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Sample records for aplicacao em dosimetria

  1. Controle de qualidade e dosimetria em equipamentos de tomografia computadorizada Quality control and dosimetry in computed tomography units

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    Diana Rodrigues de Pina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação de condições dos equipamentos e dosimetria em setores de tomografia computadorizada utilizando protocolos de cabeça, abdome e coluna lombar em pacientes adultos (em três equipamentos distintos e pediátricos com até um ano e meio de vida (em um dos equipamentos avaliados. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram estimados o índice de dose em tomografia computadorizada e a dose média em cortes múltiplos, em exames com pacientes adultos, em três distintos equipamentos. Ainda foram estimadas as doses na superfície de entrada e as doses absorvidas em exame de cabeça para pacientes adultos e pediátricos em um dos equipamentos avaliados. RESULTADOS: Foram realizados testes de controle de qualidade, mecânicos, demonstrando que os equipamentos satisfazem as especificações de uso estabelecidas pelas normas vigentes. Os resultados da dosimetria mostraram que valores de dose média em cortes múltiplos excederam em até 109,0% os valores de níveis de referência, apresentando consideráveis variações entre os equipamentos avaliados neste estudo. As doses absorvidas obtidas com protocolos pediátricos são inferiores aos de pacientes adultos, apresentando redução de até 51,0% na tireoide. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo foram avaliadas as condições de operação de três equipamentos tomográficos, estabelecendo quais parâmetros devem ser trabalhados para a implantação de um programa de controle de qualidade nas instituições onde esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida.OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of equipment conditions and dosimetry in computed tomography services utilizing protocols for head, abdomen, and lumbar spine in adult patients (in three different units and pediatric patients up to 18 months of age (in one of the units evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Computed tomography dose index and multiple-scan average dose were estimated in studies of adult patients with three different units. Additionally, entrance surface doses as well as

  2. Determinação atraves do metodo da dosimetria termoluminescente, das doses de radiação incidentes em orgãos criticos, durante a obtenção de radiografias extra-bucais

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Resumo: O presente estudo teve o propósito de determinar o valor de doses de radiação incidentes em determinadas regiões consideradas críticas, de pacientes submetidos a exames radiográficos extra-bucais de interesse na Odontologia. Para isso, foi usada a dosimetria termoluminescente (LiF-700). Os resultados evidenciaram que os níveis de radiação, decorrentes de radiografias extra-bucais realizadas em indivíduos com diversos tipos morfológicos de face, mostram diferenças entre si, sugerindo ...

  3. Aplicativo para dosimetria interna usando a distribuição biocinética de fótons baseada em imagens de medicina nuclear

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    Viriato Leal Neto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este artigo apresenta uma forma de se obterem estimativas de dose em pacientes submetidos a tratamentos radioterápicos a partir da análise das regiões de interesse em imagens de medicina nuclear. Materiais e Métodos: Foi desenvolvido o software denominado DoRadIo (Dosimetria das Radiações Ionizantes, que recebe as informações sobre os órgãos fontes e o órgão alvo e retorna resultados gráficos e numéricos. As imagens de medicina nuclear utilizadas foram obtidas de catálogos disponibilizados por físicos médicos. Nas simulações utilizaram-se modelos computacionais de exposição constituídos por fantomas de voxels acoplados ao código Monte Carlo EGSnrc. O software foi desenvolvido no Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 com o modelo de projeto Windows Presentation Foundation e a linguagem de programação C#. Resultados: Da aplicação das ferramentas foram obtidos: o arquivo para otimização das simulações Monte Carlo utilizando o EGSnrc, a organização e compactação dos resultados dosimétricos com todas as fontes, a seleção das regiões de interesse, a contagem da intensidade dos tons de cinza nas regiões de interesse, o arquivo das fontes ponderadas e, finalmente, todos os resultados gráficos e numéricos. Conclusão: A interface de usuários pode ser adaptada para uso em clínicas de medicina nuclear como ferramenta computacional auxiliar na estimativa da atividade administrada.

  4. Development and application of a pediatric head phantom for dosimetry in computed tomography; Desenvolvimento e aplicacao de um simulador pediatrico craniano para dosimetria em tomografia computadorizada

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    Martins, Elaine Wirney

    2016-11-01

    To determine the exposure levels and the absorbed dose in patients undergoing CT scans, is necessary to calculate the CT dose index in measurements with a PMMA or water phantom. The phantom must be enough to simulate the attenuation and scattering characteristics of a human body or parts in a radiation field. The CT specific quantities : CT air kerma index (Ca,100) , weighted CT air kerma index (CW ), a total volume CT air kerma index (Cvol) and the CT air kerma-length product (PKL) must be determined and compared to literature reference levels. In this work a head pediatric phantom was developed, considering that the Brazilian published Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) are based on adult phantom measurements. This developed phantom shows a construction innovation using materials to simulate the skullcap, cortical bone (aluminum) and cancellous bone (PVC), and it was filled with distilled water. The phantom dimension follows the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the International Commission on Radiation Units for children from 0 to 5 years old head size: diameter of 160 mm and height of 155 mm. The skullcap has 4 mm of thickness and 111.9 mm of internal diameter. In order to evaluate its behavior, tests were carried out in calibration laboratories and in clinical beams. The results showed attenuation up to 23% when different materials are used as skullcap, demonstrating that the DRLs adopted could be overestimating the dose received by pediatric patients. It is observed that the dose received by CT skull scans presents different distribution, due to the skullcap partially attenuation and/or backscattering which is not considered when the PMMA phantom is used.

  5. EPR response characterization of drugs excipients for applying in accident dosimetry; Caracterizacao da resposta RPE dos excipientes dos medicamentos para aplicacao em dosimetria de acidente

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    Marczewski, Barbara S.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando; Galante, Ocimar L.; Costa, Zelia M. da; Campos, Leticia L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Some drugs are widely used by the population and can be employed to dose retrospective. The carbohydrates (saccharides), commonly used as excipients in the pharmaceutical industry, produce a quantity of free radicals after gamma irradiation, making them useful for dosimetry in emergency or accident situations that imply in dose evaluation from the materials found nearly or in contact with victims. In general, EPR signal from pulverized pills of some drugs are very complex due to the variety of components in the formulation. Because of this fact, some pharmaceutical excipients identified in the pill composition were also analysed by EPR spectrometry. On the counter drugs were studied: Cebion glucose, AAS, Aspirina, Conmel, Lacto-Purga and sugar substitutive ZeroCal. The excipients were: lactose, amide, anhydrous glucose and magnesium stearate. In some samples the number of radicals produced increased with the dose, showing a linear response for a dose range of interest and an adequate sensibility for dosimetry in accident cases.

  6. Production of LiF films for dosimetric thermoluminescence application; Producao de filmes de LiF para aplicacao em dosimetria termoluminescente

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    Mauricio, Claudia Lucia de Pinho

    2000-12-01

    This work studies the LiF monolayer and multilayer polycrystalline film's dosimetric properties. The films were produced by electron beam evaporation technique in aluminium and stainless steel substrates maintained at several temperatures. As dosimetric variable, the intensity of the thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the films was used. effects of the substrate type and temperature; of the addition of layers of Mg F{sub 2} NaF and Cu F{sub 2} to the LiF films; and of thermal treatments in the TL response of the produced films were studied. The microstructural characterization of the films was accomplished through measures of scanning electronic microscopy and grazing incidence X-rays diffraction analysis. The dosimetric characterization was made of gamma radiation exposure in a {sup 60} Co source, with kerma from 0,1 to 500 Gy. Studies of reproducibility, homogeneity, stability and other environmental effects were also made. LiF and Cu F{sub 2}: LiF; Mg F{sub 2} films were the only ones that presented mechanical stability and reproducibility of the TL emission. There is a strong indication of some correlation between the residual tension fields inside the films and the intensity of its TL emission peaks. LiF monolayer films present supralinear behaviour from 0,2 to 100 Gy. These films present a main TL glow peak around 150 deg C, whose half-time is about 30 days. Its volumetric sensitivity can reach about 60 times that of LiF powder and about 0,25 that of TLD100 (LiF:Mg, Ti commercial dosimeter from Harshaw Chemical Co.) The homogeneity and reproducibility inside a same film batch is better than 12% for 95% confidence level. Cu F{sub 2} : LiF: Mg F{sub 2} films present linear behaviour from 3 to 500 Gy and its main TL glow peak around 200 deg C did not present any fading for a a period of 30 days, in laboratory conditions. This glow peak is characteristic of the Mg doping of LiF, which confirms the diffusion of Mg ions from the Mg F{sub 2} layer to the LiF layer. The TL volumetric sensitivity of these films is about four times that of LiF powder and about 1% that of TLD 100. The homogeneity and reproducibility inside a same film batch is better than 20% for 95% of confidence level. (author)

  7. Optimização da metodologia de avaliação de doses de corpo inteiro em dosimetria individual de radiação externa

    OpenAIRE

    Batel, Vera Inês Pimentel

    2009-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Engenharia Física, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2009 Este trabalho foi realizado no Serviço de Dosimetria Individual (SDI) do Instituto Tecnológico e Nuclear (ITN), na Unidade de Protecção e Segurança Radiológica (UPSR). Caracterizou-se o dosímetro individual de corpo inteiro termo luminescente, cujo detector é deLiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) e a leitura dos mesmo realizada nos leitores semi-automáticos Harshaw6600. O conjunto dosímetro e leitor de dosímetros cons...

  8. Rastreabilidade das referências metrológicas em dose absorvida na água do Programa de Qualidade em Dosimetria Traceability of metrologic references of dose absorbed to water used in a Dosimetry Quality Assurance Program

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    Carlos Eduardo de Almeida

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar a estrutura solidamente estabelecida de rastreabilidade dos padrões ionométricos e do sistema de medidas com dosímetros termoluminescentes, como parte da confiabilidade do Programa de Qualidade em Dosimetria (PQD, que visa a garantir o mais elevado nível de exatidão às suas medidas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: A exemplo de outros programas, usaram-se dosímetros termoluminescentes (DTL 937 na forma de pó, colocados em uma cápsula de plástico, em "kits" específicos para cada aplicação, os quais foram enviados, por via postal, aos centros participantes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados da intercomparação realizada entre o Laboratório de Ciências Radiológicas da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro e o EQUAL-ESTRO para o feixe de raios gama de 60Co, expressos para (1sigma, e os resultados das medidas de dose absorvida, obtidos com as câmaras dp Programa EQUAL e as câmaras do PQD, apresentaram discordância menor que 0,5%. CONCLUSÃO: Dos resultados conclui-se que o PQD alcançou o nível desejado de confiabilidade, necessário à implementação do Programa.OBJECTIVE: To present the solidly established traceability structure for ionometric standards and for thermoluminescent dosimetry system that ensures reliability of the Dosimetry Quality Assurance Program and is aimed to certify the highest level of accuracy of the measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thermoluminescent powder dosimeters (DTL 937 placed into plastic capsules and packed in specific kits for each intended application were mailed to the participant centers. RESULTS: The results of the intercomparisons performed between "Laboratório de Ciências Radiológicas da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro" and EQUAL-ESTRO for the beam of 60Co gamma rays, expressed for (1sigma, and the results of the dose absorbed measurements obtained with the chambers of the Program EQUAL and the chambers of the Dosimetry Quality Assurance

  9. Characterization of jade and silicates of the jade family for application in radiation dosimetry; Caracterizacao do jade e dos silicatos da familia do jade para aplicacao em dosimetria das radiacoes

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    Melo, Adeilson Pessoa de

    2007-07-01

    The main dosimetric properties of jade and of Brazilian silicates of the jade family were studied for application in radiation dosimetry of high doses. Jade is a common denomination of two different silicates: jadeite, Na Al(Si{sub 2}O{sub 6}), and nephrite, Ca{sub 2}(Mg, Fe){sub 5}(Si{sub 4}O{sub 11}){sub 2} (OH){sub 2}, that belong to the subclasses of the pyroxenes and amphiboles respectively. The jade samples studied in this work were from: Austria, New Zealand, United States and Brazil. The Brazilian silicates of the jade family studied in this work were the amphiboles: tremolite,Ca{sub 2}Mg{sub 5}(Si{sub 4}O{sub 11}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2} e actinolite, Ca{sub 2}Fe{sub 5}(Si{sub 4}O{sub 11}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}; and the pyroxenes: rhodonite, MnSiO{sub 3} and diopside, Ca Mg(Si{sub 2}O{sub 6}). The mineralogical and chemical composition of these materials were obtained using the neutron activation analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. The main dosimetric properties (emission curves, calibration curves, reproducibility, lower detection limits, angular and energy dependence, etc) were studied using the thermoluminescent (T L), thermally stimulated exo-emission (TSEE) and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. The jade-Teflon and the silicate-Teflon samples present two T L peaks around 115 deg C (peak 1) and 210 deg C (peak 2). The calibration curves of the studied materials present a linear behaviour between 0.5 Gy and 1 kGy. The TSEE emission peak occurs at 240 deg C for all samples, and the calibration curves present a sub linear behaviour between 100 Gy and 20 kGy. In the case of the EPR technique, only jade USA has a potential application for radiation dosimetry. A static computational simulation of the most probable intrinsic and extrinsic defects in rhodonite was also realized. Among the basic defects, the Schottky defects of rhodonite are the most probable to occur and, among the extrinsic defects, the divalent and trivalent dopants present the best possibility of inclusion in rhodonite. (author)

  10. Fabrication and electrical characterization of polyaniline-silicon heterojunction for gamma radiation dosimetry application; Fabricacao e caracterizacao eletrica de heterojuncoes de polianilina - silicio para aplicacao em dosimetria de radiacao gama

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    Laranjeira, Jane Maria Goncalves

    2004-08-15

    In this work a technique has been developed to fabricate high quality polyaniline-silicon heterojunction diodes for use as gas and/or ionizing radiation sensors. Polyaniline thin films (40 nm thick) produced by spin-coating on silicon substrates, were the active part of the junction structure. The devices presented excellent reproducibility of their electrical characteristics with high rectification ratio, 60,000 at {+-}1.0 V, and typical reverse current at - 1.0 V of 3 nA at 295 K. A G/I x G plot has been used to analyze the current-voltage characteristics, yielding typical series resistance of 4 k{omega} {+-} 5% and ideality factor in a range of 1,9 {+-} 0.5%. The heterojunction diode presents high sensitivity to gamma radiation in the dose range of 3 x 10{sup -2} to 7 kGy with a linear response in the forward and reverse bias. The excellent electrical characteristics together with the linear response with the dose, strongly suggest the application of this device for spectrometry or dosimetry of high doses of gamma radiation. These devices presented high sensitivity to gas moistures such as ammonia, nitric acid and trichloroethylene. In both cases the sensitivity was observed through shifts of the current-voltage curves, which can be easily monitored to provide a calibration curve of the sensor either as a radiation dosimeter or as a gas sensor for use in applications for gas monitoring or radiation dosimetry. Several aspects of the reliability physics of silicon-polyaniline heterojunction, such as degradation effects induced by local heating, charge trapping and temperature changes, have been discussed. These results further confirm the quality of the devices electrical characteristics and their suitability for radiation and gas sensors applications. Another interesting results presented in this work was the use of polyemeraldine nanofilms (thickness in the range 30-50 nm) deposited by 'spin coating' on glass substrates as an optical dosimeter for gamma radiation based on the color change of the polymer. The nanofilms devices were characterized by UV visible absorption spectroscopy. The deep blue color, characteristic of undoped polyaniline films before irradiation, becomes subsequently green as the film is being irradiated, and the film absorption coefficient exhibits a linear dependence with the logarithm of the irradiation dose from I to 10 kGy. (author)

  11. The Marine Magnetotelluric Method (MMT) applied of hydrocarbons exploration in Brazilian waters; Aplicacao do Metodo Magnetotelurico Marinho (MMT) na exploracao de hidrocarbonetos em aguas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vinicius R.; Flexor, Jean M.; La Terra, Emanuele F.; Fontes, Sergio L. [Observatorio Nacional do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lugao, Patricia P. [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Western-Geco

    2008-07-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) is a natural-source, electromagnetic geophysical method of imaging structures below the earth's surface. It is used to map the subsurface Earth's resistivity by measuring the naturally occurring electric and magnetic fields at the Earth's surface. These natural EM fields are generated in the Earth's atmosphere mainly by lightning strokes and by interactions between the solar wind and the ionosphere. Natural variations in the earth's magnetic field induce electric currents (or telluric currents) under the earth's surface. Concurrent measurements of orthogonal components of the electric and magnetic fields allow for the calculation of the impedance tensor, which is complex and frequency-dependent and from which it is possible to gain insight into the resistivity structure of the surrounding material. The marine magnetotelluric method (MMT) is the application of MT method to investigate the sea-floor resistivity's distribution. A MMT sounding with 96 stations was realized in the region of Santos Basin on a subsalt section to assist the interpretation of seismic data in order to estimate the depth of base of the salt (subsalt) since this imaging in general is problematic. The high contrast of the electrical resistivity between the salt and the surrounding sediments is an excellent objective and it constitutes a great opportunity to test the applicability of the MMT method in oil exploration studies. The geological interpretation of the seismic profile of the studied area shows the existence of several bodies of salt with depths of the base that could vary more from 7000 m to more than 9000 m. The top of the body of more important salt of the profile begins to the 3500 m and your base is not solved by the seismic sign that it reaches a maximum depth of 9000 m. The MMT data of the central profile were submitted an inversion procedure - 2D by using the non linear conjugate gradients that produces smooth models for

  12. Application of the thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry techniques to determinate the isodose curves in a cancer treatment planning simulation using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy - VMAT; Aplicacao das tecnicas de dosimetria termoluminescente (TL) e luminescencia opticamente estimulada (OSL) na determinacao de curvas de isodose em uma simulacao de tratamento de cancer pela tecnica de radioterapia em arco modulado volumetrico - VMAT

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    Bravim, Amanda

    2015-07-01

    The Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is an advance technique of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). This progress is due to the continuous gantry rotation with the radiation beam modulation providing lower time of the patient treatment. This research aimed the verification of the isodose curves in a simulation of a vertebra treatment with spinal cord protection using the thermoluminescent (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry techniques and the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100), CaS0{sub 4}:Dy and Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}:C dosimeters and LiF:Mg,Ti micro dosimeters (TLD-100). The dosimeters were characterized using PMMA plates of 30 x 30 x 30 cm{sup 3} and different thickness. All irradiations were done using Truebeam STx linear accelerator of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, with 6 MV photons beam. After the dosimeter characterization, they were irradiated according the specific planning simulation and using a PMMA phantom developed to VMAT measurements. This irradiation aimed to verify the isodose curves of the treatment simulation using the two dosimetry techniques. All types of dosimeters showed satisfactory results to determine the dose distribution but analysing the complexity of the isodose curves and the proximity of them, the LiF:Mg,Ti micro dosimeter showed the most appropriate for use due to its small dimensions. Regarding the best technique, as both technique showed satisfactory results, the TL technique presents less complex to be used because the most of the radiotherapy departments already have a TL laboratory. The OSL technique requires more care and greater investment in the hospital. (author)

  13. Production and characterization of compounds based on MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7} for application in dosimetry; Producao e caracterizacao de compostos a base de MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7} para aplicacao em dosimetria

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    Souza, Luiza Freire de

    2016-07-01

    Many materials with luminescent properties are used for ionizing radiation dosimetry through the thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) techniques. Detectors based on lithium fluoride (LiF), calcium sulphate (CaSO{sub 4}) and aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), doped or codoped with various elements, are the TL or OSL commercial dosimeters most widely used currently. However, several researches are focused to the development of new TL /OSL materials in intention to enhance the dosimetric properties, in view that no TL/OSL dosimeter has all the ideal characteristics for monitoring the radiation. In this context, magnesium tetraborate (MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}), which has been presented in the literature as a material for dosimetry TL, was investigated in this work. As there are no reports on the structural characterization of this material or regarding to its applicability on OSL dosimetry, the proposal of the present work was to develop compounds based on MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, with different doping, by solid state synthesis. It was made the structural, optical, TL and OSL characterization of the compound to verify it feasibility for application on radiation dosimetry. Initially, it was determined the calcination temperature and time for MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7} formation, with the use of thermal analyses and x ray diffraction. The ideal calcination was found at 900 °C for 7 hours. It were produced , in powder form, the compounds: MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}, MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Dy, MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Dy,Li, MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Ce, MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Ce,Li, MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Nd and MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Nd,Li. For TL and OSL analyses it were produced pellets sintering at 950 °C for 2 hours. The radioluminescence (RL) analyses of MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Dy and MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Dy,Li shows wavelength emissions at 490, 590, 670 and 760 nm. For MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Ce and MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Ce,Li RL was observed wide emission band in the ultraviolet region. For the MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Nd and MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Nd,Li RL were not observed emission from the ultraviolet to infrared. With the results obtained from the TL characterization, it were also discussed aspects such as: effect of sintering and dopant concentrations in emissions, influence of doping and codoping with Li in MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7} matrix, thermal treatment reuse, TL signal reproducibility, dose response curve , relative sensitivity and it were analyzed the kinetic parameters of the TL emission curves. The OSL analyses of MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Dy,Li,MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Ce,Li and MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Nd,Li indicated that the compounds have high cross section for photoionization to the wavelength emitted by blue LEDs, and from three compounds analyzed the MgB{sub 4}O{sub 7}: Ce,Li showed greater intensity. The partial preheating and partial cleaning methods allowed to elucidate the OSL phenomenology in compounds. (author)

  14. Avaliação espectroscópica de corantes orgânicos submetidos a raios-X: aplicação em dosimetria de radiação ionizante

    OpenAIRE

    BENEVIDES, Clayton Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Esta tese teve o objetivo de entender como ocorre a degradação de determinados corantes orgânicos fluorescentes quando irradiados e avaliar quantitativamente esta degradação. Os experimentos foram feitos utilizando uma concentração específica para os dois corantes: Rodamina 6G e Fluoresceína em gel de agarose e NaCl. NaCl foi utilizado a fim aumentar a taxa de degradação dos fluoróforos. Uma vez estabelecidos os sistemas químicos, as irradiações foram executadas sob um feixe ...

  15. Custo de capital próprio em mercados emergentes: uma abordagem empírica no Brasil com o downside risk

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    Graziela Xavier Fortunato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa testar empiricamente a proposta de Estrada (2000 para as empresas que compoem o Ibovespa, avaliando se para mercados emergentes existem outras medidas de risco sistematico diferentes do beta do capital asset pricing model (CAPM. Dessa forma, testou-se o downside risk que capta a parte negativa do retorno. Alem de dados em cross section, utilizaram-se dados em painel, como uma contribuição adicional ao trabalho de Estrada (2000. Os resultados encontrados não confirmam que o downside risk seja uma medida apropriada ao mercado brasileiro. Outras medidas de risco apresentaram melhor correlacao com o retorno, permitindo o calculo do custo de capital com valor diferente daquele obtido pela aplicacao do beta. De acordo com Estrada (2000, os resultados sugerem que os mercados emergentes estao em posicao intermediaria entre os mercados integrados e segmentados, tal como confirmado para o mercado brasileiro.

  16. Calcium-free and low-calcium water production for aquaculture research = Produção de água mole e isenta de cálcio para experimentação em aquicultura

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    Paloma Damasceno Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to obtain a mathematical expression to calculate the amount of EDTA required to produce calcium-free and low-calcium water ([Ca2+] O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a quantidade de EDTAnecessaria para se produzir agua sem calcio e agua mole ([Ca2+] < 5 mg L-1 para experimentacao em aquicultura. Inicialmente, realizou-se teste-piloto para confirmar a efetividade do EDTA como agente complexante do calcio presente na agua e avaliar seu efeito no pH da agua. No teste principal, cinco taxas de aplicacao de Na-EDTA (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125 mg L-1 foram avaliadas. A concentracao de calcio da agua foi determinada inicialmente (antes da aplicacao de EDTA e apos 1h. Analise de regressao linear foi feita para se descobrir a relacao entre a concentracao desejada de calcio na agua e a relacaoEDTA/dureza calcica inicial da agua necessaria. A expressao . = -0,0911x + 3,3628 (R2 = 0,933 foi obtida a partir da regressao realizada na qual x representa a concentracao desejada de calcio na agua e y a relacao EDTA/dureza calcica inicial da agua.

  17. State of the art of solid state dosimetry; Estado da arte em dosimetria do estado solido

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    Souza, Susana O., E-mail: sosouza@ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Radioisotope Research Center, Osaka University (Japan); D' Errico, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.derrico@yale.edu [Yale University, School of Medicine, CT (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Passive solid-state detectors still dominate the personal dosimetry field. This article provides state of the art in this field and summarizes the most recent works presented on TL, OSL and RPL during the 17th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry held in Recife in September 2013. The Article contains in particular the techniques Thermoluminescence (TL), Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), radio photoluminescence (RPL). Thermoluminescence has the biggest advantage of the wide availability of commercial materials for dosimetry, and the nature tissue-equivalent of several of these materials. The limitation of the TL dosimetry presents fading luminance signal and the need for high temperatures to obtain the signal. The Optically Stimulated Luminescence has the advantages of high sensitivity, the possibility of multiple reading, while its limit is the need to use response compensating filters in addition to the high cost of equipment and dosimeters still restricted very few options trading . The radio photoluminescence has a reading that is completely non-destructive, but their dosimeters present lack of tissue-equivalent and a high cost. Presents the details of the techniques and the advantages and limitations of each of these will be discussed.

  18. Application of cyclodextrins in textile processes;Aplicacao de ciclodextrinas em processos texteis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreaus, Juergen; Dalmolin, Mara C.; Oliveira Junior, Iguatemy B. de; Barcellos, Ivonete O., E-mail: jandr@furb.b [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) are water soluble cyclic sugars with a hydrophobic nanometric cavity that permits the formation of host/guest inclusion complexes with a large variety of molecules, alternating their physical-chemical properties. In the present review CD research related to the processing of textiles is revised and discussed. CDs may function as encapsulating, dispersing and levelling agents in the dyeing and washing of textiles. Furthermore they may be anchored to polymers and textile fibers in order to impart special properties such as odor reduction, UV protection or for the controlled release of perfumes, aromas, mosquito repellents or substances with therapeutical effects. (author)

  19. Mechanized covering application in equipment surfaces; Aplicacao mecanizada de revestimento em superficies de equipamentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Billy A. de; Broering, Carlos E. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2004-07-01

    Facing such challenges, the main objective of this work is to develop automated equipment and new welding procedures to be used to repair tank reservoirs operating in corrosive media. The equipment is expected to be applied directly in the maintenance of petrochemical plants. The project consists on a mechanical displacement device, able to move along a flexible rail, which can be fixed to a concave or convex surface and fitting itself to the geometry. A transversal arm gives it a second movement ability, allowing oscillatory displacements and the exact positioning of the pistol. As it is widely known, the automated welding process results in a considerably increase in productivity and quality, when comparing to the hand made process. Therefore, knowing the parameters involved and adjusted the welding variables to the best values, it is expected to achieve welding free of imperfections, inconsistencies and errors, and able to be repetitive. (author)

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of the Fricke gel dosimeter using the spectrophotometric technique for application in electron and neutron dosimetry; Avaliacao dosimetrica da solucao Fricke gel usando a tecnica de espectrofotometria para aplicacao na dosimetria de eletrons e neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (GMR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Metrologia das Radiacoes

    2011-07-01

    The main dosimetric characteristics of the Fricke Xylenol Gel (FXG) solution were established for further application in the measurement of dose distribution of clinical electron fields. The dose-response curves of the FXG in a thermal neutron field were also evaluated for application in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and industrial electron fields. The standard reading technique was the spectrophotometry. For clinical fields the intra and inter-batch reproducibility of FXG solution are better than 1.4% and 5.1%, respectively. The optical response presents a linear behavior for doses ranging from 0.2 to 40 Gy independently of the electron energy and the dose rate in the studied ranges. Due to the effects of the FXG natural oxidation, the optimum elapsed time between FXG preparation and irradiation was established as 24h. The behavior of the dose-response curve does not change the obtained absorbance values relative to the non-irradiated dosimeter response during the studied period. The dose-response curve to industrial electron beam presented an exponential decreasing behavior. The optical response to thermal neutrons beam presented a linear behavior for the studied dose range. According to the obtained results to the different radiation fields studied it was not observed changes in the wavelength of the typical bands of the absorption spectrum radiation induced. Additional tests were performed with FXG solution to verify the viability and application of FXG dosimetry on intracavitary brachytherapy using digital photographic imaging. The excellent performance of the FXG dosimeter indicates that this dosimeter may be applied to tri-dimensional dose evaluation in radiotherapy treatments using electrons and neutron beams. (author)

  1. Evaluation of thermoluminescent dosimeters using water equivalent phantoms for application in clinical electrons beams dosimetry; Avaliacao de dosimetros termoluminescentes empregando objetos simuladores equivalentes a agua para aplicacao na dosimetria de feixes clinicos de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravim, Amanda

    2010-07-01

    The dosimetry in Radiotherapy provides the calibration of the radiation beam as well as the quality control of the dose in the clinical routine. Its main objective is to determine with greater accuracy the dose absorbed by the tumor. This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of three thermoluminescent dosimeters for the clinical electron beam dosimetry. The performance of the calcium sulfate detector doped with dysprosium (CaSO{sub 4}: Dy) produced by IPEN was compared with two dosimeters commercially available by Harshaw. Both are named TLD-100, however they differ in their dimensions. The dosimeters were evaluated using water, solid water (RMI-457) and PMMA phantoms in different exposure fields for 4, 6, 9, 12 and 16 MeV electron beam energies. It was also performed measurements in photon beams of 6 and 15 MV (2 and 5 MeV) only for comparison. The dose-response curves were obtained for the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in air and under conditions of electronic equilibrium, both for clinical beam of photons and electrons in maximum dose depths. The sensitivity, reproducibility, intrinsic efficiency and energy dependence response of dosimeters were studied. The CaSO{sub 4}: Dy showed the same behavior of TLD-100, demonstrating only an advantage in the sensitivity to the beams and radiation doses studied. Thus, the dosimeter produced by IPEN can be considered a new alternative for dosimetry in Radiotherapy departments. (author)

  2. Energy assessment of nitrogen variable rate fertilization on wheat; Analise energetica da aplicacao de nitrogenio em taxa variavel em trigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaco, A.F.; Karam, E.H.; Romanelli, T.L.; Molin, J.P. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Biossistemas], Email: andrecolaco@usp.br; Povh, F.P. [Fundacao ABC Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Agropecuario, Castro, PR (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Precision Agriculture (PA) is a technique that can reduce the inputs utilization in agriculture production, including the nitrogen fertilizer consume. Great importance is given to this fertilizer, due to its contribution on energy input in agriculture. Methodologies based on the calculation of energy flow of agriculture systems are capable to identify management practices that use energy more efficiently. So, this study's objective is to evaluate the variable-rate nitrogen fertilization on wheat, using energy assessment. This study was carried on in two wheat fields, in which the fertilization was done adopting strips alternated by conventional method (single nitrogen dose) and by nitrogen variable-rate technology. Thus, the input and output energy in the system, energy balance, energy return on investment (EROI) and incorporated energy were determined for each geo-referenced point within the fields. Results showed that less energy was demanded when using variable-rate technology, due to the nitrogen saving, providing greater energy balance, EROI and lower incorporated energy on the areas managed using PA. The energy assessment showed to be an important tool to evaluate systems that use PA, because it is capable of monitoring crops energy potential. (author)

  3. Deficiência hídrica e aplicação de ABA nas trocas gasosas e no acúmulo de flavonoides em calêndula (Calendula officinalis L. = Water deficit and ABA application on leaf gas exchange and flavonoid content in marigold (Calendula officinalis L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Pacheco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da deficiencia hidrica e aplicacao de acido abscisico (ABA sobre aspectos fisiologicos e teor de flavonoides em plantas de calendula. Oexperimento foi instalado em condicoes de casa-de-vegetacao com plantas envasadas. No inicio do florescimento de plantas de calendula, foram aplicados quatro intervalos de suspensao da irrigacao (irrigacao diaria; tres; seis e nove dias sem irrigar, acompanhados por tres doses de ABA (0, 10 e 100 ƒÊM. Avaliou-se o conteudo relativo de agua na folha (CRA e as trocas gasosas, utilizando-se um analisador portatil por infravermelho (A: fotossintese liquida, gs: condutancia estomatica, E: transpiracao, Ci: concentracao intercelular de CO2 e EUA: eficiencia de uso daagua. Aos nove dias sem irrigacao ocorreram reducoes significativas em todas as variaveis de trocas gasosas analisadas, independente da aplicacao de ABA. Concluiu-se que o efeito principal do ABA foi o de causar diminuicao na gs, a qual foi acompanhada de reducao em A somente quando as plantas estavam desidratadas. As intensidades de deficiencia hidrica testadas nao causaram interferencia no acumulo de flavonoides nas inflorescencias. Entretanto, o ABA restringiu a biossintese de flavonoides, tanto nas plantas-controle como nas plantas submetidas a deficiencia hidrica.The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of water deficit and abscisic acid (ABA application on physiological parameters and flavonoid production in marigold plant. The experiment was performed under nursery conditions with potted plants. It was tested water deficit by withholding water (control . diary irrigation, 3, 6 and9 days without irrigation followed by 3 ABA concentrations (0, 10 e 100 ƒÊM applied in the beginning of blooming. It was evaluated the relative water content and the leaf gas exchange using a portable infrared gas analyzer (A: net photosynthesis, gs: stomatal conductance, E: transpiration, Ci: CO2 intercellular

  4. Estimativa dos valores de MSAD em procedimentos de tomografia computadorizada utilizando filmes radiocrômicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Beraldo Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a viabilidade de filmes radiocrômicos como um dosímetro alternativo para estimativa da dose média em cortes múltiplos a partir dos perfis de kerma. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Os filmes foram distribuídos em cilindros posicionados no centro e nas regiões periféricas de um objeto simulador padrão de abdome utilizado para dosimetria em tomografia computadorizada. RESULTADOS: Os valores de dose média em cortes múltiplos calculados foram 13,6 ± 0,7, 13,5 ± 0,7 e 18,7 ± 1,0 mGy para os valores de passo (pitch de 0,75, 1,00 e 1,50, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de os resultados mostrarem valores menores que o nível de referência de radiodiagnóstico de 25 mGy estabelecido pela legislação brasileira para exames de abdome, eles sugerem que há espaço para otimização dos procedimentos e uma revisão do valor para o nível de referência de radiodiagnóstico brasileiro.

  5. Dosimetric study in iodine-125 seeds for brachytherapy application; Dosimetria de fontes de iodo-125 aplicadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, Carlos Alberto

    2008-07-01

    The demand for iodine-125 seeds for use in brachytherapy treatments has experienced an increase along recent years in Brazil and all over the world. All iodine-125 seed must have its operational parameters measured and/or calculated every time changes in the production process are carried out. A complete dosimetric measurement is very expensive, and it is recommended that this procedure must be repeated at least once a year. Thus, this work developed a methodology for the entire dosimetric process. This methodology is based on the scarce information available in the literature, once almost all the methodology used in large industrial laboratories is commercial secret. The proposed methodology was tested using seeds of Amersham-Oncura-Ge Healthcare, which is the largest seed manufactory in the world. In this new methodology, an automatic reader was employed in order to reduce the time required in the selection process of the TLD-100 dosimeters used and a postprocessing of the obtained spectra was carried out. A total of 142 dosimeters were used and only 29 have been selected using the new methodology. Measurements were performed using slabs of Solid Water RW1 to simulate measuring in the 'water', using three different experimental apparatus and each measurement was repeated at least three times. The TLD-100 calibration was performed using a Dermopan II - Siemens. The measured values showed a good agreement with the ones available in the literature. Finally, these measured values were compared with calculated ones obtained by a semiempirical simulation program, showing a good agreement and, therefore, demonstrating the validity of the proposed methodology regarding dosimetric calculations. (author)

  6. Quality control and dosimetry in computed tomography units; Controle de qualidade e dosimetria em equipamentos de tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Diana Rodrigues de; Ribeiro, Sergio Marrone [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina], e-mail: drpina@fmb.unesp.br; Duarte, Sergio Barbosa [Centro Brasileiro e Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Netto, Thomaz Ghilardi [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Morceli, Jose [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Secao de Diagnostico por Imagem; Carbi, Eros Duarte Ortigoso; Costa Neto, Andre; Souza, Rafael Toledo Fernandes de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias

    2009-05-15

    Objective: Evaluation of equipment conditions and dosimetry in computed tomography services utilizing protocols for head, abdomen, and lumbar spine in adult patients (in three different units) and pediatric patients up to 18 months of age (in one of the units evaluated). Materials and methods: Computed tomography dose index and multiple-scan average dose were estimated in studies of adult patients with three different units. Additionally, entrance surface doses as well as absorbed dose were estimated in head studies for both adult and pediatric patients in a single computed tomography unit. Results: Mechanical quality control tests were performed, demonstrating that computed tomography units comply with the equipment-use specifications established by the current standards. Dosimetry results have demonstrated that the multiplescan average dose values were in excess of up to 109.0% the reference levels, presenting considerable variation amongst the computed tomography units evaluated in the present study. Absorbed doses obtained with pediatric protocols are lower than those with adult patients, presenting a reduction of up to 51.0% in the thyroid gland. Conclusion: The present study has analyzed the operational conditions of three computed tomography units, establishing which parameters should be set for the deployment of a quality control program in the institutions where this study was developed. (author)

  7. Teflon pastille use in high dose dosimetry; Utilizacao de pastilhas de teflon em dosimetria de doses altas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Maria Ines [Associacao Educacional Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: miteixeira@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper study the Teflon, which is used as aglomerant in the confection of dosimetric pastilles, for the viabilization of this material as high dose dosimeter. This paper used the OSL technique for the characterization of dosimetric properties of Teflon. The doses-response curve has been obtained for {sup 60}Co radiation between 100 Gy and 50 kGy, and the OSL answer reproducibility. The preliminary results shown that the Teflon is a material which can be used for high dose dosimetry

  8. Dose measurements in dental radiology using thermoluminescent dosimetry;Medicoes de dose em radiodiagnostico odontologico utilizando dosimetria termoluminescente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiara, Ana Claudia M. de; Costa, Alessandro M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Pardini, Luiz Carlos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FORP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was the implementation of a code of practice for dosimetry in dental radiology using the technique of thermoluminescent dosimetry. General principles for the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters were followed. The irradiations were performed using ten X-ray equipment for intra-oral radiography and an X-ray equipment for panoramic radiography. The incident air kerma was evaluated for five different exposure times used in clinical practice for intra-oral radiographs. Using a backscatter factor of 1.2, it was observed that approximately 40% of the entrance skin dose values found for intra-oral radiographs are above the diagnostic reference level recommended in national regulation. Different configurations of voltage and current were used representing the exposure as a child, woman and man for panoramic radiographs. The results obtained for the air kerma area product were respectively 53.3 +- 5.2 mGy.cm{sup 2}, 101.5 +- 9.5 mGy.cm{sup 2} and 116.8 +- 10.4 mGy.cm{sup 2}. The use of thermoluminescent dosimetry requires several procedures before a result is recorded. The use of dosimeters with ionization chambers or semiconductors provides a simple and robust method for routine measurements. However, the use of thermoluminescent dosimetry can be of great value to large-scale surveys to establish diagnostic reference levels. (author)

  9. Cytogenetic dosimetry intercomparison among four Latin American countries; Intercomparacao em dosimetria citogenetica entre quatro paises latino-americanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Adriana T.; Costa, Maria Lucia P.; Oliveira, Monica S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: adriana@ird.gov.br; Nasazzi, Nora; Giorgio, Marina Di; Taja, Maria Rosa [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: nnasazzi@cae.arn.gov.ar; Garcia, Omar F.; Lamadrid, Ana I. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: omar@cprh.edu.cu; Lopez, Ines [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ilopez@gopher.cchen.cl

    2001-07-01

    Cytogenetic dosimetry is the most powerful biological tool for dose assessment in cases of radiological accidents and suspected overexposures. In Latin America, the use of this technique is concentrated in a few countries. An intercomparison exercise in biological dosimetry was performed. It aimed to check if the laboratories would score similar frequencies of unstable chromosomal aberrations in an irradiated blood sample. The interlaboratory differences in the scored yields of aberrations are within expected limits for this technique. It was observed the presence of a few rogue cells. Those cells show an extreme level of chromosomal damage. The observations thus departed grossly from a Poisson distribution. (author)

  10. Use of TANDEM methodology for quality control in radiation protection; Aplicacao de metodologia TANDEM para controle de qualidade em radioprotecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, O.A.; Oliveira, I.R.; Leyton, F.; Nogueira, M.S., E-mail: mnogueira@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimeto da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Borges, F.L.S., E-mail: flavialuizaborges@yahoo.com.br [Vigilancia Sanitaria de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Joana, G.S., E-mail: georgia.joana@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have indicated the increase of the incidence of lens opacities for low radiation doses. Considering epidemiological data, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued a statement that changed the absorbed dose threshold for the eye lens. The statement also recommends a reduction in the dose limits to the eye lens for occupationally exposed persons; now it is considered to be 20 mSv in a year averaged over five years. For this research two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters TL were used in the construction of the curve tandem. (LiF-100H e LiF-200). For system calibration three monitors were irradiated for each radiation beam. The monitors were irradiated with 4 mGy kerma at 1.5 m from the focal point. The Tandem curve was obtained by the ratio between the values of the energy dependence curves of each dosimeter. Data obtained for the corresponding x-ray beams to radiation reference N60 to N120 are more accurate for determining the energy - steepest part of the curve. The results are shown similar to similar studies and confirm the possibility of using the method for determining the unknown energy radiation fields. (author)

  11. Optimization of surfactant application for synthetic drilling fluid; Otimizacao da aplicacao de emulsificante em fluidos de perfuracao sinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Jefferson Teixeira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos, Telma Pitanga; Medeiros, Ana Catarina da Rocha; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    The most common synthetic drilling fluids are made of polymerized olefins, paraffin and esters, which have absence of aromatics hydrocarbons and biodegradability as advantages. These fluids have good performance during the drilling operations (high thermal stability) and have low toxicity. Nevertheless, their big disadvantage is the high cost, which limits their use. One of the biggest challenges in working with synthetic fluids is the control of water/oil emulsion stability, being the surfactant the main agent responsible for keeping this stability between both phases of the fluid. The water/oil and oil/water emulsion is defined by the chemical nature of the surfactant. The emulsions can be changed from oil/water to water/oil and vice versa by many mechanisms, such as temperature variation, addition of another surfactant and alteration of the disperse phase volumetric percentage. The aim of this work was the optimization of synthetic drilling fluids formulations by using commercial surfactants. The optimized formulations showed similar rheological properties. After aging at high temperature (300 deg F), some tendency to migration of oil phase in both fluids was observed. This result was associated to the fluid's viscosity. However, the formulations showed high electrical stability, indicating formation of stable emulsions. The HTHP filtration volumes were small. (author)

  12. The reformation of ethanol and application to fuel cells; A reforma do etanol e sua aplicacao em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ennio Peres da; Camargo, Joao Carlos [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br; joaoc@fem.unicamp.br; Carolino, Iaponira Rando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. e-mail: yaponira@hotmail.com

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the perspectives for using of ethanol (EtOH) obtained from the sugar cane for electric power production, through a integrated system constituted by a hydrogen generator, by using the ethanol reforming associated to a fuel cell feed with the produced hydrogen. The paper also focuses the present re-structuration of the Brazilian electric sector identifying the possibility of implantation that system.

  13. Application of the ultrashort pulses in bovine dental enamel; Aplicacao de pulsos ultracurtos em esmalte dental bovino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todescan, Carla de Rago

    2003-07-01

    The interaction of lasers with the hard structures of the teeth, has found the excess of heat as a problem for its utilization. This study analyzes, in vitro, the interaction of the ultrashort pulse laser of Ti:safire (830 nm) with the bovine dental enamel. The system consisted in one main oscillator integrated with an amplifier (CPA). The pulses extracted before the temporal compression inside the amplifier had 30 ps, 1000 Hz and {approx}1 mJ. The pulses extracted after the compression had 60 fs, 1000 Hz and {approx}0,7 mJ. The M{sup 2} was 1,3, the focal lens 2,5 cm, the focal distance 29,7 and a computerized translation stage x,y,z. We evaluated the amount of tissue removed per pulse,the resulting cavities and the surrounding tissues not irradiated, under OM and SEM. The fluency was the major factor for differentiating the two regimens studied, therefore, the intensity was not so important as we expected in this process. We found: one ablation region in 'cat tongue', one ablation length, one fluency {approx}0,7 J/cm{sup 2} for 30 ps and {approx}0,5 J/cm{sup 2} for 60 fs (50% of high speed burr), smooth edge for 30 ps and high precision of the sharp edge cut of submicrometric order for 60 fs. (author)

  14. Calcium aluminates potential for endodontics and orthopedics applications; Aluminatos de calcio e seu potencial para aplicacao em endodontia e ortopedia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.L. dos; Andrade, T.L.; Oliveira, I.R., E-mail: ivonero@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The mostly used material in the areas of endodontics (MTA, mineral trioxide aggregate) and bone reconstruction (PMMA, polymethyl methacrylate) present some limiting properties requiring thus changes in their compositions as well as the development of alternative materials. In this context, a novel biomaterial-based calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied in order to keep the positive properties and clinical applications of MTA and PMMA, overcoming some their disadvantages. Recent studies involving the use of CAC are based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by searching the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance in applications in the areas of health. By the optimization of the CAC phases production, this article aims to present their characterization based on hydration temperature; working time and setting time; pH, ions solubilization and dissolution in contact with water and different solutions of simulated body fluid. The results indicated the CA phase as the most suitable for application in the areas of health. (author)

  15. Nanocomposites chitosan/montmorillonite for drug delivery system; Nanocompositos quitosana/montmorilonita para aplicacao em liberacao controlada de farmacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Carla R. Costa; Barbosa, Rossemberg C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (PPCEM/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Lima, Rosemary S. Cunha [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (PPEP/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Processos; Fook, Marcus V. Lia; Silva, Suedina M. Lima, E-mail: suedina@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMat/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2009-07-01

    In drugs delivery system the incorporation of an inorganic nanophase in polymer matrix, i.e. production of an inorganic-organic nanocomposite is an attractive alternative to obtain a constant release rate for a prolonged time. This study was performed to obtain films of nanocomposites Chitosan/montmorillonite intercalation by the technique of solution in the proportions of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The nanocomposites were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicated that the feasibility of obtaining films of nanocomposites exfoliate. Among the suggested applications for films developed in this study includes them use for drugs delivery system. (author)

  16. Silver nanoparticles in montmorillonite to application in polymeric materials; Montmorilonita com nanoparticulas de prata visando aplicacao em materiais polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, R.Y.; Barbosa, R.V. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), PR (Brazil); Kloss, J.R., E-mail: juliana.kloss@gmail.com [Ioto International (IOTO), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sociedade Educacional de Santa Catarina (SOCIESC), Faculdade Tupy Curitiba (FTT), PR (Brazil); Schnitzler, M. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), MG (Brazil); Garcia, J. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through industrially viable methodologies and free of organic solvents, and their insertion in montmorillonite, to produce a nanomaterial with bactericidal properties. The modified montmorillonite was characterized through the techniques of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and Raman spectrum's showed specific bands of involving stretching silver. In the XRD analyses was observed the occurrence of the following crystallographic planes (111), (200) e (220) silver related. For application in low density polyethylene, the mechanical tests showed no loss in the mechanical properties, when the AgNPs is present, this fact is important and indicate that the nanomaterial can be inserted in this polymer matrix with considerable technology interest. (author)

  17. Comparative study on sintered alumina for ballistic shielding application; Estudo comparativo entre aluminas sinterizadas visando aplicacao em blindagem balistica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Francisco Cristovao Lourenco de; Goncalves, Diniz Pereira [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Aeronautica e Espaco

    1997-12-31

    This work presents a development of the armor made from special ceramic materials and kevlar. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the ballistic penetration resistance on three samples taken from sintered alumina: a commercial one and two formulations A and B made in IAE/CTA. The main differences between the two formulations was the grain size and bend resistance. The knowledge of the mechanisms during the penetration and perforation process allowed to apply a ductile composite laminate made form kevlar under the alumina to delay its rupture. The last ballistic test showed how a Weibull`s modulii and other mechanical properties are able to improve ballistic penetration resistance. (author) 3 refs.

  18. Glycerol: a brief history and their application in stereoselective syntheses; Glicerol: um breve historico e aplicacao em sinteses estereosseletivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatriz, Adilson; Araujo, Yara J.K.; Lima, Denis Pires de, E-mail: adilson.beatriz@ufms.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (DQ/UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    Presently glycerol is considered a co-product of biodiesel industry. As the biodiesel production is exponentially increasing, glycerol generated from the transesterification of vegetable oils and fats is also being produced on a large scale, and turned out to be essential seeking for novel alternatives to the consumption of the extra volume, in crude and/or as derivatives high added value. This review mainly deals with chemical and enzymatic transformations of glycerol to obtain chiral building blocks for synthesis of pharmaceuticals and natural products. (author)

  19. The royalties application on President Kennedy city, Espirito Santo, Brazil; A aplicacao dos royalties em Presidente Kennedy, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaak, Fabricio Jose Bassetto; Cardia, Tarik Hajab [Centro Universitario Vila Velha (UVV), ES (Brazil). Curso de Relacoes Internacionais

    2008-07-01

    This work aims to assemble a study of implementation of royalty in the municipality of President Kennedy - the state of Espirito Santo, showing the disparity between the collection of royalties on oil and quality of infrastructure that the city offers. Based on data the prefecture of the municipality, PNUD and competent bodies, we will show how the money is being used comes from royalties on oil, and what policies the city council's adopting this to apply this feature. (author)

  20. Personal monitoring services available at Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA; Il servizo di dosimetria personale dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E.; Bonarelli, T. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    Personnel monitoring provides the means to measure and record the radiation doses received by individual workers. The ionising radiation decree (230/95) set out the circumstances when the assessment and recording of person's exposure is legally required. Many employers issue dosemeters to staff even though there is no legal requirement to do so. This may be part of a quality assurance programme or as a reassurance measure. Dosemeter readings will serve to ensure compliance with legal dose limits and assure the employer that radiation exposure is as low as reasonably achievable. The ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) IRP (Institute for Radiation Protection) individual monitoring service has been running for over 30 years. It offers personnel dosemeters which are based on its expertise and backed up by continual research and development. The report provides details of the dosemeters in use at IRP enable to decide which ones most suit the needs and shows IMS's organisation, customer and communications, dose reports form and administrative items. A short mention of future development will also be given. [Italian] La dosimetria individuale fornisce gli strumenti per misurare e registrare le dosi da radiazioni ionizzanti ricevute dai lavoratori esposti. Il decreto legislativo 230/95 stabilisce le circostanze in cui il monitoraggio individuale e' legalmente richiesto. Molti datori di lavoro forniscono dosimetri individuali anche quando non vi e' una richiesta legale spesso per seguire le regole di un programma di assicurazione di qualita' relativo alla radioprotezione o per ottenere una conferma che il principio ALARA sia soddisfatto. Il servzio di dosimetria personale dell'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA e' attivo da oltre 30 anni e offre dosimetri sviluppati sulla propria esperienza nelle tecniche dosimetriche che vengono continuamente aggiornati e adeguati rispecchiando lo stato dell

  1. Crioterapia no pos-parto: tempo de aplicacao e mudancas na temperatura perineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Amorim Francisco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo com dados de dois ensaios clínicos realizados em 2008 e 2009 em uma maternidade de uma instituição filantrópica da cidade de São Paulo. Teve como objetivo descrever a temperatura perineal após a aplicação de bolsa de gelo no pós-parto normal. Três grupos com 38 puérperas cada (n=114 receberam aplicação perineal de bolsa de gelo entre 2 e 48h após o parto. Os achados indicaram que com 10 min de crioterapia as médias da temperatura perineal atingiram de 13,3 a 15,3oC, com pequena redução de temperatura ao final de aplicações de 15 e 20 minutos (2,4 e 2,7o, respectivamente. Após resfriamento por 10 min., as mulheres referiram frio e alívio e, depois de 15 a 20 min., dormência e anestesia local. Conclui-se que 10 minutos de aplicação foram suficientes para reduzir a temperatura perineal aos níveis recomendados para analgesia (10-15oC.

  2. Study of nanostructured clay's application in photoactivated restorative resins, used in dentistry; Estudo da aplicacao de argilas nanoestruturadas em resinas restauradoras fotoativadas, utilizadas em odontologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luiza Melo de Paiva

    2012-07-01

    The problem caused by polymerization shrinkage is critical, because the resin must remain closely in the tooth cavity while gaining rigidity and decrease its dimensions. Forcing the restorative material to distance or to separate the walls of the cavity, the resulting disruption would lead to microleakage, responsible for other problems such as secondary caries, postoperative soreness and may even cause pulpal changes. This process induces the volumetric change of the compound, given by the union of radicals in the formation of the macromolecule (polymer), causing a decrease in volume. This study aimed to develop new experimental composites through the addition of nano components clay minerals in a polymer matrix-based BisGMA / TEGDMA, to evaluate the possibility of a different dimensional behavior during the polymerization. Were used in this study, experimental composites added nanoparticle clay MMT Cloisite 10A (at concentrations of 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 wt%) and Cloisite 30B (at concentrations of 50, 55, 60 and 65 wt%), which were then compared with the performance of the experimental composites added with micro-particles of silanized silica hybrid Aerosil OX-50 (at concentrations of 50, 60, 65 and 70 wt%). Was used the methods of characterization: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermal-Mechanical Analysis (TMA), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Absorption Spectroscopy in the Region of the Infrared (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Micro Hardness Knoop, Holographic Interferometry Technique (HIT), Digital Holography (DH), Correlation Image (CI) and Thermography. It was observed that the experimental composites with nanoparticles added clay Cloisite 10A and Cloisite 30B, performed better on tests that measured the polymerization shrinkage (TMA, HIT/HD/IC) and the micro hardness (Knoop), in relation to composites added with Silica Aerosil OX-50. These results may be related to the interaction polymer/clay and the nano composites formation, observed by XRD analysis. Among the nanoparticles studied, the Cloisite 30B showed the most significant results in relation to the nanoparticle Cloisite 10A and this can be attributed to chemical affinity and polar nature of that nanoparticle. (author)

  3. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliacao de viabilidade do sistema de leitura por CCD para aplicacao na dosimetria Fricke xilenol gel desenvolvido no IPEN-Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente, E-mail: thyagomangueira@usp.b, E-mail: dmdias@ipen.b, E-mail: lcrodri@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  4. Evaluation of personal dosimetry in abdominal aorta endo prosthesis procedures; Avaliacao da dosimetria pessoal em procedimentos de endoproteses de aorta abdominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Freitas, Carlos C.M. de; Pina, Diana R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the currently dosimetry technique employed in the medical staff during interventional radiology procedures. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were positioned in different regions of the primary interventionist during procedures of stent graft in abdominal aortic aneurysms. The equivalent dose rate profile shows a tendency of difference between dose rate found in the chest in relation to the abdomen, hands and feet. Statistically, dose rates found in the hands differ from those found in the chest with p=0.05. These results suggest that only a dosimeter placed on the chest does not describe faithfully the radiation doses to which these professionals are occupationally exposed. (author)

  5. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance of irradiated nails: challenges for a dosimetry in radiation accidents; Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica de unhas irradiadas: desafios para uma dosimetria em acidentes radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: giannoni@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodrigues Junior, Orlando [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize samples of human nails exposed to high doses of radiation, applying the technique of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The objective is to establish a dose response study that allow determine the absorbed dose by exposed individuals in situations of radiological accidents, in a retrospective form. Samples of human nails were collected and afterward irradiated with gamma radiation, and received dose of 20 Gy. The EPR measurement performed on the samples, before irradiation, permitted the signal identification of the components associated with effects caused by the mechanical stress during the fingernail cutting, the so-called mechanically induced signal (MIS). After the irradiation, different species of free radicals were identified, the so-called radiation induced signal (RIS). (author)

  6. Characterization of an electronic system for Image acquisition portal to open field dosimetry; Caracterizacao de um sistema eletronico de aquisicao de imagem portal para dosimetria em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbi, Gustavo L.; Oliveira, Harley F.; Bertucci, Edenyse C.; Amaral, Leonardo L.; Borges, Leandro F., E-mail: gustavobarbi@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica

    2012-08-15

    The objective was to characterize and enable an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to use like a portal dosimetry device - PDI, in non-transit mode, without interposition of scattering between the beam and EPID for measurement to open fields. The images as well as the DICOM header data are extracted from software ImageJ and the information are used in the basic algorithm for converting pixel to dose. The linearity and reproducibility of response were analyzed, and the maximum deviation found of 2,3% to 800 monitor units (MU) for linearity and -0,9% for reproducibility of signal measured daily. A 512x512 matrix with a resolution of 0,8mm was established to restore the shape of beam from the image. The field size dependence was evaluated, by obtaining the ratio of total scattering of ionization chamber and EPID. Finally, a calibration factor of 28470.88{+-}170.73 pixel/cGy was established for the central area of the image. Comparative analyzes between the PDI, radiochromic film and array of ionization chambers (MatriXX) showed good agreement for fields greater then 5 x 5 cm{sup 2} to reestablishment of form field and dose, however, for fields between 3x3 cm{sup 2} and 5x5 cm{sup 2}, the agreement to shape of beam was best established by film. (author)

  7. Characterization of chemical compounds for dosimetry of the radiation in industrial processes; Caracterizacao de compostos quimicos para dosimetria das radiacaoes em processos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galante, Ana Maria Sisti

    1999-07-01

    Different chemical compounds have been studied to optimize dosimetric systems in irradiation processes. In this study 2,3,5 Triphenyl -2H- Tetrazolium Chloride, Brilliant Cresyl Blue, Bromocresol Green and Potassium Nitrate were investigated for their merits or faults, for {sup 60} Co gamma field, in order to verify if can be considered as dosimeters. Fricke solution was used as reference dosimeter to determine absorption dose rates at the gamma facilities.Only Bromocresol Green and Potassium Nitrate are recommended for dosimetry purposes since the main characteristics were achieved. The other two compounds could be used in dosimetry with changes in their formulation. Bromocresol Green and potassium Nitrate are reproducible and radiation sensitive for absorbed doses from 300 Gy to 150 kGy Bromocresol Green was used in liquid form and Potassium Nitrate was prepared in solid pellets form. Spectrophotometry in the visible region was used as the main detection technique, which allows relating optical absorption, before and after irradiation, with the absorbed dose. The maximum absorption wavelength for each compound was observed at 450-460nm for bromocresol Green and 546nm for Potassium Nitrate. Dose calibration curves are linear for both compounds in all dose intervals. When irradiated with accelerated electrons, with energies between o,9 MeV and 1,5MeV, optical absorption intensification, of about 2,6 times, was observed when comparing results for Potassium Nitrate, with those for gamma rays. All the evaluations are presented in this work. (author)

  8. Calibration of semiconductors diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments; Calibracao de diodos semicondutores para dosimetria in vivo em tratamentos de irradiacao de corpo inteiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernanda F.; Costa, Alessandro M.; Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz, E-mail: ferretti.oliveira@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias e Letras. Departamento de Fisica; Amaral, Leonardo L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the results of in vivo dosimetry with p-type semiconductors diodes, EDP-15 (Scanditronix Wellhoefer) of two patients who underwent total body irradiation treatments, at Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto University of Sao Paulo (HCFMRP-USP). The diodes were well calibrated and the calibration factors were determined with the aid of a reference ionization chamber (FC065, IBA dosimetry, sensitive volume of 0.65 cm{sup 3}).The calibration was performed in a Total Body Irradiation (TBI) setup, using solid water phantoms. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings (half of the lateral thickness). The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for both treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU), which is {+-}5%. (author)

  9. Electron dosimetry in irradiation processing with rad-hard diodes; Dosimetria de eletrons em processos de irradiacao com diodos resistentes a danos de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Thais Cavalheri dos

    2012-07-01

    This work had the aim of the development of dosimetric systems based on Si special diodes, resistant to radiation damage to online monitoring of irradiation processing using 1.5 MeV electrons energy and for relative dosimetry and clinical electron beam scanning within an energy range of 6 MeV up to 21 MeV. The diodes used were produced by Float Zone standard (FZ), Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) and epitaxy growth (EPI) methods. In order to use the diodes as detectors, they were fixed on alumina base to allow the connection of the polarization electrodes and the signals extraction. After the diode assembly on the base, each one was housed in a black acrylic probe with aluminized Mylar Registered-Sign window and LEMO Registered-Sign connector. With the devices operating in photovoltaic mode, the integration of the current signals as a function of irradiation time allowed obtain the charge produced in the sensitive volume of each diode irradiated. The electron accelerator used for high doses irradiation was the DC 1500/25/4 JOB 188 of the 1.5 MeV installed at the Radiation Technology Center of the IPEN/CNEN-SP. The current profile as function of exposure time, the response repeatability, the sensitivity as function of absorbed dose and the dose response curve were studied for each device. In comparison to FZ diode, we observed a greater decrease in the sensitivity for MCz diode, and good repeatability in both cases. Also, the increasing of the charge with the absorbed dose was well fitted by a second order polynomial function. In the EPI diode characterization, this one exhibited repeatability better than CTA dosimeters applied routinely in radiation processing. The above results indicate the potential use of these radiation hardness Si diodes in online dosimetry to high doses applications. For low doses irradiation were used the linear accelerators KD2 and Primus, both manufactured by Siemens and located at Sirio-Libanes Hospital. The diodes responses were evaluated for electron beams within the energy range of 6 MeV up to 21 MeV. The following studies were carried out: the short-term repeatability, the dose-response curve as a function of absorbed dose, the charge sensitivity as function of electron beam energy, the percentage depth dose (PPD) and the dose transversal profile. Despite the response of the diodes FZ, MCz and EPI be slightly dependent on the electron beam energy, the dosimetric response was linear in all electron beam energy range studied. In addition to this, the EPI devices showed excellent agreement with simulation performed with Monte Carlo code and the measurements performed with MatriXX Registered-Sign , confirming that the devices can be used as dosimeters in radiotherapy for scanning purposes, dose distribution mapping, constancy monitoring of calibration factor and relative dosimetry. (author)

  10. Internal dosimetry for [4-{sup 14}C]-cholesterol in humans; Dosimetria interna para o [4-{sup 14}C]-colesterol em humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcato, Larissa Andreto

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to provide a biokinetic model in order to estimate the radiometric dose due to intake of [4-{sup 14}C]-cholesterol. The model was validated comparing the values of fecal excretion and absorption described in literature with that predicted by the model. The proposed model achieved good concordance between the results (p = 0.416 for excretion and p = 0.423 for absorption). The coefficients of effective dose (SvBq{sup -1}), equivalent dose (SvBq{sup -1}) and absorbed dose (GyBq{sup -1}) in human organs and tissues were calculated using the MIRD methodology and the compartmental analysis software ANACOMP. The coefficients were estimated for four phantoms: adult with a body mass of 73.3 kg, 15 years old adolescent (56.9 kg), 10 years old child (33.2 kg) and five years old child (19.8 kg). The organ that received the highest absorbed dose for all phantoms was the lower large intestine (LLI). The allometry theory was used to interpolate the coefficient of absorbed dose in the lower large intestine (DLLI) for unknown body mass (m): DLLI (GyBq{sup -1})=161.26 m (kg){sup -1.025}. For the same administered activity, the effective dose coefficient (E) decreases as the body mass increases. On other words, for the same intake activity, individuals with low body mass are exposed to higher doses. The allometry theory was used to interpolate the coefficient effective dose (E) for unknown body mass (m): E(SvB{sup -1})= 171.1 m(kg){sup -1,021}. (author)

  11. Use of Fricke solution modified with dyes for dosimetry in phototherapeutic treatments; Uso da solucao Fricke modificada com corantes para futura dosimetria em tratamentos fototerapeuticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Mayara Gabriella Oliveira de; Nascimento, Rizia Keila; Vieira, Rafaela Etelvina de Amorim; Souza, Vivianne Lucia Bormann, E-mail: mayaradqf@hotmail.com, E-mail: riziakeila@hotmail.com, E-mail: rafaelarodriguesss@hotmail.com, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Dyes and pigments (photosensitizers) are characterized by their ability to absorb visible light, and to participate in photochemical reactions. These colors are used in medicine in the dose recommended for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT). There are lasers that can meet most of the phototherapeutic agents and are capable of providing light of considerable power with precision on the injured tissue. The use of light emitting diodes (LEDs) have become feasible, thus reducing the cost of the procedures. The Dosimetry Laboratory Chemistry of the CRCN-NE/Brazilian CNEN has worked with some likely dye use in phototherapy treatments, including: methylene blue, malachite green and toluidine blue. A volume of 2.6 ml of the dosimeters was transferred to test tubes and these were irradiated with LED 24, 48, 72 and 96 acrylic simulator 110 mm x 110 mm x 80 mm at a distance of 6.5 cm from reading light source of the irradiated samples was performed on a spectrophotometer. Having obtaining excellent correlations (above 0.97) to the dosimeter calibration curves. Suggests that the dosimeter can be applied to perform a quality control in photodynamic therapy. However, further experiments should be performed before a wide application of this technique. A volume of 2.6 ml of the dosimeters was transferred to test tubes and these were irradiated with LED 24, 48, 72 and 96 acrylic simulator 110 mm x 110 mm x 80 mm at a distance of 6.5 cm from reading light source of the irradiated samples was performed on a spectrophotometer. Having obtaining excellent correlations (above 0.97) to the dosimeter calibration curves. Suggests that the dosimeter can be applied to perform a quality control in photodynamic therapy. However, further experiments should be performed before a wide application of this technique.

