynamic eradication of the tumor cells is achieved by applying a photosensitizer either locally or systemically and following local activation through irradiation of the tumor mass with light of a specific wavelength after a certain time of incubation. Due to preferential accumulation of the photosensitizer in tumor cells, this procedure allows a selective inactivation of the malignant tumor while sparing the surrounding tissue to the greatest extent. These features and requirements make the PDT an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of retinoblastoma, especially when surgical enucleation is a curative option. This extreme solution is still in use in case of tumours that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy or handled too late due to poor access to medical care in less advanced country. In this study we initially conducted in-vitro investigations of the new cationic water-soluble photo sensitizer tetrahydroporphyrin-tetratosylat (THPTS regarding its photodynamic effect on human Rb-1 and Y79 retinoblastoma cells. We were able to show, that neither the incubation with THPTS without following illumination, nor the sole illumination showed a considerable effect on the proliferation of the retinoblastoma cells, whereas the incubation with THPTS combined with following illumination led to a maximal cytotoxic effect on the tumor cells. Moreover the phototoxicity was lower in normal primary cells from retinal pigmented epithelium demonstrating a higher phototoxic effect of THPTS in cancer cells than in this normal retinal cell type. The results at hand form an encouraging foundation for further in-vivo studies on the therapeutic potential of this promising photosensitizer for the eyeball and vision preserving as well as potentially curative therapy of retinoblastoma.

  17. {sup 106}Ruthenium Plaque Therapy (RPT) for Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Naoya, E-mail: namuraka@ncc.go.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Shigenobu [Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Yoshinori [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Ryoichi [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Oncology, Head and Neck Reconstruction Division, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Inaba, Koji; Kuroda, Yuki; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sakudo, Mototake; Wakita, Akihisa; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Sumi, Minako; Kagami, Yoshikazu [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itami, Jun [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of episcleral {sup 106}ruthenium plaque therapy (RPT) in the management of retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: One hundred one RPTs were retrospectively analyzed that were performed in 90 eyes of 85 patients with retinoblastoma at National Cancer Center Hospital between 1998 and 2008. Each RPT had a corresponding tumor and 101 tumors were considered in the analysis of local control. Median follow-up length was 72.8 months. Median patient age at the RPT was 28 months. Median prescribed doses at reference depth and outer surface of the sclera were 47.4 Gy and 162.3 Gy, respectively. Results: Local control rate (LCR) and ocular retention rate (ORR) at 2 years were 33.7% and 58.7%, respectively. Unilateral disease, International Classification of Retinoblastoma group C or more advanced at the first presentation or at the time of RPT, vitreous and/or subretinal seeding, tumor size greater than 5 disc diameter (DD), reference depth greater than 5 mm, dose rate at reference depth lower than 0.7 Gy/hour, dose at the reference depth lower than 35 Gy, and (biologically effective dose with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 10 Gy) at the reference depth lower than 40 Gy{sub 10} were associated with unfavorable LCR. Two patients died of metastatic disease. Radiation complications included retinal detachment in 12 eyes (13.3%), proliferative retinopathy in 6 (6.7%), rubeosis iris in 2 (2.2%), and posterior subcapsular cataract in 23 (25.6%). Conclusion: RPT is an effective eye-preserving treatment for retinoblastoma.

  18. Thermography in the diagnosis of retinoblastoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdasarov, Yu.B.; Lenskaya, O.P.; Belkina, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors presented the results of thermographic examination in combination with echography and computerized tomography were presented in children with suspected retinoblastoma (30 primary examined patients and 30 patients examined to assess therapeutic efficacy). The results of the examination showed the relationship of the hyperthermia zone with tumor stage. All the patients recieved remote gamma-therapy and polychemotherapy. The usefulness of the thermographic method for efficacy assessment was shown

  19. Decreased expression of MEG3 contributes to retinoblastoma progression and affects retinoblastoma cell growth by regulating the activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yali; Lu, Xiaohe

    2016-02-01

    The aberrant expression of MEG3 has been found in some types of cancers; however, little is known concerning the function of MEG3 in retinoblastoma. To elucidate the roles of MEG3 in retinoblastoma, MEG3 expression was quantified in 63 retinoblastoma samples and corresponding nontumor tissues in this work. Moreover, retinoblastoma cell lines were transfected with pcDNA3.1-MEG3 or si-MEG3, after which proliferation, apoptosis, and expression of β-catenin were assayed. TOP-Flash reporter assay was also used to investigate the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results showed that MEG3 was downregulated in retinoblastoma tissues, and the level of MEG3 was negatively associated with IIRC stages and nodal or distant metastasis. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that patients with low MEG3 expression had poorer survival and multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that MEG3 was an independent prognostic factor in retinoblastoma patients. We also observed that MEG3 expression can be modulated by DNA methylation by using 5-aza-CdR treatment. In addition, overexpression of MEG3 suppressed proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and influences the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in retinoblastoma cell lines. Furthermore, we found that Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator rescued the anticancer effect of MEG3 in retinoblastoma. In conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrated that MEG3 was a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the progression of retinoblastoma and might serve as a prognostic biomarker and molecular therapeutic target.

  20. CT and MR findings in retinoblastoma : correlation with histopathologic examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Son Won; Han, Moon Hee; Chi, Je G.; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Yeon Mee; Chung, Jin Haeng; Yu, In Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate histopathologic correlation of the component of the lesion on CT and MR of retinoblastomas. Gross pathologic findings of 24 enucleated eyeballs in 24 patients with retinoblastomas were compared with preoperative CT (n=19) and MR (n=5) findings. In eight eyeballs, in which there were findings other than mass, histopathologic findings were reviewed and correlated with image findings. Retinal detachment and subretinal hemorrhage which were not detected on CT were demonstrated in two of eight eyeballs on histopathologic examination. In one eyeball, retinal detachment and subretinal effusion were detected on both CT and in a pathologic specimen. In two eyeballs with peripheral heterogeneous MR enhancement of the masses, tumor necrosis and calcification were demonstrated in the central non-emhancing portion of the mass, In two eveballs, linear soft tissue along the retina apart from the main mass were revealed as tumor spread along the retinal surface. In one patient, retinal thickening on MR was presumed to be an MR artifact and no lesion was found in the gross specimen. On CT, retinal detachment and subretinal hemorrhage associated with retinoblastoma can mimic mass, and tumor spread along the retinal surface can be seen as a linear retinal lesion. On MR, tumor necrosis and calcification can be a cause of heterogeneous enhancement.

  1. CT and MR findings in retinoblastoma : correlation with histopathologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Son Won; Han, Moon Hee; Chi, Je G.; Yu, Young Suk; Kim, Yeon Mee; Chung, Jin Haeng; Yu, In Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate histopathologic correlation of the component of the lesion on CT and MR of retinoblastomas. Gross pathologic findings of 24 enucleated eyeballs in 24 patients with retinoblastomas were compared with preoperative CT (n=19) and MR (n=5) findings. In eight eyeballs, in which there were findings other than mass, histopathologic findings were reviewed and correlated with image findings. Retinal detachment and subretinal hemorrhage which were not detected on CT were demonstrated in two of eight eyeballs on histopathologic examination. In one eyeball, retinal detachment and subretinal effusion were detected on both CT and in a pathologic specimen. In two eyeballs with peripheral heterogeneous MR enhancement of the masses, tumor necrosis and calcification were demonstrated in the central non-emhancing portion of the mass, In two eveballs, linear soft tissue along the retina apart from the main mass were revealed as tumor spread along the retinal surface. In one patient, retinal thickening on MR was presumed to be an MR artifact and no lesion was found in the gross specimen. On CT, retinal detachment and subretinal hemorrhage associated with retinoblastoma can mimic mass, and tumor spread along the retinal surface can be seen as a linear retinal lesion. On MR, tumor necrosis and calcification can be a cause of heterogeneous enhancement

  2. Carboplatin +/- topotecan ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for intraocular retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine H Francis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Carboplatin administered systemically or periocularly can result in dramatic and prompt regression of retinoblastoma. However, both routes are rarely curative alone and have undesirable side effects. We aimed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of carboplatin +/- topotecan delivered by ophthalmic artery chemosurgery whereby chemotherapy is infused into the eye via the ophthalmic artery. METHODS: This retrospective, IRB-approved study investigated retinoblastoma patients whom received carboplatin +/- topotecan ophthalmic artery chemosurgery. Patient survival, ocular survival, hematologic toxicity, ocular toxicity, second cancer development and electroretinogram response were all evaluated. RESULTS: 57 carboplatin +/- topotecan infusions (of 111 total were performed in 31 eyes of 24 patients. The remaining infusions were melphalan-containing. All patients were alive and no patient developed a second malignancy at a median follow up of 25 months. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival at two years was 89.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.1-97.9% for all eyes. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia developed in two patients and one patient developed metastatic disease. By univariate analysis, neither increasing maximum carboplatin/topotecan dose nor cumulative carboplatin/topotecan dose was associated with statistically significant reduction in the electroretinogram responses. CONCLUSION: Carboplatin +/- topotecan infusions are effective for ophthalmic artery chemosurgery in retinoblastoma: they demonstrate low hematologic and ocular toxicity and no statistically significant influence on electroretinogram responses, and used in conjunction with melphalan-containing OAC, demonstrate excellent patient survival and satisfactory ocular survival.

  3. Metodologia TRIZ aplicada em projetos de consultoria

    OpenAIRE

    Sameiro, Miguel Neto

    2015-01-01

    A metodologia TRIZ conhecida como Teoria de Resolução Inventiva de problemas é uma ferramenta de análise, previsão e resolução de problemas que como o seu nome indica, é orientada ao ser humano e é baseada no conhecimento. Uma das suas caraterísticas passa pela inovação, sendo uma boa forma de uma organização se diferenciar através de soluções inovadoras e criativas, que poderão causar grandes vantagens competitivas face à concorrência. Um projeto é uma atividade temporária, de curta ou lo...

  4. World disparities in risk definition and management of retinoblastoma: a report from the International Retinoblastoma Staging Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantada, Guillermo L; Doz, François; Orjuela, Manuela; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Sitorus, Rita S; Kepak, Tomas; Furmanchuk, Anna; Castellanos, Mauricio; Sharma, Tarun; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos

    2008-03-01

    Following from the publication of the International Retinoblastoma Staging System, an open internet discussion group was created at the www.cure4kids.org resource. The results of a survey distributed among participants are discussed. Although most patients with retinoblastoma were treated under prospective protocols, there was a wide variation in the definition of risk criteria and in the criteria for giving adjuvant chemotherapy following enucleation. Definition of high-risk histological features and the criteria for use of adjuvant therapy will be standardized in future studies. Internet meetings are a valuable mechanism for enabling participation from under-resourced countries in the development of cooperative studies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Peso y talla en niños con retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ridaura-Sanz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la talla baja se ha descrito como característica clínica de niños con retinoblastoma. Esta particularidad puede estar relacionada directamente con la enfermedad de base o con factores externos.  Objetivo: el propósito de esta investigación fue conocer la frecuencia de talla y peso bajos en niños mexicanos con retinoblastoma y correlacionar los valores antropométricos con variables de la enfermedad y ambientales. Materiales y métodos: se analizaron expedientes clínicos de 346 pacientes con retinoblastoma. Se obtuvieron los datos de peso y talla referidos al ingreso; antes del tratamiento. Se comparó el valor de Z con las referencias de la distribución normal de la población mexicana. La asociación de las medidas antropométricas con las variables clínicas, sociales y genéticas se estableció con la prueba de c2. Resultados: la talla y el peso promedio de los niños con retinoblastoma fueron significativamente más bajos que los de la población general (p < 0.001 y p = 0.013, respectivamente. La talla y peso bajos fueron más frecuentes en niños con enfermedad avanzada, provenientes de medio rural y de bajo nivel socioeconómico. Conclusiones: los déficits en peso y talla en niños con retinoblastoma se deben a factores relacionados con enfermedad avanzada al momento del diagnóstico, lo cual a su vez es consecuencia de la situación de marginación de la población rural mexicana. Dado que la mayoría de las variables sociales y ambientales están muy relacionadas y que no podemos descartar posibles factores genéticos, las conclusiones de este estudio deben verificarse analizando las medidas de los padres y hermanos y establecer grupos comparativos para controlar las variables confusas.

  6. Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Decisions in Retinoblastoma Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Sameh E; VandenHoven, Cynthia; MacKeen, Leslie D; Héon, Elise; Gallie, Brenda L

    2017-06-01

    Assess the role of handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT) in guiding management decisions during diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of eyes affected by retinoblastoma. Retrospective, noncomparative, single-institution case series. All children newly diagnosed with retinoblastoma from January 2011 to December 2015 who had an OCT session during their active treatment at The Hospital for Sick Children (SickKids) in Toronto, Canada. The OCT sessions for fellow eyes of unilateral retinoblastoma without any suspicious lesion and those performed more than 6 months after the last treatment were excluded. Data collected included age at presentation, sex, family history, RB1 mutation status, 8th edition TNMH cancer staging and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification (IIRC), and number of OCT sessions per eye. Details of each session were scored for indication-related details (informative or not) and assessed for guidance (directive or not), diagnosis (staging changed, new tumors found or excluded), treatment (modified, stopped, or modality shifted), or follow-up modified. Frequency of OCT-guided management decisions, stratified by indication and type of guidance (confirmatory vs. influential). Sixty-three eyes of 44 children had 339 OCT sessions over the course of clinical management (median number of OCT scans per eye, 5; range, 1-15). The age at presentation and presence of a heritable RB1 mutation significantly correlated with an increased number of OCT sessions. Indications included evaluation of post-treatment scar (55%) or fovea (16%), and posterior pole scanning for new tumors (11%). Of all sessions, 92% (312/339) were informative; 19 of 27 noninformative sessions had large, elevated lesions; of these, 14 of 19 were T2a or T2b (IIRC group C or D) eyes. In 94% (293/312) of the informative sessions, OCT directed treatment decisions (58%), diagnosis (16%), and follow-up (26%). Optical coherence tomography influenced and changed management from pre

  7. Vitreous Seeds in Retinoblastoma: Clinicopathologic Classification and Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Alec L; Rico, Grecia; Kim, Jonathan W; Chintagumpala, Murali; Herzog, Cynthia E; Gombos, Dan S; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia

    2017-10-01

    A recent classification scheme for retinoblastoma vitreous seeds has shown promise in predicting treatment response. For the first time, we correlate this clinical classification scheme with its histopathologic features. Retrospective review. Enucleated eyes received at the pathology department of the Retinoblastoma Center of Houston from 2010 to 2015. Macroscopic photographs of the enucleated eyes of patients with retinoblastoma were analyzed to select those with vitreous seeds. Cases with adequate material for clinicopathologic correlation were selected for further analysis, and clinical photographs were reviewed. Routine histopathologic slides were reviewed and compared with the clinical and macroscopic photographs. Seeds were classified as type 1 ("dust"), type 2 ("sphere"), or type 3 ("cloud"). To confirm the presence of macrophages, CD68 immunohistochemical staining was used. Synaptophysin was used to stain retinoblastoma cells. To correlate clinical vitreous seed type with histopathologic features. A total of 14 eyes with adequate amounts of tumor seeds along with clinical and macroscopic photographic correlation were selected from a total of 138 eyes reviewed. Type 1 seeds consisted of individual viable tumor cells and scattered macrophages. Type 2 seeds consisted of 2 submorphologies: spheres with viable cells throughout and spheres with an outer rim of viable cells but necrotic cells centrally. Type 3 seeds were composed of more than 90% necrotic material admixed with few macrophages and viable cells at their outer rim. Untreated (8/14) and previously treated (6/14) eyes showed similar histopathologic features for each type of seeds. Treated eyes had more type 1 and 3 seeds. We provide the first histopathologic correlation of the clinical classification scheme for vitreous seeds in retinoblastoma. "Dust" is formed by scattered single cells alternating with macrophages. "Spheres" with translucent centers contain multiple layers of viable tumor cells that

  8. Long non-coding RNAHOTAIRregulates proliferation and invasion via activating Notch signalling pathway in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Changxia; Liu, Shaoyi; Lv, Yongbin; Zhang, Chunping; Gao, Heying; Tan, Lixia; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most frequently occurring tumour in the eyes in early childhood. Novel targets that are important for the diagnosis or treatment of retinoblastoma could be valuable in increasing the survival rate of patients affected by this disease. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a recently discovered type of RNAs with no proteincoding function; yet it has become increasingly clear that lncRNAs are responsible for important gene regulatory functions in various diseases. In this study, the expression of lncRNA HOTAIR was measured by qRT-PCR, and HOTAIR expression was found to be significantly upregulated in human retinoblastomas tissues as compared with that in paracancerous tissues. Knockdown of HOTAIR restricted the proliferation and invasion of the more invasive retinoblastoma Y79 cells, and led to G0/G1 arrest, possibly through inhibiting phospho-RB1, RB1 and CCNE. Furthermore, we found that the Notch signalling pathway was activated abnormally in retinoblastoma cell lines, while knockdown of HOTAIR attenuated the endogenous Notch signalling pathway in vitro and in vivo. In addition, knockdown of HOTAIR could inhibit the tumour progression in a xenograft model of retinoblastoma. In summary, our findings indicate that HOTAIR may play important roles in retinoblastoma progression via Notch pathway. HOTAIR has the potential to enhance the development of novel targeted diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for retinoblastoma.

  9. Molecular analysis distinguishes metastatic disease from second cancers in patients with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racher, Hilary; Soliman, Sameh; Argiropoulos, Bob; Chan, Helen S L; Gallie, Brenda L; Perrier, Renée; Matevski, Donco; Rushlow, Diane; Piovesan, Beata; Shaikh, Furqan; MacDonald, Heather; Corson, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    The pediatric ocular tumor retinoblastoma readily metastasizes, but these lesions can masquerade as histologically similar pediatric small round blue cell tumors. Since 98% of retinoblastomas have RB1 mutations and a characteristic genomic copy number "signature", genetic analysis is an appealing adjunct to histopathology to distinguish retinoblastoma metastasis from second primary cancer in retinoblastoma patients. Here, we describe such an approach in two retinoblastoma cases. In patient one, allele-specific (AS)-PCR for a somatic nonsense mutation confirmed that a temple mass was metastatic retinoblastoma. In a second patient, a rib mass shared somatic copy number gains and losses with the primary tumor. For definitive diagnosis, however, an RB1 mutation was needed, but heterozygous promoter→exon 11 deletion was the only RB1 mutation detected in the primary tumor. We used a novel application of inverse PCR to identify the deletion breakpoint. Subsequently, AS-PCR designed for the breakpoint confirmed that the rib mass was metastatic retinoblastoma. These cases demonstrate that personalized molecular testing can confirm retinoblastoma metastases and rule out a second primary cancer, thereby helping to direct the clinical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional dissection of the role of UHRF1 in the regulation of retinoblastoma methylome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guangyan; He, Heng; Zhao, Qi; Li, Xiubo; Li, Min; Yang, Huasheng; Kim, Jong Kyong

    2017-06-13

    UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains 1) is a critical regulator for DNA methylation, and its frequent overexpression in human cancers has been associated with tumor-promoting effects. However, whether the overexpressed UHRF1 contributes to the establishment and maintenance of tumor methylomes and whether this process can affect the tumorigenesis remain unclear. In this study, we show that UHRF1 is highly expressed in retinoblastoma, and genomes of human primary retinoblastoma and cell lines have differential DNA methylation patterns compared with those of normal retina, characterized by lower global methylation and higher promoter methylation of tumor suppressors. However, our genome-wide DNA methylation study uncovers that UHRF1 down-modulation in retinoblastoma cells exerts minor effects on the existing methylation patterns at both bulk genome and individual gene loci, suggesting that retinoblastoma methylome is primarily maintained by other mechanisms. Furthermore, using two murine retinoblastoma models, we found that high UHRF1 expression does not alter global methylation levels in both premalignant neonatal retina and retinoblastoma tumors, implying that DNA hypomethylation may not be an early mechanism driving retinoblastoma tumorigenesis unlike what has been proposed for other types of cancer. These results suggest that tumor-promoting functions of UHRF1 in retinoblastoma are largely independent of its role in DNA methylation.

  11. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma in an orthotopic zebrafish tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Wang, Jian; Cao, Ziquan; Hosaka, Kayoko; Jensen, Lasse; Yang, Huasheng; Sun, Yuping; Zhuang, Rujie; Liu, Yizhi; Cao, Yihai

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly invasive malignant tumor that often invades the brain and metastasizes to distal organs through the blood stream. Invasiveness and metastasis of retinoblastoma can occur at the early stage of tumor development. However, an optimal preclinical model to study retinoblastoma invasiveness and metastasis in relation to drug treatment has not been developed. Here, we developed an orthotopic zebrafish model in which retinoblastoma invasion and metastasis can be monitored at a single cell level. We took the advantages of immune privilege and transparent nature of developing zebrafish embryos. Intravitreal implantation of color-coded retinoblastoma cells allowed us to kinetically monitor tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Further, interactions between retinoblastoma cells and surrounding microvasculatures were studied using a transgenic zebrafish that exhibited green fluorescent signals in blood vessels. We discovered that tumor cells invaded neighboring tissues and blood stream when primary tumors were at the microscopic sizes. These findings demonstrate that retinoblastoma metastasis occurs at the early stage and antiangiogenic drugs such as Vegf morpholino and sunitinib could potentially interfere with tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Thus, this orthotopic retinoblastoma model offers a new and unique opportunity to study the early events of tumor invasion, metastasis and drug responses. PMID:26169357

  12. Epidemiological trends in 1452 cases of retinoblastoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Michael T; Chau, Felix Y; Shapiro, Michael J; Leiderman, Yannek I

    2017-12-01

    To assess retinoblastoma epidemiological trends in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry. All cases of retinoblastoma in the SEER database from 1973 to 2009 were identified. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed for pathological grade, patient age, sex, year of diagnosis, and treatment modality. Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the impact of patient and tumour characteristics on survival. 1452 cases of retinoblastoma were analyzed. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 1.44 years. The tumour was unilateral in 71.0% and bilateral in 29.0%. The mean follow-up was 129.1 months. Overall survival increased during the study interval. Patients with bilateral tumours were diagnosed at an earlier age (0.46 years) than patients with unilateral disease (1.77 years; p retinoblastoma (90.3% 10-year overall survival) was associated with decreased overall survival than unilateral retinoblastoma (96.1% 10-year overall survival). Bilateral retinoblastoma was also associated with an increased incidence of nonocular malignancies (7.8%) compared with unilateral retinoblastoma (1.3%; p retinoblastoma tumour features such as tumour stage, pathological grade, and laterality with patient characteristics such as age at diagnosis, overall survival, and second malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Phacoemulsification and foldable acrylic IOL implantation in children with treated retinoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tartarella,Marcia Beatriz; Britez-Colombi,Gloria Fátima; Motono,Marcia; Chojniak,Martha Motono; Fortes Filho,Joao Borges; Belfort Jr.,Rubens

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the results of cataract surgery in children with radiation-induced cataract after treatment for retinoblastoma. METHODS: Retrospective interventional case series. Six consecutive patients diagnosed with secondary cataracts due to radiation therapy for retinoblastoma. Intervention: Phacoemulsification and foldable acrylic intraocular lens implantation. Outcomes measu- red: Visual acuity, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Aspirated lens material an...

  14. A review of the literature for intra-arterial chemotherapy used to treat retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Emily; Handa, James T; Friedman, Alan D; Pearl, Monica S

    2016-08-01

    Retinoblastoma is a malignancy of the retina that usually presents before the age of 5 years. Sporadic retinoblastoma is most often unilateral and with no hereditary influence, whereas familial retinoblastoma presents unilaterally or bilaterally in conjunction with genetic inheritance. Several treatments have been attempted with the goals of saving the child's life, salvaging the eye, and preserving vision. Alternative methods including external beam radiation, systemic chemotherapy and focal therapies have been shown to be effective but carry a risk of enucleation and other complications proportional to the severity of the tumor. Selective intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma began in 1988 in Japan and has emerged in the last 7 years in the United States as a feasible, effective and minimally invasive treatment option. We review the retinoblastoma treatment literature focusing on intra-arterial chemotherapy.

  15. In vitro radiosensitivity of fibroblasts derived from patients with retinoblastoma and abnormalities of chromosome 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Nichols, W.W.; Albert, D.M.; Little, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    In vitro x-ray survival experiments were performed on fibroblast strains derived from nine patients with sporatic unilateral retinoblastoma and 26 patients with hereditary retinoblastoma. Fibroblasts derived from patients with hereditary retinoblastoma were significantly more radiosensitive than those derived from patients with sporatic retinoblastoma. The authors hypothesize that the increased in vitro radiosensitivity observed in some hereditary retinoblastoma cell strains is a reflection of an, as yet, uncharacterized defect in DNA repair or post-irradiation DNA replication. X-ray sensitivity was also measured in 19 fibroblast strains derived from patients bearing deletions, trisomies, inversions, or translocations of all or part of chromosome 13. These results are compared with data from individuals trisomic for three other autosomes. The results suggest an association between abnormalities of chromosome 13 and the cytotoxic effects of x-irradiation

  16. Ao leitor sem medo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eisenberg

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O texto resenha Ao leitor sem medo, de Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999.This text is a review of Ao leitor sem medo by Renato Janine Ribeiro (Belo Horizonte, UFMG, 1999

  17. Versão reduzida da escala de atitudes frente ao álcool, alcoolismo e ao alcoolista: resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divane de Vargas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os itens da Escala de Atitudes frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e ao Alcoolista, a fim de elaborar uma versão reduzida, mantendo as propriedades psicométricas do instrumento. Em sua versão preliminar, a escala foi constituída por 165 itens, sendo aplicada a uma amostra de 144 estudantes de enfermagem. O processo de avaliação dos itens deu-se pela análise da correlação do item total e a confiabilidade do instrumento foi estimada pelo coeficiente alfa de Crombach. Os resultados obtidos indicaram a permanência de 83 itens, divididos em cinco fatores que apresentaram valores satisfatórios nos diferentes coeficientes de consistência interna. Concluiu-se que o resultado do estudo abre perspectivas para novas pesquisas, com a necessidade de ampliação da amostra com vistas a dar continuidade ao processo de validação da Escala de Atitudes frente ao Álcool, ao Alcoolismo e ao Alcoolista entre profissionais da saúde.

  18. O modelo de Karl Popper sob a ótica das Ciências Sociais Aplicadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Abreu Campanario

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n32p124 Karl Popper é o principal filósofo da ciência na modernidade, disputando com Thomas Kuhn a primazia de interpretação do método científico. Claramente há diferentes visões para uma leitura desse importante autor que cunhou o método chamado de dedutivo com teste. O texto reconhece a relevância da visão de Karl Popperno desenvolvimento de trabalhos científicos das ciências exatas e biológicas, onde é amplamente aceita. No entanto, nota-se que essa formulação é pouco sistematizada na área das ciências sociais aplicadas. Este é um ensaio que busca resgatar a sua contribuição, numa tentativa de traduzir os conceitos por ele desenvolvidos de forma didática. Para tanto, será feita uma introdução aos fundamentos da ciência como forma específica de conhecimento, buscando contrastar os métodos dedutivo e indutivo e os procedimentos da ciência formal, básica e aplicada. Uma tentativa de classificar a formulação de proposições a serem testadas ou falseadas é feita com a utilização de diferentes critérios, utilizando exemplos da administração e da economia para ilustração.

  19. Characteristics of Germline and Non-germline Retinoblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Ghassemi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To discuss the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes of germline and non-germline retinoblastoma tumors. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on retinoblastoma cases from 1979 to 2007. General characteristics of the patients, treatment modalities, histopathological findings and survival were compared in germline versus non-germline cases. Results: We analyzed 557 cases of retinoblastoma with mean age of 32.2΁22.0 months including 177 and 380 patients with germline and non-germline tumors, respectively. Germline cases were significantly different from non-germline counterparts in terms of mean age (24.7΁17.7 vs 35.7΁23.0 months, symptoms (leukocoria in 49.4% vs 62.9%, and outcomes (death in 40.1% vs 13.9%, respectively (P<0.001. In the germline group 66.5% and in non-germline group over 97% of patients had stage Va or higher (ICRB D-E disease. Disease-free survival was 48.6% for germlines cases versus 80.9% for nongermline patients (with mean follow up of 61.9 months, P<0.001. Histopathologically, more invasions to intraocular and extraocular tissues were seen with non-germline tumors of (66% vs 39.8%. Mortality rates in germline cases and non-germline were 40.1% and 13.9%, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: Despite higher tumor staging in nongermline cases at the time of diagnosis and therefore more aggressive behavior of the tumor, germline cases had a higher rate of mortality during the follow up period.

  20. Simultaneous Bilateral Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Bilateral Retinoblastoma (Tandem Therapy.

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    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available Report on the 7-year experience with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC-Tandem therapy for bilateral retinoblastoma.Retrospective, single institution study.120 eyes of 60 children with bilateral retinoblastoma treated since March 2008.Retrospective review of all children treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering with bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (Melphalan, Carboplatin, Topotecan, Methotrexate delivered in the same initial session to both naïve and previously treated eyes.Ocular survival, metastatic disease, patient survival from metastases, second cancers, systemic adverse effects, need for transfusion of blood products, electroretinogram before and after treatment.116 eyes were salvaged (4 eyes were enucleated: 3 because of progressive disease, 1 family choice. Kaplan Meier ocular survival was 99.2% at one year, 96.9% at 2 and 3 years and 94.9% for years 4 through 7. There were no cases of metastatic disease or metastatic deaths with a mean follow-up of 3.01 years. Two children developed second cancers (both pineoblastoma and one of them died. Transfusion of blood products was required in 3 cases (4 transfusions, 1.9%. Two children developed fever/neutropenia requiring hospitalization (0.95%. ERGs were improved in 21.6% and unchanged after treatment in 52.5% of cases (increase or decrease of less than 25μV.Bilateral ophthalmic artery chemosurgery is a safe and effective technique for managing bilateral retinoblastoma-even when eyes are advanced bilaterally, and if both eyes have progressed after systemic chemotherapy. Ocular survival was excellent (94.9% at 8 years, there were no cases of of metastatic disease and no deaths from metastatic disease, but children remain at risk for second cancers. In 21.6% of cases ERG function improved. Despite using chemotherapy in both eyes in the same session, systemic toxicity was low.

  1. In vitro Rb-1 gene transfer to retinoblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Wook; Ham, Yong Hoh; Kim, Mee Heui

    1994-04-01

    After transfection of Rb-vector to packaging cell line (CRIP) by Ca-P precipitation method, we could select nineteen colonies of G-418 resistant clone by ring cloning. Each colony was transduced to NIH3T3 cells to select the one which produces high titer virus. After NIH3T3 cells transduction, we could get 28 colony counts for the high, 127 for the middle, and 6 for the low viral titer. With the supernatant of the high viral titer colony (CRIPRb 2-5). We transduct retinoblastoma cell lines. 5 figs, 11 refs. (Author)

  2. Update on Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Zanaty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tools for managing retinoblastoma have been increasing in the past decade. While globe-salvage still relies heavily on intravenous chemotherapy, tumors in advanced stage that failed chemotherapy are now referred for intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC to avoid enucleation. However, IAC still has many obstacles to overcome. We present an update on the indications, complications, limitations, success, and technical aspects of IAC. Given its safety and high efficacy, it is expected that IAC will replace conventional strategies and will become a first-line option even for tumors that are amenable for other strategies.

  3. Estadística aplicada a Psicología

    OpenAIRE

    Chorro Gascó, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este documento es un curso de introducción a Estadística aplicada al análisis de datos en Psicología. Está estructurado en dos bloques de temas de Estadística Descriptiva e Inferencial, que incluyen contenidos teóricos y ejercicios. La página de inicio da acceso a cada bloque, y una vez dentro se accede a los contenidos a través de un menú desplegable. Curs d’introducció a Estadística aplicada a l’anàlisi de dades en Psicologia. Els temes estan agrupats en dos blocs, un per Estadística Des...

  4. Association of Electroencephalography (EEG) Power Spectra with Corneal Nerve Fiber Injury in Retinoblastoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianliang; Sun, Juanjuan; Diao, Yumei; Deng, Aijun

    2016-09-04

    BACKGROUND In our clinical experience we discovered that EEG band power may be correlated with corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. This study aimed to investigate biomarkers obtained from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to reflect corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Our study included 20 retinoblastoma patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University between 2010 and 2014. Twenty normal individuals were included in the control group. EEG activity was recorded continuously with 32 electrodes using standard EEG electrode placement for detecting EEG power. A cornea confocal microscope was used to examine corneal nerve injury in retinoblastoma patients and normal individuals. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between corneal nerve injury and EEG power changes. The sensitivity and specificity of changed EEG power in diagnosis of corneal nerve injury were also analyzed. RESULTS The predominantly slow EEG oscillations changed gradually into faster waves in retinoblastoma patients. The EEG pattern in retinoblastoma patients was characterized by a distinct increase of delta (Pretinoblastoma patients. Corneal nerve injury was positively correlated with delta EEG spectra power and negatively correlated with theta EEG spectra power. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity by compounding in the series were 60% and 67%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Changes in delta and theta of EEG appear to be associated with occurrence of corneal nerve injury. Useful information can be provided for evaluating corneal nerve damage in retinoblastoma patients through analyzing EEG power bands.

  5. Ultrastructural changes of mitochondria in human retinoblastoma: correlation with tumor differentiation and invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lata; Nag, Tapas C; Kashyap, Seema

    2016-05-01

    Retinoblastoma still represents a challenge for pediatric tumors. Mitochondria have been implicated in tumor progression, cell differentiation, and apoptotic pathways. Electron microscopy allows the study of mitochondrial morphology and it is still debated in human retinoblastoma. Demographic, clinical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in 17 enucleated retinoblastoma specimens. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to study tumor characteristics and the extent of invasion in ocular structures. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the mitochondrial morphology in human retinoblastoma by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). There was a male preponderance in our study. Ages ranged from 2 to 78 months. Histopathological analysis revealed that 15 (88.2 %) tumors were poorly differentiated retinoblastomas. Massive choroidal invasion was the most frequent histopathological high-risk factor among the others. Histopathological high-risk factors were found in 7/17 (41.1 %) cases. Tumor samples of all patients were examined by means of TEM. All cases showed tumor cells with high nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Poorly differentiated retinoblastoma cases showed fewer mitochondria, scant cytoplasm, disorganized organelles (mitochondria), and necrosis, whereas well-differentiated retinoblastomas had larger number of mitochondria and more organized organelles. However, there was no significant difference in mitochondrial changes between invasive and noninvasive tumors. Our study observed that cristolysis and swollen mitochondria were more frequent in retinoblastoma tumors. Understanding the structural and functional characteristics of mitochondria in retinoblastoma might be essential for the design of future therapeutic strategies. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

  6. The toxic effects, GSH depletion and radiosensitivity by BSO on retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xianjin Yi; Li Ding; Yizun Jin; Chuo Ni; Wenji Wang

    1994-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children. Previous investigations have reported that buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) can deplete intracellular glutathione (GSH) by specific inhibition and increase cellular radiosensitivity. The toxic effects, GSH depletion and radiosensitivity effects of BSO on retinoblastoma cells are reported in this paper. GSH content of retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, So-Rb50 and retinoblastoma xenograft is 2.7 ± 1.3 X 1.0 -12 mmol/cell, 1.4 ± 0.2 X 1.0 -12 mmol/cell, and 2.8 ± 1.2 μmol/g, respectively. The ID 50 of BSO on Y-79 and So-Rb50 in air for 3 h exposure is 2.5 mM and 0.2 mM, respectively. GSH depletion by 0.1 mM BSO for 24 h on Y-79 cells and 0.01 mM BSO for 24 h on So-Rb50 cells is 16.35%, and 4.7% of control. GSH depletion in tumor and other organ tissues in retinoblastoma-bearing nude mice after BSO administration is differential. GSH depletion after BSO exposure in Y-79 cells in vitro decreases the Do value of retinoblastoma cells. The SER of 0.01 mM and 0.05 mM BSO for 24 h under hypoxic conditions is 1.21 and 1.36, respectively. Based on these observations, the authors conclude that BSO toxicity on retinoblastoma cells depends on the characteristics of the cell line and that BSO can increase hypoxic retinoblastoma cells' radiosensitivity in vitro. Further study of BSO radiosensitization on retinoblastoma in vivo using nude mouse xenografts is needed. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  7. The toxic effects, GSH depletion and radiosensitivity by BSO on retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Xianjin; Ni Chuo; Wang Wengi; Li Ding; Jin Yizun

    1993-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children. Previous investigations have reported that buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) can deplete intracellular glutathione (GSH) by the specific inhibition and increase cellular radiosensitivity. The toxic effects, GSH depletion and radiosensitivity of BSO on retinoblastoma were reported. GSH content of retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, So-Rb50 and retinoblastoma xenograft is (2.7 +- 1.3) x 10 -12 mmol/cell, (1.4 +- 0.2) x 10 -12 mmol/cell, and 2.8 +- 1.2 μmol/g respectively. The ID50 of BSO on Y-79 and So-Rb50 in air for 3h exposure is 2.5 mM and 0.2 mM respectively. GSH depletion by 0.1 mM BSO for 24h on Y-79 cells and 0.01 mM BSO for 24 h on So-Rb50 cells is 16.35%, and 4.7% of control. GSH depletion in tumor and other organ tissues in retinoblastoma bearing nude mice after BSO administration is differential. BSH depletion after BSO exposure in Y-79 cells in vitro decrease the D 0 value of retinoblastoma cells. The SER of 0.01 mM and 0.05 mM BSO for 24 h under the hypoxic condition is 1.21 and 1.36 respectively. Based on these observations, the authors conclude that BSO toxicity on retinoblastoma cells depends on the characteristics of cell line and BSO can increase hypoxic retinoblastoma cells radiosensitivity in vitro. Further study of BSO radiosensitization on retinoblastoma in vivo using nude mouse xenograft is needed

  8. Hypoxia inhibits growth, proliferation, and increases response to chemotherapy in retinoblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Tripathy, Arushi; Yu, Wayne; Eberhart, Charles G; Asnaghi, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the retina and the most frequent intraocular cancer in children. Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) is a common phenomenon in advanced retinoblastomas, but its biological effect on retinoblastoma growth is not clearly understood. Here we studied how hypoxia altered retinoblastoma gene expression and modulated growth and response to chemotherapy. The hypoxic marker lysyl oxidase (LOX) was expressed in 8 of 12 human retinoblastomas analyzed by immunohistochemistry, suggesting that a hypoxic microenvironment is present in up to two thirds of the cases. WERI Rb1 and Y79 retinoblastoma lines were exposed to 1% or 5% pO 2 , cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ), or to normoxia (21% pO 2 ) for up to 8 days. Both 1% and 5% pO 2 inhibited growth of both lines by more than 50%. Proliferation was reduced by 25-50% when retinoblastoma cells were exposed to 1% vs 21% pO 2 , as determined by Ki67 assay. Surprisingly, Melphalan, Carboplatin, and Etoposide produced greater reduction in growth and survival of hypoxic cells than normoxic ones. Gene expression profile analysis of both lines, exposed for 48 h to 1%, 5%, or 21% pO 2 , showed that glycolysis and glucose transport were the most up-regulated pathways, whereas oxidative phosphorylation was the most down-regulated pathway in hypoxia as compared to normoxia. These data support a role for hypoxia in suppressing growth, proliferation, and enhancing response of retinoblastoma cells to chemotherapy, possibly by impairing energy production through activation of glycolysis and inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. Targeting glucose metabolism or enhancing delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to hypoxic regions may improve treatment of advanced retinoblastomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How Eye-Preserving Therapy Affects Long-Term Overall Survival in Heritable Retinoblastoma Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temming, Petra; Arendt, Marina; Viehmann, Anja; Eisele, Lewin; Le Guin, Claudia H D; Schündeln, Michael M; Biewald, Eva; Mäusert, Jennifer; Wieland, Regina; Bornfeld, Norbert; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Eggert, Angelika; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-10

    Intraocular retinoblastoma is curable, but survivors with a heritable predisposition are at high risk for second malignancies. Because second malignancies are associated with high mortality, prognostic factors for second malignancy influence long-term overall survival. This study investigates the impact of all types of eye-preserving therapies on long-term survival in the complete German cohort of patients with heritable retinoblastoma. Overall survival, disease staging using international scales, time period of diagnosis, and treatment type were analyzed in the 633 German children treated at the national reference center for heritable retinoblastoma. The 5-year overall survival of children diagnosed in Germany with heritable retinoblastoma between 1940 and 2008 was 93.2% (95% CI, 91.2% to 95.1%), but long-term mortality was increased compared with patients with nonheritable disease. Overall survival correlated with tumor staging, and 92% of patients were diagnosed with a favorable tumor stage (International Retinoblastoma Staging System stage 0 or I). Despite a 5-year overall survival of 97.4% (95% CI, 96.0% to 98.8%) in patients with stage 0 or I, only 79.5% (95% CI, 74.2% to 84.8%) of these patients survived 40 years after diagnosis. Long-term overall survival was reduced in children treated with eye-preserving radiotherapy compared with enucleation alone, and adding chemotherapy aggravated this effect. The benefits of preserving vision must be balanced with the impact of eye-preserving treatments on long-term survival in heritable retinoblastoma, and the genetic background of the patient influences choice of eye-preserving treatment. Germline RB1 genetic analysis is important to identify heritable retinoblastoma among unilateral retinoblastoma cases. Eye-preserving radiotherapy should be carefully considered in patients with germline RB1 mutations. Life-long oncologic follow-up is crucial for all retinoblastoma survivors, and less detrimental eye

  10. Axenfeld-Rieger ocular anomaly and retinoblastoma caused by constitutional chromosome 13q deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ana; Mora, Jaume; Perez, Maria Del Mar; Gean, Esther; Perez, Belen; O'Callaghan, Mar; Catala, Jaume; De Torres, Carmen; Cruz, Ofelia; Prat, Joan; Parareda, Andreu

    2010-03-01

    Axenfeld-Rieger (AR) ocular anomaly might be due to deletions of different chromosomes. No association between AR, mental retardation, and retinoblastoma has been described. We report a 2-month-old female with general development delay and dysmorphic features. AR anomaly was detected, and a retinoblastoma (RB) was diagnosed in a very early stage. De novo 13q deletion was identified. Systemic chemotherapy, focal cryotherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy, brachytherapy, and intra-arterial chemotherapy were needed to control the RB. This is the first report of an association of AR, 13q deletion, and retinoblastoma, to be disclosed in patients born with such ocular and dysmorphic features. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. The modality and results of complex treatment of extended retinoblastoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkina, B.M.; Durnov, L.A.; Polyakov, V.G.; Goldobenko, G.V.; Glekov, I.V.; Ushakova, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the results of combined treatment of retinoblastoma in children according to the program developed in the Scientific and Research Institute of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology is performed. The treatment program permits to avoid in many cases the unjustified removal of eye. Combination of treatment methods (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy) and their sequence depends on the classification by stages of retinoblastoma development according to the TNM system. Five year survival in case of monoretinoblastoma with surgical operation at the first stage and without is 92% and 82% corresponding while in case of double retinoblastoma - 83% and 84%

  12. Chemotherapy as an adjuvant to Radiotherapy in treatment of Retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumours, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermo therapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results.

