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Sample records for apis cerana cerana

  1. Transcriptome analysis of the Asian honey bee Apis cerana cerana.

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    Zi Long Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana is a native and widely bred honey bee species in China. Molecular biology research about this honey bee species is scarce, and genomic information for A. c. cerana is not currently available. Transcriptome and expression profiling data for this species are therefore important resources needed to better understand the biological mechanisms of A. c. cerana. In this study, we obtained the transcriptome information of A. c. cerana by RNA-sequencing and compared gene expression differences between queens and workers of A. c. cerana by digital gene expression (DGE analysis. RESULTS: Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing we obtained 51,581,510 clean reads corresponding to 4.64 Gb total nucleotides from a single run. These reads were assembled into 46,999 unigenes with a mean length of 676 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against the five public databases (NR, Swissport, GO, COG, KEGG with a cut-off E-value of 10(-5 using BLASTX, a total of 24,630 unigenes were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. Using these transcriptome data as references we analyzed the gene expression differences between the queens and workers of A. c. cerana using a tag-based digital gene expression method. We obtained 5.96 and 5.66 million clean tags from the queen and worker samples, respectively. A total of 414 genes were differentially expressed between them, with 189 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated in queens. CONCLUSIONS: Our transcriptome data provide a comprehensive sequence resource for future A. c. cerana study, establishing an important public information platform for functional genomic studies in A. c. cerana. Furthermore, the DGE data provide comprehensive gene expression information for the queens and workers, which will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the different physiological aspects of the two castes.

  2. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera

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    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana but is much less destructive in Apis mellifera. In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana (AcSBV) and SBV isolates infecting A. mellifera (AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318 A. mellifera colonies and 64 A. cerana colonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38 A. mellifera colonies and 37 A. cerana colonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated that A. cerana isolates and most A. mellifera isolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated from A. mellifera were clustered with the A. cerana isolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae of A. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV in A. mellifera. Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infect A. mellifera colonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities of A. cerana and A. mellifera to sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices. PMID:26801569

  3. Nosema ceranae in drone honey bees (Apis mellifera).

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    Traver, Brenna E; Fell, Richard D

    2011-07-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian intracellular parasite of honey bees, Apis mellifera. Previously Nosema apis was thought to be the only cause of nosemosis, but it has recently been proposed that N. ceranae is displacing N. apis. The rapid spread of N. ceranae could be due to additional transmission mechanisms, as well as higher infectivity. We analyzed drones for N. ceranae infections using duplex qPCR with species specific primers and probes. We found that both immature and mature drones are infected with N. ceranae at low levels. This is the first report detecting N. ceranae in immature bees. Our data suggest that because drones are known to drift from their parent hives to other hives, they could provide a means for disease spread within and between apiaries.

  4. Evidence of Apis cerana Sacbrood virus Infection in Apis mellifera.

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    Gong, Hong-Ri; Chen, Xiu-Xian; Chen, Yan Ping; Hu, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Jiang-Lin; Lin, Zhe-Guang; Yu, Ji-Wei; Zheng, Huo-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus(SBV) is one of the most destructive viruses in the Asian honeybee Apis cerana but is much less destructive in Apis mellifera In previous studies, SBV isolates infecting A. cerana(AcSBV) and SBV isolates infecting A. mellifera(AmSBV) were identified as different serotypes, suggesting a species barrier in SBV infection. In order to investigate this species isolation, we examined the presence of SBV infection in 318A. mellifera colonies and 64A. cerana colonies, and we identified the genotypes of SBV isolates. We also performed artificial infection experiments under both laboratory and field conditions. The results showed that 38A. mellifera colonies and 37A. cerana colonies were positive for SBV infection. Phylogenetic analysis based on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences indicated that A. cerana isolates and most A. mellifera isolates formed two distinct clades but two strains isolated fromA. mellifera were clustered with theA. cerana isolates. In the artificial-infection experiments, AcSBV negative-strand RNA could be detected in both adult bees and larvae ofA. mellifera, although there were no obvious signs of the disease, demonstrating the replication of AcSBV inA. mellifera Our results suggest that AcSBV is able to infectA. melliferacolonies with low prevalence (0.63% in this study) and pathogenicity. This work will help explain the different susceptibilities ofA. cerana and A. melliferato sacbrood disease and is potentially useful for guiding beekeeping practices.

  5. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

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    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population.

  6. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of cDNA Encoding MRJP3 of Apis cerana cerana

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    SU Song-kun; ZHNEG Huo-qing; CHEN Sheng-lu; ZHONG Bo-xiong; Stefan Albert

    2005-01-01

    By screening the worker (Apis cerana cerana) heads cDNA library using a fragment of the mrjp3 gene ofApis cerana as probe, 120 positive clones were obtained. The clone containing A. cerana cerana MRJP3 (AccMRJP3) cDNA was selected. Based on the sequencing of the inserts of the positive clone, a sequence of AccMRJP3 cDNA which is 1 887 bp long including a poly (A) tail was obtained. The AccMRJP3 cDNA encompassed an open-reading frame (ORF) with 1 779 bp encoding 593 amino acids. The un-translated regions (UTR) of the 5' end and 3' end are 46 bp and 160 bp in length,respectively. Similar to AmMRJP3 and AdMRJP3, the putative AccMRJP3 also has a repetitive region. The comparison of the repetitive region of AccMRJP3, AmMRJP3 and AdMRJP3 shows some differences between them.

  7. Comparative sucrose responsiveness in Apis mellifera and A. cerana foragers.

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    Yang, Wenchao; Kuang, Haiou; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Wei; Wu, Zhenhong; Tian, Yuanyuan; Huang, Zachary Y; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    In the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, pollen foragers have a higher sucrose responsiveness than nectar foragers when tested using a proboscis extension response (PER) assay. In addition, Africanized honey bees have a higher sucrose responsiveness than European honey bees. Based on the biology of the Eastern honey bee, A. cerana, we hypothesized that A. cerana should also have a higher responsiveness to sucrose than A. mellifera. To test this hypothesis, we compared the sucrose thresholds of pollen foragers and nectar foragers in both A. cerana and A. mellifera in Fujian Province, China. Pollen foragers were more responsive to sucrose than nectar foragers in both species, consistent with previous studies. However, contrary to our hypothesis, A. mellifera was more responsive than A. cerana. We also demonstrated that this higher sucrose responsiveness in A. mellifera was not due to differences in the colony environment by co-fostering two species of bees in the same mixed-species colonies. Because A. mellifera foragers were more responsive to sucrose, we predicted that their nectar foragers should bring in less concentrated nectar compared to that of A. cerana. However, we found no differences between the two species. We conclude that A. cerana shows a different pattern in sucrose responsiveness from that of Africanized bees. There may be other mechanisms that enable A. cerana to perform well in areas with sparse nectar resources.

  8. Nectar and Pollen Sources for Honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabr.) in Qinglan Mangrove Area, Hainan Island, China

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    Yi-Feng Yao; Subir Bera; Yu-Fei Wang; Cheng-Sen Li

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, nectar and pollen sources for honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabr.) were studied in Qinglan mangrove area, Hainan Island, China, based on microscopic analysis of honey and pollen load (corbicular and gut contents) from honeybees collected in October and November 2004. Qualitative and quantitative melittopalynological analysis of the natural honey sample showed that the honey is of unifloral type with Mimosa pudica L. (Mimosaceae) as the predominant (89.14%) source of nectar and pollen for A.cerana cerana in October. Members of Araceae are an important minor (3%-15%) pollen type, whereas those of Arecaceae are a minor (<3%) pollen type. Pollen grains of Nypa fruticans Wurmb., Rhizophora spp.,Excoecaria agallocha L., Lumnitzera spp., Bruguiera spp., Kandelia candel Druce, and Ceriops tagal (Perr.)C. B. Rob. are among the notable mangrove taxa growing in Qinglan mangrove area recorded as minor taxa in the honey, The absolute pollen count (i.e. the number of pollen grains/10 g honey sample) suggests that the honey belongs to Group Ⅴ (>1 000 000). Pollen analysis from the corbicular and gut contents of A. cerana cerana revealed the highest representation (95.60%) of members of Sonneratia spp. (Sonneratiaceae),followed by Bruguiera spp. (Rhizophoraceae), Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, Arecaceae, Araceae,Anacardiaceae, and Rubiaceae. Of these plants, those belonging to Sonneratia plants are the most important nectar and pollen sources for A. cerana cerana and are frequently foraged and pollinated by these bees in November.

  9. Comparative virulence and competition between Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

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    Milbrath, Meghan O; van Tran, Toan; Huang, Wei-Fong; Solter, Leellen F; Tarpy, David R; Lawrence, Frank; Huang, Zachary Y

    2015-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are infected by two species of microsporidia: Nosema apis and Nosemaceranae. Epidemiological evidence indicates that N. ceranae may be replacing N. apis globally in A. mellifera populations, suggesting a potential competitive advantage of N. ceranae. Mixed infections of the two species occur, and little is known about the interactions among the host and the two pathogens that have allowed N. ceranae to become dominant in most geographical areas. We demonstrated that mixed Nosema species infections negatively affected honey bee survival (median survival=15-17days) more than single species infections (median survival=21days and 20days for N. apis and N. ceranae, respectively), with median survival of control bees of 27days. We found similar rates of infection (percentage of bees with active infections after inoculation) for both species in mixed infections, with N. apis having a slightly higher rate (91% compared to 86% for N. ceranae). We observed slightly higher spore counts in bees infected with N. ceranae than in bees infected with N. apis in single microsporidia infections, especially at the midpoint of infection (day 10). Bees with mixed infections of both species had higher spore counts than bees with single infections, but spore counts in mixed infections were highly variable. We did not see a competitive advantage for N. ceranae in mixed infections; N. apis spore counts were either higher or counts were similar for both species and more N. apis spores were produced in 62% of bees inoculated with equal dosages of the two microsporidian species. N. ceranae does not, therefore, appear to have a strong within-host advantage for either infectivity or spore growth, suggesting that direct competition in these worker bee mid-guts is not responsible for its apparent replacement of N. apis.

  10. Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion

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    Anna H. Koetz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis cerana Fabricius is endemic to most of Asia, where it has been used for honey production and pollination services for thousands of years. Since the 1980s, A. cerana has been introduced to areas outside its natural range (namely New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Australia, which sparked fears that it may become a pest species that could compete with, and negatively affect, native Australian fauna and flora, as well as commercially kept A. mellifera and commercial crops. This literature review is a response to these concerns and reviews what is known about the ecology and behaviour of A. cerana. Differences between temperate and tropical strains of A. cerana are reviewed, as are A. cerana pollination, competition between A. cerana and A. mellifera, and the impact and control strategies of introduced A. cerana, with a particular focus on gaps of current knowledge.

  11. Comparison of learning and memory of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

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    Qin, Qiu-Hong; He, Xu-Jiang; Tian, Liu-Qing; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2012-10-01

    The honeybee is an excellent model organism for research on learning and memory among invertebrates. Learning and memory in honeybees has intrigued neuroscientists and entomologists in the last few decades, but attention has focused almost solely on the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera. In contrast, there have been few studies on learning and memory in the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana. Here we report comparative behavioral data of color and grating learning and memory for A. cerana and A. mellifera in China, gathered using a Y-maze apparatus. We show for the first time that the learning and memory performance of A. cerana is significantly better on both color and grating patterns than that of A. mellifera. This study provides the first evidence of a learning and memory difference between A. cerana and A. mellifera under controlled conditions, and it is an important basis for the further study of the mechanism of learning and memory in honeybees.