  12. Application of electron beam radiation for peat sterilization and suppression of microbe contaminants; Aplicacao da radiacao por feixe de eletrons como agente esterilizante de microorganismos em substrato turfoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, David

    2006-07-01

    Inoculation of root nodule bacteria into legume seeds such as soybean [Glycine max. (L.)], common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and forage pasture has been effective and convenient as this simple procedure may introduce effective strains of Bradyrhizobium/Rhizobium into agricultural soils without a past history of successful cropping systems with the legume hosts. Peat-based substrates previously sterilized have been used for decades as bacteria carrier, protecting them from the prevailing harsh conditions in tropical soils and ensuring their survival with nutrient and protection against the soil antagonists. The Brazilian Government requires that all peat-based substrates must be gamma-sterilized from a cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) source, prior the introduction of the root nodule bacteria into the package. The recommendation is for a dose up to 50 kGy for an effective suppression of pathogens and saprophytes, in order to avoid competition among the substrate microbiota. Recently, the use of the electron beam (EB) accelerator has shown to be a new alternative for peat pre-sterilization, as this technique may promote reactive free-radicals which are efficient to suppress microbial contaminants. This fast technology is considered more environment and ecology friendly-sound than gamma radiation ({gamma}). The disadvantage of not reaching higher depth than gamma rays from {sup 60}Co must be considered, and attempts of optimizing the technique are crucial. This study compared both methods by using increasing rates of radiation by {sup 60}Co by the EB method - O, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 kGy in a commercial peat used for inoculants. Experimental data from days 7, 14, 21 and 28 days (growth period) and 150, 180 and 210 days (storage period) indicated high numbers of the strain Rhizobium tropici CM-01, labelled with gusA{sup +} (Study 1) and celB{sup +} (Study 2) from both eat-sterilizing techniques, reaching values above the minimum of 1x10{sup 8} cells g{sup -1} peat. At high rates, above 40 kGy, and after long incubation periods (ex. after 150 days), EB method was more efficient to suppress actinobacteria, one serious antagonist for rhizobia. Strain CM-01 celB{sup +}, data for the period of bacterial growth confirmed the efficiency of the method even at rates as low as 10 kGy. (author)

  13. Development and application of passive harmonic filters in distribution secondary circuits; Desenvolvimento e aplicacao de filtros harmonicos passivos em circuitos secundarios de distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Junior, Jose Rubens [Empresa Energetica de Mato Grosso do Sul (ENERSUL), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Considering that for the low and medium voltage distribution system passive filter installations does not exist for the harmonic control, this paper proposes a new solution in the Brazil for improvement of the quality levels in distribution secondary circuits.

  14. Conductor polymeric membranes with potential for application in PEM type fuel cells; Membranas polimericas condutoras com potencialidades para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brioude, Michel de Meireles; Sodre, Livia Farias; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    In this work two series of membranes were prepared; they were based on hybrid organic-inorganic or composite materials and presented potentiality for application in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell, PEMFC. The polymeric phase was constituted of poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS, crosslinked with tetra ethoxysilane, TEOS, with a 70%/30% ratio. Phosphotungstic acid (PWA) or the sodium monododecylsulphate (MDS), as proton conductors, were added to the inorganic network, close to the gel point; the mixtures were transferred to a cast. The films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The membranes showed good properties, as flexibility, thermal and mechanical stability with potentiality to be used as conducting membranes in technological applications. (author)

  15. Commutated inversor at low frequency for application of fuel cells in distributed generation; Inversor comutado em baixa frequencia para aplicacao de CaCs na geracao distribuida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Geomar Machado; Pomilio, Jose Antenor; Vendrusculo, Edson A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], e-mail: antenor@dsce.fee.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The connection of Fuel Cell Power Plants with the utility grid generally needs an electronic power converter for processing the locally generated power and injecting current into the system. Since the source provides a DC voltage, the converter must be able to produce a low-distortion, high-power factor AC current. This paper presents the results obtained with use of a three-phase and a single-phase inverter using low-frequency commutation. An auxiliary circuit is added to the inverter topologies in order to reduce the output voltage distortion, thus improving the current waveform. The main advantages of this approach are the minimization of the switching losses (i.e. high efficiency) and the elimination of the EMI (which avoids high-frequency filters necessary in high-frequency commutation inverters). (author)

  16. Radionecrosis attenuation in wistar rats with cutaneous application of quercetin; Atenuacao da radionecrose em ratos Wistar com aplicacao cutanea de quercetina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Nelson Mendes

    2016-11-01

    The increased incidence of cancer has been significant in recent decades in the world population, as confirmed by national and international institutions in the health area. The emergence of cancer is influenced, predominantly by genetic and environmental factors, being manifested more in the adult population. The main modalities for cancer treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery) may be used separately or in combination, depending on the type of cancer. Among the methods mentioned, radiation therapy is the one more broadly used for the treatment of patients, having an associated side effect called radiodermatitis, which has degrees of severity ranging from simple erythema to radionecrosis. The manifestation of radiodermatitis may occur during the treatment or after the radiotherapy sessions: both situations have great relevance in the patient's quality of life and social costs. One of the studied alternative therapies for attenuating the radionecrosis is the quercetin cutaneous application. One of the alternative therapies, studied to mitigate or eliminate the radionecrosis, is based on the topical application of quercetin. To evaluate the effectiveness of this mitigation, an animal model of radionecrosis was developed, to be used in Wistar rats. After in vitro studies, the quercetin concentrations and time of application were determined, reducing the number of animals, when in vivo experiments are carried out. With the topical application of 250 μ mol/L of quercetin, one hour prior to gamma irradiation, at a dose of 85 Gy, the side effects of radiation were minimized, avoiding the formation of radionecrosis. There was, also, a tendency to attenuate the wound area in the studied animals, compared to the irradiated animals without the quercetin application. (author)

  17. Treatment of chemical waste piassava for application in polymeric composites; Tratamento quimico do residuo de piacava para aplicacao em compositos polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, C.S.; Fiuza, R.P.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Carvalho, G.G.P.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M., E-mail: cleidienesm@gmail.co [Universidade Federal da Bahia (GECIM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais

    2010-07-01

    Piassava fibers were investigated with the aim of adding new business value. The surface of the fibers were treated with NaOH and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 1 h at room temperature. The samples were characterized by FTIR, TGA, DSC, chemical composition, XRD, SEM and tensile tests. The micrographs of the fibers showed that treatment with NaOH cleaned the fiber surface of a large amount of impurities and cause fibrillation. Chemical analysis, using the Van Soest method, showed that the palm fiber is a fiber rich in lignin, as evidenced by their brown color and with alkali treatment there was partial removal of hemicellulose and lignin, increasing the crystallinity index of the fiber, observed by XRD. The acid treatment caused no significant changes in the properties of the fiber. Therefore, the mercerisation was efficient in the fiber of palm fiber, improving their properties, enabling thus their use as reinforcement in polymer composites. (author)

  18. Study of conjugation and radiolabeling of monoclonal antibody rituximab for use in radionuclide therapy; Estudo da conjugacao e radiomarcacao do anticorpo monoclonal rituximab para aplicacao em terapia radionuclidica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicano, Adriana Vidal Fernandes

    2011-07-01

    Lymphomas are tumors originated from the transformation of a lymphocyte in the lymphatic system. The most common lymphoma is the Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Advances in immunology and molecular biology have been improving NHL's detection and treatment strategies development, such as Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody used as immunotherapeutic to treat refractory or relapsed NHL. The goal of the present work was to conjugate this antibody to DOTA-NHS-ester bifunctional chelator and to radiolabel it with {sup 177}Lu radioisotope in order to develop a radio immunotherapeutic agent for NHL's treatment. Different rituximab to DOTA molar ratios (1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:250, 1:500 and 1:1000) were evaluated in order to determine the best condition for obtaining the highest radiochemical purity of radio immunotherapeutic. The stability of the unlabeled immuno conjugated was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for up to 240 days in different storage conditions. The stability of the labeled preparations was evaluated either after storing at 2-8 degree C or incubation in human serum at 37 degree C. The binding to serum proteins was also determined. In vivo studies were performed in healthy Swiss mice, in order to characterize the biological properties of labeled conjugate. Finally, preliminary studies of radio immuno conjugated competitive binding to CD20 positive Raji cells were carried out in order to analyze if the process of conjugation and radiolabeling compromises the immunoreactivity of the antibody. The conjugation applying lower antibody to chelator molar ratios (1:5, 1:10 and 1:20) showed high stability when stored for up to 240 days in different conditions. The HPLC analysis showed that the monoclonal antibody conjugated in molar ratio 1:50 was labeled with higher radiochemical purity (> 95%) when purified in PD-10 column. This conjugate showed reasonable stability at 2-8 degree C. The analysis of the stability in human serum did not suggest high metabolic degradation by serum enzymes. The labeled conjugate showed high serum protein binding, suggesting slow blood clearance, which was confirmed by in vivo studies. The labeled conjugate presented high uptake in the liver, in accordance to biodistribution pattern of monoclonal antibodies. The preliminary competitive binding studies indicated a specific binding and suggest that the synthesis of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-rituximab did not compromise its binding to CD20 positive tumor cells. (author)

  19. Application of fuzzy logic in mapping the environmental impacts of hydroelectric power plants; Aplicacao da logica difusa no mapeamento de impactos ambientais em usinas hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, M.N.; Lambert-Torres, G.; Silva, L.E. Borges da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)], Emails: germanoltorres@gmail.com, leborges@unifei.edu.br; Rissino, S.; Silva, M.F. da [Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UFRO), Porto Velho, RO (Brazil)], e-mails: srissino@gmail.com, felipe@unir.br

    2009-07-01

    During the stages prior to installation of a large enterprise, there is an obligation to obtain an environmental license for its effectiveness. However, defining the relevance of an environmental impact generated by changes elapsed in a region, is something subjective, since some variables present qualitative definitions. Aiming to interrelate the variables that influence the environmental impacts in hydroelectric plants, was made the mapping of terms natural resources and degradation of the environment, and its defining variables, based on the theory of fuzzy logic. The construction of fuzzy propositions was based on the manipulation of a rule base, with the 'if' antecedent 'then' consequent structure. It was concluded that the use of fuzzy propositions for the study of environmental impact is an effective method to map the environmental impact caused by construction of a hydroelectric plant, because it defines the degree of influence of impact on the environment.

  20. Application of diagnosis and monitoring area contaminated by petroleum derivatives; Aplicacao da tecnica de caminhamento eletrico em area contaminada por derivados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cesar Augusto [Pos-graduacao em Geociencias em Meio Ambiente, IGCE - UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: cesargeologia@yahoo.com.br; Dourado, Joao Carlos; Braga, Antonio Celso de Oliveira [Dept. de Geologia Aplicada, IGCE - UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: jdourado@rc.unesp.br, acobraga@rc.unesp.br

    2006-07-15

    Geophysical methods are useful technic of geological investigation, thoroughly employed to diagnosis and monitoring contaminated areas, in conjunction with direct techniques of investigation such as chemical analyses. Among these, electric resistivity is more usually used in studies of contaminants in soil and groundwater, due to the high contrast of electric properties between the soil and the pollutant types frequently found, essentially constituted of composed organic and inorganic. Geophysical studies in impacted areas by petroleum products may be describe by anomalies of both low resistivity and high resistivities, confirmed as contaminant by chemical analyses. This apparent contradiction can reflect processes of degradation of the contaminants, directly associated with its residence time in the soil, through the generation of by-products that change the physical properties of the soil and groundwater, principally for the mineral dissolution by action of organic acids and by formation of minerals of oxides and hydroxides minerals. Natural attenuation defines a series of physical, chemical and biological processes that allow the degradation, dispersion and dilution of contaminants in a natural form, in other words, free from human intervention. This paper presents the application of electrical profiling technique in a contaminated industrial area for benzene, toluene, xylene, 1,2 dichloroethene and inorganic salts and it discusses the physical alterations of the contaminated soil through the obtained results, under the optics of the Natural Attenuation in course in the area of study. (author)

  1. Hybrid membranes PVA/silicon for use in fuel cells; Membranas hibridas de PVA/silica para aplicacao em celula a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Liz C.V. de; Almeida, Raquel D. de; Gomes, Ailton de S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: lizcontino@ima.ufrj.br; Ramos Filho, Florencio G. de [Centro Universitario Estadual da Zona Oeste - UEZO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Hybrids organic-inorganic membranes PVA-silica have been prepared using sol-gel process in situ with the objective of study the influence of inorganic particles incorporation on the water uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity of PVA membranes. The silica was constituted of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with or without the mixture with the tetra ethoxysilane (TEOS). The hybrids membranes were oxidated to convert the -SH groups in -SO{sub 3}H groups, becoming them proton conducting. The hybrids membranes not oxidated showed lesser water uptake and pervaporated material, probably, due to the formation of crosslink that restricted the swell of the PVA membrane. The protonic conductivity of the hybrid membranes after the oxidation was up to 26 times bigger than of the membrane not oxidated. (author)

  2. Implementation of ozonation process in degradation of the phenols present in petrochemistry effluents; Aplicacao do processo de ozonizacao na degradacao de fenois presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda Batista de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The water contamination by the petrochemical pollutants with high toxicity, such as phenols, is a subject of interest of several researchers. The ozone is an alternative for the effluents treatment, being effective in environmental decontamination, reducing the COD and degrading the phenols. The ozone stability depends on the water pH, the type and content of organic matter. This study aimed to investigate in the phenol ozonation, evaluating the phenol and COD removal at different pHs. Ozone as injected in 5 L of phenol solution of 50 mg L-1 at pH = 2, 7 and 10, from 1 to 25 minutes, and then was measured the quantity of COD and phenol. It was found that in acid pH the ozone has increased the stability, because 82.19% of the ozone that enters in the column remains in solution. The phenol degradation was faster in alkaline solution (pH=10), where in 15 minutes of treatment, 99.7% of phenol was consumed. The COD removal increased from 7.3% in 6 minutes to 87.8% in 30 minutes, but the COD removal increases more slowly than that of phenol which was 53, 8% in 6 min, increasing to 99.2% at 25 min for pH=7. (author)

  3. Application of biomass in oil and fat reduction content in aqueous effluent; Aplicacao de biomassa na reducao do teor de oleos e graxas presentes em efluentes aquosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Hevelin Tabata; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we have studied the bagasse from sugarcane as an alternative bioadsorbent in the treatment to oils and greases contaminated waters. The synthetic effluent was simulated by a distilled water and decahydronaphthalene dispersion, with initial concentration of 8900 mg . L {sup -1}. Gas chromatography was the analytical operation chosen to quantify the oil residual after the adsorption. The biomass was characterized by moisture analysis, CHNS and SEM. The experiments were carried out in batch process with agitation of 120 rpm, evaluating the equilibrium time of adsorptive process and the influence of pH of aqueous level. Results showed that the adsorption process achieved equilibrium quickly, in just 5 minutes of contact between the dispersion and biomass. No significant influence was noticed in the removal of hydrocarbon with the change in pH. The adsorption isotherm was developed changing by the mass of bioadsorbent, at 25 deg C, pH 6 and 120 rpm of agitation. The experimental results were fitted by Langmuir and Langmuir- Freundlich models. The best fit was obtained with Langmuir-Freundlich, providing a maximum adsorption capacity of 6,65 g hydrocarbon / g biomass. The experiments showed the great potential of the sugarcane bagasse to be used as bioadsorbent in reducing the oil and grease levels in industrial effluents. This alternative presents itself as a sustainable route due to the abundance of sugar cane bagasse in the sugar and alcohol industry, avoided the impact of aqueous sources contamination coming from oil and petrochemical industry. (author)

  4. Development of crystals based in cesium iodide for application as radiation detectors; Desenvolvimento de cristais baseados em iodeto de cesio para aplicacao como detectores de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Maria da Conceicao Costa

    2006-07-01

    Inorganic scintillators with fast luminescence decay time, high density and high light output have been the object of studies for application in nuclear physics, high energy physics, nuclear tomography and other fields of science and engineering. Scintillation crystals based on cesium iodide (CsI) are matters with relatively low higroscopy, high atomic number, easy handling and low cost, characteristics that favor their use as radiation detectors. In this work, the growth of pure CsI crystals, CsI:Br and CsI:Pb, using the Bridgman technique, is described. The concentration of the bromine doping element (Br) was studied in the range of 1,5x10{sup -1} M to 10{sup -2} M and the lead (Pb) in the range of 10{sup -2} M to 5x10{sup -4} M. To evaluate the scintillators developed, systematic measurements were carried out for luminescence emission and luminescence decay time for gamma radiation, optical transmittance assays, Vickers micro-hardness assays, determination of the doping elements distribution along the grown crystals and analysis of crystals response to the gamma radiation in the energy range of 350 keV to 1330 keV and alpha particles from a {sup 241}Am source, with energy of 5.54 MeV. It was obtained 13 ns to 19 ns for luminescence decay time for CsI:Br and CsI:Pb crystals. These results were very promising. The results obtained for micro-hardness showed a significant increase in function of the doping elements concentration, when compared to the pure CsI crystal, increasing consequently the mechanical resistance of the grown crystals. The validity of using these crystals as radiation sensors may be seen from the results of their response to gamma radiation and alpha particles. (author)

  5. Characterization of isolated communities: application in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Caracterizacao de comunidades isoladas: aplicacao em comunicade de Ubatura/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Maria Julita Guerra [Secretaria de Estado de Energia, Recursos Hidricos e Saneamento (SERHS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mjulita@sp.gov.br; Pilla, Adelina Teixeira Fonseca de [Equilibrio, Desenvolvimento Ambiental Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adelina.fonseca@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for characterization of isolated communities, developed on a consultant work for the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME. It still presents the application of this methodology of analysis on a isolated community in the city of Ubatuba, Sao Paulo state. (author)

  6. Analysis of ferritic stainless steel tube applied in radiation furnaces; Analise de tubos de aco inoxidavel ferritico para aplicacao em fornos de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, P.C.R.; Spim, J.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Lab. de Fundicao], e-mail: spim@ufrgs.br; Santos, C.A. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais (PGETEMA)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the change in mechanic properties and phase transformations of ferritic stainless steel tube, ASTM 268 Gr 446, applied in high temperature conditions. The work has used tubes from radiation furnaces of the PETROBRAS Xisto Industrialization Unit. The samples used for comparison were obtained from new tubes and tubes already used in furnaces. The test analyses were optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, hardness and microhardness test and tension test. Results have shown that the new tubes presented a ferritic matrix and in old tubes were observed a great quantity of sigma phase and carbides. Along with the thickness of the tubes it was verified that the inside region presented an increase of sulfate and the outside region an increase of carbides. (author)

  7. Study and development of an Iridium-192 seed for use in ophthalmic cancer; Estudo e desenvolvimento de uma semente de iridio-192 para aplicacao em cancer oftalmico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio Rodrigues de

    2013-07-01

    Even ocular tumors are not among the cases with a higher incidence, they affect the population, especially children. The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN-CNEN/SP) in partnership with Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP), created a project to develop and implement a alternative treatment for ophthalmic cancer that use brachytherapy iridium-192 seeds. The project arose by reason of the Escola Paulista treat many cancer cases within the Unified Health System (SUS) and the research experience of sealed radioactive sources group at IPEN. The methodology was developed from the available infrastructure and the experience of researchers. The prototype seed presents with a core (192-iridium alloy of iridium-platinum) of 3.0 mm long sealed by a capsule of titanium of 0.8 mm outside diameter, 0.05 mm wall thickness and 4,5mm long. This work aims to study and develop a seed of iridium-192 from a platinum-iridium alloy. No study on the fabrication of these seeds was found in available literature. It was created a methodology that involved: characterization of the material used in the core, creation of device for neutron activation irradiation and and seed sealing tests. As a result, proved the feasibility of the method. As a suggestion for future work, studies regarding metrology and dosimetry of these sources and improvement of the methodology should be carried out, for future implementation in national scope. (author)

  8. Analysis of implementation of energy efficiency labeling of buildings in hotel developments; Analise da aplicacao da etiquetagem de eficiencia energetica de edificacoes em empreendimentos hoteleiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Myrthes Marcele Farias dos; Faria, Ricardo Wargas de; Hamada, Luciana; Nascimento, Paulo Roberto Lopes do [Servico Brasileiro de Apoio as Micro e Pequenas Empresas (SEBRAE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Energia e Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    Most Brazilian constructions have low performance in terms of energy, since they received little attention (or none) concerning the energy efficiency. One of the main aspects observed is the intense use of electric energy for climatization and lighting in order to provide comfortable conditions for the dwellers. In 2009, new perspectives to change this situation emerged, due to an initiative by the Federal Government, that established the necessary regulations for energy efficiency labelling in buildings, and broadened the Brazilian Labelling Program (PBE), which, up until then, encompassed only machinery and equipment. The purpose of this article is to analyze the compliance with the new regulations for energy efficiency of constructions in the hotel sector, where small businesses are predominant, aiming at highlighting the barriers and opportunities connected to the possibilities of labeling. Hotels have been targeted for large investments, since they have become the pillars of Brazil's project to welcome tourists during the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. Taking into consideration the need to develop specific methodologies for lodging possibilities, in addition to the scarce information on the use of energy in small businesses, this article is part of a series of researches carried out within the framework of the Sebrae/RJ - Procel Agreement. The outcome is a global analysis, from a business point of view, on the use of labels of energy efficiency in hotel buildings, organized upon two perspectives: the external environment (opportunities and threats) and the internal environment (strong and weak points). (author)

  9. Development and characterization of high collapse boron alloys heat treated pipes for oil wells; Tubos de aco TiB para aplicacao em revestimento de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Fabio A.; Silva, Ronaldo; Chad, Luis [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba SP (Brazil); Fritz, Marcelo C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia do Produto

    2008-07-01

    The utilization of OCTG (Oil Country Tubular Goods) pipes will increase with the discovery of new oil wells in ultra deep waters. This study aims to evaluate the mechanical and microstructural performance of welded and heat treated pipes through quenching and tempering using a steel project based in titanium/boron for casing pipes. The objective of this development is to present a set of techniques used during the manufacturing of heated treated ERW pipes boron allowing, discussing mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the steel project, coil conformation, heat treatment and test procedures. The results are within the limits set by the API 5CT standard. It was found that the pipes obtained good geometry and uniformity of mechanical properties, showing that this product can be applied safely and reliability as wells' casing. (author)

  10. Human error probability quantification using fuzzy methodology in nuclear plants; Aplicacao da metodologia fuzzy na quantificacao da probabilidade de erro humano em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Claudio Souza do

    2010-07-01

    This work obtains Human Error Probability (HEP) estimates from operator's actions in response to emergency situations a hypothesis on Research Reactor IEA-R1 from IPEN. It was also obtained a Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) evaluation in order to classify them according to their influence level onto the operator's actions and to determine these PSF actual states over the plant. Both HEP estimation and PSF evaluation were done based on Specialists Evaluation using interviews and questionnaires. Specialists group was composed from selected IEA-R1 operators. Specialist's knowledge representation into linguistic variables and group evaluation values were obtained through Fuzzy Logic and Fuzzy Set Theory. HEP obtained values show good agreement with literature published data corroborating the proposed methodology as a good alternative to be used on Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). (author)

  11. Application of activation analysis for determination of some elements in cassiterite samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao para a determinacao de alguns elementos em amostras de cassiterita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre

    1978-07-01

    This work consists in the development of an analytical method using activation by thermal neutrons for the determination of some minor elements and traces present in cassiterite (tin ore). This method was then applied to determine these elements in samples of cassiterite from different regions of Brazil. An analysis was made of the mineralogy characteristic of cassiterite as well as of the minerals most commonly associated with it. Four main types of interference were found to occur in the analysis by activation of trace elements in samples of cassiterite. The method involves the analysis without chemical separation for the determination of some elements and the analysis with chemical separation for the determination of other elements. The steps involved in both types of analysis are described. In the analysis with chemical separation the matrix element (tin) is separated by distillation in an H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HBr medium, after fusion of the ore with Na{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Arsine and antimony are determined in the distilled, whereas some lanthanide elements and uranium are determined in the distillation residue by separating them as a group by precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. A discussion on the precision, accuracy and sensibility of the method is also included. (author)

  12. The German experience in energetic efficiency applied to the Brazilian small industries; Aplicacao da experiencia alema em eficiencia energetica nas pequenas empresas brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Ricardo W. de; Santos, Myrthes M.F. dos [SEBRAE - Servico Brasileiro de Apoio as Micro e Pequenas Empresas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); GTZ - Cooperacao Tecnica Alema, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The present work approaches the best way for absorption of the acknowledge accumulated by the developed countries , considering the existent technological, economic and social barriers. Reports presented on the experience of some small entrepreneurs of the Rio de Janeiro State, BR, that, based on the German model, implemented technological modernization actions, points out the good results obtained by the bakery, red ceramics and tire recapping sectors. The paper also presents the German social, economic, energy supply and consumption characteristics, and the stage of energy efficiency at the small enterprises, and ecological efficiency alternative measurements which could be implemented in Brazil for reduction of energy consumption and increasing of the enterprises competitiveness.

  13. Polyester synthesis for application in PEMFC type fuel cells; Sintese de poliester para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.P.; Souza, D.R. de; Fiuza, R.A.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: raigenis@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The PEMFC (Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell), along the SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell), is the most important technology, among the various types of fuels cell. The PEMFC shows a large versatility of applications, both for stationary and mobile use. However the PEMFC presents high manufacture cost, directly impacting in the cost of the produced energy. This work contemplates the previews sulfonation of phtalic acid and its subsequent polymerization with glycerol, using as catalytic tin dibutyl-dilaurate. The obtained material has been characterized by DSC, TGA, FTIR, MEV, DRX and XRF. The gotten results indicated that phtalic acid was sulfonated and the increase of the sulfonation degree significantly increased the crystallinity of the sulfonated ftalico acid. Furthermore, the polymer produced from the sulfonated monomer presented adequate thermal resistance and a high content of conducting groups, necessary conditions for application as electrolyte in PEMFC. All these characteristics, particularly the low cost of the reagents and the ease of production process, make the sulfonated polyester membrane a promising candidate as fuel cell electrolyte. (author)

  14. AAA application in diagnosis exams in a large public hospital, RS, Brazil; Aplicacao do AAA na realizacao de exames diagnosticos em um hospital publico de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacelar, A.; Ferret, A.A.; Vanni, S.; Galhardi, M.P.; Lykawka, R., E-mail: abacelar@hepa.ufrgs.br, E-mail: allferret@gmail.com, E-mail: svanni@hepa.ufrgs.br, E-mail: mpgalhardi@gmail.com, E-mail: rlykawka@hepa.ufrgs.br [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: the initiative AAA - Awareness , Appropriateness and Audit , promotes consciousness ( Awareness) , fitness ( Appropriateness ) and Audit ( Audit) . This paper analyzes the application of the concept in the AAA requests and justifications examinations using ionizing radiation within a large public hospital. Materials and methods: we collected and analyzed data between the years 2011 and 2012, concerning the number of exams performed with the use of radiation and their justifications. After, we sought to raise awareness of the clinical team through training on the risks and benefits of the various modalities of the radiology department and the need to justify the use of ionizing radiation on health. After the data were collected again of test requests for verification of the effectiveness of training. Results: the mean requests that need to be appropriate to the AAA in the last quarter of 2011 was 75 % lower than the average demands of the first quarter, matched against the last two months of 2012 increased by up to four times the number requests that require improvements in relation to the excellent results obtained in July 2012. Conclusion: it is shown in this paper the need of implementing this initiative AAA continuously added to the clinical staff awareness about the risk of the use of ionizing radiation, the appropriateness of the requests of these tests , as well as the control of this process in order to optimize use of ionizing radiation on health.

  15. Análise da distribuição espacial de dose absorvida em próton terapia ocular Spatial distribution analysis of absorbed dose in ocular proton radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Tavares Christóvão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propõe-se avaliar os perfis de dose em profundidade e as distribuições espaciais de dose para protocolos de radioterapia ocular por prótons, a partir de simulações computacionais em código nuclear e modelo de olho discretizado em voxels. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: As ferramentas computacionais empregadas foram o código Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking Toolkit e o SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia. O Geant4 é um pacote de software livre, utilizado para simular a passagem de partículas nucleares com carga elétrica através da matéria, pelo método de Monte Carlo. Foram executadas simulações computacionais reprodutivas de radioterapia por próton baseada em instalações pré-existentes. RESULTADOS: Os dados das simulações foram integrados ao modelo de olho através do código SISCODES, para geração das distribuições espaciais de doses. Perfis de dose em profundidade reproduzindo o pico de Bragg puro e modulado são apresentados. Importantes aspectos do planejamento radioterápico com prótons são abordados, como material absorvedor, modulação, dimensões do colimador, energia incidente do próton e produção de isodoses. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que a terapia por prótons, quando adequadamente modulada e direcionada, pode reproduzir condições ideais de deposição de dose em neoplasias oculares.OBJECTIVE: The present study proposes the evaluation of the depth-dose profiles and the spatial distribution of radiation dose for ocular proton beam radiotherapy protocols, based on computer simulations in nuclear codes and an eye model discretized into voxels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The employed computational tools were Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking Toolkit and SISCODES (Sistema Computacional para Dosimetria em Radioterapia - Computer System for Dosimetry in Radiotherapy. Geant4 is a toolkit for simulating the passage of particles through the matter, based on Monte Carlo method. Computer simulations

  16. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies; Fototerapia com laser em baixa intensidade em processo inflamatorio agudo induzido por carragenina em pata de camundongos - estudos de dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-07-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm{sup 2}, spot area of 0.028 cm{sup 2}). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  17. On line CALDose{sub X}: real time Monte Carlo calculation via Internet for dosimetry in radiodiagnostic; CALDose{sub X} online: Calculos de Monte Carlo em tempo real via Internet para dosimetria em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.b, E-mail: vagner.cassola@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Cavalcanti, Arthur; Lins, Rafael Dueire, E-mail: rdl@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Dept. de Eletronica e Sistemas

    2011-10-26

    The CALDose{sub X} 4.1 is a software which uses thr MASH and FASH phantoms. Patient dosimetry with reference phantoms is limited because the results can be applied only for patients which possess the same body mass and right height that the reference phantom. In this paper, the dosimetry of patients for diagnostic with X ray was extended by using a series of 18 phantoms with defined gender, different body masses and heights, in order to cover the real anatomy of the patients. It is possible to calculate absorbed doses in organs and tissues by real time Monte Carlo dosimetry through the Internet through a dosimetric service called CALDose{sub X} on line

  18. Application of the Rietveld method in powders of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite calcined in different temperatures; Aplicacao do metodo de Rietveld em pos de manganito de lantanio dopado com estroncio calcinados em diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, R.; Vargas, R.A.; Martinez, L.G.; Andreoli, M.; Seo, E.S.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de SOFC: Insumos e Componentes

    2010-07-01

    The strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) is a ceramic material used as cathode in device called High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. In this work, the LSM was synthesized by the citrate technique with the objective to get powders without the formation of secondary phases, such as lanthanum oxide and the lanthanum hydroxide, harmful for the functional performance of the device. The definitive calcination temperatures had been 700, 900 and 1100 deg C, due the decomposition of the polymeric precursors to present stabilization from 480 deg C. The analysis by X-ray diffraction of the calcined powders in different temperatures shows the formation only of phase LSM of hexagonal crystalline structure, type pseudo-perovskite. Using the refinement of Rietveld was determined the parameters and volumes of unity cells, atomic positions and occupations. These results confirm that the chemical compositions obtained are similar to the nominal. (author)

  19. Evaluation of sensitivity evaluation of a contamination monitor for use in monitoring of internal exposure of workers in nuclear medicine; Avaliacao da sensibilidade de um monitor de contaminacao para aplicacao em monitoracao da exposicao interna de trabalhadores em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Assis, Janima Cruz de; Oliveira, Salomao Marques de; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    In practice of nuclear medicine, expert personnel routinely handle radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and radiotherapy. The control of intakes of radionuclides by workers can be performed through internal dosimetry techniques, as an integral part of the radiation protection program of the installation. The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in vivo and in vitro in Brazil is regulated by CNEN-NE Standards and 3:05 CNEN-NN 3.01. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends the establishment of an internal monitoring program on workers, especially those subject to possible exposure to annual effective doses greater than 1 mSv. Note that, currently, in Brazil, are not available qualified laboratories to provide internal monitoring services in all regions in the country, if it were applied by CNEN, the requirement for internal monitoring of workers. This paper presents the development of a simple and low-cost methodology for in vivo monitoring of {sup 131}I in the thyroid. The proposed methodology is the use of portable monitor of surface contamination, equipment available and routinely used in all nuclear medicine services in Brazil. The monitor is calibrated with neck-thyroid simulator developed at the Laboratory of In Vivo Monitoring of IRD/CNEN-RJ. The equipment tested is suitable for application in in vivo occupational monitoring thyroid. This conclusion is based on the fact that the detection system has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring up to seven days after the incorporation of the radionuclide and guarantees {sup 131}I detection in values that result in effective doses below 1 mSv for the exposure scenarios adopted.

  20. Merger of waste of lead in polyester resin for application of protection barriers; Incorporacao do residuo de chumbo em resina de poliester para a aplicacao em barreiras de protecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Frieda Saicla [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon Siguifredo Cortes [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This paper's main objective is the use of powdered lead waste obtained from the recycling of batteries embedded in polyester resin to be used as a protective barrier in environments subject to radiation. The aim is to enable a more economical procedure which is faster and more practical for use in walls where it is necessary to use protective barrier. This justification is reinforced having in sight the use of byproducts generated by industries, recycling them and using them as components in the development of barriers against ionizing radiation. In this study, we observed the morphological and physical-chemical properties of isolated and associated materials and performance analysis of the composite with respect to the attenuation properties for gamma rays, by means of experimental tests. For mixtures with 40% of waste lead, value referenced in mass, we obtained satisfactory results on the screen. Thus, we were able to combine the good performance of the composite with the reduction of environmental liabilities, in view of the recycling process of lead. (author)

  1. Gingival healing after gingivectomy procedure and low intensity laser irradiation. A clinical and biometrical study in anima nobile; Reparacao gengival apos a tecnica de gengivectomia e aplicacao de laser em baixa intensidade. Avaliacao clinica e biometrica em humanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Jose Claudio Faria

    2001-07-01

    For the present study seven patients presenting periodontal disease were selected in a way that they required the performance of gingivectomy procedure in the region of premolars in both sides, being this in the upper or lower region. After the surgical procedure one side was submitted to low intensity laser radiation, wavelength 685 nm, power 50 mW and fluency of 4J/cm{sup 2}, contact mode. The other side was used as a control, not receiving any laser irradiation. Healing process for both sides, was clinically and biometrically evaluated and compared using photographs for the periods: pre-operative, immediate post-operative, 3, 7,14,21, 28 and 35 days. The analysis was performed by 3 specialists in Periodontology considering aspects of healing. Results were submitted to statistical analysis. Biometrical evaluation showed improvement of healing for the period of 21 and 28 days in the lased group. Clinical evaluation showed better reparation mainly after the third day for the active group. Laser group was considered to present an improved healing when compared to the control group. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonic acid membranes based on interpenetrating polymer networks for application in fuel cells; Sintese e caracterizacao de membranas sulfonadas baseadas em redes polimericas interpenetrantes para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Lyzed Toloza; Loureiro, Felipe A.M.; Rocco, Ana Maria [Grupo de Materiais Condutores e Energia, Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: amrocco@eq.ufrj.br; Pereira, Robson Pacheco [Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the synthesis and characterization of sulfonic membranes based on interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN). In order to obtain such systems, the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) was polymerized in presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). These membranes were submitted to sulfonation reactions, originating IPN-SO{sub 3}H membranes. The characterization by FTIR evidenced the formation of a Semi-IPN structure, while sulfonation reactions resulted in systems containing -SO{sub 3}H groups covalently bonded to the chains. The membranes exhibited water retention up to 200 degree C, in a temperature range sufficient for application in PEMFC under hydration. (author)

  3. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of electrocatalysts supported on functionalized carbon black for polymer exchange membrane fuel cell applications; Preparacao, caracterizacao e avaliacao de eletrocatalisadores suportados em carbono funcionalizado para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Marcelo do

    2008-12-18

    The fuel cell technology associated with the growing exigency of low environmental impact energy became prosperous in the world energy scenery. The fuel cell is basically a device that converts directly the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical and thermal energy with a continuous operation by the constant feed of a fuel. Especially, the carbon black Vulcan XC72 is usually employed as an electro catalyst support, and some factors as an accessible and high surface area in order to get maximum particles dispersion, pore size, adequate pore distribution and the presence of functional groups in the carbon black surface are considered fundamental characteristics for an innovative materials development. However, the Vulcan XC72 still reveals insufficient conditions for these purposes. This study consists in the preparation and in the physical chemical characterization of functionalized carbon black by hydrogen peroxide and by polymeric chains with proton conduction properties, and its posterior utilization as electro catalyst support for PEMFC and DMFC application. After the carbon functionalization, an improvement in the carbon black dispersion in water media was observed, a beneficial effect for electro catalyst preparation. It was also observed, that the functional groups and the polymeric chains worked as stabilizers in the particle growing, producing much more homogeneous electrocatalysts, exhibiting smaller average particle size. Especially, in the case of polymeric chains functionalization, a decrease in the ohmic drop was observed for this system, attributed to an improvement in the proton transference. (author)

  4. Neutron dosimetry; Dosimetria de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratin, Luciano

    1993-12-31

    A neutron irradiation facility was designed and built in order to establish a procedure for calibrating neutron monitors and dosemeters. A 185 GBq {sup 241} Am Be source of known is used as a reference source. The irradiation facility using this source in the air provides neutron dose rates between 9 nSv s{sup -1} and 0,5 {sup {mu}}Sv s{sup -1}. A calibrated 50 nSv s{sup -1} thermal neutron field is obtained by using a specially designed paraffin block in conjunction with the {sup 241} Am Be source. A Bonner multisphere spectrometer was calibrated, using a procedure based on three methods proposed by international standards. The unfold {sup 241} Am Be neutron spectrum was determined from the Bonner spheres data and resulted in a good agreement with expected values for fluence rate, dose rate and mean energy. A dosimetric system based on the electrochemical etching of CR-39 was developed for personal dosimetry. The dosemeter badge using a (n,{alpha}) converter, the etching chamber and high frequency power supply were designed and built specially for this project. The electrochemical etching (ECE) parameters used were: a 6N KOH solution, 59 deg C, 20 kV{sub pp} cm{sup -1}, 2,0 kHz, 3 hours of ECE for thermal and intermediate neutrons and 6 hours for fast neutrons. The calibration factors for thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined for this personal dosemeter. The sensitivities determined for the developed dosimetric system were (1,46{+-} 0,09) 10{sup 4} tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for thermal neutrons, (9{+-}3) 10{sup 2} tracks cm{sup -2} mSV{sup -1} for intermediate neutrons and (26{+-}4) tracks cm{sup -2} mSv{sup -1} for fast neutrons. The lower and upper limits of detection were respectively 0,002 mSv and 0,6 mSv for thermal neutrons, 0,04 mSv and 8 mSv for intermediate neutrons and 1 mSv and 12 mSv for fast neutrons. In view of the 1990`s ICRP recommendations, it is possible to conclude that the personal dosemeter described in this work is sufficiently sensitive to thermal and intermediate neutrons but fast neutron monitoring ar radiological protection level would require an integration period of over a month. The proposed dosimetric procedure is based on the conjugated use of the developed personal dosemeter and the Bonner multisphere spectrometer. (author) 58 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  6. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  7. Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d); Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Atti. Giornata di studio, Bologna, 28 febbraio 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantuzzi, E. [ENEA, Div. Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA - Bologna has organised a one day-workshop on the subject: Individual monitoring of external exposure in terms of personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d). The aim of the workshop was the discussion of the new implications and modifications to be expected in the routine individual monitoring of external radiation, due to the issue of the Decree 241/00 (G.U. 31/8/2000) in charge since 01/01/2001. The decree set up in Italian law the standards contained in the European Directive EURATOM 96/29-Basic Standards for the Protection of Health of Workers and the General Public against Dangers arising from Ionizing Radiation. Among others, the definition of the operational quantities for external radiation for personal and environmental monitoring, H{sub p}(d) e H{sup *}(d) respectively as defined by ICRU (International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurements), requires to update the methods of measurements and calibration of the personal dosemeters and environmental monitors. This report collects the papers presented at the workshop dealing with the Personal Dose Equivalent, H{sub p}(d), the conversion coefficients, H{sub p}(d)/K{sub a} e H{sub p}(d)/{sub ,} obtained through Monte Carlo calculations published by ICRU and ICRP (International Commission for Radiation Protection), the new calibration procedures and the practical implication in the routine of individual monitoring in terms of H{sub p}(d). Eventually, in the last chapter, the answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) are briefly reported. [Italian] L'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA di Bologna ha organizzato una giornata di studio Dosimetria personale esterna in termini di equivalente di dose personale, H{sub p}(d). Lo scopo della giornata e' stato quello di discutere le novita' e le modifiche da apportare alle pratiche di monitoraggio dell'esposizione esterna alle radiazioni ionizzanti, a seguito dell'entrata in vigore

  8. Desenvolvimento, caracterizacao e aplicacao da matriz FTO/POLI(3-aminofenol) na deteccao de marcador de lesao cardiaca por fotoluminescencia de quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Luciano Pereira

    2011-01-01

    O coração é um órgão vital propulsor de sangue, que transporta oxigênio e nutrientes para todo organismo, todavia quando estes componentes não chegam a ele devido à obstrução arterial, ocorre instabilidade elétrica no processo de contração deste músculo, causando arritmias que, normalmente em menos de uma hora, promovem o infarto agudo do miocárdio, que juntamente com os problemas vasculares cerebrais são os maiores responsáveis pela mortalidade em todo o mundo. O diagnóstic...

  9. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  10. Three New Myrsinol Diterpenes from <em>Euphorbia proliferaem> and Their Neuroprotective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqiang Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new myrsinol diterpenes were isolated from the roots of<em> em>>Euphorbia proliferaem>. Their structures were elucidated as 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-14<em>α-O>-benzoyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (1, 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β-O>-propion-yl-5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-tetra-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (2, and 2<em>α>,14<em>α-di-O>-benzoyl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (3 on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Their neuroprotective activities were evaluated and compounds 1 and 2 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  11. Neuronal Adaptive Mechanisms Underlying Intelligent Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    Simposio: "Aplicacao de venenos das serpentes em Problemas de Farmacologia e Bioquimica cellular". Ribeirao Preto S.P. Brazil. AJ PAGE 33 Allon, N. and...F2,. "., Fn. A limitation of this classification algorithm is that only linear sepa- rations are performed optimally by this method. 2. Bayes ...may be different from the general probability of occurrence of event A. Bayes has systemnatized this relationship. If one thinks of B as the causal

  12. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  13. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  14. Application of geophysical methods to gold prospecting in Minas de Corrales, Uruguay; Aplicacao de metodos geofisicos a prospeccao de ouro. Teste nas minas de Corrales, Uruguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Antonio Flavio U. [Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais (CPRM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dias, Rogerio Aguirre; Barcelos, Andre B.B. de [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1993-07-01

    Geophysical methods were tested in San Gregorio gold mine, Minas de Corrales, north region of Uruguay. The ores are mainly stockworks, sheeted veinlet zones, ore shoot and disseminated sulfides types, situated in a silicated and carbonated shear zone structure, over granitic mylonites, quartz diorites, quartz-feldspathic breccia, basic rocks and quartz veins. Magnetic and radiometric methods were applied . VLF and EM34-3 detected the high resistivity silicated and carbonated zone and IP detected a weak PFE anomaly associated with pyrite/gold zone. (author)

  15. Study and characterization of dosimeter LiF:Mg,Cu,P for using in aeronautical dosimetry; Estudo e caracterizacao do dosimetro de LiF:Mg,Cu,P para utilizacao em dosimetria aeronautica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavia, Hanna, E-mail: hannasantana.f@gmail.com [Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio; Lelis, Odair; Pereira, Heloisa; Pereira, Marlon, E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (EFA-A/IEAV), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Fisica Aplicada

    2014-07-01

    The effects of cosmic ionizing radiation incidents in aircraft components and crews has been a source of concern and motivated increasingly studies and improvements in the area. The low dose rates involved in this radiation field in aircraft flight altitudes imply Dosimetric necessity of using materials with high efficiency of detection, to enable studies lower cumulative doses resulting in shorter routes or lower altitude. The choice of thermoluminescent dosimeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P was done by having a detection efficiency of about fifteen times higher than its predecessor (LiF: Mg, Ti), and therefore, applied in very low doses dosimetry, and environmental dosimetry . The implementation of the use of pair dosimetric TLD-600H and 700H-TLD will serve as support for testing and studies on the effects of low doses of cosmic radiation in environmental dosimetry applied in the aviation environment in the usual flight altitudes. In this paper are presented the results of development of a methodology for dosimetry low doses of gamma radiation and neutrons using the pair dosimetric TLD-600H and 700H-TLD. The results demonstrate a sensitivity of dosimeters well above the dosimeters LiF: Mg, Ti confirming its suitability for dosimetry of low doses.

  16. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level; Dosimetria de Rn-222 no ar em ambientes localizados acima e abaixo do nivel do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazula, Camila Dias

    2015-07-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m{sup 3} for homes and 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y{sup -1}, lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y{sup -1}. (author)

  17. Dosimetry in non-homogeneous media with alanine/EPR mini dosemeters and simulation with PENELOPE Monte Carlo code;Dosimetria em meios nao-homogeneos com minidosimetros de alanina/EPR e simulacao Monte Carlo com o codigo PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ramirez, J.L.; Chen, F.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Dept. de Fisica e Matematica

    2009-07-01

    The dosimetric system of L-alanine mini dosimeter and K-Band EPR spectrometer was tested for the dosimetry in non-homogeneous media through the determination of the Percentage Depth Dose (PDD) curve for a small radiation field. The alanine mini dosimeters were produced by mechanical pressure of a mixture of L-alanine (95%) and PVA (5%) to nominal dimensions of 1 mm diameter and 3 mm length and 3 - 4 mg. For detecting the EPR signal of the mini dosimeters irradiated to 25 Gy, a K-Band (24 GHz) spectrometer was used. The dosimeters were irradiated in a {sup 60}Co radiotherapy unit using 80 cm source skin distance and field sizes of 2.5 x 2.5 cm{sup 2}. The inhomogeneous phantom consisted of acrylic and cork sheets of 30 x 30 x 1 cm{sup 3}; six cork sheets were sandwiched between five and nine acrylic sheets, which were placed at the top and bottom regions respectively. PDD curves with radiographic film and PENELOPE simulation were also determined. The PDD results for alanine mini dosimeters agreed better than 5.9% with film and PENELOPE. (author)

  18. Study and parameters survey for iodine-125 source dosimetry to be applied in brachytherapy; Estudo e levantamentos de parametros para dosimetria de fontes de iodo-125 aplicadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Eduardo Santana de

    2011-07-01

    The use of brachytherapy technique with iodine-125 seeds to prostate cancer treatment has been used for decades with good clinical outcomes. To aim the Brazilian population necessities, IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the iodine-125 seed prototype with national technology. The objectives of this work are the development and the study of dosimetric procedures associates with the experimental acquisition of the useful parameters for the iodine-125 dosimetric characterization and to evaluate if the developed procedures, in this work, have the basic conditions to determinate the dosimetric analysis, that are fundamental for clinical procedures. The dosimeters selected for the analysis are the TLD-100 (LiF:Mg,Ti), initially these dosimeters were submitted for two selection steps to choose the dosimeters more reproducible for the dosimetric analysis. The two steps were the selection by the mass of the dosimeters and the reproducibility after four irradiation series in a Cobalt-60 irradiator (CTR-IPEN). Afterwards these steps, the dosimeters were irradiated in linear accelerator with 6 MV energy (Service of Radiotherapy - Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein) to yield the individual calibration factors to each dosimeter. After, the dosimeters were used to the irradiations with iodine-125 seed, 6711 model, (GE-Healthcare). The irradiations and others analysis with iodine-125 seeds yield the useful values for the determination of the parameters suggested by the AAPM (American Association of Physicists in Medicine): constant of dose rate, geometry function, dose radial function and anisotropy function. The results showed good agreement with the values published by the literature, for the same iodine- 125 model, this fact confirms that the realized parameters will be able to be used for the IPEN-CNEN iodine-125 seeds dosimetry and quality control. (author)

  19. Evaluation of a new pencil-type ionization chamber for dosimetry in computerized tomography beams; Avaliacao de uma nova camara de ionizacao tipo lapis para dosimetria em feixes de tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Maysa C. de; Neves, Lucio P.; Silva, Natalia F. da; Santos, William de S.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: maysadecastro@gmail.com, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: na.fiorini@gmail.com, E-mail: wssantos@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    For performing dosimetry in computed tomography beams (CT), use is made of a pencil-type ionization chamber, since this has a uniform response to this type of beam. The common commercial chambers in Brazil have a sensitive volume length of 10 cm. Several studies of prototypes of this type of ionization chamber have been conducted, using different materials and geometric configurations, in the Calibration Laboratory Instruments of the Institute of Nuclear and Energy Research (LCI) and these showed results within internationally acceptable limits. These ion chambers of 10 cm are widely used nowadays, however studies have revealed that they have underestimated the dose values. In order to solve this problem, we developed a chamber with sensitive volume length of 30 cm. As these are not yet very common and no study has yet been performed on LCI conditions on their behavior, is important that the characteristics of these dosemeters are known, and the influence of its various components. For your review, we will use the Monte Carlo code Penelope, freely distributed by the IAEA. This method has revealed results consistent with other codes. The results for this new prototype can be used in dosimetry of the CT of the hospitals and calibration laboratories as the LCI.