  13. The Hemotoxicity of Chemotherapeutic Regimens in Sudanese Children with Retinoblastoma

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    Fathelrahman Mahdi Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a rapid increase in cancer among Sudanese citizens from 1999 until this year. At least 80% of all patients who undergo chemotherapy will develop anemia as a complication. This inpatient analytical comparative study aims to examine the possible association between hemotoxicity and various chemotherapy regimens in Sudanese children diagnosed with retinoblastoma.Methods: This study enrolled 30 patients diagnosed with childhood retinoblastoma who were admitted from June 2006 to September 2008 to the Radiation and Isotope Center Khartoum. We collected 90 blood samples to examine for a possible association between anemia and the chemotherapeutic regimen. All patients (n=30 were included in each arm of the chemotherapy regimen.Results: Prior to the onset of chemotherapy, 50% of patients had normal hemoglobin levels, 43.3% had mild anemia, and 6.7% had moderate anemia. Post-cycle I treatment, there were only 6.7% who had normal hemoglobin levels. Mild anemia was observed in 60%, followed by 30% for moderate anemia and 3.3% of patients had severe anemia. Post-cycle II there were no patients with normal hemoglobin levels, however 26.7% had mild anemia and the majority of patients (approximately 73.3% had moderate anemia.Conclusion: A correlation existed between hemoglobin values after completion of therapy to the overall treatment. We observed a decline of 1 to 2 g/dl in hemoglobin levels.

  14. Dosimetric Study of Current Treatment Options for Radiotherapy in Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldebawy, Eman [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Children' s Cancer Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Parker, William, E-mail: william.parker@mcgill.ca [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Abdel Rahman, Wamied [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Freeman, Carolyn R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the best treatment technique for patients with retinoblastoma requiring radiotherapy to the whole eye. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans for 3 patients with retinoblastoma were developed using 10 radiotherapy techniques including electron beams, photon beam wedge pair (WP), photon beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), fixed gantry intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), photon volumetric arc therapy (VMAT), fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and helical tomotherapy (HT). Dose-volume analyses were carried out for each technique. Results: All techniques provided similar target coverage; conformity was highest for VMAT, nine-field (9F) IMRT, and HT (conformity index [CI] = 1.3) and lowest for the WP and two electron techniques (CI = 1.8). The electron techniques had the highest planning target volume dose gradient (131% of maximum dose received [D{sub max}]), and the CRT techniques had the lowest (103% D{sub max}) gradient. The volume receiving at least 20 Gy (V{sub 20Gy}) for the ipsilateral bony orbit was lowest for the VMAT and HT techniques (56%) and highest for the CRT techniques (90%). Generally, the electron beam techniques were superior in terms of brain sparing and delivered approximately one-third of the integral dose of the photon techniques. Conclusions: Inverse planned image-guided radiotherapy delivered using HT or VMAT gives better conformity index, improved orbital bone and brain sparing, and a lower integral dose than other techniques.

  15. UNILATERAL SPORADIC RETINOBLASTOMA IN AN 11-YEAR-OLD CHILD: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Jha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Retinoblastoma is the commonest intraocular tumour of childhood. Majority of cases are diagnosed before 5 years of age, with late presentation being a rarity. CASE REPORT An 11-year-old boy presented to our OPD with diminution of vision and white pupillary reflex in the left eye since 1 month. Right eye was normal. Fundus examination of left eye revealed a mass in the inferior quadrant with vitreous haemorrhage. Bscan and MRI were suggestive of retinoblastoma and showed no signs of optic nerve involvement. Subsequently, the patient underwent enucleation of left eye. Primary orbital implant was given. Diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically. CONCLUSION Late presentation of retinoblastoma though uncommon can cause acute visual impairment. Retinoblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of leukocoria in any age group.

  16. Lessons from Retinoblastoma: Implications for Cancer, Development, Evolution, and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare childhood cancer of the developing retina, and studies on this orphan disease have led to fundamental discoveries in cancer biology. Retinoblastoma has also emerged as a model for translational research for pediatric solid tumors, which is particularly important as personalized medicine expands in oncology. Research on retinoblastomas has been combined with the exploration of retinal development and retinal degeneration to advance a new model of cell type-specific disease susceptibility termed 'cellular pliancy'. The concept can even be extended to species-specific regeneration. This review discusses the remarkable path of retinoblastoma research and how it has shaped the most current efforts in basic, translational, and clinical research in oncology and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel function of the retinoblastoma protein in fat: regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    the major energy store and brown adipocytes being potent energy-dissipaters through thermogenesis. Yet, little is known about factors differentially regulating the formation of white and brown fat cells. Members of the retinoblastoma protein family (pRB, p107, p130) have been implicated in the regulation...... of adipocyte differentiation, and expression and phosphorylation of the three retinoblastoma family proteins oscillate in a characteristic manner during differentiation of the white preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1. We have recently demonstrated a surprising function of the retinoblastoma protein...... in the regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and possibly in vivo. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the retinoblastoma protein in fat cells, with particular emphasis on its potential role in adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation....

  18. A Palliative Approach for Rehabilitation of a Pediatric Patient with Retinoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Raghuwar Dayal; Gupta, Sanjiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly malignant neoplasm. Most of the cases are usually far advanced at the time of detection, requiring enucleation to salvage the child′s life. However, the cosmetic rehabilitation of these patients should always be an integral part of their treatment, which helps in their re-integration in the society. This paper presents a case of 5-year-old patient who had undergone enucleation of her left eye due to retinoblastoma. A multidisciplinary approach, including ophthalmolo...

  19. Breaking down barriers to communicating complex retinoblastoma information: can graphics be the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hannah H; Dimaras, Helen; Downie, Rob; Gallie, Brenda

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of a graphical timeline summarizing bilateral retinoblastoma disease and treatment outcomes on parents' understanding of complex medical information. Cross-sectional survey. Parents of children with retinoblastoma who were being actively managed at The Hospital for Sick Children were recruited. Forty-five parents from 42 families participated. After a standardized presentation on retinoblastoma and visual tool named Disease-Specific electronic Patient Illustrated Clinical Timeline (DePICT), parents completed a 19-item questionnaire designed to assess their understanding of treatment choices for 2 eyes in bilateral retinoblastoma as communicated using DePICT. SPSS was used to perform statistical analysis. Forty-five parents from 42 families participated (65% female). Median age of participants was 34 years. Median level of participant education was completion of college/trade school. The median level of annual income was $40,000 to $70,000 CDN. Median time since diagnosis of retinoblastoma in their child was 13.5 months. Twenty-three (51%) participants were parents of children with unilateral retinoblastoma, and 22 (49%) were parents of children with bilateral retinoblastoma. Median number of correct answers was 15 of 19, and mean score was 77%. Normal distribution of scores was noted. English as a first language was significantly associated with score (p = 0.01). No significant association was observed between other variables and score in all analyses. This study builds on the validation of DePICT by demonstrating that parents can achieve good comprehension even when considering choices for treatment for 2 eyes with bilateral retinoblastoma. Clinical application of this tool can enhance the consent process. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunohistochemical analysis of retinoblastoma cell phenotype using neuronal and glial cell markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, María Eugenia; Belfort, Rubens; Antecka, Emilia; Burnier, Miguel Noel

    2016-01-01

    The cellular origin of retinoblastoma is uncertain as constituent tumor cells heterogeneously express markers of both immature and mature retinal cells. An immunohistochemical analysis of cellular origin may yield valuable insights into disease progression and treatment options. This study aimed to determine the cellular origin of retinoblastoma in a large case series and correlate these findings with histopathological prognostic factors. Thirty-nine retinoblastoma cases were histopathologically diagnosed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the immature neural cell marker SRY-box containing gene 2 (SOX-2), the mature neuronal cell marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), and the mature glial cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Histopathological features were also evaluated, including patterns of growth, differentiation, vitreous seeding, and choroidal/scleral, optic nerve, and anterior chamber invasion. Two retinoblastoma cell lines, WERI-1 and Y79, were studied by immunocytochemistry using the same antibodies. Expression of SOX-2 was strong in 97.4% of retinoblastoma cases, while MAP-2 was expressed in 59% of cases. Immunostaining for GFAP was positive only in reactive stromal astrocytes interspersed amongst tumor cells and in peritumoral tissue. There was no correlation between histopathological prognostic factors and immunohistochemical markers. Retinoblastoma cell lines showed strong positivity for SOX2 (90% of WERI-1 cells and 70% of Y79 cells) and MAP2 (90% of cells in both lines). GFAP was completely negative in both cell lines. The majority of retinoblastomas and both RB cell lines expressed an immature neural and/or a mature neuronal cell marker, but not a glial marker. These results indicate a typical neuroblast or neuronal origin and eliminate astrocyte differentiation from neural stem cells as the source of retinoblastoma.

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of retinoblastoma cell phenotype using neuronal and glial cell markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Orellana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The cellular origin of retinoblastoma is uncertain as constituent tumor cells heterogeneously express markers of both immature and mature retinal cells. An immunohistochemical analysis of cellular origin may yield valuable insights into disease progression and treatment options. This study aimed to determine the cellular origin of retinoblastoma in a large case series and correlate these findings with histopathological prognostic factors. Methods: Thirty-nine retinoblastoma cases were histopathologically diagnosed and analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the immature neural cell marker SRY-box containing gene 2 (SOX-2, the mature neuronal cell marker microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2, and the mature glial cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. Histopathological features were also evaluated, including patterns of growth, differentiation, vitreous seeding, and choroidal/scleral, optic nerve, and anterior chamber invasion. Two retinoblastoma cell lines, WERI-1 and Y79, were studied by immunocytochemistry using the same antibodies. Results: Expression of SOX-2 was strong in 97.4% of retinoblastoma cases, while MAP-2 was expressed in 59% of cases. Immunostaining for GFAP was positive only in reactive stromal astrocytes interspersed amongst tumor cells and in peritumoral tissue. There was no correlation between histopathological prognostic factors and immunohistochemical markers. Retinoblastoma cell lines showed strong positivity for SOX2 (90% of WERI-1 cells and 70% of Y79 cells and MAP2 (90% of cells in both lines. GFAP was completely negative in both cell lines. Conclusion: The majority of retinoblastomas and both RB cell lines expressed an immature neural and/or a mature neuronal cell marker, but not a glial marker. These results indicate a typical neuroblast or neuronal origin and eliminate astrocyte differentiation from neural stem cells as the source of retinoblastoma.

  2. Methionine synthase A2756G variation is associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in Iranian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Naderi, Asieh; Saremi, Leila; Sayad, Arezou; Irani, Shiva; Ahani, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Association of epigenetic modifications with cancer has been widely studied. Gene-specific hypermethylation and global DNA hypomethylation are the most frequently observed patterns in great number of tumors. The methionine synthase (MTR) gene plays key role in maintaining adequate intracellular folate, methionine and normal homocysteine concentrations and, its polymorphism have been associated with the risk of retinoblastoma and other neoplasms. We evaluated the association of MTR A2756G polymorphism with the risk of retinoblastoma in an Iranian population. Totally, 150 retinoblastoma patients and 300 individuals with no family history of cancer as control were included in this study. Genotyping of the A2756G polymorphism was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using the restriction enzymes HaeIII. Our results showed that the "G" was the minor allele with a frequency of 31.7% and 20.3% in both retinoblastoma and control groups, respectively. The frequency of the 2756GG genotype (P=0.023) and 2756G allele (P=0.0001) were significantly higher in the patients than control group, respectively. Individual with the 2756GG genotype had a 2.99 fold increased risk for retinoblastoma. According to our results, the MTR A2756G polymorphism was associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in Iranian patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. miR-17∼92 cooperates with RB pathway mutations to promote retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkrite, Karina; Sundby, Maggie; Mukai, Shizuo; Thomson, J. Michael; Mu, David; Hammond, Scott M.; MacPherson, David

    2011-01-01

    The miR-17∼92 cluster is a potent microRNA-encoding oncogene. Here, we show that miR-17∼92 synergizes with loss of Rb family members to promote retinoblastoma. We observed miR-17∼92 genomic amplifications in murine retinoblastoma and high expression of miR-17∼92 in human retinoblastoma. While miR-17∼92 was dispensable for mouse retinal development, miR-17∼92 overexpression, together with deletion of Rb and p107, led to rapid emergence of retinoblastoma with frequent metastasis to the brain. miR-17∼92 oncogenic function in retinoblastoma was not mediated by a miR-19/PTEN axis toward apoptosis suppression, as found in lymphoma/leukemia models. Instead, miR-17∼92 increased the proliferative capacity of Rb/p107-deficient retinal cells. We found that deletion of Rb family members led to compensatory up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Cip1. miR-17∼92 overexpression counteracted p21Cip1 up-regulation, promoted proliferation, and drove retinoblastoma formation. These results demonstrate that the oncogenic determinants of miR-17∼92 are context-specific and provide new insights into miR-17∼92 function as an RB-collaborating gene in cancer. PMID:21816922

  4. Modeling Developmental and Tumorigenic Aspects of Trilateral Retinoblastoma via Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avior, Yishai; Lezmi, Elyad; Yanuka, Dorit; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2017-05-09

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) provide a platform for studying human development and understanding mechanisms underlying diseases. Retinoblastoma-1 (RB1) is a key regulator of cell cycling, of which biallelic inactivation initiates retinoblastoma, the most common congenital intraocular malignancy. We developed a model to study the role of RB1 in early development and tumor formation by generating RB1-null hESCs using CRISPR/Cas9. RB1 -/- hESCs initiated extremely large teratomas, with neural expansions similar to those of trilateral retinoblastoma tumors, in which retinoblastoma is accompanied by intracranial neural tumors. Teratoma analysis further revealed a role for the transcription factor ZEB1 in RB1-mediated ectoderm differentiation. Furthermore, RB1 -/- cells displayed mitochondrial dysfunction similar to poorly differentiated retinoblastomas. Screening more than 100 chemotherapies revealed an RB1 -/- -specific cell sensitivity to carboplatin, exploiting their mitochondrial dysfunction. Together, our work provides a human pluripotent cell model for retinoblastoma and sheds light on developmental and tumorigenic roles of RB1. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Implications of Promoter Hypermethylation in RASSF1A and MGMT in Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong Wai Choy

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the epigenetic silencing and genetic changes of the RAS-associated domain family 1A (RASSF1A gene and the Os-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT gene in retinoblastoma. We extracted DNA from microdissected tumor and normal retina tissues of the same patient in 68 retinoblastoma cases. Promoter methylation in RASSF1A and MGMT was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR, RASSF1A sequence alterations in all coding exons by direct DNA sequencing, RASSF1A expression by RT-PCR. Cell cycle staging was analyzed by flow cytometry. We detected RASSF1A promoter hypermethylation in 82% of retinoblastoma, in tumor tissues only but not in adjacent normal retinal tissue cells. There was no expression of RASSF1A transcripts in all hypermethylated samples, but RASSF1A transcripts were restored after 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine treatment with no changes in cell cycle or apoptosis. No mutation in the RASSF1A sequence was found. MGMT hypermethylation was present in 15% of theretinoblastoma samples, the absence of MGMT hypermethylation was associated (P = .002 with retinoblastoma at advanced ReeseEllsworth tumor stage. Our results revealed a high RASSF1A hypermethylation frequency in retinoblastoma. The correlation of MGMT inactivation by promoter hypermethylation with lower-stage diseases indicated that MGMT hypermethylation provides useful prognostic information. Epigenetic mechanism plays an important role in the progression of retinoblastoma.

  6. Unusually very late-onset new growth of intraocular retinoblastoma: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshigeta Gelaw

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: Despite initial satisfactory treatment and complete regression of the tumor, very late-onset new growth of intraocular retinoblastoma can occur. Hence, life-long follow-up in all patients with retinoblastoma is warranted, given the risk for new tumor formation even later in life. To our knowledge, this is the first report of new growth of intraocular retinoblastoma after regression for more than a decade.

  7. Neurociencia aplicada: el cerebro al servicio de la humanidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Correa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La neurociencia aplicada utiliza tecnología y conocimiento sobre el cerebro para resolver problemas prácticos, principalmente en la clínica y el trabajo. La cura de lesiones neurológicas, Parkinson y Alzheimer, podría depender de terapias génicas, neurofeedback, neuroestimulación magnética o implantes neurales. En neuroergonomía, la aplicación de la realidad virtual mejora la productividad y la seguridad laboral.

  8. Sobre matemática y ciencias aplicadas

    OpenAIRE

    González, José

    2000-01-01

    No existe una clara diferencia entre la enjundia científica de las contribuciones en matemáticas y física aplicadas o en los estudios más abstractos de estas especialidades, aunque, tradicionalmente, se haya desprestigiado a los investigadores que cultivan los procedimientos menos «puros». En todo caso, la historia de la ciencia y las necesidades reales de la sociedad actual inciden de forma notable en la trascendencia de los trabajos de investigación que, en mayor medida, se muestren en cons...

  9. Neurociencia aplicada: el cerebro al servicio de la humanidad

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Correa

    2008-01-01

    La neurociencia aplicada utiliza tecnología y conocimiento sobre el cerebro para resolver problemas prácticos, principalmente en la clínica y el trabajo. La cura de lesiones neurológicas, Parkinson y Alzheimer, podría depender de terapias génicas, neurofeedback, neuroestimulación magnética o implantes neurales. En neuroergonomía, la aplicación de la realidad virtual mejora la productividad y la seguridad laboral.

  10. La Antropología Aplicada en una Sociedad Compleja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cadenas Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo reflexiona sobre la definición del término antropología aplicada a la luz de los desafíos que enfrente la disciplina antropológica en el Siglo XXI, desde el punto de vista teórico, metodológico y de aplicación práctica en el más amplio sentido. Si bien el tema está abierto a debate y no se puede llegar a conclusiones taxativas, sí es posible proponer algunas ideas al debate.

  11. Tratamento conservador em retinoblastoma intra-ocular Conservative treatment for intraocular retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clélia Maria Erwenne

    2003-12-01

    bilaterais foram conservados 48,9% dos olhos tratados. Entre os unilaterais, para os mesmos estádios obteve-se: I 0/0; II 2/2 (100,0%; III 1/3 (33,3%; IV 1/3 (33,3%; V 0/7 (0%. Considerando-se o total de unilaterais foram conservados 26,6% dos olhos. Não se observou nefro ou ototoxicidade às drogas neste grupo.PURPOSE: To report the results of conservation of the ocular globe after treatment with carboplatin and laser; with or without the use of other forms of local treatment or radiotherapy, if necessary. METHODS: All eyes, initially untreated, were evaluated using indirect ophthalmology under inhalation anesthesia in an outpatient clinic treatment setting. They were categorized according to the Reese-Ellsworth system; thereafter, the patients were evaluated clinically by a pediatric oncologist. The patients received the first cycle of chemotherapy consisting of intravenous carboplatin 200 mg/m², vincristine 1.5 mg/m² and etoposide 150 mg/m², for three days. This was followed by other cycles with intervals of between 21 and 28 days. From 7 to 15 days after the end of the chemotherapy cycle, another indirect ophthalmoscopy under inhalation anesthesia was performed, with documentation of the findings and laser hyperthermia application, using a Diode laser, 810 nm, continuous pulse with a large spot size. The procedure (chemotherapy and laser was repeated until complete cicatrization of all lesions was observed, or until the need for another treatment modality such as radiotherapy or enucleation became apparent. Follow-up examinations every two months during the first year and three months thereafter were done for review and for treatment of recurrent or new lesions. Pediatric oncology follow-up was also done throughout the entire initial assessment and follow-up period. RESULTS: We treated a total of 62 patients with retinoblastoma, of whom 32 were male and 30 female. Fifteen were unilateral and 47 were bilateral with a total of 107 eyes. The mean age was 16.9 months (2

  12. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy)

  13. Radiation regression patterns after cobalt plaque insertion for retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buys, R.J.; Abramson, D.H.; Ellsworth, R.M.; Haik, B.

    1983-08-01

    An analysis of 31 eyes of 30 patients who had been treated with cobalt plaques for retinoblastoma disclosed that a type I radiation regression pattern developed in 15 patients; type II, in one patient, and type III, in five patients. Nine patients had a regression pattern characterized by complete destruction of the tumor, the surrounding choroid, and all of the vessels in the area into which the plaque was inserted. This resulting white scar, corresponding to the sclerae only, was classified as a type IV radiation regression pattern. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence in patients with type IV regression patterns, with an average follow-up of 6.5 years, after receiving cobalt plaque therapy. Twenty-nine of these 30 patients had been unsuccessfully treated with at least one other modality (ie, light coagulation, cryotherapy, external beam radiation, or chemotherapy).

  14. A pilot study of hyperfractionated radiotherapy for infants with retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eleanor E.R.; Meadows, Anna T.; Shields, Jerry; D'Angio, Giulio J.; Goldwein, Joel W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to assess the use of twice daily fractionated radiotherapy using low doses per fraction in the treatment of intraocular retinoblastoma in infants in terms of local control, ocular complications and bony growth disturbances. Methods: Children were irradiated using standard techniques including en face electrons (3 patients) or opposed lateral photon fields to one or both orbits (7 patients). Patients were treated with 100 cGy twice daily with an inter fraction interval of 4 or more hours to total doses of 43 to 45 Gy. No patients received chemotherapy. Results: Ten children under the age of 13 months were entered onto the twice daily radiation protocol from 4/87 through 6/90. Nine patients presented with nonfamilial bilateral retinoblastoma; one later failed in the pineal region representing trilateral retinoblastoma. The tenth patient had advanced unilateral disease. Of 19 eyes involved with tumor, 13 were group V and all patients had at least one eye with advanced disease (group III-V). Two patients underwent enucleation of the more advanced eye up front and received radiation to the intact eye only. Overall survival was 8 of 10 patients with a median follow-up of 28 months (range 12-47 months). Two patients died of distant metastases, one with local recurrence and one with trilateral disease but local control. Local recurrence after initial external beam radiation therapy only was seen in 8 of 19 eyes (42%). Failures occurred in 6 of 13 group V eyes, 1 of 2 group IV eyes and 1 of 2 group III eyes. Further local therapy included plaque therapy in 3 eyes, cryotherapy in 3 eyes and enucleation in one eye. Surgery was refused for one patient with bilateral recurrences. Ultimate local control after external beam irradiation plus additional local therapies was 16 of 19 eyes (84%). Post-irradiation ocular loss occurred in 5 of 19 eyes. Therefore, overall local control with ocular preservation was achieved in 14 of 19 eyes (74%). Vision

  15. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van; Tan, K.E.W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9,) 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy. (Auth.)

  16. Treatment of retinoblastoma by precision megavoltage radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, J.; Peperzeel, H.A. van (Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis); Tan, K.E.W.P. (Royal Dutch Eye Hospital, Utrecht, Netherlands)

    1985-02-01

    The principal treatment concept in the Utrecht Retinoblastoma Centre is megavoltage irradiation, followed by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy if there is any doubt as to whether the residual tumour is still active. Radiation therapy is administered by means of a simple but highly accurate temporal beam technique. A standardized dose of 45 Gy is given in 15 fractions of 3 Gy at 3 fractions per week. From 1971 to 1982, 39 children with retinoblastoma have been irradiated in at least one eye. Of the 73 affected eyes, 18 were primarily enucleated, one received light coagulation only, and 54 received radiation therapy. Of the 54 irradiated eyes, 32 were additionally treated by light coagulation and/or cryotherapy for suspicious residual tumour (in 29 eyes), recurrent tumour (in 1 eye), and/or new tumour (in 3 eyes) and 10 were ultimately enucleated. Two eyes also received hyperthermia. The percentages of cure of the irradiated eyes with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were 100% (14/14), 100% (9/9), 83% (10/12), 79% (11/14) and 0% (0/5) in the Reese-Ellsworth groups I to V-A, respectively. Of the saved eyes 95% achieved useful vision. Eighteen eyes developed a clinically detectable radiation cataract; in five of these the lens was aspirated. Cataracts developed exclusively in those lenses of which a posterior portion of more than 1 mm had to be included in the treatment field. The likelihood and the degree of cataract formation was found to be directly related to the dose of radiation to the germinative zone of the lens epithelium. The minimum cataractogenic dose found in this series was 8 Gy.

  17. Antropología aplicada y relaciones étnicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA SAN ROMAN

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizan los resultados de un trabajo de campo realizado entre gitanos españoles para incidir sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la Sociología y la Antropología aplicadas y el estudio de las relaciones étnicas. El primer aspecto cuestionable es determinar si el investigador tiene el derecho de ser crítico acerca de la cultura y orden social propio a la vez que intenta mantenerse ajeno a las culturas ajenas. La tarea del científico de ciencias sociales aplicadas es la de ser intérprete entre las culturas minoritarias y mayoritarias. También ha de ser el informante y el interlocutor crítico entre la gente estudiada y aquéllos que tienen la responsabilidad de dirigir su propio cambio. Su propósito es el de obtener resultados a largo plazo, que sean globales, no parciales ni descontextualizados, y que estén basados en las minorías y no en intereses externos. Esto le sitúa en conflicto con los políticos y administradores, comprometidos casi siempre con resultados a corto plazo en contextos políticos muy concretos.

  18. Suppression of microRNA-125a-5p upregulates the TAZ-EGFR signaling pathway and promotes retinoblastoma proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Xue, Chunyan; Zhu, Xiaomin; Zhu, Xinyue; Xian, Hongyu; Huang, Zhenping

    2016-08-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy that occurs during childhood; however, the mechanism underlying retinoblastoma proliferation and progression remains unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the regulation of a myriad of biological processes in various types of cancer. In this study, we performed microarray analysis followed by qRT-PCR using four classes of retinoblastoma tissues with increasing cTNM classification stages to identify crucial miRNAs whose expression was correlated with retinoblastoma progression. miR-125a-5p was downregulated, and its expression levels were inversely correlated with cell proliferation in retinoblastoma compared with adjacent non-tumor retinal tissues. The overexpression of miR-125a-5p significantly suppressed cell proliferation and tumor formation in retinoblastoma. We further identified the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) as a direct target of miR-125a-5p. Importantly, TAZ levels were inversely correlated with miRNA-125a-5p expression, and TAZ promoted retinoblastoma cell proliferation. Moreover, the overexpression of miR-125a-5p led to a decrease in TAZ expression and downstream EGFR signaling pathway activation both in vitro and vivo. Finally, TAZ overexpression in retinoblastoma cells overexpressing miR-125a-5p restored retinoblastoma cell proliferation and EGFR pathway activation. Taken together, our data demonstrated that miR-125a-5p functions as an important tumor suppressor that suppresses the EGFR pathway by targeting TAZ to inhibit tumor progression in retinoblastoma. Thus, the miR-125a-5p/TAZ/EGFR axis may be a potential therapeutic target for retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Colorimetric and longitudinal analysis of leukocoria in recreational photographs of children with retinoblastoma.

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    Alireza Abdolvahabi

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in children. The first sign that is often reported by parents is the appearance of recurrent leukocoria (i.e., "white eye" in recreational photographs. A quantitative definition or scale of leukocoria--as it appears during recreational photography--has not been established, and the amount of clinical information contained in a leukocoric image (collected by a parent remains unknown. Moreover, the hypothesis that photographic leukocoria can be a sign of early stage retinoblastoma has not been tested for even a single patient. This study used commercially available software (Adobe Photoshop® and standard color space conversion algorithms (operable in Microsoft Excel® to quantify leukocoria in actual "baby pictures" of 9 children with retinoblastoma (that were collected by parents during recreational activities i.e., in nonclinical settings. One particular patient with bilateral retinoblastoma ("Patient Zero" was photographed >7, 000 times by his parents (who are authors of this study over three years: from birth, through diagnosis, treatment, and remission. This large set of photographs allowed us to determine the longitudinal and lateral frequency of leukocoria throughout the patient's life. This study establishes: (i that leukocoria can emerge at a low frequency in early-stage retinoblastoma and increase in frequency during disease progression, but decrease upon disease regression, (ii that Hue, Saturation and Value (i.e., HSV color space are suitable metrics for quantifying the intensity of retinoblastoma-linked leukocoria; (iii that different sets of intraocular retinoblastoma tumors can produce distinct leukocoric reflections; and (iv the Saturation-Value plane of HSV color space represents a convenient scale for quantifying and classifying pupillary reflections as they appear during recreational photography.

  20. Schedule-Dependent Antiangiogenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Chemotherapy on Vascular Endothelial and Retinoblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Ursula; Mena, Hebe A; Negrotto, Soledad; Arana, Eloisa; Pascual-Pasto, Guillem; Laurent, Viviana; Suñol, Mariona; Chantada, Guillermo L; Carcaboso, Angel M; Schaiquevich, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of retinoblastoma involves using the maximum dose of chemotherapy that induces tumor control and is tolerated by patients. The impact of dose and schedule on the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy has not been studied. Our aim was to gain insight into the cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effect of the treatment scheme of chemotherapy used in retinoblastoma by means of different in vitro models and to evaluate potential effects on multi-drug resistance proteins. Two commercial and two patient-derived retinoblastoma cell types and two human vascular endothelial cell types were exposed to increasing concentrations of melphalan or topotecan in a conventional (single exposure) or metronomic (7-day continuous exposure) treatment scheme. The concentration of chemotherapy causing a 50% decrease in cell proliferation (IC50) was determined by MTT and induction of apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Expression of ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1 after conventional or metronomic treatments was assessed by RT-qPCR. We also evaluated the in vivo response to conventional (0.6 mg/kg once a week for 2 weeks) and metronomic (5 days a week for 2 weeks) topotecan in a retinoblastoma xenograft model. Melphalan and topotecan were cytotoxic to both retinoblastoma and endothelial cells after conventional and metronomic treatments. A significant decrease in the IC50 (median, 13-fold; range: 3-23) was observed following metronomic chemotherapy treatment in retinoblastoma and endothelial cell types compared to conventional treatment (p0.05). In mice, continuous topotecan lead to significantly lower tumor volumes compared to conventional treatment after 14 days of treatment (pretinoblastoma and endothelial cells to both chemotherapy agents with lower IC50 values compared to short-term treatment. These findings were validated in an in vivo model. None of the dosing modalities induced multidrug resistance mechanisms while apoptosis was the mechanism of cell death after both treatment

  1. Expression of FOXO3a and Correlation With Histopathologic Features in Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Atul; Kashyap, Seema; Singh, Lata; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2017-02-01

    Forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors are a class of highly conserved proteins, which serve critical cellular functions including cell cycle regulation. The downstream mechanisms of cell cycle regulation involve preservation of retinoblastoma protein function. Its deactivation by phosphorylation and translocation from nucleus to cytoplasm leads to cell proliferation. FOXO3a has been found to be dysregulated in few cancers. However, no study has been reported on role of FOXO3a in retinoblastoma. We assessed the expression of FOXO3a in sections of archived tissue blocks of enucleated/exenterated specimens of retinoblastoma by immunohistochemistry. The histopathologic features were reviewed and correlated with its expression. Effect of FOXO3a expression on survival was assessed. FOXO3a expression was assessed in 100 sections. Six samples did not contain any viable tissue. Retrospective data of 94 patients revealed that median age at presentation was 36 months with male:female ratio of 1.9:1. Fifty-one percent of patients were International Retinoblastoma Staging System stage 1. Of the 94 sections, 68 (72%) showed cytoplasmic expression. Choroidal invasion was associated with cytoplasmic FOXO3a (P=0.04). A trend was also noted in optic nerve cut end involvement (P=0.07). No other histopathologic features were found to be associated with FOXO3a expression. The overall survival and progression-free survival were not found to be affected by FOXO3a expression. Cytoplasmic expression of FOXO3a is frequently found in retinoblastoma and may be involved in pathogenesis. Activation by relocation of FOXO3a to nucleus may activate nonmutated retinoblastoma and may be a potential target of treatment in retinoblastoma.

  2. Retinoblastoma. Fifty Years of Progress. The LXXI Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To review the progress made in understanding the genetic basis, molecular pathology, and treatment of retinoblastoma since the previous Jackson lecture on the topic was published 50 years ago. Design Perspective based on personal experience and the literature. Methods The literature regarding retinoblastoma was reviewed since 1963. Advances in understanding the biology and treatment of retinoblastoma provided context through the author’s clinical, pathological and research experiences. Results Retinoblastoma was first identified in the 1500s and defined as a unique clinicopathologic entity in 1809. Until the mid-1900s, knowledge advanced sporadically, with technological developments of ophthalmoscopy and light microscopy, and with the introduction of surgical enucleation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. During the last 50 years, research and treatment have progressed at an unprecedented rate due to innovations in molecular biology and the development of targeted therapies. During this time period, the retinoblastoma gene was discovered; techniques for genetic testing for retinoblastoma were developed; and plaque brachytherapy, chemoreduction, intraarterial chemotherapy, and intraocular injections of chemotherapeutic agents were successfully introduced. Conclusions Nearly all patients with retinoblastoma in developed countries can now be cured of their primary cancer- a remarkable achievement for a childhood cancer that once was uniformly fatal. Much of this success is owed to deciphering the role of the Rb gene, and the benefits of targeted therapies, such as chemoreduction with consolidation as well as intra-arterial and intravitreal chemotherapies. Going forward, the main challenge will be ensuring that access to care is available for all children, particularly those in developing countries. PMID:25065496

  3. Presenting signs of retinoblastoma at a tertiary level teaching hospital in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifa, Jemal Zeberga; Gezmu, Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2017-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a primary malignant intraocular neoplasm that arise from immature retinoblasts with in developing retina. The commonest presenting sign in developing country is proptosis which is the late presenting sign. We report presenting signs of retinoblastoma in Ethiopian children seen at a tertiary level teaching hospitals in Ethiopia. Prospective case series study was done on children who presented with retinoblastoma between May 1, 2005 and September 1, 2006. This study was done as part of requirement for partial fulfilment of certificate of specialty study in ophthalmology during the year 2005 to 2006. SPSS 11 statistical package was used to analyse the data. Among 41 patients seen during the study period, 24 (58.5%) were males and 17(41%) were females. Unilateral retinoblastoma was found in 32 (78%) patients and bilateral cases were found in 9(22%). Mean age of onset for right eye was 27.5 months and left eye 33.7 months. The mean ages of presentation at time of diagnosis for right and left eye were 34.4 and 40.2 months, respectively .In bilateral retinoblastoma mean age of presentation was 33.3 months. The commonest presenting sign was proptosis 22(53.7%) followed by leucocorea nine (22%),ocular inflammation four (9.0 %), strabismus three (7.3%), glaucoma one (2.4%), loss of vision one (2.4%)and hyphemaone (2.4%). The commonest presenting signs of retinoblastoma in our set up were Proptosis followed by leucocorea. This is due to late presentation of patient and late referral by medical professionals. Health education to the public and health professionals will help early detection of retinoblastoma.

  4. Tecnologías actuales aplicadas al desarrollo urbano sustentable Tecnologías actuales aplicadas al desarrollo urbano sustentable

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    Aldemar Garduño Hernández

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of information about new environmental technologies applied to urban development activities is organized and systematized. These technologies are justa portion of all technologies that can be applied to the development of cities, therefore, this paper is a presentation of the state of the art of new technologies being applied to sustainable urban development, which are mainly processes, precision tools, simulators, equipment, materials, and software and hardware, which facilitate the work of urban designers, architects and construction companies. El presente trabajo es un artículo de revisión en donde se organiza información de manera sistematizada sobre tecnologías ambientales aplicadas a cada una de las tareas y actividades que se realizan en la planeación y desarrollo urbano de las ciudades. Estas tecnologías son una parte actualizada de todas las tecnologías que se pueden aplicar, por tanto es un estado del arte de las nuevas tecnologías aplicadas al desarrollo urbano sustentable, que en su mayoría son procesos, instrumentos de medición, simuladores, equipo, materiales, software y hardware que son de gran ayuda a urbanistas, diseñadores, arquitectos, y promotores del urbanismo en las ciudades.

  5. Información sobre las secuelas y futuros riesgos para los sobrevivientes de retinoblastoma Information on late effects and future risks for retinoblastoma survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schwartz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de sobrevida de los pacientes con cáncer en la infancia han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Se observan secuelas como consecuencia de esta enfermedad y su tratamiento. Los sobrevivientes de retinoblastoma presentan efectos adversos como consecuencia de la cirugía, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia. Las formas bilaterales irradiadas presentan un riesgo aumentado de desarrollar un segundo cáncer. Tanto los casos que presentaron retinoblastoma unilateral o bilateral pueden transmitir esta enfermedad a su descendencia. El diagnóstico de este tumor es excepcional después de los 4 años de edad y no se sabe claramente qué conocimiento tienen estos sobrevivientes del diagnóstico, del tratamiento y de los futuros riesgos. El consentimiento informado y el posterior resumen de historia clínica no aclaran demasiado a los padres. Los pacientes curados de retinoblastoma se verían beneficiados con un seguimiento prolongado en las instituciones en que fueron tratados, ya que les permitiría recibir información acerca de lo padecido, del tratamiento, de los riesgos y se podrían identificar las consecuencias posteriores de la enfermedad y su tratamiento.The survival rates of childhood cancer have increased in the past few decades. Late consequences related to the cancer and the treatment are observed. The late effects in retinoblastoma survivors are related to the surgery, the radiotherapy and the chemotherapy. Patients with irradiated bilateral retinoblastoma are at high risk to develop a second cancer. Survivors of bilateral or unilateral forms could transmit this disease to their offspring. The diagnosis of retinoblastoma is exceptional after 4 years of age, and it is not clear whether these survivors have knowledge of their diagnosis, treatment and future risks. The informed consent and the summary of the clinical histories do not help to clarify the situation. It will be of great benefit for the patients cured of retinoblastoma

  6. Loss of photoreceptorness and gain of genomic alterations in retinoblastoma reveal tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Irsan E.; Mol, Berber M.; Moll, Annette C.; van der Valk, Paul; de Jong, Marcus C.; de Graaf, Pim; van Mil, Saskia E.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Kaspers, Gertjan L.; te Riele, Hein; Cloos, Jacqueline; Dorsman, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is a pediatric eye cancer associated with RB1 loss or MYCN amplification (RB1+/+MYCNA). There are controversies concerning the existence of molecular subtypes within RB1−/− retinoblastoma. To test whether these molecular subtypes exist, we performed molecular profiling. Methods Genome-wide mRNA expression profiling was performed on 76 primary human retinoblastomas. Expression profiling was complemented by genome-wide DNA profiling and clinical, histopathological, and ex vivo drug sensitivity data. Findings RNA and DNA profiling identified major variability between retinoblastomas. While gene expression differences between RB1+/+MYCNA and RB1−/− tumors seemed more dichotomous, differences within the RB1−/− tumors were gradual. Tumors with high expression of a photoreceptor gene signature were highly differentiated, smaller in volume and diagnosed at younger age compared with tumors with low photoreceptor signature expression. Tumors with lower photoreceptor expression showed increased expression of genes involved in M-phase and mRNA and ribosome synthesis and increased frequencies of somatic copy number alterations. Interpretation Molecular, clinical and histopathological differences between RB1−/− tumors are best explained by tumor progression, reflected by a gradual loss of differentiation and photoreceptor expression signature. Since copy number alterations were more frequent in tumors with less photoreceptorness, genomic alterations might be drivers of tumor progression. Research in context Retinoblastoma is an ocular childhood cancer commonly caused by mutations in the RB1 gene. In order to determine optimal treatment, tumor subtyping is considered critically important. However, except for very rare retinoblastomas without an RB1 mutation, there are controversies as to whether subtypes of retinoblastoma do exist. Our study shows that retinoblastomas are highly diverse but rather than reflecting distinct tumor types with

  7. MiR-613 suppresses retinoblastoma cell proliferation, invasion, and tumor formation by targeting E2F5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Zhu, Xinyue; Zhu, Xiaomin; Wu, Yan; Liu, Yajun; Yao, Borui; Huang, Zhenping

    2017-03-01

    Retinoblastoma is a common intraocular malignancy that occurs during childhood. MicroRNAs play critical roles in the regulation of retinoblastoma initiation and progression, and aberrant expression of miR-613 had been reported in various types of cancer. However, the role and mechanism of its function in retinoblastoma are still unclear. In this study, we found that miR-613 was downregulated in retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-613 suppressed retinoblastoma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced cell cycle arrest in vitro. Additionally, overexpressed miR-613 also inhibited tumor formation of retinoblastoma cells in vivo. We further identified E2F5 as a direct target of miR-613. Reintroduction of E2F5 without 3'-untranslated region reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-613 on cell proliferation and invasion. Our data collectively indicate that miR-613 functions as a tumor suppressor in retinoblastoma through downregulating E2F5, supporting the targeting of the novel miR-613/E2F5 axis as a potentially effective therapeutic approach for retinoblastoma.