  12. [Melissopalynology and trophic niche of Apis cerana ceraca and Apis mellifera ligustica in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

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    Liu, Yu-Jia; Zhao, Tian-Rui; Zhao, Feng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the honey samples of Apis cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica were collected from Kunming and Mengzi of Yunnan Province, respectively, aimed to analyze the melissopalynology and tropic niche of the two bee species. The absolute pollen concentration of the honey of A. cerana cerana was 1.55 x 10(4) ind x g(-1), being significantly higher than that (1.01 x 10(4) ind x g(-1)) of A. mellifera ligustica, and the number of nectar plant species collected by A. cerana cerana was 12.9, also significantly higher than that (7.7) collected by A. mellifera ligustica, indicating that A. cerana cerana could utilize more nectar plants, while A. mellifera ligustica had stronger selectivity to the nectar plants. The trophic niche breadth of A. cerana cerana was 0.35, which was significantly higher than that (0.23) of A. mellifera ligustica. The trophic niche overlap index between the two bee species was 0.71, and the interspecific competition index was 0.93, suggesting that the food competition between A. cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica was fierce.

  13. A glutathione S-transferase gene associated with antioxidant properties isolated from Apis cerana cerana

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    Liu, Shuchang; Liu, Feng; Jia, Haihong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-06-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are an important family of multifunctional enzymes in aerobic organisms. They play a crucial role in the detoxification of exogenous compounds, especially insecticides, and protection against oxidative stress. Most previous studies of GSTs in insects have largely focused on their role in insecticide resistance. Here, we isolated a theta class GST gene designated AccGSTT1 from Apis cerana cerana and aimed to explore its antioxidant and antibacterial attributes. Analyses of homology and phylogenetic relationships suggested that the predicted amino acid sequence of AccGSTT1 shares a high level of identity with the other hymenopteran GSTs and that it was conserved during evolution. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that AccGSTT1 is most highly expressed in adult stages and that the expression profile of this gene is significantly altered in response to various abiotic stresses. These results were confirmed using western blot analysis. Additionally, a disc diffusion assay showed that a recombinant AccGSTT1 protein may be roughly capable of inhibiting bacterial growth and that it reduces the resistance of Escherichia coli cells to multiple adverse stresses. Taken together, these data indicate that AccGSTT1 may play an important role in antioxidant processes under adverse stress conditions.

  14. The pheromones of laying workers in two honeybee sister species: Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

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    Tan, Ken; Yang, Mingxian; Wang, Zhengwei; Radloff, Sarah E; Pirk, Christian W W

    2012-04-01

    When a honeybee colony loses its queen, workers activate their ovaries and begin to lay eggs. This is accompanied by a shift in their pheromonal bouquet, which becomes more queen like. Workers of the Asian hive bee Apis cerana show unusually high levels of ovary activation and this can be interpreted as evidence for a recent evolutionary arms race between queens and workers over worker reproduction in this species. To further explore this, we compared the rate of pheromonal bouquet change between two honeybee sister species of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera under queenright and queenless conditions. We show that in both species, the pheromonal components HOB, 9-ODA, HVA, 9-HDA, 10-HDAA and 10-HDA have significantly higher amounts in laying workers than in non-laying workers. In the queenright colonies of A. mellifera and A. cerana, the ratios (9-ODA)/(9-ODA + 9-HDA + 10-HDAA + 10-HDA) are not significantly different between the two species, but in queenless A. cerana colonies the ratio is significant higher than in A. mellifera, suggesting that in A. cerana, the workers' pheromonal bouquet is dominated by the queen compound, 9-ODA. The amount of 9-ODA in laying A. cerana workers increased by over 585% compared with the non-laying workers, that is 6.75 times higher than in A. mellifera where laying workers only had 86% more 9-ODA compared with non-laying workers.

  15. Comparative Foraging Behavior of Apis Cerana F. and Apis Mellifera L. in Rapeseed under Cage Condition in Chitwan, Nepal

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    Rameshwor Pudasaini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. in rapeseed under cage condition in Chitwan, Nepal during 2012-2013. This experiment showed that Apis cerana F. foraged extra 42 minute per day as compared to Apis mellifera L. Apis cerana F. were more attracted to nectar, whereas Apis mellifera L. were more attracted to pollen collection throughout the day. The activities, in into hives and out from hives, for both species were recorded more at 2:00 pm and least at 8:00 am. The highest in-out were observed at 2:00 pm on both species as Apis mellifera L. 44.33 bees entered into hives and 49.66 bees went out of hives, whereas lower number of Apis cerana F. 43.66 bees entered into hives and 48.16 bees were out of hives. Apis mellifera L. collect 1.22:1 and 0.41:1 pollen nectar ratio at 10:00 am and 4:00 am whereas at same hours Apis cerana collect 1.16:1 and 0.30:1 pollen nectar ratio. Apis cerana F. foraged significantly higher number of rapeseed flowers and plants as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition. It shows that Apis cerana F. was more efficient pollinator as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition.

  16. RNA-sequence analysis of gene expression from honeybees (Apis mellifera) infected with Nosema ceranae

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    Fougeroux, André; Petit, Fabien; Anselmo, Anna; Gorni, Chiara; Cucurachi, Marco; Cersini, Antonella; Granato, Anna; Cardeti, Giusy; Formato, Giovanni; Mutinelli, Franco; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Williams, John L.; Botti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly subjected to many biotic stressors including parasites. This study examined honeybees infected with Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae). N. ceranae infection increases the bees energy requirements and may contribute to their decreased survival. RNA-seq was used to investigate gene expression at days 5, 10 and 15 Post Infection (P.I) with N. ceranae. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation suggesting that bees use a range of tactics to cope with the stress of N. ceranae infection. N. ceranae infection may cause reduced immune function in the bees by: (i)disturbing the host amino acids metabolism (ii) down-regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides (iii) down-regulation of cuticle coatings and (iv) down-regulation of odorant binding proteins. PMID:28350872

  17. Population Genetics of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae: One Host (Apis mellifera) and Two Different Histories.

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    Maside, Xulio; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Jara, Laura; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; De la Rúa, Pilar; Higes, Mariano; Bartolomé, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Two microsporidians are known to infect honey bees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Whereas population genetics data for the latter have been released in the last few years, such information is still missing for N. apis. Here we analyze the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at three single-copy loci (PTP2, PTP3 and RPB1) in a collection of Apis mellifera isolates from all over the world, naturally infected either with N. apis (N = 22) or N. ceranae (N = 23), to provide new insights into the genetic diversity, demography and evolution of N. apis, as well as to compare them with evidence from N. ceranae. Neutral variation in N. apis and N. ceranae is of the order of 1%. This amount of diversity suggests that there is no substantial differentiation between the genetic content of the two nuclei present in these parasites, and evidence for genetic recombination provides a putative mechanism for the flow of genetic information between chromosomes. The analysis of the frequency spectrum of neutral variants reveals a significant surplus of low frequency variants, particularly in N. ceranae, and suggests that the populations of the two pathogens are not in mutation-drift equilibrium and that they have experienced a population expansion. Most of the variation in both species occurs within honey bee colonies (between 62%-90% of the total genetic variance), although in N. apis there is evidence for differentiation between parasites isolated from distinct A. mellifera lineages (20%-34% of the total variance), specifically between those collected from lineages A and C (or M). This scenario is consistent with a long-term host-parasite relationship and contrasts with the lack of differentiation observed among host-lineages in N. ceranae (mellifera worldwide population is a recent event.

  18. EXPRESSION OF A BEE-VENOM PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 FROM APIS CERANA CERANA IN E,.qCHERICHIA COLI

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    Li-rongShen; Jia-anCheng; Chuan-xiZhang

    2004-01-01

    The venomous phospholipase A2 (AcPLA2) coding reading region of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana), which is composed of 405 bp encoding a mature glycosylated peptide with 134 amino residues was transformed into the expression vector pETblue-1. Then the recombinant vector was introduced into Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) plac I for expression. Analysis result of SDS-PAGE showed that the expression products had a protein band of about 15 kD. Detection of western blot using ant-European honeybee (Apis mellifera) phospholipase A2 (AmPLA2) polyclonal serum as the first antibody showed that the expression products appeared a special blot same as the native AmPLA2.The result demonstrated that the AcPLA2 peptide had been expressed in E. coli and the AcPLA2 has the similar antigenicity as the AmPLA2.

  19. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

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    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  20. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera

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    Tan, K.; Radloff, S. E.; Li, J. J.; Hepburn, H. R.; Yang, M. X.; Zhang, L. J.; Neumann, P.

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  1. Characterization of a Decapentapletic Gene (AccDpp from Apis cerana cerana and Its Possible Involvement in Development and Response to Oxidative Stress.

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    Guilin Li

    Full Text Available To tolerate many acute and chronic oxidative stress-producing agents that exist in the environment, organisms have evolved many classes of signal transduction pathways, including the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ signal pathway. Decapentapletic gene (Dpp belongs to the TGFβ superfamily, and studies on Dpp have mainly focused on its role in the regulation of development. No study has investigated the response of Dpp to oxidative pressure in any organism, including Apis cerana cerana (A. cerana cerana. In this study, we identified a Dpp gene from A. cerana cerana named AccDpp. The 5΄ flanking region of AccDpp had many transcription factor binding sites that relevant to development and stress response. AccDpp was expressed at all stages of A. cerana cerana, with its highest expression in 15-day worker bees. The mRNA level of AccDpp was higher in the poison gland and midgut than other tissues. Furthermore, the transcription of AccDpp could be repressed by 4°C and UV, but induced by other treatments, according to our qRT-PCR analysis. It is worth noting that the expression level of AccDpp protein was increased after a certain time when A. cerana cerana was subjected to all simulative oxidative stresses, a finding that was not completely consistent with the result from qRT-PCR. It is interesting that recombinant AccDpp restrained the growth of Escherichia coli, a function that might account for the role of the antimicrobial peptides of AccDpp. In conclusion, these results provide evidence that AccDpp might be implicated in the regulation of development and the response of oxidative pressure. The findings may lay a theoretical foundation for further genetic studies of Dpp.

  2. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

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    Alexis L Beaurepaire

    Full Text Available The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  3. Host Specificity in the Honeybee Parasitic Mite, Varroa spp. in Apis mellifera and Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Truong, Tuan A; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Dinh, Tam Q; Cervancia, Cleofas; Moritz, Robin F A

    2015-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is a major global threat to the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This mite was originally a parasite of A. cerana in Asia but managed to spill over into colonies of A. mellifera which had been introduced to this continent for honey production. To date, only two almost clonal types of V. destructor from Korea and Japan have been detected in A. mellifera colonies. However, since both A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies are kept in close proximity throughout Asia, not only new spill overs but also spill backs of highly virulent types may be possible, with unpredictable consequences for both honeybee species. We studied the dispersal and hybridisation potential of Varroa from sympatric colonies of the two hosts in Northern Vietnam and the Philippines using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers. We found a very distinct mtDNA haplotype equally invading both A. mellifera and A. cerana in the Philippines. In contrast, we observed a complete reproductive isolation of various Vietnamese Varroa populations in A. mellifera and A. cerana colonies even if kept in the same apiaries. In light of this variance in host specificity, the adaptation of the mite to its hosts seems to have generated much more genetic diversity than previously recognised and the Varroa species complex may include substantial cryptic speciation.