  20. Development of virtual anthropomorphism of head mathematical model for using in dosimetry computerized simulation; Desenvolvimento de modelo matematico antropomorfico virtual de cabeca para utilizacao em simulacao computacional de dosimetria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V.F.; Hoff, G.; Streck, E.E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica. Grupo de Experimentacao e Simulacao Computacional em Fisica (GESiC)]. E-mail: ghoff@pucrs.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper shows the development of a virtual anthropomorphous model of head, considering different tissue composition, based in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) images. The head original images were acquired in an equipment of NMR GE Sigma Horizon LX 1.5 T Echo Speed, available in the clinic of diagnosis for image SIDI. These images were segmented using routines developed in C++ language. The generated model is a group of 124 matrices of sequential data in format ASCII, where 26 indices evidence different structures. (author)

  1. Evaluation of detectors for blood bioanalysis in Lu-177 and I-131 therapies for bone marrow dosimetry; Avaliacao de detectores para bioanalise de sangue em terapias com Lu-177 and I-131 para dosimetria de medula ossea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, Amilie Louize

    2016-10-01

    The measures traceability is mandatory for minimizing uncertainties in internal dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals clinical studies and ensures the quality of the standard. Equipment should have resolution and efficiency compatible with radionuclides energies and, additionally, be able to quantify variations in human bodies' activities samples since the initial administration near the minimum residual activities. For testing three equipment (ionization chamber Capintec 25R, sodium iodine scintillator LTI Genesys Gamma-1 and high hyperpure germanium detector Canberra), they were prepared Lu-177 and I-131 radiation sources simulating patient's blood samples activities by adopting the following hypothesis: (1) initial activities according the Brazilian protocols; (2) blood volume in the whole body (5.3 L for adult men and 1.4 L for 5 years-old children); (3) effective half-lives (1.61 h and 42.9 h for Lu-177 bi-exponential adjustment and 15.7 h for I-131 mono-exponential adjustment); (4) sampling between 30 min and 168 h; (v) blood density adjustments. The standard sources were measured in the secondary standard ionization chamber Centronics IG11 at the Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes. The Capintec ionization chamber efficiencies ranged, respectively for I-131 and Lu-177, between (111.58±0.02)% and (102.27±0.01)% and HPGe semiconductor detector efficiencies ranged, respectively, between (89.40±0.03)% and (87.80±0.04)%. For the NaI detector, when the Lu-177 sources were positioned inside the detector the efficiencies ranged between (12.66±0.01)% and (11.54± 0.07)% and when the sources were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector the efficiencies decreased to less than 5%. For I-131 sources positioned inside the detector, the efficiencies ranged between (29.76±0.21)% and (30.20±0.04)% and they decreased to less than 5% when they were positioned at 5 cm and 10 cm from the detector (deviation greater than 95%). Comparing the reference values from the secondary standard ionization chamber for the I-131 standard sources, Capintec ionization chamber showed 111.58% (11,58% deviation), NaI detector 29.83% and HPGe detector 87.80% from the absolute values. For Lu-177 standard sources, the ionization chamber showed 102% (2% deviation), NaI detector 12.67% and HPGe detector 89.40% from the reference values. The variations observed for the equipment's efficiencies may be attributable to the radionuclides energies, since the experimental conditions were maintained (distance source-detector, detector type, temperature, background radiation). Presuming that the time of sampling and activities simulation were adequate, the equipment better performances were: the ionization chamber for the first day collecting samples and the HPGe detector for the second and subsequent days sampling. (author)

  2. L-alanine detector characterization for dosimetry of small fields in SBRT with VMAT techniques; Caracterizacao do detector de L-alanina para dosimetria de campos pequenos em SBRT com a tecnica de VMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazaro, Sarah J.; Peres, Leonardo [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo, E-mail: sarahmazaro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras. Departamento de Fisica

    2016-07-01

    New radiotherapy treatment techniques have some problems such as: the dosimetric and geometric of the beam and small fields. Determination of the prescribed dose on the target volume in small fields is hampered due to lack of lateral electronic equilibrium and steep dose gradient along the edges of fields. The choice of radiation better detector becomes important in the dosimetry of small fields. Alanine detector has been shown to be a good choice for measurements of high doses of radiation in small fields. This study aims to characterize the L-alanine detector through the dosimetric tests for SBRT in VMAT techniques. L-alanine response showed a strong linear correlation with the dose (R ² = 0.9865), with significant angles and dose rate dependencies (14%) and (15%) respectively, and minor with the small field size (maximum 4% deviation). (author)

  3. Radiological response and dosimetry in physical phantom of head and neck for 3D conformational radiotherapy; Resposta radiologica e dosimetria em phantom fisico de cabeca e pescoco para radioterapia conformacional 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Larissa

    2013-07-01

    Phantoms are tools for simulation of organs and tissues of the human body in radiology and radiotherapy. This thesis describes the development, validation and, most importantly, the use of a physical head and neck phantom in radiology and radiotherapy, with the purpose of evaluating dose distribution using Gafchromic EBT2 film in 15 MV 3D conformal radiotherapy. The work was divided in two stages, (1) development of new equivalent tissues and improvement of the physical phantom, and (2) use of the physical phantom in experimental dosimetry studies. In phase (1) parameters such as mass density, chemical composition of tissues, anatomical and biometric measurements were considered, as well as aspects of imaging by computed tomography (CT) and radiological response representation in Hounsfield Units (HU), which were compared with human data. Radiological experiments of in-phantom simulated brain pathologies were also conducted. All those results matched human-sourced data, therefore the physical phantom is a suitable simulator that may be used to enhance radiological protocols and education in medical imaging. The main objective in phase (2) was to evaluate the spatial dose distribution in a brain tumor simulator inserted inside the head and neck phantom developed by the Ionizing Radiation Research Group (NRI), exposed to 15 MV 3D conformal radiotherapy, for internal dose assessment. Radiation planning was based on CT images of the physical phantom with a brain tumor simulator made with equivalent material. The treatment planning system (TPS), CAT3D software, used CT images and prescribed a dose of 200 cGy, distributed in three fields of radiation, in a T-shaped pattern. The TPS covered the planning treatment volume (PTV) with 97% of the prescribed dose. A solid water phantom and radiochromic Gafchromic EBT2 film were used for calibration procedures, generating a dose response curve as a function of optical density (OD). After calibration and irradiation, the film samples were scanned and digitised, yielding OD data, standard deviation and dose response versus OD. The spatial dose profile reached 70% to 120% of the prescribed dose. Such data was plotted and analysed, showing layers dotted with hot spots. Despite the layered profile, as opposed to the smooth dose profile from the TPS, internal doses in the tumor were within a 5% deviation of the 214.4 cGy evaluated by the TPS. In the gamma index analysis, 83.2% of the points with gamma values smaller than 1 (3%/3 mm) between experimental values and TPS data. The tool set composed by the physical phantom and by the film dosimeters was, therefore, suitable for validation of internal doses in radiotherapy protocols. (author)

  4. Protocol for adaptation of internal dosimetry techniques for planning of individualized doses of {sup 131}I in pediatric patients; Protocolo para adaptacao de tecnicas de dosimetria interna para planejamento de doses individualizadas de {sup 131}I em pacientes pediatricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancardi, Rodrigo

    2011-07-01

    The optimization of radiation doses is emphasized in diseases with good prognosis, as differentiated thyroid carcinomas, especially in pediatric patients, since the radiation risk is conversely proportional to age. Aiming to establish individual treatment planning, it has been studied four dosimetry methodologies (external dose monitoring, image quantification, urine and blood bioassay) for four 13.3 {+-} 1.5-year-old female patients, who received 107 {+-} 15 MBq (2,9 {+-} 0,4 mCi) for tracer dose and 5.5 {+-} 0.3 GBq (149 {+-} 8 mCi) for thyroid ablation. Effective half-lives, residence times and cumulated activities were estimated in organs and tissues with iodine uptake, through planar images quantification by conjugate-view and attenuation correction, in order to compare biokinetic behavior in tracer dose and ablative dose phases. For external monitoring, two patients had similar whole-body effective half-lives in both phases. For this methodology, despite the uncertainties associated to measurements, equipment used and procedures performed were adequate. For urine bioassay, there were not similarities among the patients whole-body effective half-lives. Through blood bioassay, it was observed that 0.2 % of the administered activity for ablative dose remained in the blood until 76 hours after administration. The external monitoring allowed estimating effective doses in patients mothers by conversion of the environmental equivalent dose. In the ablative dose phase, the effective doses resulted in 1.3 {+-} 0.3 mSv in the hospital and 0.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv in patients houses. (author)

  5. X-ray dosimetry in mammography for Mo/Mo combination utilizing Compton spectrometry;Dosimetria de raios X em mamografia para combinacao Mo/Mo utilizando espectrometria Compton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose Neres de; Terini, Ricardo Andrade, E-mail: rterini@pucsp.b [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC-SP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Herdade, Silvio Bruni [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Secao Tecnica de Desenvolvimento em Tecnologia em Saude; Furquim, Tania Aparecida Correia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Secao Tecnica de Aplicacoes em Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-08-15

    Objective: to compare mammography benefit and X-ray induced cancer risk, one should investigate absorbed doses. For this purpose, spectra of primary X-ray beams from a clinical mammography equipment were determined for Mo/Mo target/filter combination, using Compton spectrometry and average glandular dose (AGD) in a BR-12 breast phantom was evaluated. Material and Method: a CdTe detector was used for spectrometry of X-ray beams Compton scattered {approx} 100 deg, by a PMMA cylinder, for different depths inside the BR-12 phantom and voltages between 28 and 35 kV. The reconstruction of the primary beam spectra from the measured ones was followed by the determination of AGD. Results: half-value layer values determined by spectra resulted 0.39 to 0.45 mmAl, and by ionization chamber, 0.38 to 0.42 mmAl, respectively, for beams incident on the phantom surface. The AGDN normalized per unitary incident air kerma, on the BR-12 surface, ranged from 0.156 to 0.226. Conclusion: the percentage deviation of AGD{sub N}, relative to the chamber measurements, ranged from 1% to 3%. The utilized method is a good alternative to determine AGD{sub N} and depth-dose distributions in breast phantoms. (author)

  6. X-ray dosimetry in mammography for W/Mo and Mo/Mo combinations utilizing Compton spectrometry;Dosimetria de raios X em mamografia para combinacao W/Mo e Mo/Mo utilizando espectrometria Compton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Jose N. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC/SP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Fisica; Terini, Ricardo A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Sao Paulo (DF/PUC/SP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Herdade, Silvio B.; Furquim, Tania A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2009-07-01

    Mean Glandular Dose (MGD) cannot be measured directly in mammography equipment. Therefore, methods based on Compton spectrometry are alternatives to evaluate dose distributions in a standard breast phantom, as well as mean glandular dose. In this work, a CdTe detector was used for the spectrometry measurements of radiation scattered by compton effect, at nearly 90, by a PMMA cylinder. For this, the reconstruction of primary beam spectra from the scattered ones has been made using Klein-Nishina theory and Compton formalism, followed by a determination of incident air kerma, absorbed dose values in the breast phantom and, finally, MGD. Incident and attenuated X-ray spectra and depth-dose distributions in a BR-12 phantom have been determined and are presented for the mammography range (28 to 35kV), showing good agreement with previous literature data, obtained with TLD. (author)

  7. Determination of the chemical yield on the Fricke dosimetry for {sup 192}Ir sources used in brachytherapy; Determinacao do rendimento quimico na dosimetria Fricke para fontes de {sup 192}Ir usadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, M.G.; Albuquerque, M.A.G.; Almeida, C.E. de, E-mail: marianogd08@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas; Salata, C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosado, P.H. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    With the aim of developing a primary standard for the absorbed dose to water, for the {sup 192}Ir sources used in high dose rate brachytherapy, this work focuses on the determination of the chemical yield, G(Fe{sup +3}), using Fricke dosimetry, for the energy of those sources . The G(Fe{sup +3}) were determined the for three qualities of x-ray beams (150, 250 and 300 kV ) and for {sup 60}Co energy. The G(Fe{sup +3}) value for the average energy of {sup 192}Ir was obtained by linear fit, the found value was 1,555 ± 0,015 μmol/J. (author)

  8. Biokinetics analysis of I-131 and cytogenetic dosimetry in patients, after radionuclide administration for thyroid; Analise biocinetica do iodo-131 e dosimetria citogenetica em pacientes, apos administracao do radionuclideo para o tratamento de cancer de tireoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ana Cristina de Holanda

    1996-07-01

    Thyroid cancer patients are submitted to an oral administration of {sup 131} I in order to eliminate remanescent thyroid tissue, after subtotal thyroidectomy. The average activity administered in this treatment is 3.7 GBq (ablation dose), with significant irradiation of body tissues. However, there are no conclusive results on the literature about the radiation absorbed dose of these patients. The metabolic behaviour of radioiodine in 4 patients submitted to {sup 131} I ablation therapy doses was studied, through measurements of {sup 131} I in total body, thyroid and urine samples. Cytogenetic estimates of the radiation doses of these patients were obtained through chromosomal aberration analysis in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. Our results suggest that ten days after ablation dose, almost all remanescent thyroid tissue will be eliminated and {sup 131} I will be homogeneously distributed through the patient's body. The retention of {sup 131} I in the body after the first ten days following the ablation dose may be mathematically represented by the sum of two exponential terms: the first and shorter one with a biological half-life approximately 3.2 days (effective half-life = 2.3 days) and the second one, with a biological half-life of approximately 26 days (effective half-life = 6.2 days). The absorbed dose using the average of the observed chromosomal aberrations yields in blood samples of all patients was estimated in the range of 0,3 to 0,4 Gy. (author)

  9. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of <em>Elaeis guineensisem>: Characterization, <em>in Vitroem> and <em>in Vivoem> Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested <em>Elaeis guineensis em>Jacq> em>(Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that <em>E. guineensisem> exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the <em>E. guineensisem> extracts was observed against <em>C. albicansem> whereby <em>E. guineensisem> extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited <em>C. albicansem> growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on <em>C. albicansem>. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated <em>C. albicansem>. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. <em>In vivoem> antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with <em>C. albicansem> and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.<em> em>

  10. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of <em>Chlamydomonas> reinhardtiiem> <em>npq2em> Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from<em> Chlorella zofingiensisem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella zofingiensisem> (<em>Czzep> has been isolated<em>. em>This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czzep> has been found in the <em>C. zofingiensisem> genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of <em>Czzep> were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of <em>Czzep> gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the <em>Chlamydomonas> mutant <em>npq2em>, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The <em>Czzep> gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in <em>npq2em>. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm. These results show that <em>Chlamydomonas> can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications.

  11. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  12. Application of the technique of attenuation of the gamma radiation of the {sup 241}Am in vegetable substratum; Aplicacao da tecnica de atenuacao da radiacao gama do {sup 241}Am em substratos vegetais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helder de; Mortatti, Jefferson; Bortoletto Junior, Milton J.; Lopes, Renato A. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis]. E-mail: helder@cena.usp.br; Camargo, Fabiana T. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: fabianatcamargo@yahoo.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The substratum animal, vegetable, mineral or artificial exercises the function of the soil, supplying to the plant sustain, nutritious, water and oxygen. The constant extraction of the fern-acu (xaxim), it has been taking to the presence in the official list of the threatened Brazilian species of extinction in reason of this intense destined commercial exploration the floriculture and gardening. For this reason the cut is being prohibited in several law of the Brazilian. As attempt of substitution of the exploration of the plant fiber fiber, a new substratum is being marketed at the market, it is the coxim, industrialized product of the coconut fiber (Cocus nucifera). Produced in the Northeast, where the culture of the coconut tree is extensive, the coconut fiber is a natural vegetable material abundant, renewable and very light resulting from the industrial processing of the peels of the coconut. Therefore, considering the substratum as important variable of the productive cycle of plants free from the soil, and for this responsible for the development and growth of the plants, it was had as objective in the present study, to determine density gradients in vegetable substratum of xaxim and coconut fiber in different humidity conditions, for the method of radiation gamma of the {sup 241}Am, seeking your application in the production of roses. (author)

  13. Application of heterogeneous photocatalysis solar and artificial for removal of ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus in sanitary waste water; Aplicacao da fotocatalise heterogenea solar na remocao de nitrogenio amoniacal e fosforo total em esgoto sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Adriana Ribeiro; Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: z_drica@yahoo.com.br; Kuwakino, Adriana Yuri [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia

    2010-07-01

    The advanced oxidative processes (AOP) contribute or to polishing a plenty of effluent treatment, or improvement at any stage of treatment, being heterogeneous photocatalysis the most used among AOP. This study aimed to compare the heterogeneous photocatalysis in solar and artificial wastewater treatment according to the removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus. The photocatalytic reactor using titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as semiconductor photocatalytic process. The heterogeneous photocatalysis using solar UV consisted material of PET bottles and the sample was added TiO{sub 2} in constant aeration for a period of 360 minutes. In the case of reactor artificial UV light protected by a quartz tube, the process was made in a Pyrex glass reactor, where the sample was undergoing 180 minutes of aeration. The photocatalytic tests for removal of ammonia nitrogen showed more favorable in the photocatalysis of artificial UV than the solar, coming achieve average efficiency of 51% and 32%, respectively. In the case of phosphorus, the situation was reversed, the solar UV photocatalytic average efficiency reached 51% and artificial UV 32 %. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the potential application of 2-acetylpyridine N4- phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis; Avaliacao da potencial aplicacao de derivados de 2-acetilpiridina N-4 fenil tiossemicarbazonas em terapia e diagnostico oncologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Marcella Araugio

    2013-08-01

    Despite the wide range of antineoplastic agents available, resistance of some types of cancer and toxicity to normal cells have been identified as the main causes of treatment failure and death. The lack of early and precise diagnosis is also responsible for reducing survival of cancer patients. In this context, the development of substances with low toxicity and therapeutic potential and/or diagnosis purpose, is the major tool in an attempt to increase the survival of patients and assure the safety and efficacy of treatment. Thiosemicarbazones (TSC) are a class of synthetic compounds that have several biological activities, including antitumor. Although several studies have shown the great potential of TSC as therapeutic and / or diagnostic agents, different chemical modifications performed on this class of molecules indicate new possibilities for applications and still require further studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential applicability of 2-acetylpyridine N-4-phenyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives for cancer therapy and diagnosis. The results showed that all 13 TSC tested were cytotoxic to breast and glioblastoma tumor cell lines, presenting higher in vitro antitumor activity than etoposide, an antineoplastic and inhibitor of topoisomerase II frequently used for cancer therapy. The TSC that have halogen or nitro on ortho position showed higher antitumor activity in vitro than their isomers with halogen or nitro on meta or para position of the phenyl group. H2Ac4oFPh and H2Ac4oClPh compounds showed the highest antitumor activity among all tested compounds, with IC{sub 50} in nanomolar order. These TSC induced cell death by apoptosis and oxidative stress was responsible, at least in part, for this type of cell death. The 5 mg.kg{sup -1} H2Ac4oFPh dose, administered s.c., for 4 consecutive days, did not induce important toxicity; however, the same treatment protocol was not effective for tumor growth reduction in an animal model of brain tumor. Radioactive probes of H2Ac4oFPh were synthesized using {sup 111}In or {sup 67}Ga as radiotracers, with satisfactory specific activity and radiochemical purity. H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 111}In was more useful than H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 67}Ga, with higher specific activity, better chemical purity, better in vitro stability, higher distribution volume, faster blood clearance and, therefore, was considered the most promising for application in molecular imaging studies. H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 111}In also showed high lipophilicity and was internalized by glioblastoma cells in vitro. H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 111}In showed significative tumor uptake in vivo, however, the high abdominal uptake and high background did not allow a good visualization of tumor in imaging studies. Unlike intravenous administration, intratumoral administration allowed greater diffusion and retention of H2Ac4oFPh-{sup 111}In in the tumor site and significantly reduced the activity accumulated in the organs. These results encourage new experiments to be performed in order to promote the complexation of H2Ac4oFPh with particle emitters, such as yttrium-90, to evaluate its application in local radioisotopic therapy for glioblastoma multiforme. (author)

  15. Treatment of produced water by means of a new technology (MDIF): application for waters containing oil at low concentrations; Tratamento de aguas produzidas por meio de nova tecnologia (MDIF): aplicacao para aguas contendo baixas concentracoes em oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Junior, Wilaci Eutropio [PETROBRAS S.A., Mossoro, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao. Ativo de Producao Mossoro]. E-mail: wilaci@petrobras.com.br; Paulo, Joao Bosco de Araujo; Moraes, Norberto Araujo de Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica). E-mails: jbosco@eq.ufrn.br; norberto@eq.ufrn.br; Lima, Antonio Faria; Lacerda, Geraldo de Moura [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao. Gerencia de Engenharia de Instalacoes, Processamento e Automacao]. E-mails: farialima@petrobras.com.br; geraldoml@petrobras.com.br

    2006-12-15

    The production of oil is associated with waters which exist naturally at the reservoirs or were injected into wells. These waters, named produced waters, contain beside free oil, emulsioned or micro-emulsioned oil which can not be discharged directly at the environment. The conventional decanters are not efficient to separate this kind of oil dispersed as fine droplets. In this case, a promising alternative to solve the problem of oil/water separation is accomplished by means of the phase inversion method. This method is the basis of working of a new model of mixer-settler which has a vertical disposition and occupies a small surface area. The last characteristic becomes especially important when exist a limitation of place, for example, over the maritime platforms to explore oil. The device of laboratory of the equipment named MDIF (mixer-settler based on phase inversion) has been efficient for treat waters containing up to 2 000 mg/L of emulsioned oil. This equipment on a semi-industrial scale was installed in the entrance of oil/water separator (OWS) from effluent treatment plant from Guamare, Rio Grande do Norte (ETP/GMR) and treats produced waters contaminated with oil at low concentrations (ranging from 30 to 150 mg/L) and throughputs of 320 m3/d (47,4 m3 m-2 h-1). Good results were obtained on oil/water separation which leads to the necessary specification to discharge waters. Besides, the non dependence of the efficiency of separation in the face of the salinity of the medium becomes the equipment a new technology to treat wastewaters containing oil at low concentrations. In this condition conventional equipment do not present a good efficiency of separation, till dispersed droplets are very small (less than 100 {mu}m) requiring a long time of sedimentation. (author)

  16. Polymers and composites synthesis and characterization for application on PEM type fuel cells; Sintese e caracterizacao de polimeros e compositos para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, Raigenis da Paz; Souza, Daniele Ribeiro; Barreto, Ednardo Gomes; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: raigenis@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    The PEM (proton exchanging membrane) type fuel cell presents good potential for the energy production without the residue generation. However, its manufacture presents high costs for commercial application, mainly due to the electrolyte. Sulfonated Peek (polish-ether-ether-ketone) supported or auto immobilized the in a silicone matrix is an interesting alternative as electrolyte for PEM fuel cells. The commercial PEEK in powder form was functionalized with sulfuric acid, giving the SPEEK (Sulfonated PEEK). The membranes were produced by hot pressing the SPEEK immobilized in a silicone matrix produced by the sol-gel process. The membranes obtained were characterized by DRX, FTIR, TGA, MEV, DSC and protonic conductivity measurements. (author)

  17. Application of relative permeability modifier additives to reduce water production in different formations; Aplicacao de aditivos modificadores de permeabilidade relativa para reducao da producao de agua em diferentes formacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ricardo C.B.; Torres, Ricardo S.; Pedrosa Junior, Helio; Dean, Gregory [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Today most oil companies would be better described as water companies. Total worldwide oil production averages some 75 million barrels per day and, while estimates vary, this is associated with the production of 300 - 400 million barrels of water per day. These values of approximately 5 - 6 barrels of water for every barrel of oil are quite conservative. In the United States, where many fields are depleted, the ratio of water-to-oil production is closer to 9 to 1. In some areas around the world, fields remain on production when the ratio is as high as 48 to 1. Numerous strategies, both mechanical and chemical, have been employed over the years in attempts to achieve reduction in water production. Simple shut-off techniques, using cement, mechanical plugs and cross-linked gels have been widely used. Exotic materials such as DPR (disproportionate permeability reducers) and or new generation of relative permeability modifiers (RPM) have been applied in radial treatments with varying degrees of success. Most recently 'Conformance Fracturing' operations have increased substantially in mature fields as the synergistic effect obtained by adding a RPM to a fracturing fluid have produced increased oil production with reduced water cut in one step, consequently eliminating the cost of additional water shut off treatment later on. This paper presents laboratory testing and worldwide case histories of applications of various RPM materials, at different permeability and temperatures. The paper also describes technical design and operational methodology that we believe to have a significant impact in the development strategies of many fields worldwide. (author)

  18. Synthesis and ceramic processing of zirconia alumina composites for application as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes; Sintese e processamento de compositos de zirconia-alumina para aplicacao como eletrolito em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Rafael Henrique Lazzari

    2007-07-01

    The global warmness and the necessity to obtain clean energy from alternative methods than petroleum raises the importance of developing cleaner and more efficient systems of energy generation, among then, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Cubic stabilized zirconia (CSZ) has been the most studied material as electrolyte in SOFC, due to its ionic conductivity and great stability at operation conditions. However, its low fracture toughness difficulties its application as a thin layer, what could lead to an improvement of cell efficiency. In this sense, the alumina addition in CSZ forms a composite, which can shift its mechanical properties, without compromising its electrical properties. In this work, coprecipitation synthesis route and ceramic processing of zirconia-alumina composites were studied, in order to establish optimum conditions to attain high density, homogeneous microstructure, and better mechanical properties than CSZ, without compromising ionic conductivity. For this purpose, composites containing up to 40 wt % of alumina, in a 9 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (9Y-CSZ) matrix were evaluated. In order to optimize the synthesis of the composites, a preliminary study of powder obtaining and processing were carried out, at compositions containing 20 wt % of alumina, in 9Y-CSZ. The ceramic powders were characterized by helium picnometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, granulometry by laser diffraction and gas adsorption (BET). The characterization of sinterized compacts were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, density measurements, Vickers indentation and impedance spectroscopy. The obtained results show that the alumina addition, in the 9Y-CSZ matrix powders, raises the specific surface area, promotes deagglomeration of powders and elevates the oxides crystallization temperature, requiring higher energetic thermal treatments to attain high densities. In relation to the sintered products, it was confirmed the excellent homogeneity and crystallinity of microstructure provided by the chosen route, the restriction of grain growth by alumina addition, raise of hardness and fracture toughness, and higher ionic conductivity, even tough a lower bulk conductivity. These results indicate that the addition of 5 wt % alumina in CSZ matrix allows the application of this material as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes, due to its better fracture toughness and ionic conductivity, compared to yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia ceramics. (author)

  19. Study of parametric methods for identification of mathematical models and Sundaresam method application in a steam boiler; Estudo dos metodos parametricos de identificacao de modelos matematicos e aplicacao do metodo de Sundaresam em uma caldeira a vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuttenberg, Rose Mary Cosso [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Controle de Processos

    1999-12-01

    Some identification techniques are discussed and the required data for application to the Sundaresam's identification method are obtained by connecting a microcomputer to the Spiraflo, an instrument available at the CEFET/MG - Federal Center for Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Brazil - steam boiler. All the graphical output, by an specified test, for the temperature, steam's flow and pressure are shown and analyzed. Through picked up data and Sundaresan's method, the transfer function between the pressure of the CEFET-MG's steam boiler and the flow is identified. (author)

  20. Application of F.S.Lameiras model to UO{sub 2} grain size distribution; Aplicacao do modelo de F.S. Lameiras a distribuicao de tamanho de graos em UO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinari, Clenice Moreira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    There are various models in the literature to describe microparticle restructuring phenomenon. However these models are applied in particular situations due to the complexity of the question. The model proposed by F.S. Lameiras integrates many ideas inserted in these models supposing the restructuring phenomenon is governed by two basic tendencies: the tendency for the minimization of the interfacial energy, and the tendency for uniformity in its spatial distribution. In this paper is verified the applicability of this model to describe the grain size distribution in UO{sub 2} pellets obtained by direct pelletizing process in the range of 200 MPa to 700 MPa and sintering temperatures of 1600 deg C and 1700 deg C. The grain size distribution were measured through Quantikov analyser that employs the Saltykov method. (author)

  1. Evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties for an aluminium alloy thermo resistant for application in electrical cables and wires; Avaliacao das propriedades mecanicas e eletricas para uma liga de aluminio termorresistente para aplicacao em fios e cabos eletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, M.A.; Reis, W.L.S.; Souza, A.T.M.D.; Quaresma, J.M.V. [Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    With the constant growth of brazilian industry and, consequently, the demand for electric power, realized the need to develop new metal alloys for use in wire and cable transmission and distribution of electricity to support the high temperatures which will be submitted. this study is based on the modification of aluminum by contents of Zr. the alloys were cast into ingot shaped {sup u,} after machined to a diameter of 18 mm, were homogenized and cold-worked (rolled). subsequently underwent a series of heat treatments at temperatures (230 degree c, 310 degree c and 390 degree c) for one hour in order to obtain the recrystallization temperature of alloys and demonstrate its potential for thermo resistant. With the inclusion of increasing contents of Zr, the alloy showed a higher recrystallization temperature and an increase in their limit of tensile strength. (author)

  2. Mechanical and electrical evaluation of a dilute aluminium alloy heat treated for application in electrical cables and wires; Avaliacao mecanica e eletrica de uma liga diluida de aluminio tratada termicamente para aplicacao em fios e cabos eletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, E.S. [Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica - Unicamp - Campinas, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: manu@fem.unicamp.br; Kamizono, K.A.; Nogueira, P.; Nogueira, A.T.; Quaresma, Jose Maria do Vale [Universidade Federal do Para - UFPA, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    With the need to investigate new materials developed and presented to the market of non-ferrous materials and in particular those developed for the transmission and distribution of electricity, we conducted a study on a dilute alloy Al-EC-0, 7% Si, where from his previous characterization and thus knowing their good mechanical and electrical properties, we developed a new aluminum alloy in an attempt to know the properties of the alloy Al-EC-0, 7% Si in the presence of alloying elements, titanium. Being the new alloy under different thermal treatment temperature in order to observe their behavior under such mechanical and electrical conditions. (author)

  3. Blends of PHB/PEG: obtention of matrices for use as controlled drug release systems; Obtencao de blendas de PHB/PEG para matrizes de sistemas micro e nanoestruturados visando aplicacao em liberacao controlada de farmacos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catoni, S.E.M.; Gomes, C.A.T.; Trindade, K.N.S.; Schneider, A.L.S.; Pezzin, A.P.T., E-mail: sara.elisamoreira@hotmail.co [Universidade da Regiao de Joinville (UNIVILLE), SC (Brazil); Soldi, V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Different materials have been used in the development of micro-and nanostructured systems for drug release. In general, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) matrixes have high crystallinity degree, justifying its slow degradation. This feature makes the attack of enzymes more difficult. Thus, the surface modification with hydrophilic polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been investigated in order to obtain particles which are not recognized and captured by phagocytic cells after in vivo administration, staying for a longer in the systemic circulation. In this work, PHB/PEG films were prepared by casting in different proportions and characterized by XRD, DSC, SEM, GPC and TGA. The films presented high crystallinity degree and showed uniformity, except the 50/50 composition which showed the presence of two phases. The results revealed that increasing percentage of PEG, the Tm of PHB was decreased, the thermal stability was dramatically decreased and molecular weight of the samples was lower. (author)

  4. Preparation of gas diffusion layers for PEMFC fuel cells using carbon fibers; Elaboracao de uma camada de difusao de gas a partir de fibras de carbono para aplicacao em celulas combustiveis do tipo PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.N.; Kunsti, S.R.; Malfatti, C.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Departamento de Metalurgia (PPGEM) - Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Corrosao (LAPEC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vargas, J.V.C. [Universidade Federal do Parana - Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, PR (Brazil); Amico, S.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - Departamento de Materiais, RS (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The electrode/membrane system, called MEA, is the fundamental unit of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell). Within the MEA, the gas diffusion layer (GDL) is the bridge between the flow field and the catalyst layer. One of the important elements in a GDL is the substrate, typically a carbon cloth or paper, that has to be an excellent electrical conductor and show mechanical strength along with thermal and chemical stability. In this work, GDLs were produced from a suspension containing short carbon fibers in water-based polyurethane and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) resins with appropriate characteristics to be used in low temperature fuel cells. The obtained GDL was characterized regarding its wettability, electrical conductivity and morphological aspects, evaluated by SEM. (author)

  5. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements in soil with application of carbonatite and agricultural fertilizers in Distrito Federal; Radiacao gama e resistividade eletrica em solo com aplicacao de carbonatito e fertilizantes agricolas no Distrito Federal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Carlos Tadeu Carvalho do; Gaspar, Jose Carlos; Pires, Augusto Cesar Bittencourt, E-mail: carlostadeu@unb.br, E-mail: gasp@unb.br, E-mail: acbpires@unb.br [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca, E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Andrade, Leide Rovenia Miranda de, E-mail: leide@cpac.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria dos Cerrados, Planaltina, DF (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    EMBRAPA (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria) and Brasilia University developed a research project about the viability of carbonatite rock as agricultural fertilizer. As an initial experiment, several mixtures of carbonatite, limestone, phosphorous and potassium compounds were added as fertilizers in an oxisol area (red-latosol, according with Brazilian System of Soil Classification), in Distrito Federal, central Brazil. The experiment area was divided in 56 plots (4 x 7m) and each plot received a fertilizer mixture. The purpose of this work was to verify if the addition of fertilizer mixture to the soil modified its radiometric and resistivity properties and if it is possible to identify this change. Gamma-ray and electrical resistivity measurements were obtained in an experimental area and in a natural savannah type vegetation area. The results showed that the fertilizer addition modified soil natural properties causing a small increase in K, U, Th levels and decreasing ten times electrical resistivity. A low contrast of radiation was observed between plots, and then it was not possible to differentiate the several treatments in base of gamma-ray measurements. Electrical resistivity was efficient to identify three groups of plots related to mixtures characteristics, respectively with phosphorous, potassium and limestone / carbonatite predominance. (author)

  6. Application of neutron activation analysis for the determination of essential elements in egg samples; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para a determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de ovos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Bruna G.; Maihara, Vera A.; Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: brunagabrielegomes@gmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: pagliaro@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The eggs are among the twenty foods consumed by the population of the five major regions of Brazil. Among the types of eggs, there are differences in nutritional value, which can vary according to the food of the bird. This study evaluating the elements Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na considered essential micronutrients in food, because they are fundamental in several metabolic processes necessary for the maintenance and training of the human body. We analyzed three types of eggs: egg whites, of the quail, and the colonial in cooked and raw form, using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis method (INAA). The egg samples were lyophilized and pulverized before analysis. To validate the methodology, reference materials NIST RM 8415 Whole Egg Powder and NIST SRM 1567 Wheat Flour were analyzed. The samples, reference materials and standards of the elements were irradiated for 20 seconds under a thermal neutron flux of 6,6x10{sup 12} cm -2 s -1 in the nuclear research reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN-CNEN / SP. The results were consistent with the values of the Brazilian Table of Food Composition (TACO)

  7. Evaluation of performance of AISI 444 steel for application in distillation towers; Avaliacao do desempenho do aco AISI 444 para aplicacao como 'lining' em torres de destilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, R.F.; Miranda, H.C. de; Farias, J.P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (DEMM/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Lab. de Caracterizacao de Materiais], e-mail: rf.guimaraes@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the behavior of the AISI 444 ferritic stainless steel submitted to thermal fatigue test and their corrosion resistance in heavy crude oil was evaluated. The AWS E309MoL-16 and E316L-17 weld metal was employed as filler metal. Plates of the AISI 444 were welded on ASTM A-516 Gr. 60 plates and submitted to fatigue thermal cycle. Samples were extracted from plates welded and heat treated immersed in heavy crude oil at 300 deg C. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive of X-ray analysis (EDX) were used to characterize the microstructure and the corroded surface. The results show that the AISI 444 stainless steels did not present cracks after the thermal fatigue cycle and the heat treated immerse in heavy crude oil. The electrode AWS E309MoL-16 show better corrosion resistance than the AWS E316L-17. (author)

  8. Application of a molecular sieve in the drying of solid insulation in energized power transformers; Aplicacao de peneira molecular na secagem da isolacao solida em transformadores de potencia energizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Julio C.P.; Silva, Carlos A. [Eletropaulo Metropolitana e Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (AES ELETROPAULO), SP (Brazil)], E-mails: julio.pereira@aes.com, carlos.alves@aes.com; Wilhelm, Helena M.; Mattoso, Mauricio; Piovezan, Natalia; Fernandes, Paulo O. [DIAGNO - Materiais e Meio Ambiente Ltda (Brazil)], E-mails: mattoso@diagno.srv.br, natalia@diagno.srv.br, fernandes@diagno.srv.br; Hossri, Jose Henrique C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia], E-mail: henrique.hossri@iee.usp.br; Galdeano, Claudio A.; Silva Junior, Milton M. [MGM - Consultoria e Diagnosticos em Equipamentos Eletricos Ltda, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: laudio@mgmdiag.com.br, junior@mgmdiag.com.br

    2011-10-15

    The main objective of this study was to assess a new adsorbent material to remove water from insulating mineral oil (IMO) in transformers during operation (while energized). A process for recovery of the adsorbent material, aiming at its reuse was also tested. The results indicated that it is possible to remove water from IMO in energized transformers safely and with remote online monitoring, using a molecular sieve, recyclable by steam washing. (author)

  9. An artificial neural network strategy for monitoring of gas/oil systems in slug flow pattern; Aplicacao de redes neurais artificiais no monitoramento do escoamento de sistemas gas/oleo em regime de golfadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Fernando H.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Silva, Rosivania P.; Fortuny, Montserrat; Santos, Alexandre F. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju, (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa; Nunes, Giovani C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In the petroleum industry, the design of multiphase production systems requires an accurate estimation of the gas-oil ratio (GOR) in the transporting pipelines. However, existing GOR estimation methods are often inadequate in terms of desired accuracy and application range, due to the complex phase distributions and the wide range of fluid properties encountered in production operations. In this paper, the effectiveness of using artificial neural networks in determining GOR values is evaluated, proving to be a reasonable way to monitor this property during oil transportation. (author)

  10. Application of perturbation methods for sensitivity analysis for nuclear power plant steam generators; Aplicacao da teoria de perturbacao a analise de sensibilidade em geradores de vapor de usinas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurjao, Emir Candeia

    1996-02-01

    The differential and GPT (Generalized Perturbation Theory) formalisms of the Perturbation Theory were applied in this work to a simplified U-tubes steam generator model to perform sensitivity analysis. The adjoint and importance equations, with the corresponding expressions for the sensitivity coefficients, were derived for this steam generator model. The system was numerically was numerically solved in a Fortran program, called GEVADJ, in order to calculate the sensitivity coefficients. A transient loss of forced primary coolant in the nuclear power plant Angra-1 was used as example case. The average and final values of functionals: secondary pressure and enthalpy were studied in relation to changes in the secondary feedwater flow, enthalpy and total volume in secondary circuit. Absolute variations in the above functionals were calculated using the perturbative methods, considering the variations in the feedwater flow and total secondary volume. Comparison with the same variations obtained via direct model showed in general good agreement, demonstrating the potentiality of perturbative methods for sensitivity analysis of nuclear systems. (author) 22 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Assessment of recycled PET properties for application on oil wells as sand control agents; Avaliacao de propriedades de PET reciclado para aplicacao em pocos de petroleo como agente de contencao de areia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Alexandre Zacarias Ignacio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delpech, Marcia Cerqueira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: mcd@uerj.br

    2008-07-01

    The Sand Control is fundamental for oil production in unconsolidated sandstone formations. It consists of the installation of a filter made of stainless steel screens and grained materials (sand control agents) which are, normally, high density inorganic substances (sand, ceramic, bauxite). Shallow formations, near to the sea bed, are more sensitive and need different kinds of sand control agents with low density. The objective of this work was the evaluation of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, as sand control agent for oil wells. Pack permeability and thermal stability tests results, after up to six months of exposure to sea water and crude oil, have indicated that the recycled PET kept the necessary characteristics for the proposed application. Also, it was observed that the PET grain pack did not presented significant property modifications in the exposure conditions, when compared to the non-exposed samples. (author)

  12. The ANEEL and the criteria for the resource application in energy efficiency of the electric energy distribution companies; A ANEEL e os criterios para aplicacao de recursos em programas de eficiencia energetica das distribuidoras de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletrico e Energia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos (GEE)]. E-mail: jamil@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    Each year the ANEEL establishes the criteria for the of the Energy Efficiency Programs of the electric power distribution companies. This subject has an importance nevertheless to be highlighted only when conjunctural circumstances occur such as the 2001/2002 electric energy crisis. Such characteristics increase the ANEEL responsibility, because the regulation must observe the structural character which performs the energy efficiency actions. Recently, the ANEEL altered the criteria for the resource application by the electric power distribution companies. This article describes the importance of the energy efficiency and make comments on these frequent regulatory changes. (author)

  13. NAA application in the geochemical behavior study of lake sediments elements of a wastewater treatment plant; Aplicacao da NAA no estudo do comportamento geoquimico de elementos de interesse em sedimentos lacustres de uma estacao de tratamento de esgoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: andreza@curiango.ipen.br; Sigolo, Joel B. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: jbsigolo@usp.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Miguel, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis have been employed to determine 24 elements in bottom sediments from one lake of the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Barueri, SP, aiming to verify a possible contamination of this lake due to the wastes produced in the plant. The results obtained were compared with the concentration determined in soil profile and in a sample of rock, in natura, representing the lithologies of the region. Analysis was used in dry and wet seasons. The analysis of the data did not show a significant variation in concentration levels during the different periods, except for As. The results obtained showed a homogeneous distribution of the elements all along the lake and indicate that only As, Cr and Zn can have their origin associated with the residues disposed around the lake. (author)

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite porous matrixes for application as radiation sources in brachytherapy; Sintese e caracterizacao de matrizes porosas de hidroxiapatita para aplicacao como fontes radioativas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Kassio Andre; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Silva, Viviane Viana [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: kassiolacerda@yahoo.com.br

    2006-04-15

    Porous ceramic materials based on calcium phosphate compounds (CPC) have been studied aiming at different biomedical applications such as implants, drug delivery systems and radioactive sources for brachytherapy. Two kinds of hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders and their ceramic bodies were characterized by a combination of different techniques (X-rays diffraction and fluorescence, infrared spectrophotometry, BET method, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy) to evaluate their physico-chemical and microstructural characteristics in terms of chemical composition, segregated phases, microstructure, porosity, and chemical and thermal stability. The results revealed that these systems presented potential for use as porous biodegradable radioactive sources able to be loaded with a wide range of radionuclides for cancer treatment by the brachytherapy technique. (author)

  15. Optical fibre-lightning arrester cable appliances. Its repercussion in concrete unconventional power transmission lines projects; Aplicacao de cabo para-raios composto com fibra optica. Sua repercursao em projetos de LT`s concreto nao convencionais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Ramon Sade [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    With the adoption of lightning rod cables made of Optical Fibre, (in systems over Europe, Japan and North America), these became very popular in Countries capable of installing the system. The Brazilian electrical party was then challenged by a new technological experience: the lightning rod cable for lines of transmission has specific characteristics. The particularity of the electrical system in Brazil in relation to the diversity of the parameters involved, and the necessity to clarifying the concepts, take us to new strategies in planning and measuring our Power Transmission Lines 4 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Boundary integral method application in the transportation modeling of radioactive tracers in porous ways; Aplicacao do metodo da integral de contorno na modelagem do transporte de tracadores radioativos em meios porosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Jose Geraldo

    1996-03-01

    This work describes a method for estimating the effluent concentrations of radioactive tracers in production wells, considering well to well injection tests and piston-like displacements of fluids in the reservoir. The model for tracer transportation takes into account effects of convection and hydrodynamic dispersion. (author)

  17. Toxicity assays applied for evaluation of ionizing radiation and zeolites adsorption as treatment technologies for coloured effluent; Aplicacao de ensaios de toxicidade na avaliacao da eficiencia da radiacao ionizante e da adsorcao em zeolitas para o tratamento de efluentes coloridos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Marcela Cantelli

    2008-07-01

    Textile industry is one raising commercial activity in Brazil. This activity has been generating important environmental interferences such as colour and bad biological effects into aquatic environment. Liquid textile effluents are toxic to lived organisms and may present low biological degradability. Although foreseen at federal regulation, the effluent quality is not controlled by toxicity assays in the country. These assays are carried out to determine the potential effects of chemical substances and effluents to cause negative effects to the exposed organisms. The present work aimed whole toxicity evaluation as well as the applicability of two different treatment techniques: ionizing radiation and zeolite adsorption. The efficacy of them were evaluated using eco toxicity bases and real effluents. Two different industries from Sao Paulo State contributed to this project supplying their real effluents. The samples were collected at a Textile Industry and at a Chemical Industry (dying producer) and after the measurement of whole toxicity the samples were submitted to treatments. Toxicity assays were carried out for Daphnia similis and for Vibrio fischeri. Sample irradiations were performed at an Electron Beam Accelerator at CTR/IPEN. Zeolites treatment is an P and D activity from CQMA/IPEN which contributed to this Project. Zeolites v/ere prepared from fly ash previously being used as an adsorber material. Both treatments (electron irradiation and zeolite adsorption) resulted on important toxicity and colour reduction. Concerning irradiation the effluents from chemical industry required higher radiation doses than that from textile activity. The radiation dose to be suggested is 40 kGy (toxicity reduction > 60%) for the chemical effluents and 0.5 kGy for the textile effluents (toxicity reduction > 90%). When zeolite adsorption was evaluated the Z1M6 resulted in 85%o v/hole toxicity reduction and ZC6 resulted in very low efficiency for the effluents of chemical industry. (author)

  18. Neutron activation analysis application for determining iron concentration in forage grasses used in intensive cattle production system; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para determinacao de ferro em forrageiras usadas no sistema intensivo de producao de bovinos de leite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Primavesi, Odo [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste

    2002-07-01

    Iron is an essential element to the life. It is an important hemoglobin component and it is involved in the transport of oxygen to cells. A deficiency of iron results in an unsuitable synthesis of hemoglobin and a delay in the growth. Iron contents above the tolerable level in animal feed can cause serious damages to the health and the death in extreme cases. The forages are the main source of feed to cattle in grazing. It is known from the literature, that the growth and the nutritious value of the forage are influenced by specie and physiologic age of the plant, soil fertility and environmental conditions. Therefore, an agronomical evaluations of the forages are necessary before to introduce in an intensive cattle production systems to program adequate grazing management. Neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the Fe concentration in the main tropical forage grasses used in intensive dairy cattle production systems in Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Iron concentrations were smaller in the rain season than in the dry one. Comparison of results obtained in the analyses of forages with daily requirements of iron in dry matter, showed that the Fe concentration in forages was adequate. (author)

  19. Application of carbon and oxygen isotope data from bulk samples to stratigraphic and paleo-environmental studies; Aplicacao dos dados isotopicos de carbono e oxigenio, de rocha-toral, em estudos paleoambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Ricardo Latge Milward de; Rodrigues, Rene [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Bioestratigrafia e Paleoecologia; Takaki, Tikae [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Geoquimica

    1997-12-01

    The usefulness of oxygen and carbon stable ({delta}{sup 18} O and {delta}{sup 13} C) isotopes from bulk samples has been evaluated in a Quaternary section of the Campos Basin. Comparisons were made with values found in benthic and planktonic foraminifera. There are limits inherent to bulk samples but, results suggest that isotopic studies are applicable in such samples. This method has the advantage of being less expensive and time-consuming. The isotopic curves for the Campos Basin section were compared with a Quaternary section data of the Ocean Drilling Program, which were drilled in the equatorial Pacific. The curves are equivalent and prove the stratigraphic meaning of isotopic results, allowing conclusions to be drawn about the paleo-oceanographic conditions during the last 40,000 years. (author)

  20. Partner's interest conflict analysis in distribution of natural gas: a game theory approach; Analise de conflitos de interesse na distribuicao de gas natural em areas urbanas: uma aplicacao da teoria dos jogos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prata, Bruno de Athayde; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transporte e Desenvolvimento

    2004-07-01

    The use of Natural Gas is nowadays increasing in Brazilian scene and this fact shows the necessity of effective planning tasks in that sector. In the case of Natural Gas Vehicular (NGV) distribution one can face problems of actor's (distributor, retailers, customers and non-users) point of view conflicts and fuel stations expand in most Brazilian urban areas in an uncontrolled way, despising counties regulation on land use. This paper reports a study using a model based in Game Theory concepts to determine some key-variables as the number of fuel stations which must deliver NGV in a given study area. Although some information could not be available the results of simulation shows the usefulness of using such an approach to give solutions to distribution questions in NGV sector. The model was applied to the case of a district in Fortaleza city which is the study area of a project entitled Projeto GASLOG presently on process under the sponsoring of Brazilian Government, PETROBRAS and Brazilian GasEnergy Research Network. (author)

  1. Neutron cross section measurements of water, heavy water, urine and blood for nutrition application; Medidas de secoes de choque para neutrons da agua leve, da agua pesada, urina e sangue para aplicacao em nutricao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante Luiz; Oliveira Ferreira, Francisco J. de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Helio F. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Pediatria e Puericultura Marzagao Gesteira

    1997-12-01

    The present work describes the application of a method developed at the reactor physics laboratory of IEN-CNEN-RJ for the determination of body water in subjects. The method is based on neutron cross section determinations of molecular compounds. It was used the crystal neutron spectrometer installed in J-9 channel irradiation of the Argonauta reactor. Hydrogenous and deuterated samples were measured to demonstrate the viability of the method. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Deployment case study of a global applied 3D modeling process of pipe supports; Estudo de caso da aplicacao de uma ferramenta para automatizacao e controle do processo de modelagem de suportes para tubulacoes em maquetes 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbi, Diego Junca Gonzaga; Oliveira, Renato Fonseca; Pinto, Rogerio Dias [Promon Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    An activity in engineering projects has been changed over the past two decades with regarding to working practices. Difficulties arising from the increasing complexity of projects, especially in industrial sectors, have taken this activity a constant search for new methods and tools which enable increased speed in performing tasks of daily life of the project. Currently, the development of these tools has been based on a friendlier interface to the end user, minimizing the need for extensive and repetitive training. Moreover, the industry responsible for this development of these kind of tools is still in the search for knowledge in order to explore the plain capabilities within wide projects on solutions offered. This article deals with one of these innovations on the spotlight, besides of being not a technology issue. It's based on the same basic platform available since the creation of models used together with databases. However, this new vision of work inserts one more specialty in the virtual designing of structures to support industrial pipes, as well as other design disciplines, nor taken advantage of these capabilities with regard to the generation of information, its control and management. (author)

  3. Application of field-bus to interface field instrumentation in hazardous areas of TRANSPETRO pipelines and terminals, Sao Paulo region; Aplicacao de barramento de campo (fieldbus) em areas classificadas nos dutos e terminais da TRANSPETRO, regiao de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The following presentation focuses on the experiences that we have been adopting with success during the past seven (7) years at the TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals, in the State of Sao Paulo region, to integrate the field instruments (switches, actuators, solenoid valves, motor starter and switchgear panels, and so on) installed in the hazardous areas, to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) connected to Remote Input and Output Modules (I/O) in the hazardous area, designated to interface the field signals and condition them to communicate via a bus in the field (field bus), making use of a standard open type industrial communication bus - PROFIBUS DP V1, under which the independent manufacturers follow the industrial Standards EN50170 and EN50254, pointing out the advantages of the application of this instrumentation philosophy, that among other philosophies, allows the use of engineering tools for the asset management and to assist the maintenance and operation of industrial plants. (author)

  4. Electrical resistivity of ceramic-metal composite materials in the percolation region: application in crucibles for induction furnaces; Resistividade eletrica de materiais compositos do tipo ceramica-metal na regiao de percolacao: aplicacao em cadinhos para fornos de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sene, Frank Ferrer

    1997-07-01

    Ceramic composite materials were produced by mixing powders of Partially Stabilized (PSZ) with titanium, niobium or nickel, and cristobalite with titanium. Pellets were produced by uniaxially pressing the material followed by cold isostatic pressing and finally sintering at 1600 deg C for 1,5 hours in argon. The metal content was varied in the range of 0-40 volume percent (v/o). Electrical resistivity measurements were performed in the temperature range of 25 - 700 deg C. Samples containing metallic inclusions above 25 v/o show the predominance of electronic type conducting. For samples with metallic inclusion below 25 v/o, a typically ionic conduction behavior has been observed. PSZ-Ti and PSZ-Ni samples containing 25 v/o of metallic inclusions show an insulator - conductor transition in a given temperature range. Cristobalite samples containing 30 v/o of titanium show a conductor - insulator transition also in a specific temperature range. Tests performed in an induction furnace showed that samples containing metallic inclusions above 25 v/o had self-heated when exposed to electro magnetic fields in the range of radio frequency (r.f.) Crucibles of PSZ-Ti were made by slip casting followed by sintering at 1600 deg C for 1.5 hours in argon. These crucibles were exposed to electromagnetic fields in the r.f. range and the maximum temperature reached was 1350 deg C. Microstructure characterization was performed on those materials by X-ray diffraction, EDS, optical and scanning electron microscopy. (author)

  5. Study of dose modulation system and its application in the process of optimization and in multi cuts systems; Estudo do sistema de modulacao de doses e sua aplicacao no processo de otimizacao e em sistemas multicortes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delduck, R.S.; Silveira, V.C.; Kodlulovich, S., E-mail: simone@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, L.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (CT/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia

    2011-07-01

    Radiation protection has been more important over the years.The doses in routine examinations of the abdomen, using dose modulation system, increased significantly. As the computed tomography is a technique of high-dose radiation when compared with other imaging techniques.This project was developed in a clinic in Rio de Janeiro. The scanner was Philips Brilliance 64.The systems of automatic control exposure were evaluated, taking into account the levels of noise factors and the techniques used in routine examinations of the abdomen. In tests, the patient doses were compared to reference dose of Impact, the information in the console. Also was evaluate the different results using the dosimetric phantoms oval and elliptical. The values obtained for the weighted indices of kerma, kerma product volume and product kerma scan showed all was below the same when done with dose modulation. (author)

  6. A study of digital hardware architectures for nuclear reactors protection systems applications - reliability and safety analysis methods; Um estudo de arquiteturas de hardware para aplicacao em sistemas digitais de protecao de reatores nucleares - metodos de analise de confiabilidade e seguranca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benko, Pedro Luiz

    1997-07-01

    A study of digital hardware architectures, including experience in many countries, topologies and solutions to interface circuits for protection systems of nuclear reactors is presented. Methods for developing digital systems architectures based on fault tolerant and safety requirements is proposed. Directives for assessing such conditions are suggested. Techniques and the most common tools employed in reliability, safety evaluation and modeling of hardware architectures is also presented. Markov chain modeling is used to evaluate the reliability of redundant architectures. In order to estimate software quality, several mechanisms to be used in design, specification, and validation and verification (V and V) procedures are suggested. A digital protection system architecture has been analyzed as a case study. (author)

  7. Obtaining of ceria - samaria - gadolinia ceramics for application as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte; Obtencao de ceramicas de ceria - samaria - gadolinia para aplicacao como eletrolito em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakaki, Alexander Rodrigo

    2010-07-01

    Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) when doped with rare earth oxides has its ionic conductivity enhanced, enabling its use as electrolyte for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFC), which is operated in temperatures between 500 e 700 degree C. The most effective additives or dopants for ionic conductivity improvement are (samarium oxide - Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and gadolinia (gadolinium oxide - Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}), fixing the concentration between 10 and 20 molar%. In this work, Ce{sub 0,8}(SmGd){sub 0,2}O{sub 1,9} powders have been synthesized by hydroxide, carbonate and oxalate coprecipitation routes. The hydrothermal treatment has been studied for powders precipitated with ammonium hydroxide. A concentrate of rare earths containing 90wt% of CeO{sub 2} and other containing 51% of Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 30% of Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, both prepared from monazite processing, were used as starting materials. These concentrates were used due the lower cost compared to pure commercial materials and the chemical similarity of others rare earth elements. Initially, the coprecipitation and calcination conditions were defined. The process efficiency was verified by ceramic sinterability evaluation. The results showed that powders calcined in the range of 450 and 800 degree C presented high specific surface area (90 - 150 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) and fluorite cubic structure, indicating the solid solution formation. It was observed, by scanning electron microscopy, that morphology of particles and agglomerates is a function of precipitant agent. The dilatometric analysis indicated the higher rate of shrinkage at temperatures around 1300-1350 degree C. High densification values (>95% TD) was obtained at temperatures above 1400 degree C. Synthesis by hydroxides coprecipitation followed by hydrothermal treatment demonstrated to be a promising route for crystallization of ceria nano powders at low temperatures (200 degree C). High values of specific surface area were reached with the employment of hydrothermal treatment (about 100 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}). High density ceramics were obtained at lower temperatures (1400 degree C), compared to those employed for calcined powders. (author)

  8. Application of genetic algorithms to the maintenance scheduling optimization in a nuclear system basing on reliability; Aplicacao de algoritmos geneticos na otimizacao da politica de manutencoes preventivas de um sistema nuclear centrada em confiabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Celso M. Franklin; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Mol, Antonio C. de Abreu [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a solution based on genetic algorithm and probabilistic safety analysis that can be applied in the optimization of the preventive maintenance politic of nuclear power plant safety systems. The goal of this approach is to improve the average availability of the system through the optimization of the preventive maintenance scheduling politic. The auxiliary feed water system of a two loops pressurized water reactor is used as a sample case, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results, when compared to those obtained by some standard maintenance politics, reveal quantitative gains and operational safety levels. (author)

  9. Scaffold of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) blend chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde for tissue engineering applications;Constructos de blendas de quitosana/poli(alcool vinilico) reticulados quimicamente com glutaraldeido para aplicacao em engenharia de tecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Ezequiel de S., E-mail: escjr50@deii.cefetmg.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (DEM/CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (ICB/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Microbiologia; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEM/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2009-07-01

    Chitosan/PVA based films were chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde (GA) in order to achieve scaffolds for potential tissue engineering application. Both precursors and developed films were characterized by FTIR and XRD in order to determine the presence of chemicals groups and nanostructural order, respectively. The results have showed that the GA crosslinking have altered the crystallinity of the chitosan and the increase on the C=N bands and decreasing of NH{sub 2} bands suggest that Chitosan/GA crosslinking has preference to occur in the carbon 2 by Schiff's base. The mechanical properties, swelling behavior, degradation rate in vitro and cellular viability were compatible with the characteristic of an epithelial tissue. The material presented a toughness range from 1.4 to 34MJ/m3, swelling from 150% to 700% in 24h, degradation rate from 20% to 75% (wt%) in 24h and cellular viability in vitro above 60% compared to the cellular control. The developed scaffolds from the films have also showed swelling and degradation in vitro properties well-matched for biomedical applications in tissue engineering (author)

  10. Determining internal movement costs at a warehouse using activity-based costing: offshore petroleum production application; Determinacao dos custos de movimentacao interna de um deposito utilizando a metodologia de custeio baseado em atividades: aplicacao a producao de petroleo offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Italo Ricardo Moreira de [Brasil Supply S.A., Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Leal, Jose Eugenio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As from the flexibilization of the petroleum monopoly, which took place in the second half of the 1990's, the petroleum and gas sector in Brazil has undergone a series of changes that have directly impacted the commercial relations among the companies in the sector. The increases in operational efficiency and reduction of costs have become basic factors for the companies wishing to compete in this market. This paper presents a study whose objective is to map, model, and determine the costs involved in the process for internal movement in a warehouse used as logistics support to offshore petroleum production. Based on the description of the internal movement process for product storage, the main resources are identified. Then, a mathematical model based on Activity-Based Costing is draw up, in which the results generated comprise the values for internal movement costs for each type of product moved in the warehouse. (author)

  11. The application of scenarios techniques for evaluation of portfolio investments in E and P projects; A aplicacao das tecnicas de cenarios na avaliacao de carteira de investimentos em projetos de E e P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Arnaldo L.M.; Rocha, Fabio M.; Rodrigues, Joao R.L.; Farias Filho, Jose Rodrigues de; Campagnac, Luiz A.P. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Competitividade, Estrategia e Organizacoes (LABCEO)

    2008-07-01

    Managements in the organizations deal daily with decision making, today the market competitiveness requires rationality and efficiency. In the project portfolio management a lot of questions emerge to the management, such as: The projects chosen are really the best projects? They are suitable for the reality of the company? The evaluation criteria are appropriate? The methodology employed is adequate? The application of resources is optimized? There is a real commitment from all levels of the organizational structure? In this context, the objective of this work is to describe a model that try to be more applied to the reality, taking into consideration conceptual and motivational aspects related to the implementation of project management involving high investment with restrictions on resources, and still provide a tool to support decision . (author)

  12. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations EPDM and NBR rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha EPDM e nitrilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila de Ysasa Pozzo

    2014-07-01

    The natural decomposition of rubber is a very slow process due to its three-dimensional network formed by vulcanized crosslinked structures becoming extremely difficult to reprocess this material. The present work aims to study the application of gamma irradiation as devulcanization process for material reuse/recycling. The interactions of elastomers with ionizing radiation of a gamma source were investigated and the changes in physicochemical properties of the materials were evaluated. Formulations of NBR (acrylonitrile - butadiene) and EPDM (ethylene - propylene - diene terpolymer) from the rubber industry were crosslinked by conventional sulfur-based mixing. Master - batch was processed with rubber powder (industrial waste) and virgin rubber. The raw material (master batch) was irradiated in {sup 60}Co source at doses of 50, 100, 150 kGy and dose rate of 5 kGy h{sup -1} at room temperature. The irradiated material was incorporated in classical sulfur-based formulations. The formulations were characterized by: infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermal analysis (TG and DTG), tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, abrasion resistance, rheometry and swelling. The results showed a predominance of chain scission at a dose of 50 kGy for EPDM rubber. For nitrile predominance of chain scission was observed at a dose of 100 kGy. These results show the possibility of the use of gamma radiation for the reuse/recycling of EPDM and nitrile rubbers. (author)

  13. Microstructural development and characterization of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics to application in solid oxide fuel cells; Desenvolvimento microestrutural e caracterizacao de ceramicas a base de cromita de lantanio para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel de oxido solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.N.; Furtado, J.G. de M.; Soares, C.M.; Serra, E.T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: rnunes@cepel.br

    2006-07-01

    This work has for objective to investigate and to characterize the microstructural development of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics (LaCrO{sub 3}) doped with earth alkaline metals, correlating the microstructural parameters (mainly the densification level) and processing parameters with the electrothermal properties reached. Lanthanum chromite-based ceramic systems doped with earth-alkaline metals (Ca, Mg and Sr) had been produced from respective metallic nitrates by solid state reactions process. The phase compositions were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and the densification level by Archimedes method. The microstructural characterization was effected by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermal analysis techniques. Electrical tests were used to evaluate the electrical conductivity of the studied ceramics. The obtained results corroborate the literature comments concerning the difficulty of lanthanum chromite-based ceramics with high densification level and evidence the great influence of the nature of the dopants on the sintering mechanism and the microstructural and electric characteristics of the produced ceramics. The best ones results, in terms of densification and electrical conductivity, had been gotten through multiple doping with calcium and strontium, and in sintering temperature conditions lower that the normally considered to pure or monodoped lanthanum chromite-based ceramics. (author)

  14. Synthesis and chemical modification of polymeric resins for the treatment of cations and aromatic hydrocarbons in produced oily water; Sintese de modificacao quimica de resina polimerica e aplicacao na remocao de cations e hidrocarbonetos aromaticos presentes em agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, Thiago M.; Rodrigues, Monique F.; Vieira, Helida V.P.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria do Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: thiagoaversa@ima.ufrj.br

    2011-07-01

    The use of chemically modified resins in oily water treatment process is not very developed yet. Because of this, this work suggests to study the styrene and divinylbenzene sulfonation effect on oil and grease, aniline and calcium removal from the water. The aniline, oils and greases belong to a class of toxic organic compounds, with the Brazilian maximum limits established for disposal in CONAMA 393/2007, while the calcium ions belong to the group of cations of alkaline earth metals which improve hardness to the water, may cause fouling as carbonates and sulfates form. By using sulfonated resins in oily water treatment it is possible to remove not only oils and greases but also calcium and aniline. These kinds of polar compounds are removed because of the cation exchange capacity of resin. (author)

  15. Non-isolated DC-AC converter with high voltage gain for autonomous systems of electric power; Conversor CC-CA nao isolado com alto ganho de tensao para aplicacao em sistemas autonomos de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, George Cajazeiras [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Ceara (CEFET/CE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Torrico-Bascope, Rene P. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (PPGEE/UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Programa de Pos Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica; Borges Neto, Manuel Rangel [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Petrolina (CEFET-PET), PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A non-isolated DC-AC converter with high voltage gain with two output sinusoidal voltage - 110 V and 220 V - and frequency 60 Hz for application in autonomous systems of electric power is proposed in this work. This topology consists of a boost converter with high voltage gain, based on three-state switching cell combined with a double half bridge inverter. This configuration type the size and the cost are reduced and the efficiency is gotten better, due to the reduced number of switches. The converters that compose this topology operate with high frequency, reducing the volume of the magnetic materials. can be mention as important characteristics: the voltage stress across the switches of the boost converter are low, due they be naturally clamped by one output filter capacitor, which allows the utilization of switches with lower conduction resistances, and the waveforms of the output voltage of the double half bridge inverter supplies for the load it is sinusoidal and it possesses low harmonic content. (author)

  16. Detection of outliers by neural network on the gas centrifuge experimental data of isotopic separation process; Aplicacao de redes neurais para deteccao de erros grosseiros em dados de processo de separacao de isotopos de uranio por ultracentrifugacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Monica de Carvalho Vasconcelos

    2004-07-01

    This work presents and discusses the neural network technique aiming at the detection of outliers on a set of gas centrifuge isotope separation experimental data. In order to evaluate the application of this new technique, the result obtained of the detection is compared to the result of the statistical analysis combined with the cluster analysis. This method for the detection of outliers presents a considerable potential in the field of data analysis and it is at the same time easier and faster to use and requests very less knowledge of the physics involved in the process. This work established a procedure for detecting experiments which are suspect to contain gross errors inside a data set where the usual techniques for identification of these errors cannot be applied or its use/demands an excessively long work. (author)

  17. An analysis on the criteria establishment for application of resources in energy efficiency programs; Uma analise sobre o estabelecimento de criterios para aplicacao de recursos em programas de eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletricos e Energia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos (GEE)]. E-mail: jamil@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    Recently the Electric Power National Agency (ANEEL) through the Public Hearing 021/2005 altered again, through the Resolution 176/2005, the criteria for the application of the resources applied by the electric power distributor enterprises. This paper describes the importance of energy efficiency and makes some comments on these frequent regulatory changes.