  8. Forced Trefoil Factor Family Peptide 3 (TFF3) Expression Reduces Growth, Viability, and Tumorigenicity of Human Retinoblastoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Große-Kreul, Jan; Busch, Maike; Winter, Claudia; Pikos, Stefanie; Stephan, Harald; Dünker, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides have been shown to effect cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of normal cells and various cancer cell lines. In the literature TFF peptides are controversially discussed as tumor suppressors and potential tumor progression factors. In the study presented, we investigated the effect of TFF3 overexpression on growth, viability, migration and tumorigenicity of the human retinoblastoma cell lines Y-79, WERI-Rb1, RBL-13 and RBL-15. As revealed by WST-1 and TUNEL assays as well as DAPI and BrdU cell counts, recombinant human TFF3 significantly lowers retinoblastoma cell viability and increases apoptosis levels. Transient TFF3 overexpression likewise significantly increases RB cell apoptosis. Stable, lentiviral TFF3 overexpression lowers retinoblastoma cell viability, proliferation and growth and significantly increases cell death in retinoblastoma cells. Blockage experiments using a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor and capase-3 immunocytochemistry revealed the involvement of caspases in general and of caspase-3 in particular in TFF3 induced apoptosis in retinoblastoma cell lines. Soft agarose and in ovo chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays revealed that TFF3 overexpression influences anchorage independent growth and significantly decreases the size of tumors forming from retinoblastoma cells. Our study demonstrates that forced TFF3 expression exerts a significant pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and tumor suppressive effect in retinoblastoma cells, setting a starting point for new additive chemotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of retinoblastoma.

  9. Sistema experto de ergonomía aplicada

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Mora Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    Son muchos los países que están utilizando las modernas tecnologías de la información aplicadas a la educación. Este fenómeno es parte de la nueva revolución industrial o era de la información que está afectando a casi todas las actividades humanas. La investigación, diseño e implementación de tecnologías que suplan las carencias de recursos económicos para la adquisición de laboratorios que cuenten con todo lo necesario para la realización de prácticas que reafirme...

  10. Psychosocial factors influencing parental decision to allow or refuse potentially lifesaving enucleation in children with retinoblastoma

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    Rolando Enrique D. Domingo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinoblastoma is the most common malignancy of the eye and ocular adnexa in the Philippines. It is curable when treated early, but delay in enucleation is common due to the parental refusal of surgery for varied reasons. The aim of this study is to identify the psychosocial barriers and facilitating factors for accepting versus refusing enucleation as treatment for retinoblastoma. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing structured interviews and a questionnaire. It was conducted at the Retinoblastoma Clinic of the Philippine General Hospital. A questionnaire using the Likert scale was constructed after performing key informant interviews and focus group discussions. It was pretested and revised before parents of patients with retinoblastoma were invited to participate in the study. Descriptive statistics, quantitative item analyses using inter-item correlations and item-total correlations was performed. Results: Factors that correlate with refusal to enucleate are the beliefs that cancer is a fatal illness, the fear of unacceptable esthetic outcome of the surgery, and the cost of treatment. Favorable factors include value of life, high regard for the opinion of medical practitioners, and appreciation of the efficacy of treatment. Conclusions: There are several favorable factors and barriers that health practitioners must consider in facilitating parental decision-making toward enucleation for retinoblastoma.

  11. Participation in an occupational therapy referral program for children with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Jessica; Brennan, Rachel; Mao, Shenghua; Ness, Kirsten K; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Wilson, Matthew; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim

    2016-05-31

    Because retinoblastoma typically arises at a very young age, children are particularly vulnerable to vision impairment, associated developmental delays, and functional limitations. Limited information is available describing developmental delay and functional limitations in this population, necessitating supportive services including rehabilitation. The aims of this study were to describe the participation of children with newly diagnosed retinoblastoma in an occupational therapy program that identifies children in need of rehabilitation services. We also identify indications for referral to rehabilitation services among children with newly diagnosed retinoblastoma and enumerate the likelihood of these children receiving the recommended services. Twenty-two children participated in longitudinal occupational therapy assessments during the first year after diagnosis. We recommended 1 or more types of rehabilitation services for 16 of 22 (72.7%) participants. Twelve of 16 (75%) received services. The results of this pilot study indicate that implementing a prospective occupational therapy-screening program is feasible and results in identification and initiation of therapy services in some children with retinoblastoma. Developmental screenings and follow-up of children with retinoblastoma is strongly recommended.

  12. Outcome of intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma and its influencing factors: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miaojuan; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Jing; Shen, Gang; Jiang, Yizhou; Li, Haibo; Liu, Zhenyin

    2017-09-01

    Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) has become an essential technique for the treatment of advanced and relapsed intra-ocular retinoblastoma. The outcome of IAC for retinoblastoma is influenced by a variety of medical and non-medical factors. In this study, we aimed to examine the outcome of IAC and determine the factors influencing clinical outcome. A total of 107 eyes of 73 patients with retinoblastoma undergoing IAC between January 2011 and April 2013 were retrospectively reviewed for clinical outcomes. The factors influencing clinical outcomes were determined using univariate and multivariate analyses. After IAC, an overall globe salvage rate of 78.5% was observed during follow-up periods. Specifically, globe salvage was achieved in Group B (100%), Group C (100%), Group D (78.6%), and Group E (62%). Short-term ocular adverse events included eyelid oedema (14%), bulbar conjunctiva congestion (29.9%) and excessive tearing (9.3%). Long-term complications included vitreous haemorrhage (8.4%), subretinal haemorrhage (9.3%), retinal vasculopathy (7.5%) and ophthalmic artery spasm with reperfusion (4.7%). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the globe salvage of IAC was significantly associated with tumour staging and previous treatment (p retinoblastoma. Patients with advanced retinoblastoma and previous failed treatment may have a poor outcome after IAC. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Favorable outcome of alternate systemic and intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Seung Min; Kim, Hyo Sun; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Sung Chul; Lyu, Chuhl Joo; Han, Jung Woo

    2016-02-01

    The recent trend of treatment for retinoblastoma is to salvage the eye globes as well as achieving patients' survival. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) is one of the current standard treatment; however, it cannot exclude the risk of occult micrometastases in the central nervous system in advanced-stage retinoblastoma. Alternate fashion of intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) and IAC strategy was developed to increase the eye salvage rate and to reduce the metastatic risk. Between January 2012 and December 2014, 13 eyes of 12 patients with newly diagnosed retinoblastoma received alternate chemotherapy using IVC and IAC in Yonsei Cancer Center. Eye salvage rate was assessed by the eye preservation time, which was defined as the duration from the diagnosis to the time of enucleation. Total 13 eyes were classified according to the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) as group B (n = 1, 7.7%), group C (n = 2, 15.4%), group D (n = 5, 38.5%), or group E (n = 5, 38.5%). IAC was performed, 3 to 5 times (median: 4 times) for each eye, total 54 times. Five to 15 courses (median: 8 courses) of systemic chemotherapy were performed in the patients. During the median follow-up period of 30.4 months, overall eye salvage rate was 63.9 ± 14.7%. All patients survived. The treatment was tolerable without significant complications. These results showed that primary alternate IVC-IAC was tolerable and effective for retinoblastoma.

  14. Somatic genomic alterations in retinoblastoma beyond RB1 are rare and limited to copy number changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Irsan E.; Mol, Berber M.; Massink, Maarten P. G.; Ameziane, Najim; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Dommering, Charlotte J.; van Mil, Saskia E.; de Vries, Yne; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Moll, Annette C.; te Riele, Hein; Cloos, Jacqueline; Dorsman, Josephine C.

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare childhood cancer initiated by RB1 mutation or MYCN amplification, while additional alterations may be required for tumor development. However, the view on single nucleotide variants is very limited. To better understand oncogenesis, we determined the genomic landscape of retinoblastoma. We performed exome sequencing of 71 retinoblastomas and matched blood DNA. Next, we determined the presence of single nucleotide variants, copy number alterations and viruses. Aside from RB1, recurrent gene mutations were very rare. Only a limited fraction of tumors showed BCOR (7/71, 10%) or CREBBP alterations (3/71, 4%). No evidence was found for the presence of viruses. Instead, specific somatic copy number alterations were more common, particularly in patients diagnosed at later age. Recurrent alterations of chromosomal arms often involved less than one copy, also in highly pure tumor samples, suggesting within-tumor heterogeneity. Our results show that retinoblastoma is among the least mutated cancers and signify the extreme sensitivity of the childhood retina for RB1 loss. We hypothesize that retinoblastomas arising later in retinal development benefit more from subclonal secondary alterations and therefore, these alterations are more selected for in these tumors. Targeted therapy based on these subclonal events might be insufficient for complete tumor control. PMID:27126562

  15. Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for less advanced intraocular retinoblastoma: five year review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC for retinoblastoma was introduced by us 5 years ago for advanced intraocular retinoblastoma. Because the success was higher than with existing alternatives and systemic side effects limited we have now treated less advanced intraocular retinoblastoma (Reese-Ellsworth (RE I-III and International Classification Retinoblastoma (ICRB B and C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Retrospective review of 5 year experience in eyes with Reese Ellsworth (Table 1 I (7 eyes, II (6 eyes or III (6 eyes and/or International Classification (Table 2 B (19 eyes and C (11 eyes treated with OAC (melphalan with or without topotecan introduced directly into the ophthalmic artery. Patient survival was 100%. Ocular event-free survival was 100% for Reese-Ellsworth Groups I, II and III (and 96% for ICRB B and C at a median of 16 months follow-up. One ICRB Group C (Reese-Ellsworth Vb eye could not be treated on the second attempt for technical reasons and was therefore enucleated. No patient required a port and only one patient required transfusion of blood products. The electroretinogram (ERG was unchanged or improved in 14/19 eyes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ophthalmic artery chemosurgery for retinoblastoma that was Reese-Ellsworth I, II and III (or International Classification B or C was associated with high success (100% of treatable eyes were retained and limited toxicity with results that equal or exceed conventional therapy with less toxicity.

  16. Non-selectivity of ERG reductions in eyes treated for retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Catherine Y; Jonna, Gowtham; Francis, Jasmine H; Marr, Brian P; Abramson, David H; Brodie, Scott E

    2014-02-01

    We have monitored retinal function in patients treated for retinoblastoma (primarily, but not exclusively by intra-arterial chemotherapy infusion) by electroretinography (ERG) recordings for the past 7 years. We here present data from 599 ERG studies of 108 patients, in which a complete ERG protocol including both photopic and scotopic recordings was performed, in justification of our frequent practice of reporting primarily 30-Hz photopic flicker amplitude data. Patients referred for treatment of retinoblastoma underwent ERG recordings during examination under anesthesia whenever possible: at baseline and following most treatment sessions. Correlations were calculated for the complete datasets between the four primary amplitude response parameters: photopic single flash b-wave, photopic 30-Hz flicker peak-to-trough, scotopic rod-isolating b-wave, and scotopic maximal flash b-wave. Using our adaptation of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision-recommended standard ERG protocol, ERG responses of eyes of patients with untreated retinoblastoma or following traditional or intra-arterial treatment for retinoblastoma show very high correlations between 30-Hz flicker amplitude responses and three other standard photopic and scotopic ERG response amplitudes. Reductions in ERG amplitudes seen in these eyes following treatment show no significant difference between retinal dysfunction estimated using rod- or cone-dominated responses. These observations support the use of photopic response amplitudes (especially in response to 30-Hz flicker) as the primary ERG outcome measure in studies of treated and untreated eyes with retinoblastoma when more complete ERG protocols may be impractical.

  17. Eficiência de isca formicida aplicada sobre o monte de terra solta de ninhos de Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanetti Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a eficiência de uma isca granulada à base de sulfluramida (0,3% aplicada em olheiros situados sobre o monte de terra solta, em comparação com o sistema convencional de aplicação nos olheiros fora desses montes, no combate a Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação de uma isca granulada à base de sulfluramida (0,3%, a 8 g/m² do formigueiro aparente, em olheiros situados sobre ou fora do monte de terra solta. Foram utilizados 192 formigueiros de A. sexdens rubropilosa, distribuídos nesses dois tratamentos. Foram avaliadas a porcentagem de carregamento e de devolução dessa isca, aos dois dias após sua aplicação, e a eficiência do combate, aos 150 dias após, por sondagem (uma a cada metro quadrado de fomigueiro. A porcentagem de carregamento da isca granulada foi maior quando aplicada fora do monte de terra solta (100,00% do que sobre ele (89,58%, porém a eficiência de controle foi semelhante, com 89,58% para o primeiro e 90,27% para o segundo tratamento, respectivamente. Por isto, em razão do menor custo e facilidade, recomenda-se aplicar esta isca sobre os montes de terra solta de formigueiros de A. sexdens rubropilosa.

  18. Analysis of MDM2 and MDM4 single nucleotide polymorphisms, mRNA splicing and protein expression in retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina McEvoy

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the developing retina that begins in utero and is diagnosed in the first years of life. Biallelic RB1 gene inactivation is the initiating genetic lesion in retinoblastoma. The p53 gene is intact in human retinoblastoma but the pathway is believed to be suppressed by increased expression of MDM4 (MDMX and MDM2. Here we quantify the expression of MDM4 and MDM2 mRNA and protein in human fetal retinae, primary retinoblastomas, retinoblastoma cell lines and several independent orthotopic retinoblastoma xenografts. We found that MDM4 is the major p53 antagonist expressed in retinoblastoma and in the developing human retina. We also discovered that MDM4 protein steady state levels are much higher in retinoblastoma than in human fetal retinae. This increase would not have been predicted based on the mRNA levels. We explored several possible post-transcriptional mechanisms that may contribute to the elevated levels of MDM4 protein. A proportion of MDM4 transcripts are alternatively spliced to produce protein products that are reported to be more stable and oncogenic. We also discovered that a microRNA predicted to target MDM4 (miR191 was downregulated in retinoblastoma relative to human fetal retinae and a subset of samples had somatic mutations that eliminated the miR-191 binding site in the MDM4 mRNA. Taken together, these data suggest that post-transcriptional mechanisms may contribute to stabilization of the MDM4 protein in retinoblastoma.

  19. Analysis of MDM2 and MDM4 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, mRNA Splicing and Protein Expression in Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Justina; Ulyanov, Anatoly; Brennan, Rachel; Wu, Gang; Pounds, Stanley; Zhang, Jinghui; Dyer, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a childhood cancer of the developing retina that begins in utero and is diagnosed in the first years of life. Biallelic RB1 gene inactivation is the initiating genetic lesion in retinoblastoma. The p53 gene is intact in human retinoblastoma but the pathway is believed to be suppressed by increased expression of MDM4 (MDMX) and MDM2. Here we quantify the expression of MDM4 and MDM2 mRNA and protein in human fetal retinae, primary retinoblastomas, retinoblastoma cell lines and several independent orthotopic retinoblastoma xenografts. We found that MDM4 is the major p53 antagonist expressed in retinoblastoma and in the developing human retina. We also discovered that MDM4 protein steady state levels are much higher in retinoblastoma than in human fetal retinae. This increase would not have been predicted based on the mRNA levels. We explored several possible post-transcriptional mechanisms that may contribute to the elevated levels of MDM4 protein. A proportion of MDM4 transcripts are alternatively spliced to produce protein products that are reported to be more stable and oncogenic. We also discovered that a microRNA predicted to target MDM4 (miR191) was downregulated in retinoblastoma relative to human fetal retinae and a subset of samples had somatic mutations that eliminated the miR-191 binding site in the MDM4 mRNA. Taken together, these data suggest that post-transcriptional mechanisms may contribute to stabilization of the MDM4 protein in retinoblastoma. PMID:22916154

  20. Carta ao Editor

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Exmos. Senhores Editores-Chefe,Li com muito interesse o artigo de Sousa R e colaboradores, intitulado “Que fatores levam ao abandono de crianças do serviço de urgência antes da observação médica?”.

  1. Dosimetric intercomparison between protons and electrons therapies applied to retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Flavia Vieira

    2008-01-01

    In this work we propose a construction of a simple human eye model in order to simulate the dosimetric response for a treatment with protons and electrons in a retinoblastoma cancer. The computational tool used in this simulation was the Geant4 code, in the version 4.9.1, all these package are free and permit simulate the interaction of radiation with matter. In our simulation we use a box with 4 cm side, with water, for represent the human eye. The simulation was performed considering mono energetics beams of protons and electrons with energy range between 50 and 70 MeV for protons and 2 and 10 MeV for electrons. The simulation was based on the advanced hadron therapy example of the Geant 4 code. In these example the phantom is divided in voxels with 0.2 mm side and it is generated the energy deposited in each voxel. The simulation results show the energy deliver in each voxel, with these energie we can calculate the dose deposited in that region. We can see the dose profile of, proton and electron, and we can see in both cases that for protons the position of delivered dose is well know, that happen in the position where the proton stop, for electrons the energies is delivered along the way and pass the desired position for high dose deposition. (author)

  2. Retinoblastoma: Achieving new standards with methods of chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of retinoblastoma (RB has dramatically changed over the past two decades from previous radiotherapy methods to current chemotherapy strategies. RB is a remarkably chemotherapy-sensitive tumor. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first-line approach for children with this malignancy and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. The choice of route for chemotherapy administration depends upon the tumor laterality and tumor staging. Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC is used most often in bilateral cases, orbital RB, and as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk RB. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC is used in cases with group C or D RB and selected cases of group E tumor. Periocular chemotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment in eyes with group D and E RB and those with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy is reserved for eyes with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. In this review, we describe the various forms of chemotherapy used in the management of RB. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "RB," and "treatment," "chemotherapy," "systemic chemotherapy," "IVC," "IAC," "periocular chemotherapy," or "intravitreal chemotherapy." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  3. Cell density, negative proliferation control, and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmer, R M

    1993-04-01

    Cell density negative control (CDNC) of normal human fibroblast proliferation occurs after stimulation by mitogens with different signal transduction mechanism. Delayed exposure to agents that interfere with CDNC, such as double-stranded RNA and vanadate, reveals the existence of a biochemical event, involved in CDNC, that occurs 5-8 hr after the beginning of mitogenic stimulation. This is earlier than the point of "mitogenic commitment," defined by the duration of mitogen exposure required for cell cycle entry (8-18 hr). Phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma gene product (pRB) begins 8-10 hr after mitogen stimulation and is nearly complete at 18 hr, just as the first cells enter S-phase. CDNC prevents pRB phosphorylation. Interferon beta delays pRB phosphorylation by up to 20 hr but has little effect on the timing of mitogenic commitment. Thus mitogenic commitment is located in time between CDNC and pRB phosphorylation. When agents that cause a release from CDNC are applied to dense, negatively controlled cultures after 18 hr of EGF stimulation, pRB phosphorylation occurs 6-8 hr after release. This suggests that the negatively controlled cells process the mitogenic signal but accumulate at a restriction point. The relatively early timing of CDNC-related events in the prereplicative phase raises the possibility that pRB phosphorylation is a consequence rather than a prerequisite for release from cell density negative control.

  4. Targeting Survivin Enhances Chemosensitivity in Retinoblastoma Cells and Orthotopic Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ferrario

    Full Text Available Treatments for retinoblastoma (Rb vary depending on the size and location of the intraocular lesions and include chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We examined whether agents used to treat Rb induce a pro-survival phenotype associated with increased expression of survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of proteins. We document that exposure to carboplatin, topotecan or radiation resulted in elevated expression of survivin in two human Rb cell lines but not in normal retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE cells. Cellular levels of survivin were attenuated in Rb cells exposed to an imidazolium-based survivin suppressant, Sepantronium bromide (YM155. Protein expression patterns of survivin in RPE cells were not altered following treatment protocols involving exposure to YM155. Including YM155 with chemotherapy or radiation increased levels of apoptosis in Rb cells but not in RPE cells. Intraocular luciferase expressing Rb tumors were generated from the Rb cell lines and used to evaluate the effects of carboplatin and YM155 on in-vivo survivin expression and tumor growth. Carboplatin induced expression of survivin while carboplatin combined with YM155 reduced survivin expression in tumor bearing eyes. The combination protocol was also most effective in reducing the rate of tumor regrowth. These results indicate that targeted inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin provides a therapeutic advantage for Rb cells and tumors treated with chemotherapy.

  5. Expression and clinical significance of Pax6 gene in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Dong Huang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the expression and clinical significance of Pax6 gene in retinoblastoma(Rb. METHODS: Totally 15 cases of fresh Rb organizations were selected as observation group and 15 normal retinal organizations as control group. Western-Blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCRmethods were used to detect Pax6 protein and Pax6 mRNA expressions of the normal retina organizations and Rb organizations. At the same time, Western Blot method was used to detect the Pax6 gene downstream MATH5 and BRN3b differentiation gene protein level expression. After the comparison between two groups, the expression and clinical significance of Pax6 gene in Rb were discussed. RESULTS: In the observation group, average value of mRNA expression of Pax6 gene was 0.99±0.03; average value of Pax6 gene protein expression was 2.07±0.15; average value of BRN3b protein expression was 0.195±0.016; average value of MATH5 protein expression was 0.190±0.031. They were significantly higher than the control group, and the differences were statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: Abnormal expression of Pax6 gene is likely to accelerate the occurrence of Rb.

  6. Retinoblastoma: Achieving new standards with methods of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    The management of retinoblastoma (RB) has dramatically changed over the past two decades from previous radiotherapy methods to current chemotherapy strategies. RB is a remarkably chemotherapy-sensitive tumor. Chemotherapy is currently used as a first-line approach for children with this malignancy and can be delivered by intravenous, intra-arterial, periocular, and intravitreal routes. The choice of route for chemotherapy administration depends upon the tumor laterality and tumor staging. Intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) is used most often in bilateral cases, orbital RB, and as an adjuvant treatment in high-risk RB. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) is used in cases with group C or D RB and selected cases of group E tumor. Periocular chemotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment in eyes with group D and E RB and those with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy is reserved for eyes with persistent/recurrent vitreous seeds. In this review, we describe the various forms of chemotherapy used in the management of RB. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms “RB,” and “treatment,” “chemotherapy,” “systemic chemotherapy,” “IVC,” “IAC,” “periocular chemotherapy,” or “intravitreal chemotherapy.” Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately. PMID:25827539

  7. The genetic alteration of retinoblastoma gene in esophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Il; Shim, Yung Mok; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    Retinoblastoma(RB) gene is the prototype of tumor suppressor gene and it`s alteration have been frequently observed in a large number of human tumors. To investigate the role of RB in esophageal cancer, we studied 36 esophageal cancer tissues with Southern blot analysis to detect gross LOH and PCR-SSCP method to find minute LOH and mutation, if any. In the cases with abnormalities, the nucleotide sequence analysis was performed. Allelic loss of chromosome 13q14 occurred in 20 out of 32 informative cases (62.5%) by Southern analysis. Furthermore, PCR-LOH added three positive cases. Mobility shift by PCR-SSCP was observed in one case at exon 22, which showed 1 bp deletion in codon 771 of RB gene resulting in frame shift mutation. Besides, nine PCR-band alteration in tumor tissue compared with normal tissue were observed in exon 14 and 22, but mutation was not found on sequencing analysis suggesting the epigenetic alteration in tumor tissue. Analysis of the clinical data did not show any difference depending upon RB alteration. However, the total incidence of RB gene may play an important role in the development of esophageal cancer. The main genetic alteration of RB gene was deletion detected by Southern blot and one bp deletion leading to frame shift was also observed. 8 figs, 5 tabs. (Author).

  8. Repair and replication of DNA in hereditary (bilateral) retinoblastoma cells after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Char, D.; Charles, W.C.; Rand, N.

    1982-04-01

    Fibroblasts from patients with hereditary retinoblastoma reportedly exhibit increased sensitivity to killing by X-rays. Although some human syndromes with similar or greater hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents (e.g., X-rays, ultraviolet light, and chemical carcinogens), such as xeroderma pigmentosum, are deficient in DNA repair, most do not have such clearly demonstrable defects in repair. Retinoblastoma cells appear to be normal in repairing single-strand breaks and performing repair replication after X-irradiation and also in synthesizing poly(adenosine diphosphoribose). Semiconservative DNA replication in these cells, however, is slightly more resistant than normal after X-irradiation, suggesting that continued replication of damaged parental DNA could contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. This effect is small, however, and may be a consequence rather than a cause of the fundamental enzymatic abnormality in retinoblastoma that causes the tumorigenesis.

  9. Ultraviolet light and mitomycin C induced sister-chromatid exchanges in fibroblasts from patients with retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, T.; Lin, M.S.; Wilson, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet light and mitomycin C (MMC) induced siter-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were investigated in 6 diploid fibroblast strains derived from 3 patients with deletion 13 and retinoblastoma, one patient with a hereditary form of retinoblastoma, one patient with trisomy 13, and one normal control. Two fibroblast strains with del(13)(q14q22) showed a significant increase in SCEs compared to the control after UV and MMC treatments. In contrast, cell strains with del(13)(q12q14) and trisomy 13 did not show increased SCEs. The frequency of SCEs in fibroblasts from a patient with autosomal dominant retinoblastomas (no deletions) was significantly increased by UV, but not by MMC. The results suggest that cell strains with different deletions of chromosome 13 have different SCE responses to UV and MMC inductions. The cells with del(13)(q14q22) may have a DNA-repair defect. (orig.)

  10. Extra-ocular retinoblastoma: about 12 cases followed at the Mohamed VI university hospital of Marrakech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leila, Soltani; Ibtissam, Hajji; Hafsa, Essafi; Abdeljalil, Moutaouakil

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most frequent childhood intraocular tumor. The aim of our study is to evaluate the clinical features and management of extra-ocular retinoblastoma in the Mohamed VI university hospital of Marrakech. Retrospective case series, the patient's records were reviewed for patient and tumor features, ocular management, histopathological findings, and patient survival. Over a period of three years, 35 eyes were diagnosed with retinoblastoma; 12 children (16 eyes) (46%) had extra-ocular retinoblastoma. Mean age was 27 months, 60% were males. Six cases had unilateral tumor, five bilateral and one case of trilateral retinoblastoma. There was no positive family history, proptosis was the mean mode of presentation (41,6%) followed by staphyloma (25%) orbital cellulitis (25%) and hyphema(8,3%). The median lag period was 18 months. On imaging and histopathological analysis, there was extrascleral involvement in 41.6%, involvement of orbital part of optic nerve (75%), of orbital muscles (50%) and eyelids in 16.6%. the surgical treatment included according to the degree of extension enucleation (75%) or exenteration (25%) associated to chemotherapy in all cases and one case of external beam radiation. There were 2 cases of orbital recurrence, one death and no metastases at 30 months follow-up.Orbital retinoblastoma still stands as a tall challenge requiring multi-modal and multi-disciplinary approach. Although the survival has increased over the last few years, lack of access to medical facilities, lack of education about the need for early medical attention and cultural resistance to enucleation continue to contribute to an epidemic of extra ocular disease at diagnosis in the developing world.

  11. A population-based study of retinoblastoma incidence and survival in Argentine children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Florencia; Sinaki, Banafsheh; Fandiño, Adriana; Dussel, Verónica; Orellana, Liliana; Chantada, Guillermo

    2014-09-01

    An increased incidence of retinoblastoma in some developing countries has been reported but no conclusive data are available from population-based studies at national level. To report the incidence and survival of retinoblastoma in Argentina from the National Pediatric Cancer Registry (ROHA) and the influence of socio-economical indicators on outcome. Cases reported to the ROHA (2000-2009) were analyzed. Incidence rates were calculated using National Vital Statistics and survival was estimated. The extended human development index (EHDI) was used as a socio-economical indicator. With 438 patients reported, an incidence of 5.0 cases per million children 0-14 years old (95% CI 3.5-6.4) was calculated. Median age at diagnosis was significantly higher for children from provinces with lower EHDI; (24 vs. 35 months for unilateral, (P = 0.003) and 9 versus 11.5 months for bilateral retinoblastoma (P = 0.027). The 3-year probability of survival was 0.87 and 0.94 for unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma, respectively. Residents in provinces with higher EHDI had a better 3-year survival (0.93 vs. 0.77 for lower EHDI, P < 0.0001). Probability of survival was higher for patients treated at tertiary level institutions (P = 0.0015). The combination of low EHDI residence province with no treatment at a tertiary institution was associated with the worst survival outcome. For both, unilateral and bilateral disease, children who died were in average diagnosed at older age. The incidence of retinoblastoma in Argentina is comparable to that of developed countries. Retinoblastoma is diagnosed later and survival is lower in the less developed areas of the country. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Phosphorylation of pRb: mechanism for RB pathway inactivation in MYCN-amplified retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewens, Kathryn G; Bhatti, Tricia R; Moran, Kimberly A; Richards-Yutz, Jennifer; Shields, Carol L; Eagle, Ralph C; Ganguly, Arupa

    2017-03-01

    A small, but unique subgroup of retinoblastoma has been identified with no detectable mutation in the retinoblastoma gene (RB1) and with high levels of MYCN gene amplification. This manuscript investigated alternate pathways of inactivating pRb, the encoded protein in these tumors. We analyzed the mutation status of the RB1 gene and MYCN copy number in a series of 245 unilateral retinoblastomas, and the phosphorylation status of pRb in a subset of five tumors using immunohistochemistry. There were 203 tumors with two mutations in RB1 (RB1 -/- , 83%), 29 with one (RB1 +/- , 12%) and 13 with no detectable mutations (RB1 +/+ , 5%). Eighteen tumors carried MYCN amplification between 29 and 110 copies: 12 had two (RB1 -/- ) or one RB1 (RB1 +/- ) mutations, while six had no mutations (RB1 +/+ ). Immunohistochemical staining of tumor sections with antibodies against pRb and phosphorylated Rb (ppRb) displayed high levels of pRb and ppRb in both RB1 +/+ and RB1 +/- tumors with MYCN amplification compared to no expression of these proteins in a classic RB1 -/- , MYCN-low tumor. These results establish that high MYCN amplification can be present in retinoblastoma with or without coding sequence mutations in the RB1 gene. The functional state of pRb is inferred to be inactive due to phosphorylation of pRb in the MYCN-amplified retinoblastoma without coding sequence mutations. This makes inactivation of RB1 by gene mutation or its protein product, pRb, by protein phosphorylation, a necessary condition for initiating retinoblastoma tumorigenesis, independent of MYCN amplification. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Technologies applied to wells producing gas in Bolivia; Tecnologias aplicadas aos pocos produtores de gas em Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobrega, Fernando R.B. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carrillo, Marco A.; Barrerro, Dennys A. [PETROBRAS Bolivia S.A., La Paz (Bolivia)

    2012-07-01

    The This paper seeks to highlight the engineering, lessons learned and topics for improvement of the technologies used in gas wells drilled between November 2008 and October 2011 in an environment of Bolivian' subandino. Among technologies employed and commented hereunder has the drilling gas reservoirs in near balance using a dual phase fluid, with nitrogen; carrying out multilateral wells equipped with intelligent completion in such environment; as well as other technologies presented herein. This document was prepared on drilling operations performed in SAL-15, SAL-17, SBLSBL- 7 and SBL-8, comprising the period from November 2008 to October 2011. (author)

  14. Simulação Monte Carlo com Repesagem Aplicada ao Calor Específico de Sólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Roberto da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se uma estimativa numérica para a contribuição das vibrações da rede para o calor específico de um sólido cristalino. O método Monte Carlo é utilizado tanto em sua forma original quanto em sua versão mais moderna, que emprega a técnica da repesagem para extrair mais informações de cada simulação. Mostra-se como obter curvas contínuas para grandezas como a energia e o calor específico em função da temperatura a partir de simulação feita em apenas uma temperatura. Os resultados analíticos são incluídos para facilitar a comparação com os resultados da simulação.

  15. Gestão Multidimensional da Informação Aplicada ao Desenvolvimento Turístico

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Alberto Vanti

    2003-01-01

    Iniciativas empresariais e acadêmicas no contexto do setor de turismo são verificadas diariamente no sentido de tornar este setor cada vez mais estratégico para a economia brasileira. Estas iniciativas auxiliam no aprimoramento dos negócios, tornando-os cada vez mais científicos e profissionalizados. O presente trabalho colabora com esta profissionalização através do desenvolvimento de ações sustentadas na gestão da informação. Os consumidores buscam produtos e serviços cada vez mais customiz...

  16. Gestão Ambiental Aplicada ao Setor Gastronômico: Propostas para Dourados-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domitilla Medeiros Arce

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A presente pesquisa tem por objetivo demonstrar à importância da gestão ambiental à administração dos estabelecimentos gastronômicos, assinalando ferramentas de gestão ambiental aplicáveis a esses empreendimentos. Para a construção das propostas utilizou-se como metodologia, a pesquisa bibliográfica e a pesquisa de campo por meio de entrevistas realizadas com os gestores de seis estabelecimentos de alimentos e bebidas de Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul. As informações obtidas com as entrevistas propiciaram a análise do quadro vigente em relação às condutas praticadas frente à problemática da grande quantidade de resíduos gerados pelo processo de manipulação, produção e consumo de alimentos e bebidas. Assim, constatou-se que são necessárias algumas ações de sensibilização sobre a importância da gestão ambiental, que quando incorporada por toda a equipe, pode contribuir com a rentabilidade e principalmente, com o meio ambiente. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Gestão de configuração aplicada ao projeto aeroportuário.

    OpenAIRE

    André Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    O Projeto Aeroportuário consiste em uma atividade com alto grau de complexidade. As modernas técnicas de Gerenciamento de Projeto utilizadas na atualidade permitem um correto planejamento, gerenciamento e acompanhamento das atividades envolvidas em um projeto com este grau de complexidade. Ainda assim, existe espaço para o aperfeiçoamento de alguns conceitos, contribuindo para aumentar o controle e eficiência do gerenciamento do projeto. Os ganhos obtidos com a aplicação da Gestão de Configur...

  18. Modelagem comportamental pela técnica da preferência declarada aplicada aos agricultores de Santa Helena (PR

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    Leoveraldo Curtarelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do comportamento dos agricultores frente às opções de investir ou não em terras, de forma a modelar como estes tomam as decisões sobre seus investimentos, utilizando-se da Técnica da Preferência Declarada. A pesquisa centrou-se nos agricultores de Santa Helena (PR, proprietários de áreas iguais ou superiores a 30 (trinta alqueires. A coleta dos dados baseou-se em entrevistas com uma amostra de 40 agricultores. Como principais resultados, os atributos mais significativos para o modelo foram: "finalidade do investimento"; "condições de pagamentos" e "capital". O grupo pesquisado apresenta-se propenso a realizar investimentos em terras devido a: segurança financeira; possibilidade de pagamento a prazo; e opção de utilizar capital próprio para honrar as obrigações.This work analyses the behaviour of farmers as to the options of investing or not investing in buying lands, and aimed to know as farmers make their decisions on investments with use of the Technique of Declared Preference. The research based on farmers of Santa Helena (PR, proprietors of areas equal to or higher than 72 (seventy-two hectares. Data collection was based on interviews with a sample of 40 farmers. As principal results, the most significant attributes for the model were: "purpose of the investment"; "conditions of payments" and "funds". Therefore, the investigated group presents a tendency to accomplish their investments in owning lands due to: financial security, possibilities to pay in instalments and option of using their own funds to cover the debt.

  19. Técnica aplicada ao concerto para violão e pequena orquestra de Heitor Villa-Lobos

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Natanael Fonseca de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Este trabalho de investigação visa contribuir com a prática interpretativa do Concerto Para Violão e Pequena Orquestra de Heitor Villa-Lobos, buscando similaridades de procedimentos técnicos em sua obra para violão solo que possam auxiliar na construção da performance. Para tanto, pretende-se reunir informações históricas e técnicas a partir das bibliografias disponíveis sobre o compositor e sua obra para violão. Almeja-se também, analisar procedimentos mecânicos dos trechos de...

  20. Geotecnologias aplicadas ao planejamentode sistemas de abastecimento de água urbanos:uma proposta metodológica

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    Maria José de Sousa Cordão

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A modelagem e otimização da disposição espacial de unidades de reservação que constituem os Sistemas Urbanos de Distribuição de Água (SUDA são abordadas neste estudo sob a perspectiva do apoio à decisão no planejamento desses sistemas. Tendo em vista os avanços e técnicas encontrados nos Sistemas de Informação Geográfica (SIG e a possibilidade de utilizá-los como Sistema de Apoio a Decisão Espacial (SADE, este trabalho apresenta uma metodologia que viabiliza a tomada de decisão em planejamento de SUDA. Utilizando critérios espacializados, são gerados mapas de riscos de desabastecimento em lotes urbanos que podem servir como indicadores em ações de planejamento e gestão, assim como são mapeadas zonas consideradas como ótimas para a localização de novas unidades de reservação, as quais constituem diretrizes no planejamento para expansão dos SUDA

  1. MaTUTO: adaptação da metodologia de aprendizagem baseada em problemas aplicada ao ensino de ontologias

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    Ricardo Alexandre Afonso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The introduction of new teaching methodologies brings a proposal for the evolution of traditional teaching models, which have been shown to be less efficient due to the evolution of society and the use of technology. This inadequacy educational encouraged the construction of a proposal that condenses the steps of the Problem-Based Learning methodology, which was tested in the creation of a domain ontology defined by a tutor responsible for the teaching/learning activity. The article aims to present a methodology compatible with a dynamic reality that takes place at information systems disciplines and classes. The students involved in the experiment were also invited to evaluate the experience. Method: It presents the main features and steps of the Problem-Based Learning methodology, adjusted in the proposed MaTUTO (Map, TUtoring and Translate in Ontology, which was applied to undergraduate students. Results: It was possible to apply a methodology that adapts and condenses the original steps of the Problem-Based Learning approach as a support to subjects taught at Information Systems courses. The ontology was built and found satisfactory, as well as the results, coming from the students’ evaluation, were encouraging. Conclusion: Concerning the theme - the domain ontology - the alternative methodological proposal allowed the students not only to grasp the concepts involved in the Problem-Based Learning approach, but also had an information product outcome: the ontology itself.

  2. A biotecnologia aplicada ao melhoramento genético vegetal: controvérsias e discussões

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    Andréia Morais Xavier de OLIVEIRA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue concerns plant breeding, with biotechnology at its beginning and progress, if it is seen as the "newgreen revolution," emphasizing the brazilian agricultural biotechnology and its development related to the leadership ofthe Brazilian Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA, considering the possible risks to both the environment and humanhealth, respecting and practicing the laws and rules of biosafety. Also reports issues of Microbial Genetics,Microbiology and Molecular Biology in order to clarify various techniques of gene cloning, ranging from the choice offeatures aimed at improving a particular product by the process of isolation and transformation of these genes, using themost modern technologies.

  3. Biotecnologia aplicada ao melhoramento genético do cafeeiro Biotechnology applied to the genetic improvement of coffee plant

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    Tâmara Prado de Morais

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro mediante técnicas convencionais é trabalhoso e demorado. A biotecnologia oferece estratégias alternativas para auxiliar na multiplicação e no desenvolvimento de novas variedades com resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos, melhor qualidade de bebida e maturação mais uniforme dos frutos. As técnicas de cultura de tecidos têm possibilitado a obtenção de grande número de plantas e a garantia da uniformidade genética do material. O emprego de marcadores moleculares, principalmente através da seleção assistida, facilitou o rápido progresso do melhoramento genético da cultura, assim como a transformação genética, via cultura e fusão de protoplastos, biobalística ou mediada por Agrobacterium sp. Esta revisão objetiva sumarizar o histórico, situação atual e perspectivas da biotecnologia no melhoramento genético do cafeeiro.Genetic improvement of coffee through classical breeding is laborious and time consuming. Biotechnology offers alternative strategies to assist multiplication and development of new and improved coffee varieties, including those resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, with better cup quality, and with uniform fruit maturation. Tissue culture techniques have enabled the production of a large number of plants with genetic uniformity. The use of molecular markers, especially through assisted selection, led to rapid progress of coffee plant breeding, as well as the use of genetic transformation by protoplasts culture and fusion, biobalistics, or Agrobacterium-mediated. This review provides a summary of biotechnology history, current situation and directions applied to the genetic improvement of coffee plant.

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGIA MOLECULAR APLICADA AO MONITORAMENTO DE ESTIRPES DE Staphylococcus aureus NA PRODUÇÃO DE QUEIJO MINAS FRESCAL

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    Maria Izabel Merino de Medeiros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus strains potentially toxigenic, isolated from the production process of Minas frescal cheese in a small dairy plant in the state of São Paulo. For this, samples were taken during the period from June 2008 to July 2009. Samples were collected from the surface of the receiving and storage tanks of raw milk, the surface of the balance tank of pasteurized milk, the water supply system, the pipes and equipments, the hands of the handler and from the packaged cheese, totaling 140 samples. The colonies isolated on Baird-Parker Agar confirmed as Gram positive and positive for catalase, coagulase and acetoin production, were submitted to extraction of bacterial DNA using the Invitek - Uniscience® kit. Confirmation of the isolated species and enterotoxins SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and TSST-1 toxin was carried out through the amplification of specific fragments of chromosomal DNA. Among the 74 strains of isolated coagulase-positive staphylococci, only 41 (55.4% strains were confirmed as Staphylococcus aureus, of which 25 (61.0% were positive to the presence of staphylococcal toxins. The most frequently identified enterotoxin was SEA. The toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus were more frequently isolated from hands of the handler (16.0%, raw milk receiving tank (12.0%, pasteurized milk for cheese making (12.0% and fresh white cheese ready for consumption (12.0%.