  4. Western honeybee drones and workers (Apis mellifera ligustica) have different olfactory mechanisms than eastern honeybees (Apis cerana cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltedji, Dereje; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Gala, Alemayehu; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2012-09-07

    The honeybees Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) are two different western and eastern bee species that evolved in distinct ecologies and developed specific antennal olfactory systems for their survival. Knowledge of how their antennal olfactory systems function in regards to the success of each respective bee species is scarce. We compared the antennal morphology and proteome between respective sexually mature drones and foraging workers of both species using a scanning electron microscope, two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Despite the general similarities in antennal morphology of the drone and worker bees between the two species, a total of 106 and 100 proteins altered their expression in the drones' and the workers' antennae, respectively. This suggests that the differences in the olfactory function of each respective bee are supported by the change of their proteome. Of the 106 proteins that altered their expression in the drones, 72 (68%) and 34 (32%) were overexpressed in the drones of Aml and Acc, respectively. The antennae of the Aml drones were built up by the highly expressed proteins that were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, antioxidation, and fatty acid metabolism in contrast to the Acc drones. This is believed to enhance the antennal olfactory functions of the Aml drones as compared to the Acc drones during their mating flight. Likewise, of the 100 proteins with expression changes between the worker bees of the two species, 67% were expressed in higher levels in the antennae of Aml worker contrasting to 33% in the Acc worker. The overall higher expressions of proteins related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, molecular transporters, and antioxidation in the Aml workers compared with the Acc workers indicate the Aml workers require more antennal proteins for their olfactory

  5. Inhibiting DNA methylation alters olfactory extinction but not acquisition learning in Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwen; Wang, Chao; Nieh, James C; Tan, Ken

    2016-07-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in invertebrate acquisition and extinction memory. Honey bees have excellent olfactory learning, but the role of DNA methylation in memory formation has, to date, only been studied in Apis mellifera. We inhibited DNA methylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with zebularine (zeb) and studied the resulting effects upon olfactory acquisition and extinction memory in two honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera. We used the proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay to measure memory. We provide the first demonstration that DNA methylation is also important in the olfactory extinction learning of A. cerana. DNMT did not reduce acquisition learning in either species. However, zeb bidirectionally and differentially altered extinction learning in both species. In particular, zeb provided 1h before acquisition learning improved extinction memory retention in A. mellifera, but reduced extinction memory retention in A. cerana. The reasons for these differences are unclear, but provide a basis for future studies to explore species-specific differences in the effects of methylation on memory formation.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression, and stress response of the estrogen-related receptor gene (AccERR) from Apis cerana cerana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixing; Zhu, Ming; Zhang, Ge; Liu, Feng; Wang, Hongfang; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2016-04-01

    Estrogen-related receptor (ERR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been implicated in diverse physiological processes involving the estrogen signaling pathway. However, little information is available on ERR in Apis cerana cerana. In this report, we isolated the ERR gene and investigated its involvement in antioxidant defense. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the highest mRNA expression occurred in eggs during different developmental stages. The expression levels of AccERR were highest in the muscle, followed by the rectum. The predicted transcription factor binding sites in the promoter of AccERR suggested that AccERR potentially functions in early development and in environmental stress responses. The expression of AccERR was induced by cold (4 °C), heat (42 °C), ultraviolet light (UV), HgCl2, and various types of pesticides (phoxim, deltamethrin, triadimefon, and cyhalothrin). Western blot was used to measure the expression levels of AccERR protein. These data suggested that AccERR might play a vital role in abiotic stress responses.

  7. The chemosensory protein of Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana: Molecular cloning of cDNA, immunocytochemical localization and expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongLiang; LOU BingGan; CHENG Jia'An; GAO QiKang

    2007-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are ubiquitous soluble small proteins isolated from sensory organs thought to be involved in chemical communication.Here we report the first cDNA of CSPs,called Ac-ASP3,cloned and characterized from antennas of adult worker bees in Chinese honeybee,Apis cerana cerana.The Ac-ASP3 cDNA comprises 2 exons,with an ORF of 393-bp encoding 130 aa.Protein signature analyses show that the protein consists of four conserved cysteines and a signal peptide with 19 aa in the N-terminal sequence.The deduced protein sequence shares high homology with Am-ASP3 of Apis mellifera and low similarity with other species of insects.Immunocytochemical localization shows that Ac-ASP3 is only specifically expressed on the antenna contact chemosensilla such as sensilla trichodea B and sensilla basiconica,whereas Ac-ASP3 is scarcely expressed on olfactory chemosensilla such as sensilla placodea.Real-time PCR of Ac-ASP3 transcripts shows that Ac-ASP3 is highly expressed on wings and legs,but expression is lower on antenna.Temporal expression patterns suggest that Ac-ASP3 is expressed during the period of pupa and adults from 1-d to 6-d stages when bees act as house bees,cleaning the comb and taking care of the queen and larvae in comb.The above evidence suggests that Ac-ASP3 is unique in species and is generally not involved in olfaction during searching for honey and pollen.Rather,the protein seems to function in recognition of chemosensory substances on bees' cuticle and mechanical movement of antenna.

  8. The prevalence of parasites and pathogens in Asian honeybees Apis cerana in China.

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    Jilian Li

    Full Text Available Pathogens and parasites represent significant threats to the health and well-being of honeybee species that are key pollinators of agricultural crops and flowers worldwide. We conducted a nationwide survey to determine the occurrence and prevalence of pathogens and parasites in Asian honeybees, Apis cerana, in China. Our study provides evidence of infections of A. cerana by pathogenic Deformed wing virus (DWV, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, Nosema ceranae, and C. bombi species that have been linked to population declines of European honeybees, A. mellifera, and bumble bees. However, the prevalence of DWV, a virus that causes widespread infection in A. mellifera, was low, arguably a result of the greater ability of A. cerana to resist the ectoprasitic mite Varroa destructor, an efficient vector of DWV. Analyses of microbial communities from the A. cerana digestive tract showed that Nosema infection could have detrimental effects on the gut microbiota. Workers infected by N. ceranae tended to have lower bacterial quantities, with these differences being significant for the Bifidobacterium and Pasteurellaceae bacteria groups. The results of this nationwide screen show that parasites and pathogens that have caused serious problems in European honeybees can be found in native honeybee species kept in Asia. Environmental changes due to new agricultural practices and globalization may facilitate the spread of pathogens into new geographic areas. The foraging behavior of pollinators that are in close geographic proximity likely have played an important role in spreading of parasites and pathogens over to new hosts. Phylogenetic analyses provide insights into the movement and population structure of these parasites, suggesting a bidirectional flow of parasites among pollinators. The presence of these parasites and pathogens may have considerable implications for an observed population decline of Asian honeybees.

  9. 中华蜜蜂蕈形体的发育%Development of the Mushroom Bodies in Apis cerana cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆英; 奚耕思

    2007-01-01

    中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)的脑由前脑、中脑和后脑三部分构成,蕈形体位于前脑的背侧,是其重要的学习及其他复杂行为的整合中心.通过对中华蜜蜂工蜂的幼虫、蛹及成虫的蕈形体形态发育的观察研究,发现中华蜜蜂的蕈形体包含约1 000个成神经细胞,它们最终形成了蕈形体的所有Kenyon细胞.这些成神经细胞来自于在新孵化的幼虫脑中已存在的四丛成神经细胞,每一丛细胞的数量不多于45个.蕈形体柄区的出现约在3龄幼虫,而α叶和β叶在5龄幼虫已可明显辨认.冠区出现较晚,大约在蛹期的第二天以后.由于社会性昆虫复杂的学习、记忆和认知需求,其蕈形体的体积和复杂程度都优于其他昆虫.

  10. Transcriptional responses in eastern honeybees (Apis cerana) infected with mites, Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, T; Yin, L; Liu, Z; Liang, Q; Luo, Y; Shen, J; Shen, F

    2014-10-31

    The Varroa destructor mite has become the greatest threat to Apis mellifera health worldwide, but rarely causes serious damage to its native host Apis cerana. Understanding the resistance mechanisms of eastern bees against Varroa mites will help researchers determine how to protect other species from this organism. The A. cerana genome has not been previously sequenced; hence, here we sequenced the A. cerana nurse workers transcriptome and monitored the differential gene expression of A. cerana bees challenged by V. destructor. Using de novo transcriptome assembly, we obtained 91,172 unigenes (transcripts) for A. cerana. Differences in gene expression levels between the unchallenged (Con) and challenged (Con2) samples were estimated, and a total of 36,691 transcripts showed a 2-fold difference (at least) between the 2 libraries. A total of 272 differentially expressed genes showed differences greater than 15-fold, and 265 unigenes were present at higher levels in Con2 than in Con. Among the upregulated unigenes in the Con2 colony, genes related to skeletal muscle movement (troponin and calcium-transporting ATPase), olfactory sensitivity (odorant binding proteins, and Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule gene) and transcription factors (cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein and transcription factor mblk-1) appeared to be involved in Varroa resistance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to validate these differentially expressed genes screened by the sequencing approach, and sufficient consistency was observed between the two methods. These findings strongly support that hygienic and grooming behaviors play important roles in Varroa resistance.

  11. Changes in Alternative Splicing in Apis Mellifera Bees Fed Apis Cerana Royal Jelly

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    Shi Yuan Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation in which the queen bee and worker bees display marked differences in morphology, behavior, reproduction, and longevity despite their identical genomes. The main causative factor in caste differentiation is the food fed to queen larvae, termed royal jelly (RJ. Alternative splicing (AS is an important RNA-mediated post-transcriptional process in eukaryotes. Here we report AS changes in A. mellifera after being fed either A. mellifera RJ or A. cerana RJ. The results demonstrated that the RJ type affected 4 types of AS in adult A. mellifera: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5’ splice sites, and alternative 3’splice sites. After feeding with A. cerana RJ, AS occurred in many genes in adult A. mellifera that encode proteins involved in development, growth, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substance metabolism. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific RJ can influence the AS of many genes related to honey bee development and growth.

  12. Pheromones affecting ovary activation and ovariole loss in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Liu, Xiwen; Dong, Sihao; Wang, Chao; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-03-01

    The Asian hive bee Apis cerana has similar queen mandibular pheromones (QMP) to the Western honey bee Apismellifera. However the effects of individual QMP components have never been tested to determine their effects on the reproductive physiology of A. cerana workers. We fed one queen equivalent of each of the major components of A. cerana QMP to groups of c.a. 500 day-old, caged, workers twice a day until the workers were 10 days old. Half of the cages were also provided with 10% royal jelly in the food. Workers were sampled each day and dissected to determine the number of ovarioles and the degree of ovary activation (egg development). In cages treated with 9-carbon fatty acids ovary activation was minimal, whereas the 10-carbon acids suppressed ovary activation very little. Royal jelly enhanced ovary activation, especially in cages treated with 10-carbon acids. The number of ovarioles declined with bee age, but the rate of decline was slowed by the 9-carbon acids in particular. The results show conservation of the composition and function of QMP between A. cerana and A. mellifera and support the hypothesis that QMP is an honest signal of queen fecundity rather than a chemical castrator of workers.

  13. Colony Level Prevalence and Intensity of Nosema ceranae in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Hannah M.; Webster, Thomas C.; Sagili, Ramesh R.