  18. Study of the stability of sugar Ester and its application potential with additives in the drilling fluids; Estudo da estabilidade do ester de acucar e sua potencial aplicacao como aditivo em fluido de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Suzan I.G.; Costa, Marta; Macedo, Sinara P.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work describe the enzymatic synthesis of the glucose ester starting from fatty acid, using protease Bacillus subtilis as biologic catalyst. The efficiency of ester has determined through the surface tension analyses in different pH (2-12), temperature (25-100 deg C) and salinity (50-115 g/L of NaCl). For a better understanding as for the applicability of the ester of sugar in drilling fluids, it was done necessary to know the values of interfacial tension of the oil/water; in that analysis, the mineral oil was investigated as oily phase and, as aqueous phase, biosurfactant solution. The results of interfacial tension of the water/oil and biosurfactant /oil they allowed to quantify us the influence of the benefactor's front to an organic phase, because the same made a significant reduction the interfacial tension of 26,0725 mN/m (water/oil) or 1,7527 mN/m (biosurfactant aqueous solution/oil). D-glucose ester was shown stable in different concentrations of NaCl, pH and temperature, and efficient in the reduction of the superficial tension of the water (of 72 mN/m for 28 mN/m). Preliminary test reveal that the ricinoleoil of D-glucose presents functionality as lubricant for drilling fluids to the base water. In the studied formulations, the obtained composition reduces the coefficient of lubricity of 0,20 for 0,04 and it stabilizes the fluid, reducing the volume of the filtrate of 5,0 mL for 3,4 mL. (author)

  19. Biosurfactant production for application in soil remediation contaminated by oil: study of the virulence factors; Producao de biosurfactantes para aplicacao em remediacao de solos contaminados por petroleo: estudo dos fatores de virulencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Freire, Denise Maria Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Biosurfactants are amphipatic molecules produced by microorganisms. The rhamnolipid (RML) is a group of those molecules, most produced by strains of Pseudomonas. In this present work, the effect of superficial aeration on the production of rhamnolipids and virulence factors, from proteins produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1, isolated from oil extraction wells, was evaluated. Cell growth, glycerol and nitrate consumption, rhamnolipid production, nonspecific proteases, total proteins and elastases where investigated on different flask volume/medium volume relations (Vf/Vm): 1:0,15, 1:0,30, 1:0,50 and 1:0,70. It was observed that better oxygenation leaded to better results on the rhamnolipid production. Two peaks of elastase activity were noted, showing possible presence of two types of elastases that could be dislocated on fermentation time, due to the oxygenation degree. The major production of rhamnolipid was found on the 1:0,50 condition and different non-specific proteases standards were found due to the oxygenation degrees. (author)

  20. Application of gamma irradiation for incorporation of rubber powder in the formulations of EPDM and natural rubber; Aplicacao da radiacao gama para incorporacao do po de borracha em formulacoes de borracha natural e EPDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyan, Ludmila Y.P.; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo, E-mail: ludmilapozzo@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP/CQMA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Quimica e Meio Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the behavior of the recycling of rubber burrs in form of powder, of the rubber industry from EPDM rubber powder and natural rubber with SBR. The rubber powder was irradiated and reused in rubber artifacts formulations for classical vulcanization. The processed material was irradiated using a {sup 60}Co source in doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200 kGy and a dose rate of 5 kGy s-1 at room temperature. The radiation created devulcanization active sites for subsequent integration of the material (rubber powder) in formulations of commercial use. The processes were compared and their products characterized by analytical methods of the physical properties such as strength and elongation. Satisfactory results were found, noting a major spin-off of EPDM chain demonstrated by increased elongation.

  1. Polymeric membranes obtained from S-PEEK for application in PEM fuel cells; Caracterizacao de membranas polimericas obtidas a partir dos S-PEEK para aplicacao em celulas combustiveis do tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Ednardo G.; Fiuza, Raildo A.; Catao, Ronei S.; Jose, Nadia M.; Boaventura, Jaime S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: ednardobarreto@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: raildofiuza@gmail.com, e-mail: roneicatao@ig.com.br, e-mail: nadia@ufba.br, e-mail: bventura@ufba.br; Pepe, Yuri [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2007-07-01

    This work had the objective to develop and to characterize S-PEEK membranes (sulfonated poly ether ether ketone) through chemical and electrochemical analyses. Conductivity test in function of the frequency and tension had been carried through; as well as, the open circuit tension of a fuel cell using the S-PEEK as electrolyte. Additional tests included TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), water absorption test, DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), as tools to characterize conducting, thermal and mechanical proprieties of polymeric membrane. (author)

  2. NASVD and MNF techniques and your application noise reduction in gamma-ray spectrometric data; As tecnicas NASVD e MNF e sua aplicacao na reducao de ruidos em dados gamaespectrometricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, Francisco de Assis, E-mail: assisfc@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: assis@agp-la.org [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, DGSA, Instituto de Geociencias, IG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); AGPLA, AeroGeoPhysica Latinoamerica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Portugal, Rodrigo S.; Bizuti, Ariathemis M., E-mail: portugal@ige.unicamp.br, E-mail: ambizuti@ige.unicamp.br [Departamento de Geologia e Recursos Naturais, DGRN, Instituto de Geociencias, IG, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Silva, Adalene M., E-mail: adalene@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geoquimica e Recursos Minerais (GRM)

    2009-04-15

    The radioactive decay is a random process, and the measurement precision is ruled by statistical laws. The counting ratios of the profiles are always noisy when analyzed for short periods, such as one second per measurement. Corrections made at the end of conventional processing in the airborne gamma-ray spectrometric method data are not enough to remove and minimize, or even reduce considerably, the spectrum's originated noise. Two statistic methods that act locally in collected data, in the spectrum domain, have been suggested by literature to remove such remaining noises, the Noise-Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - NASVD and Maximum Noise Fraction - MNF. These methods produce a significantly noise reduction. In this work both methods were applied in an area comprehended by two blocks, I and II, of the airborne survey that covers the west area of Mineral Province of Tapajos between Para and Amazon states. The filtered and non-filtered data with the NASVD and MNF techniques were processed with the Lasa's parameters. The comparison of results between maps and profiles shows that both methods are valuable, since there was resolution gain in these products. (author)

  3. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from <em>Gymnosperma> <em>glutinosum> Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of<em> Gymnosperma glutinosumem> (Asteraceae leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1 and (+-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-<em>ent>-labd-7-ene (2, as well as the new <em>ent>-labdane diterpene (−-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-7-oxo-<em>ent>-labd-8(9-ene (3. In addition, D-glycero-D-galactoheptitol (4 was isolated from the methanolic extract of this plant. Their structures were established on the basis of high-field 1D- and 2D NMR methods supported by HR-MS data. The cytotoxic activity was determined by using the <em>in vitroem> L5178Y-R lymphoma murine model. Hentriacontane (1 and the new <em>ent>-labdane 3 showed weak cytotoxicity, whereas the <em>ent>-labdane 2 showed significant (<em>p> < 0.05 and concentration dependent cytotoxicity (up to 78% against L5178Y-R cells at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 250 µg/mL.

  4. em arquitetura e urbanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sala Minucci Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Está sendo desenvolvido projeto de pesquisa denominado Geometria Fractal e suas Aplicações em Arquitetura e Urbanismo, com o fito de estudar e desenvolver ferramentas analíticas e propositivas para serem aplicadas em arquitetura e urbanismo, com base em conceitos provenientes da geometria fractal.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains<em> em>of <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from <em>Pelargonium graveolensem> Ait. (family <em>Geraniaceae>, against one standard <em>S. aureus em>strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical <em>S. aureusem> strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from <em>P. graveolensem> has strong activity against all of the clinical <em>S. aureusem> isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  6. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  7. Microsatellite Loci in the Gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatum em>(Brassicaceae, and Transferability to Other <em>Lepidieae>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Ibero-North African, strict gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatumem> to unravel the effects of habitat fragmentation in levels of genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow among its populations. Using 454 pyrosequencing 12 microsatellite loci including di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were characterized in <em>L. subulatumem>. They amplified a total of 80 alleles (2–12 alleles per locus in a sample of 35 individuals of <em>L. subulatumem>, showing relatively high levels of genetic diversity, <em>H>O = 0.645, <em>H>E = 0.627. Cross-species transferability of all 12 loci was successful for the Iberian endemics <em>Lepidium cardaminesem>, <em>Lepidium stylatumem>, and the widespread, <em>Lepidium graminifoliumem> and one species each of two related genera, <em>Cardaria drabaem> and <em>Coronopus didymusem>. These microsatellite primers will be useful to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and to address conservation genetics in species of <em>Lepidium>.

  8. Recomendações para se evitar grandes erros de dose em tratamentos radioterapêuticos Recommendations to avoid gross errors of dose in radiotherapeutic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Nogueira de Souza

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Erros humanos são uma importante fonte de falhas em todos os passos do planejamento e do tratamento radioterapêutico. Com o objetivo de reduzir este grau de incerteza, várias organizações especializadas recomendam minuciosos programas de garantia da qualidade. No Brasil, programas deste tipo vêm tendo sua exigência intensificada, e a maioria dos serviços de radioterapia vem se orientando neste sentido, tanto em relação aos equipamentos de radiação e dosimetria, quanto em relação à verificação dos cálculos de dose em pacientes e das revisões das fichas de planejamento. Como uma contribuição a este esforço de qualidade, apresentam-se algumas recomendações para se evitar falhas de tratamento devidas a erros na dose de radiação recebida pelo paciente, como redundância nas verificações dos cálculos feitos manualmente ou por computador, e, também, a verificação da dose acumulada para cada paciente sob tratamento, semanalmente, além de se evitar a possibilidade de acesso a qualquer sistema de segurança do equipamento ao pessoal técnico treinado para apenas o operar. Além disso, deve-se considerar a possibilidade de se empregar um sistema computadorizado de verificação e registro do tratamento, dessa maneira prevenindo-se erros durante a aplicação diária devidos à seleção indevida dos diferentes parâmetros do tratamento. Reportam-se quatro incidentes radioativos recentes ocorridos no mundo, com injúrias em pacientes, e algumas ocorrências de erros grandes de dose.Human mistakes are an important source of errors in radiotherapy and may occur at every step of the radiotherapeutic planning and treatment. To reduce this level of uncertainties, several specialized organizations have recommended a comprehensive quality assurance program. In Brazil, the requirement for these programs has been strongly stressed, and most radiotherapy services have pursued this goal regarding radiation units and dosimetry equipment

  9. New Trifluoromethyl Triazolopyrimidines as Anti-<em>Plasmodium> <em>falciparum> Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Boechat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, half of the World’s population, approximately 3.3 billion people, is at risk for developing malaria. Nearly 700,000 deaths each year are associated with the disease. Control of the disease in humans still relies on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a limiting factor, and the search for new drugs is important. We have designed and synthesized new 2-(trifluoromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine derivatives based on bioisosteric replacement of functional groups on the anti-malarial compounds mefloquine and amodiaquine. This approach enabled us to investigate the impact of: (i ring bioisosteric replacement; (ii a CF3 group substituted at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine scaffold and (iii a range of amines as substituents at the 7-position of the of heterocyclic ring; on <em>in vitroem> activity against <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>. According to docking simulations, the synthesized compounds are able to interact with <em>P. falciparumem> dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (<em>Pf>DHODH through strong hydrogen bonds. The presence of a trifluoromethyl group at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine ring led to increased drug activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be active, with IC50 values ranging from 0.023 to 20 µM in the anti-HRP2 and hypoxanthine assays. The selectivity index (SI of the most active derivatives 5, 8, 11 and 16 was found to vary from 1,003 to 18,478.

  10. Screening and Analysis of the Potential Bioactive Components in Rabbit Plasma after Oral Administration of Hot-Water Extracts from Leaves of <em>B>ambusa em>>textilis em>McClure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bambusa textilisem> McClure is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant belonging to the Bambusoideae subfamily and used to treat chronic fever and infectious diseases. To investigate the bioactive compounds absorbed in the rabbit blood after oral administration of hot-<em>water extractem>>s from em>>the leaves of em>>B. textilisem> McClure, a validated chromatographic fingerprint method was established using LC-Q-TOF-MS. Twenty compounds in bamboo leaves and three potential bioactive compounds in rabbit plasma were detected. Of the twenty detected compounds <em>in vitroem>, fifteen of which were tentatively identified either by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with that of reference compounds or by reviewing the literature. Three potential bioactive compounds, including (<em>E-p>-coumaric acid, (<em>Z-p>-coumaric acid, and apigenin-8-<em>C>-β-D-(2"-<em>O>-α-L-rhamnosyl-gluco-pyranoside, were detected in both <em>the leaves of em>>B. textilis em>McClure and rabbit plasma. Of the three compounds, apigenin-8-<em>C>-β-D-(2"-<em>O>-α-L-rhamnosylglucopyranoside was identified based on its UV, MS, and NMR spectra. This study provides helpful chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on <em>B. textilisem> McClure.

  11. Genotoxicity of <em>Euphorbia hirtaem>: An <em>Allium cepaem> Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of <em>Euphorbia hirta em>which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using <em>Allium cepaem> assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of <em>A. cepaem>. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of <em>E. hirtaem> extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of <em>E. hirta em>exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  12. <em>In Vitroem> Antioxidant Properties of Flavonoids and Polysaccharides Extract from Tobacco (<em>Nicotiana> em>tabacum> L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Lu Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides from tobacco (<em>Nicotiana> tabacumem> L. leaves were evaluated in several <em>in vitroem> systems, e.g., scavenging activities on hydroxyl, superoxide anion, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals, and reducing power. Flavonoids showed much better activity than polysaccharides in scavenging activities on free radicals. When compared to the positive control, ascorbic acid, both showed weaker antioxidant potential. However, flavonoids possessed comparable superoxide anion, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities to ascorbic acid at high concentration (600 μg/mL. Meanwhile, it was found that flavonoids had prominent effects on the reducing power, which was equivalent to ascorbic acid, and was significantly higher than polysaccharides. These results clearly indicate that flavonoids are effective in scavenging free radicals and have the potential to be powerful antioxidants. Thus, tobacco leaves could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics or nutraceutical industries.

  13. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  14. Isolation and Characterization of a Lycopene ε-Cyclase Gene of <em>Chlorella em>(Chromochloris> <em>zofingiensis>. Regulation of the Carotenogenic Pathway by Nitrogen and Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and characterization of the lycopene ε-cyclase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella em>(Chromochloris> <em>zofingiensis> (<em>Czlcy-e> was performed. This gene is involved in the formation of the carotenoids α-carotene and lutein. <em>Czlcy-e> gene encoded a polypeptide of 654 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czlcy-e> was found in <em>C. zofingiensisem>. Functional analysis by heterologous complementation in <em>Escherichia coliem> showed the ability of this protein to convert lycopene to δ-carotene. In addition, the regulation of the carotenogenic pathway by light and nitrogen was also studied in <em>C. zofingiensisem>. High irradiance stress did not increase mRNA levels of neither lycopene β<em>->cyclase gene (<em>lcy-b> nor lycopene ε-cyclase gene<em> em>(lcy-e> as compared with low irradiance conditions, whereas the transcript levels of <em>psy>, <em>pds>, <em>chyB> and <em>bkt> genes were enhanced, nevertheless triggering the synthesis of the secondary carotenoids astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin and decreasing the levels of the primary carotenoids α-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin and β-carotene. Nitrogen starvation <em>per seem> enhanced mRNA levels of all genes considered, except <em>lcy-e and pdsem>, but did not trigger the synthesis of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin nor zeaxanthin. The combined effect of both high light and nitrogen starvation stresses enhanced significantly the accumulation of these carotenoids as well as the transcript levels of <em>bkt> gene, as compared with the effect of only high irradiance stress.

  15. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  16. <em>An entem>-Kaurane-Type Diterpene in <em>Croton antisyphiliticusem> Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Croton antisyphiliticus em>is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of microbial infections, especially those affecting the genital tract. Crude extract, fractions and pure compound isolated from roots of this species were investigated to validate their antimicrobial activity against <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>. The compound <em>ent>-kaur-16-en-18-oic acid was isolated as a major component (0.7% of crude extract, and its MIC value determined against <em>S. aureusem> (ATCC 6538 was 250 μg/mL. This is the first phytochemical work on the species monitored with antimicrobial assay.

  17. Expression of Selected <em>Ginkgo em>>biloba em>Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three <em>HSP> genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated <em>GbHSP16.8em>, <em>GbHSP17em> and <em>GbHSP70em>. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em> showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, <em>GbHSP17em> showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70 em>may play important roles in <em>Ginkgo> leaf development and photosynthesis, and <em>GbHSP17em> may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three <em>GbHSPs> were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em>, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP17em>, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em>, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em> primarily.

  18. A hipnose em triatletas

    OpenAIRE

    Szenészi, Daniela Scharamm

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia. Esta pesquisa objetivou investigar em atletas de triatlon a percepção das características da visualização da prova de Ironman e os seus componentes psicofisiológicos durante o transe hipnótico. Foram estudados 7 atletas do sexo masculino em 6 sessões de hipnose. Após cada sessão foi feita uma entrevista semi-estruturada e aplicado um questionário...

  19. Meteorologia em linha

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    DISPOSITIVO TÉCNICO-PEDAGÓGICO: CURSO DE METEOROLOGIA EM LINHA. Designamos por curso o sistema que resulta da relação entre um conjunto de componentes, dando unidade e identidade ao mesmo, incorporados na plataforma Versal: conjunto de 30 lições em vídeo, recursos complementares, valorização e contextualização do curso, orientação e acompanhamento desenhados e previstos, interação com os utilizadores do curso a partir do momento da sua edição aberta em linha. (https://versal.com/c/1fzwaz/m...

  20. Osteoartrites em equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Francisco José Martins

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A Osteoartrite (OA) é a principal causa de claudicação no cavalo de desporto e lazer, sendo uma afecção que tem grandes repercussões económicas. Este trabalho descreve algumas das características importantes da estrutura articular, bem como da sua fisiologia. Define a OA e todas as estruturas envolvidas no seu processo. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos põem em evidência os factores de risco em causa e que determinam tod...

  1. Pesquisando em fontes visuais

    OpenAIRE

    Proença, Caio Carvalho; FFCH

    2012-01-01

    O presente ensaio pretende demonstrar reflexões sobre os usos da fotografia como fonte. Na primeira parte do ensaio procura-se demonstrar a experiência de um primeiro contato com a fonte visual, em especial a fotografia, para posteriormente entrar em contato com as diferentes formas metodológicas presente na pesquisa desta fonte. Em um segundo momento mostra-se alguns apontamentos sobre o método de pesquisa voltado à fonte visual fotográfica que auxiliam a pesquisa, contemplando a discussão s...

  2. Melhores medicamentos em Pediatria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Existem actualmente muitos medicamentos que são utilizados em crianças sem terem sido suficientemente estudados nas diferentes sub-populações pediátricas, com consequências preocupantes. O reconhecimento deste facto levou à criação de regras específicas na investigação de medicamentos pediátricos nos EUA, já em 1997. De igual forma, o Regulamento de Medicamentos para Uso Pediátrico aprovado em De zembro de 2006 pelo Parlamento Europeu, tem como objectivo a resolução deste problema no ...

  3. Characterization of <em>Erysiphe necatorem>-Responsive Genes in Chinese Wild <em>Vitis> <em>quinquangularis>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by fungus <em>Erysiphe necatorem>, is one of the most devastating diseases of grapevine. To better understand grapevine-PM interaction and provide candidate resources for grapevine breeding, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library was constructed from <em>E. necatorem>-infected leaves of a resistant Chinese wild <em>Vitis quinquangularisem> clone “Shang-24”. A total of 492 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained and assembled into 266 unigenes. Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that 188 unigenes could be assigned with at least one GO term in the biological process category, and 176 in the molecular function category. Sequence analysis showed that a large number of these genes were homologous to those involved in defense responses. Genes involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction were also enriched in the library. Expression analysis of 13 selected genes by qRT-PCR revealed that most were induced more quickly and intensely in the resistant material “Shang-24” than in the sensitive <em>V. pseudoreticulata em>clone “Hunan-1” by<em> E. necatorem> infection. The ESTs reported here provide new clues to understand the disease-resistance mechanism in Chinese wild grapevine species and may enable us to investigate <em>E. necatorem>-responsive genes involved in PM resistance in grapevine germplasm.

  4. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...

  5. Preconceito em disfarce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Almeida

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    0 presente estudo pretende analisar os significados básicos do texto "Preto e Branco", de F. Sabino, valendo-se de alguns modelos teóricos lingüísticos, principalmente de Greimas e de Pottier, em seqüência que vai da estrutura da narrativa e do percurso gerativo de sentido até as relações sêmicas, em especial.

  6. <em>In Vitro em>and <em>in em>Vivo> Antitumor Effect of Trachylobane-360, a Diterpene from<em> Xylopia langsdorffianaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Lima Rodrigues Pita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Trachylobane-360 (<em>ent>-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid was isolated from <em>Xylopia langsdorffianaem>. Studies have shown that it has weak cytotoxic activity against tumor and non-tumor cells. This study investigated the <em>in vitroem>> em>and <em>in vivoem> antitumor effects of trachylobane-360, as well as its cytotoxicity in mouse erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the <em>in vivoem> toxicological aspects related to trachylobane-360 administration, hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses of the treated animals were performed. The compound exhibited a concentration-dependent effect in inducing hemolysis with HC50 of 273.6 µM, and a moderate <em>in vitroem>> em>concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells with IC50 values of 150.8 µM and 150.4 µM, evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The <em>in vivoem> inhibition rates of sarcoma 180 tumor development were 45.60, 71.99 and 80.06% at doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg of trachylobane-360 and 25 mg/kg of 5-FU, respectively. Biochemical parameters were not altered. Leukopenia was observed after 5-FU treatment, but this effect was not seen with trachylobane-360 treatment. The histopathological analysis of liver and kidney showed that both organs were mildly affected by trachylobane-360 treatment. Trachylobane-360 showed no immunosuppressive effect. In conclusion, these data reinforce the anticancer potential of this natural diterpene.

  7. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  8. Sulla presenza di <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, <em>Neomys anomalusem> (Insectivora, Soricidae e <em>Talpa caecaem> (Insectivora, Talpidae in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del contributo è di fornire un aggiornamento sulla presenza del Toporagno del Vallese <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, del Toporagno acquatico di Miller <em>Neomys anomalusem> e della Talpa cieca <em>Talpa caecaem> in Umbria, dove le specie risultano accertate ormai da qualche anno. A tal fine sono stati rivisitati i reperti collezionati e la bibliografia conosciuta. Toporagno del Vallese: elevato di recente a livello di specie da Brünner et al. (2002, altrimenti considerato sottospecie del Toporagno comune (<em>S. araneus antinoriiem>. È conservato uno di tre crani incompleti (mancano mandibole ed incisivi superiori al momento prudenzialmente riferiti a <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii>, provenienti dall?Appennino umbro-marchigiano settentrionale (dintorni di Scalocchio - PG, 590 m. s.l.m. e determinati sulla base della pigmentazione rossa degli ipoconi del M1 e M2; Toporagno acquatico di Miller: tre crani (Breda in Paci e Romano op. cit. e un esemplare intero (Paci, ined. sono stati trovati a pochi chilometri di distanza gli uni dall?altro tra i comuni di Assisi e Valfabbrica, in ambienti mediocollinari limitrofi al Parco Regionale del M.te Subasio (Perugia. In provincia di Terni la specie viene segnalata da Isotti (op. cit. per i dintorni di Orvieto. Talpa cieca: sono noti una femmina e un maschio raccolti nel comune di Pietralunga (PG, rispettivamente in una conifereta a <em>Pinus nigraem> (m. 630 s.l.m. e nelle vicinanze di un bosco misto collinare a prevalenza di <em>Quercus cerrisem> (m. 640 s.l.m.. Recentemente un terzo individuo è stato rinvenuto nel comune di Sigillo (PG, all?interno del Parco Regionale di M.te Cucco, sul margine di una faggeta a 1100 m s.l.m. In entrambi i casi l?areale della specie è risultato parapatrico con quello di <em>Talpa europaeaem>.

  9. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  10. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  11. EMS in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  12. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system......Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...

  13. Corantes vitais em cromovitrectomia

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Eduardo; Rodrigues,Eduardo Büchelle; Maia, Maurício [UNIFESP; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando Marcondes [UNIFESP; Furlani, Bruno de Albuquerque [UNIFESP; Costa, Elaine de Paula Fiod [UNIFESP; Farah, Michel Eid

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do artigo é apresentar os dados atuais da aplicação de corantes vitais durante cirurgia vitreorretiniana, "cromovitrectomia", bem como uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto no tocante às técnicas de aplicação, indicações e complicações em cromovitrectomia. Um grande número de publicações tem abordado o perfil tóxico da indocianina verde na cromovitrectomia. Dados experimentais mostram uma toxicidade dose-dependente da mesma em várias populações de células retinianas. Nova...

  14. Frenectomia em foco

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Joana Isabel Monteiro de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    Projeto de Pós Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária O freio é uma estrutura anatómica oral classificada em freio labial (médio maxilar ou mandibular, lateral maxilar ou mandibular) ou lingual que se pode tornar num problema quando a sua inserção cria impedimentos estruturais e dificuldades a vários níveis. Um freio labial anormal pode causar algumas anomalias ou problemas, tais como u...

  15. Cyberbullying em adolescentes brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Guilherme Welter

    2012-01-01

    O cyberbullying é entendido como uma forma de comportamento agressivo que ocorre através dos meios eletrônicos de interação (computadores, celulares, sites de relacionamento virtual), sendo realizado de maneira intencional por uma pessoa ou grupo contra alguém em situação desigual de poder e, ainda, com dificuldade em se defender. Os estudos disponíveis até o presente momento destacam que o cyberbullying é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de sintomas de ansiedade, depressão, ideação s...

  16. Acidose ruminal em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, José Diogo de Oliveira e silva Ribeiro da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Com este trabalho pretendeu-se fazer uma revisão acerca da acidose ruminal em caprinos, visto haver pouca bibliografia sobre o tema. Este trabalho foi baseado na revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos e completado através da observação de casos clínicos ocorridos durante o estágio curricular. O objectivo deste estudo foi realizar uma breve revisão da anatomia e fisiologia do tracto gastrointestinal dos caprinos assim com...

  17. Ulisses em Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mosès

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm sua introdução para Exegese de uma lenda, Stéphane Mosès afirma que a obra de Kafka não necessita de novas interpretações, mas sim de uma “análise rigorosa de sua lógica subjacente”. Assim, em “Ulisses em Kafka”, investigandoa dialética formal de “O silêncio das sereias”, Mosès procura expor a estrutura narrativa que comandaria esse breve texto em que o escritor tcheco acrescenta à astucia de Ulisses a ingenuidade como elemento de salvação.Palavras-chave: Kafka; dialética; salvação.AbstractIn his introduction to Exegèse d’une légende, Stéphane Mosès affirms that Kafka’s works are not in need of new interpretations, but rather, of a “rigorous analysis of their underlying logic”. Thus, in “Ulisses chez Kafka”, by investigating the formal dialectic of “Das Schweigen der Sirenen”, Mosès seeks to exhibit the narrative structure that would supposedly guide this short text in which the Czech author adds naïveté to Ulisses’s cunning intelligence as an element of salvation.Keywords: Kafka; dialectic; salvation.Stéphane Mosès foi professor emérito da Universidade Hebraica de Jerusalém, onde ensinou Literatura Alemã e Comparada, entre os seus principais interesses estavam o pensamento de Franz Rosenzweig e de Walter Benjamin e as literaturas de Franz Kafka e de Paul Célan. Autor de diversos livros, entre eles: L'ange de l'histoire. Rosenzweig, Benjamin, Scholem, Exégèse d'une légende, lectures de Kafka, e Rêves de Freud. Six lectures.Rodrigo Ielpo é doutor em literatura francesa pela UFRJ e em História e Semiologia do texto e da imagem pela Université Paris VII, com pós-doutorado em Teoria Literária pela UNICAMP. Professor Adjunto do Departamento de Letras Neolatinas da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, possui publicações e traduções nos seguintes temas: teoria e literatura francesa contemporâneas, escrita e processos de subjetivação.rodrigoielpo@gmail.com 

  18. Horizontal Transmission of the Entomopathogen Fungus <em>Metarhizium anisopliae em>in <em>Microcerotermes diversusem> Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Mossadegh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in order to investigate fungal conidia transmission of <em>Metarhizium anisopliae em>(Metschnikoff> em>Sorokin from vector (donor to healthy <em>Microcerotermes diversusem> Silvestri (Iso.: Termitidae and determine the best donor/concentration ratio for transmission. After preliminary trials, concentrations of 3.1 × 104, 3.9 × 105, 3.2 × 106 and 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 were selected for testing. The experiment was performed at three donor : Recipient ratios of 10, 30 and 50%. The highest mortality of recipient workers was observed after 14 days at the concentration of 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 and donor ratio of 50%. The mortality of recipient workers was less than 20% at all concentrations at a donor ratio of 10%. Our observations indicate social behavior of <em>M. diversusem>, such as grooming, can be effective in promoting epizootic outbreaks in a colony. While the current results suggest good potential for efficacy, the use of <em>M. anisopliaeem> as a component of integrated pest management of <em>M. diversusem> still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  19. Clinical Relevance of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther K. Bonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of <em>E>-cadherin (<em>CDH1em> and <em>H>-cadherin (<em>CDH13em> in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of <em>CDH1em> DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for <em>CDH13em> DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the <em>CDH1em> DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum <em>CDH1em> methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2–27.7; <em>p> = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9–2207.1; <em>p> = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that <em>CDH1em> methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  20. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Syringin from the Bark of <em>Ilex em>rotunda> Thumb Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a rapid extraction method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of syringin from the bark of <em>Ilex rotunda em>Thumb using response surface methodology (RSM is described. The syringin was analyzed and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV. The extraction solvent, extraction temperature and extraction time, the three main factors for UAE, were optimized with Box-Behnken design (BBD to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal conditions were the use of a sonication frequency of 40 kHz, 65% methanol as the solvent, an extraction time of 30 min and an extraction temperature of 40 °C. Using these optimal conditions, the experimental values agreed closely with the predicted values. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated a high goodness of model fit and the success of the RSM method for optimizing syringin extraction from the bark of <em>I>. em>rotunda>.

  1. Efeitos local e sistêmico do laser de baixa potência no limiar de dor por pressão em indivíduos saudáveis Local and systemic effects of low-power laser on pressure pain threshold in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Pelegrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O laser de baixa potência é utilizado como recurso terapêutico para controle da dor. Porém, ainda é questionado o real efeito como também a dosimetria mais eficaz para esse efeito analgésico. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos local e sistêmico do laser de baixa potência no limiar de dor por pressão, em indivíduos saudáveis. Cento e cinquenta indivíduos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em cinco grupos: Controle, Laser Placebo, 3 J, 6 J e 12 J. Para avaliar o limiar de dor, utilizou-se um algômetro de pressão em cinco tempos distintos. Na região da mão dominante do indivíduo, foi realizado o laser e a algometria para verificar o efeito local. Já naquela da perna dominante, realizou-se somente a algometria para verificar efeito sistêmico do laser de baixa potência. Houve redução local do limiar de dor por pressão no Grupo 3 J em comparação com os grupos Controle (p=0,0016 e Placebo (p=0,004, e não houve alteração sistêmica do limiar de dor por pressão. O laser de baixa potência, quando utilizado com energia de 3 J, reduziu o limiar de dor por pressão local em indivíduos saudáveis, porém não houve alteração sistêmica.Low-power laser is used as a therapeutic tool for pain control. However, it is still questioned its real effects and the more effective dosimetry for this analgesic effect. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the local and systemic effects of low-power laser on pressure pain threshold in healthy subjects. One hundred and fifty subjects were randomized into five groups: Control, Placebo Laser, 3 J, 6 J, and 12 Joules. A pressure algometer was used to assess pressure pain threshold in five different periods. In the dominant hand, laser and algometry were performed to determine the local effect, and in the dominant leg, algometry was performed to assess the systemic effect of low-power laser. There was a reduction on local pressure pain threshold in the Group 3 J

  2. Classe social: conceitos e esquemas operacionais em pesquisa em saude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a utilização do conceito de classe em pesquisas em saúde, as diferentes abordagens sociológicas de estratificação social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determinação social e desigualdades em saúde, os modelos de operacionalização elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociológicas, demográficas ou de saúde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionalização: de Singer para estudo da distribuição de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Bronfman & Tuirán para o censo demográfico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioeconômicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ciência política, também usado em inquéritos populacionais em saúde. Em conclusão, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados é coerente com a concepção teórica que os embasam, mas não há como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.

  3. Study of {sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co sorption in sediments from Saco de Piraquara de Fora, Angra dos Reis and its application for environmental monitoring; Estudo da sorcao de {sup 137}Cs e {sup 60}Co em sedimentos do Saco de Piraquara de Fora em Angra dos Reis e sua aplicacao para o monitoramento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ingryd Marques

    2016-08-01

    Both the suspended solid particles and the bed sediments sorb radionuclides, released in water systems. Sorption is usually represented mathematically by the distribution coefficient that is based in equilibrium between phases. Here the adsorption/desorption kinetics of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in sea water were simulated by batch equilibrium experiments with sediments in two points (PT - 01, PT - 02) from Saco de Piraquara de Fora inlet (SPF). For both radionuclides, partition coefficient values (Kd) for the sampling point PT - 02 (509 and 385 L/kg for {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs, respectively) were higher than the values determined for PT - 01 one (426 and 182 L/kg for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, respectively). The higher values of Kd of PT-02 reflects the higher CEC (71,4 cmolc.dm{sup 3}) and content of mud < 63 μm (87%) when compared to PT-01 (CEC of 39,5 cmol{sub c}.dm{sup 3}) and mud (55%). In comparison with the values reported in the literature, the found Kd values are low, which may be related to the predominance of kaolinite, which is a clay of low sorption capacity. The Kd values with an increase in temperature of 23 deg C to 27 deg C were similar ({sup 60}Co in PT-02 and {sup 137}Cs in both sediment) or 27 ° C values were higher ({sup 60}Co the PT-01). With increasing temperature to 31 °C Kd values for the two radionuclides showed a decrease. However, increasing temperature increases the desorption of the two radionuclides for both sediments The sorption process is spontaneous and favorable for both sediments and the model of sorption can be fitted by both Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms. The maximum amount of {sup 60}Co that can be sorbed on sediments were 1,64 10{sup -5} moles/g (4,12 10{sup 10} Bq/g) and 2,79 10{sup -5} moles/g (7,03 10{sup 10} Bq/g) to PT-01 and PT-02, respectively, and of {sup 137}Cs 1,99 10{sup -6} moles/g (9,70 10{sup 8} Bq/g) and 6,60 10{sup -6} mol/g (2,87 10{sup 9} Bq/g ) to PT-01 and PT-02. Two areas in SPF can potentially accumulate {sup 137}Cs: sediments located near the effluent discharge and the area located north of this site. An area in the interface of SPF and the bay of Ribeira would potentially the best accumulated of {sup 60}Co. (author)

  4. Application of the linear load normalization technique in specimens SE(T) for the evaluation of structural integrity in conducting ducts of gas and oil; Aplicacao da tecnica de normalizacao linear da carga em especimes SE(T) para a avaliacao de integridade estrutural em dutos condutores de gas e petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovatto, R.R.; Carvalho, A.L.M.; Bose Filho, W.W.; Spinelli, D.; Rugieri, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], e-mail: betaopiovatto@gmail.com

    2006-07-01

    This aim of this work is to evaluate the fracture toughness of pipe lines under high internal pressure, used in the petroliferous industry for transportation of gas and oil. These ducts are produced from high strength low alloy steels, classified as API X60. Therefore, to simulate the stress and strain fields ahead of crack, the SE(T) specimens has been point out as the best specimen geometry. The linear load normalization technique, LLN, has been showed as a promissory technique for obtaining the J-R resistance curves. The J values were obtained following the ASTM 1820 and 1152 standards, with the coefficients modified for this specimen geometry. Side groves were executed to avoid crack tunneling and to maintaining the crack on the plane perpendicular to the loading direction. The J-R curves obtained are compatible for high ductility steels. However, the observed J values seems to high, and the factors affecting this result are discussed in this work. (author)

  5. Study and methodology development for quality control in the production process of iodine-125 radioactive sealed sources applied to brachytherapy; Estudo e desenvolvimento de metodologia para controle de qualidade em processo de producao de fontes seladas de iodo-125 para aplicacao em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Joao Augusto

    2009-07-01

    Today cancer is the second cause of death by disease in several countries, including Brazil. Excluding skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most incident in the population. Prostate tumor can be treated by several ways, including brachytherapy, which consists in introducing sealed radioactive sources (Iodine - 125 seeds) inside the tumor. The target region of treatment receives a high radiation dose, but healthy neighbor tissues receive a significantly reduced radiation dose. The seed is made of a welding sealed titanium capsule, 0.8 mm external diameter and 4.5 mm length, enclosing a 0.5 mm diameter silver wire with Iodine-125 adsorbed. After welded, the seeds have to be submitted to a leak test to prevent any radioactive material release. The aims of this work were: (a) the study of the different leakage test methods applied to radioactive seeds and recommended by the ISO 997820, (b) the choice of the appropriate method and (c) the flowchart determination of the process to be used during the seeds production. The essays exceeded the standards with the use of ultra-sound during immersion and the corresponding benefits to leakage detection. Best results were obtained with the immersion in distilled water at 20 degree C for 24 hours and distilled water at 70 degree C for 30 minutes. These methods will be used during seed production. The process flowchart has all the phases of the leakage tests according to the sequence determined in the experiments. (author)

  6. Application of PtSn/C catalysts and Nafion SiO{sub 2} membranes in direct ethanol fuel cell at high temperatures; Aplicacao de catalisadores PtSn/C e membranas Nafion SiO{sub 2} em celulas a combustivel de etanol direto em elevadas temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresch, Mauro Andre

    2014-07-01

    This work has as objective to evaluate anodes and electrolytes in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) operating at high temperature (130 deg C). As anode materials, electrocatalysts based on Pt Sn/C were prepared by Modified Polyol Method with various Pt:Sn atomic ratios. Such methodology promotes self organized electrocatalysts production with narrow particle size distribution and high alloying degree. The electrocatalysts were characterized by XRD, and CO stripping. The results showed that these materials presented high alloying degree and Eonset CO oxidation at lower potential as commercial materials. As electrolyte, Nafion-SiO{sub 2} hybrids were synthesized by sol-gel reaction, by the incorporation of oxide directly into the ionic aggregates of various kinds of Nafion membranes. The synthesis parameter, such sol-gel solvent, membrane thickness and silicon precursor concentration were studied in terms of silica incorporation degree and hybrid mechanical stability. Finally, the optimized anodes and electrolytes were evaluated in DEFC operating at 80 - 130 deg C temperature range. The results showed a significant improvement of the DEFC performance (122 mW cm{sup -2}), resulted from the acceleration of ethanol oxidation reaction rate due to anode material optimization and high temperature operation once the use of hybrids possibilities the increase of temperature without a significant conductivity loses. In this sense, the combination of optimized electrodes and electrolytes are a promising alternative for the development of these devices. (author)

  7. Application of the mechanism of clean development - MDL to the projects of PCHs operating in isolated system in Brazil; A aplicacao dos mecanismos de desenvolvimento limpo - MDL - em projetos de implantacao de pequenas centrais hidreletricas - PCHs em sistemas isolados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Camila Fernandes

    2006-07-01

    The present work considered to analyze the potential of application of the Mechanism of Clean Development - MDL to the projects of PCHs operating in isolated system. For in such a way, the emissions of gases of effect had been entered greenhouse - GEEs proceeding from a thermoelectric plant operating with diverse types of fuels: oil diesel, combustible oil, natural gas and coal and the emissions of one hydropower plant - a PCH. For comparison effect two scenes of performance of a PCH had been considered standard of 15MW: the first one corresponding to an area flooded of 3km{sup 2} and according to an area of 13km{sup 2}. Had the absence of data of emissions of GEEs for PCHs, a correlation with data of available CO{sub 2} emission of the UHE Curua-Una was established (chosen for the availability of referring data the measurements C-CO{sub 2} emission). The values calculated for the method of chamber of diffusion, which had most of the carbon emissions proceeding from hydropower reservoirs had been used to be proceeding from the diffusion of CO{sub 2} in the surface. The gotten results had demonstrated that it is possible if to credit of the benefits of the MDL through the implantation of PCHs operating in isolated systems in substitution the thermal plants. (author)

  8. Fabrication and study of stability of Ca{sub 2}AlWO{sub 5,5} ceramic in crude petroleum for applications in petroleum industry; Fabricacao e estudo da estabilidade em petroleo cru da ceramica Ca{sub 2}AlWO{sub 5,5} para aplicacao em industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadava, Y.P.; Silva, N.D.G.; Sousa, A.G. de; Sanguinetti Ferreira, R.A., E-mail: dea.a@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    Perovskite-type ceramic oxides or their derivatives are used for applications in high technology because of their enormous range of physic-chemical properties with little change in structural characteristics. In this paper we report manufacture ceramic components of a new ceramic Ca{sub 2}AlWO{sub 5,5} by thermo-mechanical process. Stoichiometric amounts of chemical constituents with high degree of purity, were homogenized using a ball mill and high purity alumina balls, compacted by uniaxial pressing and annealed at 1200 deg C for 48 hours. The structural characterization studied by x-ray diffraction that this material has a typical complex ordered cubic perovskite structure. For the study the stability of these ceramics in crude petroleum circular discs of 20 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness were produced and sintering. These discs were submerged in crude petroleum for 15, 30 and 45 days and were examined at each stage by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and hardness testing and these results show that Ca{sub 2}AlWO{sub 5,5} are stable in crude petroleum environment. (author)

  9. Use of microcontroller in gamma-ray spectrometer construction using NaI(Tl) sensor, with emphasis in multichannel analyzer, to applications in nuclear and environmental geophysics; Uso de microcontrolador na construcao de espectrometro gama com sensor de NaI(Tl), com enfase em analisador multicanal, para aplicacao em geofisica nuclear e ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nilton

    2005-07-01

    In this work of nuclear geophysical instrumentation the main purpose was the development of a gamma-ray spectrometer prototype with multi channel analyzer, since the spectroscopic amplifier until your firmware. The heart of the digital part was an ATMEL 8 bits microcontroller (AT89S8252). All circuits were made and assembled in the Laboratory of Applied Geophysical Instrumentation (LIGA) of IAG-USP. A microcontroller software was completely developed in C ANSI language using the Small Device C Compiler version 2.4.8, that is a free software distributed under General Public License (GPL). At first, microcontroller was used to change all digital circuit of one classic SCINTREX GAD-6 differential gamma-ray spectrometer. Measurement times with order of 2 days became possible, and it could work in non climate ambient. Then, after this stage, had been started the development of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) working in pulse height analyzer mode with 4096 channels capacity, to use in many kinds of nuclear detection. Besides it, was developed an automatic gain system for photopeak stabilization, by the use of one radioactive source ({sup 133}Ba). This automatic gain system is very important in the case of NaI(Tl) scintillometric detectors, due PMT sensitivity with temperature and aging of some laboratory electronic circuits. Two power supplies with high stability, using pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques were developed, in order to all system became free of electrical line break off. One PWM power polarizes a photo multiplier tube (PMT) with high voltage and another supplies remaining developed circuits. Calibration in energy using standards sources {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co showed that gamma detector developed has a good linearity and low thermal drift, even working in absent of air-conditioned. Concentrations measurements of K, U and Th were made in samples of soils, vegetables, etc. (author)'

  10. Synthesis of protons exchange polymeric membranes via co-poly-esters doped with sodium dodecyl sulfate for application in PEM fuel cells; Sintese de membranas polimericas condutoras de protons por imobilizacao de MDs em copoliesteres para aplicacao em PEM-FC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiuza, R.A.; Brioude, M.M.; Bresciani, D.; Jose, N.M.; Boaventura, J.S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Polymers are largely studied for use in PEM-type fuel cell (Proton Exchange membrane, PEMFC). These fuel cells are based on polymer membranes as electrolyte, also called protons conductor. This work developed co-polyesters made electrical conductors by doping with sodium dodecyl sulfate. The copolymers were synthesized from the copolymerization of terephthalic and adipic acids with glycerol. The material was processed in a reactor and shaped by hot pressing, yielding homogeneous and flexible plates, with excellent surface finish. The co-polyesters were analyzed by SEM, FTIR, TG, DSC, and XRD. The thermal analysis showed that the composites were thermally stable up to about 250 deg C. The micrographics revealed the MDS homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. These copolymers showed electrical conductivity between 10-7 to 10-1 S/cm, suggesting strong potential use in PEM fuel cells. (author)

  11. <em>Bacillus anthracisem> Factors for Phagosomal Escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Zornetta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, <em>Bacillus anthracisem> undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, <em>B. anthracisem> secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of <em>B. anthracisem> toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  12. Facetas em dentes anteriores

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Helena Rafaela Lourenço Martins

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária A presente revisão bibliográfica aborda as facetas estéticas em dentes anteriores, pela crescente valorização de um sorriso esteticamente agradável, facto que faz com que as pessoas procurem cada vez mais alternativas de tratamento para melhorar a aparência do seu sorriso. Os dentes anteriores são decisivos na aparência estética e, c...

  13. Bacharelado em Psicopedagogia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Maria Beatriz Jacques; PUCRS

    2007-01-01

    Este texto mostra a história da implantação do Curso de Bacharelado em Psicopedagogia na FACED, PUCRS. Neste texto são apresentados os referenciais teóricos e dados sobre a atuação do psicopedagogo nos campos preventivo e terapêutico explicitando a relevância da formação de profissionais nesta área. Descritores – Psicopedagogia; aprendizagem; problema de aprendizagem.

  14. CORANTES ARTIFICIAIS EM ALIMENTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alexandre PRADO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O emprego de aditivos químicos é, sem dúvida, um dos mais polêmicos avanços alcançados pela indústria de alimentos. Os corantes artificiais pertencem a uma dessas classes de aditivos alimentares e têm sido objeto de muitas críticas, já que seu uso em muitos alimentos justifica-se apenas por questões de hábitos alimentares. Ainda existem diferentes opiniões quanto à inocuidade dos diversos corantes artificiais. Visando, principalmente, o controle no uso dos corantes sintéticos, mas tendo em vista que produtos coloridos artificialmente são exportados e importados, a análise desses aditivos requer métodos eficientes e rápidos para a detecção, identificação e quantificação. A cromatografia em papel e em camada delgada, apesar de serem técnicas relativamente rápidas, apresentam dados com baixa exatidão e precisão. Já na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE as maiores dificuldades encontram-se nas etapas de extração, mas principalmente no alto custo do equipamento. A eletroforese capilar apresenta os mesmos problemas da CLAE, aliados ao fato de se tratar de uma técnica relativamente recente para a análise desse tipo de substância e, portanto, existem poucos estudos a cerca da determinação e quantificação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Corantes artificiais; análise; legislação; CLAE; EC

  15. On subspecific taxonomy of <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Sulla tassonomia sottospecifica di <em>Microtus saviiem> (Rodentia, Arvicolidae Viene riveduta e riassunta la situazione tassonomica sottospecifica di <em>Microtus (Terricola saviiem>, anche tramite la descrizione di due nuovi taxa: <em>Microtus (Terricola savii tolfetanusem>, dei Monti della Tolfa e <em>Microtus (Terricola savii niethammericusem>, del Gargano.

  16. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Brown Planthopper (<em>Nilaparvata em>lugens> Stål

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangcun He

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Brown planthopper (<em>Nilaparvata lugensem> Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae is an economically important pest on rice. In this study, 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from <em>N. lugensem> genomic libraries using the method of Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequence Containing Repeats (FIASCO. Polymorphism of each locus was detected in 48 individuals from two natural populations. These microsatellite loci revealed 2 to 18 alleles, and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.042 to 0.937 and from 0.042 to 0.958, respectively. These markers will be useful for the future study of this agricultural pest in population genetics and molecular genetics.

  18. Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Four Main Vinca Alkaloids from <em>Catharanthus em>roseus> Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yuangang Zu; Xiaorui Guo; Yujie Fu; Meng Luo; Wei Wang; Liuqing Yang; Fansong Mu

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE) followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL), catharanthine (CTR), vincristine (VCR) and vinblastine (VLB) from <em>Catharanthus roseus em>leaves. The optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of −0.075 MPa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of ...

  19. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  20. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  1. Casca de soja em dietas para coelhos em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kohlrausch Klinger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar efeitos da inclusão de casca de soja em substituição ao feno de alfafa sobre o desempenho, características da carcaça e trato gastrointestinal e parâmetros bioquímicos de coelhos em fase de crescimento. Foram utilizados 30 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, divididos igualmente em três tratamentos, compostos pela dieta experimental padrão (sem inclusão de casca de soja; e pelas dietas com 50% e 100% de substituição de alfafa por casca de soja nas respectivas rações experimentais. Concluiu-se que a casca de soja pode ser incluída em dietas para coelhos em crescimento, em substituição ao feno de alfafa em até 100% sem causar danos no desempenho nas características de carcaça e do trato gastrointestinal e parâmetros bioquímicos dos animais, durante a fase de crescimento. Porém, a utilização deste co-produto exige a necessidade de estudos mais aprofundados em virtude da escassez de dados.

  2. Effects of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (Bitter Orange Fruit Extracts and <em>p>-Synephrine on Metabolic Fluxes in the Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marina Peralta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The fruit extracts of <em>Citrus aurantiumem> (bitter orange are traditionally used as weight-loss products and as appetite supressants. An important fruit component is <em>p>-synephrine, which is structurally similar to the adrenergic agents. Weight-loss and adrenergic actions are always related to metabolic changes and this work was designed to investigate a possible action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism. The isolated perfused rat liver was used to measure catabolic and anabolic pathways, including oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. The <em>C. aurantiumem> extract and <em>p>-synephrine increased glycogenolysis, glycolysis, oxygen uptake and perfusion pressure. These changes were partly sensitive to a- and b-adrenergic antagonists. <em>p>-Synephrine (200 mM produced an increase in glucose output that was only 15% smaller than the increment caused by the extract containing 196 mM <em>p>-synephrine. At low concentrations the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract tended to increase gluconeogenesis, but at high concentrations it was inhibitory, opposite to what happened with <em>p>-synephrine. The action of the <em>C. aurantiumem> extract on liver metabolism is similar to the well known actions of adrenergic agents and can be partly attributed to its content in <em>p>-synephrine. Many of these actions are catabolic and compatible with the weight-loss effects usually attributed to <em>C. aurantiumem>.

  3. Identification and Characterization of a <em>Bursaphelenchus xylophilusem> (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae Thermotolerance-Related Gene: <em>Bx-HSP90em>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danlei Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures directly influence the distribution and intensity of pine wilt disease caused by the pine wood nematode, <em>Bursaphelenchus xylophilusem>. To date, however, little is known about the causation and mechanism of this influence. The molecular chaperone HSP90 is a key component that contributes to survival in the abiotic stress response. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the survival of <em>B. xylophilusem> and the functionality of the HSP90 gene<em>.> <em>Bx-HSP90 em>was cloned from a suppression subtractive hybridization library. <em>In situem> mRNA hybridization showed that <em>Bx-HSP90em> was constitutively expressed in response to all of the temperatures tested, and RT-PCR indicated that all of the temperatures could induce <em>Bx-HSP90 em>transcription, with the highest transcript level detected at 30 °C. The suppression of the <em>Bx-HSP90em> transcript by RNA interference led to a 25% reduction in the number of nematodes at 30 °C after 44 h. Sharp declines in the survival of the RNAi-treated nematodes were observed after 8 days at 25 °C, 48 h at 30 °C and 24 h at 35 °C. Both heat shock and the knockdown of <em>Bx-HSP90 em>hindered the growth of the <em>B. xylophilusem> populations. The results indicate that <em>Bx-HSP90em> is essential for the survival of <em>B. xylophilusem>, confirming the thermoregulatory function of the gene, and delineate the timeframe and temperature range within which the gene function occurs.

  4. A New Benzofuran Derivative from <em>Flemingia philippinensisem> Merr. et Rolfe

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    Hua Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new prenylated benzofuran derivative, named flemiphilippinone A, was isolated together with ten known flavonoids from the roots of <em>Flemingia philippinensisem>. Flemiphilippinone A was identified as (2<em>S>,3a<em>S>-5-(1-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl- propylidene-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl-3a,7-bis(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yltetrahydrobenzo- furan-4,6(2<em>H>,5<em>H>-dione, and its structure was established by a combination of HR EIMS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY spectra data.

  5. Flashes em Circuito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Lara Camargos Walty

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflexão sobre o papel da narrativa urbana no tratamento do tema da exclusão social, tendo como ponto de partida uma leitura do livro Passaporte, de Fernando Bonassi, que envolve a discussão do próprio gênero, a partir, sobretudo, da teoria do conto de Ricardo Piglia e de sua retomada das Seis propostas para o próximo milênio, de Ítalo Calvino, em artigo recente.

  6. Sade em Lacan

    OpenAIRE

    Riaviz, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Esta dissertação analisa o lugar do Marquês de Sade no ensino de Lacan. Começamos por reconstruir a recepção de Sade pela vanguarda francesa, particularmente no movimento surrealista e nos seus dissidentes. Em seguida, acompanhamos as modificações do lugar de Sade na obra de Lacan. Para isto nos orientamos nos seis paradigmas do gozo através dos quais J.-A. Miller ordena a doutrina lacaniana...

  7. Nanodispositivos baseados em grafeno

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Padilha de Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Nesta tese investigamos a partir de cálculos de primeiros princípios, dispositivos e componentes de dispositivos baseados em grafeno. Abordamos os campos da nanoeletrônica e da spintrônica. Dentro da nanoeletrônica investigamos: (i) propriedades de transporte de um nanotransistor de bicamada de grafeno na presença de um gate duplo. Demonstramos que sobre a ação de um campo elétrico externo, mesmo utilizando um gate da ordem de 10 nm, à temperatura ambiente e 4.5K uma corrente nula nunca é exi...

  8. Perspectives on EM metamaterials

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    Christophe Caloz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM metamaterials have become a field of intense research activities. This paper presents a critical perspective of the field, with emphasis on fundamental concepts and practical applications. Metamaterials are explained in the general context of periodic structures. Resonant particle type and transmission line type metamaterials are compared, and their fundamental connection is established. Exotic phenomena recently reported and associated challenges are briefly reviewed. Practical applications are enumerated and illustrated by an example. The paper concludes with an optimistic outlook regarding the future of metamaterials.

  9. Perossomus elumbis em bovino

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Relato de um caso de distocia fetal em uma fêmea bovina mestiça Holandesa)Gir, provocado pela presença do monstro fetal Perossomus elumbis. Foi observado que o monstro fetal apresentava agenesia de vértebras lombares e coccígeas, com hi-poplasia da medula vertebral, terminando na região das últimas vértebras torácicas. A pelve apresentava-se hipoplásica com estreitamento do canal pélvico e anquilose dos membros posteriores e articulações da bacia, bem como atrofia muscular.  

  10. O insight em psiquiatria

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    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo está a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconheça que alguma coisa de estranho se está a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma função activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recuperação. Cada doença apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doença psiquiátrica consiste em diferentes perturbações com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fenómeno do insight que é registado em cada doença é diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, não somente devido às manifestações clínicas da doença mas também devido às características individuais do sujeito.

  11. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

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    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available O índice de infecções pós-operatórias em pacientes neuro-cirúrgicos que receberam antibióticos profiláticos neste período foi comparado com o de pacientes que não receberam antibióticos. Infecções ocorreram em proporções significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibióticos, particularmente naqueles com afecções intracranianas graves; estas infecções foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administração de antibióticos profiláticos nestes pacientes não só foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infecções pós-operatórias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, à destruição do equilíbrio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patogênicos e resistentes aos antibióticos usuais

  12. <em>Ipomoea aquaticaem> Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Suzy Munir Salama; Salim Said Alkiyumi; Mahmood Ameen Abdullah; Ahmed Salim Alrashdi

    2012-01-01

    In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda) it is recommended to consume <em>Ipomoea em>aquatica> to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of <em>I. aquaticaem> against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with <em>...