  5. Retinoblastoma: experience of a referral center in the North Region of Portugal

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    Rocha-Bastos R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available RA da Rocha-Bastos,1 JR Araújo,1 RS Silva,2 MJ Gil-da-Costa,2 E Brandão,1 NJ Farinha,2,3 F Falcão-Reis,1,4 T Dinah-Bragança1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital São João, 2Hematology and Oncology Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Hospital São João, 3Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal Purpose: To describe the experience of the Ophthalmology Department of Hospital São João (HSJ, a tertiary health care center in North Region, Portugal, in terms of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of retinoblastoma. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in Hospital São João, between 1978 and 2012. Results: Fifty patients with retinoblastoma were evaluated in our institution between 1978 and 2012. Four patients were excluded due to loss of follow-up. Among the 46 retinoblastoma cases, 33 (71.7% were unilateral and 13 (28.3% bilateral, with a mean age at diagnosis of 22.19 months and 6.92 months, respectively (P<0.001. Leukocoria was the most common presenting sign (36.9%, followed by strabismus (19.6%, a combination of leukocoria and strabismus (8.7%, and buphthalmia (2.2%. Between 1978 and 1992, nine retinoblastoma cases were referred to our hospital, all of them unilateral, and, in each case, enucleation was performed, with or without salvage therapy. Between 1993 and 2012, 18 eyes with retinoblastoma were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusion: Demographic results were generally coincident with previous reports. It is crucial to screen leukocoria in pediatric practice, even in asymptomatic children. The outcome of retinoblastoma treatment in our hospital is similar to other series in developed countries. Keywords: retinoblastoma, leukocoria, strabismus, enucleation, pediatric cancer

  6. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in an eye of retinoblastoma treated by radiation and cryocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Kawai, Masataka; Nii, Seiji; Katsura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Akihiro

    1999-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant was diagnosed as bilateral retinoblastoma. The left eye was treated by enucleation and the right by radiation. The right eye received repeated thermochemotherapy, cryocoagulation and photocoagulation for recurrence. Total retinal detachment was detected after surgery for complicated cataract at the age of 2 years 9 months. Vitreous surgery led to the detection of posterior vitreous detachment and retinal breaks in the coagulated scar areas with vitreoretinal adhesion around the calcified tumor. During the following one year, the retina has been attached with no reoccurrence of the tumor. This case illustrates that rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a possibility in retinoblastoma treated by radiation or retinal coagulations. (author)

  7. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in an eye of retinoblastoma treated by radiation and cryocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Kawai, Masataka; Nii, Seiji [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Katsura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Akihiro

    1999-08-01

    A 4-month-old female infant was diagnosed as bilateral retinoblastoma. The left eye was treated by enucleation and the right by radiation. The right eye received repeated thermochemotherapy, cryocoagulation and photocoagulation for recurrence. Total retinal detachment was detected after surgery for complicated cataract at the age of 2 years 9 months. Vitreous surgery led to the detection of posterior vitreous detachment and retinal breaks in the coagulated scar areas with vitreoretinal adhesion around the calcified tumor. During the following one year, the retina has been attached with no reoccurrence of the tumor. This case illustrates that rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a possibility in retinoblastoma treated by radiation or retinal coagulations. (author)

  8. Retinoblastoma pathway defects show differential ability to activate the constitutive DNA damage response in human tumorigenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tort, F.; Bartkova, J.; Sehested, M.

    2006-01-01

    culture models with differential defects of retinoblastoma pathway components, as overexpression of cyclin D1 or lack of p16(Ink4a), either alone or combined, did not elicit detectable DDR. In contrast, inactivation of pRb, the key component of the pathway, activated the DDR in cultured human or mouse...... with their hierarchical positions along the retinoblastoma pathway. Our data provide new insights into oncogene-evoked DDR in human tumorigenesis, with potential implications for individualized management of tumors with elevated cyclin D1 versus cyclin E, due to their distinct clinical variables and biological behavior....

  9. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in retinoblastoma tumors using mass spectrometry-based comparative proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naru, Jasmine; Aggarwal, Ritu; Mohanty, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Usha; Bansal, Deepak; Kakkar, Nandita; Agnihotri, Navneet

    2017-04-21

    In India, retinoblastoma is among the top five childhood cancers. Children mostly present with extraocular extension and high risk features that results in unsatisfactory treatment and low survival rate. In addition, lack of potential therapeutic and prognostic targets is another challenge in the management of retinoblastoma. We studied comparative proteome of retinoblastoma patients (HPV positive and negative (n=4 each) and controls (n=4), in order to identify potential retinoblastoma-specific protein targets. 2D-DIGE coupled MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identified 39 unique proteins. Highly deregulated proteins were GFAP,RBP3,APOA1,CRYAA,CRABP1,SAG and TF. Gene ontology (Panther 7.0) revealed majority of proteins to be associated with metabolic processes (26%) and catalytic activity (38%). 8 proteins were significantly upregulated in HPV positive vis-a-vis HPV negative cases. Patient group exhibited 12 upregulated and 18 downregulated proteins compared to controls. Pathway and network analysis (IPA software) revealed CTNNB1 as most significantly regulated signalling pathway in HPV positive than HPV negative retinoblastoma. The trends in transcriptional change of 9 genes were consistent with those at proteomic level. The Western blot analysis confirmed the expression pattern of RBP3,GFAP and CRABP1. We suggest GFAP,RBP3,CRABP1,CRYAAA,APOA1 and SAG as prospective targets that could further be explored as potential candidates in therapy and may further assist in studying the disease mechanism. In this study we evaluated tumor tissue specimens from retinoblastoma patients and identified 39 differentially regulated proteins compared to healthy retina. From these, we propose RBP3, CRABP1, GFAP, CRYAA, APOA1 and SAG as promising proteomic signatures that could further be explored as efficient prognostic and therapeutic targets in retinoblastoma. The present study is not only a contribution to the ongoing endeavour for the discovery of proteomic signatures in

  10. Schedule-Dependent Antiangiogenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Chemotherapy on Vascular Endothelial and Retinoblastoma Cells.

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    Ursula Winter

    Full Text Available Current treatment of retinoblastoma involves using the maximum dose of chemotherapy that induces tumor control and is tolerated by patients. The impact of dose and schedule on the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy has not been studied. Our aim was to gain insight into the cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effect of the treatment scheme of chemotherapy used in retinoblastoma by means of different in vitro models and to evaluate potential effects on multi-drug resistance proteins. Two commercial and two patient-derived retinoblastoma cell types and two human vascular endothelial cell types were exposed to increasing concentrations of melphalan or topotecan in a conventional (single exposure or metronomic (7-day continuous exposure treatment scheme. The concentration of chemotherapy causing a 50% decrease in cell proliferation (IC50 was determined by MTT and induction of apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Expression of ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1 after conventional or metronomic treatments was assessed by RT-qPCR. We also evaluated the in vivo response to conventional (0.6 mg/kg once a week for 2 weeks and metronomic (5 days a week for 2 weeks topotecan in a retinoblastoma xenograft model. Melphalan and topotecan were cytotoxic to both retinoblastoma and endothelial cells after conventional and metronomic treatments. A significant decrease in the IC50 (median, 13-fold; range: 3-23 was observed following metronomic chemotherapy treatment in retinoblastoma and endothelial cell types compared to conventional treatment (p0.05. In mice, continuous topotecan lead to significantly lower tumor volumes compared to conventional treatment after 14 days of treatment (p<0.05. Continuous exposure to melphalan or topotecan increased the chemosensitivity of retinoblastoma and endothelial cells to both chemotherapy agents with lower IC50 values compared to short-term treatment. These findings were validated in an in vivo model. None of the dosing modalities induced

  11. [Treatment modalities and results of comprehensive therapy for extended retinoblastoma in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkina, B M; Durnov, L A; Poliakov, V G; Goldobenko, G V; Glekov, I V; Ushakova, T L

    1997-01-01

    New procedures of laser therapy and chemotherapy have extended the scope of application of organ-saving treatment at advanced stages of retinoblastoma in childhood, thus making it possible to preserve the eye fully functional or cosmetic. Not having to perform such mutilating procedures as ophthalmectomy or eye socket exenteration contributes to psychological and physical rehabilitation. At the same time, as a comparison of the results of surgery carried out at initial stages and surgery-free treatment showed that palliative therapy is characterized by impressive rates of 5-year survival. New vistas have opened of in the management of pediatric retinoblastoma, particularly in cases of stage III tumor and bilateral involvement.

  12. Ciencia básica y ciencia aplicada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Tamayo Ruy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de una intervención en el Foro de Consulta Democrática de la Coordinación de los Institutos Nacionales de Salud sobre Enseñanza e Investigación en Salud, realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, se hace una revisión crítica de la clasificación convencional de la ciencia en básica y aplicada; además, se analiza lo que deberían ser la enseñanza y la investigación en salud. Para apoyar su propia clasificación de la ciencia en "bien hecha", la cual "genera conocimientos verificables sobre la realidad" y la "mal hecha", improductiva o productora de "puras mentiras" y "no debe patrocinarse", el autor revisa las definiciones utilitaristas y peyorativas como las que establecen ciencia comprometida y ciencia pura, ciencia útil y ciencia inútil, y ciencia práctica y ciencia esotérica, como sinónimos de ciencia aplicada y ciencia básica y afirma que, en México, esta diferenciación "para lo único que ha servido en el pasado es para justificar la reducción en el apoyo oficial a la ciencia básica, porque no estaba dirigida a resolver ´los problemas nacionales´o porque no caía en las prioridades establecidas en ese sexenio". En cuanto a educación e investigación en salud reconoce que el programa actual de formación de investigadores tiene una eficiencia muy baja y propone un estudio científico crítico, realizado por un equipo de especialistas, interdisciplinario, "para integrar la carrera del investigador científico desde la captura de la juventud inteligente hasta la jubilación o muerte del investigador" y para el cual la evaluación de la eficiencia del apoyo a sus proyectos de investigación no se restrinja a si se publicó o no un artículo "pues la calidad del trabajo científico y la contribución de un investigador al desarrollo de la ciencia no es nada más el número de sus publicaciones". El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  13. Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor formation by inducing cell cycle arrest in retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiting; Wu, Dan; Xia, Fengjie; Xian, Hongyu; Zhu, Xinyue [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Ophthalmology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, 210002 (China); Cui, Hongjuan, E-mail: hcui@swu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Institute of Sericulture and Systems Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716 (China); Huang, Zhenping, E-mail: huangzhenping19633@163.com [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Ophthalmology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, 210002 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) is a member of class II HDACs, which regulates a wide variety of normal and abnormal physiological functions. Recently, HDAC9 has been found to be overexpressed in some types of human cancers. However, the role of HDAC9 in retinoblastoma remains unclear. In this study, we found that HDAC9 was commonly expressed in retinoblastoma tissues and HDAC9 was overexpressed in prognostically poor retinoblastoma patients. Through knocking down HDAC9 in Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells, the expression level of HDAC9 was found to be positively related to cell proliferation in vitro. Further investigation indicated that knockdown HDAC9 could significantly induce cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. Western blot assay showed downregulation of HDAC9 could significantly decrease cyclin E2 and CDK2 expression. Lastly, xenograft study in nude mice showed that downregulation of HDAC9 inhibited tumor growth and development in vivo. Therefore, our results suggest that HDAC9 could serve as a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of retinoblastoma. - Highlights: • High expression of HDAC9 correlates with poor patient prognosis. • Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation in retinoblastoma cells. • Downregulation of HDAC9 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. • Downregulation of HDAC9 suppresses tumor growth in nude mice.

  14. Three presentations of CNS disease in patients with intraocular retinoblastoma at a tertiary medical center in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonathan W; Jacobsen, Bradley H; Ko, Marcus; Lee, Diana K; Jubran, Rima F; Berry, Jesse L

    2018-01-01

    Patients with intraocular retinoblastoma who present with central nervous (CNS) disease at diagnosis is very rare in developed countries. Herein, we report a review of patients with intraocular retinoblastoma diagnosed with concurrent CNS disease in the United States between January 2011 and June 2013. Three patients were identified in this review. The first case is a 2-year old male who presented with unilateral Group E retinoblastoma, optic nerve infiltration to the orbital apex, and a suprasellar mass. The second case is a 5-month old female with bilateral retinoblastoma, who had no optic nerve invasion, but demonstrated a temporal lobe lesion that was biopsy-proven to be metastatic retinoblastoma. The third case is a 10-month old girl with bilateral retinoblastoma who presented with a sellar mass and no evidence of optic nerve invasion in the enucleated Group E eye. Although rare in developed countries, patients with intraocular retinoblastoma can present with a spectrum of CNS findings at the time of diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits is a critical component of the staging evaluation.

  15. Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor formation by inducing cell cycle arrest in retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yiting; Wu, Dan; Xia, Fengjie; Xian, Hongyu; Zhu, Xinyue; Cui, Hongjuan; Huang, Zhenping

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) is a member of class II HDACs, which regulates a wide variety of normal and abnormal physiological functions. Recently, HDAC9 has been found to be overexpressed in some types of human cancers. However, the role of HDAC9 in retinoblastoma remains unclear. In this study, we found that HDAC9 was commonly expressed in retinoblastoma tissues and HDAC9 was overexpressed in prognostically poor retinoblastoma patients. Through knocking down HDAC9 in Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells, the expression level of HDAC9 was found to be positively related to cell proliferation in vitro. Further investigation indicated that knockdown HDAC9 could significantly induce cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. Western blot assay showed downregulation of HDAC9 could significantly decrease cyclin E2 and CDK2 expression. Lastly, xenograft study in nude mice showed that downregulation of HDAC9 inhibited tumor growth and development in vivo. Therefore, our results suggest that HDAC9 could serve as a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of retinoblastoma. - Highlights: • High expression of HDAC9 correlates with poor patient prognosis. • Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation in retinoblastoma cells. • Downregulation of HDAC9 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. • Downregulation of HDAC9 suppresses tumor growth in nude mice.

  16. Pharmaceutically inhibiting polo-like kinase 1 exerts a broad anti-tumour activity in retinoblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwermer, Melanie; Dreesmann, Sabine; Eggert, Angelika; Althoff, Kristina; Steenpass, Laura; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Temming, Petra

    2017-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant cancer of the eye in children. Although metastatic retinoblastoma is rare, cure rates for this advanced disease remain below 50%. High-level polo-like kinase 1 expression in retinoblastomas has previously been shown to be correlated with adverse outcome parameters. Polo-like kinase 1 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in cell cycle regulation at the G2/M transition. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition has been demonstrated to have anti-tumour effects in preclinical models of several paediatric tumours. Here, we assessed its efficacy against retinoblastoma cell lines. Expression of polo-like kinase 1 was determined in a panel of retinoblastoma cell lines by polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. We analysed viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT assay), proliferation (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), cell cycle progression (propidium iodid staining) and apoptosis (cell death enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in three retinoblastoma cell lines after treatment with two adenosine triphosphate-competitive polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors, BI6727 or GSK461364. Activation of polo-like kinase 1 downstream signalling components including TP53 were assessed. Treatment of retinoblastoma cells with either BI6727 or GSK461364 reduced cell viability and proliferative capacity and induced both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibition also induced the p53 signalling pathway. Analysis of key players in cell cycle control revealed that low nanomolar concentrations of either polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor upregulated cyclin B1 and increased activated cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (phosphorylated at Y15) in retinoblastoma cell lines. These preclinical data indicate that polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors could be useful as components in rationally designed chemotherapy protocols to treat patients with metastasized retinoblastoma in early phase clinical

  17. Quality of life of adult retinoblastoma survivors in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen-Kettenis Peggy T

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the quality of life (QoL and predictors thereof in Dutch adult hereditary and non-hereditary retinoblastoma (RB survivors. Methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, a generic QoL questionnaire (SF-36 and a disease-specific interview were administered to 87 adult RB survivors aged 18 to 35 years. Their QoL data were compared with those of a Dutch healthy reference group. Among the RB hereditary/non-hereditary survivors, the QoL was compared and predictors for QoL were identified by linear multiple regression analyses. Results As a group, RB survivors scored significantly lower than the reference group on the SF-36 subscale 'mental health' (t = -27, df = 86, p Conclusion In this exploratory study, it appears that the group of adult RB survivors experience a relatively good overall but slightly decreased QoL compared with the reference group. However, they report more problems with regard to their mental health (anxiety, feelings of depression, and loss of control. Hereditary RB survivors differ significantly from non-hereditary RB survivors only in 'general health'. Bullying in childhood and subjective experience of impairment are the main predictors of a worse QoL. In order to prevent worsening of QoL, or perhaps to improve it, clinicians should make an inventory of these issues at an early stage. We recommend further research to assess the specific psychological factors that may lead to mental health problems in this population.

  18. The Retinoblastoma pathway regulates stem cell proliferation in freshwater planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu Jun; Pearson, Bret J

    2013-01-15

    Freshwater planarians are flatworms of the Lophotrochozoan superphylum and are well known for their regenerative abilities, which rely on a large population of pluripotent adult stem cells. However, the mechanisms by which planarians maintain a precise population of adult stem cells while balancing proliferation and cell death, remain to be elucidated. Here we have identified, characterized, and functionally tested the core Retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway components in planarian adult stem cell biology. The Rb pathway is an ancient and conserved mechanism of proliferation control from plants to animals and is composed of three core components: an Rb protein, and a transcription factor heterodimer of E2F and DP proteins. Although the planarian genome contains all components of the Rb pathway, we found that they have undergone gene loss from the ancestral state, similar to other species in their phylum. The single Rb homolog (Smed-Rb) was highly expressed in planarian stem cells and was required for stem cell maintenance, similar to the Rb-homologs p107 and p130 in vertebrates. We show that planarians and their phylum have undergone the most severe reduction in E2F genes observed thus far, and the single remaining E2F was predicted to be a repressive-type E2F (Smed-E2F4-1). Knockdown of either Smed-E2F4-1 or its dimerization partner Dp (Smed-Dp) by RNAi resulted in temporary hyper-proliferation. Finally, we showed that known Rb-interacting genes in other systems, histone deacetylase 1 and cyclinD (Smed-HDAC1; Smed-cycD), were similar to Rb in expression and phenotypes when knocked down by RNAi, suggesting that these established interactions with Rb may also be conserved in planarians. Together, these results showed that planarians use the conserved components of the Rb tumor suppressor pathway to control proliferation and cell survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma: First Indian report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe treatment outcomes and complications of selective intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC for retinoblastoma (RB in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective interventional case series of 6 eyes with RB who underwent IAC using Melphalan (3 mg/5 mg/7.5 mg and topetecan (1 mg (n = 4 or melphalan (3 mg/5 mg/7.5 mg alone (n = 2 between December 2013 and June 2014. In all, 17 IAC procedures were performed using selective ophthalmic artery cannulation. Treatment outcomes were evaluated in terms of tumor control, vitreous and subretinal seeds control and globe salvage rates. Results: IAC was employed as primary (n = 1 or secondary (n = 5 modality of treatment. Each eye received mean 3 IAC sessions (median: 3; range: 1-4 sessions. Eyes were classified according to international classification of RB as Group B (n = 1, C (n = 1, D (n = 2 and E (n = 2. Following IAC, complete regression of the main tumor was seen in 3 cases (50%, partial regression in 2 (33%, while 1 case (15% showed no response. Of 4 eyes with subretinal seeds, 1 (25% eye had complete regression while 3 (75% eyes had partial regression. Of 5 eyes with vitreous seeds, 2 (40% eyes had complete regression while 3 (60% eyes had a partial response. Globe salvage was achieved in 5 of 6 eyes (83%. Diffuse choroidal atrophy and vitreous hemorrhage were observed in 1 (17% eye, each. No hematologic toxicity or cerebro-vascular events were observed. Mean follow-up period was 5.5 months (median: 6 months, range: 1-6 months. Conclusion: IAC is an effective therapy for globe preservation in eyes with RB. Larger studies with longer follow-up are required to validate these results.

  20. The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Regulates a Xenobiotic Detoxification Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz Robles, Maria Teresa; Case, Ashley; Chong, Jean-Leon; Leone, Gustavo; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRb) regulates cell cycle entry, progression and exit by controlling the activity of the E2F-family of transcription factors. During cell cycle exit pRb acts as a transcriptional repressor by associating with E2F proteins and thereby inhibiting their ability to stimulate the expression of genes required for S phase. Indeed, many tumors harbor mutations in the RB gene and the pRb-E2F pathway is compromised in nearly all types of cancers. In this report we show that both pRb and its interacting partners, the transcriptional factors E2F1-2-3, act as positive modulators of detoxification pathways important for metabolizing and clearing xenobiotics—such as toxins and drugs—from the body. Using a combination of conventional molecular biology techniques and microarray analysis of specific cell populations, we have analyzed the detoxification pathway in murine samples in the presence or absence of pRb and/or E2F1-2-3. In this report, we show that both pRb and E2F1-2-3 act as positive modulators of detoxification pathways in mice, challenging the conventional view of E2F1-2-3 as transcriptional repressors negatively regulated by pRb. These results suggest that mutations altering the pRb-E2F axis may have consequences beyond loss of cell cycle control by altering the ability of tissues to remove toxins and to properly metabolize anticancer drugs, and might help to understand the formation and progression rates of different types of cancer, as well as to better design appropriate therapies based on the particular genetic composition of the tumors. PMID:22022495

  1. Comportamiento anticorrosivo de pinturas de base agua aplicadas en aceros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethencourt, M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic coatings, mainly paints, are one of the most important methods for protecting steel against corrosion. Both their low cost and easy applicability are between the reasons for selecting them as a method for protecting approximately 90% of the structures exposed to atmosphere. In this work, anticorrosive properties of an acrylic waterborne paint applied to a naval steel have been evaluated in NaCl at 3.5% solutions by means of electrochemicals techniques, such as Linear Polarisation and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Los recubrimientos orgánicos, especialmente las pinturas, son uno de los métodos de protección más ampliamente empleados para evitar la corrosión del acero. Su bajo coste y facilidad de aplicación son unas de las principales razones por las que, aproximadamente, el 90% de la totalidad de las superficies metálicas se protegen con pinturas. En este trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de una pintura acrílica de base agua aplicada sobre un acero de uso frecuente en la Industria Naval. Para dicho estudio, las muestras pintadas se sometieron a ensayos electroquímicos de Polarización Lineal y Espectroscopía de Impedancia Electroquímica en disolución de NaCl al 3.5%, tras diferentes periodos de inmersión en este medio.

  2. MTR polymorphic variant A2756G and retinoblastoma risk in Brazilian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Elker Lene Santos; da Silva, Vanessa Cavalcante; da Silva, Hildson Dornelas Angelo; Bezerra, Alexandre Medeiros; de Morais, Vera Lucia Lins; de Morais, Adriana Lins; Cruz, Raquel Vera; Barros, Mário Henrique Magalhães; Hassan, Rocio; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo

    2010-07-01

    Polymorphisms in the genes of folate and methionine metabolism enzymes have been associated with some forms of cancer by affecting DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. A case-control study of 72 retinoblastoma cases and 98 cancer-free children controls was performed to investigate whether the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MTR A2756G), carrier of reduced folate 1 (RFC-1 A80G) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS 2R > 3R) altered the risk for retinoblastoma. MTR A2756G AG plus GG genotype frequencies were higher in patients than in controls (45% vs. 26%, P = 0.03). Individual carriers of the variant allele G had a 2.02 (95% CI: 1.05-3.92)-fold increased risk for retinoblastoma. In contrast, no association was observed with respect to MTHFR C677T and A1298C, RFC A80G, and TYMS polymorphisms. This study presents evidence for an association between the MTR A2756G polymorphism and retinoblastoma susceptibility in a Northeast population from Brazil. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Restrictions in daily life after retinoblastoma from the perspective of the survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, J.; Oostrom, K.J.; Huisman, J.; Moll, A.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Ringens, P.J.; Imhof, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the impact of retinoblastoma (RB) on the health status of survivors in terms of disabilities and worries, both of which may restrict participation in activities of daily life. Methods. In this population-based cross-sectional study, content analysis was used to

  4. Cell cycle regulation by the retinoblastoma family of growth inhibitory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Beijersbergen, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The retinoblastoma family of growth-inhibitory proteins act by binding and inhibiting several proteins with growth-stimulatory activity, the most prominent of which is the cellular transcription factor E2F. In higher organisms, progression through the cell division cycle is accompanied by the

  5. Risk of third malignancies and death after a second malignancy in retinoblastoma survivors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marees, T.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Schaapveld, M.; Imhof, S.M.; Boer, M.R. de; Kors, W.A.; Ringens, P.J.; Moll, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Retinoblastoma patients have a strongly increased risk of second malignancies, and survivors with a third or subsequent malignancy are increasingly observed. However, it has not been examined whether survivors who developed a second malignancy have a greater risk of a subsequent malignancy. On the

  6. Risk of third malignancies and death after a second malignancy in retinoblastoma survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marees, T.; van Leeuwen, F.E.; Schaapveld, M.; Imhof, S.M.; de Boer, M.R.; Kors, W.A.; Ringens, P.J.; Moll, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Retinoblastoma patients have a strongly increased risk of second malignancies, and survivors with a third or subsequent malignancy are increasingly observed. However, it has not been examined whether survivors who developed a second malignancy have a greater risk of a subsequent malignancy. On the

  7. Macrophage retinoblastoma deficiency leads to enhanced atherosclerosis development in ApoE-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, L.S.M.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Nieuwkoop, A. van; Hu, L.; Jonkers, J.; Water, B. van de; Gijbels, M.J.J.; Made, I. van der; Winther, M.P.J. de; Havekes, L.M.; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The cellular composition of an atherosclerotic lesion is determined by cell infiltration, proliferation, and apoptosis. The tumor suppressor gene retinoblastoma (Rb) has been shown to regulate both cell proliferation and cell death in many cell types. To study the role of macrophage Rb in the

  8. Somatic genomic alterations in retinoblastoma beyond RB1 are rare and limited to copy number changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Irsan E.; Mol, Berber M.; Massink, Maarten P. G.; Ameziane, Najim; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Dommering, Charlotte J.; van Mil, Saskia E.; de Vries, Yne; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Moll, Annette C.; te Riele, Hein; Cloos, Jacqueline; Dorsman, Josephine C.

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare childhood cancer initiated by RB1 mutation or MYCN amplification, while additional alterations may be required for tumor development. However, the view on single nucleotide variants is very limited. To better understand oncogenesis, we determined the genomic landscape of

  9. Health-related quality of life of child and adolescent retinoblastoma survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Jennifer; Huisman, Jaap; Moll, Annette C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Bezemer, Pieter D.; Ringens, Peter J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Imhof, Saskia M.

    2007-01-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children (8-11 years) and adolescents (12-18 years) who survived retinoblastoma (RB), by means of the KIDSCREEN self-report questionnaire and the proxy-report version. This population-based cross-sectional study (participation rate 70%) involved 65

  10. Skin fibroblasts from a D-deletion type retinoblastoma patient are abnormally X-ray sensitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Nove, J.; Little, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a rare malignant eye tumour that appears either spontaneously or in genetically predisposed persons. The latter group is composed of persons who inherit the tumour with a dominant mode of transmission (the familial type) and those who have a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 13 referred to as the D-deletion type. When this deletion is present it is observed in many somatic cells and is often associated with structural defects. Survivors of the genetic forms of retinoblastoma have an increased risk of the development of cancers at other sites. A single genetic locus is unlikely to predispose many somatic cells to tumour formation unless a fundamental molecular defect, possibly related to DNA repair, is present. In order to investigate this hypothesis a study was made of the in vitro X-ray sensitivity of skin fibroblasts derived from three retinoblastoma patients, comprising a pair of twins with the familial type accompanied by no gross chromosome abnormalities, and a patient with the D-deletion type. It was found that fibroblasts derived from the D-deletion patient were significantly more radiosensitive than those from the other two patients. X-ray survival curves are shown. It is concluded that skin fibroblasts derived from a patient with the D-deletion variant of retinoblastoma are abnormally radiosensitive. Future investigations may indicate a specific defect in molecular repair of DNA that will explain the predisposition of these patients to the development of other tumours. (U.K.)

  11. Fruit and vegetable intake during pregnancy and risk for development of sporadic retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Manuela A; Titievsky, Lina; Liu, Xinhua; Ramirez-Ortiz, Marco; Ponce-Castaneda, Veronica; Lecona, Evelia; Molina, Evelyn; Beaverson, Katherine; Abramson, David H; Mueller, Nancy E

    2005-06-01

    Little is known about the causes of sporadic (noninherited) retinoblastoma. Rates seem to be somewhat higher among poorer populations in Mexico. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of carotenoids and folate. We examined whether decreased gestational maternal intake of fruits and vegetables may contribute to development of sporadic retinoblastoma. At the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria in Mexico City, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate prenatal maternal diet. We examined dietary intake of fruits and vegetables of mothers of 101 children with retinoblastoma and 172 control children using a dietary recall questionnaire and published food nutrient content tables. The reported number of mean daily servings of fruits and vegetables was lower among case mothers when compared with control mothers [vegetables: 2.28 in controls, 1.75 in cases (P vegetables and fruits was higher in controls (103 microg) than in cases (48 microg; P vegetables [odds ratios (OR), 3.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.0-6.0] or with a low intake of folate (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.3), or lutein/zeaxanthin (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6) derived from fruits and vegetables. Decreased intake of vegetables and fruits during pregnancy and the consequent decreased intake of nutrients such as folate and lutein/zeaxanthin, necessary for DNA methylation, synthesis, and retinal function, may increase risk for having a child with sporadic retinoblastoma.

  12. Efficacy and safety of aflibercept in in vitro and in vivo models of retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Yoon; Choi, Jeong A; Koh, Jae-Young; Yoon, Young Hee

    2016-11-04

    To evaluate the inhibitory effects of aflibercept on the growth and subretinal invasion of retinoblastoma. Xenotransplantation and orthotopic mouse models were created by injecting Y-79 cells subcutaneously and intravitreally, respectively. After induction of retinoblastoma, animals were intraperitoneally injected with aflibercept (25 mg/kg body weight) or saline twice a week for 3 weeks. Tumor size was measured weekly and compared between the two groups. At 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed and an immunohistochemical examination was conducted to compare the microvascular density and degree of apoptosis between groups. In addition, the degree of choroidal invasion was also analyzed in the orthotopic xenotransplantation model. A co-culture system of Y-79 or WERI-Rb-1 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was used for in vitro experiments, and the anti-angiogenic effect of aflibercept was evaluated by analyzing cell numbers. In the Y-79 xenotransplantation model, aflibercept treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth at 4 weeks versus baseline compared with saline-injected mice (188.53 ± 118.53 mm 3 vs. 747.87 ± 118.83 mm 3 , respectively, P retinoblastoma angiogenesis in association with a significant reduction in tumor growth and invasion. These findings suggest that aflibercept could be used in an adjuvant role together with systemic chemotherapy to reduce tumor size and angiogenesis in retinoblastoma.

  13. The promyelocytic leukemia gene product (PML) forms stable complexes with the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcalay, M; Tomassoni, L; Colombo, E

    1998-01-01

    by the expression of PML-RAR alpha. We report that PML colocalizes with the nonphosphorylated fraction of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) within nuclear bodies and that pRB is delocalized by PML-RAR alpha expression. Both PML and PML-RAR alpha form complexes with the nonphosphorylated form of pRB in vivo...

  14. Deregulated MAPK activity prevents adipocyte differentiation of fibroblasts lacking the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; Petersen, Rasmus K; Jørgensen, Claus

    2002-01-01

    A functional retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is required for adipose conversion of preadipocyte cell lines and primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) in response to treatment with standard adipogenic inducers. Interestingly, lack of functional pRB in MEFs was recently linked to elevated Ras activity...

  15. Bigh3 silencing increases retinoblastoma tumor growth in the murine SV40-TAg-Rb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaman-Pillet, Nathalie; Oberson, Anne; Schorderet, Daniel F

    2017-02-28

    BIGH3, a secreted protein of the extracellular matrix interacts with collagen and integrins on the cell surface. BIGH3 can have opposing functions in cancer, acting either as tumor suppressor or promoter by enhancing tumor progression and angiogenesis. In the eye, BIGH3 is expressed in the cornea and the retinal pigment epithelium and could impact on the development of retinoblastoma, the most common paediatric intraocular neoplasm. Retinoblastoma initiation requires the inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 tumor suppressor gene in the developing retina and tumor progression involves additional genomic changes. To determine whether BIGH3 affects retinoblastoma development, we generated a retinoblastoma mouse model with disruption of the Bigh3 genomic locus. Bigh3 silencing in these mice resulted in enhanced tumor development in the retina. A decrease in apoptosis is involved in the initial events of tumorigenesis, followed by an increased activity of the pro-survival ERK pathway as well as an upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Taken together, these data suggest that BIGH3 acts as a tumor suppressor in the retina.

  16. Crystal structure of human esterase D: a potential genetic marker of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Dong; Li, Yang; Song, Gaojie; Zhang, David; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2009-07-10

    Retinoblastoma (RB), a carcinoma of the retina, is caused by mutations in the long arm of chromosome 13, band 13q14. The esterase D (ESD) gene maps at a similar location as the RB gene locus and therefore serves as a potential marker for the prognosis of retinoblastoma. Because very little is known about the structure and function of ESD, we determined the 3-dimensional structure of the enzyme at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution using X-ray crystallography. ESD shows a single domain with an {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold. A number of insertions are observed in the canonical {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold. The active site is located in a positively charged, shallow cleft on the surface lined by a number of aromatic residues. Superimposition studies helped identify the typical catalytic triad residues -- Ser-153, His264, and Asp230 -- involved in catalysis. Mutagenesis of any of the catalytic triad residues to alanine abolished the enzyme activity. Backbone amides of Leu54 and Met150 are involved in the formation of the oxyanion hole. Interestingly, a M150A mutation increased the enzyme activity by 62%. The structure of human ESD determined in this study will aid the elucidation of the physiological role of the enzyme in the human body and will assist in the early diagnosis of retinoblastoma. Wu, D., Li, Y., Song, G., Zhang, D., Shaw, N., Liu, Z. J. Crystal structure of human esterase D: a potential genetic marker of retinoblastoma.

  17. Characterization and expression analysis of a Retinoblastoma-related gene from Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes, a conserved gene family in higher eukaryotes, plays an important role in cell differentiation, development and mammalian cell death in animals; however, little is known about its function in plants. In this study, an RBR gene was isolated from the Chinese wild gr...

  18. Characterization of the retinoblastoma binding proteins RBP1 and RBP2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattaey, A R; Helin, K; Dembski, M S

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma gene product, pRB, regulates cell proliferation by binding to and inhibiting the activity of key growth promoting proteins. Several cellular proteins have been shown to bind directly to pRB and the genes encoding a number of them have been isolated. The protein product of one...

  19. Inhibition of E2F-1 transactivation by direct binding of the retinoblastoma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Harlow, E; Fattaey, A

    1993-01-01

    Loss of a functional retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product, pRB, is a key step in the development of many human tumors. pRB is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and appears to participate in control of entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. The recent demonstration that pRB binds...

  20. Association study of the common polymorphisms in the folate-methionine pathway with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Elaheh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Akbari, Mohammad Taghi; Kamali, Koorosh; Ahani, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Folate and methionine metabolism enzymes could affect DNA synthesis and repair, and their methylation and polymorphisms have been associated with some forms of cancer. This study was carried out to investigate whether the MTHFR C677T (rs1801133), MTHFR A1298C (rs1801131) and TYMS 2R/3R (rs34743033) polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to retinoblastoma in an Iranian population. A case-control study was conducted involving 96 patients with retinoblastoma and 204 healthy controls. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, and TYMS 2R/3R polymorphism were assessed by PCR-RFLP, high resolution melting curve (HRM), and PCR methods, respectively. The frequencies of MTHFR 677CT and 677TT genotypes were significantly lower in cases than controls (p values, 0.012 and 0.034, respectively). The MTHFR 677T allele was significantly lower in patients than in the control group (p = 0.003). In contrast, no association was observed with respect to the MTHFR A1298C and TYMS 2R/3R polymorphisms. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with the risk of retinoblastoma in this Iranian population and the T allele had a protective effect on the susceptibility to retinoblastoma.

  1. MiR-433 inhibits retinoblastoma malignancy by suppressing Notch1 and PAX6 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohua; Yang, Lan; Shuai, Tianjiao; Piao, Tianhua; Wang, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most frequent primary intraocular cancer. It has been demonstrated by previous studies that retinoblastoma is initiated primarily by the inactivation of the retinoblastoma Rb1 gene in retinal cells. However, additional genetic alterations than Rb1 mutation could play important roles in the process of transforming benign retinal cells into retinoblastoma tumor cells. In this study, we identified that microRNA miR-433 is one of such genetic factors. We found that the expression levels of miR-433 were downregulated in RB tissues. We also determined that miR-433 negatively regulated RB cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of RB cells. We used bioinformatics method to predict and confirmed that Notch1 and PAX6 were miR-433 target genes in RB cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that restoration of Notch1 and PAX6 expression partially rescued the inhibition of cell proliferation and metastasis induced by miR-433 overexpression, suggesting that miR-433 regulates RB cell proliferation and metastasis through suppressing the expression of Notch1 and PAX6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A longitudinal investigation of parenting stress in caregivers of children with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Qaddoumi, Ibrahim; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Lu; Russell, Kathryn M; Brennan, Rachel; Wilson, Matthew W; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Phipps, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is typically diagnosed in young children and may present unique parenting challenges. Qualitative research suggests that parents experience distress related to the initial diagnosis and treatment that subsequently resolves. The objectives were to systematically assess parenting stress over time in parents of young children with retinoblastoma and to examine associations between parenting stress and child outcomes. Parents of children with retinoblastoma completed the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) during serial psychological assessments scheduled based on the child's age (6 months to 5 years). Caregivers of 92 patients (85.9% mothers) completed the assessments. Child outcomes included developmental functioning and parent-reported adaptive functioning. At baseline and age 5, all subscales on the PSI were within normal limits, and most were significantly below normative means (i.e., demonstrating low levels of stress). All domains remained relatively stable over time. Associations between parenting stress and child outcomes were much stronger at age 5 than at baseline. Child-directed parenting stress was a small but significant contributor to declines in child functioning over time. Parents of children with retinoblastoma report normal levels of parenting stress while their children are young. However, baseline parenting stress appears to contribute to changes in child functioning over time. Future studies should assess illness-related aspects of adjustment to further understand the parenting experience of young children with cancer and/or having a visually impaired child. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metastatic retinoblastoma of the parotid and submandibular glands: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Li, Yang-Jun; Zhang, Shao-Bo; Cheng, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Qiong; He, Li-Sha

    2017-12-02

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy occurring in children. It can metastasize to the regional lymph nodes, central nervous system and distant organs usually the bones and bone marrow and very rarely to the soft tissue. Here, we report a case of unilateral retinoblastoma in a 4-year-old girl accompanied by a large metastasis of the parotid and submandibular glands that developed about 6 months previously and gradually increased in size 5 months after enucleation of the left eye. A 4-year-old girl with a history of unilateral retinoblastoma presented with a large, painful and worsening mass (about 20 × 23 cm) of the left side of the neck. Following surgery, the orbital tumour was completely resected, and the large tumour invasion range in the left side of the neck was not resected completely. Histopathological examination revealed retinoblastoma of the orbit and the parotid and submandibular glands. After chemotherapy and additional local radiotherapy on the parotid and submandibular glands, the tumour was inactive and stable. Delayed detection and inappropriate management contribute to poor outcomes. Fundus examinations, education regarding the early signs of RB, and optimization of the therapeutic strategy for RB may play important roles in ocular health.

  4. Regulation of the retinoblastoma protein-related p107 by G1 cyclin complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, R.L.; Carlée, L.; Kerkhoven, R.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The orderly progression through the cell cycle is mediated by the sequential activation of several cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) complexes. These kinases phosphorylate a number of cellular substrates, among which is the product of the retinoblastoma gene, pRb. Phosphorylation of pRb in late

  5. Phacoemulsification and foldable acrylic IOL implantation in children with treated retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Beatriz Tartarella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the results of cataract surgery in children with radiation-induced cataract after treatment for retinoblastoma. METHODS: Retrospective interventional case series. Six consecutive patients diagnosed with secondary cataracts due to radiation therapy for retinoblastoma. Intervention: Phacoemulsification and foldable acrylic intraocular lens implantation. Outcomes measu- red: Visual acuity, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Aspirated lens material and aqueous humor samples were collected during surgery. RESULTS: Six uniocular children between 3 to 5 years of age at time of surgery were studied. The mean time interval between radiotherapy and cataract diagnosis was 22.3 months. The mean follow-up after surgery was 17.2 months (range: 12 to 23 months. All eyes achieved a clear visual axis after surgery allowing monitoring of the tumor status. None developed recurrence or retinoblastoma dissemination. Histopathological analysis of the aspired material showed no tumoral cells in all samples. All patients improved vision after cataract surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Phacoemulsification with acrylic intraocular lens implantation seems to be a safe, feasible, and effective method for the removal of radiation-induced cataracts in patients with treated retinoblastoma.