    2016-01-01

    Nosema ceranae is a widely prevalent microsporidian parasite in the western honey bee. There is considerable uncertainty regarding infection dynamics of this important pathogen in honey bee colonies. Understanding the infection dynamics at the colony level may aid in development of a reliable sampling protocol for N. ceranae diagnosis, and provide insights into efficient treatment strategies. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence (proportion of the sampled bees found infected) and intensity (number of spores per bee) of N. ceranae infection in bees from various age cohorts in a colony. We examined N. ceranae infection in both overwintered colonies that were naturally infected with N. ceranae and in quadruple cohort nucleus colonies that were established and artificially inoculated with N. ceranae. We also examined and quantified effects of N. ceranae infection on hypopharyngeal gland protein content and gut pH. There was no correlation between the prevalence and intensity of N. ceranae infection in composite samples (pooled bee samples used for analysis). Our results indicated that the prevalence and intensity of N. ceranae infection is significantly influenced by honey bee age. The N. ceranae infection prevalence values from composite samples of background bees (unmarked bees collected from four different locations in a colony) were not significantly different from those pertaining to marked-bee age cohorts specific to each sampling date. The foraging-aged bees had a higher prevalence of N. ceranae infection when compared to nurse-aged bees. N. ceranae did not have a significant effect on hypopharyngeal gland protein content. Further, there was no significant difference in mean gut pH of N. ceranae infected bees and non-infected bees. This study provides comprehensive insights into N. ceranae infection dynamics at the colony level, and also demonstrates the effects of N. ceranae infection on hypopharyngeal gland protein content and

  14. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals mite (Varroa destructor) resistance-related proteins in Eastern honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, T; Shen, F; Liu, Z; Yin, L; Shen, J; Liang, Q; Luo, Y X

    2015-08-21

    The mite (Varroa destructor) has become the greatest threat to apiculture worldwide. As the original host of the mite, Apis cerana can effectively resist the mite. An increased understanding of the resistance mechanisms of Eastern honeybees against V. destructor may help researchers to protect other species against these parasites. In this study, the proteomes of 4 Apis cerana colonies were analyzed using an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation technology. We determined the differences in gene and protein expression between susceptible and resistant colonies that were either unchallenged or challenged by V. destructor. The results showed that a total of 1532 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis suggested that the transcription factors and basic metabolic and respiratory processes were efficient and feasible factors controlling this resistance, and 12 differentially expressed proteins were identified in Venn analysis. The results were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This study may provide insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of honeybee to mites.

  15. Genetic reincarnation of workers as queens in the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, M J; Tan, K; Wang, Z; Oldroyd, B P; Beekman, M

    2015-01-01

    Thelytokous parthenogenesis, or the asexual production of female offspring, is rare in the animal kingdom, but relatively common in social Hymenoptera. However, in honeybees, it is only known to be ubiquitous in one subspecies of Apis mellifera, the Cape honeybee, A. mellifera capensis. Here we report the appearance of queen cells in two colonies of the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana that no longer contained a queen or queen-produced brood to rear queens from. A combination of microsatellite genotyping and the timing of the appearance of these individuals excluded the possibility that they had been laid by the original queen. Based on the genotypes of these individuals, thelytokous production by natal workers is the most parsimonious explanation for their existence. Thus, we present the first example of thelytoky in a honeybee outside A. mellifera. We discuss the evolutionary and ecological consequences of thelytoky in A. cerana, in particular the role thelytoky may play in the recent invasions by populations of this species.

  16. A SNP based high-density linkage map of Apis cerana reveals a high recombination rate similar to Apis mellifera.

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    Yuan Yuan Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabricius, is distributed in southern and eastern Asia, from India and China to Korea and Japan and southeast to the Moluccas. This species is also widely kept for honey production besides Apis mellifera. Apis cerana is also a model organism for studying social behavior, caste determination, mating biology, sexual selection, and host-parasite interactions. Few resources are available for molecular research in this species, and a linkage map was never constructed. A linkage map is a prerequisite for quantitative trait loci mapping and for analyzing genome structure. We used the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana to construct the first linkage map in the Eastern honey bee. RESULTS: F2 workers (N = 103 were genotyped for 126,990 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. After filtering low quality and those not passing the Mendel test, we obtained 3,000 SNPs, 1,535 of these were informative and used to construct a linkage map. The preliminary map contains 19 linkage groups, we then mapped the 19 linkage groups to 16 chromosomes by comparing the markers to the genome of A. mellfiera. The final map contains 16 linkage groups with a total of 1,535 markers. The total genetic distance is 3,942.7 centimorgans (cM with the largest linkage group (180 loci measuring 574.5 cM. Average marker interval for all markers across the 16 linkage groups is 2.6 cM. CONCLUSION: We constructed a high density linkage map for A. c. cerana with 1,535 markers. Because the map is based on SNP markers, it will enable easier and faster genotyping assays than randomly amplified polymorphic DNA or microsatellite based maps used in A. mellifera.

  17. Infra-population and -community dynamics of the parasites Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and consequences for honey bee (Apis mellifera hosts.

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    Geoffrey R Williams

    Full Text Available Nosema spp. fungal gut parasites are among myriad possible explanations for contemporary increased mortality of western honey bees (Apis mellifera, hereafter honey bee in many regions of the world. Invasive Nosema ceranae is particularly worrisome because some evidence suggests it has greater virulence than its congener N. apis. N. ceranae appears to have recently switched hosts from Asian honey bees (Apis cerana and now has a nearly global distribution in honey bees, apparently displacing N. apis. We examined parasite reproduction and effects of N. apis, N. ceranae, and mixed Nosema infections on honey bee hosts in laboratory experiments. Both infection intensity and honey bee mortality were significantly greater for N. ceranae than for N. apis or mixed infections; mixed infection resulted in mortality similar to N. apis parasitism and reduced spore intensity, possibly due to inter-specific competition. This is the first long-term laboratory study to demonstrate lethal consequences of N. apis and N. ceranae and mixed Nosema parasitism in honey bees, and suggests that differences in reproduction and intra-host competition may explain apparent heterogeneous exclusion of the historic parasite by the invasive species.

  18. 五种农药对中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂工蜂的经口毒性比较%Oral toxicity of five pesticides to Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瀛寰; 张艳峰; 张旭; 李建中; 王会利

    2012-01-01

    Two methods " small breaker" and " feeding tube" were used to measure the oral toxicity of five pesticides to Apis cerana cerana Fab. and Apis mellifera L.. The relative merits of the two methods and the sensitivity of the two kinds of honeybees to the toxicants were compared. The results showed that the LC50 values determined by " small breaker" method were lower than that by " feeding tube" method. Furthermore, comparing with A. mellifera, A. cerana cerana was more sensitive to pesticides tested, which suggested that A. cerana cerana might be more suitable for use in the toxicological evaluation of pesticides.%分别采用“小烧杯法”和“饲喂管法”测定了5种农药对中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂工蜂的经口毒性.比较了2种方法的优缺点以及2个蜂种对农药毒性的敏感程度差异.结果表明:无论是“意蜂”还是“中蜂”,“小烧杯法”得到的半致死浓度( LC50)均不同程度地低于“饲喂管法”;与“意蜂”相比,“中蜂”对药剂更敏感,可能更适用于农药的毒理评价实验.

  19. Royal jelly proteome comparison between A. mellifera ligustica and A. cerana cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Mao, Feng; Jianke, Li

    2010-05-07

    In this study, we compared royal jelly (RJ) produced by Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis cerana cerana in production, protein profiles, and abundances using proteomic approaches. The RJ proteome was displayed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE), and proteins were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-Chip/ESI-QTOF MS. Differences in the RJ proteome between the two bee species were validated using western-blot analysis. RJ production by A. cerana cerana (3.21 +/- 0.43 g) is significantly lower than that of A. mellifera ligustica (80.5 +/- 7.83 g). The 2DGE based MS approach identified 52 and 60 proteins in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica and A. cerana cerana, respectively. The majority of the identified proteins were major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs). Peroxiredoxin 2540, glutathione S-transferase S1, and MRJP5 were detected only in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica, and MRJP1 was the most abundant MRJP. In contrast, MRJP7 was found only in the RJ of A. cerana cerana. But, similar to A. mellifera ligustica, MRJP1 was found most abundantly in this case too. In this study, glucose oxidase was identified for the first time in the A. cerana cerana RJ. Comparing the protein levels of MRJP1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 between the two species, they were significantly higher in the RJ of A. mellifera ligustica than in A. cerana cerana. This observation was supported by Western blot analysis using anti-MRJP1, 2, 3 antibodies. The result suggested that A. mellifera ligustica needs more nutrition to nurse the developing larvae and queens as compared to that of A. cerana cerana. This study improved our understanding of protein composition of RJ from Western and Eastern honeybees. RJ produced by A. mellifera ligustica exceeds the RJ from A. cerana cerana both in terms of production and health purposes.

  20. Four quantitative trait loci associated with low Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) spore load in the honeybee Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qiang; Kryger, Per; Le Conte, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Nosema ceranae has been recently introduced into the honeybee Apis mellifera as a novel microsporidian gut parasite. To locate the genetic region involved in N. ceranae infection tolerance, we fed N. ceranae spores to haploid drones of a F1 hybrid queen produced from a cross between a queen...... of a Nosema-resistant bred strain and drones of susceptible colonies. The spore loads of the infected F1 drones were used as the phenotype to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with N. ceranae spore load. One hundred forty-eight infected drones were individually genotyped with microsatellite...... markers at an average marker distance of 20 cM along the genome. Four QTLs were significantly associated with low spore load, explaining 20.4 % of total spore load variance. Moreover, a candidate gene Aubergine (Aub) within the major QTL region was significantly overexpressed in drones with low spore...

  1. Oriental orchid (Cymbidium pumilum) attracts drones of the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) as pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M; Ono, M; Asada, S; Yoshida, T

    1991-12-01

    The discovery that drones of the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica) pollinate the oriental orchid (Cymbidium pumilum) is reported. Drones are attracted to the orchid flower aroma mainly during their mating flights in April through May. Some drones cluster on the flower racemes and others insert their heads deep into the flowers. Drones with pollinia on their scutellum visit other orchids, which facilitates pollination. Individual workers and swarming colonies are also strongly attracted by the flower aroma, but the allopatric western honeybee (Apis mellifera) is not attracted.

  2. Honey bee Apis mellifera parasites in the absence of Nosema ceranae fungi and Varroa destructor mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Dave; Head, Krista; Burgher-MacLellan, Karen L; Colwell, Megan J; Levitt, Abby L; Ostiguy, Nancy; Williams, Geoffrey R

    2014-01-01

    Few areas of the world have western honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies that are free of invasive parasites Nosema ceranae (fungi) and Varroa destructor (mites). Particularly detrimental is V. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. Thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of V. destructor are of significant interest. The island of Newfoundland, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is free of V. destructor; the absence of N. ceranae has not been confirmed. Of 55 Newfoundland colonies inspected visually for their strength and six signs of disease, only K-wing had prevalence above 5% (40/55 colonies = 72.7%). Similar to an earlier study, screenings again confirmed the absence of V. destructor, small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Murray), tracheal mites Acarapis woodi (Rennie), and Tropilaelaps spp. ectoparasitic mites. Of a subset of 23 colonies screened molecularly for viruses, none had Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, or sacbrood virus. Sixteen of 23 colonies (70.0%) were positive for black queen cell virus, and 21 (91.3%) had some evidence for deformed wing virus. No N. ceranae was detected in molecular screens of 55 colonies, although it is possible extremely low intensity infections exist; the more familiar N. apis was found in 53 colonies (96.4%). Under these conditions, K-wing was associated (positively) with colony strength; however, viruses and N. apis were not. Furthermore, black queen cell virus was positively and negatively associated with K-wing and deformed wing virus, respectively. Newfoundland honey bee colonies are thus free of several invasive parasites that plague operations in other parts of the world, and they provide a unique research arena to study independent pathology of the parasites that are present.