  13. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from <em>Birch> (<em>Betula platyphylla em>Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the <em>CesA> gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from<em> Betula platyphyllaem> Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as <em>BplCesA3em>, <em>−4em>,> −7 em>and> −8em>. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their <em>Arabidopsis> homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four <em>BplCesAs> were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in <em>Betula>. The distinct expression pattern of the four <em>BplCesAs> suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in <em>Betula.>

  14. <em>N>-Substituted 5-Chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-ones: Synthesis, Insecticidal Activity Against <em>Plutella xylostella em>(L. and SAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of <em>N>-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for <em>in vitroem> insecticidal activity against <em>Plutella xylostellaem>. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one compounds possessed good insecticidal activities, especially the compounds 4b, 4d, and 4h which showed > 90% activity at 100 mg/L. The structure-activity relationships (SAR for these compounds were also discussed.

  15. Fisioterapia motora em pacientes adultos em terapia intensiva

    OpenAIRE

    Borges,Vanessa Marcos; Oliveira,Luiz Rogério Carvalho de; Peixoto,Elzo; Carvalho, Nilza Aparecida de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo desse estudo é realizar uma revisão da literatura abordando o tema fisioterapia motora para pacientes adultos em unidade de terapia intensiva. A busca de artigos científicos foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, MedLine (Literatura Internacional em Ciências e Saúde), LILACS (Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências e Saúde) e Cochrane entre 1995 e dezembro de 2008 utilizando as palavras-chaves: physical therapy, mobilization and intensive care unit. Para efeito de com...

  16. Osteoporose em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  17. Bullyng em jovens LGBT

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Neuza Santos; Martins, Emíla orient.

    2013-01-01

    O bullying homofóbico é uma forma específica de assédio que ocorre quando a vitimização é motivada pelo preconceito homossexual. Os jovens alunos, lésbicas, gays, bissexuais e transsexuais (LGBT), vítimas desta forma de bullying estão mais vulneráveis à exclusão social, isolamento e aquisição de comportamentos de risco. O presente projeto de investigação pretende contribuir para a compreensão de questões relacionadas com os episódios de bullying em jovens LGBT, sempre na per...

  18. Iatrogenia em cardiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Afonso Celso; Franken,Roberto Alexandre; Sprovieri,Sandra Regina Schwarzwalder; Golin,Valdir

    2000-01-01

    O termo iatrogenia vem do grego e refere-se a qualquer alteração patológica provocada no paciente pela má prática médica. Infelizmente, o risco de sua ocorrência convive constantemente no manuseio das doenças cardíacas. Podem ser considerados dois tipos de iatrogenia: iatrogenia de ação, ou decorrente da ação médica, e iatrogenia de omissão, relacionada à falta de ação do médico. As iatrogenias ocorrem em todas as fases do ato médico, desde a relação com o paciente, passando pelo diagnóstico,...

  19. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (“descrição do mar” interessa-sepelos impactos físicos, biológicos, ecológicos... culturais da violenta antropização dos ambientes costeiros (oceânicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexigüidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil é um “país marítimo”, os geó-grafos (os talassógrafos brasileiros são convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas áreas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulgá-las: Revista, Encontros, Associação, Pós-Graduação... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  20. Marcas culturais em interface

    OpenAIRE

    Mazutti, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Estudos da Tradução A cultura é fator determinante para a língua e, portanto, para todos os atos de compreensão e interpretação da mesma. Língua e cultura estão intrinsecamente interligadas, fazendo parte da identidade não só individual, mas também da sociedade como um todo. Permeando tal relação encontramos o tradutor, que assume o papel de intermediador cultura...

  1. Constrangimentos posturais em ergonomia

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Cláudio Roberto de Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. A incorporação da Ergonomia no projeto e gerenciamento do consultório odontológico é fundamental, com o objetivo de adequar e adaptar o trabalho ao cirurgião dentista. Neste trabalho de pesquisa, a aplicação de conceitos atuais da Ergonomia se fez necessária para que fosse possível a obtenção de dados para uma análise apurada com relação às posturas ad...

  2. Short and Long-Term Effects of <em>Baccharis articulataem> on Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio H. Reginatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the<em> in vivoem> effect of the crude extract and <em>n>-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of <em>Baccharis articulataem> (Lam. Pers. on serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and liver and muscle glycogen content, as well as<em> in vitroem> action on serum intestinal disaccharidase activity and albumin glycation were investigated. Oral administration of the extract and fractions reduced glycemia in hyperglycemic rats. Additionally, the <em>n>-butanol fraction, which has high flavonoids content, stimulated insulin secretion, exhibiting an insulinogenic index similar to that of glipizide. Also, the <em>n>-butanol fraction treatment significantly increased glycogen content in both liver and muscle tissue. <em>In vitroem> incubation with the crude extract and <em>n>-butanol and aqueous residual fractions inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs. Thus, the results demonstrated that <em>B. articulataem> exhibits a significant antihyperglycemic and insulin-secretagogue role. These effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for <em>B. articulataem> indicate potential anti-diabetic properties.

  3. Synthesis of 1,2,3-Triazole Derivatives and <em>in Vitroem> Antifungal Evaluation on <em>Candida> Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir G. Wanderley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available 1,2,3-Triazoles have been extensively studied as compounds possessing important biological activities. In this work, we describe the synthesis of ten 2-(1-aryl-1<em>H>-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylpropan-2-ols via copper catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAc or <em>click chemistryem>. Next the<em> in vitroem> antifungal activity of these ten compounds was evaluated using the microdilution broth method against 42 isolates of four different <em>Candida> species. Among all tested compounds, the halogen substituted triazole 2-[1-(4-chlorophenyl-1<em>H>-(1,2,3triazol-4-yl]propan-2-ol, revealed the best antifungal profile, showing that further modifications could be done in the structure to obtain a better drug candidate in the future.

  4. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 °C and 60 °C was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  5. Conhecimento e interesse em economia

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    João Antonio de Paula

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo argumenta em favor da necessidade de preservar o pluralismo em economia. Discute: i a natureza do conhecimento e de sua produção; ii as especificidades da produção do conhecimento em economia e os condicionamentos histórico-culturais do conhecimento; iii as implicações da hegemonia de certa concepção de método em economia.The article argues the need to preserve the pluralism in economics. The article examines: i the nature of the knowledge and of its production; ii the specificity of the knowledge production in economics and the historical and cultural conditionings of the knowledge; iii the implications of the hegemony of a certain methodological conception in economics.

  6. Induction Coilgun for EM Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Agency is investigating electromagnetic (EM) guns for the next generation combat vehicle providing improved performance and survivability without the...use of propellant. The two-year program was initiated in 2005 to design a coilgun and a railgun to launch an existing mortar round with an EM...through a structural frame. Capacitor bank modules currently in fabrication and test utilize 1980’s technology capacitors , but new ideas in

  7. Two New Compounds Isolated from<em> Liriope muscariem>

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    Rui-Chao Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new compounds, (2<em>S>,3<em>R>-methyl 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl-3-(hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-5-carboxylate (1 and (4<em>R,>5<em>S>-5-(3-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylphenyl-4-isopropyldihydrofuran-2-one (2, tentatively named norcurlignan and limlactone, respectively, were isolated from <em>Liriope muscariem>, together with the known compound (−-pinoresinol (3. The structures of these compounds were elucidated and characterized on the basis of 1D NMR, 2D NMR, CD and MS data. The <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activities of compounds 13 were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods.

  8. Chemical Composition<em> em>of Hexane Extract of <em>Citrus aurantifoliaem> and<em> em>Anti->Mycobacterium tuberculosisem> Activity of Some of Its Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to isolate and characterize the active compounds from the hexane extract of the fruit peels of <em>Citrus aurantiifoliaem>, which showed activity against one sensitive and three monoresistant (isoniazid, streptomycin or ethambutol strains of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis em>H37Rv. The active extract was fractionated by column chromatography, yielding the following major compounds: 5-geranyloxypsoralen (1; 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (2; 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (3; 5-methoxypsoralen (4; and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (5. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. In addition, GC-MS analysis of the hexane extract allowed the identification of 44 volatile compounds, being 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (15.79%, 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (8.27%, 1-methoxy-ciclohexene (8.0%, corylone (6.93%, palmitic acid (6.89%, 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen (6.08%, a-terpineol (5.97%, and umbelliferone (4.36%, the major constituents. Four isolated coumarins and 16 commercial compounds identified by GC-MS were tested against <em>M. tuberculosisem> H37Rv and three multidrug-resistant <em>M. tuberculosisem> strains using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The constituents that showed activity against all strains were 5 (MICs = 25–50 mg/mL, 1 (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, palmitic acid (MICs = 25–50 mg/mL, linoleic acid (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, oleic acid (MICs = 100 mg/mL, 4-hexen-3-one (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL, and citral (MICs = 50–100 mg/mL. Compound 5 and palmitic acid were the most active ones. The antimycobacterial activity of the hexane extract of <em>C. aurantifoliaem> could be attributed to these compounds.

  9. Regional Suppression of <em>Bactrocera> Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bactrocera> fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of <em>Bactrocera> spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>cucurbitae> (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, <em>Psyttalia> <em>fletcheri> (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of <em>Bactrocera> <em>dorsalis> (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which <em>Fopius> <em>arisanus> (Sonan, <em>Diachasmimorpha> <em>longicaudata> (Ashmead and <em>Fopius> <em>vandenboschi> (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for <em>Bactrocera> spp. but also for <em>Ceratitis> and <em>Anastrepha> spp. Most recently, in 2002, <em>F.> <em>arisanus> was introduced into French Polynesia where <em>B.> <em>dorsalis> had invaded in 1996. Establishment of <em>D.> <em>longicaudata> into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against <em>Anastrepha> spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of <em>Bactrocera> spp. into new areas of the world (<em>i.e.>, South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where <em>B.> <em>carambolae> and <em>B.> <em>invadens>, respectively, have become established. In addition, <em>P.> <em>fletcheri> is a candidate for biological control of <em>B.> <em>cucurbitae> in Africa. We review past and more

  10. Antioxidant Activity of Various Parts of <em>Cinnamomum> cassiaem> Extracted with Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yeh Chuang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities of various parts (barks, buds, and leaves of <em>Cinnamomum cassia em>extracted with ethanol and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. For the antioxidant activity comparison, IC50 values of the SFE and ethanol extracts in the DPPH scavenging assay were 0.562–10.090 mg/mL and 0.072–0.208 mg/mL, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values were 6.789–58.335 mmole Trolox/g and 133.039–335.779 mmole Trolox/g, respectively. In addition, the total flavonoid contents were 0.031–1.916 g/ 100 g dry weight of materials (DW and 2.030–3.348 g/ 100 g DW, and the total phenolic contents were 0.151–2.018 g/ 100 g DW and 6.313–9.534 g/ 100 g DW in the SFE and ethanol extracts, respectively. Based on the results, the ethanol extracts of <em>Cinnamon> barks have potential value as an antioxidant substitute and this study also provide a better technique to extract the natural antioxidant substances from <em>C. cassiaem>.

  11. A new Appenninic station of <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> Pallas, 1979 (Rodentia, Gliridae / Nuova stazione appenninica di <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> (Pallas, 1779 (Rodentia, Gliridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Filippucci

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new record of <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> from the massif of Pollino (Southern Italy is given and the value of the subspecific division (<em>D. nitedula intermediusem>, <em>D. nitedula aspromontisem> in Italy is discussed. Riassunto Viene segnalato il ritrovamento di un esemplare di <em>Dryomys nitedulaem> sul Massiccio del Pollino e ridiscusso il valore della ripartizione sottospecifica (<em>D. nitedula intermediusem>, <em>D. nitedula aspromontisem> in Italia.

  12. <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia Vespertilionidae: correction of gender and etymology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Riccucci

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926 (Mammalia, Verspetilionidae: Correzione del genere grammaticale ed etimologia <em>Neoromicia> Roberts, 1926, sinora considerato erroneamente di genere maschile, è in realtà femminile. La sua etimologia deriva quasi certamente dal Greco antico "ρóμιζα", corrispondente al latino "<em>Rumex>" (sorta di giavellotto, per la presenza di un cospicuo sperone calcaneale in <em>Romicia calcarataem>, specie tipo del genere.

  13. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

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    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3α-<em>O>-β-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 13 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 13 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  14. CATETERES EM TERAPIA INTENSIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Deus Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com os objetivos de identificar falhas na administração de medicamentos por sondas e caracterizar a interrupção ou não da nutrição no caso de medicamentos que exigem jejum relativo. Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, observacional, numa terapia intensiva, com amostra de 350 doses administradas por 56 técnicos de enfermagem. Resultados mostraram que não houve pausa entre a administração do medicamento e a infusão de dieta enteral em 116 (33,14% doses de medicamentos que necessitavam de jejum relativo, entre os quais captopril, varfarina sódica, levotiroxina sódica, digoxina e fenitoína sódica. A irrigação das sondas não ocorreu na maioria dos casos (94,28%. Conclui-se que é possível que os medicamentos citados tenham tido sua biodisponibilidade sérica reduzida, comprometendo sua eficácia terapêutica e que a falta da prática de irrigar sondas com água estéril, antes de administrar medicamentos, configura-se como a ausência de um cuidado específico fundamental para evitar a obstrução das mesmas.

  15. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de galáxias, por exemplo) é um ativo tópico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detecção de um único aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por vínculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmológicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares próximos entre si em z Â3 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extraídos do catálogo de Véron-Cetty & Véron (2001) e estão sendo observados com os telescópios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observatório de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a análise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 Å) e z'(9500 Å) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se útil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste método possibilitou a detecção de sete objetos candidatos a galáxias "early-type". Num mapa da distribuição projetada dos objetos para 22 < i' < 25 observou-se que estas galáxias estão localizadas próximas a um dos quasares e há indícios de que estejam aglomeradas dentro de um área de ~ 6 arcmin2. Se esse for o caso, estes objetos seriam membros de uma estrutura em grande escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hipótese é que eles obedecem uma relação do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas galáxias elípticas em z = 0.

  16. Chemical Profiles and Identification of Key Compound Caffeine in Marine-Derived Traditional Chinese Medicine <em>Ostreae em>concha>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Bing Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To compare the chemical differences between the medicinal and<em> em>cultured oyster shells, their chemical profiles were investigated. Using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-electron spraying ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS, combined with principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA, the discrimination of the chemical characteristics among the medicinal and cultured oyster shells was established. Moreover, the chemometric analysis revealed some potential key compounds. After a large-scale extraction and isolation, one target key compound was unambiguously identified as caffeine (1 based on extensive spectroscopic data analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, and UV and comparison with literature data.

  17. Tratamento da dor em queimados

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    Rodrigo José Alencar de Castro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Apesar dos avanços, ainda é observado manejo analgésico inadequado dos pacientes com queimaduras. O objetivo desta revisão foi coletar dados sobre tratamento da dor em queimados. CONTEÚDO: Foi feita revisão sobre os mecanismos de dor, avaliação do paciente com queimadura e o tratamento farmacológico e não farmacológico. CONCLUSÕES: O manejo da dor em pacientes vítimas de queimaduras ainda é um desafio por parte da equipe multiprofissional. A avaliação frequente e contínua da resposta apresentada pelo paciente é muito importante, tendo em vista os vários momentos por que passa o paciente internado em decorrência de uma queimadura, além de uma terapêutica combinada com medicações analgésicas e medidas não farmacológicas. Entender a complexidade de alterações fisiopatológicas, psicológicas e bioquímicas apresentadas por um paciente em tratamento de queimadura é o primeiro passo para alcançar o sucesso no seu manejo analgésico.

  18. Botulismo tipo C em perus em Minas Gerais, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato,Francisco Carlos Faria; Salvarani,Felipe Masiero; Silva,Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Assis,Ronnie Antunes de; Lago,Luis Alberto do; Carvalho Filho,Maurício Baltazar de; Martins,Nelson Rodrigo da Silva

    2009-01-01

    O botulismo é uma intoxicação causada pela ingestão das toxinas produzidas pelo Clostridium botulinum, que acomete mamíferos e aves e é caracterizado por um quadro de paralisia flácida. Neste trabalho, é descrito um surto de botulismo em perus, ocorrido no município de Santa Luzia, região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Os animais apresentavam incoordenação motora, paralisia flácida das patas, asas e pescoço. Em um intervalo de 24 horas, todos os 29 animais do plantel vieram a ...

  19. The use of apoptosis in human lymphocytes peripheral as alternative methods in biological dosimetry of radiation effects from cobalt-60; O uso da apoptose de linfocitos perifericos humanos como metodo alternativo em dosimetria biologica dos efeitos da radiacao do cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemes, Marisa

    1997-07-01

    Gamma rays affect cells in dose-response manner, resulting in cell death, as in cancer radiotherapy. The ionizing radiation acts by transferring energy, mainly by free radicals from water radiolysis that result in nucleic acid damage and other effects in lipids and proteins, The level of exposure is indirectly estimated by physical dosimetry, but the biological dosimetry can measure the direct radiation effect, mainly in post-dividing cells by classical cytogenetic approach. Recently, it was reported that irradiated cells develop an induced programmed death or apoptosis. With a biological dosimetric technique, we measured apoptotic cell fraction in {sup 60}Co in vitro irradiated blood cells from voluntary healthy donors. The agarose gel electrophoresis showed a low sensitivity, because cell DNA presented the characteristic pattern only when the cells were exposed to 100 c Gy or more. Using a terminal DNA labeling technique we observed that the apoptotic cell fraction proportionally increases with irradiation. Similar sensitivity was observed when compared to classical cytogenetics (3 c Gy minimum detection level). These techniques are easier to perform, do not need cell culture and all cells, including interphase ones, can be analyzed, providing a good tool in biological dosimetry. (author)

  20. Comparison between IAEA/TRS-277 and IAEA/TRS-398 protocols for electron beam dosimetry with cylindrical ionization chambers; Comparacao entre os protocolos IAEA/TRS-277 e IAEA/TRS-398 para dosimetria em feixes de eletrons com camaras de ionizacao cilindricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Roberto Salomon de

    2004-07-01

    With the purpose to guarantee an uncertainty in the dosimetry in radiation therapy, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published in 1987 the Technical Reports Series (TRS) number 277 - Absorbed Dose Determination in Photon and Electron Beams - An International Code of Practice -, updated in 1997, when was published its second edition. In 2000 was published the TRS number 398 - Absorbed Dose Determination in External Beam Radiotherapy - An International Code of Practice for Dosimetry Based on Standards of Absorbed Dose to Water. The TRS number 398 brings a great conceptual change in relation to the basis of the formalism, before based on calibration factor in terms of air kerma, and now based on calibration factor in terms of absorbed dose in water. Since the TRS number 398 was published, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories are calibrating the user's ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water. However, nor all the clinics in Rio de Janeiro and Brazil have its ionization chambers calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water. The National Cancer Institute, where the measurements were taken, was the first institution in the Rio de Janeiro to have its ionization chambers calibrated in terms of a new formalism. This work describes a comparison between dosimetry done with a cylindrical ionization chamber under electron beams utilizing the TRS number 277 formalism, based on air kerma, and the TRS number 398 formalism, based on absorbed dose to water, reporting the uncertainties variation of the dosimetry associated to each protocol. (author)

  1. Comparison between indicators dosimetric released by teams and estimates by dosimetry TLD in the mammography of the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre; Comparacion entre los indicadores dosimetricos dados por equipos y los estimados mediante dosimetria TLD em los mamografos del Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rot San Juan, M. J.; Martinez Gomez, L. C.; Gilarranz Moreno, R.; Milanes Gaillet, A. I.; Adaimi Hernandez, P.; Delgado rodriguez, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    With the incorporation of new technology, computers have indicators of dose for this magnitude. In this work we will compare to the mammography in our area the measure with the DSE TLD values thrown by the equipment. (Author)

  2. Dosimetry, hematological toxicity and evaluation of chromosomal damage of Sm-153-EDTMP in patients with bone metastases and rheumatoid arthritis; Dosimetria, toxicidade hematologica e avaliacao do dano cromossomico do Sm-153-EDTMP em pacientes portadores de metastases osseas e artrite reumatoide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury; Marinho, Norma V.S.; Ono, Carla R.; Rocha, Euclides T.; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: micguima@br2001.com.br; Silva, Marcia A. da; Okasaki, Kayo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: masilva@net.ipen.br

    2001-07-01

    Samarium-153-EDTMP has been successfully used for pain palliation in metastatic bone cancer to a lesser extend in rheumatoid arthritis. Were studied 110 patients, 90 with metastatic bone cancer and 20 with rheumatoid arthritis. Each patient received 37 MBq/kg (1mCi/kg) of Sm-153-EDTMP, intravenously injected. Urine samples were collected during 6 hours. Blood samples were collected before and one hour after the injection. The MIRD formalism was utilized for dosimetric calculations. The absorbed dose for red marrow, cortical and trabecular for patients with rheumatoid arthritis were respectively: 206{+-}66,38 cGy; 544,04{+-}171,31 cGy; 630,80{+-}197,15 cGy. For the patients with metastatic bone cancer, the absorbed dose for red marrow was 319,07{+-}94,06 cGy, cortical 841,58{+-}236,12 cGy; trabecular 978,23{+-} 264,05 cGy. The leukocyte counts decreased 48,5%{+-}19%, the platelets 54,7%{+-}26% and hemoglobin 13,7%{+-}11%, from the baseline values. The principal kind of the structural aberrations observed were: acentric fragments, breaks, chromosomal gaps, centric ring and double minute. The number of the aberrations in blood cells, after the application of Sm-153-EDTMP, was 2,13 times bigger than the baseline. The absorbed dose radiation, the hematological and genetics effects established were in the limits accepted for this kind of treatment. (author)

  3. Divisão de trabalho em cuidados à prole em Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes, Emberizidae), em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado

    1988-01-01

    São relatadas observações relativas à divisão de trabalho em cuidados à prole em Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin) e S. f. pelzelni (Sclater), em condições de cativeiro.Observations relating to the division of labour for young care in Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin) and S. f. pelzelni (Sclater), in captivity, are presented.

  4. Narcisismo e corporeidade em Freud

    OpenAIRE

    Gaio, Fernando Moysés

    2015-01-01

    A indagação deste estudo parte da constatação de que Freud atribui uma origem narcísica ao eu, e, ao mesmo tempo, refere-se ao eu como um eu corporal. Essa afirmação coloca em questão a relação do narcisismo com a corporeidade, que não é explicitamente tematizada em sua obra, aparecendo sempre de forma dispersa ao longo de seu desenvolvimento. As referências a respeito do tema do narcisismo em suas obras revelam, além disso, uma contínua evolução do seu conceito. Neste estudo, acompanha-se pr...

  5. Rural Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... freestanding program. Your state's EMS agency can provide information about regional or statewide trauma systems. How can local EMS agencies be integrated into the local and regional systems of trauma ...

  6. Formamido-Diterpenes from the South China Sea Sponge <em>Acanthella cavernosaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hua Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seven new formamido-diterpenes, cavernenes A–D (14, kalihinenes E and F (56, and kalihipyran C (7, together with five known compounds (812, were isolated from the South China Sea sponge <em>Acanthella cavernosaem>. Structures were established using IR, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and single X-ray diffraction techniques. The isolated compounds were assessed for their cytotoxicity against a small panel of human cancer cell lines (HCT-116, A549, HeLa, QGY-7701, and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values in the range of 6–18 μM. In addition, compound 9 showed weak antifungal activity against <em>Trichophyton rubrumem> and <em>Microsporum gypseumem> with MIC values of 8 and 32 μg/mL, respectively, compound 10 displayed weak antifungal activity against fungi <em>Candida albicansem>, <em>C>ryptococcus neoformansem>, <em>T. rubrumem>, and<em> M. gypseum em>with MIC values of 8, 8, 4, and 8 μg/mL, respectively.

  7. Objetos mediadores em museus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Um museu participativo incentiva a que a experiência da visita seja criativa e pessoal. Facilita a participação biográfica do visitante - com a sua experiência, conhecimento e interesses. Muitas exposições, porém, não promovem esse envolvimento pessoal. Neste artigo apresentamos uma revisão da literatura que indicia que a mediação com objetos mediadores facilita o envolvimento pessoal, a construção de conhecimento e a criatividade. O problema teórico que colocamos é se os museus mais tradicionais se podem abrir à participação e, neste contexto, o nosso objetivo é perceber que papel podem ter os objetos mediadores nesse processo. Discutimos o recurso a objetos mediadores como forma de adicionar múltiplos níveis de relação e modos de ver, potencial que consideramos subaproveitado em muitos museus. Começamos por apresentar o museu como espaço potencialmente participativo, que convida a um envolvimento ativo e crítico – ativo, porque o visitante é desafiado a fazer coisas; crítico, porque é estimulado a pensar, optar, discutir e refletir. Discutimos depois diferentes formas de usar objetos mediadores para incentivar o visitante a um envolvimento com os artefactos, recorrendo à memória, experiência, conhecimento e sentimentos. A participação biográfica potencia o cruzamento entre o mundo interior do visitante e os artefactos e conteúdos do museu. Esse espaço de cruzamento - inbetween - é o espaço da construção de conhecimento. Apresentamos diversas formas de um museu, mesmo não sendo interativo, se tornar mais criativo e participativo, o que pode contribuir para uma mudança nas práticas dos museus, nomeadamente na montagem e remodelação de exposições permanentes.

  8. Treino cognitivo em idosos institucionalizados

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Sara Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Face ao crescimento e longevidade da população idosa na sociedade atual torna-se cada vez mais necessário criar estratégias em prol de um Envelhecimento Ativo, ambicionando mais qualidade nos anos vividos. Sabe-se que ao longo do desenvolvimento humano existem perdas e ganhos. Estudos documentam declínio da capacidade da memória em indivíduos de idade avançada. No entanto, existem inúmeras evidências científicas da plasticidade cerebral que fundamentam a intervenção cognitiva através de Progr...

  9. Alegoria redimida em Walter Benjamin

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Borges

    2012-01-01

    Este estudo apresenta o decurso da alegoria na obra benjaminiana circunscrevendo a investigação a três momentos principais: o livro Origem do drama barroco alemão, em que a alegoria é resgatada do esquecimento e, considerando a significativa expressividade do luto (Trauer) e da melancolia na constituição do teatro barroco, ganha um lugar cativo no âmbito estético, bem como, além disso, funciona como representação da história na perspectiva de literatos do século XVII; Rua de mão única, em que...

  10. Cluster de ventiladores em Catanduva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Onusic

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de um levantamento feito na cidade de Catanduva sobre a indústria de ventiladores nela instalada. É, inicialmente, apresentado o conceito de cluster, para, em seguida, serem apresentadas as características do setor de ventiladores de Catanduva, fazendo uma comparação desse setor com o conceito de cluster. Diversos aspectos mostram o interesse em considerar o setor como um cluster e são feitas sugestões para seu aprimoramento.

  11. Hiperplasia gengival medicamentosa em Odontopediatria

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Lília Carla Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Um periodonto saudável com os seus constituintes é uma parte fundamental para uma boa saúde oral em qualquer género e idade. As crianças também são afetadas por patologias periodontais, nomeadamente a hiperplasia gengival; esta pode ser de variados tipos e etiologias, sendo um desses tipos a hiperplasia gengival medicamentosa (HGM) p...

  12. Procedimentos substantivos em auditoria financeira

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Sofia Pires dos

    2014-01-01

    O presente relatório visa a conclusão do mestrado em Auditoria e Análise Financeira, cujo tema é Auditoria Financeira e procura apresentar as tarefas desenvolvidas por mim, durante o estágio curricular, enquanto assistente de auditoria na empresa Rosa Lopes Gonçalves Mendes & Associados, SROC, Lda., no Entroncamento durante 22 semanas. O relatório é composto por quatro capítulos em que nos primeiros três capítulos faço uma abordagem teórica geral à auditoria financeira, cujo objetivo é a i...

  13. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade em aveia em ambientes estratificados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Ivandro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vinte cultivares de aveia (Avena sativa L. foram avaliados para rendimento de grãos nas safras agrícolas de 2001 e 2002 em nove locais dos estados do Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e São Paulo, com o objetivo de avaliar as estimativas dos componentes de adaptabilidade e estabilidade do rendimento de grãos em ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis em presença e ausência de aplicação de fungicida. Foi empregada a metodologia de EBERHART & RUSSELL (1966. A presença de significância para anos, genótipos, fungicidas e locais, indicou comportamento diferencial de genótipos frente às variações de ambiente e a aplicação de fungicida, nas condições de ambientes favoráveis e desfavoráveis. A aplicação de fungicida e o favorecimento do ambiente de cultivo afetaram intensamente os parâmetros de adaptabilidade (b1 e estabilidade (s²d i, indicando que estas estimativas devam ser realizadas em ambientes estratificados, apesar de nenhuma constituição genética ter evidenciado o biótipo ideal, conforme preconizado pelo modelo adotado.

  14. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, <em>Bactrocera dorsalisem> (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of <em>B>. <em>dorsalis> to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes <em>Betaproteobacteria>, <em>Alphaproteobacteria>, <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, <em>Bacilli> and <em>Actinobacteria>. Nine OTUs were assigned to <em>Gammaproteobacteria>, which was the most highly represented class. <em>Enterobacteriaceae> constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including <em>Enterobacter sakazakiiem>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>oxytoca>, <em>Klebsiella> <em>pneumoniae,> Raoultellaem> <em>terrigena em>and <em>Enterobacter> <em>amnigenus>. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by <em>R.> terrigenaem>, <em>K. oxytocaem> and <em>K.> pneumoniae em>were attractive to the <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults, and in field studies, <em>B.> dorsalisem> adults were most attracted to <em>K.> oxytocaem>. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  15. Effects of Two Varieties of <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> Maize on the Biology of <em>Plodia interpunctellaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Grégoire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On the market since 1996, genetically modified plants expressing an insecticidal toxin (Cry toxin stemmed from <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> target several lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the impact of two varieties of <em>Bt em>maize producing different toxins (Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa, respectively on the biology of a storage pest: <em>Plodia interpunctella em>(Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. The Indianmeal moths were susceptible to both toxins but showed an escape behavior only from Cry1Fa. The weight of females issued from larvae reared on Cry1Ab increased with increasing toxin concentration, but adults of both sexes reared on Cry1Fa had decreased weight. Both toxins increased development time from egg to adult regardless of sex and had no impact on the male adult lifespan. Finally, we recorded a time lag between metamorphosis from the non-<em>Bt em>and the <em>Bt em>diets, which increased proportionally to Cry concentration in the <em>Bt em>diet.

  16. Antifungal Activity, Toxicity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of <em>Coriandrum sativumem> L. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika H. S. Brito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from <em>C. sativumem> L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%. The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC50 value of 23 µg/mL in the <em>Artemia salinaem> lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against <em>Microsporum canisem> and <em>Candida> spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for <em>M. canisem> and <em>Candida> spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for <em>M. canisem> strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 µg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for <em>Candida> spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 µg/mL, respectively. <em>C. sativumem> essential oil is active<em> in vitroem> against <em>M. canis em>and> Candidaem> spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  17. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from <em>Lentinula em>edodes> C91–3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of <em>Lentinula> edodesem> C91-3—was expressed and characterized in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115. The total RNA was obtained from <em>Lentinula edodesem> C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (<em>p em>< 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (<em>p em>< 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  18. Rodent hosts of <em>Maritrema> sp. (Digenea, Microphallidae in Sardinia Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Casanova

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Prospections on helminth fauna of rodents were carried out in the Cedrino river (Eastern of Sardinia island. Twelve <em>Rattus rattusem> (L., 1758 and eight <em>Mus domesticusem> (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 were captured by Sherman traps. Parasitological study revealed in <em>R. rattusem> the presence of an intestinal helminth belonging to the genus <em>Maritrema> (family Microphallidae. The transmission of this Digenetic Trematode among vertebrates involves the participation of aquatic invertebrate organisms, molluscs and crustacea, acting as intermediate hosts. Dissection of 117 individuals of the Amphipod Crustacea <em>Gammarus italicusem>, collected in the same biotope, allowed the detection of encysted metacercariae. These larvae constitute the infesting stage of the parasite for vertebrates, acting these as definitive hosts ingesting parasitized crustacea as preys. Adults of <em>Maritrema> sp. were also obtained experimentally in the laboratory mice (<em>Mus domesticusem> CD1 strain. These were infested by inoculating them, using gastric probe, metacercarial cysts isolated from <em>G. italicusem>. Post-infection mice dissection was performed at different intervals of time getting adults in various maturity stages. Experimental facts confirm that <em>Maritrema> sp., as it occurs in other trematodes, do not present strict specificity to the definitive host, being able to develop as well in <em>Mus>. In nature, the presence or absence of this digenean in mammals species will be dependent of host ethological factors, mainly related to feeding habitats. This study was partially supported by the ?Comissionat per Recerca i Universitats de la Generalitat de Catalunya? 2001SGR00088.

  19. Análise da transformada em ondeletas aplicada em sinal geofísico

    OpenAIRE

    Bolzan,Maurício José Alves

    2004-01-01

    É mostrada uma análise em ondeletas aplicada em um sinal geofísico, número de manchas solares. Para isso, é dado uma introdução teórica sobre a Transformada em Ondeletas e sobre séries e Transformada de Fourier. A Transformada em Ondeletas é uma ferramenta matemática de grande utilidade aplicação em sinais não-estacionários.

  20. Discontinuous finite element formulation for bodies of revolution with application in the prevention of fragile fracture in pressure vessel of PWR reactors; Formulacao de elementos finitos descontinuos para corpos de revolucao com aplicacao na prevencao de fratura fragil em vaso de pressao de reatores PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez Alvarez, Gustavo

    1999-08-15

    In this work, a hybrid formulation is established for bodies of revolution, based on the equation of Fourier series for the discontinuous finite element method, analogous to the one that exists in the classical finite element method. Furthermore, a methodology to analyse the prevention of fragile fracture in pressure vessel of pressurized water reactors is presented. The results obtained suggest that careful analysis must be made for non symmetric refrigeration. (author)

  1. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction using Pt-Rare earths (La, Ce, Er) electrocatalysts for application of PEM fuel cells; Estudo da reacao de reducao do oxigenio utilizando eletrocatalisadores a base de Pt-terras raras (La, Ce, Er) para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Thiago Bueno

    2013-07-01

    The complexity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and its potential losses make it responsible for the most part of efficiency losses at the Fuel Cells. For this reaction the electrocatalyst witch is most appropriated and shows better performance is platinum, a noble metal that elevates the cost, raising barriers for Fuel Cells technology to enter the market. First this work focuses on reducing the amount of platinum used in the cathode, by being replaced by rare earths. The most common methods of synthesis involves a large amount of steps and this work proposed to prepare the electrocatalyst through a simpler way that would not take so many steps and time to be done. Using an ultrasound mixer the electrocatalyst was prepared mixing platinum supported on carbon black and the rare earths lanthanum, cerium and erbium oxides to be applied in a half-cell study of the ORR. The Koutecky-Levich plots shows that among the electrocatalysts prepared the Pt80Ce20/C had the catalytic activity close to the commercial BASF platinum on carbon black, suggesting that the reaction was taken by the 4-electron path. As found in some works in literature, among the rare earth used to study the ORR, cerium is the one witch shows the better performance because it is able to store and provide oxygen. This feature is of great interest for the ORR because this reaction is first order to the oxygen concentration. Results show that is possible to reduce the amount of platinum maintaining the same electrocatalyst activity. (author)

  2. Study of synthesis routes and processing of NiO-YSZ ceramic composite for use as anode in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); Estudo de rotas de sintese e processamento ceramico do composito NiO-YSZ para aplicacao como anodo em celulas a combustivel do tipo oxido solido (SOFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshito, Walter Kenji

    2011-07-01

    This study aim the definition of synthesis and ceramic processing conditions of the anodic component suitable for operation of SOFC, i.e, homogeneous distribution of NiO in YSZ matrix and porosity after reduction above 30%. The selected synthesis routes included the co-precipitation in ammonia media, mechanical mixing of powders and combustion reaction from nitrate salts. The characterization techniques of powders included the X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, laser diffraction, nitrogen gas adsorption technique (BET) and Helium pycnometry. The obtained results indicated that the loss of Ni{sup 2+} in co-precipitation process, due to the formation of complex [Ni(NH{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup 2+}, can be minimized by controlling the pH around 9.3, keeping the concentration of nickel cation in the solution to be precipitated around 0.1M. In the mechanical mixing method the best condition of powder dispersion, without differential sedimentation, was obtained for zeta potential values at pH around 8.0, fixing the dispersant concentration at 0.8%. For the combustion synthesis it was observed that when stoichiometric and twofold stoichiometric urea was used, amorphous phase was formed and a higher surface area was attained in the final products. Employing the fuel-rich solution condition, crystallization of the powder was observed and the relative intensity of reflections of XRD patterns increased with excess of fuel, due to increasing the reaction temperature. Sinterability studies of pellets prepared from powder synthesized by the three routes described above showed the temperature around 1300 deg C for maximum rate densification and porosity between 6.0 and 14%. Reduction results of the composites confirmed that the reduction kinetics occurs in two steps. The first one with a linear behavior and controlled by chemical reaction on the surface. The second reduction step is the reduction that is controlled by gas diffusion in micro pores, generated by reduction of nickel oxide, decreasing the rate of reduction. (author)

  3. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar; Reducao de processo inflamatorio com aplicacao de laser de arseneto de galio aluminio ({lambda}=830 nm) em pos-operatorio de exodontia de terceiros molares inferiores inclusos ou semi-inclusos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  4. Application of a method for the determination of yeast cell density to studies on the sedimentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation broths; Aplicacao de metodo para a determinacao da densidade de celulas de leveduras a estudos sobre sedimentacao de Aaccharomyces cerecisiae em mostos de fermentacao alcoolica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Amazile B.R.A. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Nelson, David Lee [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Alimentos

    1993-09-01

    A technique that permitted the determination of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell density was developed. The average results (1,04 g/ml) attributed to the cells under the conditions of the effected tests, was applied to a previously developed mathematical model for predicting the clarification velocity of alcoholic fermentation broths in a sedimenter prototype designed for accelerating the sedimentation of cells. (author) 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Preparation and characterization of PVA/SSA membranes with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles for fuel cell applications; Preparacao de caracterizacao de membranas de PVAL/SSA na presenca de nanoparticulas de Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} para aplicacao em celulas de combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paula N.; Pires, Alfredo T.N. [Grupo de Estudo em Materiais Polimericos - POLIMAT - UFSC, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Catarino, Margarida; Brandao, Lucia; Tanaka, Alfredo; Mendes, Adelio [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    In the present study, PVA/SSA membranes were prepared with and without the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. Sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) was used as the crosslinking agent. Membranes were prepared with different amounts of SSA (26, 43 and 55 wt.%) and with 5 and 10 wt.% of nanoparticles. Crosslinking was performed at 90 degree C during 1.5 h. Membranes were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, water absorption, ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity. The results showed that control of the crosslinking conditions, IEC value, water absorption and polymer structure are of significant importance to obtain a set of properties suitable for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. (author)

  6. Trimerization process of vegetables oils and fats and its application in additives for synthetic fluids used in the perforation of petroleum well bore; Processo de trimerizacao de oleos vegetais e acidos graxos e sua aplicacao em aditivos para fluidos sinteticos utilizados na perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Viviane X.; Souza, Roberta C.R.; Coelho, Anderson S.; Lopes, Grazielle; Yoshida, Renan O.; Goncalves, Gizelle de Fatima G.D.V.; Silva, Sandra Regina da [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia; Poland Quimica Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Derivatives of vegetable oils and fatty acids such epoxides, polyols and fatty acid dimmers are industrially used for a variety of polymer applications, such as additives for plastics and composites and in filtration control aid in in perforation fluids as well as in the synthesis of polyamides and polyurethanes. In this article a vegetable oil was chemically modified by trimerization and used as filtration control and in a paraffin based perforation fluid. The rheology and filtration parameters were studied and the results were compared to desired specifications to maintenance of stability of well bore. (author)

  7. Decision making process in oil exploration and production projects: a systemic approach by means of fuzzy logic theory application; Processo de tomada de decisao em projetos de exploracao e producao de petroleo: uma abordagem sistemica com aplicacao da teoria de logica fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brana, Juan Pablo

    2008-12-15

    Oil is a non-renewable resource and maximizing the efficiency of its use is of the utmost importance, not only to private companies and the generation of their profit, but also to governments and their energy, economic and territorial planning. The aims of this thesis are, on the one hand, to breakdown, by means of a systemic approach, the complexity of the decision-making process in oil exploration and production projects (E and P), explaining, whenever possible, the theories and relationships that underlie their modeling contexts, and, on the other, to create a model - in the case of a specific E and P problem - to support the decision-making process, using the fuzzy logic theory. The variables analyzed include the probability of the exploration process achieving success, the size of reserves, the level or burden of taxation and the price of oil. In the case of the latter, the price of oil, the elements necessary for the elaboration of different scenarios have been provided. Finally, this model has been applied to a case study, providing continuity to previous work and discussing the results obtained. (author)

  8. Application of the Voxeldose software for dosimetric evaluation on the thyroid during thorax-AP irradiation considering the peak voltages (k Vp) most used in diagnostic X-ray; Aplicacao do software Voxeldose para avaliacao dosimetrica na tireoide durante irradiacoes de torax-AP nas tensoes de pico (kVp) mais utilizadas em raio-X diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, I.F.; Vieira, J.W., E-mail: igoradiologia@hotmail.co, E-mail: jwvieira@br.inter.ne [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Leal Neto, V., E-mail: viriatoleal@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, F.R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The evaluation of the absorbed dose distribution can be obtained through a computational model of exposures (ECM), being one the main difficulties at the specific dosimetric evaluation such as the radiodiagnostic, coupling the Monte Carlo computer code, developed for general use, to a anthropomorphic model. This problem can be solved by the software used in this paper, the VoxelDose, and it consists of an algorithm for X-ray diagnostic sources with the Monte Carlo EGS4 code coupled to the voxel anthropomorphic phantoms MAX (Male Adult voXel) and FAX (Female Adult voXel). The graphic interface allows the user to insert the mos common exams parameters, and to execute the simulation, obtaining conversion coefficients and the estimative of the deposited energy on organs/tissues radio sensible during the routine procedures. The data obtained were organized into graphics showing the thyroid equivalent dose, which is a radio sensible with 20 g mass and a weight factor of 5 %, compared with the effective dose during an irradiation of thorax-AP

  9. U-Th-Pb age in hydrothermal monazite applied in geochronological tin mineralization from Greisen zone of the Palanqueta granitic system, Bom Futuro deposit, Rondonia, Brazil; Datacao U-Th-Pb de monazita hidrotermal e sua aplicacao na geocronologia da mineralizacao de estanho em zonas de Greisen do sistema granitico Palanqueta, deposito do Bom Futuro, RO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Valmir da Silva [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Geociencias]. E-mail: valmirsouza@ufam.edu.br; Teixeira, Luciana Miyahara [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: luciana.miyahara@celaf.ibama.gov.br; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini [Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: nilsonfb@unb.br

    2005-03-15

    The ages of hydrothermal events responsible for tin mineralization in the granitic systems from the Rondonia Tin Province are poorly defined so far. Available K-Ar dating in Li-micas of greisens and veins yielded values around 965 Ma, younger than the late mineralized granites ages, around 990 Ma. Electron microprobe U, Th and Pb dating of hydrothermal monazite from the greisen zones of the Palanqueta plutonic system, Bom Futuro tin deposit, yielded an age of 997{+-}48 Ma. Considering that: the K-Ar method is influenced by increasing temperature; critical temperature of Ar retention in micas is 300 deg C; and fluid inclusions and ae {sup 18}O studies indicate, respectively, trapping temperature above 300 deg C and cassiterite crystallization temperature above 400 deg C, we suggest that the K-Ar dating in micas from Rondonia tin deposits are indicative of cooling and closure of the hydrothermal systems. Therefore, ages obtained from U-Th-Pb data in hydrothermal monazite from greisen can be considered a good reference for the tin ore formation in the Bom Futuro deposit, associated with late to post-magmatic processes, and coeval with the end of crystallization of albite granite in the Palanqueta granitic system. (author)

  10. Evaluation of capacity ion exchange of MMT-Na{sup +w}ith rare earth salts for use in polymeric nano composites; Avaliacao da capacidade de troca ionica da MMT-Na{sup +c}om sais de terras raras para aplicacao em nanocompositos polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maino, Isabel B.; Scienza, Lisete C. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS). CCET. Laboratorio de Protecao Superficial e Corrosao, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Piazza, Diego; Zattera, Ademir J. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS). CCET. Laboratorio de Polimeros (Brazil); Ferreira, Carlos A., E-mail: dpiazza1@ucs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS). Laboratorio de Polimeros (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The modification of the montmorillonite clay is associated with materials science, arousing interest in science and technology provide significant improvements when incorporated into polymeric materials neat and conventional composites. The process of modification of clays occurs mainly through the ion exchange of exchangeable cations in its crystal structure. In this study, we performed ion exchange of sodium montmorillonite with rare earth salts (cerium) through two routes: centrifugation and filtration. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive analysis by X-ray (EDS). The sample obtained by the filtration route showed an increase of basal clay by XRD, indicating the presence of salts of cerium on the structure, and corroborated by EDS analysis. (author)

  11. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes; Desenvolvimento de dispositivo movimentador automatizado de amostras com vista a aplicacao em medidas de radioisotopos que possuem curto tempo de meia-vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-08-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition {sup 60}Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  12. Application of the method ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors; Aplicacao do metodo ELECTRE II (Elimination and Choice Translating Algorithm) na ordenacao de clientes em uma distribuidora de gas liquefeito do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Marcos Felipe Falcao; Costa, Ana Paula Cabral Seixas [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to promote the use of multi criteria decision method ELECTRE II to support the customers order in liquefied petroleum gas distributors, located in the Northeast of Brazil. The company has difficulties to rank the customers their factory, causing various difficult related like reduction of performance indicators and high costs with extra-hours. Finally, is presented a results comparison obtained by the method with the current results, performing a utilization viability analysis of method for this problem. (author)

  13. Implementation and application of a method for quantifying metals and non-metals in drainage water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum; Implementacao e aplicacao de metodologia para dosagem de metais e nao metais em aguas de drenagem de solos adubados com fosfogesso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Camila Goncalves Bof

    2010-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a waste generated in phosphoric acid production by the 'wet process'. The immense amount of phosphogypsum yearly produced (around 150 million tons) is receiving attention from environmental protection agencies all over the word, given its potential of contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for many decades, especially for agricultural application on cropland. Although the phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of impurities, such as metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb), non-metals (As and Se) and radioactive elements from natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. Therefore, its continuous application as an agricultural agent can result not just in soil contamination, but also contamination of the surface and groundwater due to the runoff and infiltration process. The concern associated with the contamination of aquatic environments increases; when water is used for human consumption, requiring progressive adoption of more restrictive limits. However, some of the conventional analytical techniques used to determine the maximum limit of contaminants in water have detection limits above the maximum limits established by the environmental legislation. This work was aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals and non-metals in soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum. Hence, methods were studied and implemented for determination of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) using Furnace Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS), as well as for non-metals (As and Se) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (lCP-MS). Effects of different chemical modifiers on the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentration by GF AAS were also investigated. In general, it was observed that the metal and non-metal concentration were below than the actual detection limit of the equipment for all conditions of interest, indicating the low mobility of the analyzed elements in the soil column. (author)

  14. Synthesis of zeolites coal ash in surfactant modified in application and removal of orange 8 acid solution: study in batch, fixed bed column and evaluation ecotoxicological; Sintese de zeolitas de cinzas de carvao modificada por surfactante e aplicacao na remocao de acido laranja 8 de solucao aquosa: estudo em leito movel, coluna de leito fixo e avaliacao ecotoxicologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdalena, Carina Pitwak

    2015-09-01

    In this study, synthesized zeolitic material from coal ash and modified cationic surfactant was used for removing the acid dye Orange 8 (AL8) by adsorption process using moving bed and fixed-bed column. The raw material and adsorbents were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. The adsorption of AL8 was performed by moving bed in order to optimize the results when they are launched in a fixed bed. The effects of adsorption on zeolite AL8 were compared: (1) Effect of counterions Br{sup -} and Cl{sup -} surfactant used in the modification of the zeolite; (2) effect of type of coal ash used as raw material in the synthesis of zeolites (fly and bottom). The following adsorbents were used in the study: fly and bottom zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ZLMS-Br-Br and ZPMS-Br) and fly zeolite modified by surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (ZLMS-Cl). The pseudo-second-order kinetic described the adsorption of the dye on all adsorbents. The equilibrium time was reached 40, 60 and 120 min for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium was analyzed by the equations of the models of linear and nonlinear isotherms of Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevivh (DR) and the criterion of best fit was evaluated using the error functions.The DR model was adjusted better to the experimental data for the system AL8 / ZLMS-Br, the Freundlich model for AL8 / ZLMS-Cl and Langmuir for AL8 / ZPMS. According to the Langmuir maximum adsorption capacity was 4.67, 1.48 and 1.38 mg g{sup -1} for ZLMS-Br, ZLMS-Cl and ZPMS-Br, in order. In studies employing fixed bed columns, the effects of inlet concentration (20- 30 mg L{sup -1}), flow rate (4.0 -5.3 mL min{sup -1}) and the bed height (5, 5 - 6.5 cm) above the breakthrough curves characteristics in the adsorption system were determined. The Adams-Bohart, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the parameters that characterize the column. The mathematical models of Thomas and Yoon-Nelson adjusted well to the data of breakthrough curves. The highest bed capacity of 5.3 mg g{sup -1} was obtained using 30 mg L{sup -1} inlet Acid Orange 8 concentration, 5.5 cm bed height and 5.3 mL min{sup -1} flow rate. Acute ecotoxicity tests using Daphnia similis microcrustacean with wastewater (AL8) and after treatment with surfactant modified zeolite were carried out with the purpose of evaluating evidence of possible contamination when launched on the receiving water body. The results of this study showed that samples AL8 dye in aqueous solution does not show any toxic effect, and the treated samples showed toxicity with ZLMS-Br. (author)

  15. Evaluation and application of PEMFC fuel cell's technologies developed at IPEN applied to a 500 W{sub e} fuel cell stack; Avaliacao e aplicacao de tecnologias de celulas a combustivel tipo PEMFC desenvolvida no IPEN em um modulo de 500 W{sub e} de potencia nominal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Edgar Ferrari da

    2009-07-01

    This work is part of a research project on PEMFC technologies carried out in IPEN to develop and optimize a 500 W{sub e} fuel cell stack. The MEAs scaling up from 25 cm{sup 2} to 144 cm{sup 2} produced by the method of sieve printing; computational fluid dynamics by computer simulation of gas flow channels in bipolar plates using COMSOL{sup R} program and the use of Pt/C electrodes developed by alcohol reduction method in single cells were used to build a stack of 500 W{sub e} nominal power for possible commercial applications, produced with national technology and industrial support. A 100 hours fuel cell's test was carried out in a 144 cm{sup 2} single cell to study the stability of the MEA fabricated by sieve printing method. This single cell showed good stability within this period of time. The developed stack has reached the maximum power of 574 W{sub e} at 100 A (694.4 mA cm{sup -2}). The operating power of 500 W{sub e} was obtained at 77.7 A (540.1 mA cm{sup -2}) and potential of 6.43 V, with efficiency of 43.3%. In terms of cogeneration, the thermal power or generated heat by the stack was 652 W{sub t}. The initial estimated cost for the 500 W{sub e} stack was about R$ 4,500.00, considering only the used materials for its construction. (author)

  16. Preparation and characterization of Nafion - TiO{sub 2} composite electrolytes for application in proton exchange membrane fuel cells; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrolitos compositos Nafion - TiO{sub 2} para aplicacao em celulas a combustivel de membrana de troca protonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Bruno Ribeiro de

    2008-11-06

    The fabrication and characterization of Nafion - TiO{sub 2} composites, and the use of such electrolytes in PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell operating at high temperature (130 deg C) were studied. The operation of a PEM fuel cell at such high temperature is considered as an effective way to promote fast electrode reaction kinetics, high diffusional transport, and high tolerance to the carbon monoxide fuel contaminant. The polymer Nafion{sup R} is the most used electrolyte in PEM fuel cells due to its high proton conductivity. However, the proton transport in Nafion is dependent on the water content in the polymeric membrane. The need of absorbed water in the polymer structure limits the operation of the fuel cell to temperatures close to 100 deg C, above which Nafion exhibits a fast decrease of the ionic conductivity. In order to increase the performance of the electrolyte operating at high temperatures, Nafion-TiO{sub 2} composites have been prepared by casting. The addition of titania hygroscopic particles to the polymeric matrix aims at the enhancement of the humidification of the electrolyte at temperatures above 100 deg C. Three types of titania particles with different specific surface area and morphology have been investigated. Nafion-based composites with the addition of titania nanoparticles, in the 2.5-15 wt.% range, with nearly spherical shape and specific surface area up to approx. 115 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} were found to have higher glass transition temperature than the polymer. Such an increase improves the stability of the electrolyte during the fuel cell operation at high temperatures. The addition of titania-derived nanotubes results in a pronounced increase of the performance of PEM fuel cell operating at 130 deg C. In this composite, the high specific surface area and the tubular shape of the inorganic phase are responsible for the measured increase of both the absorption and retention of water of the composite electrolyte. Nonetheless, the polarization curves of fuel cell using the composite electrolytes exhibited an increase of the ohmic polarization associated with the addition of the insulating titania particles. As the chemical structure of Nafion was observed to be insensitive to the addition of the inorganic particles, the high performance of the composite electrolytes is a result of competing effects: the decrease of the electrical conductivity and a higher thermal stability or water absorption/retention capacity. The experimental results suggest that the Nafion-TiO{sub 2} composites are promising electrolytes for PEM fuel cells operating at temperatures above approx. 100 deg C. (author)

  17. Investigation of barium-calcium aluminate process to manufacture and characterize impregnated thermionic cathode for power microwave devices; Investigacao do processo de obtencao de aluminatos de bario e calcio para construcao e caracterizacao de catodos termionicos impregnados para aplicacao em dispositivos de microondas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Cristiane

    2006-07-01

    In the present work it is described the barium calcium aluminate manufacture processes employed to produce impregnated cathodes to be used in a traveling-wave tube (TWT). The cathodes were developed using a tungsten body impregnated with barium and calcium aluminate with a 5:3:2 proportion (molar). Three different processes were investigated to obtain this material: solid-state reaction, precipitation and crystallization. Thermal analysis, thermogravimetry specifically, supported to determine an adequate preparation procedure (taking into account temperature, time and pyrolysis atmosphere). It was verified that the crystallization showed a better result when compared to those investigated (solid-state reaction and precipitation techniques - formation temperature is about 1000 deg C in hydrogen atmosphere), whereas it presented the lower formation temperature (800 deg C) in oxidizing atmosphere (O{sub 2}). It was used the practical work function distribution theory (PWFD) of Miram to characterize thermionic impregnated cathode. The PWFD curves were used to characterize the barium-calcium aluminate cathode. PWFD curves shown that the aluminate cathode work function is about 2,00 eV. (author)

  18. Application of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique to the thermal-hydraulics project of a PWR reactor core in reduced scale; Aplicacao da tecnica de otimizacao por enxame de particulas no projeto termo-hidraulico em escala reduzida do nucleo de um reator PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Junior, Carlos Alberto de Souza

    2008-09-15

    The reduced scale models design have been employed by engineers from several different industries fields such as offshore, spatial, oil extraction, nuclear industries and others. Reduced scale models are used in experiments because they are economically attractive than its own prototype (real scale) because in many cases they are cheaper than a real scale one and most of time they are also easier to build providing a way to lead the real scale design allowing indirect investigations and analysis to the real scale system (prototype). A reduced scale model (or experiment) must be able to represent all physical phenomena that occurs and further will do in the real scale one under operational conditions, e.g., in this case the reduced scale model is called similar. There are some different methods to design a reduced scale model and from those two are basic: the empiric method based on the expert's skill to determine which physical measures are relevant to the desired model; and the differential equation method that is based on a mathematical description of the prototype (real scale system) to model. Applying a mathematical technique to the differential equation that describes the prototype then highlighting the relevant physical measures so the reduced scale model design problem may be treated as an optimization problem. Many optimization techniques as Genetic Algorithm (GA), for example, have been developed to solve this class of problems and have also been applied to the reduced scale model design problem as well. In this work, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) technique is investigated as an alternative optimization tool for such problem. In this investigation a computational approach, based on particle swarm optimization technique (PSO), is used to perform a reduced scale two loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) core, considering 100% of nominal power operation on a forced flow cooling circulation and non-accidental operating conditions. A performance comparison between GA and PSO techniques is performed as it's obtained results to this problem. Obtained results shows that the proposed optimization technique (PSO) is a promising tool for a reduced scale experiments or equipment design, presenting advantages over other techniques. (author)

  19. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for determining As, Br, K, La, Mn, Na and Sm in samples of pine wood; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao neutronica instrumental para determinacao de As, Br, K, La, Mn, Na e Sm em amostras de madeiras de Pinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helder de; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de Nadai; Bacchi, Marcio Arruda; Tagliaferro, Fabio Sileno [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Sarries, Gabriel Adrian [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    1999-11-01

    Multi-elementary and considered non destructive, the neutron activation analysis is a technique that allows simultaneous and instrumental determination of several elements, becoming especially useful when it is fundamental the knowledge of the total chemical composition, as in the certification of reference materials, application in geochemistry, analyses of aerosols, determination of origin of materials, forensic analyzes and of environmental pollution. However, the dependence of reactors, or other neutrons sources, the generation of radioactive material and the time waiting needed for some determinations are the main barriers pointed int he application of that technique. The present work aimed at establishing the best conditions for the detection of elements of short half-life Br, K, La, Mn, Na and Sm in samples of wood of Pinus, because the reactor used is located distant of the laboratory where the measures of the induced radioactivity are made, to determine trace elements that possess half-lives smaller than two days. For such, suitable equations, using the Surface of Response technique in the SAS software, to minimize the uncertainties of detection of the photopeak function of the elementary concentration and as a decay time.(author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Application of reliability centered maintenance (RCM) to the gas compression system of the platforms P-09 and P-19 (E and P from Bacia de Campos, RJ, Brazil); Aplicacao de manutencao centrada em confiabilidaade (MCC) ao sistema de compressao de gas das plataformas P-09 e P-19 (E e P da Bacia de Campos)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Flavio L.B.; Oliveira, Luiz F.S. de [DNV Principia Ltda., Macae, RJ (Brazil); Frydmana, Bernardo; Okada, Ricardo Okada [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Gerencia de Logistica

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, the main results of the application of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) to the gas compression systems of Platforms P-09 (Turbine Taurus 60) and P-19 (Turbine Mars 90) are presented. RCM is a method whose central paradigm is to preserve systems' functions, unlike traditional maintenance, which focus on equipment maintenance, without care about systems' functions and the allocation of maintenance resources. A total of 654 components were analyzed at P-19 and 551 at P-09, and about 650 maintenance tasks were established. Besides the results, this paper presents details of the method and some comments about its applicability in other systems. (author)

  1. Validation of the extension of the range of application and of the single system of injection for the determination of total nitrogen in petroleum and its derivatives by chemiluminescence; Validacao da ampliacao da faixa de aplicacao e do sistema unico de injecao para a determinacao de nitrogenio total em petroleos e derivados por quimiluminescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG(Brazil)]. E-mail: santos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tamanqueira, Juliana Boechat [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Julio Cesar Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao de Petroleo; Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Logistica e Planejamento; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2003-12-01