  6. Regional and temporal differences in gene expression of LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Samuel K; Pina, Yolanda; Clarke, Jennifer; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Scott, William K; Nathanson, Lubov; Schefler, Amy C; Murray, Timothy G

    2011-07-23

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate by microarray the hypothesis that LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma tumors exhibit regional and temporal variations in gene expression. LH(BETA)T(AG) mice aged 12, 16, and 20 weeks were euthanatized (n = 9). Specimens were taken from five tumor areas (apex, anterior lateral, center, base, and posterior lateral). Samples were hybridized to gene microarrays. The data were preprocessed and analyzed, and genes with a P 2.5 were considered to be differentially expressed. Differentially expressed genes were analyzed for overlap with known networks by using pathway analysis tools. There were significant temporal (P 2.5, there were significant changes in gene expression of 190 genes apically, 84 genes anterolaterally, 126 genes posteriorly, 56 genes centrally, and 134 genes at the base. Differentially expressed genes overlapped with known networks, with significant involvement in regulation of cellular proliferation and growth, response to oxygen levels and hypoxia, regulation of cellular processes, cellular signaling cascades, and angiogenesis. There are significant temporal and regional variations in the LH(BETA)T(AG) retinoblastoma model. Differentially expressed genes overlap with key pathways that may play pivotal roles in murine retinoblastoma development. These findings suggest the mechanisms involved in tumor growth and progression in murine retinoblastoma tumors and identify pathways for analysis at a functional level, to determine significance in human retinoblastoma. Microarray analysis of LH(BETA)T(AG) retinal tumors showed significant regional and temporal variations in gene expression, including dysregulation of genes involved in hypoxic responses and angiogenesis.

  7. Characterization, treatment and prognosis of retinoblastoma with central nervous system metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Weiling; Wang, Yizhuo; Huang, Dongsheng; Shi, Jitong; Li, Bin; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Yan

    2018-04-23

    Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor and more and more attention has been paid to the developing countries. This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of retinoblastoma patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastasis in Beijing Tongren Hospital, one of the largest tertiary eye centers in China. Clinical data of 31 consecutive retinoblastoma patients with CNS metastases, who were diagnosed at the Department of Pediatrics in Beijing Tongren Hospital between September 2005 and December 2015, were retrospective analyzed. The median age at presentation was 29 months (range from 5 to 108 months). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results indicated that 16 patients (56.6%, 16/31) presented with meningeal involvement, 12 (38.7%, 12/31) presented with intracranial mass, 11 (35.5%, 11/31) presented with thickened optic nerve, and 5 (16.1%, 5/31) presented with concurrent meningeal and spinal cord membrane involvement. Retinoblastoma cells were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 12 patients (44.4%, 12/27). Laboratory examinations on the blood and CSF were performed for 11 patients who had received six cycles of systemic chemotherapy, indicated that the serum level of neurone-specific enolase (NSE) after chemotherapy was significantly lower than that before chemotherapy (P < 0.05). At the end of the follow-up, 25 patients were dead with a median survival time of 6 months (1 d - 21 months), and 6 cases were alive and continued to receive treatment. Our results were basically consistent with previous reports in the developing countries, and it could be guidance for clinical treatment, prognosis and prevention of CNS metastases in retinoblastoma.

  8. Quality of Life Assessment in Retinoblastoma: A Cross-Sectional Study of 122 Survivors from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Atul; Kumari, Mamta; Paul, Reeja; Patekar, Mukesh; Dhawan, Deepa; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2016-02-01

    With current modalities, cure rates of retinoblastoma are high and hence the number of survivors is increasing. However, data on quality of life (QOL) are minimal. We analyzed QOL in 122 retinoblastoma survivors using the PedsQL(TM) 4.0 generic core scale. The self-reported questionnaire was filled by children of more than 5 years of age who had completed treatment for more than 12 months. The questionnaire consists of 23 questions on physical, social, emotional, and school domains on a scale from 0 to 4. This was converted to a scale from 0 to 100, where higher values represented better QOL. The QOL was compared with 50 siblings. Factors predicting the QOL were assessed. The median age of retinoblastoma survivors was 98 months (range 60-247) and 68% were males. Overall QOL was significantly poorer in retinoblastoma survivors as compared with the controls. The emotional health domain of QOL was significantly affected. Difficulties in maintaining friendships and competing were reported in the social health domain. The school health domain showed significantly higher absenteeism. However, the physical health domain, including household work, exercise, and self-care, was similar in both the groups. Lower age at diagnosis (≤ 18 months) predicted better QOL (P = 0.05), whereas age at assessment, sex, IRSS stage, and previous surgery and radiotherapy were not predictive of poor QOL. We found a significantly poorer QOL in retinoblastoma survivors with the psychosocial health domain being more affected than the physical domain. Age less than 18 months at diagnosis predicted better QOL. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Folate Decorated Nanomicelles Loaded with a Potent Curcumin Analogue for Targeting Retinoblastoma

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    Hashem Alsaab

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a novel folate receptor-targeted drug delivery system for retinoblastoma cells using a promising anticancer agent, curcumin-difluorinated (CDF, loaded in polymeric micelles. Folic acid was used as a targeting moiety to enhance the targeting and bioavailability of CDF. For this purpose, amphiphilic poly(styrene-co-maleic acid-conjugated-folic acid (SMA-FA was synthesized and utilized to improve the aqueous solubility of a highly hydrophobic, but very potent anticancer compound, CDF, and its targeted delivery to folate overexpressing cancers. The SMA-FA conjugate was first synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR and DSC. Furthermore, the chromatographic condition (HPLC for estimating CDF was determined and validated. The formulation was optimized to achieve maximum entrapment of CDF. The particle size of the micelles was measured and confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Cytotoxicity studies were conducted on (Y-79 and WERI-RB retinoblastoma cells. Results showed that the solubility of CDF could be increased with the newly-synthesized polymer, and the entrapment efficiency was >85%. The drug-loaded nanomicelles exhibited an appropriate size of <200 nm and a narrow size distribution. The formulation did not show any adverse cytotoxicity on a human retinal pigment epithelial cell (ARPE-19, indicating its safety. However, it showed significant cell killing activity in both Y-79 and WERI-RB retinoblastoma cell lines, indicating its potency in killing cancer cells. In conclusion, the folic acid-conjugated SMA loaded with CDF showed promising potential with high safety and pronounced anticancer activity on the tested retinoblastoma cell lines. The newly-formulated targeted nanomicelles thus could be a viable option as an alternative approach to current retinoblastoma therapies.

  10. Nutrição aplicada à atividade motora Nutrition applied to motor activity

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    Antonio Herbert Lancha Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A Nutrição aplicada a atividade motora se divide em quatro áreas do movimento humano, a saber: esporte, educação física, dança, recreação/lazer. Essa definição conceitual diferencia a população alvo da intervenção nutricional. O organismo humano sempre apresentou o movimento como parte de sua atividade cotidiana e selecionou evolutivamente os organismos mais econômicos. Em contrapartida por conta de demandas, sociais, financeiras dentre outras a vida moderna impôs o sedentarismo como padrão de comportamento motor que aliado ao padrão genético de economia resultaram nas doenças modernas como obesidade, diabetes, etc. Assim a sociedade institucionalizou o movimento humano criando manifestações distintas descritas acima e suas necessidades específicas passaram a ser de interesse acadêmico/cientifico. Nutricionalmente os estudos se concentram no balanço energético, na necessidade de carboidratos, proteínas, lipídios assim como dos micronutrientes e outros compostos biologicamente ativos. Estes estudos definem estas substancias sob critérios de essencialidade ou efeito ergogênico superior a capacidade fisiológica. O primeiro determina mudanças nas necessidades nutricionais e o segundo substâncias consideradas ilícitas. No presente momento grande parte da comunidade cientifica dedicada à nutrição aplicada à atividade motora, dirige sua vocação na tentativa de descobrir as necessidades específicas provocadas pela pratica regular da atividade motora permitindo seu exercício regular para que a mesma propicie os benefícios na manutenção da saúde de forma plena nas quatro áreas descritas acima.Nutrition applied to motor activity is divided in four areas of human movement, namely: sports, physical education, dance, recreation/leisure. This conceptual definition differentiates the target population of nutritional intervention. The human body has always presented the movement as part of their daily activity and

  11. Biotecnología aplicada al desarrollo agropecuario colombiano

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    Sandra Patrícia Montenegro Gómez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia tiene como objetivo para 2025, ubicarse entre los tres líderes del sector biotecnologicoen América Latina, para lo cual requiere conectarse con las tendencias mundiales enmarcadasen el desarrollo de actividades de bioprospeccion que actúen en armonía con el entorno ambiental garantizando la seguridad alimentara. Por lo tanto, las tendencias de consumo global en el mercado agrícola presentan nuevas oportunidades de negocios alrededor de bioinsumos, aditivos funcionales para alimentación animal, agricultura sostenible, bioremediacion de suelos y aguas, reproducción in vitro, semillas mejoradas con biotecnologías de punta; direccionadas a mejorar la calidad, el rendimiento y reducir al mínimo el uso de prácticas agrícolas tradicionales que consumen energía y contaminan el medio ambiente. Colombia actualmente cuenta con varios centros de investigación y universidades con dotación y capacidades para adelantar investigaciones en tecnologías de avanzada, pese a que existen estudios importantes en el campo agrícola y pecuario, el alcance de la bioprospeccion en el país es bajo, en comparación a otros países latinoamericanos, como Brasil con más de 800 centros de bioprospeccion, Costa Rica con 43, Colombia se encuentra en gran desventaja con alrededor de 20 centros, por lo tanto el esfuerzo para ubicarse a la vanguardia en investigación biotecnológica es muy grande y se requiere del fortalecimiento en investigación básica y aplicada, apoyada en implementacion de políticas institucionales de regulación y agilización de procesos biotecnológicos que desarrollen productos innovadores para que diferentes biotecnologías tengan éxito comercial, de acuerdo a los objetivos propuestos por el gobierno nacional.

  12. Combined chemotherapy and intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

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    Saerom Choi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Retinoblastoma (RB is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in children. Although systemic chemotherapy has been the primary treatment, intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC represents a new treatment option. Here, we performed alternate systemic chemotherapy and IAC and retrospectively reviewed the efficacy and safety of this approach. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; Patients diagnosed with intraocular RB between January 2000 and December 2011 at Severance Children’s Hospital, Yonsei University, were reviewed. Before February 2010, the primary treatment for RB was chemotherapy (non-IAC/CTX. Since February 2010, the primary treatment for RB has been IAC (IAC/CTX. External beam radiotherapy or high-dose chemotherapy (HDCTX were used as “last resort” treatments just prior to enucleation at the time of progression or recurrence during primary treatment. Enucleation-free survival (EFS and progression-free survival were assessed. &lt;b&gt; Results:&lt;/b&gt; We examined 19 patients (median age, 11.9 months; range, 1.4 to 75.6 months with a sum of 25 eyes, of which, 60.0% were at advanced Reese Ellsworth (RE stages. The enucleation rate was 33.3% at early RE stages and 81.8% at advanced RE stages (P =0.028. At 36 months, EFS was significantly higher in the IAC/CTX group than in the non-IAC/CTX group (100.0% vs. 40.0%, P=0.016. All 5 patients treated with IAC achieved eye preservation, although most patients were at advanced RE stages (IV-V. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; Despite the limitation of a small sample size, our work shows that an alternative combined approach using IAC and CTX may be safe and effective for eye preservation in advanced RB.

  13. Discharge and infection in retinoblastoma post-enucleation sockets

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    Mourits DL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Daphne L Mourits,1 Dyonne T Hartong,1 Andries E Budding,2 Machteld I Bosscha,1 H Stevie Tan,1 Annette C Moll1 1Department of Ophthalmology, VU University Medical Center, 2Department of Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: To investigate the causes and treatment options for socket discharge and infection in patients enucleated for retinoblastoma (Rb. Methods: A questionnaire was filled out by (parents of ocular prosthesis-wearing patients with a history of enucleation as treatment for Rb. We collected data on patients’ characteristics, cleaning habits of the prosthesis, frequency of socket irritation, discharge, and infection, and use of antibiotics. With ordinal logistic regression analysis, factors related to the outcome parameters (frequency of irritation, mucoid and purulent discharge were identified. In a subset of young asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, a swab culture of the socket was performed to determine the presence of microorganisms. Results: A total of 186 patients or their parents (mean age of the patients: 17.3 years, ranging from 0.8 to 88.3 years filled out the questionnaire. Irritation, mucoid discharge, and purulent discharge were frequently (once a month or more often experienced in 75 (39.5%, 127 (66.8%, and 15 (13.2% sockets, respectively. Younger age was associated with a higher frequency of mucoid and purulent discharge. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, gender, age at surgery, cleaning frequency, and nocturnal wear were not associated with the outcome parameters. In a subgroup of 26 patients, the sockets were swabbed and cultured. All symptomatic patients had a positive bacterial culture versus 15% (2/13 of the asymptomatic patients (P<0.001. Common cold was correlated with both symptoms and presence of bacteria. Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus were the species most frequently cultured. Conclusion: Ocular prosthesis-wearing patients often experienced mucoid

  14. Novas tecnologias aplicadas às embalagens de alimentos

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    Flávia De Floriani Pozza Rebello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o desenvolvimento da indústria de alimentos, as embalagens têm se aperfeiçoado, indo além de sua função básica de proteger o alimento contra danos mecânicos e contaminações químicas e microbiológicas. Elas têm cada vez mais desempenhando papel de destaque, contribuindo ativamente para a venda de um produto. Assim, as indústrias de embalagens têm procurado atender aos consumidores mais exigentes e juntamente aos centros de pesquisa e universidades, têm investido mais em estudos de novas tecnologias, a fim de prolongar as características de qualidade do alimento, conferir melhor aparência, maior proteção mecânica no embarque, transporte, desembarque e nos supermercados, oferecer embalagens mais compactas, que ocupem menos espaço na geladeira, com abertura e fechamento mais fáceis, e que utilizem materiais de fácil reciclagem ou decomposição no ambiente. Com o objetivo de atender às novas expectativas das indústrias de alimentos e dos consumidores, surgem as embalagens ativas e as embalagens inteligentes. As embalagens ativas são aquelas que interagem de alguma forma com o alimento, seja liberando substâncias conservantes ao longo da vida de prateleira do produto, ou “corrigindo” alguns problemas naturais do alimento, como sabor amargo por exemplo, em que algumas enzimas podem ser adicionadas ao material de embalagem, minimizando este problema e tornando o produto mais saboroso. Já as embalagens inteligentes indicam as modificações químicas às quais os alimentos estão passando, como mudanças de pH, por exemplo, indicando alterações na qualidade do produto.

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on retinoblastoma and on the normal ocular fundus in infants. A photographic and fluorescein angiographic study

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    Ehlers, N.; Kaae, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study is based on the experiences gained over a 20 year period (1963-83), where all cases of retinoblastoma in Denmark were treated by the authors. Fifty-seven children with 92 eyes affected by retinoblastoma were seen. Thirty-five children had bilateral retinoblastoma, while 22 had unilateral retinoblastoma. Among the unilateral cases, 20 eyes were primarily enucleated, 2 were irridiated but later excised. Among 35 children with bilateral retinoblastoma, 26 first eyes were primarily enucleated, while altogether 46 eyes were treated by ionizing radiation. The radiation treated cases were followed regularly by ophtalmoscopy, photography and flourescein angiography. The clinical appearance of the retinoblastoma and its response to radiation is described. Secondary tumours are localized more peripherally in the retina than the primary tumour. Early postradiation regression pattern are described and demonstrated to relate to tumour size, but not to retinal localization. A timetable is presented for the occurrence of radiation is presented for the occurrence of radiation induced changes, which in order of appearance comprise: calcification, tumour regression, snow-ball collaps, oedema around tumour, haemorrhage, ectatic vessels or neovascularization, vitreous haemorrhage and, eventually, recurrence of tumour. The post-radiation changes in the surrounding retina, choroid and optic nerve are reviewed and a timetable for the appearance of these changes presented. Radiation retinopathy comprises choriocapillary and pigment epithelium atrophy, retinal haemorrhage, exudates, papilloedema, peripapillar haemorrhage, subretinal exudates, narrow arteries, retinal eschemia, optic nerve atrophy, vascular ectasiae or proliferations and retinal detachment. (EG). 230 refs.

  16. Prognostic significance of NADPH oxidase-4 as an indicator of reactive oxygen species stress in human retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lata; Saini, Neeru; Pushker, Neelam; Sen, Seema; Sharma, Anjana; Kashyap, Seema

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to enhance the proliferation of cancer cells. NADPH oxidases (NOX4) are a major intracellular source of ROS and are found to be associated with cancer and tumor cell invasion. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the expression of NOX4 protein in human retinoblastoma. Immunohistochemical expression of NOX4 protein was analyzed in 109 specimens from prospective cases of retinoblastoma and then correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. Western blotting confirmed and validated the immunoreactivity of NOX4 protein. In our study we found a male preponderance (55.9 %), and 25/109 (22.9 %) were bilateral. Massive choroidal invasion was the histopathological high-risk factor (HRF) most frequently observed, in 42.2 % of the cases. NOX4 protein was expressed in 67.88 % (74/109) of primary retinoblastoma cases and was confirmed by Western blotting. NOX4 was statistically significant with massive choroidal invasion and pathological TNM staging. There was a statistically significant difference in overall survival in patients with NOX4 expression (p = 0.0461). This is the first study to show the expression of NOX4 protein in retinoblastoma tumors. Hence, a retinoblastoma tumor may exhibit greater ROS stress. This protein may prove to be useful as a future therapeutic target for improving the management of retinoblastoma.

  17. Novel miRNA-31 and miRNA-200a-Mediated Regulation of Retinoblastoma Proliferation

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    Montoya, Vanessa; Fan, Hanli; Bryar, Paul J.; Weinstein, Joanna L.; Mets, Marilyn B.; Feng, Gang; Martin, Joshua; Martin, Alissa; Jiang, Hongmei; Laurie, Nikia A.

    2015-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. Current management includes broad-based treatments such as chemotherapy, enucleation, laser therapy, or cryotherapy. However, therapies that target specific pathways important for retinoblastoma progression could provide valuable alternatives for treatment. MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNA transcripts that can regulate the expression of target genes, and their aberrant expression often facilitates disease. The identification of post-transcriptional events that occur after the initiating genetic lesions could further define the rapidly aggressive growth displayed by retinoblastoma tumors. In this study, we used two phenotypically different retinoblastoma cell lines to elucidate the roles of miRNA-31 and miRNA-200a in tumor proliferation. Our approach confirmed that miRNAs-31 and -200a expression is significantly reduced in human retinoblastomas. Moreover, overexpression of these two miRNAs restricts the expansion of a highly proliferative cell line (Y79), but does not restrict the growth rate of a less aggressive cell line (Weri1). Gene expression profiling of miRNA-31 and/or miRNA-200a-overexpressing cells identified differentially expressed mRNAs associated with the divergent response of the two cell lines. This work has the potential to enhance the development of targeted therapeutic approaches for retinoblastoma and improve the efficacy of treatment. PMID:26379276

  18. Retinoblastoma cells activate the AKT pathway and are vulnerable to the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chencheng; Freeman, Matthew J; Lu, Huarui; Wang, Xiaohong; Forster, Colleen L; Sarver, Aaron L; Hallstrom, Timothy C

    2017-06-13

    Retinoblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the retina most often caused by inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB1) tumor suppressor gene. We previously showed that Rb1 loss cooperates with either co-activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, or co-deleting Pten, to initiate retinoblastoma tumors in mice. The objectives of this study were to determine if the AKT pathway is activated in human retinoblastomas and the extent that anti-PI3K therapy induces apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells, alone or in combination with the DNA damaging drugs carboplatin and topotecan. Serial sections from human retinoblastoma tissue microarrays containing 27 tumors were stained with antibodies specific to p-AKT, Ki-67, forkhead box O1 (p-FOXO1), and ribosomal protein S6 (p-S6) using immunohistochemistry and each tumor sample scored for intensity. Human retinoblastoma tumors displayed significant correlation between p-AKT intensity with highly proliferative tumors (p = 0.008) that were also highly positive for p-FOXO1 (p = 0.002). Treatment with BEZ235, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, reduced phosphorylation levels of the AKT targets p-FOXO and p-S6 and effectively induced apoptosis the Y79 and Weri-1 human retinoblastoma cell lines and in vivo in our retinoblastoma mouse model. Long-term treatment with BEZ235 in vivo using our retinoblastoma-bearing mice induced apoptosis but did not significantly extend the lifespan of the mice. We then co-administered BEZ235 with topotecan and carboplatin chemotherapeutics in vivo, which more effectively induced apoptosis of retinoblastoma, but not normal retinal cells than either treatment alone. Our study has increased the variety of potentially effective targeted treatments that can be considered for human retinoblastoma.

  19. Postguerra y contracultura. Identidades en la ética aplicada

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    López de la Vieja de la Torre, M. Teresa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of cultural identities in Applied Ethics. Biotechnologies have been actually valued from different perspectives in Europe and in the United States. Since Nazi research and the politics of racial hygiene have shown the role of science under dictatorship. Nazi Doctors acted as soldiers. Therefore The Nürnberg Code claimed respect for human rights in Medicine, to protect individuals in clinical research. However American Doctors considered the Code suitable for a different context. Norms for a “barbaric” research, far away from the American standards. But in the United States radiations experiments have ignored laws and moral standards. Decades later, the Constitutional Treaty for the European Union emphasizes the value of dignity and personal integrity in the fields of Medicine and Biology. The informed consent and the prohibition of Eugenics connect then the future and the past.El artículo analiza el papel de las identidades culturales en la Ética aplicada. Las biotecnologías han sido valoradas efectivamente desde distintas perspectivas, en Europa y en Estados Unidos. Pues la investigación y la política de higiene racial durante el Nacionalsocialismo mostraron el papel desempeñado por la ciencia en la dictadura. Los médicos nazis actuaron como soldados. Por ello, el Código de Nürnberg reclamó respecto por los derechos humanos en Medicina, a fin de proteger a los ciudadanos en la investigación. Los médicos norteamericanos consideraron que el Código era adecuado para otro contexto, sin embargo. Normas para una investigación “bárbara”, alejada de los estándares americanos. Pero en Estados Unidos los experimentos con radiación ignoraron leyes y estándares morales. Décadas mas tarde, el Tratado constitucional para la Unión Europea insiste en el valor de la dignidad y de la integridad personal en Medicina y Biología. El consentimiento informado y la prohibición de practicas eugen

  20. Not All Seeds Are Created Equal: Seed Classification Is Predictive of Outcomes in Retinoblastoma.

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    Berry, Jesse L; Bechtold, Mercy; Shah, Sona; Zolfaghari, Emily; Reid, Mark; Jubran, Rima; Kim, Jonathan W

    2017-12-01

    Intravitreal chemotherapy has emerged as an important modality for treating vitreous seeding in retinoblastoma. A classification system has been described as predictive of response to intravitreal melphalan (IVM) in patients treated predominantly with primary intra-arterial chemotherapy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of retinoblastoma treated with intravenous chemotherapy and IVM as salvage for vitreous seeding, and further to determine whether vitreous seed classification (dust, spheres, cloud) is predictive of the total number and dose of IVM injections required for treatment in this cohort. A nonrandomized retrospective review. Retinoblastoma patients treated at a single center with intravenous chemotherapy and IVM. Retrospective review of patients with vitreous seeding from retinoblastoma treated with intravenous chemotherapy and IVM from 2012 to 2016. Primary outcome measure was eradication of seeds and globe salvage. Secondary measures included IVM-associated toxicity and complications. Overall, 28 eyes of 25 patients were included, with a total of 110 IVM injections. By seed classification, eyes with dust (n = 15) required a median of 3 injections, spheres (n = 8) required 4 injections, and clouds (n = 5) required 6 injections. Spherical seeds were only seen in recurrent vitreous seeding. Of the 28 treated eyes, 9 were enucleated, 6 for recurrent retinal disease, resulting in an overall globe salvage rate of 68%. The salvage rate secondary to active retinoblastoma was 79%. Dust classification was the most prevalent seeding type of the 9 enucleated eyes. There was 100% regression of vitreous seeds after intravitreal injection and no eye was treated with radiation or enucleated for seeding. Twelve eyes demonstrated grade 3 or greater IVM-associated retinal or anterior segment toxicity post injection. Mean follow-up was 33 months (range, 9-51 months). IVM is an effective treatment for vitreous seeding after intravenous chemotherapy

  1. Retinoblastoma Control With Primary Intra-arterial Chemotherapy: Outcomes Before and During the Intravitreal Chemotherapy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Alset, Adel E; Say, Emil Anthony T; Caywood, Emi; Jabbour, Pascal; Shields, Jerry A

    2016-09-01

    To compare outcomes of intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma as primary therapy before (Era I) and during (Era II) the intravitreal chemotherapy era. In this retrospective interventional case series at a tertiary referral center, 66 eyes of 66 patients with untreated unilateral retinoblastoma were used. intraarterial chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery under fluoroscopic guidance was performed using melphalan in every case, with additional topotecan as necessary. Intravitreal chemotherapy using melphalan and/or topotecan was employed as needed for active vitreous seeding. Globe salvage was measured based on the International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB) during two eras. The two eras encompassed 2008 to 2012 (intraarterial chemotherapy alone, Era I) and 2012 to 2015 (intraarterial chemotherapy plus intravitreal chemotherapy, Era II). Over this period, there were 66 patients with unilateral untreated retinoblastoma treated with primary intra-arterial chemotherapy. A comparison of features (Era I vs Era II) revealed no significant difference in mean patient age (24 vs 24 months), ICRB groups, mean largest tumor diameter (19 vs 17 mm), mean largest tumor thickness (10 vs 10 mm), vitreous seed presence (56% vs 59%), subretinal seed presence (67% vs 62%), retinal detachment (70% vs 66%), or vitreous hemorrhage (0% vs 5%). There was no significant difference in mean number of intra-arterial chemotherapy cycles (3 vs 3.1) or intraarterial chemotherapy dosages. Following therapy, there was a significant difference (Era I vs Era II) in the need for enucleation overall (44% vs 15%, P = .012), especially for group E eyes (75% vs 27%, P = .039). Four of the eyes that initiated therapy in Era I later required intravitreal chemotherapy during Era II. The enucleation rate was 0% for groups B and C in both eras and non-significant for group D (23% vs 13%). There were no patients with stroke, seizure, limb ischemia, extraocular tumor extension, secondary

  2. O termo estratégia: um conceito útil para a lingüística aplicada?

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    John Robert Schmitz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O termo estratégia é usado em certos casos na literatura especializada de lingüística aplicada sem muita precisão, pois, para alguns pesquisadores, ele é uma técnica; para outros, é método, de ensino e, para outros ainda, refere-se aos hábitos de estudo ou estilo cognitivo dos aprendizes. Outro problema é a pletora de estratégias propostas sem rigor na demarcação de diferenças: estratégias de comunicação (communication strategies, estratégias de aprendizagem (learning strategies, estratégias de aquisição (acquisition strategies e estratégias de ensino (teaching strategies. Apesar desses problemas, as pesquisas na área de estratégias são promissoras, já que o treinamento explícito em sua utilização ensina os aprendizes a: (i saber usar novas estratégias, (ii avaliar a eficiência de diferentes tipos; e (iii decidir quando é procedente transferir uma determinada estratégia para uma nova situação.

  3. O conceito de lucro econômico no âmbito da contabilidade aplicada

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    Alessandra Hirano Fuji

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da Ciência Contábil e as definições de elementos financeiros, notadamente o lucro, são de grande relevância não somente para os estudiosos do meio acadêmico, mas também para aqueles que atuam no mercado financeiro e trabalham com as questões práticas da Contabilidade. O lucro contábil, que constitui basicamente o confronto entre receita realizada e custo consumido, é respaldado pelo conservadorismo, convenção da objetividade e Princípios Contábeis Geralmente Aceitos. O lucro econômico, que é o incremento do valor presente do patrimônio líquido, envolve aspectos subjetivos, mas é superior ao lucro contábil, mormente no processo decisório dos usuários internos e externos. A questão de pesquisa é se o conceito de lucro econômico encontra-se realmente difundido entre os profissionais da área contábil. O objetivo do trabalho é enfatizar a importância do conceito de lucro econômico e verificar qual o grau de assimilação, utilização e divulgação do conceito no âmbito da Contabilidade Aplicada. O trabalho, baseado em revisão da literatura e estudo exploratório mostra que o conceito de lucro econômico não é plenamente conhecido e utilizado pelos usuários da contabilidade.The study of accounting theory and the definitions of financial elements, especially profit, is highly relevant not only for academics, but also for those directly involved in practical activities related to applied accounting. Accounting profit is the confrontation between revenue and cost and is based on conservatism, objectivity and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. Economic profit is the increase in the equity's present value and involves subjective aspects, but it is better than accounting profit, mainly in the context of internal and external users' decisionmaking process. The research question is whether the concept of economic profit is really widespread among accounting professionals. This study aims to emphasize the

  4. O combate ao escorpionismo

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    Octavio de Magalhães

    1946-09-01

    Full Text Available O outor estuda os processos de combate aos acidentes pelas picadas dos escorpiões, visando: a Profilaxia e b Terapêutica. Refere-se à luta nos campos e nas cidades e aqui, dentro e fora dos domicílios. Assinala os diferentes métodos para o combate a êsses artrópodos peçonhentos. Fala na luta direta, indireta, na vacinação pelo anaveneno, na propaganda pela educação racional da população contra o perigo dos acidentes. Refere-se à "cata" dos escorpiões, à luta química, ao emprêgo de animais escorpiófagos, á feitura de casas e jardins anti-escorpiões. Na primeira parte do presente trabalho o autor trata da luta química pelo d. D. T. contra os tityus bahiensis e serrulatus, concluindo que êste corpo químico é um poderoso elemento de luta contra êstes escorpiões. Na segunda parte do trabalho, o autor trata da terapêutica dos acidentes. Mostra a necessidade do emprêgo convenientemente da única terapêutica racional e eficaz contra a intoxicação escorpiônica: a soroterapia específica. Assinala a necessidade da injeção de doses maciças de um sôro de alta valência, preparado em bovídeos, para evitar o mais possível o choque anafilático, no menor tempo possível após as picadas. Aconselha o empêgo de anaveneno escorpiônico, para vacinação principalmente de crianças de baixa idade, nos lugares fortemente infestados pelos escorpiões (principalmente Tityus serrulatus, maximé quando no local não houver sôro anti-escorpiônico específico, como meio preventivo contra a gravidade das intoxicações. Cita finalmente os trabalhos recentes de Grasset, Shaasfsma e Hodgson, na África do Sul, que confirmam muitas idéias do autor e mostram a unidade universal do síndromo escorpiônico descrito no Brasil.

  5. ESTRATÉGIAS DE ENSINO APLICADAS NA ÁREA DA CONTABILIDADE GERENCIAL: UM ESTUDO COM DISCENTES DO CURSO DE CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvalda Araújo Leal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar, na percepção dos discentes do curso de Graduação em Ciências Contábeis, quais as principais estratégias de ensino aplicadas na educação contábil na área de Contabilidade Gerencial e que geram maior eficácia ao aprendizado. O estudo classifica-se como descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, utilizando-se do levantamento, com a aplicação de um questionário. A amostra é composta por 271 estudantes matriculados entre o quinto e decimo período do curso de Ciências Contábeis vinculados a duas instituições de ensino, uma pública e outra privada, localizadas na cidade de Uberlândia-MG. Para a análise dos resultados, utilizaram-se a estatística descritiva e o teste não paramétrico Mann Whitney. Os resultados evidenciaram que as estratégias de ensino que os discentes consideram mais significativos para o aprendizado na contabilidade gerencial são aquelas comumente utilizadas pelos docentes, quais sejam: Trabalho em Grupo/Seminário; Leitura/Estudo Dirigido e Aula Expositiva, tais resultados são convergentes com estudos correlatos sobre a temática. Verificou-se na percepção dos discentes que os fatores que influenciam na escolha da estratégia de ensino aplicadas nas disciplinas na área de contabilidade gerencial, estão relacionados, principalmente, à experiência didática do docente e aos objetivos educacionais determinados para as disciplinas.

  6. REDES TECNOLÓGICAS APLICADAS EM EaD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suélly Lima dos Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o advento da internet e o aparecimento das novas tecnologias educacionais, conjunto de informações e comunicações (telefone, internet, rádio, vídeo, computador e televisão, ultrapassaram as fronteiras das quatro paredes da sala de aula, surgindo ambientes virtuais direcionadas à ampliação da participação dos serviços públicos relacionados ao ensino. À educação e à formação técnica e profissional permitiu-se o aumento da interatividade através da tecnologia, promovendo maneiras de acesso ao aluno utilizando computadores e/ou dispositivos móveis que viabiliza a Educação à Distância (EaD. Devido o grande crescimento do ensino à distância, as instituições já utilizam redes de dados para ampliar o acesso de aprendizagem. Com este espantoso aumento das redes, e da acelerada transmissão de informações aprender como elas funcionam é muito importante, além do mais usando a própria tecnologia para este fim. Como conclusão deste trabalho as mudanças relâmpadas da grande disponibilidade de dados no ambiente virtual é de enorme valia para o processo ensino-aprendizado.

  7. Post-radiation retinal infiltrates simulating recurrent retinoblastoma: a clinical and pathologic case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judisch, G.F.; Folberg, R.

    1987-01-01

    An 8-month-old boy was found to have a sporadic unilateral stage IIa retinoblastoma, extending inferiorly and temporally from the right fovea. Within 5 weeks of diagnosis the tumor was treated with 4500 rads fractionated over 20 treatments. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) 1 month later revealed unequivocal clinical and echographic evidence of tumor regression. EUA 3 months after completion of radiation therapy revealed continued tumor regression with no evidence of new tumor formation. The third EUA, performed 6 months after radiation treatment, showed that multiple discreet gray-white retinal infiltrates had developed, predominantly in the area immediately below the regressed tumor. Because of concern that these lesions represented viable retinoblastoma, the eye was enucleated. Pathologic examination of these lesions revealed them to be collections of foamy cells containing melanin granules suggestive of pigment epithelial origin

  8. A palliative approach for rehabilitation of a pediatric patient with retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshi Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is a highly malignant neoplasm. Most of the cases are usually far advanced at the time of detection, requiring enucleation to salvage the child′s life. However, the cosmetic rehabilitation of these patients should always be an integral part of their treatment, which helps in their re-integration in the society. This paper presents a case of 5-year-old patient who had undergone enucleation of her left eye due to retinoblastoma. A multidisciplinary approach, including ophthalmologist, psychotherapist, and a prosthodontist, was adopted to meet her physical, psychological, functional, emotional, social, and cosmetic demands. The patient was rehabilitated cosmetically with precisely fabricated ocular prosthesis. An ocular prosthesis is a highly positive and non-invasive approach to improve the cosmetic appearance and psychological well-being of patient.

  9. A palliative approach for rehabilitation of a pediatric patient with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Raghuwar Dayal; Gupta, Sanjiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is a highly malignant neoplasm. Most of the cases are usually far advanced at the time of detection, requiring enucleation to salvage the child's life. However, the cosmetic rehabilitation of these patients should always be an integral part of their treatment, which helps in their re-integration in the society. This paper presents a case of 5-year-old patient who had undergone enucleation of her left eye due to retinoblastoma. A multidisciplinary approach, including ophthalmologist, psychotherapist, and a prosthodontist, was adopted to meet her physical, psychological, functional, emotional, social, and cosmetic demands. The patient was rehabilitated cosmetically with precisely fabricated ocular prosthesis. An ocular prosthesis is a highly positive and non-invasive approach to improve the cosmetic appearance and psychological well-being of patient.

  10. Novel function of the retinoblastoma protein in fat: regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B; te Riele, Hein; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2004-01-01

    The differentiation of white and brown fat cells is controlled by a similar set of transcription factors, including PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. However, despite many similarities between the two types of fat cells, they carry out essentially opposite functions in vivo, with white adipocytes being...... the major energy store and brown adipocytes being potent energy-dissipaters through thermogenesis. Yet, little is known about factors differentially regulating the formation of white and brown fat cells. Members of the retinoblastoma protein family (pRB, p107, p130) have been implicated in the regulation...... in the regulation of white versus brown adipocyte differentiation in vitro and possibly in vivo. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the retinoblastoma protein in fat cells, with particular emphasis on its potential role in adipocyte lineage commitment and differentiation....

  11. Loss of the retinoblastoma protein-related p130 protein in small cell lung carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Holm, K; Niebuhr, A

    1997-01-01

    107, or p130 leads to growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and this arrest is abolished by complex formation with the adenovirus E1A, human papilloma virus E7, or simian virus 40 T oncoproteins. Inactivation of pRB by gross structural alterations or point mutations in the RB-1 gene has...... been described in a variety of human tumors, including retinoblastomas, osteosarcomas, and small cell lung carcinomas. Despite the structural and functional similarity between pRB, p107, and p130, alterations in the latter two proteins have not been identified in human tumors. We have screened a panel......RB but also the other members of the family may contribute to tumorigenesis, providing a rationale for the observation that the DNA tumor viruses selectively target all the members of the retinoblastoma protein family....

  12. Retinoblastoma protein directly interacts with and activates the transcription factor NF-IL6.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, P L; Riley, D J; Chen-Kiang, S; Lee, W H

    1996-01-01

    The biological function of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) in the cell division cycle has been extensively documented, but its apparent role in differentiation remains largely unexplored. To investigate how RB is involved in differentiation, the U937 large-cell lymphoma line was induced to differentiate along a monocyte/macrophage lineage. During differentiation RB was found to interact directly through its simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T antigen)-binding domain with NF-IL6, a member o...

  13. Tetramethylpyrazine-mediated regulation of CXCR4 in retinoblastoma is sensitive to cell density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nandan; Xu, Lijun; Yang, Ying; Yu, Na; Zhang, Zhang; Chen, Pei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Mingjun; Yuan, Meng; Ge, Jian; Yu, Keming; Zhuang, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common ocular tumor in children, and it causes extensive damage. Current treatment options for retinoblastoma include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the majority of chemotherapy medicines cause complications and side effects that lead to severe impairment of patient health. Previous studies have reported that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), which is an extract of the Chinese herbal medicine Chuanxiong, reduces the risk of multidrug resistance in chemotherapy and inhibits the proliferation and metastasis of various types of cancer cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of TMP in retinoblastoma remains unclear. The current study demonstrated that C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) was expressed in WERI‑Rb1 cells and in retinoblastoma. Using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting techniques, the current study demonstrated that TMP significantly downregulated the expression of CXCR4 in WERI‑Rb1 cells cultured at high density, whereas it had a minor effect in low‑density WERI‑Rb1 cells; additionally, this effect occurred in a time‑dependent manner. TMP inhibited the proliferation of WERI‑Rb1 cells as effectively as a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, consistent with a role of CXCR4 in cancer development. Notably, TMP did not affect the cell cycle of cells cultured at low density (1x105 cells/ml), whereas it induced G1‑phase arrest in high‑density cells (7.5x105 cells/ml; Pretinoblastoma, and also provides novel insights into the mechanisms of the anti‑cancer and neuroprotective effects of this extract.

  14. The retinoblastoma protein binds to a family of E2F transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, J A; Saito, M; Vidal, M

    1993-01-01

    for E2F-2 and E2F-3 were mapped to 1p36 and 6q22, respectfully, confirming their independence from E2F-1. However, the E2F-2 and E2F-3 proteins are closely related to E2F-1. Both E2F-2 and E2F-3 bound to wild-type but not mutant E2F recognition sites, and they bound specifically to the retinoblastoma...

  15. Spontaneously resolving periocular erythema and ciliary madarosis following intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Marr Brian; Gobin Pierre; Dunkel Ira; Brodie Scott; Abramson David

    2010-01-01

    Purpose and Design: To describe an unusual clinical finding seen in children undergoing intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 69 eyes of 63 patients receiving intra-arterial chemotherapy over a 3-year period. Charts and photographs of 69 consecutive cases were reviewed, and data were collected on patients with clinical evidence of a hyperemic cutaneous periocular abnormality following the procedure. Results: A blanching erythemat...

  16. MINERAÇÃO DE DADOS APLICADA A RELAÇÃO CLIENTES E PAGAMENTOS – ESTUDO BIBLIOMÉTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Dias Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Database e a Mineração de Dados incluem tarefas e métodos para extração de conhecimento útil, interessante e indispensável na tomada de decisões rápidas nas mais diversas áreas de conhecimento. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo nortear o leitor na vasta relação de trabalhos que se utilizam desta importante ferramenta e apontar as principais publicações de Mineração de Dados utilizadas na relação clientes e pagamentos, no âmbito público e privado, além de propor chaves de pesquisa que possam contribuir para a obtenção de trabalhos relacionados com objetivo de facilitar as buscas pertinentes a este importante assunto. Quanto à metodologia, foram pesquisadas as publicações relacionadas às técnicas de Mineração de Dados aplicadas a base de dados tributária pertencente a entidades governamentais estendendo-se analogamente aos trabalhos similares na área privada. A base de dados utilizada para este estudo foi a SCOPUS no período de janeiro de 1999 a março de 2012. Dentre os 927 resultados obtidos, tem merecido destaque o setor de pagamentos eletrônicos via cartões de crédito e a rede neural artificial como técnica aplicada com maior sucesso. O idioma mais utilizado para a confecção das publicações foi o inglês. Os resultados apresentados contribuem no sentido de direcionar os autores quanto às áreas mais carentes de trabalhos científicos aplicados a Mineração de Dados, os países e idiomas com maior número de publicações, contribuindo de forma direcionada para o enriquecimento de trabalhos futuros.