  3. Honey bee Apis mellifera parasites in the absence of Nosema ceranae fungi and Varroa destructor mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Shutler

    Full Text Available Few areas of the world have western honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies that are free of invasive parasites Nosema ceranae (fungi and Varroa destructor (mites. Particularly detrimental is V. destructor; in addition to feeding on host haemolymph, these mites are important vectors of several viruses that are further implicated as contributors to honey bee mortality around the world. Thus, the biogeography and attendant consequences of viral communities in the absence of V. destructor are of significant interest. The island of Newfoundland, Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, is free of V. destructor; the absence of N. ceranae has not been confirmed. Of 55 Newfoundland colonies inspected visually for their strength and six signs of disease, only K-wing had prevalence above 5% (40/55 colonies = 72.7%. Similar to an earlier study, screenings again confirmed the absence of V. destructor, small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Murray, tracheal mites Acarapis woodi (Rennie, and Tropilaelaps spp. ectoparasitic mites. Of a subset of 23 colonies screened molecularly for viruses, none had Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, or sacbrood virus. Sixteen of 23 colonies (70.0% were positive for black queen cell virus, and 21 (91.3% had some evidence for deformed wing virus. No N. ceranae was detected in molecular screens of 55 colonies, although it is possible extremely low intensity infections exist; the more familiar N. apis was found in 53 colonies (96.4%. Under these conditions, K-wing was associated (positively with colony strength; however, viruses and N. apis were not. Furthermore, black queen cell virus was positively and negatively associated with K-wing and deformed wing virus, respectively. Newfoundland honey bee colonies are thus free of several invasive parasites that plague operations in other parts of the world, and they provide a unique research arena to study independent pathology of the parasites that are present.

  4. Histochemical Comparison of the Hypopharyngeal Gland in Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 Workers and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntima Suwannapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopharyngeal glands of honeybee are age-dependent structures that change with the size of acini and are correlated with various social behaviors. The histochemical structure of Apis cerana and A. mellifera worker hypopharyngeal glands in four different developmental stages wes stained with ninhydrin Schiff's and periodic acid Schiff's reagents (PAS for localization of proteins and carbohydrates, respectively, and examined with light microscopy. Nurse bees of both honeybee species had significantly larger glands as compared to guards and forgers, but there were no statistically significant differences between these two species after accounting for caste. Gland protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees, and this was correlated with the appearance of enriched protein granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, the hypopharyngeal gland protein concentration of A. mellifera was higher than that of A. cerana even though gland size was not significantly different between species. However, gland size was shown to have decreased progressively in foragers and guards.

  5. Go East for Better Honey Bee Health: Apis cerana Is Faster at Hygienic Behavior than A. mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Zheng, Huoqing; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The poor health status of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, compared to its Eastern counterpart, Apis cerana, is remarkable. This has been attributed to lower pathogen prevalence in A. cerana colonies and to their ability to survive infestations with the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. These properties have been linked to an enhanced removal of dead or unhealthy immature bees by adult workers in this species. Although such hygienic behavior is known to contribute to honey bee colony health, comparative data of A. mellifera and A. cerana in performing this task are scarce. Here, we compare for the first time the removal of freeze-killed brood in one population of each species and over two seasons in China. Our results show that A. cerana was significantly faster than A. mellifera at both opening cell caps and removing freeze-killed brood. The fast detection and removal of diseased brood is likely to limit the proliferation of pathogenic agents. Given our results can be generalized to the species level, a rapid hygienic response could contribute to the better health of A. cerana. Promoting the fast detection and removal of worker brood through adapted breeding programs could further improve the social immunity of A. mellifera colonies and contribute to a better health status of the Western honey bee worldwide. PMID:27606819

  6. Go East for Better Honey Bee Health: Apis cerana Is Faster at Hygienic Behavior than A. mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheguang; Page, Paul; Li, Li; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Zheng, Huoqing; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The poor health status of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, compared to its Eastern counterpart, Apis cerana, is remarkable. This has been attributed to lower pathogen prevalence in A. cerana colonies and to their ability to survive infestations with the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. These properties have been linked to an enhanced removal of dead or unhealthy immature bees by adult workers in this species. Although such hygienic behavior is known to contribute to honey bee colony health, comparative data of A. mellifera and A. cerana in performing this task are scarce. Here, we compare for the first time the removal of freeze-killed brood in one population of each species and over two seasons in China. Our results show that A. cerana was significantly faster than A. mellifera at both opening cell caps and removing freeze-killed brood. The fast detection and removal of diseased brood is likely to limit the proliferation of pathogenic agents. Given our results can be generalized to the species level, a rapid hygienic response could contribute to the better health of A. cerana. Promoting the fast detection and removal of worker brood through adapted breeding programs could further improve the social immunity of A. mellifera colonies and contribute to a better health status of the Western honey bee worldwide.

  7. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection and differentiation of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyńska, Aneta A; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Woźniakowski, Grzegorz; Gnat, Sebastian; Małek, Wanda

    2014-08-01

    Nosemosis is a contagious disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera) manifested by increased winter mortality, poor spring build-up and even the total extinction of infected bee colonies. In this paper, loop-mediated isothermal amplifications (LAMP) were used for the first time to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae, the causative agents of nosemosis. LAMP assays were performed at a constant temperature of 60 °C using two sets of six species-specific primers, recognising eight distinct fragments of 16S rDNA gene and GspSSD polymerase with strand displacement activity. The optimal time for LAMP and its Nosema species sensitivity and specificity were assessed. LAMP only required 30 min for robust identification of the amplicons. Ten-fold serial dilutions of total DNA isolated from bees infected with microsporidia were used to determine the detection limit of N. apis and N. ceranae DNAs by LAMP and standard PCR assays. LAMP appeared to be 10(3) -fold more sensitive than a standard PCR in detecting N. apis and N. ceranae. LAMP methods developed by us are highly Nosema species specific and allow to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae.

  8. Studies on the Structure and Function of the Pore in the Drone Cell Capping of Apis cerana cerana%中蜂雄蜂封盖气孔结构及功能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓; 江武军; 何旭江; 曾志将

    2016-01-01

    Apis mellifera and Apis cerana cerana were used in this study. A scanning electron microscopy ( sem) was employed to observe the forming process of pores on the cell caps of drones and different structures of cell caps,and a digital permeability instrument was used to detect the air permeability of different cell caps. The results showed that on the seventh day of cell capping in drones,the pore structure with a diameter around 0.4⁃0.5 mm had already formed.Furthermore,the permeability of drone cell caps of Apis cerana cerana was sig⁃nificantly lower than that of worker cell caps of Apis cerana cerana,and that of worker and drone cell caps of A⁃pis mellifera.What’s more,the drone cell caps had a compact structure.The experiment of artificial cell capping of the drones of Apis cerana cerana showed that the pore of drone cell caps had a certain influence on the de⁃velopment of drones of Apis cerana cerana.%以中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂为实验材料,利用扫描电镜观察中蜂雄蜂封盖气孔形成过程和不同封盖结构,利用全自动数字式物透气量仪测定不同封盖透气性。结果表明:中蜂雄蜂封盖第7天,已形成气孔结构,直径0.4~0.5 mm;中蜂雄蜂封盖透气性显著低于中蜂工蜂、意蜂工蜂和雄蜂、封盖,并且中蜂雄蜂封盖质地结构紧密。人工封盖中蜂雄蜂气孔实验表明:中蜂雄蜂封盖气孔对雄蜂发育有一定影响。

  9. Gut pathology and responses to the microsporidium Nosema ceranae in the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Dussaubat

    Full Text Available The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is a newly prevalent parasite of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera. Although this parasite is presently spreading across the world into its novel host, the mechanisms by it which affects the bees and how bees respond are not well understood. We therefore performed an extensive characterization of the parasite effects at the molecular level by using genetic and biochemical tools. The transcriptome modifications at the midgut level were characterized seven days post-infection with tiling microarrays. Then we tested the bee midgut response to infection by measuring activity of antioxidant and detoxification enzymes (superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase. At the gene-expression level, the bee midgut responded to N. ceranae infection by an increase in oxidative stress concurrent with the generation of antioxidant enzymes, defense and protective response specifically observed in the gut of mammals and insects. However, at the enzymatic level, the protective response was not confirmed, with only glutathione-S-transferase exhibiting a higher activity in infected bees. The oxidative stress was associated with a higher transcription of sugar transporter in the gut. Finally, a dramatic effect of the microsporidia infection was the inhibition of genes involved in the homeostasis and renewal of intestinal tissues (Wnt signaling pathway, a phenomenon that was confirmed at the histological level. This tissue degeneration and prevention of gut epithelium renewal may explain early bee death. In conclusion, our integrated approach not only gives new insights into the pathological effects of N. ceranae and the bee gut response, but also demonstrate that the honey bee gut is an interesting model system for studying host defense responses.

  10. 中华蜜蜂雄蜂脑部组织结构观察%Microstructure of drone brain of Apis cerana cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆英; 奚耕思; 严红蕾

    2009-01-01

    通过组织化学方法,对中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Fabricius雄蜂的脑部的形态结构进行观察.结果表明,雄蜂的脑由前脑、中脑和后脑三部分构成,前脑视叶两侧具有大而显著的复眼,而其他结构相对较小.蕈形体在脑中所占的比例小于工蜂和蜂王;中心体的比例小于工蜂,与蜂王接近;中脑的嗅叶相对较为发达,这使它们在同蜂王的交配过程中,能够更灵敏地接收来自于蜂王性外激素的刺激.中华蜜蜂雄蜂的嗅叶具有性二态现象,但是与意大利蜜蜂Apis mellifera L.雄蜂发达的巨大纤维球复合体相比,中华蜜蜂并不明显;除此之外,它们在脑部结构上没有显著差异.

  11. High-throughput sequencing identification of genes involved with Varroa destructor resistance in the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, T; Yin, L; Liu, Z; Shen, F; Shen, J

    2014-10-31

    Varroa destructor is the greatest threat to the honeybee Apis mellifera worldwide, while it rarely causes serious harm to its native host, the Eastern honeybee Apis cerana. The genetic mechanisms underlying the resistance of A. cerana to Varroa remain unclear. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanism of resistance to Varroa may provide useful insights for reducing this disease in other organisms. In this study, the transcriptomes of two A. cerana colonies were sequenced using the Illumina Solexa sequencing method. One colony was highly affected by mites, whereas the other colony displayed strong resistance to V. destructor. We determined differences in gene expression in the two colonies after challenging the colonies with V. destructor. After de novo transcriptome assembly, we obtained 91,172 unigenes for A. cerana and found that 288 differentially expressed genes varied by more than 15-fold. A total of 277 unigenes were present at higher levels in the non-affected colony. Genes involved in resistance to Varroa included unigenes related to skeletal muscle movement, olfactory sensitivity, and transcription factors. This suggests that hygienic behavior and grooming behavior may play important roles in the resistance to Varroa.

  12. Homology differences between complete Sacbrood virus genomes from infected Apis mellifera and Apis cerana honeybees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kondreddy Eswar; Yoo, Mi Sun; Kim, Young-Ha; Kim, Nam-Hee; Ramya, Mummadireddy; Jung, Ha-Na; Thao, Le Thi Bich; Lee, Hee-Soo; Kang, Seung-Won

    2016-04-01

    Sacbrood virus (SBV) represents a serious threat to the health of managed honeybees. We determined four complete SBV genomic sequences (AmSBV-Kor1, AmSBV-Kor2, AcSBV-Kor3, and AcSBV-Kor4) isolated from Apis mellifera and Apis cerana in various regions of South Korea. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from the complete genomic sequences of these Korean SBVs (KSBVs) and 21 previously reported SBV sequences from other countries. Three KSBVs (not AmSBV-Kor1) clustered with previously reported Korean genomes, but separately from SBV genomes from other countries. The KSBVs shared 90-98 % identity, and 89-97 % identity with the genomes from other countries. AmSBV-Kor1 was least similar (~90 % identity) to the other KSBVs, and was most similar to previously reported strains AmSBV-Kor21 (97 %) and AmSBV-UK (93 %). Phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP1 region sequences indicated that SBVs clustered by host species and country of origin. The KSBVs were aligned with nine previously reported complete SBV genomes and compared. The KSBVs were most different from the other genomes at the end of the 5' untranslated region and in the entire open reading frame. A SimPlot graph of the VP1 region confirmed its high variability, especially between the SBVs infecting A. mellifera and A. cerana. In this genomic region, SBVs from A. mellifera species contain an extra continuous 51-nucleotide sequence relative to the SBVs from A. cerana. This genomic diversity may reflect the adaptation of SBV to specific hosts, viral cross-infections, and the spatial distances separating the KSBVs from other SBVs.