    With the objectives of using a single system of injection and of extending the range of application for the method ASTM D4629/02 'Total Nitrogen in Petroleum Derivatives by the System of Injection with a Syringe and Detection by Chemo- Luminescence', it was studied a procedure by statistical validation with the objective of guaranteeing the analytical reliability of the assay and allowing the inclusion of samples of petroleum and heavy derivatives in one single methodology. The determination of total nitrogen for petroleum and derivatives is traditionally assayed using the method of Kjeldahl - a time-consuming methodology that requires a large amount of time for giving the final result, at the same time that is not recommended for concentrations below 0.1%w/w, which does not meet the requirements for the specifications of the product, in the petroleum industry. An alternative for the method of Kjeldahl is the pyro-chemo luminescence, which allows the achievement of more repetitive results for total nitrogen. In the detection of nitrogen, the technique combines the reliability of oxidative combustion with the sensitivity of chemiluminescence. Therefore, it was developed a protocol of validation in the methodology ASTM D4629/02 for the validation of the extension of the range of application and for the evaluation of the performance of the equipment in analytical conditions, according to the calibration curve. (author)

  2. Analysis of the productive chain of Brazilian oil sector in the midst of ethics in the application of productive excess, social and environmental responsibility and ensuring the quality of life; Analise da cadeia produtiva do setor petrolifero brasileiro em meio a etica na aplicacao dos excedentes produtivos, a responsabilidade social e ambiental e a garantia da qualidade de vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Liodoro de; Domingos, Sergio Ricardo; Santos, Adilson Francisco dos [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Engenharia da Energia

    2004-07-01

    The present work analyses the petroliferous productive chain, of the well you the rank. It shows the correlation with the ethics, the social responsibility and the guarantee of the quality of life human being. It considers it lives rational application of paid the resources preceding from royalties you the states and cities. With the reorganization of the petroliferous sector, in the second half of the decade of 90, lives specifically, with the edition of the Law n. 9.478/97, the decisions, until then, prevailed will be unilateral orientates of the federal government starts you count on the market, mediating agent of offers and demand. You the edition of the legal order, you the current days, the excellent facts ploughs dealt with transparency, the teams that if instituted the ANP, agency of regulating to character. The sector, with this, must give counterpart you the society, in the direction you reward the same one, will be possible damages or provoked aggressions, exactly that in involuntary way. Ethical The resolution of the conflicts follows an line of respect you the agents: companies, government and consumers. First with programs of professional qualification, the security, of institutional landmark, they stimulate the perfect competition and applies the exploratory balances in the form of royalties. And, the consumers, not less important, intent to ambient questions, demands quality US products. (author)

  3. Spare nonlinear systems resolution; its applicability in the resolution of the problem related power flow in electric power networks; Resolucao de sistemas nao-lineares esparsos; sua aplicacao na resolucao do problema de fluxo de carga em redes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Ana Cecilia

    1990-03-01

    This thesis aims to find a better way to solve large scale nonlinear sparse system problems giving special emphasis to load flow in electric power networks. The suggested algorithms are presented 63 refs., 28 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Optimization of surface network and platform location using a next generation reservoir simulator coupled with an integrated asset optimizer application to an offshore deep water oil field in Brazil; Otimizacao de redes de superficie e locacao da plataforma atraves do acoplamento de um simulador de reservatorios de nova geracao e um otmizador global de ativo: aplicacao em um campo offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campozana, Fernando P.; Almeida, Renato L. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Madeira, Marcelo G.; Sousa, Sergio H.G. de; Spinola, Marcio [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To design, modify, and expand surface facilities is a multidisciplinary task which involves substantial financial resources. It can take months or years to complete, depending on the size and level of detail of the project. Nowadays, the use of Next Generation Reservoir Simulators (NGRS) is the most sophisticated and reliable way of obtaining field performance evaluation since they can couple surface and subsurface equations, thus eliminating the need of lengthy multiphase flow tables. Furthermore, coupling a NGRS with an optimizer is the best way to accomplish a large number of simulation runs on the search for optimized solutions when facilities are being modified and/or expanded. The suggested workflow is applied to a synthetic field which reproduces typical Brazilian offshore deep water scenarios. Hundreds of coupled simulation runs were performed and the results show that it is possible to find optimal diameters for the production lines as well as the ideal location for the production / injection platform. (author)

  5. Neutron activation analysis for determining of inorganic trace elements in by-products of soybean, cotton, corn, wheat, sorghum and rice; Aplicacao da analise por ativacao com neutrons para determinacao de elementos inorganicos em subprodutos da soja, algodao, milho, trigo, sorgo e arroz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teruya, Carla M.; Armelin, Maria Jose [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva Filho, Jose Cleto [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Ciencias Animais; Silva, Aliomar G. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa de Pecuaria do Sudeste

    1999-11-01

    In the present paper the instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine some essential and toxic elements in six agroindustrial by-products utilized to feed animal. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by means of reference material analysis. In general, the precision of the method was lower than 10% and the accuracy near to 5%. (author) 7 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Ce{sub 1-x}SmXO{sub 2-(x/2)} as solid electrolyte for application in IT-SOFCs; Sintese e caracterizacao de Ce{sub 1-x}SmXO{sub 2-(x/2)} como eletrolito solido para aplicacao em IT-SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicodemo, J.P.; Martinelli, A.E.; Nascimento, R.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DECM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail: juli_pivotto@yahoo.com.br; Melo, D.M.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DQ/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Cela, B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Macedo, D.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica

    2008-07-01

    Mixed rare earth doped CeO{sub 2} oxide-based have been extensively studied for use in solid electrolytes for fuel cells. Ceramics-based CeO{sub 2} have high ionic conductivity and enable the operation of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in intermediate temperatures, in the range of 500 to 750 deg C. In this work, was investigated the Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped CeO{sub 2} by Pechini method to obtain Ce{sub 0,9}Sm{sub 0,1}O{sub 1,95}. The resulting powders were characterized by the chemical composition (EDS) and crystallographic (XRD), thermal analysis (TG/ATD and DTG), and particles morphology (SEM). After calcinations of 500 and 700 deg C for 2 hours were obtained nanosized powders with crystalline structure of cubic phase type fluorite fully formed. (author)

  7. Optical and structural characterization of the pure and doped BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8} with rare earths for application in radiation detectors and scintillators; Caracterizacao optica e estrutural do BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8} puro e dopado com terras raras visando aplicacao em detectores de radiacao e cintiladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Ana Carolina Santana de

    2008-07-01

    In this work Barium Yttrium Fluoride (BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8} -BaYF) doped with different concentrations of ions Tb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+} e Nd{sup 3+} were characterized, aiming the application in radiation detection devices that use the scintillating properties. Two types of samples were produced in the CLA-IPEN-SP, polycrystalline samples, obtained via solid state reaction of BaF{sub 2} and YF{sub 3} under HF atmosphere, and single crystals, obtained via the zone melting method also in a HF atmosphere. The samples were characterized using the following experimental techniques: X-ray powder diffraction, Radioluminescence (RL), Optical Absorption and Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (DXAS). The X-ray diffraction pattern showed the presence of the phase BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8} and a small amount of the phase Ba{sub 4}Y{sub 3}F{sub 17} in the polycrystalline pure and Tb{sup 3+}doped samples. The other samples showed only the desired BaY{sub 2}F{sub 8} phase. The radioluminescence measurements of the doped BaYF, when irradiated with X-rays, showed emission peaks in energies that are characteristics of the 4f-4f transitions of rare earths. The RL of the samples with 2 mol por cent and 3 mold of Tb{sup 3+}showed quite intense peaks with a maximum emission peak at 545 nm. The Tm{sup 3+}doped BYF showed that the scintillation efficiency is not directly proportional to the doping level, and the highest RL emission were obtained for the polycrystalline samples doped with 1 mol por cent, showing a maximum peak intensity at 456 nm (the blue region of the visible spectrum). All samples showed a phosphorescent decay time of the order of seconds. Single crystals of BaYF doped with 2 mol por cent of Er{sup 3+}, in addition to one of the highest phosphorescence time, presents a quite strong Rl in the green region of the spectra. The radiation damage was evaluated by the optical absorption techniques and the results showed that the formation of the absorption bands can be connected to colors centers generated by radiation in the matrix. Measurements of DXAS, done at the LNLS DXAS beamline, revealed that there is no change in the absorption edge of the dopant during irradiation. Among ali samples, the Nd{sup 3+} ones presented the lowest scintillation efficiency with maximum emissions in the infrared region. (author)

  8. Application of the probe Horiba U-23 in the analysis of physical-chemical parameters of groundwater influences on the Osamu Utsumi uranium mine in Caldas-MG; Aplicacao da sonda Horiba U-23 na analise de parametros fisico-quimicos das aguas subterraneas sobre influencia da mina de uranio Osamu Utsumi em Caldas-MG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Flavio H.S., E-mail: flaviohsmoreira2@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Alberti, Heber L.C.; Silva, Nivaldo C., E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Fleming, Peter Marshall, E-mail: pmf@cnen.gov.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, BH (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents data on the analysis of physical-chemical parameters of groundwater in the uranium mine Osamu Utsumi, belonging to the Industrias Nucleares do Brasil - INB, in the municipality of Caldas. This work is part of the team responsible for the evaluation of Plano de Recuperacao de Areas Degradadas (PRAD), team consists of researchers from Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC and of the Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnologico Nuclear - CDTN, units of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN. Sampling was carried out in eleven wells in the 'bota-fora 4' area and digs mine. Analyses of groundwater quality were performed using the multiparameter probe Horiba U23, recent acquisition of LAPOC. The results characterize the groundwater of ten wells monitored as acidic and with a high electrical conductivity, due to the impacts caused by drainage Mining Acid (DAM)

  9. Application of the perturbed angular correlation in the investigation of hyperfine interactions in compounds of hafnium, indium and cadmium with F{sup 1-}, OH{sup 1-} and EDTA ligands; Aplicacao da espectroscopia de correlacao angular perturbada na investigacao de interacoes hiperfinas em compostos de hafnio, indio e cadmio com os ligantes F{sup 1-}, OH{sup 1-} e EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Antonio Acleto

    2011-07-01

    In this study the hyperfine parameters, including the dynamical nature, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) spectroscopy was used to measure the hyperfine parameters in molecules of ligand compounds in solutions. The measurements were carried out at 295 K and 77 K using {sup 111}In {yields} {sup 111}Cd, {sup 181}Hf {yields} {sup 181}Ta and {sup 111m}Cd {yields}{sup 111}Cd, as probe nuclei. Samples were prepared by adding a small volume of radioactive solution containing the probe nuclei in aqueous solution, buffer solution and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) used as a ligand with pH 4.3 which correspond to the pH of the saturated EDTA solution and in buffer solution with pH between 9 and 10. The results made possible to understand the impact of each method for PAC measurements. Finally a comparative analysis for the several methods of inserting of the probe nuclei in the sample was made, considering chemical and nuclear aspects. The lack of measurements in this kind of samples justifies the importance of the obtained results. (author)

  10. Wetting evaluation of silver based braze alloys onto zirconia metalized with reactive elements for application in oil well drill bots; Avaliacao do molhamento de ligas de adicao a base de prata sobre zirconia polida e metalizada com elementos ativos para aplicacao em brocas de perfuracao de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, J.C.; Silva, J.M.; Santos, P.R.F.; Nascimento, R.M.; Martinelli, A.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], Email: jocabuzo@gmail.com; Pimenta, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    Drill bits with hard ceramic inserts are often used on drilling operations. The cutting and crushing action of rocks will produce failures in the tricone bits, which are related to wear; total or partial rupture of the drill bit body or even the inserts; thermal shock and corrosion. The research of better drill bits with ceramic inserts thermally more stable and mechanically stronger, will lead to an increase of their lifetime, and so reducing costs of substitution and maintenance. In the present work, some silver based braze alloys were melted onto zirconia YSZ substrates metallized or not with active metals. inside a furnace with vacuum of 10{sup -5} mbar to evaluate the wetting behavior. The system with AgCuTi and the non metallized YSZ ceramic, showed low contact angles and stable interfaces, which may be appropriate for brazing metal/ceramic parts. (author)

  11. Application of Monte Carlo method in study of the padronization for radionuclides with complex disintegration scheme in 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence System; Aplicacao do metodo de Monte Carlo no estudo da padronizacao de radionuclideos com esquema de desintegracao complexos em sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mauro Noriaki

    2006-07-01

    The present work described a new methodology for modelling the behaviour of the activity in a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system. The detection efficiency for electrons in the proportional counter and gamma radiation in the NaI(Tl) detector was calculated using the Monte Carlo program MCNP4C. Another Monte Carlo code was developed which follows the path in the disintegration scheme from the initial state of the precursor radionuclide, until the ground state of the daughter nucleus. Every step of the disintegration scheme is sorted by random numbers taking into account the probabilities of all {beta}{sup -} branches, electronic capture branches, transitions probabilities and internal conversion coefficients. Once the final state was reached beta, electronic capture events and gamma transitions are accounted for the three spectra: beta, gamma and coincidence variation in the beta efficiency was performed simulating energy cut off or use of absorbers (Collodion). The selected radionuclides for simulation were: {sup 134}Cs, {sup 72}Ga which disintegrate by {beta}{sup -} transition, {sup 133}Ba which disintegrates by electronic capture and {sup 35}S which is a beta pure emitter. For the latter, the Efficiency Tracing technique was simulated. The extrapolation curves obtained by Monte Carlo were filled by the Least Square Method with the experimental points and the results were compared to the Linear Extrapolation method. (author)

  12. Quantification and location of emergency service mobile units and the failures in electric power distribution networks: application of hypercube model; Quantificacao e locacao de unidades moveis de atendimento de emergencia a interrupcoes em redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica: aplicacao do modelo hipercubo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, Jean Carlo de Campos

    1994-11-01

    The basic hypercube queuing model, as well its approximated version, are normally used to analyze public emergency systems`performance. Both models, however, can be used only when the system has no geographical limitation of its Emergency Mobile Units (EMU), i.e, in systems in which the region`s atoms can be attended by any EMU, meaning that each EMU can over the entirety of the analysed region. In systems that does not present this property, one could only use simulation techniques. This paper presents an adaptation of the basic hypercube model that was developed for cases of urban emergency systems in which the EMU`s are not allowed or not worthwhile to cover the entire region. This adapted version is called Limited Hypercube Model (LHM). Modifications have been made in several steps of the basic model, and has brought a new analysis perspective, by amplifying the hypercube`s application universe and allowing mathematical description of some limited systems` specific features. The LHM was applied to analyze an electric energy distribution public service at Florianopolis, and the results are discussed in the paper. (author) 12 refs., 11 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of <em>Apodemus> genus in the Gran Paradiso National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Debernardi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1992 and 2001, small mammals were trapped in the Gran Paradiso National Park (NW Italy, using Capture-Mark-Recapture techniques. According to a sample of data collected in August, the following percentages were found for the genus <em>Apodemus>: 25.9% of the individuals caught in alder shrubwoods, 20.9% in hardwoods, 12.1% in open habitat-types and 3.1% in coniferous woods. Further trapping, carried out in winter in the villages inside the Park, demonstrated that <em>Apodemus> occurrence inside the buildings was quite common. Fiftytwo specimens were sacrificed and identified by protein electrophoresis and/or molecular analyses as <em>A. alpicolaem> (N= 14, <em>A. flavicollisem> (N= 21 and <em>A. sylvaticusem> (N= 17. External morphology and biometric parameters were analysed on the above specimens, as were cranial features, and the effectiveness of the determination technique proposed by Reutter <em>et al.em> on the study area material was verified. This technique enabled us to determine other specimens (mainly from discarded bottles using skull analysis. <em>A. flavicollisem> (recorded from the lowest altitude of the area, 750 m, up to 2123 m a.s.l. dominated in hardwoods. <em>A. alpicolaem> (recorded from 1580 m to 2423 m is more abundant above 1750 m, in alder shrubwoods and in open habitat-types, characterized by patches of rocky elements, low ligneous and herbaceus vegetation. All the individuals caught inside buildings were <em>A. sylvaticusem>, but this species (recorded from 750 m to 1960 m was scarcely observed in natural habitats. <em>Strix alucoem> and <em>Aegolius funereusem> prey remains, collected in the area during the breeding period of both owls, were examined. <em>Apodemus> accounted for 13.7% of prey and 9.4% of biomass eaten by <em>Strix alucoem> and for 7.2% of prey and 7.3% of biomass consumed by <em>Aegolius funereusem>. Riassunto

  14. EMS wave logger data processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Waves can be measured in several ways. One way of measuring waves is by measuring the wave pressure at a certain depth using a pressure sensor and calculate the wave information from the pressure record. The EMS wave logger uses a Honeywell MLH 050 PGP 06A pressure sensor. The information is stored

  15. Planejamento em Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Costa CARDOSO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse texto pretendeu subsidiar aula sobre Planejamento e Avaliação em Saúde para os Analistas Técnicos de Políticas Sociais lotados no Ministério da Saúde (MS, na perspectiva de promover uma maior compreensão dos antecedentes históricos do planejamento em saúde no Brasil e na América Latina, do referencial teórico metodológico do planejamento estratégico e participativo, e refletir sobre os avanços e desafios que se apresentam no atual contexto de construção do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Neste sentido, foi estruturado na perspectiva de responder a três questões orientadoras: 1 Como tem se dado esse processo de coordenação do Planejamento Estratégico Nacional no âmbito do SUS, em cooperação técnica com os Estados, Municípios e Distrito Federal? 2 Quais são as tecnologias de gestão e planejamento em saúde adotadas pelo MS para conduzir esses processos de forma integrada? 3 Como se dá o gerenciamento das ações no MS? Como os planos, projetos e programas são monitorados pelas equipes responsáveis?

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New <em>C2em> Symmetric Chiral Bisamide Ligands Derived from Chiral Feist’s Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Barakat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The hemilabile chiral <em>C2em> symmetrical bidentate substituted amide ligands (1<em>R>,2<em>R>-5a-d and (1<em>S>,2<em>S>-6a-d were synthesized in quantitative yield from (1<em>R>,2<em>R>-(+-3-methylenecyclo-propane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (1<em>R>,2<em>R>-3 and (1<em>S>,2<em>S>-(--3-methylene-cyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (1<em>S>,2<em>S>-3, in two steps, respectively. The chiral Feist’s acids (1<em>R>,2<em>R>-3 and (1<em>S>,2<em>S>-3 were obtained in good isomeric purity by resolution of <em>trans>-(±-3-methylene-cyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid from an 8:2 mixture of <em>tert>-butanol and water, using (<em>R-(+-α>-methylbenzyl amine as a chiral reagent. This process is reproducible on a large scale. All these new synthesized chiral ligands were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, and mass spectrometry, as well as elemental analysis and their specific rotations were measured. These new classes of <em>C2em> symmetric chiral bisamide ligands could be of special interest in asymmetric transformations.

  17. Parasitic zoonoses: survey in foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in the northern Apennines / Zoonosi parassitarie: indagini in volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> dell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Guberti

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A parasitological survey on 153 foxes was carried out in the northern Apennines, during the period 1984-1987. The following parasites were identified: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46.4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11.8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11.1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3.9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3.3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3.3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2.6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. All foxes were negative for <em>Trichinella> sp. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate differences in the parasitic fauna according to the sex and age classes of the hosts. The role that the fox could have as a reservoir of helminthic zoonoses is discussed. The results are compared with those of similar studies carried out in Italy. Riassunto Nel periodo 1984-1987 è stata condotta un'indagine parassitologica su 153 volpi abbattute nell'Appennino romagnolo. Sono stati reperiti i seguenti parassiti: <em>Toxocara canisem> (46,4%, <em>Taenia> sp. (17%, <em>Uncinaria stenocephalaem> (11,8%, <em>Mesocestoides lineatusem> (11,1%, <em>Ancylostoma caninumem> (3,9%, <em>Taenia hydatigenaem> (3,3%, <em>Trichuris vulpisem> (3,3%, <em>Dipylidium caninumem> (2,6%, <em>Taenia crassicepsem> (2%. Tutte le volpi esaminate sono risultate negative per <em>Trichinella> sp. È stata effettuata l'analisi statistica dei dati per evidenziare eventuali differenze della fauna parassitaria in relazione al sesso e all'età delle volpi. Sulla base dei dati ottenuti viene discussa l'importanza che la Volpe può assumere come serbatoio di zoonosi elmintiche. I risultati acquisiti sono inoltre comparati con quelli ottenuti in analoghe ricerche condotte in Italia.

  18. First sign of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> in the Po valley plain / Prima segnalazione in Pianura Padana di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Nieder

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber, 1790 populations is reported in the Po valley, formerly considered outside the distribution area of the species. An initial series of captures was made in the high-water area of the Po near S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC following with research was extended along the river's banks in Emilia both upstream and downstream. The search for this species was carried out by analysing food pellets relating to <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, thought to be among the most common predators of these intensive herbaceous and arboreal agricultural biocoenosis. The information we gathered was integrated with other Authors' unpublished and bibliographical data. The presence of <em>C. glareolusem> was noted in habitats quite different from the expected ones. Many of the problems raised by the presence of this species in "islands" along the main body of the Po river and its tributaries, and by its presumed absence from particulary suitable environments such as the Carrega woods, the Ticino park and Mesola wood must still be resolved. Riassunto Viene segnalata la presenza di popolazioni di <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> (Schreber 1790 nella pianura Padana precedentemente considerata al di fuori dell'areale della specie. A partire da una prima serie di catture nell'area golenale del Po presso S. Nazzaro (Monticelli d'Ongina - PC, si è successivamente proceduto ad allargare l'area di ricerca lungo l'argine emiliano del Po, sia a monte sia a valle. La ricerca di questa specie è avvenuta tramite l'analisi di boli alimentari relativi a <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Tyto albaem> e <em>Athene noctuaem>, ritenuti tra i più comuni predatori di queste biocenosi agricole intensive erbacee ed arboree. I dati da noi raccolti sono stati integrati con quelli bibliografici e inediti di altri Autori. È stata riscontrata la presenza

  19. Comportamento em pastejo e ingestivo de caprinos em sistema silvipastoril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandson Vieira Costa

    Full Text Available RESUMOFoi avaliado o efeito das diferentes idades de rebrotação da Leucaena leucocephala, associada a gramíneas forrageiras sobre o consumo de forragem e o comportamento de caprinos em sistema silvipastoril. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e cinco repetições. Avaliou-se três idades de rebrotação da leucena 45; 60 e 75 dias, com cinco dias de ocupação. O estrato herbáceo foi manejado com idades de 30 dias de rebrotação; foram utilizadas fêmeas mestiças da raça Anglonubiana, cujo comportamento em pastejo foi observado a cada dez minutos, das 8h às 17h. Durante as atividades realizadas pelos animais como ruminação, ócio, deslocamento e pastejo, identificou-se qual a fonte de alimento, se leucena ou estrato herbáceo. A cada duas horas foram aferidas taxa de bocados, levando em consideração o tempo gasto pelos animais para a realização de 20 apreensões. Para a avaliação do consumo foi realizado um teste de pastejo em três dias de ocupação do piquete. O tempo de pastejo foi a atividade mais executada pelos animais com 7,34h e não diferiu significativamente (P>0,05 entre as idades de rebrotação, seguido pelos tempos de deslocamento (1,36h, ruminação (0,51h, e ócio (0,39h. Não houve diferença significativa (P>0,05 para a taxa de bocados, massa de forragem total, taxa de ingestão, e consumo diário. O manejo das idades de rebrotação da leucena em sistema silvipastoril contribui de forma satisfatória para a produção de forragem de leucena e de gramíneas forrageiras e não interfere no comportamento em pastejo e ingestivo de caprinos.As gramíneas constituem-se no componente de maior preferência da dieta dos caprinos no sistema silvipastoril: leucena-gramíneas forrageiras.

  20. Negative-Pressure Cavitation Extraction of Four Main Vinca Alkaloids from <em>Catharanthus em>roseus> Leaves

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an improved method termed negative-pressure cavitation extraction (NPCE followed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC was developed for the extraction and quantification of vindoline (VDL, catharanthine (CTR, vincristine (VCR and vinblastine (VLB from <em>Catharanthus roseus em>leaves. The optimized method employed 60-mesh particles, 80% ethanol, a negative pressure of −0.075 MPa, a solid to liquid ratio of 1:20, 30 min of extraction and three extraction cycles. Under these optimized conditions, the extraction yields of VDL, CTR, VCR and VLB are 0.5783, 0.2843, 0.018 and 0.126 mg/g DW, respectively. These extraction yields are equivalent to those from the well-known ultrasonic extraction method and higher than the yields from maceration extraction and heating reflux extraction. Our results suggest that NPCE-RP-HPLC represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and quantification of vinca alkaloids for pilot- and industrial-scale applications.

  1. Cefaleia em salvas: aspectos clinicos e terapeuticos em 26 casos

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    Wilson Luiz Sanvito

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e seis casos de cefaléia-em-salvas são estudados do ponto de vista clínico e terapêutico. Nos aspectos clínicos são ressaltados a dramaticidade deste tipo de cefaléia, o nítido predomínio no sexo masculino, a média de idade dos pacientes, a presença de manifestações associadas e os fatores desencadeantes das crises nos períodos suscetíveis. Do ponto de vista terapêutico três esquemas medicamentosos foram utilizados: maleato de metisergida, prednisona e associação de ambas as drogas. Em 88,3% dos casos um resultado significativo foi alcançado, traduzido por melhora ou abolição das crises.

  2. <em>Ipomoea aquaticaem> Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

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    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume <em>Ipomoea em>aquatica> to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of <em>I. aquaticaem> against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with <em>I. aquaticaem> (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of <em>I. aquaticaem> significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by <em>I. aquaticaem> treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that <em>I. aquaticaem> has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of <em>I. aquaticaem> in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of <em>I. aquaticaem> for the treatment of liver disorders.

  3. Fadiga em plataformas offshore fixas com modelos em elementos finitos

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    Roberto Taier

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Quatro juntas tubulares de uma plataforma offshore fixa foram modeladas em elementos finitos para o cálculo das vidas à fadiga e comparação com os resultados obtidos através de modelos convencionais em elementos de barras. Foram também cotejados os fatores de concentração de tensões (SCF's, obtidos com base nas formulações paramétricas, com os calculados através dos modelos em elementos finitos. Os objetivos foram averiguar a validade do refinamento do cálculo da fadiga em juntas críticas da plataforma e avaliar as suas conseqüências na elaboração do plano de inspeção. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a análise por elementos finitos torna-se recomendada para juntas que não apresentam tipo e/ou comportamento compatíveis com as configurações padronizadas, normalmente utilizadas pelos programas. Das quatro juntas analisadas, duas delas não necessitariam fazer parte do plano de inspeção da plataforma.Four tubular joints of a fixed offshore platform were modelled using finite elements to evaluate respective fatigue lifes and comparison with the results obtained from conventional models in frame elements. Stress concentration factors (SCF's calculated from parametric formulas were also compared with those obtained from finite elements models. The results of this work have the intention of verifying the validity of the refinement of fatigue analysis on critical joints of the platform and the evaluation of its consequences in the inspection plan. Obtained results show that finite elements analysis is recommended for joints whose type and/or behaviour is not consistent with standard models, used by computational programs. From four analised joints, two of them would not need to be part of inspection plan.

  4. Fatores de risco cardiovascular em alcoolistas em tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayla Cardoso Fernandes Toffolo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a presença de fatores de risco cardiovascular, com ênfase na hipertensão e na adiposidade corporal, em alcoolistas abstinentes ou não abstinentes em tratamento. MÉTODO: Trata-se de um estudo transversal com 65 pacientes alcoolistas em tratamento no CAP-Sad. O grau de dependência do álcool foi avaliado pelo SADD (Short Alcohol Dependence Data e o uso de outras drogas, pelo ASSIST (Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Foram avaliados o perfil bioquímico e o antropométrico dos usuários. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 42 homens e 23 mulheres. A maioria dos participantes (67,74% apresentou dependência alcoólica grave, com uso de álcool associado principalmente a cigarro (66,15%. A média da circunferência da cintura (CC foi significativamente maior entre os abstinentes, em comparação aos não abstinentes (AB: 88,15 ± 15,95 x NA: 81,04 ± 9,86; p = 0,03. Pacientes abstinentes há mais tempo tiveram maior sobrepeso/obesidade e adiposidade abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes e abstinentes recentes, com razão de chances de 5,25. Os abstinentes apresentaram razão de chances de 3,38 para %GC acima da média, independente do tempo de abstinência. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes alcoolistas abstinentes apresentam mais sobrepeso/ obesidade, adiposidade corporal (%GC e abdominal (CC do que os não abstinentes. É importante o acompanhamento multiprofissional no tratamento de alcoolistas com abordagem para fatores de risco cardiovasculares, principalmente evitando o ganho de peso.

  5. Fadiga em idosos em tratamento quimioterápico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Cristina Mansano-Schlosser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisa com delineamento transversal, realizada de agosto a dezembro de 2010, que objetivou identificar a presença e intensidade da fadiga em 140 idosos (média de idade 69,8 anos, 52,1% do sexo feminino com diagnóstico de câncer, em tratamento quimioterápico ambulatorial. Utilizou-se um questionário para caracterização sociodemográfica e clínica e a Escala de Fadiga de Piper-revisada. Identificou-se a presença de fadiga em 60 idosos (42,9% e a causa atribuída foi o câncer (64,1%, a quimioterapia (32,8% e o tratamento (3,1%. Como fator de alívio, os idosos entrevistados relataram "dormir", "rezar" e "morrer", enquanto 45% deles disseram "não ter o que fazer", pois a fadiga não poderia ser aliviada. Espera-se que este estudo alerte os profissionais de enfermagem para a relevância da fadiga e os estimule a identificar e realizar intervenções de enfermagem que visem o adequado manejo desse sintoma no paciente idoso oncológico.

  6. Modelo computacional para desenvolvimento do sistema de avaliação para aparelhos de raios X odontológicos intraorais: Cartão Dosimétrico Odontológico

    OpenAIRE

    José Mesquita Menezes, Cláudio

    2008-01-01

    Em decorrência da necessidade de diagnóstico em tratamentos dentários, a Radiologia Odontológica está cada vez mais presente no dia-a-dia da população. Atualmente, vários profissionais da área de Radioproteção e Dosimetria vêm realizando estudos no sentido de oferecer sugestões para minimizar as exposições individuais e da população aos exames de raios X. Em vista disto, um grande número de empresas e pesquisadores tem trabalhado no desenvolvimento de instrumentos capazes de...

  7. Two New Daucane Sesquiterpenoids from <em>Daphne aurantiacaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Fu Dai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new daucane sesquiterpenoids 1β,2β-epoxy-10(<em>H>α-dauca-11(12-ene-7α,14-diol (1 and 1α,2α-epoxy-10(<em>H>α-dauca-11(12-ene-7α,14-diol (2 were isolated from the plateau medicinal plant <em>Daphne aurantiacaem> Diels. (Thymelaeceae. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as HR-ESI-MS data.

  8. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of <em>Amaranthus cruentusem> L. and <em>Amaranthus hybridusem> L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of <em>Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentusem> and <em>Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridusem>, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for <em>in vitroem> antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in <em>A. cruentusem> and <em>A. hybridusem>, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of <em>A. cruentus em>and <em>A. hybridusem> were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively.<em> em>The> A. hybridusem> extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  9. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Bulb Extracts of Six <em>Lilium> Species Native to China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Niu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Lily (<em>Lilium> is used as an important edible and medical plant species with a vague taxonomic classification and a long history in China. Bulbs of six <em>Lilium> species (<em>L. regaleem>,> L. concolorem>,> L. pumilumem>,> L. leucanthumem>,> L. davidii var. unicolorem> and <em>L. lancifoliumem> native to China were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their phenolic composition and dietary antioxidant potential. The results showed that all bulb extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activities, which generally correlated positively with the total phenolic contents (r = 0.68 to 0.94, total flavonoid contents (r = 0.51 to 0.89 and total flavanol contents (r = 0.54 to 0.95. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis revealed that rutin and kaempferol were the major phenolic components in the extracts. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that <em>L. regaleem> belonged to the group with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant power. <em>L. concolorem> and <em>L. pumilumem> were arranged in one group characterized by moderate phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, while <em>L. leucanthumem>, <em>L. davidii var. unicolorem> and <em>L. lancifoliumem> were clustered in the third group with low phenolic content and weak antioxidant activity. These strongly suggest that lily bulbs may serve as a potential source of natural antioxidant for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  10. Neospora caninum em bovinos em matadouros de Pernambuco e Alagoas

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    Rodolfo L.G. Amaral

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A neosporose bovina é uma doença infecciosa causada pelo Neospora caninum, parasito intracelular obrigatório, sendo considerada uma das principais causas de aborto na espécie bovina em diversos países. Objetivou-se estudar a ocorrência de N. caninum em vacas e fetos nos Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas, Brasil. Foram coletadas 306 amostras de soro sanguíneo de vacas abatidas causada pelo Neospora caninum, parasito intracelular obri-e 30 fetos nos Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas. Para o gatório, sendo considerada uma das principais causas de diagnóstico sorológico utilizou-se a técnica de Reação de aborto na espécie bovina em diversos países. Objetivou-se Imunoflurescência Indireta (RIFI com ponto de corte estudar a ocorrência de N. caninum em vacas e fetos nos 1:200 para os soros das vacas e para os soros fetais utilizou Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas, Brasil. Foram coletadas 306 amostras de soro sanguíneo de vacas abatidas e 30 fetos nos Estados de Pernambuco e Alagoas. Para o diagnóstico sorológico utilizou-se a técnica de Reação de Imunoflurescência Indireta (RIFI com ponto de corte 1:200 para os soros das vacas e para os soros fetais utilizou ponto de corte 1:25. Para a pesquisa do DNA parasitário utilizaram-se tecidos fetais submetidos à técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. Na sorologia, observou-se 39/306 (12,6% das vacas positivas e 5/30 (16,7% dos fetos positivos. Na detecção do parasito 8/30 (26,6% dos fetos foram positivos na PCR. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo quanto à presença do parasito nos fetos são inéditos para a região estudada e permitem concluir que este agente deve ser incluído no estudo das causas de aborto na espécie bovina nesta região do Brasil.

  11. Grupo Focal em Pesquisas Sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Silva Servo; Pricila Oliveira Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a técnica de grupo focal em pesquisas sociais. Apresenta-se as concepções sobre grupo focal. Traz-se os postulados de Pichon-Rivière sobre grupo operativo, os instrumentos de planificação, os vetores do campo grupal para nortear a dinâmica e a observação do campo grupal, bem como a organização, a operacionalização e a análise dos dados das sessões de grupo focal. Através desta técnica de coleta de dados em pesquisas sociais, é possível a construção do EC...

  12. Culturas orais em sociedades letradas

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    Geraldi João Wanderley

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Na relação entre linguagem e cultura, um aspecto essencial diz respeito às diferentes funções da escrita e às formas de sua apropriação social em sociedades letradas. Tomando como inspiração a forma de um uso específico da escrita pelo povo indígena Jarawara e narrativas de ribeirinhos do rio Madeira do mito amazônico Cobra Norato, são discutidas as diferentes relações entre oralidade e escrita que, atravessadas pelas relações de poder, transformam o alfabeto, de artefato histórico construído para o registro da oralidade, em espaço social de construção de distinções, clivagens e exclusões.

  13. Iatrogenia em pacientes idosos hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho-Filho Eurico T.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisar as complicações iatrogênicas apresentadas por idosos hospitalizados. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 96 pacientes, 48 do sexo masculino e 48 do feminino, com idades variando de 60 a 93 anos (média: 75,7 anos, hospitalizados durante o ano de 1995 em enfermaria geriátrica. A análise da evolução dos pacientes durante o período de hospitalização permitiu evidenciar: 1 em 42 (43,7% pacientes ocorreram uma ou mais complicações iatrogênicas, num total de 56 episódios; 2 manifestações relacionadas aos procedimentos diagnósticos corresponderam a 17,9% das iatrogenias; 3 alterações relacionadas às medidas terapêuticas corresponderam a 58,9%, sendo 32,1% referentes à terapêutica farmacológica e 26,8% a outros procedimentos terapêuticos; 4 manifestações iatrogênicas não relacionadas diretamente às afecções (úlceras de decúbito, quedas e fraturas corresponderam a 23,2%; 5 a presença de manifestações iatrogênicas correlacionou-se com período mais prolongado de internação; 6 cinco pacientes faleceram em conseqüência direta de complicações iatrogênicas. A iatrogenia é freqüente em pacientes idosos hospitalizados, podendo determinar manifestações graves e mesmo fatais. Como uma significativa proporção dessas complicações pode ser evitada através de medidas adequadas, deve-se procurar identificar suas causas e desenvolver métodos para previni-la ou reduzir seus efeitos.

  14. Iatrogenia em pacientes idosos hospitalizados

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    Eurico T. Carvalho-Filho

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Analisar as complicações iatrogênicas apresentadas por idosos hospitalizados. Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 96 pacientes, 48 do sexo masculino e 48 do feminino, com idades variando de 60 a 93 anos (média: 75,7 anos, hospitalizados durante o ano de 1995 em enfermaria geriátrica. A análise da evolução dos pacientes durante o período de hospitalização permitiu evidenciar: 1 em 42 (43,7% pacientes ocorreram uma ou mais complicações iatrogênicas, num total de 56 episódios; 2 manifestações relacionadas aos procedimentos diagnósticos corresponderam a 17,9% das iatrogenias; 3 alterações relacionadas às medidas terapêuticas corresponderam a 58,9%, sendo 32,1% referentes à terapêutica farmacológica e 26,8% a outros procedimentos terapêuticos; 4 manifestações iatrogênicas não relacionadas diretamente às afecções (úlceras de decúbito, quedas e fraturas corresponderam a 23,2%; 5 a presença de manifestações iatrogênicas correlacionou-se com período mais prolongado de internação; 6 cinco pacientes faleceram em conseqüência direta de complicações iatrogênicas. A iatrogenia é freqüente em pacientes idosos hospitalizados, podendo determinar manifestações graves e mesmo fatais. Como uma significativa proporção dessas complicações pode ser evitada através de medidas adequadas, deve-se procurar identificar suas causas e desenvolver métodos para previni-la ou reduzir seus efeitos.

  15. Bacharelado em psicopedagogia = Psycopedagogy Course

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    Ramos, Maria Beatriz Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto mostra a história da implantação do Curso de Bacharelado em Psicopedagogia na FACED, PUCRS. Neste texto são apresentados os referenciais teóricos e dados sobre a atuação do psicopedagogo nos campos preventivo e terapêutico explicitando a relevância da formação de profissionais nesta área

  16. Divisão de trabalho em cuidados à prole em Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus, 1766 (Passeriformes, Emberizidae, em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatadas observações relativas à divisão de trabalho em cuidados à prole em Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin e S. f. pelzelni (Sclater, em condições de cativeiro.Observations relating to the division of labour for young care in Sicalis flaveola brasiliensis (Gmelin and S. f. pelzelni (Sclater, in captivity, are presented.

  17. Adding large EM stack support

    KAUST Repository

    Holst, Glendon

    2016-12-01

    Serial section electron microscopy (SSEM) image stacks generated using high throughput microscopy techniques are an integral tool for investigating brain connectivity and cell morphology. FIB or 3View scanning electron microscopes easily generate gigabytes of data. In order to produce analyzable 3D dataset from the imaged volumes, efficient and reliable image segmentation is crucial. Classical manual approaches to segmentation are time consuming and labour intensive. Semiautomatic seeded watershed segmentation algorithms, such as those implemented by ilastik image processing software, are a very powerful alternative, substantially speeding up segmentation times. We have used ilastik effectively for small EM stacks – on a laptop, no less; however, ilastik was unable to carve the large EM stacks we needed to segment because its memory requirements grew too large – even for the biggest workstations we had available. For this reason, we refactored the carving module of ilastik to scale it up to large EM stacks on large workstations, and tested its efficiency. We modified the carving module, building on existing blockwise processing functionality to process data in manageable chunks that can fit within RAM (main memory). We review this refactoring work, highlighting the software architecture, design choices, modifications, and issues encountered.

  18. Dosimetry of industrial sources; Dosimetria de fuentes industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H.R.; Rodriguez J, R.; Manzanares A, E.; Hernandez V, R.; Ramirez G, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rivera M, T. [CICATA-IPN, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com

    2007-07-01

    The gamma rays are produced during the disintegration of the atomic nuclei, its high energy allows them to cross thick materials. The capacity to attenuate a photons beam allows to determine the density, in line, of industrial interest materials as the mining. By means of two active dosemeters and a TLDs group (passive dosimetry) the dose rates of two sources of Cs-137 used for determining in line the density of mining materials were determined. With the dosemeters the dose levels in diverse points inside the grave that it harbors the sources and by means of calculations the isodoses curves were determined. In the phase of calculations was supposed that both sources were punctual and the isodose curves were calculated for two situations: naked sources and in their Pb packings. The dosimetry was carried out around two sources of {sup 137}Cs. The measured values allowed to develop a calculation procedure to obtain the isodoses curves in the grave where the sources are installed. (Author)

  19. The personal dosimetry in Mexico; La dosimetria personal en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A. [Proxtronics/ Asesoria Integral en Dosimetria Termoluminiscente S.A. de C.V., Canal de Miramontes 2030-14, Col. Educacion, 04400 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: aidtsa@avantel.net

    2006-07-01

    The Personal Dosimetry in Mexico, has an approximately 30 year-old history; and it had been and it is at the moment, one of the more important resources with which the personnel that works with ionizing radiation sources counts for its protection. The Personal Dosimetry begins with the film dosimetry, technique that even continues being used at the present time by some users, and the main reason of its use is for economic reasons. At the moment this technique, it has been surpassed, by the Thermoluminescent dosimetry, which has taken a lot of peak, mainly by the technological development with which it is counted at the present time; what has given as a result that this technique becomes tip technology; that supported in the characteristic of the used materials, as the handling and processing of the information associated with the new PC, digitizer cards, software etc, what has allowed increases it potential. In this work the current necessities of the market are presented as well as an analysis of the future real necessities in Mexico, at national level, the companies that provide this service and that they spread to satisfy this necessity of the market, including the different used technologies are also mentioned. The application ranges, at the same time, of the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems of Personal Dosimetry in the market. The companies that at the moment provide the service of Personal Dosimetry, its use materials and equipment in indistinct form, for the monitoring of gamma radiation, beta particles, different qualities of x-ray radiation, and sometimes neutrons. The monitoring of the exposed personnel at the diverse sources of ionizing radiation mentioned is carried out in many occasions without having with the materials (detectors), neither the appropriate infrastructure and therefore without the quality control that guarantees a correct evaluation of the dose equivalent, as a result of the exposure to the ionizing radiations; it is for what is considered that this work is important since the main objective of the Personal Dosimetry is that of the protection of people, that is to say the one of avoiding risks in the health of the workers involved with the radiations. (Author)

  20. Thermoluminescence in medical dosimetry; Termoluminiscencia en dosimetria medica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    The dosimetry by thermoluminescence (Tl) is applied in the entire world for the dosimetry of ionizing radiations specially to personal and medical dosimetry. This dosimetry method has been very interesting for measures in vivo because the Tl dosimeters have the advantage of being very sensitive in a very small volume and they are also equivalent to tissue and they do not need additional accessories (for example, cable, electrometer, etc.) The main characteristics of the diverse Tl materials to be used in the radiation measures and practical applications are: the Tl curve, the share homogeneity, the signal stability after the irradiation, precision and exactitude, the response in function with the dose and the energy influence. In this work a brief summary of the advances of the radiations dosimetry is presented by means of the thermally stimulated luminescence and its application to the dosimetry in radiotherapy. (Author)

  1. Dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources; Dosimetria de fuentes {beta} extensas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    In this work, we have been studied, making use of the Penelope Monte Carlo simulation code, the dosimetry of {beta} extensive sources in situations of spherical geometry including interfaces. These configurations are of interest in the treatment of the called cranealfaringyomes of some synovia leisure of knee and other problems of interest in medical physics. Therefore, its application can be extended toward problems of another areas with similar geometric situation and beta sources. (Author)

  2. Monte Carlo dosimetry in CT; Dosimetria Monte Carlo en CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miro Herrero, R.

    2015-07-01

    Computed tomography explorations ITC) contribute a high percentage of the total radiation dose absorbed by the population exposed to medical examination. Since the number of CT scans performed has grown exponentially in recent years, concerns about their long-term effects on the patient's health has also increased. However, in order to establish a relationship between the absorbed dose and its side effects, it is necessary to perform a calculation accurate dosimetry radiation protection international institutions have confirmed that the best indicator of risk is dose to organs. (Author)

  3. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants; Dosimetria en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastra B, J. A. [CFE, Central Laguna Verde, Km. 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2008-12-15

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant includes having a dosimetry laboratory of world class, accredited by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation (USA) , certification to ISO- 17025, and classified into types radiation than those already made. (Author)

  4. Biological dosimetry, scopes and limitations; Dosimetria biologica, alcances y limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. [Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The analysis of the aberrations in chromosomes is an alternative to establish the exposure dose to the radiation, when the information provided by the traditional physical methods is insufficient. There are diverse causes by which it can reached to apply an alternative system, such is the case of exposures of another persons to the management of radiation sources, which not carry physical dosemeter. Contrary case is to the occupational exposure personnel (OEP), what must to utilize some system for determining the exposure dose, even so can be needed the case for more information. In any case, the cells from the affected person are the alternative without the biological system be overlap to the physical, it is complementary. (Author)

  5. Retrospective dosimetry in irradiated foods; Dosimetria retrospectiva en alimentos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon, T. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Dpto. Quimica Agricola, Geologia, Geoquimica, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of this communication is to show the potentiality of certain minerals which accompany the foods (grasses, spices and seasonings) as potential dosemeters and its possible application in the absorbed dose calculations by the same in its hygienic sanitary treatment. (Author)

  6. Relative dosimetry by Ebt-3; Dosimetria relativa por EBT3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon A, M. A.; Rivera M, T. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hernandez O, J. O., E-mail: madla16@hotmail.com [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06726 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In the present work relative dosimetry in two linear accelerator for radiation therapy was studied. Both Varian Oncology systems named Varian Clinac 2100-Cd and MLC Varian Clinac i X were used. Gaf Chromic Ebt-3 film was used. Measurements have been performed in a water equivalent phantom, using 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams on both Linacs. Both calibration and Electron irradiations were carried out with the ionization chamber placed at the isocenter, below a stack of solid water slabs, at the depth of dose maximum (D max), with a Source-to-Surface Distance (SSD) of 100 cm and a field size of 10 cm x 10 cm. Calibration and dosimetric measurements photons were carried out under IAEA-TRS 398 protocol. Results of relative dosimetry in the present work are discussed. (Author)

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from <em>Rosmarinus officinalisem>. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from <em>R. officinalisem>> em>compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  8. Trophic systems and chorology: data from shrews, moles and voles of Italy preyed by the barn owl / Sistemi trofici e corologia: dati su <em>Soricidae>, <em>Talpidae> ed <em>Arvicolidae> d'Italia predati da <em>Tyto albaem> (Scopoli 1769

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In small Mammals biogeography, available data are up to now by far too scanty for elucidate the distribution of a lot of taxa, especially with regard to the absence from a given area. In this respect, standardized quantitative sampling techniques, like Owl pellets analysis can enable not only to enhance faunistic knowledges, but also to estimate the actual absence probability of a given taxon "m", lacking from the diet of an individual raptor. For the last purpose, the relevant frequencies of "m" in the other ecologically similar sites of the same raptor species diets are averaged ($f_m$ : the relevant standard error (multiplicated by a coefficient, according to the desired degree of accuracy, in relation of the integral of probabilities subtracted ($overline{F}_m - a E$: then, the probability that a single specimen is not pertaining to "m" is obtained ($P_0 = 1 - F_m + a E$; lastly, the desiderate accuracy probability ($P_d$ is chosen. Now, "$N_d$" (the number of individuals of all prey species in a single site needed for obtain, with the desired probability, a specimen at least of "m" is obtained through $$N = frac{ln P_d}{ln P_0}$$ Obviously, every site-diet with more than "N" preyed individuals and without any "i" specimen is considered to be lacking of such taxon. A "usefulness index" for the above purposes is outlined and checked about three raptors. Some exanples about usefulness of the Owl pellet analysis method in biogeography are given, concerning <em>Tyto albaem> diets in peninsular Italy about: - <em>Sorex minutusem>, lacking in some quite insulated areas; - <em>Sorex araneusem> (sensu stricto, after GRAF et al., 1979, present also in lowland areas in Emilia-Romagna; - <em>Crocidura suaveolensem> and - <em>Suncus etruscusem>, present also in the southermost part of Calabria (Reggio province; - <em>Talpa caecaem>, present also in the Antiapennines of Latium (Cimini mounts; - <em>Talpa romanaem

  9. Paratuberculose em ruminantes no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M. Yamasaki

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map e comumente afeta ruminantes domésticos, no entanto, pode infectar várias espécies de mamíferos. Está presente nos cinco continentes e é considerada endêmica em algumas regiões pela Organização Internacional de Epizootias (OIE. Pertence à lista de enfermidades notificáveis, que compreende as doenças transmissíveis de importância sócio-econômica e/ou em saúde-pública, cujo controle é necessário para o comércio internacional de animais e alimentos de origem animal. A importância da doença de Johne não se restringe somente aos prejuízos econômicos causados à indústria animal, mas também na possível participação do Map na íleocolite granulomatosa que afeta seres humanos, conhecida como doença de Crohn. No Brasil, a paratuberculose já foi descrita em diversas espécies de ruminantes e em vários estados. Embora os relatos naturais da enfermidade sejam pontuais, acredita-se na possibilidade da transmissão interespecífica e na disseminação do agente através da compra e venda de animais infectados. O objetivo deste artigo foi reunir as informações disponíveis referentes aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em bovinos, bubalinos, caprinos e ovinos no Brasil, e salientar a necessidade de implementação de medidas de controle sanitário da enfermidade no país, o que possibilitaria a melhoria da qualidade e valorização dos produtos de origem animal no mercado internacional.

  10. Variabilità morfologica ed ecologica in <em>Neomys fodiensem> e <em>Neomys anomalusem> nell'Appennino settentrionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Scaravelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I due <em>Neomys> italiani sono ancora da chiarire dal punto di vista della loro caratterizzazione morfologica e ecologica. Il lavoro prende in considerazione un campione di entrambe le specie proveniente da habitat forestali dell?Appennino settentrionale per i quali sono stati identificati i principali parametri ambientali. Vengono quindi descritte la variabilità dei tratti morfologici delle due specie in aree localizzate nel Parco Nazionale Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona e Campigna nell?Appennino tosco-romagnolo. Risultano di sicuro effetto discriminatorio la maschera facciale, il rapporto piede posteriore/coda e i caratteri cranici. Sulla base dei criteri identificativi si sono realizzate rilevazioni di misure corporee per le due specie e una comparazione degli habitat utilizzati. <em>N. fodiensem> appare unica specie nelle faggete-abetine e dominante nei castagneti, mentre nell?Ontaneta e nelle zone aperte e termofile si registra la sola presenza di <em>N. anomalusem>. Mancano entrambi nei prati cespugliati, nella pecceta e nella cerreta. I gradienti presenti sono quindi illustrati. Non appare una differenza altitudinale nel campione esaminato, posto in stazioni tra i 400 e i 1300 m, ma per entrambe vi sono maggiori riscontri nella fascia tra 700 e 850 m. Nell?analisi multivariata rispetto alle altre specie e alle variabili ambientali si riscontra sempre una discreta correlazione con la presenza di acqua di una certa ampiezza, che comunque è significativa solo per <em>N. fodiensem>, mentre risulta di interesse la positiva correlazione di <em>N. anomalusem> con <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem>.

  11. Briareolate Esters from the Gorgonian <em>Briareum asbestinumem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndon M. West

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new briarane diterpenoids briareolate esters J (1 and K (2 were isolated from the methanolic extract of the octocoral <em>Briareum> asbestinum em>collected off the coast of Boca Raton, Florida. The structures of briaranes 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data. Briareolate ester K (2 showed weak growth inhibition activity against human embryonic stem cells (BG02.

  12. Benzyl 2-β-Glucopyranosyloxybenzoate, a New Phenolic Acid Glycoside from <em>Sarcandra glabraem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available From the whole plant of <em>Sarcandra glabraem>, a new phenolic acid glycoside, benzyl 2-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzoate (1, together with seven known compounds including eleutheroside B1 (2, 5-<em>O>-caffeoylshikimic acid (3, (–-(7<em>S>, 8<em>R>-dihydrodehydro-diconiferyl alcohol (4, (–-(7<em>S>, 8<em>R>-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-, 9′- and 4-<em>O>-â-D-glucopyranoside (57, and (–-(7<em>S>, 8<em>R>-5-methoxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4-<em>O>-β-D-glucopyranoside (8 was isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 1D-, 2D-NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Compound 2 was found to exhibit potent cytotoxic activity against BGC-823 and A2780 cancer cell lines using MTT method with IC50 value of 2.53 and 1.85 µM, respectively.

  13. Biocerâmicas em Endodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Pedro Miguel da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária Introdução e Objectivos: Biocerâmicas incluem materiais cerâmicos projetados especificamente para uso em Medicina e Medicina Dentária. O objetivo deste trabalho é efetuar uma revisão bibliográfica em que demonstre a avaliação das propriedades físico-químicas das biocerâmicas e o seu uso em Endodontia. Radiopacidade, Fluid...

  14. Acrilamida em doçaria Portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Susana; Delgado, Inês; Ramos, Ana; Brandão, Carlos; Félix, Nelson; Castanheira, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    A acrilamida é um composto de estrutura vinílica, com propriedades carcinogénicas (Grupo 2A- IARC) que tem vindo a ser identificado, em alimentos processados, desde 2002. Segundo os últimos documentos publicados pela EFSA deve ser prioritário a determinação do teor de acrilamida em produtos de panificação e pastelaria. Este estudo teve como objetivo a determinação da quantidade de acrilamida em doçaria portuguesa. Trinta amostras de doces e pão fabricados em estabelecimentos hoteleiros do Nor...

  15. Lectin from <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> Seeds (ConBr Is a Valuable Biotechnological Tool to Stimulate the Growth of <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> <em>in Vitroem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pires dos Santos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the interactions between a <em>Rhizobium tropiciem> strain and lectins isolated from the seeds of <em>Canavalia ensiformisem> (ConA and <em>Canavalia brasiliensisem> (ConBr, a lectin fluorescence assay was performed. In addition, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of the two lectins on bacterial growth. Both lectins were found to bind to <em>R. tropiciem> cells, but the interactions were inhibited by D-mannose. Interestingly, only ConBr stimulated bacterial growth in proportion to the concentrations used (15.6–500 µg/mL, and the bacterial growth stimulation was inhibited by D-mannose as well. Structure/Function analyses by bioinformatics were carried out to evaluate the volume and carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD configuration of ConA and ConBr. The difference of spatial arrangement and volume of CRD may indicate the variation between biological activities of both lectins. The results suggest that ConBr could be a promising tool for studies focusing on the interactions between rhizobia and host plants.

  16. Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan O. Westman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of macroencapsulated <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae em>CBS8066<em> em>to withstand readily and not readily <em>in situem> convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes <em>YAP1em>, <em>ATR1em> and <em>FLR1em> was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  17. Meningoencefalite granulomatosa em bovinos em pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp)

    OpenAIRE

    Rech, Raquel R.; Rafael A. Fighera; Oliveira, Fabiano N.; Claudio S.L. Barros

    2004-01-01

    Meningoencefalite granulomatosa foi observada em 7 de 8 vacas leiteiras adultas afetadas por doença granulomatosa sistêmica associada ao consumo de ervilhaca, embora nenhum dos bovinos afetados apresentasse sinais de distúrbios nervosos. Os infiltrados inflamatórios localizavam-se nas leptomeninges e como manguitos perivasculares no interior do encéfalo; consistiam de macrófagos epitelióides, linfócitos, plasmócitos e eosinófilos. Essas alterações inflamatórias variavam de leves a acentuadas ...

  18. Tumores em bovinos encontrados em abatedouros frigoríficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Tessele

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Numa pesquisa em abatedouros a procura de lesões em bovinos, realizada de janeiro de 2011 a julho de 2014, 544 foram encontradas, das quais 65 eram neoplasmas. Quarenta e dois porcento desses tumores eram de origem mesenquimal; 37% eram epiteliais; 14,5% eram derivados da crista neural; 5% eram tumores do cordão sexual; e 1,5 eram tumores originários do sistema nervoso periférico. O tumor mais frequentemente encontrado foi o linfoma (28% de todos os tumores, a maioria dos casos como parte do complexo leucose bovina enzoótica. O carcinoma de células escamosas foi o segundo tumor mais frequente (15% de todos os tumores. É chamada a atenção para a frequência desses tumores e para a sua importância no diagnóstico diferencial no abatedouro frigorífico entre eles e outras lesões importantes, incluindo as lesões granulomatosas da tuberculose. Houve uma ocorrência significativa do feocromocitoma adrenal (13% de todos os tumores. Papilomatose representou apenas 3% de todos os tumores. Como papilomas são comuns em bovinos, seu baixo número nesse estudo pode ser explicado pelo fato de que eles não são usualmente diagnosticados no exame post mortem (quando o couro já foi retirado da carcaça, mas sim no exame ante mortem, como ocorreu na maioria dos casos deste estudo. Tumores encontrados com menor frequência (cada um perfazendo entre 1.5 e 3% de todos os tumores incluíram adenocarcinoma apócrino misto da cauda, adenocarcinoma mamário, adenocarcinoma uterino, carcinoma de células renais, fibroma interdigital, hemangiossarcoma, leiomioma uterino, lipoma, lipossarcoma, mesotelioma, neurofibroma, tumor de células da granulosa, tumor estromal gastrointestinal, tumores hepáticos, tumores melanocíticos, e tumores pulmonares primários. Pretende-se que os resultados dessa pesquisa possam ajudar na identificação das lesões na inspeção oficial em matadouros frigoríficos.

  19. Soja integral processada em dietas para codornas japonesas em postura

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto,Sergio Luiz de Toledo; Moura,Weyllison César Oliveira; Reis,Renata de Souza; Hosoda,Lúcia Reiko; Maia,Gustavo Vaz Corrêa; Pena,Graciane de Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de codornas japonesas na fase de postura alimentadas com dietas contendo soja integral processada. Utilizaram-se 320 codornas japonesas fêmeas com 29 semanas de idade e peso inicial de 186,1 ± 4,0 g, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com oito repetições, cada uma com dez aves por unidade experimental. As dietas foram isocalóricas e isonutritivas para proteína bruta, lisina digestível, metionina + cistina digestível, cálcio, fósforo dispon...