  17. Clinical presentation of intraocular retinoblastoma; 5-year hospital-based registry in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zomor, Hossam; Nour, Radwa; Alieldin, Adel; Taha, Hala; Montasr, Mohamed M; Moussa, Emad; El Nadi, Enas; Ezzat, Sameera; Alfaar, Ahmad S

    2015-12-01

    To study the presenting signs of Retinoblastoma in Egypt at Egypt's main pediatric oncology referral center. This is a prospective descriptive study (hospital-based registry) conducted at Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt between July 2007 and December 2012. Out of 262 patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma, 244 were suffering from intra-ocular disease at presentation. One hundred thirty-nine (57%) patients presented with unilateral disease, while 105 (43%) suffered bilateral disease. The mean age at presentation was 20.6 ± 17 months, averaging 18.87 ± 11.76 months for bilateral and 25.72 ± 18.78 months for unilateral disease. The most common clinical presentation was leukocoria in 180 (73.8%) patients, strabismus in 32 (13.1%) patients and decreased visual acuity in 12 (4.9%) patients. Group D and E disease represented 62% of all affected eyes. Patients with advanced disease (Group C-E) had longer duration of symptoms. In Egypt, retinoblastoma patients present more frequently with advanced disease. There is an ever-increasing need to develop a national team dedicated to studying disease significance and formulating a national awareness program. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical presentation of intraocular retinoblastoma; 5-year hospital-based registry in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zomor, H.; Nour, R.; Alieldin, A.; Taha, H.; Montasr, M.M.; Moussa, E.; El Nadi, E.; Alfaar, A.S.; Alfaar, A.S.; El Zomor, H.; Taha, H.; Alieldin, A.; Montasr, M.M.; Moussa, E.; El Nadi, E.; Ezzat, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the presenting signs of Retinoblastoma in Egypt at Egypt’s main pediatric oncology referral center. Methods: This is a prospective descriptive study (hospital-based registry) conducted at Children’s Cancer Hospital Egypt between July 2007 and December 2012. Results: Out of 262 patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma, 244 were suffering from intra-ocular disease at presentation. One hundred thirty-nine (57%) patients presented with unilateral disease, while 105 (43%) suffered bilateral disease. The mean age at presentation was 20.6 ± 17 months, averaging 18.87 ± 11.76 months for bilateral and 25.72 ± 18.78 months for unilateral disease. The most common clinical presentation was leukocoria in 180 (73.8%) patients, strabismus in 32 (13.1%) patients and decreased visual acuity in 12 (4.9%) patients. Group D and E disease represented 62% of all affected eyes. Patients with advanced disease (Group C–E) had longer duration of symptoms.Conclusion: In Egypt, retinoblastoma patients present more frequently with advanced disease. There is an ever-increasing need to develop a national team dedicated to studying disease significance and formulating a national awareness program.

  19. The retinoblastoma gene family in cell cycle regulation and suppression of tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Jan-Hermen; te Riele, Hein P J

    2006-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1986, as the first tumor suppressor gene, the retinoblastoma gene (Rb) has been extensively studied. Numerous biochemical and genetic studies have elucidated in great detail the function of the Rb gene and placed it at the heart of the molecular machinery controlling the cell cycle. As more insight was gained into the genetic events required for oncogenic transformation, it became clear that the retinoblastoma gene is connected to biochemical pathways that are dysfunctional in virtually all tumor types. Besides regulating the E2F transcription factors, pRb is involved in numerous biological processes such as apoptosis, DNA repair, chromatin modification, and differentiation. Further complexity was added to the system with the discovery of p107 and p130, two close homologs of Rb. Although the three family members share similar functions, it is becoming clear that these proteins also have unique functions in differentiation and regulation of transcription. In contrast to Rb, p107 and p130 are rarely found inactivated in human tumors. Yet, evidence is accumulating that these proteins are part of a "tumor-surveillance" mechanism and can suppress tumorigenesis. Here we provide an overview of the knowledge obtained from studies involving the retinoblastoma gene family with particular focus on its role in suppressing tumorigenesis.

  20. Tumorspheres but Not Adherent Cells Derived from Retinoblastoma Tumors Are of Malignant Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Wesley S.; Akinfenwa, Patricia Y.; Perlaky, Laszlo; Hurwitz, Mary Y.

    2013-01-01

    Verification that cell lines used for cancer research are derived from malignant cells in primary tumors is imperative to avoid invalidation of study results. Retinoblastoma is a childhood ocular tumor that develops from loss of functional retinoblastoma protein (pRb) as a result of genetic or epigenetic changes that affect both alleles of the RB1 gene. These patients contain unique identifiable genetic signatures specifically present in malignant cells. Primary cultures derived from retinoblastoma tumors can be established as non-adherent tumorspheres when grown in defined media or as attached monolayers when grown in serum-containing media. While the RB1 genotypes of tumorspheres match those of the primary tumor, adherent cultures have the germline RB1 genotype. Tumorspheres derived from pRb-negative tumors do not express pRb and express the neuroendocrine tumor markers synaptophysin and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Adherent cells are synaptophysin-negative and express pRb, the epithelial cell marker cytokeratin that is expressed in the retinal pigmented epithelium and the vascular endothelial cell marker CD34. While tumorspheres are of malignant origin, our results cast doubt on the assumption that adherent tumor-derived cultures are always valid in vitro models of malignant cells and emphasize the need for validation of primary tumor cultures. PMID:23826078

  1. The human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB1): an evolutionary story in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria C; Tavares, William C; Brant, Ayslan C; Boroni, Mariana; Seuánez, Héctor N

    2017-06-01

    The tumor suppressor gene RB1 (Human Retinoblastoma Susceptibility Gene) plays a prominent role in normal development, gene transcription, DNA replication, repair, and mitosis. Its complete biallelic dysfunction in retinoblasts is the main cause of retinoblastoma in the human. Although this gene has been evolutionary conserved, comparisons between the reference and human RB1 coding region with its counterparts in 19 non-human primates showed 359 sites where nucleotide replacements took place during the radiation of these species. These resulted in missense substitutions in 97 codons, 91 of which by amino acids with radically different physicochemical properties. Several in frame deletions and two insertions were also observed in the N-terminal region of the pRB protein where the highest number of amino acid substitutions and radical amino changes were found. Fifty-six codons were inferred to be under negative selection and five under positive selection. Differences in codon usage showed evident phylogenetic signals, with hominids generally presenting higher indices of codon bias than other catarrhines. The lineage leading to platyrrhines and, within platyrrhines, the lineage leading to Saimiri boliviensis showed a high rate of nucleotide substitutions and amino acids. Finally, several RB1 alterations associated to retinoblastoma in the human were present in several non-human primates without an apparent pathological effect.

  2. Preclinical platform of retinoblastoma xenografts recapitulating human disease and molecular markers of dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Pasto, Guillem; Olaciregui, Nagore G; Vila-Ubach, Monica; Paco, Sonia; Monterrubio, Carles; Rodriguez, Eva; Winter, Ursula; Batalla-Vilacis, Mireia; Catala, Jaume; Salvador, Hector; Parareda, Andreu; Schaiquevich, Paula; Suñol, Mariona; Mora, Jaume; Lavarino, Cinzia; de Torres, Carmen; Chantada, Guillermo L; Carcaboso, Angel M

    2016-09-28

    Translational research in retinoblastoma - a pediatric tumor that originates during the development of the retina - would be improved by the creation of new patient-derived models. Using tumor samples from enucleated eyes we established a new battery of preclinical models that grow in vitro in serum-free medium and in vivo in immunodeficient mice. To examine whether the new xenografts recapitulate human disease and disseminate from the retina to the central nervous system, we evaluated their histology and the presence of molecular markers of dissemination that are used in the clinical setting to detect extraocular metastases. We evaluated GD2 synthase and CRX as such markers and generated a Taqman real-time quantitative PCR method to measure CRX mRNA for rapid, sensitive and specific quantification of local and metastatic tumor burden. This approach was able to detect 1 human retinoblastoma cell in 100.000 mouse brain cells. Our research adds novel preclinical tools for the discovery of new retinoblastoma treatments for clinical translation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic testing in infantile spasms identifies a chromosome 13q deletion and retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin; Minassian, Berge A

    2014-05-01

    Infantile spasms is an epileptic encephalopathy and the common final manifestation of numerous disparate insults to the developing brain during infancy. The varied etiologies may be structural, metabolic, genetic, or unknown. Etiological diagnosis is important as it may lead to specific therapy, which may affect developmental outcome. We report a case of infantile spasms of unknown etiology with dysmorphic features, in which genetic copy number variation microarray testing was included in the investigation of the cause of the disease. A large deletion of chromosome 13 was identified in the region 13q13 to 13q21.3 encompassing the retinoblastoma gene (13q14.2). Urgent ophthalmological evaluation revealed an asymptomatic retinoblastoma of the left eye, leading to early treatment. This is the first case report of infantile spasms specifically associated with a chromosome 13q deletion. Chromosomal region 13q13 to 13q21.3 may contain one or more genes whose hemizygous loss leads to infantile spasms. Copy number variation testing for cryptogenic infantile spasms led to the discovery of a mutation responsible for retinoblastoma, enabling early diagnosis and treatment of a potentially life-threatening cancer. High-sensitivity molecular diagnosis improves health care and substantially reduces expenses. This shift in diagnostic evaluation is broadly relevant to health care. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long non-coding RNA H19 suppresses retinoblastoma progression via counteracting miR-17-92 cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihui; Shang, Weiwei; Nie, Qiaoli; Li, Ting; Li, Suhui

    2018-04-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequently dysregulated and play important roles in many cancers. lncRNA H19 is one of the earliest discovered lncRNAs which has diverse roles in different cancers. However, the expression, roles, and action mechanisms of H19 in retinoblastoma are still largely unknown. In this study, we found that H19 is downregulated in retinoblastoma tissues and cell lines. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function assays showed that H19 inhibits retinoblastoma cell proliferation, induces retinoblastoma cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, we identified seven miR-17-92 cluster binding sites on H19, and found that H19 directly bound to miR-17-92 cluster via these seven binding sites. Through binding to miR-17-92 cluster, H19 relieves the suppressing roles of miR-17-92 cluster on p21. Furthermore, H19 represses STAT3 activation induced by miR-17-92 cluster. Hence, our results revealed that H19 upregulates p21 expression, inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation, and downregulates the expression of STAT3 target genes BCL2, BCL2L1, and BIRC5. In addition, functional assays demonstrated that the mutation of miR-17-92 cluster binding sites on H19 abolished the proliferation inhibiting, cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis inducing roles of H19 in retinoblastoma. In conclusion, our data suggested that H19 inhibits retinoblastoma progression via counteracting the roles of miR-17-92 cluster, and implied that enhancing the action of H19 may be a promising therapeutic strategy for retinoblastoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Outcome of Retinoblastoma Following Limited Sessions of Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Ghanaati, Hossein; Karkhaneh, Reza; Boujabadi, Leila; Tabatabaie, Seied Zia; Rajabi, Mohammad Taher

    2014-01-01

    The management of retinoblastoma remains a challenge to the multidisciplinary team, particularly as treatment affects not only visual outcomes, but also ocular retention and morbidity. Management of retinoblastoma has evolved over the past two decades. To report the result of intra-ophthalmic artery chemotherapy (IAC) for the treatment of refractory and advanced retinoblastoma tumors. All patients who had failed to respond adequately to previous treatments and six naive patients with advanced retinoblastoma, receiving IAC between 2009 and 2012, were included in this institutional interventional case series. The patients received 1-2 treatments of IAC given 4-8 weeks apart. Complete response was defined as regressed tumor and complete disappearance of seeding clinically and partial response was defined as partial regression of the tumor with live parts of the tumor and/or lessening of seeds, but not complete disappearance of them clinically. A total of 24 eyes of 24 patients were treated with IAC during the study period. The mean age at the time of IAC was 38.9 months (14-120 months), and the mean follow-up was 16.8 months (3-36 months) after IAC. Tumor control was achieved in 14 eyes (58.3%). Type 3 (combined fleshy and calcified remnants) was the most common type of regression (37.5%). Complications included vitreous hemorrhage in nine eyes (37.5%), arterial occlusion in two (8.3%), cyclitic membrane possibly secondary to ischemia and tractional retinal detachment in one patient (4.2%), chorioretinal atrophy in three (12.5%) patients, and neovascular glaucoma in one eye (4.2%). In eight (33.3%) patients, no complication happened. Globe salvage was achieved in 62.5% of the cases. The success rate for naive patients was 84%. Sixty-seven percent of the cases received transpupillary thermotherapy and cryotherapy before IAC. Intra-ophthalmic artery melphalan is an effective treatment for advanced cases of retinoblastoma, with a reasonable level of success. In the short

  6. STAT3 inhibition suppresses proliferation of retinoblastoma through down-regulation of positive feedback loop of STAT3/miR-17-92 clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Cho, Chang Sik; Cho, Young-Lai; Jun, Hyoung Oh; Yu, Young Suk; Min, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Jeong Hun

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma, the most common intraocular malignant tumor in children, is characterized by the loss of both functional alleles of RB1 gene, which however alone cannot maintain malignant characteristics of retinoblastoma cells. Nevertheless, the investigation of other molecular aberrations such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and miRNAs is still lacking. In this study, we demonstrate that STAT3 is activated in retinoblastoma cells, Ki67-positive areas of in vivo orthotopic tumors in BALB/c nude mice, and human retinoblastoma tissues of the advanced stage. Furthermore, target genes of STAT3 including BCL2, BCL2L1, BIRC5, and MMP9 are up-regulated in retinoblastoma cells compared to other retinal constituent cells. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition by targeted siRNA suppresses the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells and the formation of in vivo orthotopic tumors. In line with these results, STAT3 siRNA effectively induces down-regulation of target genes of STAT3. In addition, miRNA microarray analysis and further real-time PCR experiments with STAT3 siRNA treatment show that STAT3 activation is related to the up-regulation of miR-17-92 clusters in retinoblastoma cells via positive feedback loop between them. In conclusion, we suggest that STAT3 inhibition could be a potential therapeutic approach in retinoblastoma through the suppression of tumor proliferation. PMID:25359779

  7. Linguística Aplicada: uma ciência pós-moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Lima de Barros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de apresentar o que é Linguística Aplicada, baseando-se em suas práticas atuais na sociedade e em seu objeto de pesquisa, defendemos que a linguística aplicada é uma ciência pós-moderna que tem o objetivo de investigar os atuais e constantes avanços da linguagem. Veremos aqui que a linguística aplicada não trabalha em um único campo. Como ciência interdisciplinar a linguística aplicada conhecida também como LA, investiga a linguagem por meio de várias áreas, tais como: a filosofia, a sociologia, a psicologia entre outras. Com base em alguns teóricos da LA e nos conceitos de pós-modernidade definidos por alguns sociólogos contemporâneos, apresentamos a LA como uma ciência pós-moderna.

  8. Efeito de cargas aplicadas e profundidades de semeadura no desenvolvimento da cultura do feijão em sistema plantio direto Effect of loads applied and depths of sowing in the development of bean culture in no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir José Modolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os fatores primordiais para a germinação estão a umidade, a temperatura e a aeração do solo. É importante citar que esses fatores são diretamente influenciados pelo estado de compactação do solo ao redor da semente. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, estudar os efeitos da combinação entre profundidades de semeadura e cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora da semeadora-adubadora sobre o desenvolvimento da cultura do feijão, em sistema plantio direto. Foi utilizado o esquema fatorial no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, composto por doze tratamentos (três profundidades de semeadura e quatro níveis de cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que a profundidade de semeadura influenciou, significativamente, o índice de velocidade de emergência, os estandes inicial e final de plantas e o rendimento da cultura. As diferentes cargas aplicadas pela roda compactadora não influenciaram significativamente as variáveis avaliadas.Among the primordial factors for the germination are humidity, temperature, and aeration of the soil. It is important to mention that these factors are directly influenced by the soil compaction state around the seed. The present paper had the aim of studying the effects of the combination between depths of sowing and loads applied by press wheel of the seeder upon the development of bean culture, in a no-tillage system. Factor schedule was applied to the delineation in random blocks composed by twelve treatments (three depths of sowing and four levels of loads applied by the press wheel and four replications. The results showed that depth of sowing significantly influenced the index of emergency speed, the initial and final stands of plants and yield of culture. The different loads applied for the press wheel did not significantly influence the evaluated variables.

  9. Downregulation of HDAC9 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor formation by inducing cell cycle arrest in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiting; Wu, Dan; Xia, Fengjie; Xian, Hongyu; Zhu, Xinyue; Cui, Hongjuan; Huang, Zhenping

    2016-04-29

    Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) is a member of class II HDACs, which regulates a wide variety of normal and abnormal physiological functions. Recently, HDAC9 has been found to be overexpressed in some types of human cancers. However, the role of HDAC9 in retinoblastoma remains unclear. In this study, we found that HDAC9 was commonly expressed in retinoblastoma tissues and HDAC9 was overexpressed in prognostically poor retinoblastoma patients. Through knocking down HDAC9 in Y79 and WERI-Rb-1 cells, the expression level of HDAC9 was found to be positively related to cell proliferation in vitro. Further investigation indicated that knockdown HDAC9 could significantly induce cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in retinoblastoma cells. Western blot assay showed downregulation of HDAC9 could significantly decrease cyclin E2 and CDK2 expression. Lastly, xenograft study in nude mice showed that downregulation of HDAC9 inhibited tumor growth and development in vivo. Therefore, our results suggest that HDAC9 could serve as a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EpCAM antibody-conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles to enhance the anticancer efficacy of carboplatin in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Meng, Bo; Yu, Yangyang; Wang, Shaowei

    2017-07-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a rare type of tumor which occurs in the intraocular spaces of eye. Carboplatin (CRB) has been used for the treatment of RB along with focal therapy. In this study, we have demonstrated the preparation of EpCAM-conjugated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for the successful delivery of carboplatin (CRB) to the retinoblastoma cells. The particles size and morphology was nanosized and spherical and exhibited a controlled release kinetics. Cellular uptake studies reveal that enhanced internalization was observed for EpCMSN compared to that of CMSN. The remarkable difference in cellular uptake might be attributed to the specific receptor mediated cellular internalization for EpCMSN compared to that of CMSN which might entered the cells by passive diffusion. Consistently, EpCMSN exhibited a superior anticancer effect in retinoblastoma cells. The IC50 value of EpCMSN was 1.38μg/ml which is significantly lesser compared to that of free CRB (3.26μg/ml). EpCMSN resulted in 2-fold increase in caspase-3 level compared to that of free CRB. The higher targeting effect of EpCAM receptor resulted in enhanced apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with EpCMSN in retinoblastoma cells. Taken together, EpCAM conjugated MSN might be advantageous for the targeted treatment of receptor-overexpressed ocular malignancies like retinoblastoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mineração de Dados aplicada à fisioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Ribeiro Carvalho

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Com o aumento da quantidade de dados armazenados na prática da Fisioterapia e da área de saúde em geral, amplia-se, também, a possibilidade de obtenção de informações importantes no apoio ao processo decisório dos profissionais de saúde. Porém, muitas vezes, o volume de dados gerados é tão grande que dificulta sua utilização, demandando processos mais sofisticados para a manipulação de tais dados. OBJETIVO: Este artigo se propõe a apresentar e discutir o potencial de utilização do processo KDD sobre um conjunto de dados de acompanhamento fisioterapêutico de pacientes, bem como sua utilidade na tomada de decisões terapêuticas ou profiláticas. METODOLOGIA: Selecionou-se um subconjunto de dados, referentes a prontuários disponíveis em uma clínica de fisioterapia, do qual foram extraídos três grandes grupos-alvo de tarefas de Mineração de Dados: associação, classificação e agrupamento, explicitados no texto. RESULTADOS: Foram extraídos padrões a partir dos dados, de tal forma que se permitisse ao leitor entender passo a passo o processo, ampliando sua compreensão dos resultados obtidos. Foram descobertos padrões em diversos formatos, os quais evidenciaram as possíveis relações entre as variáveis disponíveis. Em seguida, não apenas os padrões foram discutidos, mas, também, a importância da qualidade dos dados coletados. CONCLUSÕES: As etapas de classificação, descoberta de regras de associação e agrupamento dos dados oportunizou melhor entendimento das especificidades de pacientes atendidos pela clínica em questão, ampliando, assim, o conhecimento do profissional na identificação das condutas a serem adotadas.

  12. Desafio aos Gestores de Unidades de Informação para Implementar o Intraempreendedorismo e o Empowerment
    Desafíe para los gerentes de unidades de información llevar a cabo el intrapreneurship y empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Moraes de Bem; Astrid Honesko; Vera Lucia Braga da Silva; Antonio Costa Gomes Filho

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: A gestão das organizações contemporâneas exige ferramentas gerenciais adequadas ao seu tempo. Essas ferramentas estão disponíveis ao gestor de unidades de informação e podem ser aplicadas na gestão desse tipo de sistema organizacional. Objetivo: Apresentar os conceitos de intraempreendedorismo e de empowerment como os principais elementos do clima organizacional necessários ao desenvolvimento do espírito empreendedor. Metodologia: O instrumento de coleta de dados foi o questionári...

  13. Resposta de cultivares de arroz irrigado ao nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas José Guilherme de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Genótipos de arroz irrigado por inundação (Oryza sativa L. podem apresentar variabilidade de resposta ao nitrogênio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de três cultivares de arroz ao nitrogênio. Os experimentos foram realizados em Mococa, SP, em 1997/98 e 1998/99, em Cambissolo Háplico Tb Eutrófico gleico. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram aplicadas doses de N (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 e nas subparcelas foram transplantadas mudas dos cultivares de arroz (IAC 101, IAC 102 e IAC 104. O nitrogênio foi aplicado parceladamente sendo 1/3 da dose no transplantio das mudas, 1/3 aos 20 dias e 1/3 aos 40 dias, após o transplantio. Os cultivares responderam significativamente à aplicação de N e a média de produtividade de grãos dos três cultivares na maior dose de N foi superior a 8 t ha-1. Os cultivares IAC 104 e IAC 101 apresentaram maiores rendimentos de grãos (4863 e 5015 kg ha-1, na ausência da aplicação de N do que o IAC 102, com resposta quadrática para os dois primeiros e linear para o último. As doses adequadas de N foram 140 kg ha-1 para o 'IAC 101' e 150 kg ha-1 para 'IAC 102' e 'IAC 104'. O cultivar IAC 104 apresentou maior rendimento de grãos inteiros e, embora não tenha sido o mais produtivo nos dois anos do estudo, gerou maior produção de grãos inteiros por unidade de área. O comprimento da panícula foi o componente que melhor se correlacionou com o rendimento de grãos.

  14. Transcriptional regulatory program in wild-type and retinoblastoma gene-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts during adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hakim-Weber, Robab; Krogsdam, Anne-M; Jørgensen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Although many molecular regulators of adipogenesis have been identified a comprehensive catalogue of components is still missing. Recent studies showed that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) was expressed in the cell cycle and late cellular differentiation phase during adipogenesis. To investigate...... this dual role of pRb in the early and late stages of adipogenesis we used microarrays to perform a comprehensive systems-level analysis of the common transcriptional program of the classic 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), and retinoblastoma gene-deficient MEFs...... of experimental data and computational analyses pinpointed a feedback-loop between Pparg and Foxo1.To analyze the effects of the retinoblastoma protein at the transcriptional level we chose a perturbated system (Rb-/- MEFs) for comparison to the transcriptional program of wild-type MEFs. Gene ontology analysis...

  15. Biotechnology applied to salmoniculture Biotecnologia aplicada à salmonicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Valdebenito Isler

    2009-07-01

    machos. Essas ações são realizadas com GnRHa em doses próximas de 10ìg/kg de peixe. Após a maturidade sexual, a manipulação de gametas "in vitro" deve ser feita, quer seja devido ao armazenamento prolongado (particularmente "milt", pois têm que ser transportado ao local em que ocorrerá a fecundação, ou para aguardar os resultados ictiopatológicos, geralmente tomada dos reprodutores. A produção de população "todas fêmeas" também é comum. Frequentemente, estas populações em truta arcoíris são triplóides (por meio de choque temperatura próxima a 28 ºC ou pressão próxima de 8.000 psi para obter espécies estéreis que melhoram desempenho produtivo das populações cultivadas sem sinais de maturidade sexual. Além disso, as perspectivas de utilização industrial de organismos transgênicos na criação de salmonídeos são analisadas.

  16. MDM2 but not MDM4 promotes retinoblastoma cell proliferation through p53-independent regulation of MYCN translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, D-L; Cobrinik, D

    2017-03-30

    Retinoblastomas can arise from cone photoreceptor precursors in response to the loss of pRB function. Cone precursor-specific circuitry cooperates with pRB loss to initiate this process and subsequently contributes to the malignancy. Intrinsic high-level MDM2 expression is a key component of the cone precursor circuitry and is thought to inactivate p53-mediated tumor surveillance, which could otherwise be induced in response to pRB loss. However, the MDM2-related MDM4 has also been proposed to abrogate p53-mediated tumor surveillance in the absence of detectable MDM2 in retinoblastoma cells, bringing into question the importance of high-level MDM2 versus MDM4 expression. Here we report that high-level MDM2 but not MDM4 has a consistent critical role in retinoblastoma cell proliferation in vitro, as well as in orthotopic xenografts. Reduction of either MDM2 or MDM4 weakly induced p53, yet reduction of MDM2 but not MDM4 severely impaired proliferation and survival through a p53-independent mechanism. Specifically, MDM2 upregulated the mRNA expression and translation of another component of the cone circuitry, MYCN, in retinoblastoma cells. Moreover, MYCN was essential to retinoblastoma cell growth and tumor formation, and ectopic MYCN partially reversed the effects of MDM2 depletion, indicating that MYCN is an important MDM2 target. These findings indicate that high-level MDM2 expression is needed in order to perform a critical p53-independent function and may obviate the need for genomic alterations to the p53 pathway during retinoblastoma tumorigenesis.

  17. MDM2 but not MDM4 promotes retinoblastoma cell proliferation through p53-independent regulation of MYCN translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dong-Lai; Cobrinik, David

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastomas can arise from cone photoreceptor precursors in response to the loss of pRB function. Cone precursor-specific circuitry cooperates with pRB loss to initiate this process and subsequently contributes to the malignancy. Intrinsic high level MDM2 expression is a key component of the cone precursor circuitry and is thought to inactivate p53-mediated tumor surveillance that could otherwise be induced in response to pRB loss. However, the MDM2-related MDM4 has also been proposed to abrogate p53-mediated tumor surveillance in the absence of detectable MDM2 in retinoblastoma cells, bringing into question the importance of high-level MDM2 versus MDM4 expression. Here we report that high-level MDM2 but not MDM4 has a consistent critical role in retinoblastoma cell proliferation in vitro as well as in orthotopic xenografts. Reduction of either MDM2 or MDM4 weakly induced p53, yet reduction of MDM2 but not MDM4 severely impaired proliferation and survival through a p53-independent mechanism. Specifically, MDM2 up-regulated the mRNA expression and translation of another component of the cone circuitry, MYCN, in retinoblastoma cells. Moreover, MYCN was essential to retinoblastoma cell growth and tumor formation, and ectopic MYCN partially reversed the effects of MDM2 depletion, indicating that MYCN is an important MDM2 target. These findings indicate that high-level MDM2 expression is needed in order to perform a critical p53-independent function and may obviate the need for genomic alterations to the p53 pathway during retinoblastoma tumorigenesis. PMID:27748758

  18. METODOLOGIA DE ENSINO ORIENTADA PARA PROJETOS: UM ESTUDO DE CASO DA DISCIPLINA DE ESTATÍSTICA APLICADA DO CURSO DE GESTÃO AMBIENTAL DO CEFET/RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOÃO MARIA FILGUEIRA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa tem como objetivo avaliar uma metodologia de ensino orientada para projetos, utilizada na disciplina “Estatística Aplicada” na turma 3.77.1N do curso superior de Tecnologia em Gestão Ambiental do CEFET-RN. É proposta uma discussão em relação à metodologia aplicada a fim de se obter sugestões de melhoria, além de avaliar o grau de satisfação do aluno no que diz respeito à importância da referida disciplina para o curso. Para tanto, foram realizados levantamentos bibliográficos e pesquisas destinadas aos alunos que cursaram a disciplina. Em relação aos resultados alcançados, pode-se destacar uma melhora no aprendizado do aluno, na medida em que ele pôde se envolver com situações reais da sua área de atuação. Foi possível depreender da pesquisa que o modelo Pedagogia de Projetos é altamente viável e proporciona uma maior integração entre os alunos. Palavras-chave: pesquisa, questionário, metodologia, pedagogia de projetos, estatística, aprendizagem.

  19. La teoría de los conjuntos-T aplicada al desarrollo de la competencia de modelado matemático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO JOAQUÍN DE ARMAS COSTA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo queremos dar a conocer apartes de la teoría de los conjuntos-T y cómo se aplica en la educación superior para desarrollar la competencia de modelado matemático de los sujetos. Esta teoría surge como respuesta a los problemas de enseñanza aprendizaje de las matemáticas que se originan en los programas curriculares diseñados para adquirir exclusivamente información y no para desarrollar las competencias matemáticas de los estudiantes. The theory of the Conjuntos-T applied to the development of the competition of mathematical modeling In this article we want to present parts of the theory of joint-T and how it is applied in higher education to develop the competence of mathematical modeling subjects. We explain how the theory can develop the skills of students. This theory is a response to the problems of learning of mathematics that originate in the curriculum designed to acquire information and not only to develop the math skills of students. A teoria de Conjuntos-T aplicada ao desenvolvimento da concorrência  modelagem matemática Neste artigo, nos queremos apresentar algumas noções da teoria dos conjuntos-T e como ela é aplicada na docência, de ensino superior, para desenvolver a competência da modelagem matemática. Nos vamos explicar como a teoria pode desenvolver as habilidades dos alunos. Esta teoria é uma resposta para os problemas de ensino e aprendizagem da matemática que se originam nos programas curriculares destinados a adquirir somente informação e não para desenvolver as habilidades matemáticas dos alunos.

  20. TERMOGRAFIA MÉDICA INFRAVERMELHA APLICADA À MEDICINA DO ESPORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ramos e Côrte

    Full Text Available RESUMO A termografia médica infravermelha é um instrumento de análise não invasiva e não radioativa, capaz de analisar funções fisiológicas relacionadas com o controle da temperatura da pele. A termografia detecta a luz infravermelha emitida pelo corpo e visualiza mudanças de temperatura corporal relacionadas à alteração no fluxo sanguíneo. Não é um método que mostra anormalidades anatômicas, porém é capaz de mostrar mudanças fisiológicas. Existem várias aplicações da termografia no campo da medicina: desordens neurológicas, reumatológicas, musculares, doenças vasculares, patologias urológicas, ginecológicas, ortopédicas e na medicina esportiva. Para todas as áreas médicas, a termografia está estabelecida como uma medida que proporciona um mapeamento visual da distribuição da temperatura da pele. A termografia não deve ser usada como ferramenta diagnóstica única. Exames clínicos devem ser realizados para interpretação dos termogramas. Nas aplicações médicas, esta técnica proporciona, somente, uma imagem da distribuição da temperatura da pele; não é capaz de mostrar dados de uma superfície profunda do corpo, como é possível por outros exames de imagem. Entretanto, é um método não-invasivo e objetivo, além de seguro e inofensivo. Na medicina do esporte, o uso da termografia pode proporcionar melhores resultados aos atletas por ser um instrumento na identificação de riscos e na prevenção de lesões, além de ser uma importante ferramenta no acompanhamento do treinamento esportivo, a partir da avaliação da quantificação da carga de trabalho.

  1. Repression of germline RNAi pathways in somatic cells by retinoblastoma pathway chromatin complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Wu

    Full Text Available The retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor acts with a number of chromatin cofactors in a wide range of species to suppress cell proliferation. The Caenorhabditis elegans retinoblastoma gene and many of these cofactors, called synMuv B genes, were identified in genetic screens for cell lineage defects caused by growth factor misexpression. Mutations in many synMuv B genes, including lin-35/Rb, also cause somatic misexpression of the germline RNA processing P granules and enhanced RNAi. We show here that multiple small RNA components, including a set of germline-specific Argonaute genes, are misexpressed in the soma of many synMuv B mutant animals, revealing one node for enhanced RNAi. Distinct classes of synMuv B mutants differ in the subcellular architecture of their misexpressed P granules, their profile of misexpressed small RNA and P granule genes, as well as their enhancement of RNAi and the related silencing of transgenes. These differences define three classes of synMuv B genes, representing three chromatin complexes: a LIN-35/Rb-containing DRM core complex, a SUMO-recruited Mec complex, and a synMuv B heterochromatin complex, suggesting that intersecting chromatin pathways regulate the repression of small RNA and P granule genes in the soma and the potency of RNAi. Consistent with this, the DRM complex and the synMuv B heterochromatin complex were genetically additive and displayed distinct antagonistic interactions with the MES-4 histone methyltransferase and the MRG-1 chromodomain protein, two germline chromatin regulators required for the synMuv phenotype and the somatic misexpression of P granule components. Thus intersecting synMuv B chromatin pathways conspire with synMuv B suppressor chromatin factors to regulate the expression of small RNA pathway genes, which enables heightened RNAi response. Regulation of small RNA pathway genes by human retinoblastoma may also underlie its role as a tumor suppressor gene.

  2. A retinoblastoma orthologue is required for the sensing of a chalone in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakthavatsalam, Deenadayalan; White, Michael J V; Herlihy, Sarah E; Phillips, Jonathan E; Gomer, Richard H

    2014-03-01

    Retinoblastoma-like proteins regulate cell differentiation and inhibit cell proliferation. The Dictyostelium discoideum retinoblastoma orthologue RblA affects the differentiation of cells during multicellular development, but it is unclear whether RblA has a significant effect on Dictyostelium cell proliferation, which is inhibited by the secreted proteins AprA and CfaD. We found that rblA⁻ cells in shaking culture proliferate to a higher density, die faster after reaching stationary density, and, after starvation, have a lower spore viability than wild-type cells, possibly because in shaking culture, rblA⁻ cells have both increased cytokinesis and lower extracellular accumulation of CfaD. However, rblA⁻ cells have abnormally slow proliferation on bacterial lawns. Recombinant AprA inhibits the proliferation of wild-type cells but not that of rblA⁻ cells, whereas CfaD inhibits the proliferation of both wild-type cells and rblA⁻ cells. Similar to aprA⁻ cells, rblA⁻ cells have a normal mass and protein accumulation rate on a per-nucleus basis, indicating that RblA affects cell proliferation but not cell growth. AprA also functions as a chemorepellent, and RblA is required for proper AprA chemorepellent activity despite the fact that RblA does not affect cell speed. Together, our data indicate that an autocrine proliferation-inhibiting factor acts through RblA to regulate cell density in Dictyostelium, suggesting that such factors may signal through retinoblastoma-like proteins to control the sizes of structures such as developing organs or tumors.

  3. Worldwide enucleation techniques and materials for treatment of retinoblastoma: an international survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne L Mourits

    Full Text Available To investigate the current practice of enucleation with or without orbital implant for retinoblastoma in countries across the world.A digital survey identifying operation techniques and material used for orbital implants after enucleation in patients with retinoblastoma.We received a response of 58 surgeons in 32 different countries. A primary artificial implant is routinely inserted by 42 (72.4% surgeons. Ten (17.2% surgeons leave the socket empty, three (5.2% decide per case. Other surgeons insert a dermis fat graft as a standard primary implant (n=1, or fill the socket in a standard secondary procedure (n=2; one uses dermis fat grafts and one artificial implants. The choice for porous implants was more frequent than for non-porous implants: 27 (58.7% and 15 (32.6%, respectively. Both porous and non-porous implant types are used by 4 (8.7% surgeons. Twenty-five surgeons (54.3% insert bare implants, 11 (23.9% use separate wrappings, eight (17.4% use implants with prefab wrapping and two insert implants with and without wrapping depending on type of implant. Attachment of the muscles to the wrapping or implant (at various locations is done by 31 (53.4% surgeons. Eleven (19.0% use a myoconjunctival technique, nine (15.5% suture the muscles to each other and seven (12.1% do not reattach the muscles. Measures to improve volume are implant exchange at an older age (n=4, the use of Restylane SQ (n=1 and osmotic expanders (n=1. Pegging is done by two surgeons.No (worldwide consensus exists about the use of material and techniques for enucleation for the treatment of retinoblastoma. Considerations for the use of different techniques are discussed.

  4. A retrospective review of visual outcome and complications in the treatment of retinoblastoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Doherty, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the visual outcome and treatment complications of children diagnosed with Retinoblastoma during the years 1985-2003 inclusive. A retrospective review of all patients records was performed. Patient characteristics, treatment methods and complications were recorded. Twenty eight children presented to Temple street Hospital between 1985-2003. Six of these infants had bilateral tumours. The mean age at presentation was 23.7 months. Sixty-nine percent presented with Leucocoria, of these 33% also had a squint. The mean duration of symptoms was only known in 58% and this figure was approximately 19.8 months. Enucleation was performed in 24 eyes of 24 patients. Three patients required adjuvant chemotherapy post enucleation. Two eyes was treated with external beam radiation and one eye with plaque radiotherapy. One eye (second eye) was treated with systemic chemotherapy and radiation. Five eyes of three patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy followed by adjuvant Argon laser, cryotherapy and diode laser to each eye.The complications of each treatment group was recorded. The visual outcome in the salvaged eyes was favourable. There were no deaths recorded. Though chemotherapy with adjuvant local treatments provide adequate treatment for early tumours, enucleation still plays a major role in the treatment of Retinoblastoma. The total eye salvage rate in this study was 29% with an enucleation rate of 90% in unilateral cases and 33% in bilateral cases. Sixty-six percent of bilateral eyes affected were salvaged. Seventy-one percent of tumours were diagnosed after a parent noticed a gross abnormality of the eye. This highlights the possible need for screening for retinoblastoma in the infant population.

  5. A inserção do ensino de custos na disciplina administração aplicada à enfermagem La inserción de la enseñanza de costos en la disciplina administración aplicada a la enfermería Insertion of cost teaching in the discipline of administration applied to nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Maria Fonseca Francisco

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste texto foi realizar um resgate teórico sobre a traje-tória da disciplina de Admi-nistração Aplicada à Enfermagem, na graduação, ao longo da história do ensino da Enfermagem Brasi-leira, relacionando-a ao ensino de Custos. Percebemos, inseridas no ensino dessa disciplina, diversas citações diretas referentes ao tema Custos ou Economia em Saúde, desde o primeiro currículo de Enfermagem de 1890 até as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Enfer-magem de 2001, além de citações indiretas relacionadas ao geren-ciamento, tomada de decisão, assessorias em projetos de saúde, entre outras, mas sem haver uma continuidade.Este texto tuvo como objetivo realizar un rescate teórico sobre la trayectoria de la disciplina de Administración Aplicada a la enfermería, en el pregrado, a lo largo de la historia de la enseñanza de la Enfermería Brasileña, relacionándola a la enseñanza de Costos. Percibimos, insertadas en la enseñanza de esa disciplina, diversas citaciones directas referentes al tema Costos o Economía en Salud, desde el primer currículo de Enfermería de 1890 hasta las Directivas Curriculares Nacionales del Pregrado en Enfermería del 2001, además de citaciones indirectas relacionadas al gerenciamiento, toma de decisión, asesorías en proyectos de salud, entre otras, pero sin ninguna continuidad.The objective of this text was to make theoretical rescue of the course of the undergraduate disci-pline Administration Applied to Nursing throughout the history of teaching of Nursing in Brazil, connecting it to the teaching of Costs. We noticed, inserted in the teaching of this discipline, many direct quotes related to the themes of Costs or Economics in Health, from the earliest curriculum in Nursing, dating back to 1890, to the National Curricular Policies of the Nursing Undergraduate Course, of 2001, in addition to indirect quotes related to mana-gement, decision taking, and advising in

  6. Long-term visual results in eyes cured for retinoblastoma by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbek, S.; Ehlers, N.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four eyes from 18 patients cured for retinoblastoma by radiation on an average 12 years previously, were re-examined with respect to visual performance. The macular functions, i.e. visual acuity, colour vision and contrast sensitivity demonstrated performances predictable from tumour localization and radiation dose to the macula. The rod functions, i.e. visual field and dark adaptation were found to be relatively resistant to the radiation treatment. A special problem encountered in two-eyed patients was the unavoidable amblyopia dut to unequal handicaps in the two eyes at the vulnerable age. (author)

  7. Long-term visual results in eyes cured for retinoblastoma by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbek, S.; Ehlers, N. (Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-four eyes from 18 patients cured for retinoblastoma by radiation on an average 12 years previously, were re-examined with respect to visual performance. The macular functions, i.e. visual acuity, colour vision and contrast sensitivity demonstrated performances predictable from tumour localization and radiation dose to the macula. The rod functions, i.e. visual field and dark adaptation were found to be relatively resistant to the radiation treatment. A special problem encountered in two-eyed patients was the unavoidable amblyopia dut to unequal handicaps in the two eyes at the vulnerable age. (author).

  8. Human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein inhibits DNA binding by the retinoblastoma gene product.

    OpenAIRE

    Stirdivant, S M; Huber, H E; Patrick, D R; Defeo-Jones, D; McAvoy, E M; Garsky, V M; Oliff, A; Heimbrook, D C

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus E7 gene can transform murine fibroblasts and cooperate with other viral oncogenes in transforming primary cell cultures. One biochemical property associated with the E7 protein is binding to the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene product (pRB). Biochemical properties associated with pRB include binding to viral transforming proteins (E1A, large T, and E7), binding to cellular proteins (E2F and Myc), and binding to DNA. The mechanism by which E7 stimulates cell growt...