  13. Molecular characterization and differential expression of two duplicated odorant receptor genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, in Apis cerana cerana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huiting Zhao; Pengfei Gao; Haiyan Du; Weihua Ma; Songhao Tian; Yusuo Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Insects use olfaction to recognize a wide range of volatile cues, to locate food sources, mates, hosts and oviposition sites. These chemical volatiles are perceived by odorant receptors (ORs) expressed on the dendritic membrane of olfactory neurons, most of which are housed within the chemosensilla of antennae. Most insect ORs are tandemly arrayed on chromosomes and some of them are formed by gene duplication. Here, we identified a pair of duplicated Or genes, AcerOr1 and AcerOr3, from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and reported their molecular characterization and temporal expression profiles. The results showed that these two genes shared high similarity both in sequence and the gene structure. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of temporal expression pattern indicated that in drones the expression pattern of these two genes were very similar. The transcripts expressed weakly in larvae and pupae, then increased gradually in adults. In workers, the expression level of AcerOr1 changed more drastically and expressed higher than that of AcerOr3. However, both reached their highest expression level in one-day-old adults. In addition, the expression profiles between different sexes revealed that AcerOr3 appear to be expressed biased in male antennae. These results suggest that AcerOr1 may perceive odours of floral scents, while AcerOr3 may detect odours critical to male behaviour, such as the queen substance cues.

  14. No effect of Bt Cry1Ie toxin on bacterial diversity in the midgut of the Chinese honey bees, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hui-Ru; Dai, Ping-Li; Geng, Li-Li; Jack, Cameron J.; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Yan-Yan; Diao, Qing-Yun; Ellis, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Cry1Ie protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been proposed as a promising candidate for the development of a new Bt-maize variety to control maize pests in China. We studied the response of the midgut bacterial community of Apis cerana cerana to Cry1Ie toxin under laboratory conditions. Newly emerged bees were fed one of the following treatments for 15 and 30 days: three concentrations of Cry1Ie toxin (20 ng/mL, 200 ng/mL, and 20 μg/mL) in sugar syrup, pure sugar syrup as a negative control and 48 ng/mL imidacloprid as a positive control. The relative abundance of 16S rRNA genes was measured by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction and no apparent differences were found among treatments for any of these counts at any time point. Furthermore, the midgut bacterial structure and compositions were determined using high-throughput sequencing targeting the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rDNA. All core honey bee intestinal bacterial genera such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Snodgrassella, and Gilliamella were detected, and no significant changes were found in the species diversity and richness for any bacterial taxa among treatments at different time points. These results suggest that Cry1Ie toxin may not affect gut bacterial communities of Chinese honey bees. PMID:28139751

  15. Identification and characterization of an Apis cerana cerana Delta class glutathione S-transferase gene ( AccGSTD) in response to thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Xiuling; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2013-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional enzyme super family that plays a pivotal role in both insecticide resistance and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we identified a single-copy gene, AccGSTD, as being a Delta class GST in the Chinese honey bee ( Apis cerana cerana). A predicted antioxidant response element, CREB, was found in the 1,492-bp 5'-flanking region, suggesting that AccGSTD may be involved in oxidative stress response pathways. Real-time PCR and immunolocalization studies demonstrated that AccGSTD exhibited both developmental- and tissue-specific expression patterns. During development, AccGSTD transcript was increased in adults. The AccGSTD expression level was the highest in the honey bee brain. Thermal stress experiments demonstrated that AccGSTD could be significantly upregulated by temperature changes in a time-dependent manner. It is hypothesized that high expression levels might be due to the increased levels of oxidative stress caused by the temperature challenges. Additionally, functional assays of the recombinant AccGSTD protein revealed that AccGSTD has the capability to protect DNA from oxidative damage. Taken together, these data suggest that AccGSTD may be responsible for antioxidant defense in adult honey bees.

  16. Identification, genomic organization, and oxidative stress response of a sigma class glutathione S-transferase gene (AccGSTS1) in the honey bee, Apis cerana cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huiru; Jia, Haihong; Gao, Hongru; Guo, Xingqi; Xu, Baohua

    2013-07-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are members of a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme superfamily that play pivotal roles in both detoxification and protection against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. In this study, a complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a sigma class GST was identified in the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana (AccGSTS1). AccGSTS1 was constitutively expressed in all tissues of adult worker bees, including the brain, fat body, epidermis, muscle, and midgut, with particularly robust transcription in the fat body. Relative messenger RNA expression levels of AccGSTS1 at different developmental stages varied, with the highest levels of expression observed in adults. The potential function of AccGSTS1 in cellular defenses against abiotic stresses (cold, heat, UV, H2O2, HgCl2, and insecticides) was investigated. AccGSTS1 was significantly upregulated in response to all of the treatment conditions examined, although the induction levels were varied. Recombinant AccGSTS1 protein showed characteristic glutathione-conjugating catalytic activity toward 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Functional assays revealed that AccGSTS1 could remove H2O2, thereby protecting DNA from oxidative damage. Escherichia coli overexpressing AccGSTS1 showed long-term resistance under conditions of oxidative stress. Together, these results suggest that AccGSTS1 is a crucial antioxidant enzyme involved in cellular antioxidant defenses and honey bee survival.

  17. Purification and characterization of α-glucosidase in Apis cerana indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chanpen Chanchao; Suwisa Pilalam; Polkit Sangvanich

    2008-01-01

    Apis cerana indica foragers were used for the isolation of a full-length α-glucosidase cDNA,and for purification of the active nascent protein by low salt extraction of bee homogenates,ammonium sulphate precipitation and diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Superdex 200 chromatographies.The molecular mass of the purified protein was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolution,and the pH,temperature,incubation,and substrate optima for enzymic activity were determined.Conformation of the purified enzyme as α-glucosidase was performed by BLAST software homology comparisons between matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy analysed partial tryptie peptide digests of the purified protein with the predicted amino acid sequences deduced from the α-glucosidase eDNA sequence.

  18. 中蜂与意蜂营养杂交对其后代抗农药性能的影响%The Effect of Nutritional Crossbreeding between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica on Anti-pesticide Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志平; 何旭江; 陈利华; 颜伟玉

    2011-01-01

    通过人工添加中华蜜蜂王浆来培育江山2号意蜂与法国意蜂的杂交蜂王,并检测了敌敌畏对江山2号意蜂、高加索蜜蜂、营养杂交子一代(F1)和子四代(F4)群势的影响,同时检测了江山2号意蜂、中华蜜蜂、F1代和F4代工蜂对敌百虫、啶虫脒和桃病康的抗性.结果表明:营养杂交意蜂敌敌畏中毒后群势削减率显著低于江山2号意蜂与高加索蜜蜂;营养杂交意蜂F4代对敌百虫的抗性均显著强于中蜂与江山2号.营养杂交意蜂F1代和F4代工蜂对啶虫脒和高剂量的桃病康抗性均显著强于中蜂与江山2号,且F4代显著强于F1代.中意蜂营养杂交的意蜂对敌敌畏、敌百虫、啶虫脒和桃病康等农药的抗性显著增强.%The hybridized queens were bred with Jiangshan Honey Bee No. 2 and French Apis mellifera ligustica by feeding the royal jelly of Apis cerana cerana artificially. The effcet of dichlorvos poisoning on the population of Jiangshan Honey Bee No. 2, Apis mellifera caucasicag, first and forth genernation of nutritional crossbred colony( F1 and F4 ) was measured. And the effcets of dichlorvos, trichlorfon, acetamiprid and Tao Bing Kang poisoning on workers of Jiangshan Honey Bee No. 2, Apis cerana cerana, F1 and F4 were measured.The results showed that the population reduction rates of F1 and F4 were significant lower than those of Jiangshan Honey Bee No. 2 and Apis cerana cerana fed with dichlorvos; while by trichlorfon poisoning, the mortality rate of F4 was significant lower than those of others. The resistance of F1 and F4 was significant stronger than those of Jiangshan Honey Bee No. 2 and Apis cerana cerana to acetamiprid and high dose of Tao Bing Kang poisoning, and the resistance of F4 was stronger than that of F1. The resistance of the offspring of nutritional crossbreed Apis mellifera ligustica to pesticides-dichlorvos, trichlorfon, acetamiprid and Tao Bing Kang was enhanced significantly.

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of mrjp1 cDNA from Apis cerana cerana%中华蜜蜂mrjp1 cDNA的克隆及其序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏松坤; 陈盛禄; 钟伯雄; Stefan Albert

    2004-01-01

    构建中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)8日龄工蜂头部cDNA文库,利用中蜂基因组的mrjp3部分基因片段作为杂交探针,采用DIG标记筛选cDNA文库,获得mrjps阳性克隆120个;对阳性克隆进行PCR扩增和测序,通过NCBI的BLAST序列比对,获得12个与印度蜂(Apis cerana india)、西方蜜蜂(Apis mellifera L.)mrjp1基因同源的中蜂mrjp1 cDNA片段,并进一步对中华蜜蜂mrjp1的cDNA全序列进行测定和分析.序列比对分析表明,东方蜜蜂(Apis cerana)与西方蜜蜂mrjp1的cDNA序列相似性为93.78%,中华蜜蜂与印度蜂的相似性高达99.36%,这一结果从分子水平证实中华蜜蜂与印度蜂有较近的共同祖先,而东方蜜蜂与西方蜜蜂的亲缘关系较远.

  20. Effets de Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) sur la santé de l'abeille domestique Apis mellifera L. : changements physiologiques et comportementaux

    OpenAIRE

    Dussaubat-Arriagada, Claudia Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Nosema ceranae is an emergent parasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. In some regions it has been found to be the main reason for bee mortality, while in others it is suspected of weakening honey bee colonies by interacting with other environmental stressors. In the context of worldwide colony losses, we focus our research on the study of N. ceranae, with the hypothesis that this parasite is able to induce behavioral changes in bees through physiological modifications, which could alter soc...

  1. Distribution, epidemiological characteristics and control methods of the pathogen Nosema ceranae Fries in honey bees Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Araneda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Up until a few years ago, the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae was considered to be a pathogen of Apis cerana exclusively; however, only recently it has shown to be very virulent to Apis mellifera. Therefore, it has been named as apathogenic agent active in the disappearance of honey bee colonies globally, infecting all members of the colony. Honey bees are widely used for pollination and honey production, hence their importance in agriculture. They also play an important ecological role in plant pollination: a third of human food crops are pollinated by bees as well as many plants consumed by other animals. In this context, the object of this review is to summarise the information published by different authors on the geographical distribution and the morphological and genetic characteristics of this parasite, the symptomatology of the disease and the control methods used in those countries where N. ceranae is present, in order to identify better tools to confront this new bee disease.