  20. <em>Plecotus alpinusem>: primi dati sull'utilizzo dell'habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Martinoli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Negli ultimi anni il numero delle specie di Chirotteri note per l?Europa si è accresciuto, grazie all?uso di tecniche di genetica molecolare, ed in particolare il genere <em>Plecotus> è quello che ha registrato maggiori cambiamenti con la descrizione di tre nuove specie: <em>Plecotus kolombatoviciem>, <em>P. alpinusem> e <em>P. sardusem> (Kiefer & Veith, 2001; Mucedda <em>et al.em>, 2002. Alla luce di queste nuove scoperte, la distribuzione geografica e le preferenze dell?habitat delle due specie ?storiche? di Orecchione in Europa, <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>, dovrebbero essere riviste: in questo contesto si inserisce l?indagine svolta nel Parco Regionale Campo dei Fiori (in provincia di Varese sulla prima colonia riproduttiva di <em>Plecotus alpinusem> segnalata per la regione Lombardia. Al fine di valutare le preferenze nell?uso dell?habitat e le direttrici di spostamento preferenziali di tale specie, nonché per l?identificazione di siti di rilevanza per l?allevamento della prole, si è fatto ricorso a tecniche di radiolocalizzazione, subordinate alla cattura a vivo degli animali. Le catture si sono svolte nel periodo 15 giugno ? 15 agosto del 2002 e del 2003. Per ogni individuo catturato, oltre alla determinazione di specie, sesso e classe d?età, sono stati rilevati i dati biometrici e prelevati campioni di tessuto destinati all?analisi genetica. Sono state inoltre registrate le emissioni ultrasonore. Durante il primo anno di indagine sono state seguite mediante radiolocalizzazione 5 femmine adulte (4 allattanti ed una non allattante e due femmine subadulte, mentre durante il secondo anno sono state munite di radiocollare 6 femmine adulte (5 allattanti ed una non allattante ed una femmina subadulta. Ai pipistrelli è stato applicato un emettitore radio (<em>tag> modello LB-2, Holohil Systems Ltd, Ontario, Canada. Il segnale emesso è stato ricevuto in campo mediante l?utilizzo di radio (Wildlife

  1. Altitudinal distribution of the common longeared bat <em>Plecotus auritusem> (Linnaeus, 1758 and grey long-eared bat <em>Plecotus austriacusem> (J. B. Fischer, 1829 (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae in the Tatra mountains (southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piksa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Distribuzione altitudinale di Orecchione bruno (<em>Plecotus auritusem> e Orecchione meridionale (<em>Plecotus austriacusem> nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale. Vengono riportati nuovi dati relativi alla distribuzione altitudinale nei Monti Tatra (Polonia meridionale di <em>Plecotus auritusem> e <em>P. austriacusem>. Tali segnalazioni incrementano le conoscenze relative alla presenza di questi chirotteri a quote elevate, in particolare per la Polonia. In inverno <em>P. auritusem> è stato rinvenuto a 1921 m s.l.m. mentre in estate è stato rinvenuto a 2250 m s.l.m.; in aggiunta, sono stati ritrovati resti ossei a 1929 m s.l.m. <em>P. austriacusem> è stato segnalato in ibernazione a 1294 m s.l.m.

  2. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  3. Jonas Mekas - cinema em lampejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Machado Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7917.2015v20n2p55 Este artigo apresenta reflexões acerca da criação cinematográfica de Jonas Mekas, um dos realizadores e pensadores do cinema de vanguarda norte-americano, que, como tal, traz, em seus filmes, a marca da reproposição da linguagem/montagem, uma outra compreensão do tempo e sua passagem, via o abandono da cronologia e de qualquer linearidade narrativa. A partir deste argumento, desdobra-se a leitura de um cinema que se faz no e pelo deslocamento, o trânsito pelo cotidiano, abertura para o acaso, contingência; que não parte de uma unidade espaço-temporal, mas se fragmenta – fragmento este que se apresenta como possibilidade ética diante da alteridade; passagens, rastros, vestígios de um gesto. Cenas que projetam o íntimo no público em uma espécie de celebração contínua e despretensiosa do cotidiano, do familiar. Cinema em exílio, cinema-asilo - ao mesmo tempo, sobrevivência e suspensão de uma memória, abrigo do corpo, da linguagem, do encontro, onde parece sempre se desenhar a possibilidade, abertura para a invenção de um espaço novo, inédito, espaço-vida, espaço-arte, sem fronteiras.

  4. B-norsteroids from <em>Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre F. Andersson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two viridin-related B-norsteroids, B-norviridiol lactone (1 and B-norviridin enol (2, both possessing distinct unprecedented carbon skeletons, were isolated from a liquid culture of the ash dieback-causing fungus <em>Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidusem>. Compound 2 was found to degrade to a third B-norsteroidal compound, 1β-hydroxy-2α-hydro-asterogynin A (3, which was later detected in the original culture. The proposed structure of 1 is, regarding connectivity, identical to the original erroneous structure for TAEMC161, which was later reassigned as viridiol. Compound 2 showed an unprecedented 1H-13C HMBC correlation through an intramolecular hydrogen bond. The five-membered B-ring of compounds 1–3 was proposed to be formed by a benzilic acid rearrangement. The known compound asterogynin A was found to be formed from 3 by a β-elimination of water. All compounds were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, LC-HRMS and polarimetry.

  5. Brasil em obras, peões em luta, sindicatos surpreendidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Véras

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda as revoltas e greves ocorridas em março de 2011 em canteiros de obras do Programa de Aceleração do Crescimento (PAC, do Governo Federal, que alcançou grande repercussão nacional. Tem como foco os conflitos e as negociações, envolvendo trabalhadores, sindicatos, empresários, Governo, Justiça, Ministério Público do Trabalho, entre outros atores, estabelecidos durante a construção das Usinas Hidroelétricas de Jirau e Santo Antônio, situadas no Norte do país. Visou identificar as posições dos referidos atores e, sob uma perspectiva sociológica, propor reflexões sobre as potencialidades e os limites da atividade sindical. Que questões trouxeram tais acontecimentos ao sindicalismo, quanto às relações deste, de um lado, com suas próprias bases e, de outro, com o atual projeto governamental?

  6. EM transmission-line metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George V. Eleftheriades

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are understood to be artificially engineered materials that exhibit unusual or difficult to obtain electromagnetic (EM properties. Such properties would include negative or low values of permittivity, permeability and index of refraction. In this article, we review the fundamentals of metamaterials with emphasis on negative-refractive-index ones, which are synthesized using loaded transmission lines. A number of applications of such metamaterials are discussed, including peculiar lenses that can overcome the diffraction limit and small antennas for emerging wireless communication applications.

  7. A melancolia em Al Berto

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Emanuele Martins de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva estudar, sob a perspectiva da melancolia, os livros Salsugem (1984) e Horto de Incêndio (1997), de Al Berto. O autor português produz escritos em que a temática da melancolia atravessa a palavra, o que justifica o debruçar-se sobre as construções textuais da poética albertiana, a fim de traçar-lhe novas possibilidades de leitura por esse ângulo. Para isso, com o intuito de compreender o discurso melancólico segue-se o embasamento teórico: de Klibansky, Panosfsky e Saxl ...

  8. Ética em geriatria

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Maria Inês Arede Chaves de

    2014-01-01

    Trabalho final de mestrado integrado em Medicina (Geriatria), apresentado á Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra Introdução: Devido às actuais tendências demográficas, os médicos lidam cada vez mais com o doente idoso, cujos problemas médicos e psicossociais complexos (e dos quais muitas vezes resulta perda de autonomia) podem levar ao desenvolvimento de dilemas éticos. Há, desta forma, uma necessidade crescente de os profissionais de saúde estarem familiarizados co...

  9. O RACIONALISMO EM DAVID HUME

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Lorena Fiungo

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: Para David Hume, o conhecimento humano tem sua origem na experiência. Entretanto, há uma parte deste conhecimento que não tem a mesma origem. Neste caso, para o filósofo, quando um conhecimento não tem sua origem na experiência, ele deriva da imaginação. Este é, precisamente, o caso da matemática, que embora originalmente derivado da experiência, carrega consigo um conhecimento seguro e certo. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo tem por objetivo expor a teoria do conhecimento em David Hu...

  10. Controlo da Qualidade em Hemoglobinopatias

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Armandina

    2015-01-01

    Experiência do Controlo da qualidade em Hemoglobinopatias, pelo Grupo de Trabalho de Hematologia do Programa Nacional de Avaliação Externa da Qualidade (PNAEQ), INSA. As Hemoglobinopatias são doenças monogénicas hereditárias de transmissão autossómica recessiva resultantes de mutações que afetam os genes responsáveis pela síntese das cadeias de globina da hemoglobina, ou as suas regiões regulatórias.

  11. Conceito de liberdade em Vigotski

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    Gisele Toassa

    Full Text Available Este texto sintetiza os fundamentos do conceito de liberdade vigotskiano, procurando elucidar suas conexões a partir das investigações do autor sobre linguagem, vontade, funções psíquicas superiores, pensamento e imaginação. Discutem-se, ainda, os antecedentes filosóficos presentes no seu conceito de liberdade e se esboça uma análise das condições concretas necessárias para a livre-escolha em tempos de alienação.

  12. Escalabilidade em servidores cache WWW

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    O grande crescimento em popularidade da World Wide Web tem motivado várias pesquisas com o objetivo de reduzir a latência observada pelos usuários. Os servidores cache têm-se mostrado uma ferramenta muito importante na busca desse objetivo. Embora a utilização de servidores cache tenha contribuído para diminuir o tráfego na Internet, as estratégias de cooperação utilizadas na composição de grupos (clusters) de caches normalmentetrazem uma degradação de desempenho aos servidores não sendo, por...

  13. Dermatite multifatorial em um canino

    OpenAIRE

    C.B. Matos; Madrid, I.M.; SANTIN,R.; Azambuja,R.H.; I. Schuch; M.C.A. Meireles; M.B. Cleff

    2012-01-01

    Relatou-se um caso clínico de dermatite multifatorial em cão, envolvendo Demodex canis, Sporothrix schenckii e bactérias dos gêneros Staphylococcus e Streptococcus. O animal, macho, da raça Pit Bull, com um ano e três meses de idade, apresentou lesões úmidas, hiperêmicas, descamativas e ulcerativas nas regiões do pescoço e do tórax. Exames laboratoriais confirmaram o diagnóstico de infecção concomitante por fungo, bactéria e parasito. A terapia antimicrobiana com moxidectina, itraconazol e am...

  14. Consumo de Benzodiazepinas em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, José Manuel Fraga Santos

    2008-01-01

    Monografia apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Licenciado em Ciências Farmacêuticas Portugal apresenta dos maiores níveis de utilização de benzodiazepinas ao nível europeu. Este facto veio realçado no relatório da Organização Internacional de Controlo de Estupefacientes e confirmado por indicadores do Instituto Nacional da Farmácia e do Medicamento (INFARMED). É deste modo importante analisar a prática actual no que concern...

  15. Uma arquitetura para otimização do acesso em redes em malha sem fio

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Redes em malha sem fio (wireless mesh networks) são redes dinamicamente auto-organizadas e auto-configuráveis cujos nós automaticamente estabelecem e mantêm a conectividade entre eles. As redes em malha sem fio possuem três tipos de nós: clientes, roteadores e gateways. Os roteadores e os gateways têm pouca ou nenhuma mobilidade. Os roteadores formam a espinha dorsal (backbone) das redes em malha sem fio. A comunicação em uma rede em malha sem fio é multi-salto (multi-hop), e as funcionalidad...

  16. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of the Essential Oils from <em>Duguetia lanceolataem> St. Hil. Barks

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    Maria A. C. Kaplan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of <em>Duguetia lanceolataem> barks, obtained at 2 (T2 and 4 h (T4, were identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. β-Elemene (12.7 and 14.9%, caryophyllene oxide (12.4 and 10.7% and β-selinene (8.4 and 10.4% were the most abundant components in T2 and T4, respectively. The essential oils inhibited the growth of <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>,> Streptococcus pyogenesem>, <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Candida albicansem>. The essential oils were cytotoxic against brine shrimp. The extraction time influenced the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils obtained from the barks of <em>D. lanceolataem>.

  17. EMS provider determinations of necessity for transport and reimbursement for EMS response, medical care, and transport: combined resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millin, Michael G; Brown, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demands for emergency medical services (EMS), many EMS jurisdictions are utilizing EMS provider-initiated nontransport policies as a method to offload potentially nonemergent patients from the EMS system. EMS provider determination of medical necessity, resulting in nontransport of patients, has the potential to avert unnecessary emergency department visits. However, EMS systems that utilize these policies must have additional education for the providers, a quality improvement process, and active physician oversight. In addition, EMS provider determination of nontransport for a specific situation should be supported by evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that the practice is safe. Further, EMS systems that do not utilize these programs should not be financially penalized. Payment for EMS services should be based on the prudent layperson standard. EMS systems that do utilize nontransport policies should be appropriately reimbursed, as this represents potential cost savings to the health care system.

  18. OCCURENCE OF Salmonella IN CHICKEN CARCASSES AND CUTS COMMERCIALIZED IN GOIÂNIA-GO OCORRÊNCIA DE Salmonella EM CARCAÇAS E CORTES DE FRANGOS COMERCIALIZADOS EM GOIÂNIA-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Aparecida Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Its was analised 53 chicken carcasses and commercial cuts acquired in supermarkets of Goiânia-GO aiming to isolate <em>Salmonella>. The contamination rate was 13.2% and serotypes <em>S. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S. agonaem>, <em>S. derbyem> and <em>S. hadorem> were identified.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Salmonella>; chicken; chicken carcasses; commercial cuts.

    No presente estudo foram analisadas, com vistas ao isolamento de <em>Salmonella>, 53 amostras de carcaças e cortes comerciais de frangos colhidas em supermercados e casas de carnes de Goiânia - GO. Observou-se freqüência média do patógeno de 13,2%, sendo identificados os sorotipos <em>E. brandenburgem>, <em>S. typhimuriumem>, <em>S.> <em>agona>, <em>S. derbyem> e <em>S. Hadarem>.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: <em>Salmonella>; frango de corte; carcaça; cortes comerciais.

  19. Crescimento foliar em arvores e crescimento inicial em plantulas de Kielmeyera coriacea

    OpenAIRE

    Felicio Ryoji Arasaki

    1993-01-01

    Resumo: Neste trabalho foi investigado o crescimento lento que ocorre na parte aérea de Kielmevera coriacea, característica esta que parece ser comum em espécies perenes dos cerrados. O estudo foi realizado em plântulas mantidas em casa de vegetação (UNICAMP) e em câmara de crescimento (Universidade de Edinburgo), assim como em árvores no campo (região de cerrado no município de Itirapina, SP). Os dados de TCR obtidos em plântulas mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação apresentaram valore...

  20. Ser marrano em Minas Colonial

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    Anita Novinsky

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Baseado em 57 Processos inéditos de marranos (cristãos-novos, conversos presos em Minas Gerais no século XVIII, este artigo procura mostrar seu papel na Idade de Ouro do Brasil. 64% deles eram mercadores e 23% eram mineiros. Pertenciam à classe média e raros eram os magnatas. Nenhum dele esteve envolvido no tráfico negreiro. Acusados do crime de judaísmo e de pertencerem a sociedades secretas, representaram 42% dos brasileiros condenados à morte. Ser marrano entre os portugueses no Brasil mais um sentimento e uma visão de mundo do que uma prática religiosa.Based on 57 unknown trials of marranos (new christians, conversos arrested by the Inquisition in Minas Gerais in the XVIII the century, this article shows their role in shapping the history of Minas Gerais. 64% of them were merchants na 23% were miners. Most of them belonged to a middle class and rare were those whit great fortunes. No one of them were engaged in slave trade. Acused of judaism and of participating in secret society the marranos of Minas represented 42% of the Brazilian burned at the stake. Being a marrano in Minas Gerais was not always being a crypto-new. Marranism in Brasil was a feeling and a approach to life.

  1. Dualismos em duelo Dueling dualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fausto-Sterling

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os modos europeus e norte-americanos de entender como funciona o mundo dependem em grande parte do uso de dualismos - pares de conceitos, objetos ou sistemas de crenças opostos. Este ensaio enquadra especialmente três deles: sexo/gênero, natureza/criação e real/construído. Embora este texto verse sobre gênero, discuto regularmente o modo como as idéias de raça e gênero surgem a partir de supostos subjacentes sobre a natureza física do corpo. Entender como operam raça e gênero - em conjunto e independentemente - nos ajuda a compreender melhor como o social se torna corporificado.Euro-American ways of understanding how the world works depend heavily on the use of dualisms - pairs of opposing concepts, objects, or belief sytems. This text focuses especially on three of these: sex/gender, nature/nurture, and real/constructed. And although this text focuses on gender, I regularly discuss the ways in which the ideas of both race and gender emerge from underlying assumptions about the body's physical nature. Understanding how race and gender work - together and independently - help us learn more about how the social becomes embodied.

  2. Analgesia regional em cuidados intensivos

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    Luísa Guedes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A analgesia regional desempenha um papel importante na abordagem multimodal da dor no doente crítico e permite amenizar o desconforto do doente e reduzir os estresses fisiológico e psicológico associados. Ao diminuir as doses de opioides sistêmicos, reduz alguns dos seus efeitos colaterais, como a síndrome de abstinência, possíveis alterações psicológicas e disfunção gastrintestinal. Apesar desses benefícios, seu uso é controverso, uma vez que os doentes em unidades de cuidados intensivos apresentam frequentemente contraindicações, como coagulopatia, instabilidade hemodinâmica e dificuldade na avaliação neurológica e na execução da técnica regional. CONTEÚDO: Os autores apresentam uma revisão sobre analgesia regional em cuidados intensivos, com foco nas principais vantagens e limitações de seu uso no doente crítico, e descrevem as técnicas regionais mais usadas e a sua aplicabilidade nesse contexto.

  3. Dois funcionalistas franceses em confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Eugenio Hoyos-Andrade

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Comparamos, neste artigo, de modo aproximativo e provisório, dois modelos de análise sintática e dois métodos de representação gráfica dessas análises: trata-se dos modelos e métodos de André Martinet e Lucien Tesnière. Depois de algumas considerações introdutórias relativas ao funcionalismo dos autores em causa, arrolamos um conjunto de características que aproximam ou opõem os seus respectivos modelos. Apresentamos, em seguida, no intuito de beneficiar os estudantes universitários de sintaxe, as representações gráficas de um mesmo enunciado segundo o método estemático de Tesnière e segundo o método de visualização das relações sintáticas de Martinet, para concluir que os dois modelos/métodos, embora diferentes, poderiam eventualmente ser integrados num único sistema de análise e representação.

  4. Laddering em pesquisa de marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Modesto Veludo-de-Oliveira

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a técnica de pesquisa laddering em marketing, considerando a proposta de renovação de conhecimentos sobre metodologia na área. Para isso investiga diversos estudos, artigos e pesquisas que tratam do assunto em nível nacional e internacional. O conceito de cadeias meios-fins é abordado pela estrutura teórica que fundamenta a técnica, ligando atributos, conseqüências percebidas do consumo e valores pessoais relativos a um produto. O artigo segue com a explicação dos procedimentos de campo, como a entrevista e a análise dos dados. A laddering é um instrumento de pesquisa qualitativa bastante útil e poderoso, mas ainda pouco utilizado tanto por acadêmicos como por profissionais de mercado, no Brasil, provavelmente por desconhecimento e pouca divulgação. Cabe, portanto, uma maior disseminação de seu uso.

  5. O MAL EM ERIC WEIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Benevides Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O mal ocupa a condição de problema para a filosofia desde a Antiguidade. Passando pelas ponderações dos estóicos e de Santo Agostinho, tratado no contexto da teodiceia por Leibniz, o mal aporta como objeto de preocupação para a moral em Kant. Muito conhecido por sua definição como um kantiano pós-hegeliano, é com Kant, mas indo além dele que Weil trata do mal, pensando-o como formas de violência. Considerada como o outro do sentido e da razão, a violência se manifesta de maneiras variadas. Nosso intuito é determinar o conceito de mal em Eric Weil enquanto forma de violência. Para isso, nos propomos a situar no esquema conceitual da violência duas formas de mal discutidas por Weil nos seus textos: o mal radical e o mal diabólico.

  6. Actinomicose atípica em bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Tessele; Andréia Vielmo; Márcia Hammerschmitt; Claudio S.L. Barros

    2014-01-01

    Casos de actinomicose com apresentação atípica são descritos em dois bovinos. Em ambos os casos notou-se uma aumento de volume extenso e duro na maxila. A maxila dos dois bovinos tomou um aspecto de favo de mel como resultado da rarefação destrutiva e da proliferação óssea regenerativa. Na superfície de corte as lesões consistiam de tecido fibroso branco e brilhante em meio ao qual numerosos grânulos amarelos podiam ser vistos. Tratos fistulosos podiam ser demonstrados em meio às lesões. Em c...

  7. Species Differentiation of Chinese <em>Mollitrichosiphum> (Aphididae: Greenideinae Driven by Geographical Isolation and Host Plant Acquirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gexia Qiao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of both the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP and the separation of the Taiwan and Hainan Islands on the evolution of the fauna and flora in adjacent regions has been a topic of considerable interest. <em>Mollitrichosiphum> is a polyphagous insect group with a wide range of host plants (14 families and distributions restricted to Southeast Asia. Based on the mitochondrial Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI and Cytochrome b (Cytb genes, the nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α gene, and the detailed distribution and host plant data, we investigated the species differentiation modes of the Chinese <em>Mollitrichosiphum> species. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of <em>Mollitrichosiphum>. The divergence time of <em>Mollitrichosiphum tenuicorpus em>(c>. 11.0 mya (million years ago, <em>Mollitrichosiphum nandiiem> and<em> Mollitrichosiphum montanumem> (<em>c>. 10.6 mya was within the time frame of the uplift of the QTP. Additionally, basal species mainly fed on Fagaceae, while species that fed on multiple plants diverged considerably later. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that Fagaceae may be the first acquired host, and the acquisition of new hosts and the expansion of host range may have promoted species differentiation within this genus. Overall, it can be concluded that geographical isolation and the expansion of the host plant range may be the main factors driving species differentiation of <em>Mollitrichosiphum>.

  8. Terapia breve em hospital fechado

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    Paulo Cesar Sandler

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo cuida de pacientes "difíceis" da clínica psiquiátrica e psicoterápica: os pacientes que apresentam o fenômeno da atuação, cuja aproximação terapêutica tem se demonstrado problemática, mesmo com o advento das modernas técnicas de psicoterapia e das comunidades terapêuticas. Os diagnósticos psiquiátricos destes pacientes variam: são neuróticos, apresentam transtornos de pesonalidade, são psicóticos e quase sempre com graves doenças secundárias: alcoolismo e toxicomania (Códigos Classificação Internacional de Doenças 295 a 299, 300. 301, 303 e 304. Propõe-se, à luz da compreensão psicanalítica destas pessoas, um tratamento psicoterápico breve, focal, com o auxílio de uma hospitalização em regime fechado. Para a avaliação dos resultados do método psicoterápico diádico, criaram-se critérios de cura coerentes com a proposta terapêutica, e equiparam-se estes critérios clínicos a valores numéricos. Utilizando 36 pacientes internados, verificou-se até que ponto eles alcançavam estes critérios. Cada paciente recebeu um escore - valor numérico - que expressou o seu desempenho durante o tratamento em regime de internação, e sua conduta pós-alta hospitalar, durante um seguimento médio de 21 meses. Estes 36 pacientes puderam ser divididos em dois grupos: os de evolução favorável (obtivemos 36,1% e os de evolução desfavorável. Por meio de uma amostra sistemática composta por 41 pacientes que não foram submetidos ao método, internados no mesmo período de tempo, no mesmo hospital, e pareados com nossa casuística, fêz-se uma comparação estatística entre os percentis obtidos nas evoluções dos dois grupos. O valor do teste estatístico, o chi quadrado, não foi significante. O exame das proporções correspondentes a cada patologia em separado sugeriu fortemente que o tratamento estaria indicado nas neuroses e nas psicoses, mas que seria realmente ineficaz nos transtornos de

  9. Il ruolo dell'Arvicola delle nevi <em>Chionomys nivalisem> come specie-preda: un'analisi della situazione italiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Nappi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available L?Arvicola delle nevi <em>Chionomys nivalisem>, a causa della sua particolare nicchia ecologica costituita, nella sua componente spaziale, dai suoli pietrosi nei cui interstizi vive, viene di norma considerata una preda poco rappresentata nelle catene trofiche. In Italia, eccettuato un dato incerto di cattura da <em>Buteo buteoem>, è risultata predata da cinque specie di serpenti (<em>Coronella austriacaem>, <em>Elaphe longissimaem>, <em>Vipera aspisem>, <em>V. berusem>, <em>V. ursiniiem>, sei di uccelli (<em>Aquila chrysaetosem>, <em>Strix alucoem>, <em>Bubo buboem>, <em>Aegolius funereusem>, <em>Asio otusem> e cinque di mammiferi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem>, <em>Mustela nivalisem>, <em>M. ermineaem>, <em>Martes> sp., <em>Felis catusem>. In alcuni casi, come in <em>Vipera berusem> a Passo Fedaia (BL, <em>Asio otusem> a S. Valentino alla Muta (BZ, <em>Mustela ermineaem> nel Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (TN con percentuali piuttosto consistenti, rispettivamente del 69.6%, 60.71% e 35.89%. In uno studio su <em>Vulpes vulpesem> nel Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso (TO-AO è risultata essere la preda dominante tra i roditori. Sempre nella stessa area, è interessante la predazione da <em>Aegolius funereusem> per la quale risulta, dopo <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem>, la preda più rappresentata (27.97% malgrado, da uno studio di trappolamento di micromammiferi effettuato intorno all?area di nidificazione, risulti assente rivelando così un comportamento esplorativo del rapace diretto proprio alla ricerca dell?arvicola delle nevi. Da una prima analisi sembrerebbe dunque da rivalutare il ruolo di questo roditore come preda, anche considerando il contributo in biomassa che può rappresentare. Su un totale di 184 dati reperiti sulla presenza della specie in Italia, 28 (15.2% derivano da residui di predazione. Benché non risulti un quantitativo alto comparato ad altri micromammiferi è comunque significativo

  10. A Favela posta em Cena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Valdoski Ribeiro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Em uma realidade de urbanização calcada no aprofundamento dos processos de expropriação e espoliações se consolida o fenômeno da produção de uma morfologia intitulada Favela, que continua a representar um desafio teórico e prático para pesquisadores. Este desafio é enfrentado de várias formas sendo uma delas desenhada no âmbito de duas publicações do Observatório das Favelas (Rio de Janeiro assentadas na busca conceitual do termo favela e objetivando a efetivação de políticas públicas. Esta meta remonta a trajetória deste Observatório que criado em 2001 pensa a inserção da Favela no âmbito das políticas de Estado. A primeira publicação intitulada “Favela: alegria e dor na cidade” (2005 se compõem de quatro capítulos que expõem um movimento da história de formação das favelas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, as formas de intervenção do Estado, a prática cotidiana dos moradores como manifestação das transgressões diante as opressões e finaliza com as propostas de caminhos possíveis de superação das desigualdades e ampliação da democracia. O argumento central dos autores se direciona para o questionamento das visões de homogeneidade, ausência, carência e apartamento das favelas diante da cidade apontando a urgência de construção de um projeto de cidade democrático e fraterno.Ao longo do texto os autores vão descrevendo os exemplos destas visões e analisa o resultado delas por meio de como a população residente vive, pois são ora invisíveis, ora criminalizados, ora caracterizados enquanto um problema social estabelecendo, portanto, uma lógica autoritária que legitimará no decorrer da história das favelas, as intervenções estatais. Este movimento molda uma linha argumentativa que tenta explicitar o negativo diante a produção possível para o “morar’, que calcado na impossibilidade do acesso à terra pelo imperativo da propriedade privada empurra grandes contingentes populacionais

  11. Fatores associados ao fumo em gestantes avaliadas em cidades brasileiras

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    Kroeff Locimara Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a correlação dos fatores sociodemográficos e estilo de vida com o hábito de fumar em gestantes atendidas em hospitais. MÉTODOS: O delineamento foi o de um estudo transversal. A amostra foi composta por 5.539 gestantes atendidas em ambulatórios de pré-natal em hospitais públicos credenciados nas cidades de Manaus, Fortaleza, Salvador, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo e Porto Alegre, entre 1991 e 1995. A seleção foi consecutiva para todas as gestantes com 20 anos ou mais de idade, excetuando-se aquelas com diabetes prévia à gestação. Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e entrevistas entre a 21ª e a 28ª semanas da gravidez. Por meio de um questionário padronizado, considerou-se como fumante quem informou fumar um ou mais cigarros por dia, como ex-fumante quem informou ter fumado mais de um cigarro por dia e ter cessado, e não fumantes quem informou nunca ter fumado um ou mais cigarros por dia. RESULTADOS: O hábito de fumar na gestação associou-se à baixa escolaridade (RC=2,13; IC 95%: 1,76-2,57 e paridade (RC=1,84; IC 95%: 1,53-2,21. Para o aumento da idade da gestante e uso de bebidas alcóolicas também foram observadas associações positivas com o fumo na gestação. Não foi observada nenhuma associação significativa entre cor da pele e situação ocupacional com fumo na gestação. Um efeito protetor foi observado para mulheres casadas ou com companheiro (RC=0,55; IC 95%: 0,42-0,72. Entre as cidades, tomando Manaus como referência, Porto Alegre apresentou o maior risco para fumo na gestação (RC=5,00; IC 95%: 3,35-7,38, seguida de São Paulo (RC=3,42; IC 95%: 2,25-5,20, Rio de Janeiro (RC=2,53; IC 95%: 1,65-3,88 e Fortaleza (RC=2,56; IC95%: 1,74-3,78. CONCLUSÕES: Os achados são semelhantes àqueles descritos na literatura com relação à escolaridade, paridade e situação conjugal. Entretanto, nenhuma associação com a cor da pele foi observada na análise multivariada. As ex-fumantes mostraram

  12. Alimentazione di <em>Marmota marmotaem> in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

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    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of <em>Marmota marmotaem> in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (<em>Poa>, <em>Phleum>, Compositae (<em>Achillea>, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (<em>Anthyllis>, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (<em>Prunella>, <em>Stachys> formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  13. <em>luxS> Mutant Regulation: Quorum Sensing Impairment or Methylation Disorder?

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    Zhengwei Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available AI-2–mediated quorum sensing has been identified in various bacteria, including both Gram-negative and Gram-positive species, and numerous phenotypes have been reported to be regulated by this mechanism, using the <em>luxS>-mutant strain. But the AI-2 production process confused this regulatory function; some considered this regulation as the result of a metabolic change, which refers to an important metabolic cycle named activated methyl cycle (AMC, caused by<em> luxSem>-mutant simultaneously with the defect of AI-2. Herein we hypothesized that the quorum sensing system—not the metabolic aspect—is responsible for such a regulatory function. In this study, we constructed plasmids infused with<em> sahHem> and induced protein expression in the <em>luxS>-mutant strain to make the quorum-sensing system and metabolic system independent. The biofilm-related genes were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and the results demonstrated that the quorum-sensing completed strain restored the gene expression of the defective strain, but the metabolically completed one did not. This evidence supported our hypothesis that the autoinducer-2-mediated, quorum-sensing system, not the AMC, was responsible for <em>luxS> mutant regulation.

  14. Inhibition of <em>Burkholderia multivoransem> Adhesion to Lung Epithelial Cells by Bivalent Lactosides

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    Trinidad Velasco-Torrijos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Burkholderia cepaciaem> complex (Bcc is an opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients which is inherently resistant to antimicrobial agents. The mechanisms of attachment and pathogenesis of Bcc, a group of 17 species, are poorly understood. The most commonly identified Bcc species in newly colonised patients,<em> Burkholderia multivoransem>, continues to be acquired from the environment. Development of therapies which can prevent or reduce the risk of colonization on exposure to Bcc in the environment would be a better alternative to antimicrobial agents. Previously, it has been shown that Bcc strains bound to many glycolipid receptors on lung epithelia. Using a real-time PCR method to quantify the levels of binding of <em>B. multivoransem> to the lung epithelial cells, we have examined glycoconjugate derivatives for their potential to inhibit host cell attachment. Bivalent lactosides previously shown to inhibit galectin binding significantly reduced the attachment of <em>B. multivoransem> to CF lung epithelial cells at micromolar concentrations. This was in contrast to monosaccharides and lactose, which were only effective in the millimolar range. Development of glycoconjugate therapies such as these, which inhibit attachment to lung epithelial cells, represent an alternative means of preventing infection with inherently antimicrobially resistant pathogens such as <em>B. multivoransem>.

  15. <em>Emaravirus>: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

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    Hans-Peter Mühlbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (<em>Sorbus aucupariaem> L., fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (<em>Cajanus cajanem> and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of <em>European mountain ash ringspot-associated virusem> (EMARaV, <em>Fig mosaic virusem> (FMV, rose rosette virus (RRV, raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV, pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus <em>Emaravirus> was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses.

  16. Delineamentos de Experimentos em Ensaios Fatoriais Utilizados em Preferência Declarada: Uma Aplicação em Benchmarking

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Osmar Ambrosio de; UNICENTRO

    2009-01-01

    Análise nos delineamentos experimentais em ensaios fatoriais, utilizados em preferência declarada, otimizados pela formação do conjunto de escolha baseado nos arranjos ortogonais de Taguchi e técnicas de blocos incompletos balanceados. Desenvolvimento do processo de estimação dos parâmetros da função logit multinomial que leva em consideração a probabilidade condicional da escolha efetuada no conjunto de escolha formado pela divisão do conjunto de alternativas (modelo LMPC – Logit Multinomial...

  17. Uso de dexmedetomidina em anestesiologia

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    Villela Nivaldo Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dexmedetomidina é um novo agonista alfa2-adrenérgico que apresenta relação de seletividade entre os receptores alfa2:alfa1 de 1600:1, com importante ação sedativa e analgésica, bom controle hemodinâmico frente ao estresse e que pode produzir, por si só, anestesia. Este agente tem sido empregado para promover analgesia e sedação no período pós-operatório e nas unidades de tratamento intensivo. Devido à suas propriedades, recentemente, a dexmedetomidina passou a ser utilizada também na sala de operações, como fármaco coadjuvante em anestesia. Assim, este artigo faz uma revisão da literatura com relação ao uso da dexmedetomidina na prática anestésica. CONTEÚDO: São apresentados os principais trabalhos com o emprego da dexmedetomidina em Anestesiologia, seja como medicação pré-anestésica, ou durante o ato anestésico-cirúrgico. O mecanismo de ação dos fármacos alfa2-agonistas e as propriedades farmacocinéticas e farmacodinâmicas da dexmedetomidina também são revistos neste artigo. CONCLUSÕES: O uso da dexmedetomidina como medicação pré-anestésica, durante anestesia, ou no período pós-operatório, promove boa estabilidade hemodinâmica. Há redução do consumo de anestésicos durante a anestesia. Os pacientes sedados com a dexmedetomidina podem ser despertados, quando solicitados, e tornarem-se cooperativos. Mesmo doses elevadas do fármaco não provocam depressão respiratória. Bradicardia é um efeito adverso observado com freqüência, problema amenizado pela administração lenta da droga. Assim, a dexmedetomidina torna-se importante recurso adicional para a prática clínica da Anestesiologia, com possibilidade de uso em diversos tipos de pacientes e procedimentos cirúrgicos.

  18. Elongation Factor 1β' Gene from <em>Spodoptera exiguaem>: Characterization and Function Identification through RNA Interference

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    Li-Na Zhao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Elongation factor (EF is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β' from <em>Spodoptera> exiguaem> (SeEF-1β', its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that <em>SeEF-1β'em> mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that <em>SeEF-1β'em> mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with<em> SeEF-1β'em>> em>dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β' was suppressed. The results demonstrate that <em>SeEF-1β' em>is a key gene in transcription in <em>S. exiguaem>.

  19. Training for Defense? From Stochastic Traits to Synchrony in Giant Honey Bees (<em>Apis dorsataem>

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    Gerald Kastberger

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Giant Honey Bees, abdomen flipping happens in a variety of contexts. It can be either synchronous or cascaded, such as in the collective defense traits of shimmering and rearing-up, or it can happen as single-agent behavior. Abdomen flipping is also involved in flickering behavior, which occurs regularly under quiescent colony state displaying singular or collective traits, with stochastic, and (semi- synchronized properties. It presumably acts via visual, mechanoceptive, and pheromonal pathways and its goals are still unknown. This study questions whether flickering is preliminary to shimmering which is subject of the <em>fs em>(flickering-shimmering-transition> hypothesis? We tested the respective prediction that trigger sites (<em>ts> at the nest surface (where shimmering waves had been generated show higher flickering activity than the alternative non-trigger sites (<em>nts>. We measured the flickering activity of <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-surface bees from two experimental nests, before and after the colony had been aroused by a dummy wasp. Arousal increased rate and intensity of the flickering activity of both <em>ts>- and <em>nts> cohorts (P < 0.05, whereby the flickering intensity of <em>ts>-bees were higher than that of <em>nts>-bees (P < 0.05. Under arousal, the colonies also increased the number of flickering-active <em>ts>- and <em>nts>-cohorts (P < 0.05. This provides evidence that cohorts which are specialist at launching shimmering waves are found across the quiescent nest zone. It also proves that arousal may reinforce the responsiveness of quiescent curtain bees for participating in shimmering, practically by recruiting additional trigger site bees for expanding repetition of rate and intensity of shimmering waves. This finding confirms the <em>fs-transition> hypothesis and constitutes evidence that flickering is part of a basal colony-intrinsic information system

  20. Effect of Dieckol, a Component of <em>Ecklonia cavaem>, on the Promotion of Hair Growth

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    Sang-Cheol Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of <em>Ecklonia cavaem>, a marine alga native to Jeju Island in Korea, on the promotion of hair growth. When vibrissa follicles were cultured in the presence of <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract (which contains more than 35% of dieckol for 21 days, <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract increased hair-fiber length. In addition, after topical application of the 0.5% <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract onto the back of C57BL/6 mice, anagen progression of the hair-shaft was induced. The treatment with <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract resulted in the proliferation of immortalized vibrissa dermal papilla cells (DPC. Especially, dieckol, among the isolated compounds from the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract, showed activity that increased the proliferation of DPC. When NIH3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract and the isolated compounds from the <em>E. cava> enzymatic extract, the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract increased the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, but the isolated compounds such as eckol, dieckol, phloroglucinol and triphlorethol-A did not affect the proliferation of NIH3T3 fibroblasts. On the other hand, the <em>E. cavaem> enzymatic extract and dieckol significantly inhibited 5α-reductase activity. These results suggest that dieckol from <em>E. cavaem> can stimulate hair growth by the proliferation of DPC and/or the inhibition of 5α-reductase activity.

  1. Sodoma e Gomorra em Pompeios

    OpenAIRE

    Simoes Rodrigues, Nuno

    2012-01-01

    O presente estudo analisa o contexto de uma inscribo encontrada em Pompeios e na qual se leem os nomes das duas cidades bíblicas de Sodoma e Gomorra. Partindo da hipótese de o grafito ter sido escrito antes ou no momento da erup^ao do Vesúvio, considera-se a possibilidade de o seu autor, eventualmente um judeu, ter tido a in¬tenso de relacionar o terramoto de 62 ou a catástrofe de 79 d. C. com a ira divina que na tradi§äo bíblica teria destruido Sodoma e Gomorra This paper studies the cont...

  2. Medidas de democracia em surveys

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    Rose Richard

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina como as questões dos surveys sobre democracia são estruturadas de modos diferentes, dependendo do emprego de uma definição idealista ou realista e da presença ou não de comparações com regimes alternativos. Começo mostrando medidas de democracia em países pós-comunistas que perguntam às pessoas se estão satisfeitas ou não com a democracia e pedem que a comparem com um padrão ideal. As seções posteriores apresentam os resultados de questões realistas do New Democracies Barometer, que pedem às pessoas para avaliar regimes do passado, do presente e do futuro - e alternativas não-democráticas historicamente familiares.

  3. HAICAIS EM MANOEL DE BARROS

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    Profª Drª Nery Reiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo, voltado para a criação poética de Manoel de Barros, é focalizar o conceito da obra de arte como jogo. Escolhemos Manoel de Barros, porque o lúdico, a brincadeira e o humor estão sempre presentes em sua obra. A escolha dos dados, o encaixe de palavras escolhidas a dedo, no eixo paradigmático, formam um caleidoscópio, mostrando novas estruturas, deixando explícito o desejo de brincar com os elementos linguísticos e da natureza. Para este trabalho, escolhemos, para análise, pequenos poemas semelhantes aos haicais japoneses e outros menores ainda, com dois ou até um verso apenas. Contaremos, nesta pesquisa, com a ajuda de teóricos como Johan Huizinga, Ezra Pound, Octavio Paz, Lévi-Strauss, Olga Savary e Alfredo Bosi.

  4. MULTIDISCIPLINARIDADE E TRABALHO EM EQUIPE

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    Helmuth Krüger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram dois os objetivos deste trabalho: estabelecer critérios para a comparação de pesquisas científicas e analisar alguns problemas psicossociais que podem ocorrer em equipes multiprofissionais. Conclui-se que os critérios de comparação podem ser os quatro componentes de qualquer disciplina científica: o conjunto dos pressupostos filosóficos, o objeto a investigar, a metodologia de pesquisa e a linguagem técnica empregada na elaboração de teorias. Quanto às equipes multiprofissionais, foram analisados 3 problemas: a atribuição de papéis sociais, a confidencialidade das informações e as diferenças de prestígio social entre os membros dessas equipes.

  5. Hipercalcemia em animais de companhia

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Sara Duarte de Queirós Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, Ciências Veterinárias A hipercalcemia é definida como um aumento da concentração sérica do cálcio total e/ou do cálcio ionizado, cuja importância está relacionada com o facto de ser um marcador de determinadas doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e consolidar os conhecimentos relativos à hipercalcemia nos animais de companhia, nomeadamente no que diz respeito às várias etiologias e à abordagem diagnóstica. A origem da...

  6. Poderes locais em perspectiva comparada

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    Fernando Ruivo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available “Os romances não começam como queremos, mas como eles querem”, afirmou Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Similarmente, as nossas vidas nunca decorrem como individualmente as tínhamos pensado, desejado e planeado. Ora, tal como as nossas vidas, também as reformas político-administrativas e as políticas públicas territorializadas não começam, deve dizer-se, como queremos, isto é, como pensámos, desejámos e planeámos, mas em boa parte como elas querem, como se tivessem, afinal, alguma vida própria, a qual...

  7. Efeito posterior em dieletricos solidos

    OpenAIRE

    Scarpa, Paulo Cesar do Nascimento

    1989-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Parana Resumo: A macro e a micro-estrutura dos materiais dielétricos são sensíveis a sua historia térmica, mecânica e elétrica. Foi estudada, do ponto de vista teórico e experimental, a teoria da resposta dielétrica de Curie-Schweidler-Gross, vista tanto pela abordagem da teoria de circuito como da teoria de campo. O assunto e visto dentro da teoria geral da relaxação dielétrica, particularmente o efeito posterior em materiais dielétricos só...

  8. AFLATOXICOSE EM SUÍNOS

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    Luciana Silveira Flôres Schoenau

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO É descrito um surto de aflatoxicose em suínos Duroc de 2 a 6 meses, que consumiam ração contaminada por 519 ppb de aflatoxinas. A morbidade foi de 97%. A mortalidade foi alta, mas não determinada com exatidão. Os sinais clínicos incluíam recusa do alimento, pouco ganho ou perda de peso, diarreia e icterícia. Lesões subagudas e crônicas foram observadas em 4 porcos necropsiados. Nas lesões subagudas o fígado era escuro, com áreas centrolobulares hemorrágicas deprimidas, havia edema da parede da vesícula biliar e bile viscosa. Nos casos crônicos o fígado apresentava-se firme e amarelo-alaranjado. Havia líquido citrino nas cavidades e edema no cólon espiral. Havia avermelhamento da mucosa gástrica da região fúndica. Alterações subagudas eram necrose e hemorragias centrolobulares, hepatomegalocitose, fibrose e hiperplasia ductal. Nos casos crônicos havia fibrose, hiperplasia ductal, megalocitose e degeneração gordurosa hepatocelular. O diagnóstico de aflatoxicose foi feito baseado nos sinais clínicos, nos achados morfológicos e na presença de níveis significativos de aflatoxina na ração dos porcos (B1 = 484,3ppb, B2 = 110,8ppb, G1 = 343,7ppb e G2 = 99,2ppb. Frangos submetidos à mesma alimentação também desenvolveram lesões da toxicose.

  9. Cytotoxicity and Glycan-Binding Properties of an 18 kDa Lectin Isolated from the Marine Sponge <em>Halichondria em>okadai>

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    Yasuhiro Ozeki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A divalent cation-independent lectin—HOL-18, with cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells, was purified from a demosponge, <em>Halichondria okadaiem>. HOL-18 is a 72 kDa tetrameric lectin that consists of four non-covalently bonded 18 kDa subunits. Hemagglutination activity of the lectin was strongly inhibited by chitotriose (GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, fetuin and mucins from porcine stomach and bovine submaxillary gland. Lectin activity was stable at pH 4–12 and temperatures lower than 60 °C. Frontal affinity chromatography with 16 types of pyridylaminated oligosaccharides indicated that the lectin had an affinity for <em>N>-linked complex-type and sphingolipid-type oligosaccharides with <em>N>-acetylated hexosamines and neuramic acid at the non-reducing termini. The lectin killed Jurkat leukemia T cells and K562 erythroleukemia cells in a dose- and carbohydrate-dependent manner.

  10. Mastite em pequenos ruminantes no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto,Rodolfo de M.; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Costa,Mateus M. da

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo objetivou revisar as informações recentes sobre mastite em pequenos ruminantes, abrangendo etiologia, epidemiologia, aspectos de controle e profilaxia. Houve a preocupação em reunir resultados de estudos desenvolvidos no Brasil, uma vez que a mastite tem a interferência de uma série de fatores, como fatores ambientais e outros decorrentes dos sistemas de manejo empregados, condições essas determinantes para etiologia e epidemiologia da enfermidade. A prevalência da mastite em capr...

  11. Optimismo e stresse em estudantes de Enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Custódio, Susana Margarida Rodrigues; PEREIRA, ANABELA MARIA DE SOUSA; Seco, Graça Maria dos Santos Batista

    2010-01-01

    Comunicação apresentada no XVII Congreso INFAD sobre “Dificultades Sociales y Psicología Positiva de la Vida realizado em Zamora em Abr. 2010. O optimismo é considerado um recurso pessoal que influencia as respostas do indivíduo ao stresse e que contribui para o seu bem-estar. Este estudo quantitativo tem como objectivos avaliar o optimismo dos estudantes e verificar a existência de diferenças em função do sexo e do ano de frequência do curso. Pretende-se ainda analisar a relação entre ...

  12. O Trabalho Plurativo em Presidente Prudente

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    Sandro Mauro Guirro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, vêm ocorrendo mudanças no campo brasileiro, principalmente nas  propriedades localizadas próximas a malha urbana da cidade. Esse processo se verifica com mais intensidade em cidades como Campinas, Sorocaba, Jundiaí entre outras cidades próximas aos grandes centros urbanos. Em Presidente Prudente, esse processo dá sinais de existência em resposta à crise pela qual vem passando, sobretudo a pequena agricultura. Está-se diante da intensificação das mudanças de funções do trabalho inserido na lavra agrária.

  13. Técnicas em psicoterapia existencial

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Vítor André Diaz y Pais Sartóris de

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário Problema: Poucas investigações têm sido feitas ao nível das técnicas em psicoterapia existencial baseada em dados empíricos. A este nível destacam-se apenas os trabalhos de Norcross (1987) e de Alegria et al. (in press). Objetivo: Este estudo procurou perceber quais as práticas existentes em psicoterapia existencial a partir das quais os próprios psicoterapeutas existenciais consideraram ser as mais características do se...

  14. Phenolic Antioxidants Isolated from the Flowers of <em>Osmanthus fragransem>

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    Kuo-Yu Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>O. fragransem> has slightly less antioxidative activity than green tea. Five phenolic compounds, tyrosyl acetate (1, (+-phillygenin (2, (8<em>E>-ligustroside (3, rutin (4, and verbascoside (5, were isolated from the CHCl3 sub-extract of <em>O. fragransem>. The structures were elucidated by interpreting their spectral data. Evaluation of the antioxidative property of the isolated (+-phillygenin (2, rutin (4, and verbascoside (5 revealed strong DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 19.1, 10.3, and 6.2 μM, respectively. These isolates also exhibited an H2O2 scavenging ability, with IC50 values of 10.5, 23.4, and 13.4 μM, respectively.

  15. Otter (<em>Lutra lutraem> presence in Lattari mountains (Campania Region, Southern Italy

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    Roberto Fasano

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new area of presence of the otter (<em>Lutra lutraem> was found in Campania region (Southern Italy. It included the "Valle delle Ferriere" and "Vècite" canyons close to Amalfi town (Salerno province. A total of 24 sprainting sites was recorded. Riassunto Presenza della lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> nei monti Lattari (Campania - Si descrive un'area di presenza della lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> in Campania mai segnalata prima, comprendente la "Valle delle Ferriere" attraversata dal torrente Ceraso e la valle denominata "Vècite" (Amalfi, Provincia di Salerno. In totale sono stati trovati 24 siti di marcamento.

  16. Rendimento de cultivares de tomate para processamento em Goias

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Seis ensaios de competição de cultivares de tomate para processamento industrial foram conduzidos nos municípios goianos de Anápolis, Jataí, Porangatú e Santa Isabel, em 1990, e Anápolis e Porangatu, em 1991. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, tendo as parcelas 80 plantas em 1990 e 70 em 1991. Em Porangatu, em 1990, as plantas foram mais precoces, florescendo 35 e 41 dias após a semeadura e iniciando-se a colheita 38 dias após a antese. Em ...

  17. Feeding habits of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland

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    Maite Sánchez

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study quantified the diet of the genet <em>Genetta genettaem> in an Iberian continental wetland, the Galachos Nature Reserve, northern Spain, based on the frequency with which items appeared in five monthly-surveyed latrines during 2004-2005. Prey types were identified <em>de visuem> using identification keys and expert advice. the genet was confirmed as an opportunistic and generalist predator, its diet including mammals (95.0%, plants (68.3% and arthropods (60.0% as main prey. With the exception of a newly available prey species, the alien crayfish <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, the genet probably consumed arthropods because of chance encounters rather than active search. The consumption of fruits and small mammals varied seasonally. Riassunto Alimentazione della genetta <em>Genetta genettaem> in un'area umida continentale della penisola iberica La dieta della genetta è stata investigata in un'area umida interna della Spagna settentrionale, la riserva Naturale dei Galachos. La frequenza di ciascuna categoria alimentare è stata espressa come numero di occorrenze mansili in cinque latrine monitorate per il periodo 2004-2005. Le categorie sono state identificate <em>de visuem> tramite chiavi per il riconoscimento o l'intervento di singoli esperti. I risultati confermano il comportamento alimentare generalista e opportunista della genetta. La dieta ha incluso principalmente mammiferi (95%, vegetali (68.3% e artropodi (60%. Questi ultimi, con l'eccezione del gambero <em>Procambarus clarkiiem>, introdotto e di recente presenza, sono probabilmente utilizzati in modo opportunistico, piuttosto che in seguito a ricerca attiva. L'uso dei frutti e dei micromammiferi varia stagionalmente.

  18. <em>Cassia spectabilis em>(DC Irwin et Barn: A Promising Traditional Herb in Health Improvement

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    Subramanian Deivanai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genus <em>Cassia>, comprising about 600 species widely distributed worldwide is well known for its diverse biological and pharmacological properties. <em>Cassia spectabilis em>(sin <em>Senna spectabilisem> (DC Irwin et Barn (Fabaceae is widely grown as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical areas. <em>C. spectabilis em>has been commonly used in traditional medicine for many years. Information in the biomedical literature has indicated the presence of a variety of medicinally-important chemical constituents in <em>C. spectabilisem>. Pharmacological studies by various groups of investigators have shown that <em>C. spectabilisem> possesses significant biological activity, such as antibacterial, antibiofilm, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Beside this, toxicity studies of this plant have revealed no toxic effect on mice. In view of the immense medicinal importance of <em>C. spectabilisem>, this review aimed at compiling all currently available information on <em>C. spectabilisem>’s botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and mechanism of actions, toxicology and its ethnomedicinal uses.

  19. Seasonal effects on the hematology and blood plasma proteins of two species of mice <em>Mus musculus domesticusem> and <em>M. spretusem> (Rodentia: Muridae from Portugal

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    António Mira

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were taken from <em>Mus musculus domesticusem> (Rutty, 1772 and <em>M. spretusem> (Lataste, 1883, live-trapped at one month intervals, from September 88 to July 89, in the district of Lisbon, Portugal. The seasonal hematological variations in the commensal species, <em>M. musculus domesticuem>s, were characterized by an increase in red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit values in winter which reverse during summer. On the contrary, in <em>M. spretusem> hematocrit values slightly change throughout the year. In both species the albumin/globulin ratio was low in spring and high in autumn. These results were analysed and discussed taking into account environmental factors and physiological conditions of mice. Riassunto Effetti stagionali sull'ematologia e le proteine del plasma di <em>Mus musculus domesticusem> e <em>M. spretusem> (Rodentia: Muridae in Portogallo - I campioni di sangue provengono da individui di <em>Mus musculus domesticusem> (Rutty, 1772 e <em>M. spretusem> (Lataste, 1883. Gli animali sono stati catturati vivi ogni mese, da settembre 88 a luglio 89, nel distretto di Lisbona, in Portogallo. Le variazioni stagionali ematologiche nella specie commensale, <em>M. m. domesticusem>, sono caratterizzate da un incremento di cellule rosse del sangue, di emoglobina e dei valori di ematocrito in inverno che assumono un andamento opposto in estate. Al contrario, in <em>M. spretusem> i valori di ematocrito non cambiano sensibilmente durante tutto l'anno. In entrambe le specie il rapporto albumina/globulina risulta basso in primavera e alto in autunno. Questi risultati sono stati analizzati e discussi tenendo conto dei fattori ambientali e le condizioni fisiologiche dei topi.

  20. Parasitismo gastrintestinal em diferentes intensidades de pastejo no capim Tânzania, em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Helenara Machado da [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Os objetivos gerais deste estudo visaram verificar o parasitismo gastrintestinal em diferentes intensidades de pastejo no capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum (Jacq.) cv. Tanzânia-1), em caprinos e avaliar o método Famacha em cabras ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen e Saanen, criadas em sistema de pastejo, sob condições subtropicais. Foram utilizadas 65 cabras, sendo 21 cabras da raça Saanen e 44 cabras de composição genética ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen, pesando entre 35 a 40 kg. No tratamento de baixa intensidade de pastejo (...

  1. Psicoterapia baseada em evidências em crianças e adolescentes

    OpenAIRE

    Pheula, Gabriel Ferreira; Isolan, Luciano Rassier

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXTO: O termo tratamentos baseados em evidências refere-se a intervenções que possuem evidência de eficácia em pesquisas empíricas. Tratamentos psicológicos baseados em evidências têm sido identificados como um objetivo principal nos Estados Unidos, e, atualmente, há uma clara orientação em direção à sua indicação para os transtornos psiquiátricos mais prevalentes. OBJETIVO: Revisar a efetividade de intervenções psicossociais para as principais formas clínicas dos transtornos mentais na i...

  2. Análise por imagens dos contatos oclusais em boca e em verticulador

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Guilherme Campos; Silva, Emerson Hamilton; Lanza,Marcos Dias; Lincoln Dias LANZA; Peixoto, Rogeli Tibúrcio Ribeiro da Cunha; Poletto,Luiz Thadeu de Abreu

    2016-01-01

    A ocorrência de discrepância qualitativa dos pontos de contato da superfície oclusal dos dentes 24 ao 27 foi pesquisada em dois indivíduos, comparando-se imagens digitalizadas obtidas “in vivo” e em modelos montados em verticulador. Seis modelos parciais, obtidos por meio de moldagem de duplo arco, foram montados em um aparelho verticulador. Um dispositivo para obtenção de fotografia intra-oral com a mesma distância focal e mesmo plano foi desenvolvido e confeccionado. Para o registro dos con...

  3. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of <em>ent>-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides

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    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of the three <em>ent>-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from <em>Stevia rebaudianaem>, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  4. Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF Antagonistic Activity of a New Biflavonoid from <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King

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    Azura Abdul Ghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of <em>Garcinia nervosaem> var. <em>pubescens> King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC50 values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.

  5. ESPECIFICANDO FORMALMENTE TOPOLOGIAS PARA REDES EM CHIP

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    Eliselma Vieira dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da utilização de métodos formais na especificação de topologias para redes em chip. As redes em chip apresentam similaridades com as redes tradicionais, entretanto, por estarem inseridas em sistemas embarcados apresentam características mais restritivas do ponto de vista de espaço, consumo de energia e latência. A topologia descreve o fluxo de dados através da rede e a estrutura física de como os dispositivos estão conectados, bem como, pode determinar o grau de escalabilidade e o desempenho de um sistema como todo. Este artigo apresenta especificações de topologias de redes em chip, relevantes para o projeto de sistemas embarcados, as quais poderão ser utilizadas no processo de síntese de alto nível.

  6. Probióticos em avicultura

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    Gil de los Santos João Rodrigo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante os últimos anos, o incremento de toxinfecções alimentares em humanos pela ingestão de produtos avícolas contaminados com bactérias, sugeriu que produtos oriundos de aves portadoras dessas bactérias podem veiculá-las ao consumidor, provocando doenças entéricas em humanos. Essas observações e a restrição, por parte do mercado consumidor, ao uso de antimicrobianos na produção animal, aumentaram o interesse mundial pelos probióticos e, conseqüentemente, o número de pesquisas realizadas. Esta revisão mostra os avanços e a situação em que se encontram os probióticos em relação à indústria avícola.

  7. Feocromocitoma em criança

    OpenAIRE

    Herdy,Gesmar Volga Haddad; Olivaes,Maria Cecília; Lopes,Vânia Glória Silami; Pontes,Carlos Adriano Gazanego; Ormond Filho,João Batista; Fonseca,Eliene C.

    2005-01-01

    Feocromocitoma é uma neoplasia de células cromafins que causa sintomas e sinais decorrentes da libertação de catecolminas e é muito rara em crianças. Relatamos um caso feocromocitoma em criança, com difícil manejo clínico, confirmado também pela anatomia-patológica e curado após a ressecção cirúrgica.

  8. Feeding strategies of <em>Rattus norvegicusem>: a review / Una sintesi di alcuni aspetti della strategia alimentare del ratto <em>Rattus norvegicusem>

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Cagnin

    1987-01-01

    Abstract Some of the most relevant aspects of the feeding behaviour of the rat (<em>Rattus norvegicusem>, Berkenhout, 1769) were examined with particular interest in the data collected on wild rats and in natural environments. The rat is considered as an omnivore and generalist species, but both in the wild and in the laboratory marked individual differences were recorded in food preferences and diet spectrum, which probably allow the natural popula...

  9. <em>Helicobacter pyloriem> Disrupts Host Cell Membranes, Initiating a Repair Response and Cell Proliferation

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    Hsueh-Fen Juan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Helicobacter pyloriem> (<em>H. pyloriem>, the human stomach pathogen, lives on the inner surface of the stomach and causes chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Plasma membrane repair response is a matter of life and death for human cells against physical and biological damage. We here test the hypothesis that <em>H. pyloriem> also causes plasma membrane disruption injury, and that not only a membrane repair response but also a cell proliferation response are thereby activated. Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA have been considered to be major <em>H. pyloriem> virulence factors. Gastric cancer cells were infected with <em>H. pyloriem> wild type (vacA+/cagA+, single mutant (ΔvacA or ΔcagA or double mutant (ΔvacA/ΔcagA strains and plasma membrane disruption events and consequent activation of membrane repair components monitored. <em>H. pyloriem> disrupts the host cell plasma membrane, allowing localized dye and extracellular Ca2+ influx. Ca2+-triggered members of the annexin family, A1 and A4, translocate, in response to injury, to the plasma membrane, and cell surface expression of an exocytotic maker of repair, LAMP-2, increases. Additional forms of plasma membrane disruption, unrelated to <em>H.> pylori em>exposure, also promote host cell proliferation. We propose that <em>H. pyloriem> activation of a plasma membrane repair is pro-proliferative. This study might therefore provide new insight into potential mechanisms of <em>H. pyloriem>-induced gastric carcinogenesis.