  9. Recent decreasing frequency of enucleation for intraocular retinoblastoma in Upper Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallh, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of combined systematic chemotherapy (chemoreduction) and local ophthalmic therapy (LT) is preventing or delaying external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and enucleation in patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, single-institution, clinical study. Twenty-eight patients (37 eyes) with newly diagnosed intraocular retinoblastoma were included in this study. Primary enucleation was performed for 7 eyes with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma at presentation before starting chemoreduction. Using Reese-Ellsworth (RE) staging for RB, the remaining 30 eyes were as follows: Two in group I, 3 in group II, 8 in group III, 7 in group IV, and 9 in group V. All the 30 eyes were initially treated with 6 cycles of chemoredution using vincristine, etoposide and carboplatin, repeated every three weeks. After total of 6 cycles, each tumor was re-evaluated decide on the next mode of therapy. In cases where the tumor was reduced enough, LT (Thermotherapy, or cryotherapy, but plaque radiotherapy was unavailable) was applied. In cases where the tumor was reduced but insufficient for LT, we added another 3 cycles of same regimen in some patients; or we performed chemotherapy (CTT) for others, according to size of the residual tumor. Eyes failed to respond to tochemorduction and LT, received EBRT or were enucleated. Following 6 cycles of chemoreduction, all tumors showed an initial regression, and all vitreous and subretinal seeds showed calcification or disappearance of most of them. Among the 30 eyes, 12 eyes achieved complete response (CR), and 18 eyes achieved partial response (PR). Only 7 eyes (stage I to III) showed sufficient reduction of tumor size for the LT to be applied for, for which, TTT (4 eyes), and cryotherapy (3 eyes) were performed. Chemotherapy (CTT) was performed for 9 patients (13 eyes, 15 tumors). At the end of follow-up period, 14 of the total 30 eyes (46.7%) could not be salvaged with chemoreduction and LT

  10. Induction of growth stimulation in skin fibroblasts from retinoblastoma donors after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diatloff-Zito, C.; Macieira-Coelho, A.; Turleau, C.; Cabanis, M.O.; Grouchy, J. de

    1983-01-01

    Skin fibroblasts from normal children and two children with a 13q14 deletion retinoblastoma (Rb) were submitted to fractionated doses of γ radiations. Irradiation reduced the population doublings in normal fibroblasts and the decline was inversely related to the dose. An increase in population doublings was obtained with one of the Rb cell lines. Foci appeared in the irradiated culture of the other Rb donor. It is suggested that fibroblasts from patients with Rb are able to express some phenotypical properties of transformed cells, perhaps related to factors rendering them more susceptible to carcinogens [fr

  11. X-ray sensitivity of fibroblasts from patients with hereditary retinoblastoma and their families.

    OpenAIRE

    Pledger, J. V.; Craft, A. W.; Bartlett, K.; Long, D. R.

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro response to X-irradiation of cultured human fibroblasts was studied using a colony forming assay. A comprehensive reference range was established, giving a median D0 value of 98.5 cGy with an interquartile range of 86.5-110.5 cGy. Cells from 3 retinoblastoma family pedigrees were studied and the cell survival after exposure to X-rays was compared between affected (11 samples) and unaffected (26 samples) family members. No significant differences in response to ionising radiation ...

  12. Rabbit model of ocular indirect photodynamic therapy using a retinoblastoma xenograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonathan W; Jacobsen, Bradley; Zolfaghari, Emily; Ferrario, Angela; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Berry, Jesse L; Lee, Diana K; Rico, Grecia; Madi, Ingy; Rao, Narsing; Stachelek, Kevin; Wang, Lei-Chi; Gomer, Charles

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of coupling the indirect ophthalmoscope laser delivery system with the 690 nm wavelength diode laser used to perform photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of retinoblastoma. For phase 1, a total of six pigmented rabbits were treated with the indirect laser delivery system. The laser source was provided by the Lumenis Opal 690 nm laser unit, delivered through a 810 nm Indirect ophthalmoscope headpiece and a hand-held 28-diopter indirect lens (1.0 mm spot size). Four rabbits received intravenous verteporfin at doses of 0.43 or 0.86 mg/kg, and two rabbits did not receive verteporfin (controls). A second phase of the study involved eight rabbits using a retinoblastoma xenograft to determine the effect of indirect PDT on subretinal tumors. For phase 1, a total of 20 laser treatments were performed in the right eyes of six rabbits. Laser power levels ranged between 40 and 150 mW/cm 2 and treatment duration ranged between 1 and 3 min. In the four rabbits that received verteporfin, focal retinal scars were noted at 40 mW/cm 2 and higher power levels. In the two control rabbits that did not receive verteporfin, thermal burns were confirmed at 75 mW/cm 2 and higher power levels. Histopathology showed focal retino-choroidal scars at the site of PDT treatment, without evidence of generalized ocular damage. Using the retinoblastoma xenograft, the indirect PDT system was shown to cause areas of tumor necrosis on histopathology. The results of this pre-clinical study suggest verteporfin may be activated in the rabbit retina with the indirect delivery system and the 690 nm laser unit (i.e., Indirect PDT). Using verteporfin, treatment effects were observed at 40-50 mW/cm 2 in the rabbit retina, while photocoagulation was achieved at 75 mW/cm 2 and higher power levels. Fundoscopic and histopathologic examination of treated areas showed circumscribed areas of retinal damage and a lack of generalized ocular

  13. miRNome landscape analysis reveals a 30 miRNA core in retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Magdonel, Blanca Elena; Orjuela, Manuela; Camacho, Javier; García-Chéquer, Adda Jeanette; Cabrera-Muñoz, Lourdes; Sadowinski-Pine, Stanislaw; Durán-Figueroa, Noé; Orozco-Romero, María de Jesús; Velázquez-Wong, Ana Claudia; Hernández-Ángeles, Adriana; Hernández-Galván, Claudia; Lara-Molina, Citlali; Ponce-Castañeda, M Verónica

    2017-07-01

    miRNAs exert their effect through a negative regulatory mechanism silencing expression upon hybridizing to their target mRNA, and have a prominent position in the control of many cellular processes including carcinogenesis. Previous miRNA studies on retinoblastoma (Rb) have been limited to specific miRNAs reported in other tumors or to medium density arrays. Here we report expression analysis of the whole miRNome on 12 retinoblastoma tumor samples using a high throughput microarray platform including 2578 mature miRNAs. Twelve retinoblastoma tumor samples were analyzed using an Affymetrix platform including 2578 mature miRNAs. We applied RMA analysis to normalize raw data, obtained categorical data from detection call values, and also used signal intensity derived expression data. We used Diana-Tools-microT-CDS to find miRNA targets and ChromDraw to map miRNAs in chromosomes. We discovered a core-cluster of 30 miRNAs that were highly expressed in all the cases and a cluster of 993 miRNAs that were uniformly absent in all cases. Another 1022 miRNA were variably present in the samples reflecting heterogeneity between tumors. We explored mRNA targets, pathways and biological processes affected by some of these miRNAs. We propose that the core-cluster of 30 miRs represent miRNA machinery common to all Rb, and affecting most pathways considered hallmarks of cancer. In this core, we identified miR-3613 as a potential and critical down regulatory hub, because it is highly expressed in all the samples and its potential mRNA targets include at least 36 tumor suppressor genes, including RB1. In the variably expressed miRNA, 36 were differentially expressed between males and females. Some of the potential pathways targeted by these 36 miRNAs were associated with hormonal production. These findings indicate that Rb tumor samples share a common miRNA expression profile regardless of tumor heterogeneity, and shed light on potential novel therapeutic targets such as mir-3613 This

  14. The retinoblastoma protein binds to a family of E2F transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lees, J A; Saito, M; Vidal, M

    1993-01-01

    for E2F-2 and E2F-3 were mapped to 1p36 and 6q22, respectfully, confirming their independence from E2F-1. However, the E2F-2 and E2F-3 proteins are closely related to E2F-1. Both E2F-2 and E2F-3 bound to wild-type but not mutant E2F recognition sites, and they bound specifically to the retinoblastoma...... of a family of proteins....

  15. Efficacy and safety of aflibercept in in vitro and in vivo models of retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yoon Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the inhibitory effects of aflibercept on the growth and subretinal invasion of retinoblastoma. Methods Xenotransplantation and orthotopic mouse models were created by injecting Y-79 cells subcutaneously and intravitreally, respectively. After induction of retinoblastoma, animals were intraperitoneally injected with aflibercept (25 mg/kg body weight or saline twice a week for 3 weeks. Tumor size was measured weekly and compared between the two groups. At 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed and an immunohistochemical examination was conducted to compare the microvascular density and degree of apoptosis between groups. In addition, the degree of choroidal invasion was also analyzed in the orthotopic xenotransplantation model. A co-culture system of Y-79 or WERI-Rb-1 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs was used for in vitro experiments, and the anti-angiogenic effect of aflibercept was evaluated by analyzing cell numbers. Results In the Y-79 xenotransplantation model, aflibercept treatment significantly inhibited tumor growth at 4 weeks versus baseline compared with saline-injected mice (188.53 ± 118.53 mm3 vs. 747.87 ± 118.83 mm3, respectively, P < 0.001. Tumors isolated from aflibercept-treated mice contained fewer blood vessels (8.59 % ± 7.60 % vs. 14.91 % ± 4.53 %, respectively, P < 0.05 and an increased number of apoptotic cells (15.10 ± 9.13 vs. 4.44 ± 2.24, respectively, P < 0.05. In the orthotopic model, the degree of subretinal invasion of tumor cells was significantly reduced after aflibercept treatment (0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.15 ± 0.10, P < 0.05. And addition of aflibercept to co-cultures of HUVECs and Y-79, WERI-Rb-1 cells significantly reduced HUVEC proliferation. Conclusions Aflibercept reduced retinoblastoma angiogenesis in association with a significant reduction in tumor growth and invasion. These findings suggest that

  16. Expression of Angiogenic Factors in Invasive Retinoblastoma Tumors Is Associated With Increase in Tumor Cells Expressing Stem Cell Marker Sox2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jesús R; Gombos, Dan S; Prospero, Claudia M; Ganapathy, Aravindh; Penland, Rebecca L; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Progression of retinoblastoma is associated with increased tumor angiogenesis. However, a clear relationship between the expression of angiogenic markers in specific regions of the tumor and tumor progression has not been established. This study investigates the association between angiogenic factors in retinoblastomas with choroidal and/or optic nerve invasion (high-risk/invasive retinoblastoma) and expression of Sox2, a stem cell marker. To investigate the association between the expression of angiogenic factors and markers of tumor invasiveness, such as the stem cell marker Sox2, in retinoblastoma tissues. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate coexpression of the angiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), and endoglin (CD105); markers of glial differentiation (vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein); and a neural stem cell marker (Sox2). Expression was assessed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic ocular tissues collected from enucleated eyes of patients with retinoblastoma. During qualitative data interpretation, evaluating pathologists were masked to patient grouping. Expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 in noninvasive (non-high-risk feature) retinoblastoma tumors was lower than in the invasive, or high-risk feature tumors. Moreover, our data indicate that the tumor cells, and not the surrounding stroma, secrete VEGF-A and that angiogenesis is mostly localized to the iris. Finally, our data showed that the expression of the neural stem cell marker Sox2 is associated with eyes with increased VEGF-A expression and tumor invasiveness. Increased expression of angiogenic factors, with a concomitant increase in expression of the stem cell marker Sox2 observed in retinoblastoma tissues, may partially explain the aggressiveness of these tumors. The complex interaction of angiogenic and stem cell-related pathways in these tumors, especially in high-risk feature retinoblastoma, suggests that targeting tumor cells

  17. Retinosquise juvenil ligada ao X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gomes da Silveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Relatar o caso de um paciente masculino de 28 anos que foi encaminhado ao Centro de Estudos e Pesquisas Oculistas Associados (RJ para avaliação de retina e apresentou os achados típicos de retinosquise juvenil ligada ao cromossomo X: maculopatia cistóide com formação de cistos na fóvea e retinosquise periférica. Foi realizado o manejo conservador, com atenção para as complicações.

  18. Haploinsufficiency of the retinoblastoma protein gene reduces diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Ribot, Joan; Murano, Incoronata

    2009-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue activity dissipates energy as heat, and there is evidence that lack of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) may favor the development of the brown adipocyte phenotype in adipose cells. In this work we assessed the impact of germ line haploinsufficiency of the pRb gene (Rb...

  19. A polymorphism in mir-34b/c as a potential biomarker for early onset of hereditary retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ivna N S R; Reis, Adriana H O; Dos Santos, Anna C E; Vargas, Fernando R

    2017-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a malignant pediatric tumor and, mainly because of late diagnosis, most patients undergo enucleation. The tumor almost always initiates by two inactivation events at the RB1 gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in p53 pathway have been found to represent genetic modifiers of RB. To investigate whether a SNP (rs4938723T > C) in mir-34b/c gene, a key effector of p53, could influence RB risk and patients' age of onset. mir-34b/c rs4938723T > C was sequenced in 130 RB patients and in 105 control individuals. Statistical analysis consisted of χ 2 tests or Fisher's exact, odds ratios (ORs) and Mann-Whitney test. The presence of the C allele did not change the risk for retinoblastoma. However, in hereditary RB patients, the mean age at diagnosis is much lower (1.4 ± 1.4 months) among CC carriers than when it is compared to TT genotype (13.8 ± 6.4, p = 0.001). Besides, hereditary RB patients with CC genotype are around 4 times more likely to present retinoblastoma under the age of 3 months (OR = 4.44; IC: 2.50-7.90; p = 0.002). The C allele together with a germ-line RB1 gene mutation may speed retinoblastoma onset which suggests that mir-34b/c rs4938723T > C may represent a candidate biomarker for hereditary RB.

  20. Long-term Visual Acuity, Strabismus, and Nystagmus Outcomes Following Multimodality Treatment in Group D Retinoblastoma Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ido D; Naeem, Zishan; Stacey, Andrew W; Chowdhury, Tanzina; Duncan, Catriona; Reddy, M Ashwin; Sagoo, Mandeep S

    2017-07-01

    To analyze the long-term visual acuity, strabismus, and nystagmus outcomes in Group D retinoblastoma following multimodality treatments in a national retinoblastoma referral center. Retrospective interventional case series. A 13-year retrospective chart review of Group D eyes treated initially with intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) and followed up for at least 1 year from last treatment. Risk factors for final visual acuity (VA) were analyzed, and rate of strabismus and nystagmus at last follow-up visit were calculated. One hundred and four Group D eyes (92 patients) presented to our center during the study period, of which 32 (27 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Following IVC (vincristine, etoposide, and carboplatin), adjuvant treatments included intraophthalmic artery chemotherapy in 5 (16%) eyes, plaque brachytherapy in 5 (16%), transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) in 18 (56%), and cryotherapy in 24 (75%) eyes. On last examination, 64.41 ± 6.76 months from presentation, mean final VA was 20/283 (logMAR equivalent of 1.15 ± 0.15). On univariate analysis, presentation age, foveal retinoblastoma (at initial examination), use of TTT, and tumor-foveola distance (at last visit) were found to be significant risk factors for worse VA (P retinoblastoma eyes had <20/200 vision, with TTT being a risk factor for worse vision; 60% had strabismus; and 22% had nystagmus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Retinoblastoma protein expression is an independent predictor of both radiation response and survival in muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbaek, M; Alsner, J; Marcussen, N

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the predictive value of various clinical, biochemical, and histopathological parameters, with special emphasis on the expression of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB), on the radiation response in bladder cancer. In order to obtain a truly objective...

  2. Stage of presentation and visual outcome of patients screened for familial retinoblastoma: nationwide registration in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhof, S. M.; Moll, A. C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Y. N.

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands a comprehensive programme for screening just after birth for familial retinoblastoma is taking place. In this report the stage of the disease at the time of detection, by way of screening, and the long term visual outcome in these patients was evaluated. A nationwide,

  3. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma bypasses the function of the retinoblastoma protein in adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob B.; Petersen, R K; Larsen, B M

    1999-01-01

    The retinoblastoma protein (pRB) is an important regulator of development, proliferation, and cellular differentiation. pRB was recently shown to play a pivotal role in adipocyte differentiation, to interact physically with adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs), and to positively...

  4. The clinically used photosensitizer Verteporfin (VP) inhibits YAP-TEAD and human retinoblastoma cell growth in vitro without light activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowska, Katarzyna; Moujahed, Ahmad; Marmalidou, Anna; zu Horste, Melissa Meyer; Cichy, Joanna; Miller, Joan W.; Gragoudas, Evangelos; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2014-01-01

    Verteporfin (VP), a benzoporphyrin derivative, is clinically used in photodynamic therapy for neovascular macular degeneration. Recent studies indicate that VP may inhibit growth of hepatoma cells without photoactivation hrough inhibition of YAP-TEAD complex. In this study, we examined the effects of VP without light activation on human retinoblastoma cell lines. Verteporfin but not vehicle control inhibited the growth, proliferation and viability of human retinoblastoma cell lines (Y79 and WERI) in a dose-dependent manner and was associated with downregulation of YAP-TEAD associated downstream proto-oncogenes such as c-myc, axl, and surviving. In addition VP affected signals involved in cell migration and angiogenesis such as CTGF, cyr61, and VEGF-A but was not associated with significant effect on the mTOR/autophagy pathway. Of interest the pluripotency marker Oct4 were downregulated by Verteporfin treatment. Our results indicate that the clinically used photosensitizer VP is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in retinoblastoma cells, disrupting YAPTEAD signaling and pluripotential marker OCT4. This study highlights for the first time the role of the YAP-TEAD pathway in Retinoblastoma and suggests that VP may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic tool in treating Rb patients. PMID:24837142

  5. Managing the consequences of aggressive conservative treatment for refractory retinoblastoma with vitreous seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Brink

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 4 year-old girl with bilateral, non-familial retinoblastoma (RB was referred to our care after primary enucleation OS and active tumor OD refractory to multiple therapies (intravenous chemotherapy, laser/cryotherapy, and I-125 plaque radiotherapy. Vitreous seeding OD, initially controlled by several sessions of Ophthalmic Artery Infusion Chemotherapy (OAIC and periocular chemotherapy, recurred shortly thereafter. The patient underwent intravitreal (IVit Melphalan injections achieving tumor control despite the concurrent development of keratopathy, pupillary synechiae, cataract, and necrosis of the inferior fornix and the adjacent orbital fat, all secondary to the treatments administered. Repeated amniotic membrane implants and tarsorrhaphy were performed to alleviate the symptoms. Despite being tumor free for 6 months, a poor fundus view and treatment-related complications prompted us to consider enucleation, but parents declined. Following recent negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, her cataract was removed. She was then found to have tumor recurrence. Her eye was enucleated 12 months ago and she recovered well from the surgery. As ocular oncology embarks in eye-preserving treatments for retinoblastoma, it is important to address the cumulative effects and associated impact of such treatments and the possibility of failure.

  6. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Na; Chen, Yan; Wang, Zhengmin; Chen, Guoling; Lin, Qin; Chen, Zheng-Yi; Li, Huawei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. ► Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. ► Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. ► Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  7. Comparative study of various imaging methods to retinoblastoma and malignant melanoma of the uvea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakiyama, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    Clinical usefulness of ultrasonography, CT-scan and MRI was compared in diagnosis of retinoblastoma and malignant melanoma of the uvea. In retinoblastoma, ultrasonography was effective to detect a small tumor, detached retinas and dissemination of vitreous body. The calcified part presented a high internal reflection. CT-scan was difficult to detect a small tumor, but useful for the detection of the calcified part and invasion to optic nerve. A tumor showed as high intensity in T1 weighted image and low intensity in T2 weighted image of MRI. The calcified part showed low intensity and necrosis part showed high intensity in T2 weighted image. The degree of differentiation of tumors could not be determined from these images. In malignant melanoma of the uvea, peculiar findings were obtained in A-scan of ultrasonography, and inside reflection was high with irregularity in cases with much necrosis. Tumors uniformly showed high density in CT-scan, and CT-scan was useful to detect invasion of the sclera. Tumors showed high intensity in T1 weighted image of MRI, and low intensity in T2 weighted image, and the part containing much melanin showed clear low intensity. Ultrasonography and MRI were superior to detect the detached retinas and dissemination of vitreous body. A diagnosis of malignant tumor in eyes becomes easy by combined use of ultrasonography, CT-scan and MRI. (K.H.)

  8. Comparison of the diagnostic value of MR imaging and ophthalmoscopy for the staging of retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, Aman; Wan, Wenshuai; Yeom, Kristen; Eisenhut, Christina A.; Ebrahimi, Katayoon B.; Patel, Chirag; O'Brien, Joan M.; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ophthalmoscopy for staging of retinoblastoma. MR and ophthalmoscopic images of 36 patients who underwent enucleation were evaluated retrospectively following institutional review board approval. Histopathology being the standard of reference, the sensitivity and specificity of both diagnostic modalities were compared regarding growth pattern, iris neoangiogenesis, retinal detachment, vitreous seeds and optic nerve invasion. Data were analysed via McNemar's test. Both investigations showed no significant difference in accuracy for the detection of different tumour growth patterns (P = 0.80). Vitreous seeding detection was superior by ophthalmoscopy (P < 0.001). For prelaminar optic nerve invasion, MR imaging showed similar sensitivity as ophthalmoscopy but increased specificity of 40 % (CI 0.12-0.74) vs. 20 % (0.03-0.56). MR detected optic nerve involvement past the lamina cribrosa with a sensitivity of 80 % (0.28-0.99) and a specificity of 74 % (0.55-0.88). The absence of optic nerve enhancement excluded histopathological infiltration, but the presence of optic nerve enhancement included a high number of false positives (22-24 %). Ophthalmoscopy remains the method of choice for determining extent within the globe while MR imaging is useful for evaluating extraocular tumour extension. Thus, both have their own strengths and contribute uniquely to the staging of retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  9. Fibroblast radiosensitivity and intraocular fibrovascular proliferation following radiotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, D.M.; Walton, D.S.; Puliafito, C.A.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Cassady, J.R.; Leombruno, D.; Trantravahi, R.

    1986-01-01

    A 5-day-old female patient was found to have large hereditary retinoblastomas in the posterior pole of each eye. The patient received radiation treatment over a 39-day period, with each retina receiving 4600 rad. Two weeks after the complete treatment the tumours had regressed to approximately one-quarter of their original size. By 14 weeks following completion of radiotherapy the patient had developed in each eye extensive iris neovascularisation with progressive closure of the filtration angles, secondary glaucoma, and retinal detachments resulting from fibrovascular proliferation on the retinal surface. Radiosensitivity studies were from separate conjunctival biopsies obtained before and after radiation. These showed a Dsub(O) (calculated survival curve parameters, defined in the Methods section) in the exponential growth phase of 110 prior to radiation and a postirradiation exponential growth phase Dsub(O) of 70. Karotype studies showed several chromosomal abnormalities following radiotherapy. The clinical course and pathology findings are thought to represent an unusually severe orbital and ocular response to radiation therapy. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that some patients with hereditary retinoblastoma may have a defect in the accumulation repair of x-irradiation induced DNA damage. (author)

  10. Comparison of the diagnostic value of MR imaging and ophthalmoscopy for the staging of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khurana, Aman; Wan, Wenshuai; Yeom, Kristen [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Eisenhut, Christina A. [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebrahimi, Katayoon B. [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Ocular Oncology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Patel, Chirag [University of California Davis, Department of Radiology, Davis, CA (United States); O' Brien, Joan M. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Ophthalmology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Daldrup-Link, Heike E. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Pediatric Radiology Section, Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    To compare the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ophthalmoscopy for staging of retinoblastoma. MR and ophthalmoscopic images of 36 patients who underwent enucleation were evaluated retrospectively following institutional review board approval. Histopathology being the standard of reference, the sensitivity and specificity of both diagnostic modalities were compared regarding growth pattern, iris neoangiogenesis, retinal detachment, vitreous seeds and optic nerve invasion. Data were analysed via McNemar's test. Both investigations showed no significant difference in accuracy for the detection of different tumour growth patterns (P = 0.80). Vitreous seeding detection was superior by ophthalmoscopy (P < 0.001). For prelaminar optic nerve invasion, MR imaging showed similar sensitivity as ophthalmoscopy but increased specificity of 40 % (CI 0.12-0.74) vs. 20 % (0.03-0.56). MR detected optic nerve involvement past the lamina cribrosa with a sensitivity of 80 % (0.28-0.99) and a specificity of 74 % (0.55-0.88). The absence of optic nerve enhancement excluded histopathological infiltration, but the presence of optic nerve enhancement included a high number of false positives (22-24 %). Ophthalmoscopy remains the method of choice for determining extent within the globe while MR imaging is useful for evaluating extraocular tumour extension. Thus, both have their own strengths and contribute uniquely to the staging of retinoblastoma. (orig.)

  11. X-ray sensitivity of fibroblasts from patients with hereditary retinoblastoma and their families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pledger, J.V.; Craft, A.W.; Bartlett, K.; Long, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro response to X-irradiation of cultured human fibroblasts was studied using a colony forming assay. A comprehensive reference range was established, giving a median Dsub(0) value of 98.5 cGy with an interquartile range of 86.5-110.5 cGy. Cells from 3 retinoblastoma family pedigrees were studied and the cell survival after exposure to X-rays was compared between affected (11 samples) and unaffected (26 samples) family members. No significant differences in response to ionising radiation were found between the controls, the affected and the unaffected members of the 3 families. The affected members had a median Dsub(0) of 97.5 cGy (interquartile range 87.5-107.5 cGy) and the unaffected members had a median Dsub(0) of 102 cGy (interquartile range 93-111 cGy). Thus radiosensitivity is not a useful marker for the detection of the retinoblastoma gene. (author)

  12. Sonic hedgehog initiates cochlear hair cell regeneration through downregulation of retinoblastoma protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Na [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Chen, Yan [Central Laboratory, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Wang, Zhengmin [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Guoling [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Lin, Qin [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Department of Otolaryngology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Otolaryngology Institute of Fujian Province, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Zheng-Yi, E-mail: Zheng-yi_chen@meei.harvard.edu [Department of Otolaryngology and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School and Eaton Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Li, Huawei, E-mail: hwli@shmu.edu.cn [Otology Skull Base Surgery Department, Hearing Research Institute, Eye and ENT Hospital of Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai 200031 (China); Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh activation in neonatal cochleae enhances sensory cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferating supporting cells can transdifferentiate into hair cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh promotes proliferation by transiently modulating pRb activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shh inhibits pRb by inhibiting transcription and increasing phosphorylation of pRb. -- Abstract: Cell cycle re-entry by cochlear supporting cells and/or hair cells is considered one of the best approaches for restoring hearing loss as a result of hair cell damage. To identify mechanisms that can be modulated to initiate cell cycle re-entry and hair cell regeneration, we studied the effect of activating the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway. We show that Shh signaling in postnatal rat cochleae damaged by neomycin leads to renewed proliferation of supporting cells and hair cells. Further, proliferating supporting cells are likely to transdifferentiate into hair cells. Shh treatment leads to inhibition of retinoblastoma protein (pRb) by increasing phosphorylated pRb and reducing retinoblastoma gene transcription. This results in upregulation of cyclins B1, D2, and D3, and CDK1. These results suggest that Shh signaling induces cell cycle re-entry in cochlear sensory epithelium and the production of new hair cells, in part by attenuating pRb function. This study provides an additional route to modulate pRb function with important implications in mammalian hair cell regeneration.

  13. Salvage/Adjuvant Brachytherapy After Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Intraocular Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Jasmine H., E-mail: francij1@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; McCormick, Beryl; Segal, Kira; Cohen, Gil [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States); Brodie, Scott E. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Dunkel, Ira J.; Abramson, David H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of brachytherapy after ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) for retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a single-arm, retrospective study of 15 eyes in 15 patients treated with OAC followed by brachytherapy at (blinded institution) between May 1, 2006, and December 31, 2012, with a median 19 months' follow-up from plaque insertion. Outcome measurements included patient and ocular survival, visual function, and retinal toxicity measured by electroretinogram (ERG). Results: Brachytherapy was used as adjuvant treatment in 2 eyes and as salvage therapy in 13 eyes of which 12 had localized vitreous seeding. No patients developed metastasis or died of retinoblastoma. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of ocular survival was 79.4% (95% confidence interval 48.7%-92.8%) at 18 months. Three eyes were enucleated, and an additional 6 eyes developed out-of-target volume recurrences, which were controlled with additional treatments. Patients with an ocular complication had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 2.5 months (SD 2.3 months), which was statistically less (P=.045) than patients without ocular complication who had a mean interval between last OAC and plaque of 6.5 months (SD 4.4 months). ERG responses from pre- versus postplaque were unchanged or improved in more than half the eyes. Conclusions: Brachytherapy following OAC is effective, even in the presence of vitreous seeding; the majority of eyes maintained stable or improved retinal function following treatment, as assessed by ERG.

  14. Risk factors for severe neutropenia following intra-arterial chemotherapy for intra-ocular retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira J Dunkel

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a promising strategy for intra-ocular retinoblastoma. Neutropenia is the most commonly encountered systemic toxicity and in this study we aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the development of severe (≥ grade 3 neutropenia. METHODS: Retrospective review of 187 evaluable cycles of melphalan-containing intra-arterial chemotherapy from the first three cycles administered to 106 patients with intra-ocular retinoblastoma from May 2006 to June 2011. Cycles were considered to be evaluable if (1 blood count results were available in the 7 to 14 days post-treatment interval and (2 concurrent intravenous chemotherapy was not administered. Toxicity was assessed via the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. RESULTS: 54 cycles (29% were associated with grade 3 (n = 43 or grade 4 (n = 11 neutropenia. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression revealed that a higher melphalan dose (>0.40 mg/kg was significantly associated with severe neutropenia during all 3 cycles (odds ratio during cycle one 4.11, 95% confidence interval 1.33-12.73, p = 0.01, but the addition of topotecan and/or carboplatin were not. Prior treatment with systemic chemotherapy was not associated with severe neutropenia risk in any analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Intra-arterial melphalan-based chemotherapy can cause severe neutropenia, especially when a dose of greater than 0.40 mg/kg is administered. Further study with a larger sample may be warranted.

  15. MEMS AO for Planet Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shanti; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Mike; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Levine, B. Martin; Samuele, Rocco; Lane, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy; Hicks, Brian; hide

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for planet finding using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Adaptive Optics (AO). The use of a deformable mirror (DM) is described as a part of the instrument that was designed with a nulling interferometer. The strategy that is used is described in detail.

  16. External beam radiation for retinoblastoma: Results, patterns of failure, and a proposal for treatment guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J. Carlos; Brady, Luther W.; Shields, Jerry A.; Shields, Carol L.; Potter, Patrick de; Karlsson, Ulf L.; Markoe, Arnold M.; Amendola, Beatriz E.; Singh, Arun

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment results and patterns of failure following external beam radiation for retinoblastoma and propose treatment guidelines according to specific clinical variables. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 27 patients (34 eyes) with retinoblastoma who received external beam radiation as initial treatment at Hahnemann University Hospital from October 1980 to December 1991 and have been followed for at least 1 year. Of the 34 eyes, 14 were Groups I-II (Reese-Ellsworth classification), 7 were Group III, and 13 were Groups IV-V. Doses ranged from 34.5-49.5 Gy (mean 44.3 Gy, median 45 Gy) in 1.5-2.0 Gy fractions generally delivered through anterior and lateral wedged pair fields. Results: At a mean follow up of 35.2 months (range 12-93 months), local tumor control was obtained in 44% (15 out of 34) of eyes with external beam radiation alone. Salvage therapy (plaque brachytherapy, cryotherapy, and/or photocoagulation) controlled an additional 10 eyes (29.5%), so that overall ocular survival has been 73.5%. Local tumor control with external beam radiotherapy alone was obtained in 78.5% (11 out of 14) of eyes in Groups I-II, but in only 20% (4 out of 20) of eyes in Groups III-V. A total of 67 existing tumors were identified prior to treatment in the 34 treated eyes and local control with external beam radiation alone was obtained in 87% (46 out of 53) of tumors measuring 15 mm or less and in 50% (7 out of 14) of tumors measuring more than 15 mm. When analyzing patterns of failure in the 19 eyes that relapsed, a total of 28 failure sites were identified and consisted of progression of vitreous seeds in seven instances (25% of failure sites) recurrences from previously existing tumors in 10 instances (36% of failure sites) and development of new tumors in previously uninvolved retina in 11 instances (39% of failure sites). Conclusions: 1) We find that external beam radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in fractions of 1.5 to 2.0 Gy provides adequate tumor control

  17. A evolução do método: memória das pesquisas experimental e aplicada nos estudos brasileiros de jornalismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Cristina Lopez

    2015-12-01

    . A partir de esta sistematización, dibujamos una memoria de los estudios, intentando establecer causalidades y relaciones entre los perfiles de producción de los quinquenios 2000-2004 ; 2005-2009 y 2010-2014. Entre los principales resultados destacamos la complejidad de la mirada sobre la audiencia en los estudios de recepción y la búsqueda constante de presentación de la relevancia de los estudios que trabajan con la investigación aplicada y experimental. PALABRAS CLAVE: Periodismo; Investigación experimental; Investigación Aplicada; Metodología de investigación; Analisis de Contenido.   Referências ARAÚJO, Elyenay. Etnografia da Recepção: que contribuição esse recurso metodológico pode dar aos estudos sobre a recepção? XXXII Congresso Brasileiro de Ciências da Comunicação. Curitiba, 2009. BARDIN, Laurence. Análise de conteúdo. São Paulo: Edições 70, 1979. BRAGA, Adriana; GASTALDO, Édison. O Legado de Chicago e os estudos de recepção, usos e consumos midiáticos. Encontro da Associação Nacional dos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação. Anais... 2009. CABRERA GONZÁLEZ, Maria Angeles. La metodología experimental en el estudio del tratamiento visual del la información periodística. Encontro Nacional de Pesquisadores em Jornalismo. São Bernardo do Campo, 2008. CASTRO, Paulo César. Jornalismo participativo e midiatização da recepção: A domesticação dos leitores na seção "Eu-repórter" do Globo Online. Encontro Nacional de Pesquisadores em Jornalismo. Rio de Janeiro, 2011. ESCOSTEGUY, Ana Carolina. Notas para um estado da arte sobre os estudos brasileiros de recepção dos anos 90. Encontro da Associação Nacional dos Programas de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação. Anais... 2003. FIGARO, Roseli. O desafio metodológico nas pesquisas de recepção. XXVII Congresso Brasileiro de Ciências da Comunicação. Porto Alegre, 2004. FRANCISCATO, Carlos. Considerações metodológicas sobre a pesquisa aplicada em jornalismo

  18. A 30-month prospective study on the treatment of retinoblastoma in the Gabriel Toure Teaching Hospital, Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubacar, Togo; Fatou, Sylla; Fousseyni, Traoré; Mariam, Sylla; Fatoumata, Dicko-Traoré; Toumani, Sidibé; Abdoul-Aziz, Diakité; Marouf, Keïta Mamadou

    2010-04-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common malignant tumours among children in Africa. However, very few studies on this disease have been published, especially studies from French-speaking countries in Africa. Prospective study over a period of 30 months from 1 January 2005 to 30 June 2007 on all cases of retinoblastoma diagnosed and treated in the Paediatric Oncology Unit of the Gabriel Touré Hospital in Bamako, Mali. Treatment was two courses of pre-operative chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, adriamycine and vincristine), enucleation for many patients, and then two courses of adjuvant chemotherapy with the same drugs. During the study period, 55 cases of retinoblastoma were treated, which represents 33.1% of all the solid tumours, coming second in frequency after lymphomas (39.7%). The mean age of the patients was 4.2 years. Boys were the most affected, with a sex ratio of 2:1. Forty-nine mothers (89.1%) and 46 fathers (83.6%) had no formal education. Thirty-seven children (67.3%) were from rural areas. Unilateral cases were predominant (49 cases (89.1%)). Ten cases (10.9%) were bilateral. Exophthalmos was the leading symptom (30 cases (54.5%)). The survival rate at 30 months was 56% with 18% lost at follow-up. Mortality as a result of retinoblastoma remains high in our region because diagnosis is always late and it is difficult to follow-up the patients. Education of healthcare workers and raising awareness in the general population would improve the survival rate of retinoblastoma patients in Africa.

  19. Advanced Unilateral Retinoblastoma: The Impact of Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery on Enucleation Rate and Patient Survival at MSKCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available To report on the influence of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC on enucleation rates, ocular and patient survival from metastasis and impact on practice patterns at Memorial Sloan Kettering for children with advanced intraocular unilateral retinoblastoma.Single-center retrospective review of all unilateral retinoblastoma patients with advanced intraocular retinoblastoma treated at MSKCC between our introduction of OAC (May 2006 and December 2014. End points were ocular survival, patient survival from metastases and enucleation rates.156 eyes of 156 retinoblastoma patients were included. Primary enucleation rates have progressively decreased from a rate of >95% before OAC to 66.7% in the first year of OAC use to the present rate of 7.4%. The percent of patients receiving OAC has progressively increased from 33.3% in 2006 to 92.6% in 2014. Overall, ocular survival was significantly better in eyes treated with OAC in the years 2010-2014 compared to 2006-2009 (p = 0.023, 92.7% vs 68.0% ocular survival at 48 months. There have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group but two patients treated with primary enucleation have died of metastatic disease.OAC was introduced in 2006 and its impact on patient management is profound. Enucleation rates have decreased from over 95% to less than 10%. Our ocular survival rate has also significantly and progressively improved since May 2006. Despite treating more advanced eyes rather then enucleating them patient survival has not been compromised (there have been no metastatic deaths in the OAC group. In our institution, enucleation is no longer the most common treatment for advanced unilateral retinoblastoma.

  20. Imunidade absoluta de jurisdição dos organismos internacionais e a violação aos direitos humanos (trabalhistas): comentários à oj 416 do tst

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Fernando Guilhon; Hübner, Tamires

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho, questiona-se a decisão do Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, que, por meio da Orientação Jurisprudencial (OJ) n. 416, afirmou que a Imunidade de Jurisdição dos Organismos Internacionais é absoluta. Esse entendimento contraria a Teoria da Imunidade Relativa, aplicada, também, nos Estados. A questão concerne ao fato de se conceder maior

  1. Detection of the GD2+/CD56+/CD45- immunophenotype by flow cytometry in cerebrospinal fluids from a patient with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongqiang; Tang, Yongmin; Xu, Xiaojun; Tang, Hongfeng

    2013-02-01

    Triple-color flow cytometry with a panel of antibodies comprising GD2, CD56, and CD45 was performed to analyze cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from a patient with retinoblastoma who was suspicious of meningeal metastasis based on clinical presentation. Our results showed that the cells in CSF demonstrated the immunophenotype positive for GD2 and CD56 but negative for CD45 antigen, which suggested the presence of CSF metastasis of retinoblastoma. At the end of eight cycles of intrathecal chemotherapy, CSF specimen was analyzed with Flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCI) again and the result showed no detectable malignant cells with the same immunophenotype. Our conclusion is that FCI can be a quick and reliable method for the diagnosis of CSF metastasis of retinoblastoma and the immunophenotype (GD2+, CD56+, and CD45-) can be used to recognize residual retinoblastoma cells in CSF.

  2. Phacoemulsification and foldable acrylic IOL implantation in children with treated retinoblastoma Facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular acrílica dobrável em crianças com retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Beatriz Tartarella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the results of cataract surgery in children with radiation-induced cataract after treatment for retinoblastoma. METHODS: Retrospective interventional case series. Six consecutive patients diagnosed with secondary cataracts due to radiation therapy for retinoblastoma. Intervention: Phacoemulsification and foldable acrylic intraocular lens implantation. Outcomes measu- red: Visual acuity, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Aspirated lens material and aqueous humor samples were collected during surgery. RESULTS: Six uniocular children between 3 to 5 years of age at time of surgery were studied. The mean time interval between radiotherapy and cataract diagnosis was 22.3 months. The mean follow-up after surgery was 17.2 months (range: 12 to 23 months. All eyes achieved a clear visual axis after surgery allowing monitoring of the tumor status. None developed recurrence or retinoblastoma dissemination. Histopathological analysis of the aspired material showed no tumoral cells in all samples. All patients improved vision after cataract surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Phacoemulsification with acrylic intraocular lens implantation seems to be a safe, feasible, and effective method for the removal of radiation-induced cataracts in patients with treated retinoblastoma.OBJETIVOS: Estudar os resultados da cirurgia da catarata induzida pela radioterapia para o tratamento do retinoblastoma em crianças. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo intervencional em série de casos onde seis pacientes consecutivos apresentaram catarata secundária à terapia por radiação para o retinoblastoma. Intervenção: Facoemulsificação e implante de lente intraocular acrílica dobrável. Foram avaliadas: acuidade visual, oftalmoscopia binocular indireta e biomicroscopia. Material para análise histológica do cristalino e do humor aquoso foi coletado durante as cirurgias. RESULTADOS: Seis crianças, entre 3 e 5 anos de idade, com catarata secund

  3. Hipoterapia na GNR: uma forma de proximidade ao cidadão

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    “Hipoterapia Na GNR: uma forma de proximidade ao cidadão” é um trabalho que mostra o lado solidário e humano numa força de segurança. A GNR, uma força de segurança centenária, única no país dotada de solípedes na sua orgânica, rentabiliza este meio não só no cumprimento da sua missão geral, mas também no apoio a pessoas portadoras de necessidades especiais. Com este Trabalho de Investigação Aplicada pretendeu-se analisar de que forma é materializada a Hipote...