  2. Distribution and prevalence of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in temperate and subtropical eco-regions of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Adriana; Mira, Anabela; Molineri, Ana; Giacobino, Agostina; Bulacio Cagnolo, Natalia; Aignasse, Andrea; Zago, Luis; Izaguirre, Mercedes; Merke, Julieta; Orellano, Emanuel; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Pietronave, Hernan; Russo, Romina; Scannapieco, Alejandra; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Schnittger, Leonhard; Signorini, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    A total of 361 colonies from 59 apiaries located in two temperate and three subtropical eco-regions were examined during the post-harvest period to determine distribution and prevalence of Nosema spp. Apiaries from subtropical eco-regions showed a lower spore count than those from temperate eco-regions. Pure N. ceranae and co-infection were detected in apiaries from all regions. In contrast, pure N. apis infection was exclusively observed in the subtropical study region. The predominant detection of N. apis in a subtropical region joining a southern temperate region where mainly co-infected apiaries were identified is in contrast to previous reports.

  3. Physiological and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera induced by Nosema ceranae infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Goblirsch

    Full Text Available Persistent exposure to mite pests, poor nutrition, pesticides, and pathogens threaten honey bee survival. In healthy colonies, the interaction of the yolk precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg, and endocrine factor, juvenile hormone (JH, functions as a pacemaker driving the sequence of behaviors that workers perform throughout their lives. Young bees perform nursing duties within the hive and have high Vg and low JH; as older bees transition to foraging, this trend reverses. Pathogens and parasites can alter this regulatory network. For example, infection with the microsporidian, Nosema apis, has been shown to advance behavioral maturation in workers. We investigated the effects of infection with a recent honey bee pathogen on physiological factors underlying the division of labor in workers. Bees infected with N. ceranae were nearly twice as likely to engage in precocious foraging and lived 9 days less, on average, compared to controls. We also show that Vg transcript was low, while JH titer spiked, in infected nurse-aged bees in cages. This pattern of expression is atypical and the reverse of what would be expected for healthy, non-infected bees. Disruption of the basic underpinnings of temporal polyethism due to infection may be a contributing factor to recent high colony mortality, as workers may lose flexibility in their response to colony demands.

  4. Physiological and behavioral changes in honey bees (Apis mellifera) induced by Nosema ceranae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goblirsch, Mike; Huang, Zachary Y; Spivak, Marla

    2013-01-01

    Persistent exposure to mite pests, poor nutrition, pesticides, and pathogens threaten honey bee survival. In healthy colonies, the interaction of the yolk precursor protein, vitellogenin (Vg), and endocrine factor, juvenile hormone (JH), functions as a pacemaker driving the sequence of behaviors that workers perform throughout their lives. Young bees perform nursing duties within the hive and have high Vg and low JH; as older bees transition to foraging, this trend reverses. Pathogens and parasites can alter this regulatory network. For example, infection with the microsporidian, Nosema apis, has been shown to advance behavioral maturation in workers. We investigated the effects of infection with a recent honey bee pathogen on physiological factors underlying the division of labor in workers. Bees infected with N. ceranae were nearly twice as likely to engage in precocious foraging and lived 9 days less, on average, compared to controls. We also show that Vg transcript was low, while JH titer spiked, in infected nurse-aged bees in cages. This pattern of expression is atypical and the reverse of what would be expected for healthy, non-infected bees. Disruption of the basic underpinnings of temporal polyethism due to infection may be a contributing factor to recent high colony mortality, as workers may lose flexibility in their response to colony demands.

  5. Effects of Microsatellite Genetic Polymorphisms of Apis mellifera ligustica on Nutritional Crossbreed between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica%中蜂与意蜂营养杂交对意蜂微卫星遗传多态性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何旭江; 汪志平; 秦秋红; 吴小波; 陈利华

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we breed hybridizing queen of the Jiangshan honey bee No. 2 and French Apis mellifera ligustica through the technology of artificially feeding royal jelly of Apis cerana cerana, and then the genetic polymorphisms of microsatellite of the workers were measured. The workers were from the Jiangshan honey bee No. 2 colonies, French Apis mellifera ligustica colonies, local Apis cerana cerana colonies, the 1 hybridizing offspring as well as the 4 consecutive hybridizing offspring of nutritional crossbreeding French Apis. merllifera. L queen and the Jiangshan honey bee No. 2 drone colonies. The results showed that the genetic distance of parents and hybridizing offspring was varied, and the unique DNA bands of Apis cerana cerana and Apis melli fera ligustica were shifted.%通过人工添加中华蜜蜂王浆技术来培育江山2号与法国意蜂的杂交蜂王,并测定江山2号、法国意蜂、中华蜜蜂、营养杂交子1代和子4代工蜂的微卫星遗传多态性.结果表明,经过营养杂交,亲本蜜蜂与营养杂交子代的遗传距离发生明显的变化,中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂的特有DNA条带发生了转移.说明通过蜂种之间的营养杂交可以改变其微卫星多态性.

  6. The Assessment of DNA in Royal Jelly from Apis mellifera and Apis cerana by RAPD markers%中蜂与意蜂王浆中DNA的RAPD分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹阳; 黄康; 颜伟玉; 曾志将

    2007-01-01

    以中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)和意大利蜜蜂( Apis mellifera ligustica)王浆为材料,用改进的苯酚-氯仿法提取蜂王浆中的DNA,利用35个随机引物对提取出来的DNA进行RAPD扩增,结果表明:有6个随机引物能扩增出谱带,其中1个引物对所有王浆DNA样品的扩增结果完全相同,5个引物出现多态性.共检测到32条扩增谱带,其中24条为多态带.

  7. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods.

  8. MicroRNAs of host honey bees, Apis mellifera respond to the infection of Microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to clarify the impacts of Nosema ceranae infection on the expression levels of honey bees’ MicroRNAs (miRNAs), we deep-sequenced honey bee miRNAs daily across a full 6-day parasite reproduction cycle. 18 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in honey bees infected by N. ceranae...

  9. Effects of Dietary Crude Protein Level on Quality of Rearing Queens for Apis cerana cerana%饲粮粗蛋白质水平对中华蜜蜂育王质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖春华; 邹垂彬; 谢国秀; 吴小波; 黄京山

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮粗蛋白质水平对中华蜜蜂蜂王育王的影响。选取基本情况相近的中华蜜蜂9群,随机分成3组,每组3群,在每群蜂巢门口装置脱粉器,阻止花粉进入,使其处于缺粉状态。Ⅰ组、Ⅱ组、Ⅲ组蜂群分别饲喂粗蛋白质水平为15%、25%、35%的试验饲粮,45 d后控制蜂王产卵,并进行人工育王,待蜂王出房后,测其初生重、胸宽,并检测其卵巢卵黄蛋白原基因( vitellogenin,Vg)、转铁蛋白基因( transferrin,Trf)的相对表达量。结果表明:蜂王的初生重随饲粮粗蛋白质水平的增加而升高,Ⅲ组和Ⅱ组培育蜂王的初生重显著高于Ⅰ组(P0.05)。Ⅲ组和Ⅱ组培育蜂王卵巢的 Vg 相对表达量显著高于Ⅰ组(P0.05);培育蜂王卵巢的Trf相对表达量3个试验组间均有显著差异( P0.05) . The relative expression level of Vg in ovary in groupsⅢandⅡwas sig-nificantly higher than that in groupⅠ ( P0.05) . The relative expression level of Trf in ovary was significantly different among the three ex-perimental groups ( P<0.05) , the highest relative expression level was found in groupⅢ, and the lowest rela-tive expression level was found in groupⅠ. In conclusion, the quality of rearing queens for Apis cerana cera-na is affected by dietary crude protein level. The high-protein diets can increase the birth weight of queens and enhance the expression of Vg and Trf in ovary of rearing queens for Apis cerana cerana. The minimum dietary crude protein level of Apis cerana cerana for queen rearing is 25%.

  10. Nosema Ceranae is a long present and wide spread microsporidian infection of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosema is a serious disease of adult honey bees and a major threat to the beekeeping industry. To investigate the presence, distribution, and historical occurrence of two different Nosema species, N. apis and N. ceranae, in the United States, we examined bee samples collected between 1995 and 2007...

  11. A scientific note on detection of honey bee viruses in the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus), an inhabitant in Apis cerana colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The darkling beetles, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), are omnivorous arthropods and pose significant danger to the poultry industry by acting as reservoir and vector of poultry pathogens. Here, the A. diaperinus was first found in the Asian honey bee Apis cerana colonies, and 10 of the 29 hives wer...

  12. 中意蜂混合饲养对意蜂蜂螨寄生率的影响%Effect of Mixed Colony of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica on the Percent of Mite Parasitism of Apis mellifera ligustica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘益波; 曾志将

    2009-01-01

    In this study, four Apis mellifera ligustica colonies were established which were at the same level of population, then the percent of the mite parasitism was measured. After that two frames with Apis cerana cerana brood were inserted into two of the colonies. 30 days later, the percent of the mite parasitism was measured again. The results showed that the percent of mite parasitism decreased after inserting the frames with that brood and the mite - resistant ability of the colony was improved.%选取4群群势相当的意大利蜂群(Apis mellifera ligustica),测定其蜂螨寄生率.然后在其中两群蜂中各加入一块带封盖子脾的中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)巢脾,使中意蜂合群饲养,30 d后再次测定4群蜂的蜂螨寄生率.结果表明:与对照组相比,加入中蜂子脾的两群蜂的蜂螨寄生率显著(P<0.05)或者极显著(P<0.01)下降.这说明往意蜂群中加入中蜂封盖子脾,可以提高意蜂蜂群的抗螨力.

  13. Genomic DNA Extraction from Apis cerana cerana Preserved by Different Methods%不同方法保存的蜜蜂基因组DNA提取的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫华超; 贾少波; 王雪梅

    2011-01-01

    目的:找出适合DNA提取的昆虫标本保存方法.方法:用几种常用的昆虫标本保存方法对蜜蜂处理不同时间后,用蛋白酶K法对其基因组DNA进行提取和纯化,然后对提取产物做琼脂糖凝胶电泳及紫外吸收分析.结果:75%乙醇及冻存处理材料的基因组DNA得率较高,为7.13~8.85 μg/g,电泳条带较亮;甲醛处理材料的基因组DNA得率较低,为1.50~3.21 μg/g.结论:用75%乙醇及冻存处理蜜蜂较适合于其基因组DNA的提取,不宜用甲醛.%Objective: To find suitable insect preserving method for genomic DNA extracting. Methods: The Apis cerana cerana were preserved by different methods for different time. Genomic DNA were extracted and amplified using the proteinase K method from Apis cerana cerana, and the products were analyzed by using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometer. Results: The results suggested that with respect to DNA extraction, the freezing specimens and those be preserved in 75% alcohol were extracted more DNA, it was 7.13~8.85 M-g/g, and their electrophoresis bands were broad. However those be preserved in formaldehyde were extracted little DNA, it was 1.50-3.21 |ig/g. Conclusion: Freezing and preserve in 75% alcohol are suit for extracting DNA.