  10. Em busca do dossel sagrado

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    Rodrigo Portella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar algumas teorias de base sociológica que possam explicar o surgimento, em nossa época, de movimentos eclesiais católicos de cunho tradicional, que resgatam estilos de vida religiosa identificados com o passado, ou melhor, com características de uma igreja anterior ao Concílio Vaticano II. A tese central, ainda que como conclusão provisória, é que, num mundo fragmentado e secularizado, pessoas, especialmente jovens, buscam orientação de vida e fé em formas religiosas identificadas com o passado, pois estas ofereceriam segurança e proteção diante de uma sociedade e igreja cada vez mais secularizadas e sem um dossel sagrado determiná-las. Assim, analisamos a tendência pósmoderna de se voltar a costumes, liturgias e doutrinas mais rígidas ou conservadoras, justa e paradoxalmente no intuito de resistir à pós-modernidade ou à racionalidade moderna. Nosso estudo tem como pano de fundo o movimento da Toca de Assis e, até certo ponto, as teorias sociológicas de Peter Berger. Assim, a metodologia deste estudo é a sociológica.Palavras-chave: Igreja Católica; Jovens; Movimentos eclesiais.ABSTRACTThis article aims to present some sociological theories that can explain the present emergence of Catholic ecclesiastical movements of a “traditional” nature, which rescue religious life styles identified with the past, that is, with the Church before Vatican Council II. The central thesis, though inconclusive, is that, in a fragmented and secularized world, people, especially the young, would search for life guidance and faith in religious forms identified with the past, as they would offer security and protection in a society and in a church rendered more and more secular, and deprived of a sacred canopy to define them. Thus, it analyzes the post-modern trend to return to more rigid or conservative habits, liturgies and doctrines, precisely – and paradoxically – as a form of resistance to post

  11. Net Energy, CO2 Emission and Land-Based Cost-Benefit Analyses of <em>Jatropha> em>Biodiesel: A Case Study of the Panzhihua Region of Sichuan Province in China

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    Xiangzheng Deng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is currently regarded as a renewable energy source with a high growth potential. Forest-based biodiesel, with the significant advantage of not competing with grain production on cultivated land, has been considered as a promising substitute for diesel fuel by many countries, including China. Consequently, extracting biodiesel from <em>Jatropha> curcasem> has become a growing industry. However, many key issues related to the development of this industry are still not fully resolved and the prospects for this industry are complicated. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the net energy, CO2 emission, and cost efficiency of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel as a substitute fuel in China to help resolve some of the key issues by studying data from this region of China that is well suited to growing <em>Jatropha>. Our results show that: (1 <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is preferable for global warming mitigation over diesel fuel in terms of the carbon sink during <em>Jatropha> tree growth. (2 The net energy yield of <em>Jatropha> biodiesel is much lower than that of fossil fuel, induced by the high energy consumption during <em>Jatropha> plantation establishment and the conversion from seed oil to diesel fuel step. Therefore, the energy efficiencies of the production of <em>Jatropha> and its conversion to biodiesel need to be improved. (3 Due to current low profit and high risk in the study area, farmers have little incentive to continue or increase <em>Jatropha> production. (4 It is necessary to provide more subsidies and preferential policies for <em>Jatropha> plantations if this industry is to grow. It is also necessary for local government to set realistic objectives and make rational plans to choose proper sites for <em>Jatropha> biodiesel development and the work reported here should assist that effort. Future research focused on breading high-yield varieties, development of efficient field

  12. Morphometry and morphology of <em>Crocidura> Wagler 1832 (Mammalia, Soricidae in Italy, Sardinia and Sicily, with Fourier descriptors approach: first results / Morfometria e morfologia di <em>Crocidura> Wagler 1832 (Mammalia, Soricidae in Italia, Sardegna e Sicilia, con il metodo dei descrittori di Fourier: primi dati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longino Contoli

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A shape analysis through Fourier descriptors was performed on left mandibles of <em>Crocidura> obtained by Barn Owl pellets from peninsular Italy (Emilia and Liguria districts, Sardinia and Sicily. Thanks to some classical analysis (morphometrical mono- and bidimensional diagrams, morphological analysis and to biogeographical and genetical evidences, the samples of Sardinia, the smaller specimens of Liguria and Emilia and the bigger ones of Emilia were respectively classified, as a working hypothesis, as <em>C. russulaem>, <em>C. suaveolensem> and <em>C. leucodonem>. The "misclassification rate" essay was very low, confirming the reliability of the discrimination rule employed. The sicilian samples, showing an unimodal pattern with respect to all the classical morphometrical characters examined, were then tested against the descriptors of <em>C. russulaem>, <em>C. suaveolensem> and <em>C. leucodonem>. The specimens were assigned to all the above species, with a quite even distribution. On the other hand, the hypothesis of equality of two mean vectors for sicilian samples with <em>C. russulaem> or <em>C. suaveolensem> or <em>C. leucodonem>, tested by Hotelling's T² test, was rejected at 1% significance level. Owing to the fact that the above results seemed quite unexpected in the light of overall bio- geographical knowledges on <em>Crocidura>, the "shape analysis" procedure was repeated, by adding a new "species" for the sicilian samples. The "misclassification rate" essay was very encouraging in the sense of the presence, in Sicily, of a morphological "species", differing from <em>C. russulaem>, <em>C. suaveolensem> and <em>C. leucodonem>, possibly to be referred to <em>C. siculaem> Miller 1901. The euristic value of such up to now first results is discussed. Riassunto L'analisi della forma e l'analisi morfometrica di esemplari di <em>Crocidura> sp. pl. conducono a

  13. Self: um conceito em desenvolvimento

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    Lídia Suzana Rocha de Macedo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diversas definições de self coexistem nas teorias e práticas psicológicas. Essa variedade é resultante de bases epistemológicas a partir das quais se adotam estratégias diferentes para abordar e demarcar os limites do objeto em questão e descrevê-lo. Este estudo teve como objetivo oferecer uma revisão dos conceitos de self e uma reflexão sobre como esse conceito se articula nas diferentes abordagens teóricas da psicologia. Destaca-se que dilemas centrais à psicologia do desenvolvimento atravessam o conceito de self. Por essa razão, apresenta-se a tese de que, ao analisar cada definição de self, deve-se buscar responder como cada teoria colocou-se diante das dicotomias estabilidade versus transformação, específico versus universal e mundo interno versus mundo externo.

  14. Burnout em profissionais de bibliotecas

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    Fabiana Neme Nogueira Ramos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O estresse excessivo relacionado ao trabalho, denominado “Burn out”, é descrito como uma síndrome ou conjunto de sintomas resultantes da exaustão e perda de interesse pelo trabalho. O bibliotecário realiza atendimento ao público e atividades técnico-administrativas que incluem tomada de decisões e resolução de conflitos. Este estudo investigou níveis de Burnout de 24 profissionais de bibliotecas de três universidades, que responderam o Inventário Maslach de Burnout (MBI. O estudo consiste também em entrevistas com 10 funcionários de uma das bibliotecas da amostra, para investigar os recursos utilizados como prevenção do estresse e avaliar os recursos e estratégias de enfrentamento, com vistas a compreender os baixos níveis de Burnout encontrados.  Dentre os funcionários que responderam a entrevista, 80% relataram realizar atividades físicas e de lazer fora do ambiente de trabalho. Fatores pessoais, organizacionais e do ambiente de trabalho pareceram atuar positivamente junto à população estudada, prevenindo a instalação do estresse laboral e evitando a exaustão no trabalho.

  15. Actinomicose da Mama em Gestante

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    Mottola Jr Juvenal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A actinomicose mamária é doença inflamatória rara, com poucos casos descritos na literatura. Pode ser primária da mama quando resultante de traumas na pele e papila mamária, e, secundária, quando de origem toracopleural. Sua apresentação clínica é variável, devendo ser diferenciada das doenças mais comuns, dentre elas as mastites e também as neoplasias, como o carcinoma inflamatório. Seu diagnóstico é realizado pela cultura da secreção, com a identificação das colônias de Actinomyces sp. Seu tratamento é a drenagem, quando indicada, a antibioticoterapia endovenosa e manutenção oral por tempo prolongado. Os autores relatam caso de abscesso retromamário por Actinomyces sp. em gestante de 12 semanas que apresentava tumoração mamária expansiva na mama esquerda.

  16. Monorquidismo em um equino marchador

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    Jéssica Fontana de Magalhães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O monorquidismo é um quadro raramente descrito em equinos, que não apresenta descrições prévias na literatura nacional. Trata-se de um equino adulto brasileiro, com oito anos de idade, sem raça definida, porém com características de raças de origem nacional. Por abordagem inguinal do lado esquerdo, localizou-se a túnica vaginal intacta, que, aberta, continha a cauda de um epidídimo mal formado, o ducto deferente e um delgado pedículo vascular, mas sem indícios de testículo. Exames histológicos e hormonais confirmaram a ausência de tecido testicular. Conclui-se que os exames histológicos e hormonais são essenciais para o diagnóstico de monorquidismo que, apesar de raro, também pode acometer equinos nacionais

  17. Dermatite multifatorial em um canino

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    C.B. Matos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatou-se um caso clínico de dermatite multifatorial em cão, envolvendo Demodex canis, Sporothrix schenckii e bactérias dos gêneros Staphylococcus e Streptococcus. O animal, macho, da raça Pit Bull, com um ano e três meses de idade, apresentou lesões úmidas, hiperêmicas, descamativas e ulcerativas nas regiões do pescoço e do tórax. Exames laboratoriais confirmaram o diagnóstico de infecção concomitante por fungo, bactéria e parasito. A terapia antimicrobiana com moxidectina, itraconazol e amoxicilina foi efetiva, com remissão dos sinais clínicos após 30 dias de tratamento. Este relato salienta a importância do diagnóstico de certeza, que foi determinante para estabelecimento da terapêutica adequada e recuperação do animal.

  18. Mastites em ruminantes no Brasil

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    Atzel Candido Acosta

    Full Text Available Resumo: A mastite é uma doença complexa e considerada uma das principais causas de perdas à indústria leiteira mundial. Objetivou-se com esta revisão compilar informações dos últimos dez anos sobre a mastite em ruminantes no Brasil. A prevalência da mastite subclínica chega a 48,64% na espécie bovina, 30,7% na espécie caprina, 31,45% na espécie ovina e 42,2% na espécie bubalina, destacando-se a etiologia por Staphylococcus spp. Os fatores de risco associados à ocorrência de mastite estão relacionados a problemas no saneamento ambiental e ao manejo dos animais. As bactérias isoladas do leite mastítico apresentam maior percentual de resistência a penicilina, ampicilina, amoxicilina e neomicina e a utilização de técnicas moleculares no diagnóstico dos agentes causadores de mastites no país, ainda é escassa o que dificulta a obtenção de um diagnóstico mais rápido, sensível e específico.

  19. Literatura e(m hipertexto

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    Bellei, Sérgio Luiz Prado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A crescente hegemonia do modo de produção digital de textos literários a serem disponibilizados em rede torna urgente o questionamento a respeito das possíveis mudanças que ocorrem na produção de hipertextos eletrônicos a partir de textos literários. O presente ensaio desenvolve uma reflexão crítica sobre o problema a partir de uma distinção do duplo significado de tecnologia enquanto, de um lado, instrumental para a produção de objetos e, de outro, ambiente estruturante que não só produz objetos mas, principalmente, molda os sujeitos que deles fazem uso, reconstituindo no processo hábitos e procedimentos. Se levarmos a sério o conceito de tecnologia enquanto ambiente estruturante, então é bem possível que a literatura traduzida ou produzida diretamente no formato hipertextual sofra modificações profundas quando comparadas à produção literária no meio impresso

  20. The <em>Chlamydiales> Pangenome Revisited: Structural Stability and Functional Coherence

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    Fotis E. Psomopoulos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The entire publicly available set of 37 genome sequences from the bacterial order <em>Chlamydiales> has been subjected to comparative analysis in order to reveal the salient features of this pangenome and its evolutionary history. Over 2,000 protein families are detected across multiple species, with a distribution consistent to other studied pangenomes. Of these, there are 180 protein families with multiple members, 312 families with exactly 37 members corresponding to core genes, 428 families with peripheral genes with varying taxonomic distribution and finally 1,125 smaller families. The fact that, even for smaller genomes of <em>Chlamydiales>, core genes represent over a quarter of the average protein complement, signifies a certain degree of structural stability, given the wide range of phylogenetic relationships within the group. In addition, the propagation of a corpus of manually curated annotations within the discovered core families reveals key functional properties, reflecting a coherent repertoire of cellular capabilities for <em>Chlamydiales>. We further investigate over 2,000 genes without homologs in the pangenome and discover two new protein sequence domains. Our results, supported by the genome-based phylogeny for this group, are fully consistent with previous analyses and current knowledge, and point to future research directions towards a better understanding of the structural and functional properties of <em>Chlamydiales>.

  1. Antimycobacterial Activity of Constituents from <em>Foeniculum vulgareem> Var. Dulce Grown in Mexico

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    María del Rayo Camacho-Corona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of <em>Foeniculum vulgareem> var dulce (Apiaceae led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, <em>o>-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis em>using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL, 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100–200 µg/mL, undecanal (MIC 50–200 µg/mL, and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25–50 µg/mL, the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in <em>F. vulgareem>.

  2. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge <em>Xestospongia em>sp.

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    Sridevi Ankisetty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the cave sponge <em>Xestospongia em>sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  3. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem> in the Swiss Alps

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    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (<em>Lepus timidusem>. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (<em>Lepus timidusem> nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (<em>Lepus timidusem> sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'<em>home rangeem> è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli <em>home rangeem> (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell <em>home rangeem> non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (<em>core areaem> ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  4. Status and conservation of the red squirrel (<em>Sciurus vulgarisem> in Portugal

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    Maria da Luz Mathias

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The historical and recent status and distribution of the red squirrel (<em>Sciurus vulgarisem> in Portugal are analysed using published data, preserved material and unpublished information. In the past the red squirrel occupied the whole of Portugal, but died out towards the end of the 16th century. Now, however, red squirrels have moved back in from Spain and recolonised forests in the north of the country. An important factor limiting the distribution of squirrels in the past was the availability of suitable habitat which provide shelter and food, such as conifer woods. Hunting pressure may also have affected numbers. In Portugal the conservation status of <em>S. vulgarisem> is Rare.

  5. Doenças oculares em neonatos

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    Endriss Daniela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar as principais doenças oculares numa população de neonatos assistidos pelo Sistema Único de Saúde em maternidades de referência no Estado de Pernambuco, orientando o seguimento e tratamento necessário. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo de corte transversal numa população de recém-nascidos em três maternidades públicas, no período de abril a outubro de 2000. Procedeu-se ao exame oftalmológico durante visitas semanais, orientando-se o seguimento e tratamento dos casos com alterações oculares ou fatores de risco. Resultados: Examinaram-se 3280 recém-nascidos: 1403 (42,8% na Maternidade da Encruzilhada (CISAM, 1232 (37,5% na Maternidade do Hospital Barão de Lucena (MHBL e 645 (19,7% na Maternidade do Hospital Agamenon Magalhães (MHAM. 387 eram pré-termo (11,8% dos casos. Encaminharam-se ao serviço especializado 701 neonatos (21,4% do total examinado com alterações oculares ou com fatores de risco. Destes, 46,4% eram pré-têrmo e 37,9% receberam oxigenoterapia, observando-se maior número porcentual na MHBL (45,4%. Observou-se conjuntivite em 3,0% dos olhos, leucocoria em 0,4% e hemorragia subconjuntival em 2,0%. À fundoscopia, encontraram-se hemorragias retinianas em 7,8% dos casos, com acometimento macular em 4,3%. Conclusões: As doenças oculares mais freqüentes foram: hemorragias retinianas e conjuntivites. Os principais fatores de risco observados foram: prematuridade e doenças infecciosas neonatais. Os autores enfatizam que o exame ocular deve ser realizado rotineiramente nos neonatos.

  6. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox <em>Vulpes vulpesem> (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

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    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available <em>Vulpes vulpesem> (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of <em>V. vulpesem> in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of <em>V. vulpesem> in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  7. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Expression of the Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene from <em>Juglans regiaem>

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    Feng Xu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL is the first key enzyme of the phenypropanoid pathway. A full-length cDNA of <em>PAL> gene was isolated from <em>Juglans regiaem> for the first time, and designated as <em>JrPAL>. The full-length cDNA of the <em>JrPAL> gene contained a 1935bp open reading frame encoding a 645-amino-acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 70.4 kD and isoelectric point (pI of 6.7. The deduced JrPAL protein showed high identities with other plant PALs. Molecular modeling of JrPAL showed that the 3D model of JrPAL was similar to that of PAL protein from <em>Petroselinum crispumem> (PcPAL, implying that JrPAL may have similar functions with PcPAL. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that JrPAL shared the same evolutionary ancestor of other PALs and had a closer relationship with other angiosperm species. Transcription analysis revealed that <em>JrPAL> was expressed in all tested tissues including roots, stems, and leaves, with the highest transcription level being found in roots. Expression profiling analyses by real-time PCR revealed that <em>JrPAL> expression was induced by a variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, including UV-B, wounding, cold, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

  8. Synthesis and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of 13-<em>n>-Alkyl Berberine and Palmatine Analogues as Anticancer Agents

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    Lei Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By introducing long carbon-chain alkyl groups at the C-13 position of berberine and palmatine, 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine chloride analogues 4ad were synthesized and examined by MTT assays for cytotoxic activity in seven human cancer cell lines (7701QGY, SMMC7721, HepG2, CEM, CEM/VCR, KIII, Lewis, yielding IC50 values of 0.02 ± 0.01–13.58 ± 2.84 μM. 13-<em>n>-Octyl palmatine (compound 4d gave the most potent inhibitor activity, with an IC50 of 0.02 ± 0.01 μM for SMMC7721. In all cases, the 13-<em>n>-alkyl berberine and palmatine analogues 4ad were more cytotoxic than berberine and palmatine. In addition, compounds 4ad also exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than berberine and palmatine in mice with S180 sarcoma xenografted<em> in vivoem>. The primary screening results indicated that the 13-<em>n>-hexyl/13-<em>n>-octyl berberine and palmatine analogues might be valuable source for new potent anticancer drug candidates.

  9. Mammal prey of the Barn Owl (<em>Tyto albaem> in Parque Luro Reserve, La Pampa, Argentina

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    Sergio Tiranti

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the barn owl was studied through the analysis of pellets obtained in various sites within the Parque Luro reserve, located in an area of xerophyte Caldén forests. The study of 1241 prey items revealed a high dominance of the cricetid rodents <em>Calomys> sp., <em>Akodon molinaeem> and <em>Eligmodontia typusem>, followed by other 8 species of rodents, one species of marsupial and undetermined birds and anuran amphibians. For comparing the diets from a relatively undisturbed forested area (Parque Luro and a deforested site, two subcollections of pellets were analyzed. Differences in FNB values and in the prevalence and composition of prey assemblages were observed between these areas. Riassunto Mammiferi predati dal Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem> nella Riserva Parque Luro, La Pampa, Argentina - La dieta del Barbagianni (<em>Tyto albaem> è stata studiata attraverso l'analisi delle borre ottenute in varie località all'interno della riserva Parque Luro, situata in un'area con boschi xerofili a <em>Prosopis caldeniaem>. Lo studio di 1241 campioni ha rivelato un'elevata prevalenza di roditori cricetidi <em>Calomys> sp., <em>Akodon molinaeem> and <em>Eligmodontia typusem>, seguiti da altre 8 specie di roditori, una specie di marsupiali e uccelli e anfibi anuri indeterminati. Per il confronto delle diete sono state analizzate due sub-raccolte di borre di rapaci provenienti da un'area boscata relativamente indisturbata e da un sito disboscato. In queste aree sono state osservate differenze nei valori della FNB e nella prevalenza e composizione delle prede.

  10. O conceito de paranoia em Freud

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    Roberto Calazans

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, refazemos o percurso freudiano a propósito do conceito de paranoia em sua obra. Esse percurso se fará a partir dos textos considerados pré-psicanalíticos, passando por aquele que é considerado o texto maior de Freud sobre as psicoses (o Caso Schereber, culminando com suas análises que levam em consideração sua segunda teoria sobre o funcionamento psíquico e sobre o conflito pulsional. Nosso objetivo é demonstrar como Freud, em sua elaboração das questões relativas à psicose, e à paranoia, mais especificamente, jamais se furtava a encarar os desafios que a clínica impunha. E por não recuar frente a esses desafios é que a sua própria teoria vai se formulando, em uma relação dialética entre os impasses da prática e a necessidade de estabelecer um rigor teórico. O artigo trata, também, da forma como o rigor teórico permite o estabelecimento de um diagnóstico diferencial entre neurose e psicose, além de assentar as bases para que os psicanalistas pós-freudianos pudessem pensar em um direcionamento para tratar a psicose.

  11. Triagem em saúde mental infantil

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    Fabiana Vieira Gauy

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi conduzido para comparar os resultados de um procedimento grupal aberto e um procedimento individual estruturado para avaliação do comportamento da criança conforme o relato materno. Participaram deste estudo 29 mães que buscavam atendimento para seus filhos em uma unidade de saúde mental infanto-juvenil. As primeiras 15 mães que procuraram o serviço foram entrevistadas individualmente conforme um roteiro estruturado desenvolvido a partir do CBCL e depois foram entrevistadas em grupo, em formato aberto. As outras 14 mães participaram da entrevista grupal aberta e em seguida participaram da entrevista individual estruturada. Os resultados das entrevistas foram comparados tomando como referência as 67 categorias comportamentais identificadas a partir do roteiro individual e quatro variáveis contextuais relatadas nos dois procedimentos. Os resultados mostram que um número substancialmente maior de comportamentos-problema foi identificado através de entrevista individual estruturada do que através de entrevista grupal aberta realizada com os mesmos informantes. É possível que o uso de um roteiro estruturado em entrevistas grupais possa oferecer mais informações com otimização do tempo de avaliação.

  12. Roost selection by barbastelle bats (<em>Barbastella barbastellusem>, Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in beech woodlands of central Italy

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    Danilo Russo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The barbastelle bat, <em>Barbastella barbastellusem> (Schreber, 1774 is a medium-sized, tree-dwelling vespertilionid classified as ?Endangered? in Italy; in western Europe it may be one of the rarest bat species. <em>B. barbastellusem> shows roosting preferences that should be regarded as a key point in conservation protocols. We examined roost selection in a breeding population of <em>B. barbastellusem> from the Abruzzo Lazio and Molise National Park (central Italy at three levels: woodland structure and management type; tree characteristics; and cavity characteristics. In 2001-2002, we fitted 31 adult <em>B. barbastellusem> (29 lactating females, one pregnant female and one male with 0.48g radio-tags and tracked them to their roost-trees. The bats were tracked for 4.5 ± 3.7 days (range: 0-12 days. We located 33 roosts used by 25 subjects (1.8±1.2 roosts/bat, range 1-5. The bats switched roosts frequently: 13 bats used more than one tree over the study period. A chi-square analysis showed that the roosts were not distributed at random across woodland categories: unmanaged woodland was positively selected, whereas shelterwood-harvested woodland was used in proportion to its availability, and ?pastures+scattered trees? was avoided. Twenty out of 33 roost trees were dead <em>Fagus sylvaticaem> trees; conversely, living <em>F. sylvaticaem> dominated in a tree sample obtained at random; dead trees were used more than expected (Χ² test, <em>P> <0.001. Overall, roost trees were significantly taller and had a larger diameter at breast?s height and more cavities than random trees; they also had a lower percent canopy closure than random trees. To highlight which variables were actually associated with selection, we devised a logistic regression model. The full model was significant (<em>P> <0.001; removal of tree type and tree height affected the model significantly, but the other variables did not produce detectable effects. The

  13. Fenomenologia e ontologia em Merleau-Ponty

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    Marcus Sacrini Ayres Ferraz

    2008-01-01

    Neste trabalho, buscamos expor e avaliar as diferentes concepções de ser defendidas por Merleau-Ponty no decorrer de sua obra. De início, explicitamos a concepção ontológica contida na Fenomenologia da Percepção, e julgamos que ela está comprometida com conseqüências idealistas. Em seguida, acompanhamos como Merleau-Ponty esboça, em seus textos finais, uma concepção não idealista do ser, que admite um excesso daquilo que há em relação àquilo que se fenomenaliza. In this work, we...

  14. Glutaminólise em astrocitomas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O metabolismo da glutamina (Gln) é alvo de atenções recentes para a compreensão da reprogramação metabólica para o suprimento energético das células tumorais em proliferação e para o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias terapêuticas em câncer. Tanto a absorção de glutamina quanto a taxa de glutaminólise, o catabolismo da Gln para gerar adenosina trifosfato (ATP) e lactato na mitocôndria estão aumentados em diferentes tumores. A Gln e glicose participam do processo da proliferação de células t...

  15. Influenza em animais heterotérmicos

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Kobashi,Leonardo Setsuo; Trindade,Hermínio Gomes; Fernandes, Wilson; Pinto,José Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo foi pesquisar Ortomyxovirus em animais heterotérmicos. Coletou-se sangue de serpentes dos gêneros Bothrops e Crotalus e de sapo e rãs dos gêneros Bufo e Rana, para a detecção dos receptores de hemácias e anticorpos específicos, ao vírus influenza, pelos testes de hemaglutinação e inibição da hemaglutinação, respectivamente. Pelo teste de hemaglutinação, verificou-se que serpentes e sapos em cativeiro apresentaram receptores em suas hemácias para o vírus influenza, humano e eqüino d...

  16. A JUSTIÇA EM TERMOS HUMEANOS

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    Elcio Alcione Cordeiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresento neste breve artigo uma noção de justiça segundo o pensamento de DavidHume. A justiça humeana se posiciona totalmente em prol da ordem social, isto é, o objetivo éque a segurança na sociedade seja instaurada. Para que isso aconteça de fato, é preciso quealgumas regras desta virtude artificial venham a ser respeitada por todos os homens. Ajustificação da propriedade é uma máxima que deve ser assegurada estavelmente. Os homensestão predispostos ao egoísmo que vence a benevolência natural. A partir do momento em queos homens percebem que são egoístas e que viver em sociedade é vantajoso, acrescentam-seentão as convenções para que a ordem social seja instaurada.

  17. Tricolemoma em coelho Tricholemmoma in a rabbit

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    Krishna Duro de Oliveira

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Tricolemoma é um raro tumor benigno, composto por células epiteliais claras derivadas da bainha externa da raiz do folículo piloso. Esses tumores têm sido descritos no homem e raramente em cães. No presente relato, descreve-se a ocorrência de um tricolemoma, de 1cm de diâmetro em um coelho adulto, cujas características histológicas são muito semelhantes às descritas para esses tumores em cães.Tricholemmoma is a rare benign tumor composed of clear epithelial cells derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. The tumor has been described in man and rarely in dogs. This report deals with the occurrence of a tricholemmoma , with a diemeter of 1cm, in an adult rabbit. The histologic features are similar to those described in such tumors in dogs.

  18. Preditores do Comportamento Antissocial em Adolescentes

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    Fernanda Lüdke Nardi

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este estudo investigou preditores do comportamento antissocial em 142 adolescentes em medida socioeducativa de internação (G1 e 691 estudantes de escolas públicas (G2, que responderam a um questionário. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os grupos quanto ao comportamento antissocial, violência intra e extrafamiliar, uso de drogas e eventos estressores, com médias mais altas em G1. Dentre as variáveis investigadas, grupo, uso de drogas e eventos estressores, juntamente com a covariável sexo, explicaram 66,5% da variável dependente. Um modelo de path analysis demonstrou que as variáveis sexo e ambiente estressor, computado pelos eventos estressores, qualidade do relacionamento familiar e violência intra e extrafamiliar predizem o uso de drogas e comportamentos antissociais.

  19. The diet of the fox (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in woodlands of Orobie Alps (Lombardy region, Northern Italy / Alimentazione della Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie

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    Marco Cantini

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the fox was investigated by analysis of 273 scats, collected along standard trails from April to November 1987 and 1988. Food habits of foxes were described for three altitudinal ranges. Mammals, mainly <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> and <em>Microtus multiplexem>, were the staple food (percentage of frequency 42.8%, followed by fruits and other vegetables (26.7% and 37.3% respectively. Birds, Invertebrates (mainly Insects and garbage were little eaten. The game species (ungulates, hares, pheasants occurred with a low frequency (8.4% in the diet. The trophic niche breadth varied little through the altitudinal ranges and the seasons. The trophic niche overlap between the fox and the genus <em>Martes> (190 scats of <em>M. martesem> and <em>M. foinaem> were examined is relatively wide (O=0.868. Riassunto La dieta della Volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> in aree boscate delle Alpi Orobie (Val Lesina è stata indagata nel periodo aprile-novembre 1987 e 1988 mediante l'analisi di 273 feci, raccolte lungo percorsi-campione ricadenti in tre piani vegetazionali. I Mammiferi, in particolare <em>Clethrionomys glareolusem> e <em>Microtus multiplexem>, sono la componente principale della dieta (frequenza percentuale 42,8%. Rilevante è anche il consumo di frutti (soprattutto in estate e autunno e di altri vegetali (26,7% e 37,3% rispettivamente, mentre poco frequente è quello di Uccelli, Invertebrati e rifiuti. Complessivamente ridotta è l'azione predatoria della Volpe nei confronti delle specie di interesse venatorio (Ungulati, lepri, Galliformi. L'ampiezza della nicchia trofica mostra modeste variazioni stagionali e altitudinali. I1 grado di sovrapposizione tra la nicchia trofica della Volpe e quella del genere <em>Martes>, quest'ultima ricavata dall'analisi di 190 feci di Martora (<em>M. martesem> e Faina (<em>M. foinaem>, è elevato (O=0,868. Tuttavia, poiché in condizioni di

  20. Arthur Ramos: intelectual em perspectiva

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    Adir da Luz Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho constituise em resultado de pesquisa sobre o intelectual Arthur Ramos, suas reflexões teóricas e os efeitos no campo social e educativo. Arthur Ramos, intelectual complexo, multifacetado, refletiu sobre várias temáticas, pensando o Brasil como "nação" moderna, como outros intelectuais na passagem do século XIX para o século XX. Através redes de sociabilidade das quais participou e dos cargos públicos que ocupou, incluindo a chefia do Serviço de Ortofrenia e Higiene Mental do Instituto de Pesquisas Educacionais, na administração de Anísio Teixeira como Diretor de Instrução Pública, Rio de Janeiro, na década de 1930. Implanta o Serviço que tem como base a proximidade entre família, escola e comunidade, tendo como perspectiva alcançar as famílias e população pela escola. O foco é a discussão conceitual de "higiene" e "miscigenação", com atenção ao intelectual nesse debate, suas concepções, inflexões e contradições. São utilizadas como fontes algumas obras produzidas por Ramos, e arquivos sobre o SHOM, sob aguarda da Biblioteca Nacional.Palavras chave: intelectual, educação, historiografia, antropologia__________________Abstract: The work is the result of research on the intellectual Arthur Ramos, their theoretical reflections and the effects on social and educational field. Arthur Ramos, complex, multifaceted intellectual, reflected on several themes, thinking the Brazil as modern "nation", like other intellectuals in the passage from the XIX century to the XX century. Through social networks of which participated and the public office he held, including the leadership of the Ortofrenia Service and Mental Hygiene, of the Educational Research Institute, administration of Anísio Teixeira, as Director of Public Instruction, Rio de Janeiro, in the decade of 1930. Deploys the service that is based on the close the proximity between family, school and community, with the prospect to reach the families and

  1. Ceratomicose em equinos Equine keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Diniz Galera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O cavalo, dado o seu meio ambiente, está sujeito a afecções frequentes da córnea e da conjuntiva, tecidos oculares bastante expostos a bactérias e fungos, principalmente Aspergillus spp. e Fusarium spp. As ceratites ulcerativas bacterianas e fúngicas, bem como as ceratites fúngicas não ulcerativas, caracterizadas principalmente pelo abscesso estromal, são frequentes nessa espécie. Ocorrida a lesão inicial, perpetua-se um ciclo vicioso, com liberação de citocinas inflamatórias, que desencadeiam uma rápida e severa infiltração corneal por células polimorfonucleares. A córnea torna-se sujeita à destruição por enzimas proteolíticas liberadas pelos micro-organismos e por células inflamatórias, capazes de desencadear a dissolução estromal e a perfuração do bulbo ocular. O tratamento clínico para a resolução da doença corneal e o controle da uveíte reflexa deve ser agressivo e associado, muitas das vezes, à terapia cirúrgica. Este artigo discorre sobre a fisiopatologia e o tratamento da ceratomicose em equinos.Environmental and behavioral factors make horses susceptible to corneal and conjunctival lesions, since these structures are constantly exposed to bacteria and fungi specially Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Bacterial and fungal ulcerative keratitis, as well as non-ulcerative fungal keratitis such as stromal abscess, are frequent in horses. A "cascade" effect follows the initial lesion which triggers the release of inflammatory cytokines followed by an acute and severe infiltrate of polymorphonuclear cells in the cornea. The cornea becomes susceptible to the activity of proteolytic enzymes released by microorganisms and polymorphonuclear cells, resulting in stromal degradation and ocular perforation. The medical treatment targeting the corneal disease and the controlling of reflexive uveitis should be aggressive and surgical therapy should be associated in most of the cases. This paper reviews the

  2. Trabalho fonoaudiologico em oficina de cozinha em um caso de Prader-Willi

    OpenAIRE

    Zambotti, Nathalia; SOUZA, Luiz Augusto de Paula

    2013-01-01

    TEMA: o objetivo deste estudo é descrever e analisar os efeitos do trabalho fonoaudiológico em Oficina de Cozinha, em processo terapêutico de um paciente portador da síndrome de Prader-Willi. PROCEDIMENTOS: a pesquisa é um estudo de caso de uma criança de 5 anos portadora da Síndrome de Prader-Willi, que apresentava atraso de linguagem e transtornos alimentares. A criança participou durante sete meses do processo terapêutico em Oficina de Cozinha, associado à terapia fonoaudiológica individua...

  3. A Novel Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase from Alkaliphilic <em>Amphibacillus> sp. NPST-10: Purification and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabed Antranikian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Screening for cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase-producing alkaliphilic bacteria from samples collected from hyper saline soda lakes (Wadi Natrun Valley, Egypt, resulted in isolation of potent CGTase producing alkaliphilic bacterium, termed NPST-10. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified the isolate as <em>Amphibacillus> em>sp. CGTase was purified to homogeneity up to 22.1 fold by starch adsorption and anion exchange chromatography with a yield of 44.7%. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with an estimated molecular weight of 92 kDa using SDS-PAGE. Catalytic activities of the enzyme were found to be 88.8 U mg−1 protein, 20.0 U mg−1 protein and 11.0 U mg−1 protein for cyclization, coupling and hydrolytic activities, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a wide pH range from pH 5.0 to 11.0, with a maximal activity at pH 8.0. CGTase exhibited activity over a wide temperature range from 45 °C to 70 °C, with maximal activity at 50 °C and was stable at 30 °C to 55 °C for at least 1 h. Thermal stability of the purified enzyme could be significantly improved in the presence of CaCl2. <em>K>m and <em>V>max values were estimated using soluble starch as a substrate to be 1.7 ± 0.15 mg/mL and 100 ± 2.0 μmol/min, respectively. CGTase was significantly inhibited in the presence of Co2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ba2+, Cd2+, and 2-mercaptoethanol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of CGTase production by <em>Amphibacillus> sp. The achieved high conversion of insoluble raw corn starch into cyclodextrins (67.2% with production of mainly β-CD (86.4%, makes <em>Amphibacillus> sp. NPST-10 desirable for the cyclodextrin production industry.

  4. Electroweak production of single {\\em W} and {\\em Z} bosons in ATLAS and CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Results on the production of single {\\em Z} and {\\em W} bosons with two jets at high invariant mass at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV are presented using data corresponding to 20.3 fb$^\\mathrm{-1}$. Integrated and differential cross sections are measured in many different phase space regions with varying degree of sensitivity to the electroweak production in vector boson fusion by both ATLAS and CMS. The results have also been used to derive limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings in the single {\\em Z} production.

  5. Fauna de morcegos em remanescentes urbanos de Cerrado em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Cláudia Márcia Marily; Fischer,Erich; Pulchério-Leite,Atenise

    2010-01-01

    Campo Grande é a maior cidade do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, localizada no domínio do Cerrado, um hotspot de biodiversidade. A fauna de morcegos urbanos tem sido pouco estudada no Brasil, principalmente em cidades na região do Cerrado. O principal objetivo aqui é descrever a composição, a riqueza e a diversidade da fauna de morcegos em remanescentes de Cerrado na região urbana de Campo Grande. Amostragens de morcegos foram feitas entre março e agosto de 2009 em oito parques urbanos com auxí...

  6. Variabilità microsatellitare in popolazioni italiane di martora, <em>Martes martesem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La martora, <em>Martes martesem>, è un mustelide storicamente presente su gran parte del territorio italiano, soprattutto dove siano presenti foreste mature altamente strutturate e ricche di risorse. Nel corso dei decenni passati, cause quali la deforestazione con conseguente frammentazione dell'habitat, la caccia e la persecuzione da parte dell'uomo hanno portato ad un sensibile declino sia nel numero d'individui sia di popolazioni in tutta l'Europa. Frammentazione degli areali e diminuzione del numero di soggetti costituiscono le cause principali di un limitato flusso genico con conseguente formazione di popolazioni isolate di martora e perdita di variabilità genetica (Kyle <em>et al.em>, 2003. Per queste ragioni la martora risulta attualmente tutelata secondo quanto previsto dalla Convenzione di Berna (appendice III e dalla Direttiva europea 92/43/CEE "Habitats & Species". Di fronte a prospettive di tipo conservazionistico, diventa necessario disporre di metodologie per la valutazione della variabilità residua nella specie a livello d'individui e di popolazioni. Secondo numerosi Autori, i microsatelliti costituiscono marcatori molto efficaci nella descrizione della struttura genetica e della storia demografica di specie (Beaumont & Bruford, 1999; Linares, 1999. Il presente lavoro propone i risultati ottenuti attraverso il confronto di due campioni costituiti da individui di <em>Martes martesem> provenienti dalla Sardegna (25 esemplari e dal territorio italiano (6 esemplari. L'analisi è stata condotta a livello di 7 loci microsatellitari dinucleotidici polimorfici. Il valore di FST calcolato dal confronto dei due gruppi è risultato pari a 0,102 e ricade nel <em>range> di variazione identificato di recente in popolazioni nord-europee di martora (Kyle <em>et al.em>, 2003. L'analisi della varianza molecolare (AMOVA, condotta a due livelli gerarchici, ha permesso in particolare di ripartire la varianza del campione

  7. O potencial evocado cognitivo em adultos normais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Glaucio M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os resultados do potencial cognitivo auditivo em um grupo de adultos normais. Os testes foram realizados registrando-se a resposta evocada em Cz e Fz. Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente. São descritas neste trabalho as latências médias de N1, P2, P2AP, N2 e P3, a amplitude de P3, bem como o desvio padrão destas variáveis. Comentam-se algumas dificuldades encontradas na interpretação do teste destacando as limitações de seu uso clínico.

  8. Portalegre em múltiplas vistas

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Moisés de Lemos; Correia, Maria Da Luz

    2011-01-01

    Obra completa "Martins, Moisés de Lemos e Oliveira, Madalena, coords. - Portugal Ilustrado em postais: Bragança, Viana do Castelo, Braga, Viseu, Portalegre. Disponível em http://hdl.handle.net/1822/36492" A Praça da República apagada, um tanto desabrigada, com tábuas velhas no chão ao abandono, ou então, desperta e vivaz, percorrida pelas cores da modernidade e dos automóveis; os olhares da rua 5 de Outubro, parados diante da objectiva fotográfica; os azulejos do Palácio Achioli; o edifíci...

  9. Úlcera gastroduodenal em potros

    OpenAIRE

    Dearo,Antonio Cezar de Oliveira; LOPES, Marco Aurélio Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    Dentre as inúmeras patologias que acometem os eqüinos jovens, as úlceras gástricas situam-se como uma das mais importantes. MURRAY et al. (1987) trabalhando com potros clinicamente normais, constatou uma prevalência de úlceras da ordem de 51%. O mesmo autor realizando gastroscopia em 45 equinos com idade entre 1 e 24 anos, observou a presença de úlceras em 93% dos animais (MURRAY, 1988). De etiologia não completamente definida, acredita-se que inúmeros fatores estejam envolvidos na gênese das...

  10. A singularidade do totalitarismo em Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João Neves Barbosa Vicente

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A partir da análise da obra <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">Origens do totalitarismoem> (1990, este artigo apresenta de um modo introdutório, alguns motivos que levaram Hannah Arendt a denominar o totalitarismo de acontecimento singular na história da humanidade.

  11. Configuring systems from components: the EMS approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogiec, J.M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)]. E-mail: nogiec@fnal.gov; Desavouret, E. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Kotelnikov, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Trombly-Freytag, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Walbridge, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2004-11-21

    EMS is an exercise in component technology. It offers rapid development of specialized data acquisition, visualization and analysis systems via assembly from vertical and horizontal components. The EMS architecture allows for agile development of systems and promotes reuse of software. The framework supports a visual builder that shows connections between components and lists component properties. The system offers both off-line setup of properties and run-time modifications. Multi-bus architecture allows for independent routing of data, controls, debugs, and exceptions. The architecture, configuration process, and control of applications through scripting are presented.

  12. Risk Communication Within the EM Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, M.

    2003-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Management program (EM) conducts the most extensive environmental remediation effort in the world. The annual EM budgets have exceeded $6,000,000,000 for approximately ten years and EM has assumed responsibility for the cleanup of the largest DOE reservations (i.e., at Hanford, Washington, Aiken, South Carolina, and Idaho Falls, Idaho) as well as the facilities at Rocky Flats, Colorado and in Ohio. Each of these sites has areas of extensive radioactive and chemical contamination, numerous surplus facilities that require decontamination and removal, while some have special nuclear material that requires secure storage. The EM program has been criticized for being ineffective (1) and has been repeatedly reorganized to address perceived shortcomings. The most recent reorganization was announced in 2001 to become effective at the beginning of the 2003 Federal Fiscal Year (i.e., October 2002). It was preceded by a ''top to bottom'' review (TTBR) of the program (2) that identified several deficiencies that were to be corrected as a result of the reorganization. One prominent outcome of the TTBR was the identification of ''risk reduction'' as an organizing principle to prioritize the activities of the new EM program. The new program also sought to accelerate progress by identifying a set of critical activities at each site that could be accelerated and result in more rapid site closure, with attendant risk, cost, and schedule benefits. This paper investigates how the new emphasis on risk reduction in the EM program has been communicated to EM stakeholders and regulators. It focuses on the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) as a case study and finds that there is little evidence for a new emphasis on risk reduction in EM communications with RFETS stakeholders. Discussions between DOE and RFETS stakeholders often refer to ''risk,'' but the word serves as a

  13. Acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Marialda Höfling P.; Amaral,Elisabete; PAI, Hong Jin; Daniela Terumi Y. Tsai; LOTITO, Ana Paola N; Leone,Claudio; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a utilização da acupuntura em adolescentes com fibromialgia juvenil. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado em pacientes com fibromialgia juvenil (critérios do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia) submetidos a, pelo menos, 11 sessões semanais de acupuntura. As avaliações antes e após acupuntura incluíram dados demográficos, características da dor musculoesquelética, número de pontos dolorosos (NPD), escala visual analógica (EVA) de dor, algiometria e índice miálgico (IM). D...

  14. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Pink Stem Borer, <em>Sesamia inferensem>, in Comparison with Four Other Noctuid Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Zhou Du

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The complete 15,413-bp mitochondrial genome (mitogenome of <em>Sesamia inferensem> (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae was sequenced and compared with those of four other noctuid moths. All of the mitogenomes analyzed displayed similar characteristics with respect to gene content, genome organization, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Twelve-one protein-coding genes (PCGs utilized the standard ATN, but the <em>cox1 em>gene used CGA as the initiation codon; <em>cox1em>, <em>cox2em>, and <em>nad4em> genes had the truncated termination codon T in the <em>S. inferens em>mitogenome. All of the tRNA genes had typical cloverleaf secondary structures except for <em>trnS1(AGNem>, in which the dihydrouridine (DHU arm did not form a stable stem-loop structure. Both the secondary structures of <em>rrnL> and <em>rrnS> genes inferred from the <em>S. inferens em>mitogenome closely resembled those of other noctuid moths. In the A+T-rich region, the conserved motif “ATAGA” followed by a long T-stretch was observed in all noctuid moths, but other specific tandem-repeat elements were more variable. Additionally, the <em>S. inferens em>mitogenome contained a potential stem-loop structure, a duplicated 17-bp repeat element, a decuplicated segment, and a microsatellite “(AT7”, without a poly-A element upstream of the<em> trnM em>in the A+T-rich region. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed based on amino acid sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs, which support the traditional morphologically based view of relationships within the Noctuidae.

  15. The role of common toads in the winter diet of recolonising Eurasian otters (<em>Lutra lutraem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo García-Díaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Importanza del rospo comune nella dieta invernale di una popolazione di lontra (<em>Lutra lutraem> in espansione.
    Tramite analisi dei resti fecali, abbiamo evidenziato il ruolo fondamentale degli anfibi nella dieta invernale della lontra <em>Lutra lutraem> in stagni artificiali della Spagna nord-occidentale. I numerosi “laghi di cava” presenti nell’area umida di Ribeiras do Louro e Gandaras de Budiño sono stati monitorati nel 2007-2009. Il rospo comune (<em>Bufo bufoem> era la principale preda della lontra, costituendo l’88% della biomassa consumata, mentre il gambero americano <em>Procambarus clarkiiem> e i pesci erano prede secondarie. I nostri risultati contrastano con la ben nota preferenza della lontra per le rane rispetto al rospo. Il mantenimento della popolazione di lontra nel bacino del fiume Louro dipende strettamente dalla corretta gestione degli stagni artificiali.

  16. Development of Nine Markers and Characterization of the Microsatellite Loci in the Endangered <em>Gymnogobius isazaem> (Gobiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kudoh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available <em>Gymnogobius isazaem> is a freshwater goby endemic to Lake Biwa, Japan. They experienced a drastic demographic bottleneck in the 1950s and 1980s and slightly recovered thereafter, but the population size is still very small. To reveal dynamics of genetic diversity of <em>G. isazaem>, we developed nine microsatellite markers based on the sequence data of a related goby <em>Chaenogobius annularisem>. Nine SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats markers were successfully amplified for raw and formalin-fixed fish samples. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosities ranged from one to 10 and from 0.06 to 0.84, respectively, for the current samples, while one to 12 and 0.09 to 0.83 for historical samples. The markers described here will be useful for investigating the genetic diversity and gene flow and for conservation of <em>G. isazaem>.

  17. Fire and EMS Districts, EMS Districts, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire and EMS Districts dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'EMS...

  18. Syntheses of Enantiopure Aliphatic Secondary Alcohols and Acetates by Bioresolution with Lipase B from <em>Candida antarcticaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richele P. Severino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The lipase B from <em>Candida antarcticaem> (Novozym 435®, CALB efficiently catalyzed the kinetic resolution of some aliphatic secondary alcohols: (±-4-methylpentan-2-ol (1, (±-5-methylhexan-2-ol (3, (±-octan-2-ol (4, (±-heptan-3-ol (5 and (±-oct-1-en-3-ol (6. The lipase showed excellent enantioselectivities in the transesterifications of racemic aliphatic secondary alcohols producing the enantiopure alcohols (>99% <em>ee> and acetates (>99% <em>ee> with good yields. Kinetic resolution of <em>rac>-alcohols was successfully achieved with CALB lipase using simple conditions, vinyl acetate as acylating agent, and hexane as non-polar solvent.

  19. <em>Botulinum Neurotoxinem> A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Tuohy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Botulinum Neurotoxinem> A (BoNT-A injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mouse gastrocnemius muscle (GC was injected with BoNT-A (<em>n> = 18 or normal saline (<em>n> = 18 and passive, non-destructive, <em>in vivoem> load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% <em>vs.> 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, <em>p> < 0.05 and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm <em>vs.> 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, <em>p> < 0.05 compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating <em>in vivoem> passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the <em>in vivoem> passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.

  20. Osservazioni in cattività sul ciclo stagionale del peso corporeo e sull'efficienza digestiva di <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> e <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Verspertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Dondini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Captivity observation on body weight cycle and digestive efficiency in <em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem> and <em>Hypsugo saviiem> (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae Many bat species of cold-temperate climate are subject to seasonal variation of temperature and food availability. Fat reserve during summer-autumn is therefore a physiological adaptation to spend the winter months by hibernating or to sustain migration. During a research on bats in urban areas, two juveniles of Kuhl's bat (<em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem>, 2 females and two juveniles of Savi's bat (<em>Hypsugo saviiem>, 1 male and 1 female were collected in 1997 in the urban area of Florence (central Italy. Bats were kept in a cage of 50x40x30 cm with a temperature between 17° and 22° C. Every day they were weighted with an electronic balance before eating mealworms (<em>Tenebrio molitorem>. Digestive efficiency, calculated on dry material, was about 90% for both species. In about six months <em>P. kuhliiem> and <em>H. saviiem> increased on the average of 450% and 280% in weight respectively. Deposition of fat reserve seemed to be faster in <em>P. kuhliiem> than in <em>H. saviiem>. Both species showed a circannual cycle in the variation of weight. Riassunto Molte specie di pipistrelli dei climi temperato-freddi sono soggette a marcate variazioni stagionali di temperatura e disponibilità di cibo. L'accumulo di grasso in tarda estate-autunno è quindi un adattamento fisiologico per trascorrere in ibernazione i mesi invernali o per intraprendere la migrazione. Nell'ambito di una ricerca pluriennale sui pipistrelli in ambienti urbani, 4 esemplari giovani, di cui 2 di Pipistrello albolimbato (<em>Pipistrellus kuhliiem>, 2 femmine e due di Pipistrello di Savi (<em>Hypsugo saviiem>, 1 maschio e 1 femmina, sono stati raccolti nella pianura di Firenze durante l'estate del 1997 e mantenuti in un contenitore di 50x40x30 cm ad

  1. First records of the northern raccoon <em>Procyon lotorem> in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Canova

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Prime segnalazioni del procione <em>Procyon lotorem> in Italia In Lombardia fra il 2004 e il 2008 sono stati segnalati 10 individui di procione <em>Procyon lotorem>. La distribuzione delle osservazioni è coerente con l'areale attualmente occupato dalla specie in Europa. Il fatto che le osservazioni siano avvenute lungo il corso dell'Adda e dei canali da esso alimentati permettedi ipotizzare che la specie abbia colonizzato il paese seguendo una rotta di dispersione che connette l'area del lago di Como alla Svizzera e al corso del fiume Adda. L'osservazione di giovani suggerisce l'esistenza di una popolazione riproduttiva in Italia.

  2. Marcha em pontas idiopática em idade pediátrica

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Domingues; Cláudia Melo; Catarina Magalhães; Sónia Figueiroa; Inês Carrilho; Teresa Temudo

    2016-01-01

    A marcha em pontas tem uma incidência de 7-24% na população pediátrica em geral e é uma causa relativamente frequente de referenciação à consulta de neurologia pediátrica. A marcha em pontas idiopática ocorre em crianças saudáveis, sem espasticidade e com reflexos osteotendinosos normais; é evidente desde o início da marcha autónoma, sempre bilateral e não progressiva. A sua etiologia é desconhecida, pelo que se trata de um diagnóstico de exclusão. Assim, na avaliação destas crianças é essenc...

  3. Phylattrin, a New Cytotoxic Xanthone from <em>Calophyllum soulattriem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siau Hui Mah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Our continuing studies on secondary metabolites from the stem bark of <em>Calophyllum soulattriem> has led to the isolation of another new diprenylated xanthone, phylattrin (1, in addition to five other xanthones and two common sterols. The xanthones are soulattrin (2, caloxanthone C (3, macluraxanthone (4, brasixanthone B (5 and trapezifolixanthone (6 while the sterols are stigmasterol (7 and <em>β>-sitosterol (8. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as 1D and 2D-NMR, HRESIMS, IR and UV. Compounds 17 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against SNU-1, HeLa, Hep G2, NCI-H23, K562, Raji, LS174T, IMR-32 and SK-MEL-28 cells.

  4. Paisagens etnicas em Curitiba: um olhar histórico-espacial em busca de entopia /

    OpenAIRE

    Kanashiro, Milena

    2006-01-01

    Orientadora: Yara Vicentini Inclui apendice Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Programa de Pós-Graduaçăo em Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento. Defesa: Curitiba, 2006 Inclui bibliografia

  5. Winter survival of <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> in Crabapple island (NE Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bujalska

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Riassunto Sopravvivenza invernale di <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> nell’isola di Crabapple (Polonia nord orientale. Nel corso di nove anni consecutivi (1994-2003, la sopravvivenza invernale di <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> è stata indagata nell’isola di Crabapple (4 ha tramite cinque serie annuali di trappolaggi condotte tra Aprile ed Ottobre. Le condizioni climatiche invernali sono state espresse tramite 22 variabili relative a piovosità, temperatura e precipitazioni nevose. La percentuale di animali sopravvissuti è variata dal 5,3% al 51,1%, senza mostrare alcuna relazione con le variabili climatiche e con la consistenza della popolazione a inizio inverno. Tra le variabili individuali considerate (età, stato riproduttivo, massa corporea, la maturità sessuale sembra essere l’unica a favorire la sopravvivenza invernale, in contrasto con le informazioni disponibili in letteratura.

  6. Relato de caso: eritema multiforme em criança em idade escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Voos Camila Voos Soares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O eritema multiforme (EM se caracteriza por uma reação imunológica que afeta pele e mucosa mais comumente observada após infecções virais, principalmente por herpes vírus (HSV. Relato de caso: paciente feminina, 8 anos, inicia com quadro de dor e edema em mãos. Evoluiu com vesículas e bolhas em tronco, dorso e face, mas em maior concentração em mãos e pés com acometimento de palmas e plantas. As bolhas eram tensas com base eritematosa e algumas com crosta. Discussão: as lesões cutâneas comumente aparecem em regiões de extremidades como mãos e pés: são planas, redondas e vermelho escuras, tendo o formato de anéis eritematosos e circulares concêntricos em forma de alvo, também conhecido como “olho de boi”. O diagnóstico do EM é clínico e pode ser definido com a coexistência de lesões em alvo geralmente associado à infecção prévia ou atual por HSV, não necessitando de biópsia, quando a apresentação é típica. A biópsia pode auxiliar nos casos atípicos, como diagnósticos de exclusão. Considerações finais: o presente relato de caso demonstrou uma doença rara (estimado em 1,2-6 casos por milhão/ano, principalmente na faixa etária escolar. Além disso, teve uma apresentação atípica, tendo em vista a exuberância das lesões bolhosas.

  7. Amor e liberdade em Heidegger

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    Acylene Maria Cabral Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nosso objetivo é mostrar, a partir das obras Ser e Tempo e Seminários de Zollikon, a constituição ontológica do amor como a afinação (Stimmung fundamental para a convivência da presença (Dasein. Nossa hipótese sustenta-se no pressuposto que a copertença do amor (abertura fundamental para o outro e da liberdade (deixar-ser o outro consiste em uma modificação do existencial da disposição e expressa a unidade e a circularidade ontológica do ser-no-mundo. Pretendemos mostrar ainda que a solicitude (a abertura do ser-com é a condição de possibilidade para a constituição ontológico-existencial da afinação do amor. Centrados no texto Sobre a essência da verdade, nosso intuito é sublinhar que a liberdade é também uma modificação do existencial da disposição, ou seja, uma afinação, e enquanto tal é o fundamento ontológico para o desvelamento do modo próprio (eigentliche de ser da presença. Nesta perspectiva, podemos afirmar que a afinação da liberdade precede e penetra a afinação do amor. Isto significa que a afinação do amor se funda na afinação da liberdade e que esta ressoa naquela, o que nos permite dizer que elas são co-originárias.The objective of the present paper is to show, using Being and time and Zollikon Seminars, the existential-ontological constitution of love as a mood (Stimmung fundamental to the coexistence of Dasein. The hypothesis advanced here is that the co-pertinence of love (the fundamental disclosedness to the other and of freedom (the letting-be of the other consists in a modification of the existential of state-of-mind and expresses the unity and ontological circularity of Being-in-the-world. We intend also to show that solicitude (the disclosedness towards Being-with is the condition of possibility for the existential-ontological constitution of the mood of love. Centered on the text On the Essence of Truth, our purpose is to emphasize that freedom is also a modification of the

  8. Enrichment and Purification of Syringin, Eleutheroside E and Isofraxidin from <em>Acanthopanax> <em>senticosus> by Macroporous Resin

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to screen a suitable resin for the preparative simultaneous separation and purification of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin from <em>Acanthopanax> <em>senticosus>, the adsorption and desorption properties of 17 widely used commercial macroporous resins were evaluated. According to our results, HPD100C, which adsorbs by the molecular tiers model, was the best macroporous resin, offering higher adsorption and desorption capacities and higher adsorption speed for syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin than other resins. Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were carried out to optimize the process parameters. The optimal conditions were as follows: for adsorption, processing volume: 24 BV, flow rate: 2 BV/h; for desorption, ethanol–water solution: 60:40 (v/v, eluent volume: 4 BV, flow rate: 3 BV/h. Under the above conditions, the contents of syringin, eleutheroside E and isofraxidin increased 174-fold, 20-fold and 5-fold and their recoveries were 80.93%, 93.97% and 93.79%, respectively.

  9. EMS – Elektron Musik Studion in Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2016-01-01

    In 1964 the electronic music studio EMS, Stockholm opened as a conventional analogue studio. The primary intension with the institution was to build the world’s most advanced hybrid studio and to conduct an international research program into sound and sound perception. With financial support from...

  10. Desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA

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    Monteiro I.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Com o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento puberal após o tratamento de leucemia linfóide aguda (LLA na infância, foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, em meninas tratadas de janeiro de 1980 a janeiro de 1991, no Centro de Investigações Hematológicas "Dr. Domingos A. Boldrini", em Campinas-SP. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas 42 meninas, tratadas antes da puberdade com quimioterapia sistêmica e intratecal e radioterapia cranial, utilizando doses de 18 ou 24 Grays (Gy. RESULTADOS: As idades médias da telarca, pubarca e menarca foram inferiores às do grupo-controle, embora com significância estatística apenas para a idade da telarca. Não houve diferenças entre os grupos tratados com 18 ou 24Gy. As meninas tratadas antes dos cinco anos de idade apresentaram idade média da menarca estatisticamente inferior àquelas tratadas após cinco anos e em relação ao grupo-controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostraram que o desenvolvimento puberal em meninas tratadas de LLA na infância foi mais precoce que o de meninas saudáveis.

  11. First airborne transient em survey in antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Mikucki, J. J.; Sørensen, Kurt Ingvard K.I.

    2012-01-01

    A first airborne transient electromagnetic survey was flown in Antarctica in December 2011 with the SkyTEM system. This transient airborne EM system has been optimized in Denmark for almost ten years and was specially designed for ground water mapping. The SkyTEM tool is ideal for mapping...