  4. Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy (Ophthalmic Artery Chemosurgery for Group D Retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H Abramson

    Full Text Available To report globe salvage rates, patient survival and adverse events of ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC for International Classification of Retinoblastoma (ICRB group D retinoblastoma (naive and after prior failures.Single institution retrospective review of all Group D eyes treated with OAC from 5/2006-12/2012. Patients were treated according to our previously-published techniques. Primary outcome was globe retention without need for external beam radiotherapy (EBRT. Demographics, prior treatments, OAC agents used, and adverse events were also recorded.112 group D eyes (103 patients that underwent OAC were included (average follow-up was 34 months, range: 2-110 months. 47 eyes were treatment-naïve, 58 eyes received prior treatments elsewhere, and 7 young infants (7 eyes underwent our published "bridge therapy" (single agent intravenous carboplatin until old enough to undergo OAC. Median number of OAC sessions/eye was 3 (range 1-9. 110/112 eyes received intra-arterial melphalan, but only 31 eyes received melphalan alone. 43 eyes received carboplatin, and 78 eyes received topotecan (never as a single agent. 80/112 eyes received >1 drug over their treatment course, and 39 eyes received all three agents. 24 eyes (16 pretreated, 7 treatment-naïve, 1 bridge failed treatment and required enucleation during the study period. Enucleation and EBRT were avoided in 88/112 eyes (78.6%; including 40/47 [85.1%] treatment-naïve eyes, 42/58 [72.4%] previously-treated eyes, and 6/7 eyes [85.7%] among bridge patients. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, globe salvage rate was 74% at 110 months among all patients, and 85% at 110 months in the treatment-naïve subgroup. Transient grade 3/4 neutropenia was more common in patients receiving OAC bilaterally. No child died of metastatic disease.OAC is effective for curing group D retinoblastoma, achieving rates of globe salvage many times higher than systemic chemotherapy (10-47%, even in eyes that previously

  5. Investigación básica y aplicada en contabilidad

    OpenAIRE

    García Casella, Carlos Luis

    2004-01-01

    Se aborda la cuestión de la investigación científica en contabilidad, procurando que sea considerada dentro de las ciencias sociales. Esto genera uso del método científico en la tarea de investigación contable. El carácter de ciencia factual, cultural, aplicada de la contabilidad se considera esencial frente a normas contables profesionales que la reducen a mera técnica en nuestro país. Descartada la idea de arte o tecnología social se presenta un enfoque de contabilidad que supera lo que hab...

  6. Estrategia de comunicación y marketing aplicada a la empresa Nelybel

    OpenAIRE

    GARCÍA MARTÍN, BEATRIZ

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo principal del proyecto es plantear una estrategia de comunicación y marketing útil para aplicarla a la empresa de regalos Nelybel. Los objetivos secundarios son aprender a llevar a cabo una estrategia de comunicación y marketing partiendo casi de cero, realizar una investigación de mercado provincial y un análisis de la competencia y ayudar con la publicidad y promoción de la empresa. García Martín, B. (2012). Estrategia de comunicación y marketing aplicada a la empresa Nely...

  7. Medidas de calidad aplicadas a los levantamientos topográficos en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Sabogal Lemus, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Este trabajo documenta la investigación “Medidas de calidad aplicadas a los levantamientos topográficos en Colombia”; la propuesta metodológica de este documento, tiene como objetivo principal la realización de la evaluación de calidad de un conjunto de datos levantados en campo, para lo cual es necesario revisar los antecedentes de la topografía en Colombia, así como los diferentes sistemas de referencia que gobiernan la cartografía del país -- Previo a realizar una evaluación de calidad, se...

  8. Genômica aplicada à reprodução equina

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Priscila Marques Moura de

    2011-01-01

    Em equinos, as intersecções entre a reprodução e a genômica são numerosas, no entanto, pouco se sabe sobre os fatores genéticos que atuam na fertilidade. Com o genoma equino completo, existe a possibilidade de análises moleculares e estudo de genes candidatos a biomarcadores para características reprodutivas específicas. Com base nestas informações, a presente tese teve como objetivo desenvolver estudos de genômica aplicada à reprodução equina. O primeiro artigo analisou a expressão de gen...

  9. Neurociencia computacional aplicada a la liberación de transmisores por exocitosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Peruchena, Carlos María

    2008-01-01

    Falta por incorporar las palabras clave La Tesis presentada, realizada bajo la dirección del Dr. Guillermo Álvarez de Toledo Naranjo, lleva por título Neurocincia computacional aplicada a la liberación de transmisores por exocitosis. El trabajo desarrollado en esta Tesis forma parte de la actividad de investigación sobre secreción celular que se lleva a cabo en el grupo de investigación del Dr. Álvarez de Toledo (CVI-209), dentro del proyecto BFI2001-3199. El grupo de investigación CVI-209...

  10. Estudios de Geografía aplicada para una mejor organización del espacio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gutierréz de MacGregor

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el momento actual, nunca se había dado tanta importancia al estudio del espacio terrestre y a la distribución dentro de él –de factores físicos y humanos– de una manera sistemática u ordenada, con objeto de relacional esos factores y constatar si su distribución es equilibrada, o en caso contrario efectuar estudios de Geografía Aplicada que sirvan de base para lograr este equilibrio.

  11. Metaheurísticas aplicadas al problema QAP. Estudio y experiencia computacional.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarria Cerro, Víctor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    La finalidad de este proyecto es estudiar la aplicación de heurísticas al problema de asignación cuadrática QAP, más concretamente, analizar y comparar las heurísticas de búsqueda tabú, algoritmos genéticos y recocido simulado aplicadas al problema QAP y combinarlas entre ellas para formar metaheurísticas que mejoren los resultados obtenidos. El proyecto mostrará las características de cada algoritmo, su programación y validación del código fuente. Por último, se realizará una experiencia ...

  12. High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Reliably Detect Orbital Tumor Recurrence after Enucleation in Children with Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Selma; de Jong, Marcus C; de Graaf, Pim; Brisse, Hervé J; Galluzzi, Paolo; Maeder, Philippe; Bornfeld, Norbert; Biewald, Eva; Metz, Klaus A; Temming, Petra; Castelijns, Jonas A; Goericke, Sophia L

    2016-03-01

    Orbital tumor recurrence is a rare but serious complication in children with retinoblastoma, leading to a high risk of metastasis and death. Therefore, we assume that these recurrences have to be detected and treated as early as possible. Preliminary studies used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate postsurgical findings in the orbit. In this study, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution MRI to detect orbital tumor recurrence in children with retinoblastoma in a large study cohort. Consecutive retrospective study (2007-2013) assessing MRI findings after enucleation. A total of 103 MRI examinations of 55 orbits (50 children, 27 male/23 female, mean age 16.3±12.4 months) with a median time of 8 months (range, 0-93) after enucleation for retinoblastoma. High-resolution MRI using orbital surface coils was performed on 1.5 Tesla MRI systems to assess abnormal orbital findings. Five European experts in retinoblastoma imaging evaluated the MRI examinations regarding the presence of abnormal orbital gadolinium enhancement and judged them as "definitive tumor," "suspicious of tumor," "postsurgical condition/scar formation," or "without pathologic findings." The findings were correlated to histopathology (if available), MRI, and clinical follow-up. Abnormal orbital enhancement was a common finding after enucleation (100% in the first 3 months after enucleation, 64.3% >3 years after enucleation). All histopathologically confirmed tumor recurrences (3 of 55 orbits, 5.5%) were correctly judged as "definitive tumor" in MRI. Two orbits from 2 children rated as "suspicious of tumor" received intravenous chemotherapy without histopathologic confirmation; further follow-up (67 and 47 months) revealed no sign of tumor recurrence. In 90.2%, no tumor was suspected on MRI, which was clinically confirmed during follow-up (median follow-up after enucleation, 45 months; range, 8-126). High-resolution MRI with orbital surface coils may reliably distinguish between

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Retinoblastoma Copy Numbers Refines the List of Possible Driver Genes Involved in Tumor Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Irsan E.; Mol, Berber M.; Massink, Maarten P. G.; de Jong, Marcus C.; de Graaf, Pim; van der Valk, Paul; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Moll, Annette C.; te Riele, Hein; Cloos, Jacqueline; Dorsman, Josephine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background While RB1 loss initiates retinoblastoma development, additional somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) can drive tumor progression. Although SCNAs have been identified with good concordance between studies at a cytoband resolution, accurate identification of single genes for all recurrent SCNAs is still challenging. This study presents a comprehensive meta-analysis of genome-wide SCNAs integrated with gene expression profiling data, narrowing down the list of plausible retinoblastoma driver genes. Methods We performed SCNA profiling of 45 primary retinoblastoma samples and eight retinoblastoma cell lines by high-resolution microarrays. We combined our data with genomic, clinical and histopathological data of ten published genome-wide SCNA studies, which strongly enhanced the power of our analyses (N = 310). Results Comprehensive recurrence analysis of SCNAs in all studies integrated with gene expression data allowed us to reduce candidate gene lists for 1q, 2p, 6p, 7q and 13q to a limited gene set. Besides the well-established driver genes RB1 (13q-loss) and MYCN (2p-gain) we identified CRB1 and NEK7 (1q-gain), SOX4 (6p-gain) and NUP205 (7q-gain) as novel retinoblastoma driver candidates. Depending on the sample subset and algorithms used, alternative candidates were identified including MIR181 (1q-gain) and DEK (6p gain). Remarkably, our study showed that copy number gains rarely exceeded change of one copy, even in pure tumor samples with 100% homozygosity at the RB1 locus (N = 34), which is indicative for intra-tumor heterogeneity. In addition, profound between-tumor variability was observed that was associated with age at diagnosis and differentiation grades. Interpretation Since focal alterations at commonly altered chromosome regions were rare except for 2p24.3 (MYCN), further functional validation of the oncogenic potential of the described candidate genes is now required. For further investigations, our study provides a refined and revised set

  14. External radiotherapy for circumscribed choroidal haemangiomas using a modified retinoblastoma technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, N.; Syrdalen, P. [The National Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Univ. of Oslo, Univ. Eye Dept. (Norway); Tausjoe, J. [The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Dept. of Oncology, Oslo (Norway); Tveraa, K. [The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Medical Physics and Technology, Oslo (Norway)

    1995-12-01

    This report describes two cases of circumscribed choroidal haemangiomas involving the fovea, complicated by serous retinal detachment. Laser photocoagulation, generally accepted as the treatment of choice for choroidal haemangioma, was considered either to be of no visual benefit or a risk for jeopardizing vision further due to the subfoveolar lesions. Fractionated radiotherapy using a lens-sparing, modified retinoblastoma technique, was given, using circular fields of 15 mm diameter. The dose was 24 Gy in 8 fractions. In both eyes the retina reattached completely. The visual acuity improved markedly in the first, and was restored to the prior level in the second. Normalization of a high intraocular pressure was also achieved in the second case. We believe this method to be a reasonable and effective therapy for some choroidal haemangiomas after careful individual consideration. (au) 17 refs.

  15. Retinoblastoma-binding Protein 4-regulated Classical Nuclear Transport Is Involved in Cellular Senescence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Akira; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Moriyama, Tetsuji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Obuse, Chikashi; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nucleocytoplasmic trafficking is a fundamental cellular process in eukaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrated that retinoblastoma-binding protein 4 (RBBP4) functions as a novel regulatory factor to increase the efficiency of importin α/β-mediated nuclear import. RBBP4 accelerates the release of importin β1 from importin α via competitive binding to the importin β-binding domain of importin α in the presence of RanGTP. Therefore, it facilitates importin α/β-mediated nuclear import. We showed that the importin α/β pathway is down-regulated in replicative senescent cells, concomitant with a decrease in RBBP4 level. Knockdown of RBBP4 caused both suppression of nuclear transport and induction of cellular senescence. This is the first report to identify a factor that competes with importin β1 to bind to importin α, and it demonstrates that the loss of this factor can trigger cellular senescence. PMID:26491019

  16. Absence of Systemic Immune Response to Adenovectors After Intraocular Administration to Children With Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonso, Cristhian J; Kong, Lingkun; Leen, Ann; Chai, Samantha J; Petrochelli, Veronica; Chintagumpala, Murali; Hurwitz, Mary Y; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Hurwitz, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    The ocular environment has been shown to induce tolerance to locally administered antigens. We therefore investigated whether there was a systemic immune response against adenoviral vectors injected into the vitreous of retinoblastoma patients enrolled in a phase 1 clinical trial of adenoviral-mediated thymidine kinase gene transfer. Sections of enucleated eyes were immunostained with antibodies against inflammatory cells. A trend toward increasing numbers of plasma cells, T cells, macrophages, and antigen-presenting cells was observed in the injected subjects' eyes, but systemically, there was no significant increase in the number of adenovirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or in adenovirus neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, in contrast to studies showing significant immunogenicity of Ad-RSVtk following injection into extraocular tumors, injection into the eye produces only a mild local inflammatory response without evidence of systemic cellular or humoral immune responses to adenovirus. PMID:20606647

  17. Retinoblastoma protein co-purifies with proteasomal insulin-degrading enzyme: Implications for cell proliferation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Razvan T., E-mail: ratura@gmx.net [Molecular Concepts Research (MCR), Muenster (Germany); Duckworth, William C. [Department of Medicine, Phoenix VA Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Levy, Jennifer L. [Research Service, Phoenix VA Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ (United States); Fawcett, Janet, E-mail: janet.fawcett@va.gov [Research Service, Phoenix VA Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2010-04-30

    Previous investigations on proteasomal preparations containing insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE; EC 3.4.24.56) have invariably yielded a co-purifying protein with a molecular weight of about 110 kDa. We have now found both in MCF-7 breast cancer and HepG2 hepatoma cells that this associated molecule is the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB). Interestingly, the amount of RB in this protein complex seemed to be lower in HepG2 vs. MCF-7 cells, indicating a higher (cytoplasmic) protein turnover in the former vs. the latter cells. Moreover, immunofluorescence showed increased nuclear localization of RB in HepG2 vs. MCF-7 cells. Beyond these subtle differences between these distinct tumor cell types, our present study more generally suggests an interplay between RB and IDE within the proteasome that may have important growth-regulatory consequences.

  18. Retinoblastoma and the Genetic Theory of Cancer: An Old Paradigm Trying to Survive to the Evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, D.; Lore, C.; Hadjistilianou, T.; De Francesco, S.

    2009-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (Rb) is considered to represent the prototype of cancer linked to the sequential loss or inactivation of both alleles of a so-called “tumor suppressor gene”, the Rb1 gene. The pathogenetic mechanism behind this tumor was first hypothesized by Knudson in 1971 and further confirmed by others who identified the Rb1 gene whose loss or inactivation was claimed to be responsible for the disease. However, after about four decades of continuous research in the field of molecular biology, the evidence behind the role of the Rb1 gene in Rb appears to be seriously flawed in the light of epidemiological, biological, and clinical evidences. This editorial summarizes the inconsistencies on this subject. Nevertheless, the molecular biology establishment still adheres to the biased view of the genetic origin of Rb and other cancers, and hardly any alternative explanations are taken into account.

  19. An international survey of classification and treatment choices for group D retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine H Francis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine which IIRC scheme was used by retinoblastoma centers worldwide and the percentage of D eyes treated primarily with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies as well as to correlate trends in treatment choice to IIRC version used and geographic region. METHODS: An anonymized electronic survey was offered to 115 physicians at 39 retinoblastoma centers worldwide asking about IIRC classification schemes and treatment patterns used between 2008 and 2012. Participants were asked to record which version of the IIRC was used for classification, how many group D eyes were diagnosed, and how many eyes were treated with enucleation versus globe salvaging therapies. Averages of eyes per treatment modality were calculated and stratified by both IIRC version and geographic region. Statistical significance was determined by Chi-square, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests using Prism. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 29% of physicians invited to participate. Totally 1807 D eyes were diagnosed. Regarding IIRC system, 27% of centers used the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles (CHLA version, 33% used the Children’s Oncology Group (COG version, 23% used the Philadelphia version, and 17% were unsure. The rate for primary enucleation varied between 0 and 100% and the mean was 29%. By IIRC version, primary enucleation rates were: Philadelphia, 8%; COG, 34%; and CHLA, 37%. By geographic region, primary enucleation rates were: Latin America, 57%; Asia, 40%; Europe, 36%; Africa, 10%, US, 8%; and Middle East, 8%. However, systemic chemoreduction was used more often than enucleation in all regions except Latin America with a mean of 57% per center (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: Worldwide there is no consensus on which IIRC version is used, systemic chemoreduction was the most frequently used initial treatment during the study period followed by enucleation and primary treatment modality, especially enucleation, varied greatly with regards to IIRC version

  20. Glycodendrimeric phenylporphyrins as new candidates for retinoblastoma PDT: blood carriers and photodynamic activity in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-Jian; Chauvin, Benoît; Maillard, Philippe; Hammerer, Fabien; Carez, Danièle; Croisy, Alain; Sandré, Catherine; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Prognon, Patrice; Paul, Jean-Louis; Blais, Jocelyne; Kasselouri, Athena

    2012-10-03

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has recently been proposed as a possible indication in the conservative treatment of hereditary retinoblastoma. In order to create photosensitizers with enhanced targeting ability toward retinoblastoma cells, meso-tetraphenylporphyrins bearing one glycodendrimeric moiety have been synthesized. The binding properties to plasma proteins and photodynamic activity of two monodendrimeric porphyrins bearing three mannose units via monoethylene glycol (1) or diethylene glycol (2) linkers have been compared to that of the non-dendrimeric tri-substituted derivative [TPP(p-Deg-O-α-ManOH)(3)]. The dendrimeric structure was found to highly increase the binding affinity to plasma proteins and to modify to some extent plasma distribution. HDL and to a lesser extent LDL have been shown to be the main carriers of dendrimeric and non-dendrimeric compounds. The phototoxicity observed for the two glycodendrimers (1) and (2) (LD(50)=0.5 μM) in Y79 cells is of the same order of magnitude that for TPP(p-Deg-O-α-ManOH)(3) (LD(50)=0.7 μM), with a similar cellular uptake level for (1) and a lower for (2). A serum content increase from 2% to 20% (v/v) in the incubation medium was found to inhibit both cellular uptake and photoactivity of dendrimeric derivatives, whereas those of TPP(p-Deg-O-α-ManOH)(3) remained little affected. Specificities of glycodendrimeric porphyrins, combining a lower cellular uptake together with a higher affinity toward plasma proteins, make these derivatives possible candidates for a vascular targeting PDT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A synergetic screening approach with companion effector for combination therapy: application to retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeni P Mahida

    Full Text Available For many cancers, the lack of potency and the toxicity of current drugs limits the dose achievable in patients and the efficacy of treatment. Among them, retinoblastoma is a rare cancer of the eye for which better chemotherapeutic options are needed. Combination therapy is a compelling approach to enhance the efficacy of current treatment, however clinical trials to test rationally designed combinations of approved drugs are slow and expensive, and limited by our lack of in-depth knowledge of drug specificity. Since many patients already turn to nutraceuticals in hopes of improving their condition, we hypothesized that certain approved drugs could potentially synergize with widely consumed supplements. Following this hypothesis, we devised an alternative screening strategy aimed at taking advantage of a bait compound such as a nutraceutical with potential therapeutic benefits but low potency, by screening chemical libraries for approved drugs that synergize with this companion effector. As a proof of concept, we sought to identify approved drugs with synergetic therapeutic effects toward retinoblastoma cells in combination with the antioxidant resveratrol, popular as a supplement. We systematically tested FDA-approved drugs and known bioactives seeking to identify such pairs, which led to uncovering only a few additive combinations; but to our surprise, we identified a class of anticancer drugs widely used in the clinic whose therapeutic effect is antagonized with resveratrol. Our observations could explain in part why some patients do not respond well to treatment. Our results validate this alternative approach, and we expect that our companion effector strategy could significantly impact both drug discovery and the nutraceutical industry.

  2. Combined, sequential intravenous and intra-arterial chemotherapy (bridge chemotherapy for young infants with retinoblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Pierre Gobin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra-arterial (i.a. chemotherapy has more risks of procedural complications in neonates and young infants. For these reasons, we have developed a strategy of bridge intravenous single agent chemotherapy to postpone i.a. chemotherapy in these children PROCEDURE: Neonates and young infants with retinoblastoma who required chemotherapy were treated with systemic carboplatin chemotherapy (18.7 mg/kg i.v. every 3-4 weeks until they reached the age of 3 months and a weight of 6 Kg. If necessary, i.a. chemotherapy was subsequently performed at 4 weeks intervals. Efficacy was judged by tumor regression on ophthalmological examination. Retinal toxicity was judged by electroretinography. RESULTS: Eleven children (19 eyes were treated. All patients are alive and no patient has developed metastatic disease or second malignancies (mean follow-up 27 months, range 9-46 months. Intravenous carboplatin (median 2 cycles, range 1-5 combined with cryotherapy and laser was given to all children. This was effective for five eyes, which did not require i.a. chemotherapy. I.a. chemotherapy was administered to 14 eyes (median 3.5 cycles per eye, range 1 to 6. No radiation therapy was required. The Kaplan Meier estimate of ocular radiation-free survival was 94.7% at one year (95% confidence interval 68.1-99.2%. One eye was enucleated due to tumor progression. ERG showed no deterioration of retinal function. CONCLUSION: Bridge i.v.-i.a. chemotherapy was feasible and safe, and is a promising strategy to treat retinoblastoma in neonates and young infants.

  3. Intra-arterial chemotherapy as a treatment for intraocular retinoblastoma: alternatives to direct ophthalmic artery catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klufas, M A; Gobin, Y P; Marr, B; Brodie, S E; Dunkel, I J; Abramson, D H

    2012-09-01

    Intra-arterial chemotherapy is a very effective treatment option for intraocular retinoblastoma. However, direct catheterization of the OA is not always possible. The purpose of this work was to report our initial results with intra-arterial chemotherapy for intraocular retinoblastoma when delivery of the drug was not via direct catheterization of the OA. Retrospective review of 110 eyes (89 patients) undergoing a total of 351 intra-arterial treatments at our institution between 2006 and 2010 identified 18 eyes (14 patients) that received at least 1 infusion via a vascular route other than direct OA catheterization. Alternatives included catheterization of the orbital branch of the MMA and temporary balloon occlusion of the ICA. Tumor control was observed in 17 of 18 eyes at a mean follow-up of 18.9 months (median, 17.5 months; range, 8-36 months). The mean number of intra-arterial infusions was 3.7 per eye (median, 3; range, 2-9). Treatment routes included the following: MMA only, 3 eyes; MMA + OA, 4 eyes; MMA + balloon, 2 eyes; balloon only, 1 eye; balloon + OA, 7 eyes; balloon + OA + MMA, 1 eye. Intra-arterial chemotherapies included melphalan, topotecan, and carboplatin. Complications were all transient. ERG readings were the following: stable, 10 eyes; improved, 3 eyes; reduced, 5 eyes. One patient died from a second malignancy (pinealoblastoma). This initial experience shows that when direct OA catheterization is not possible, using alternative routes of intra-arterial chemotherapy saves eyes and preserves vision with acceptable side effects.

  4. Telephone system operations evaluation : before AOS implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a detailed baseline analysis of telephone system performance before AOS : implementation. By the time of the preparation of this report, the phone system component of : AOS had not been implemented.

  5. Adrenoleucodistrofia cerebral ligada ao x

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Sergio Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: OBJETIVO: o padrão-ouro em exames de imagem para avaliar a adrenoleucodistrofia ligada ao X é o escore de Loes, baseado na localização, alterações de sinais e grau de atrofia. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar como os parâmetros do tensor de difusão correlacionam com o escore de Loes e avaliar se poderiam indicar alterações estruturais precoces. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: as medidas do tensor de difusão foram obtidas em 9 locais pré-estabelecidos da substância branca, bilateralmente, ...

  6. Súmulas Relacionadas ao Controle Externo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Costa da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Controle externo e o que se realiza por órgão distinto daquele responsável pelo ato controlado e visa a comprovar a probidade administrativa e a regularidade da guarda e do emprego dos bens, valores e dinheiros públicos, bem como a fiel execução do orçamento. Atualmente, o sistema de fiscalização governamental brasileiro esta estruturado a partir das disposições contidas nos arts. 70 a 75 da Carta Magna de 1988. Na execução dessas atividades, os órgãos de Controle Externo acabam por se deparar com situações controversas, que abrem margem para diversas interpretações dos dispositivos que regulam as atividades de controle. Assim, inicialmente, em virtude da inoperância judiciaria brasileira, fato social decorrente de inúmeros fatores sócio-organizacionais, sobretudo o grande número de processos e o diminuto número de magistrados, surgiu a fi gura da “Sumula”. Deste modo, objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, apresentar as principais Sumulas editadas pelo STF, STJ e TCU relacionadas ao tema controle externo. Para tanto, foi realizada inicialmente uma pesquisa documental, apresentando aspectos gerais pertinentes a fi gura das súmulas. Ademais, a pesquisa bibliográfica e empregada nos campos atinentes as súmulas relacionadas as normas de controle externo. Ressalte-se que o universo da pesquisa foram todas as súmulas editadas pelo STF, STJ e TCU. Apos a coleta, foram selecionadas as súmulas que tiveram mais repercussão nos meios de publicação. Ao término, foi possível identificar as principais súmulas editadas para efetivar o controle externo. Constatou-se, portanto, que o campo do Controle Externo também e uma área que demanda a edição de numerosas súmulas para a pacificação dos entendimentos. Nesse contexto, o TCU vem se destacando com a edição constante de súmulas, objetivando uniformizar os temas controversos. Algumas problemáticas chegaram ao STF, e, por fim, dois casos, ao STJ.

  7. Estrategias flexibilizadoras aplicadas por las empresas del sector avícola del estado Zulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Bonomie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo, analizar las estrategias flexibilizadoras aplicadas en el proceso productivo por las empresas del sector avícola, específicamente las empresas productoras de pollo del estado Zulia. Para tal fin, se describe el proceso productivo de estas empresas y además se identifican las estrategias aplicadas considerando los acontecimientos económicos influenciados por cambios políticos que en los últimos años han incidido en las empresas productoras de pollo. Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica para determinar los criterios de clasificación de las estrategias, asumiendo la establecida por Gamboa y col. (2001. Se diseñó un instrumento semiestructurado, el cual fue administrado a los gerentes y trabajadores de las empresas analizadas. Los resultados obtenidos reflejan, que las empresas utilizan las estrategias con la finalidad de reestructurar y modernizar sus procesos productivos, mejorar continuamente sus productos e introducir nueva tecnología. Se concluye que estas empresas logran incrementar la productividad, aumentando la cantidad de productos ante la utilización óptima de los recursos humanos y tecnológicos, optimización que implica una reducción de costos de producción para poder expandirse y ofrecer precios competitivos en el mercado.

  8. La investigación en pedagogía y didáctica aplicada a la educación física A pesquisa em pedagogia e didática aplicada à educação física Research on Teaching and Didactics Applied to Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Adriana Castro-Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto forma parte de un proyecto de investigación que busca elaborar un estado del arte sobre investigación educativa en educación física, recreación y deporte en Antioquia entre 1998-2009. Este artículo analiza la producción de conocimiento sobre pedagogía y didáctica aplicada en los campos mencionados. Se trata de dar cuenta de aquello que atañe a las concepciones y los modelos pedagógicos y a los enfoques didácticos hallados en las investigaciones educativas revisadas. Los resultados reflejan la coexistencia de una multiplicidad de enfoques teórico-metodológicos desamparados de un debate pedagógico que, a su vez, reflejan un vacío científico en la comunidad académica.Este texto faz parte de um projeto de pesquisa que pretende elaborar um estado da arte sobre pesquisa educativa em educação física, recreação e esporte em Antioquia entre 1998-2009. Este artigo analisa a produção de conhecimento sobre pedagogia e didática aplicada nos campos mencionados. Trata-se de dar conta daquilo que se refere às concepções, aos modelos pedagógicos e aos enfoques didáticos encontrados nas pesquisas educativas revisadas. Os resultados refletem a coexistência de uma multiplicidade de enfoques teórico-metodológicos desamparados de um debate pedagógico que, por sua vez, refletem um vazio científico na comunidade acadêmica.This article is part of a research project designed to compile information on the state of the art in educational research on physical education, recreation and sports in Antioquia between 1998 and 2009. Specifically, it analyzes the production of knowledge on teaching and didactics applied to the aforementioned fields and, in that respect, it attempts to identify what concerns the pedagogic concepts and models, and the didactic approaches found in the educational research reviewed for the study. The findings point to the coexistence of a wealth of theoretical and methodological approaches bereft of

  9. Evaluation of SD-208, a TGF-β-RI Kinase Inhibitor, as an Anticancer Agent in Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puran Fadakar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children resulting from genetic alterations and transformation of mature retinal cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of SD-208, TGF-β-RI kinase inhibitor, on the expression of some miRNAs including a miR-17/92 cluster in retinoblastoma cells. Prior to initiate this work, the cell proliferation was studied by Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium (MTT and bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU assays. Then, the expression patterns of four miRNAs (18a, 20a, 22, and 34a were investigated in the treated SD-208 (0.0, 1, 2 and 3 µM and untreated Y-79 cells. A remarkable inhibition of the cell proliferation was found in Y-79 cells treated with SD-208 versus untreated cells. Also, the expression changes were observed in miRNAs 18a, 20a, 22 and 34a in response to SD-208 treatment (P<0.05. The findings of the present study suggest that the anti-cancer effect of SD-208 may be exerted due to the regulation of specific miRNAs, at least in this particular retinoblastoma cell line. To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the SD-208 could alter the expression of tumor suppressive miRNAs as well as oncomiRs in vitro. In conclusion, the present data suggest that SD-208 could be an alternative agent in retinoblastoma treatment.

  10. Psicologia del color aplicada a los cursos virtuales para mejorar el nivel de aprendizaje en los estudiantes

    OpenAIRE

    Canté García, Julio

    2017-01-01

    La psicología del color aplicada a la elaboración de la interfaz que se diseñe para un curso virtual jugará un papel importante en las posibilidades de aprender. Si no es elaborada de manera adecuada, repercute inmediatamente en la motivación y el aprendizaje del estudiante. La interfaz gráfica ha de ser estimulante, explícita, consistente y funcional, para que el alumno la comprenda y explore fácilmente. La psicologia del color aplicada a l'elaboració de la interfície que es dissenyi per ...

  11. GEOESTATÍSTICA APLICADA AO ESTUDO DAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DO SOLO EM ÁREAS DE FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Wojciechowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods of geostatistics were used in the identification of size and structure of space variability of some physiochemical attributes of soils under seasonal deciduous forest areas, which were called mature forest, secondary forest and ¿capoeirão¿. The areas, located in Santa Tereza, RS, were sampled during the period of 2002 and 2003, comprising the soil classes: Argiluvic Chernosol, Cambisol Ta and Litholic Neosol. Systematic sampling was performed with regular spacing grid of points varying of 30 m for "capoeirão" and 40 m for mature and secondary forest, in an amount of 80 sample points in a total area of 7.34 ha. For each point, measurements "in situ" were made of the soil bulk density, clay content, pH, potassium, organic matter and phosphorus. The structure of space variability was identified through the variograms, being defined the needed parameters for the Kriging. The most variable attribute was the organic matter, being not adjusted to any model of variogram, while the pH was the least. In the analysis of the space variability structure through the geostatistics, the clay and bulk density, both in area of secondary forest, and pH in the experimental areas, had showed the biggest space dependence. The Gauss model for the clay attribute obtained the largest reach (a, being 400 m and 388 m in the areas of secondary and mature forest, respectively. The crossed validation showed accuracy in the variographic models adjustment, being the pH variable the one which presented the optimum performance, 0.87; 0.94 and 0.92 in the areas of mature forest, secondary forest and ¿capoeirão¿, respectively.

  12. Modelagem Hidrológica Estocástica Aplicada ao Rio Tocantins para a Cidade de Marabá-PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kelen Cardoso Câmara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Estudos na área da hidrologia mostraram que podemos evitar desastres naturais através de previsões hidrológicas. Nesse trabalho foi utilizada a metodologia de Box-Jenkins de séries temporais multivariadas para previsão diária de nível fluviométrico do rio Tocantins para o município de Marabá-PA, que sofre anualmente com eventos de enchentes, ocasionado pelo aumento periódico do rio Tocantins e pela situação de vulnerabilidade da população que residem em áreas de riscos. Foram utilizados dados de níveis diários observados nas estações fluviométricas de Marabá e Carolina e Conceição do Araguaia da Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA, do período de 01/12/2008 a 31/03/2011. Evidenciou-se que o modelo ajustado conseguiu capturar a dinâmica das séries temporais, com bons prognósticos para o período de sete dias, com erro absoluto máximo de 0,08m, e com precisão na previsão acima de 99,00%. Assim, a pesquisa mostrou que o modelo de previsão teve um bom ajuste apresentando bons resultados, podendo ser utilizado como ferramentas de apoio para Defesa Civil, auxiliando no planejamento e preparo de ações preventivas para o município de Marabá.

  13. The particle swarm optimization algorithm applied to nuclear systems surveillance test planning; Otimizacao aplicada ao planejamento de politicas de testes em sistemas nucleares por enxame de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, Newton Norat

    2006-12-15

    This work shows a new approach to solve availability maximization problems in electromechanical systems, under periodic preventive scheduled tests. This approach uses a new Optimization tool called PSO developed by Kennedy and Eberhart (2001), Particle Swarm Optimization, integrated with probabilistic safety analysis model. Two maintenance optimization problems are solved by the proposed technique, the first one is a hypothetical electromechanical configuration and the second one is a real case from a nuclear power plant (Emergency Diesel Generators). For both problem PSO is compared to a genetic algorithm (GA). In the experiments made, PSO was able to obtain results comparable or even slightly better than those obtained b GA. Therefore, the PSO algorithm is simpler and its convergence is faster, indicating that PSO is a good alternative for solving such kind of problems. (author)

  14. Comparação entre tecnicas morfometricas aplicadas ao epitelio vaginal apos uso prolongado do contraceptivo injetavel acetato de medroxiprogesterona de deposito

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Augusto Hart Madureira Filho

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: O acetato de medroxiprogesterona de depósito (AMPD) é um contraceptivo de depósito, de absorção lenta, extensamente usado no mundo. Tem sido sugerido que esta droga possa alterar a mucosa vaginal e assim poderia aumentar o risco de transmissão de doenças sexualmente transmissíveis, facilitando, por exemplo, a aquisição do vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). Em experiências com animais, foi mostrado que injeções de AMPD provocavam uma atrofia no epitélio vaginal, ocorrendo um aumen...

  15. ESPECTROSCOPIA APLICADA AO MONITORAMENTO DAS MUDANÇAS ESTRUTURAIS DE COMPOSTOS ORGÂNICOS OBTIDOS NA COMPOSTAGEM DO LODO DE ETE

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNA POMPERMAYER MEOTTI DE ALMEIDA

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar o processo de compostagem de lodo de esgoto de uma indústria alimentícia com dois substratos diferentes, poda de jardinagem e serragem. Para o monitoramento e caracterização dos compostos obtidos foram utilizados métodos convencionais e espectroscópicos. Montou-se duas leiras, uma com lodo e serragem (LS) e outra com lodo e poda (LP), na proporção de 1:3 em volume. Acompanhou-se durante 210 dias o processo de compostagem com medições periódicas da tempe...

  16. New methodologies applied to the monitoring of the Salto Caxias dam; Novas metodologias aplicadas ao monitoramento da Barragem de Salto Caxias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcos Alberto; Ferreira, Elizeu Santos [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: marcos.asoares@copel.com; elizeu.sf@copel.com; Faggion, Pedro Luis; Veiga, Luis Augusto Koenig; Nadal, Carlos Aurelio; Freitas, Silvio Rogerio Correia de; Zocolotti Filho, Carlos Alberto; Granemann, Daniel Carvalho; Martitni, Luisnei; Lopes, Cesar Rafael; Santos, Daniel Perozzo dos [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: faggion@ufpr.br; kngveiga@ufpr.br; cnadal@ufpr.br; sfreitas@ufpr.br; czocolotti@hotmail.com; daniel.mestrado@ibest.com.br; l_martini@terra.com.br; cesar.r.Lopes@ufpr.br; danielperozzo@hotmail.com; Boszczowski, Roberta Bomfim [LACTEC - Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: roberta.bomfim@lactec.org.br

    2004-10-15

    This paper reaches for the integration of geodesic hearing to the safety instrumentation used for possible displacement control of the concrete blocks which form the Salto Caxias hydroelectric power plant dam, placed at rio Iguacu, at the state of Parana, Brazil. This integration will supply subsides for the technical staff responsible for the dam civil maintenance defining block absolute displacement, because the instrumentation only dives relative variations. Those data are obtained with the implantation of monitoring network for monitoring downstream to the reservoir, formed by six concrete pillars stuck in the rock and having a forced centering system. That network will be providing the external monitoring of the wall which forms the dam and also to support a high precision geodesic polygonal which will be conducted inside the drainage galleries for the integration of the monitoring instrumentation and the safety, consisting of the transformation of relative displacements measured at absolute displacements related to the system of geodesic coordinates used in the assessment.

  17. Métodos não-invasivos para análises hormonais aplicadas aos estudos de ecologia e etologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Garcia Pereira

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento endócrino pela mensuração de metabólitos urinários e fecais de hormônios esteróides tem se mostrado uma alternativa viável na investigação da fisiologia reprodutiva e do estresse em uma grande variedade de aves e mamíferos, domésticos e selvagens. Esta abordagem tem contribuído para uma maior integração da endocrinologia com estudos comportamentais e ecológicos, gerando informações mais detalhadas em diversas áreas tais como bem-estar animal, comportamento social, reprodução, biologia da conservação, biomedicina, entre outros. Todavia, o emprego desta metodologia no Brasil tem sido limitado principalmente à pesquisa de parâmetros reprodutivos e de estresse em espécies selvagens, não havendo até o momento trabalhos publicados utilizando a quantificação urinária ou fecal de glucocorticóides ou esteróides sexuais em animais domésticos. Desta forma, esta palestra tem como objetivo ilustrar alguns exemplos de estudos conduzidos no país envolvendo técnicas de monitoramento endócrino não-invasivo, assim como expor possíveis áreas de aplicação desta ferramenta em pesquisas com espécies domesticas.The endocrine monitoring through urinary and fecal steroid analysis has been proven a feasible alternative in the investigation of reproductive and stress physiology in a great variety of birds and mammals (domestic and wild species. This approach has contributed to enhance integration between endocrinology and behavioral/ ecological studies originating detailed information towards different areas, such as animal welfare, social behavior, reproduction, conservation biology, biomedicine, among others. In Brazil, however, its application has been limited mainly to the determination of reproductive and stress parameters in wild species, with no published articles employing measurement of urinary or fecal glucocorticoids or sexual steroids in domestic animals. Thus, the aim of this lecture is first show examples of Brazilian researches involving non-invasive endocrine monitoring, and secondly illustrate possible applications of this technology in studies involving domestic animals.

  18. Abordagem adaptativa aplicada ao planejamento agregado da produção sob incertezas Adaptive approach applied to aggregate production planning under uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Salviano Silva Filho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Um problema de planejamento agregado da produção, com incertezas sobre a flutuação da demanda, é formulado através de um modelo de otimização estocástica, com critério quadrático e restrições lineares. Dificuldades para encontrar uma solução ótima global para o problema levam à proposição de uma abordagem adaptativa de fácil implementação computacional que é baseada na formulação de um problema determinístico equivalente e que tem sua solução periodicamente revisada por meio de um procedimento clássico da literatura. Um exemplo, em que o sistema de balanço de estoque está sujeito à forte e fraca variabilidade da demanda real, é empregado para analisar o comportamento da abordagem proposta. Por fim, os resultados obtidos são comparados com outra abordagem subótima, cuja principal característica é não permitir revisões periódicas.A problem of aggregate production planning, with uncertainty about the fluctuation in demand, is formulated by a stochastic optimization model, with quadratic criterion and linear constraints. Difficulties in finding a global optimum solution to the problem lead to the proposal of an adaptive approach which is easy to implement computationally and which is based on the formulation of a deterministic equivalent problem, the solution for which is periodically reviewed through a classical procedure of literature. An example, where the inventory balance system is subject to weak and strong variability in actual demand, is employed to analyze the behavior of the proposed approach. Finally, the results provided by the proposed approach are compared with another suboptimal approach, the main characteristic of which is not allowing periodic reviews.

  19. Risk analysis applied to development of a gas field in Santos Basin; Analise de risco aplicada ao desenvolvimento de um campo de gas na Bacia de Santos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Alexandre M.; Filoco, Paulo R.; Yamada, Debora T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Decision analysis applied to the development phase of petroleum fields must take into account the risk associated to many kinds of uncertainties. In the transition of the appraisal to the development phases, the importance of risk associated to the production and the recovery factor may increase significantly. The process is complex due to high investments, large number of uncertain variables and strong dependence of the results with the production strategy definition. In E and P, several decisions must be taken considering the risks involved through the appraisal of the uncertainties impact in production of petroleum fields, increase the possibility of success, measuring possible lost and sub-optimized developments identifying new opportunities. In a specific scenario, like gas production, the risk associated to the project becomes larger due to the gas prices compared to oil, the demand, the distribution's structure and the deadlines defined in contracts. The objective of this paper is to show the results of a methodology developed in a detailed study of a risk analysis process in appraisal and development phases (execution and implementation) to one of the biggest gas fields in Brazil (Mexilhao Field) and support reliable future decisions. (author)

  20. The solidification/stabilization technology applied to the industrial waste treatment; A tecnologia da solidificacao/estabilizacao aplicada ao tratmento de residuos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Lisete Celina; Schwabe, Wilfrid Keller [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria; Hills, Colin Douglas

    1998-06-01

    Chemical fixation systems are commonly used to manage hazardous industrial wastes. they are based on binders that can encapsulate the waste, improve physical properties and reduce the rate of release of waste components into the environment. Solidification/Stabilisation (S/S) technology presents a choice of binder systems, where the most popular employ ordinary Portland cement (OPC), often with pozzolanic or other mineral additives. The morphology and chemistry of the solidified waste forms are complex. In this work cement-based solidification of hazardous wastes in reviewed and our current understanding of the mechanisms involved are discussed. (author)