  14. 中华蜜蜂GnRH相关受体的基因克隆及表达研究%Cloning and Expression of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Receptor in Apis cerana cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆英

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] This study was to clone the GnRH ( gonadotropin-releasing hormone), and to investigate its expression in Apis cerana cerana. [Method] The cDNA sequence of GnRHR gene was amplified from Apis cerana cerana by using RT-PCR techniques. It was conducted with bioinformatics analysis and the in situ hybridization histochemistry of its expression products was studied. [Result] The sequence analysis showed that the full cDNA sequence was 1 050 bp with the open reading frame of 1 050 bp, and it encoded 349 amino acid residues. The deduced amino sequence included 7 transmembrane regions,and the predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point were 40.6 kD and 9, 54,respectively. The cluster analysis showed that the GnRHR from A. cerana cerana had close relationship with the GnRHRH from other insects. In situ hybridization showed that Bee-GnRHR staining was specifically localized to the brain,intestine,fat body and testis, [Conclusion] The results indicated that the GnRHR provided molecular bond for the reproduction and metabolism for insects, and suggested a functional role for bee-GnRHR signaling in the coupling of reproduction activities and environment conditions.%[目的]克隆中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)促性腺激素释放激素(gonadotrophin releasing hormone,GnRH)相关受体基因,对其进行表达研究.[方法]利用RT - PCR技术克隆了中华蜜蜂的GnRH相关受体基因的cDNA序列,并对其进行生物信息学分析和表达产物的原位杂交组织化学研究.[结果]序列分析显示,GnRH相关受体的cDNA序列全长1177 bp,开放阅读框长1050 bp,编码349个氨基酸残基.推导的氨基酸序列具有7个跨膜区;预测的分子量和等电点分别为40.6 kD和9.54.聚类分析显示该蛋白质与其他已知昆虫的GnRHRⅡ具有较近的亲缘关系.原位杂交显示GnRH相关受体基因在中华蜜蜂的脑、精巢、脂肪体以及肠道等组织均有表达.[结论]该研究结果表明GnRH相关受体为昆

  15. The impact of insecticides to local honey bee colony Apis cerana indica in laboratory condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani E.; Permana, Agus D.; Nuriyah, Syayidah

    2014-03-01

    Heavy use of insecticides considered as one of common practice at local farming systems. Even though many Indonesian researchers had stated the possible detrimental effect of insecticide on agriculture environment and biodiversity, researches on this subject had been neglected. Therefore, our purpose in this research is observing the impact of insecticides usage by farmer to non target organisme like local honey bee (Apis cerana indica), which commonly kept in area near agriculture system. This research consisted of field observations out at Ciburial, Dago Pakar, Bandung and laboratory tests at School of Life Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung. The field observations recorded visited agriculture corps and types of pollen carried by bees to the nest while laboratory test recorderd the effect of common insecticide to mortality and behavior of honey bees. Three types of insecticides used in this research were insecticides A with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 50 g/l, insecticide B with active agent Profenofos 500 g/l, and insecticides C with active agent Chlorantraniliprol 100 g/l and λ-cyhalotrin 50g/l. The results show that during one week visit, wild flower, Wedelia montana, visited by most honey bees with average visit 60 honey bees followed by corn, Zea mays, with 21 honey bees. The most pollen carried by foragers was Wedelia montana, Calliandra callothyrsus, and Zea mays. Preference test show that honeybees tend move to flowers without insecticides as the preference to insecticides A was 12.5%, insecticides B was 0%, and insecticides was C 4.2%. Mortality test showed that insecticides A has LD50 value 0.01 μg/μl, insecticide B 0.31 μg/μl, and insecticides C 0.09 μg/μl which much lower than suggested dosage recommended by insecticides producer. This research conclude that the use of insecticide could lower the pollination service provide by honey bee due to low visitation rate to flowers and mortality of foraging bees.

  16. Toxic Tripterygium hypoglaucum Honey Effect the Lifespan of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana%昆明山海崇蜜对中蜂和意蜂生命力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲玉凤; 汪正威; 杨爽; 胡宗文; 谭垦

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of honeybees (Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica) were fed with the normal and toxic honey respectively in the same concentration in order to compare their lethal rate in this experiment. The results demonstrated the lethal rate of A.cerana fed with the toxic honey was the highest (100%), while that of A. mellifera fed with the normal honey was the lowest in the later period, and they could survive with an extraordinary long time. The results suggested that the lethal rate of honeybees, no matter it's A.cerana or A. mellifera with the toxic honey was significantly higher than those with the normal honey.%用相似糖浓度的昆明山海棠蜜与藿香蜜分别饲喂中蜂和意蜂(Apis cerana cerana,Apis mellifera ligustica),比较2种蜜蜂的致死率,结果表明在第6天时饲喂山海棠蜜的中蜂致死率高达100%,饲喂藿香蜜的意蜂致死率则为(35.08±0.91)%,且存活时间最长。无论是中蜂还是意蜂,

  17. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of cDNA Encoding mrjp3 of Apis cerana cerana%中华蜜蜂mrjp3基因cDNA的克隆及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏松坤; 陈盛禄; 钟伯雄; 郑火青; Stefan Albert

    2005-01-01

    以东方蜜蜂(Apis cerana)mrjp3基因部分片段为探针筛选中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana,简称中蜂)8日龄工蜂头部cDNA文库,得到120个阳性克隆.对这些阳性克隆进行进一步的筛选和序列测定,获得含有中蜂MRJP3 (AccMRJP3)cDNA的阳性克隆,对阳性克隆的插入片段进行测序,得到AccMRJP3的cDNA序列全长.中蜂MRJP3的cDNA全长为1 987 bp(包括10 bp长的poly A尾巴),包含一个长1 779 bp,编码593个氨基酸的ORF,在5'端和3'端各有一个长46 bp和160 bp的非编码区.类似于西方蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)和大蜜蜂(Apis dorsata),由AccMRJP3 cDNA编码的氨基酸序列也存在一个长片段重复区.但比较结果显示中蜂、西方蜜蜂、大蜜蜂MRJP3重复区之间存在一定差异.

  18. 中华蜜蜂GnRH相关受体的基因克隆及表达研究%Cloning and Expression of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Receptor in Apis cerana cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆英

    2012-01-01

    [目的]克隆中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)促性腺激素释放激素(gonadotrophin releasing hormone,GnRH)相关受体基因,对其进行表达研究。[方法]利用RT—PCR技术克隆了中华蜜蜂的GnRH相关受体基因的cDNA序列,并对其进行生物信息学分析和表达产物的原位杂交组织化学研究。[结果]序列分析显示,GnRH相关受体的cDNA序列全长1177bp,开放阅读框长1050bp,编码349个氨基酸残基。推导的氨基酸序列具有7个跨膜区;预测的分子量和等电点分别为40.6kD和9.54。聚类分析显示该蛋白质与其他已知昆虫的GnRHRⅡ具有较近的亲缘关系。原位杂交显示GnRH相关受体基因在中华蜜蜂的脑、精巢、脂肪体以及肠道等组织均有表达。[结论]该研究结果表明GnRH相关受体为昆虫提供了生殖和新陈代谢之间的分子纽带,其在协调昆虫的生殖活动和环境状况的关系中执行了一定的功能。%[Objective] This study was to clone the GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), and to investigate its expression in Apis cerana cerana. [Method] The cDNA sequence of GnRHR gene was amplified from Apis cerana cerana by using RT-PCR techniques. It was conducted with bioinformatics analysis and the in situ hybridization histochemistry of its expression products was studied. [Result] The sequence analy- sis showed that the full cDNA sequence was 1 050 bp with the open reading frame of 1 050 bp, and it encoded 349 amino acid residues. The deduced amino sequence included 7 transmembrane regions, and the predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point were 40.6 kD and 9.54, respectively. The cluster analysis showed that the GnRHR from ',4. cerana cerana had close relationship to the GnRHR II from other insects. In situ hybridization showed that Bee-GnRHR staining was specifically localized to the brain, intestine, fat body and testis. [Conclusion] The results indicated that the GnRHR provided

  19. Comparative Analyses of Cu-Zn Superoxide Dismutase (SOD1) and Thioredoxin Reductase (TrxR) at the mRNA Level between Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Stress Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Lee, Soon-Gyu; Yun, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2016-01-01

    This study compared stress-induced expression of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) genes in the European honeybee Apis mellifera L. and Asian honeybee Apis cerana F. Expression of both SOD1 and TrxR rapidly increased up to 5 h after exposure to cold (4 °C) or heat (37 °C) treatment and then gradually decreased, with a stronger effect induced by cold stress in A. mellifera compared with A. cerana. Injection of stress-inducing substances (methyl viologen, [MV] and H2O2) also increased SOD1 and TrxR expression in both A. mellifera and A. cerana, and this effect was more pronounced with MV than H2O2. Additionally, we heterologously expressed the A. mellifera and A. cerana SOD1 and TrxR proteins in an Escherichia coli expression system, and detection by SDS-PAGE, confirmed by Western blotting using anti-His tag antibodies, revealed bands at 16 and 60 kDa, respectively. Our results show that the expression patterns of SOD1 and TrxR differ between A. mellifera and A. cerana under conditions of low or high temperature as well as oxidative stress.

  20. 中华蜜蜂工蜂 cDNA 文库的构建及ESTs 测序分析%Construction of cDNA libraries and ESTs sequencing of Apis cerana cerana workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫星; 郗学鹏; 秦明; 王帅; 刘春蕾; 王红芳; 胥保华

    2016-01-01

    Objectives] To build a cDNA library to improve understanding of how honey bee workers respond to adverse conditions and analyze the quality of the resultant library. [Methods] A cDNA library of Apis cerana cerana was constructed using the SMART technique. [Results] The library’s capacity was 3.6×106 cfu/mL, the recombination rate was 97% and the average length of inserts was approximately 1 000 bp. 306 ESTs were generated by ESTs sequencing. Additionally, 234 non-repetitive sequences were formed, including 207 singletons and 27 contigs after initial assembly. Using Blastx to query, compare and annotate these sequences with those in GenBank, revealed that 141 sequences could be assigned putative functions because they were homologous to known genes. Other sequences had no obvious homology, which suggests there is potential for the discovery of new functional genes. [Conclusion] The construction of a cDNA library has important benefits for cloning, screening and gene function research in Apis cerana cerana.%【目的】为了解中华蜜蜂 Apis cerana cerana 工蜂的抗逆性,构建了中华蜜蜂工蜂的 cDNA 文库,并对文库质量进行分析。【方法】本研究利用 SMART 技术构建了中华蜜蜂工蜂的全长 cDNA 文库。【结果】文库库容为3.6×106 cfu/mL,文库重组率为97%,插入片段长度多数分布在1000 bp 左右。挑取 cDNA克隆进行 EST 测序,共进行了306个成功反应,软件拼接共得到234个单基因簇(Unigene),其中包括207个单拷贝(Singletons)序列及27个重叠群(Contigs)。使用 Blastx 将这些序列同 GenBank 等数据库进行查询、比对和注释,结果显示141条序列有相关同源性,其他序列没有明显的同源性,这也为我们发现新功能基因提供了可靠依据。【结论】此文库的构建在中华蜜蜂功能基因的分离、克隆、筛选以及基因功能研究等方面具有重要作用。

  1. 中华蜜蜂嗅叶胚后发育过程中的神经胶质%Glial patterning during the postembryonic development of the olfactory lobe of the honeybee (Apis cerana cerana)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆英

    2012-01-01

    Glial cells have several functions during the development of the nervous system. The characteristics of glial patterns during the postembryonic development of the olfactory lobes of Apis cerana cerana Fabricius were investigated using comparative anatomy and BrdU immunohistochemistry. The results show that a continuous layer of glial cell bodies defined the boundaries of all growing neuropiles in early larvae. Just before the olfactory receptor neuron axons entered the antennal lobe, they encountered the so - called sorting - zone glia. Here, axonal contact lead to a pause in the growth cone' s advance and a subsequent change in growth cone morphology. Finally this enabled the sorting of olfactory receptor neurons axons into discrete fascicles, which terminated in specific glomeruli. Proliferation of glial cells peaked from the end of the final larval instar stage to the prepupal stage.%本研究通过形态解剖、免疫组织化学等技术,对中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Fabricius工蜂嗅叶胚后发育中神经胶质的模式进行了比较研究.结果表明:神经胶质在蜜蜂嗅叶的发育过程中起着重要的作用,它们在嗅叶发育早期就划定了神经纤维网的边界;在嗅觉神经轴突进入嗅叶之前,对神经轴突进行“分选”,并引导它们进入嗅叶特定的区域,形成神经纤维球;它们不仅规定了神经纤维网的边界和区域,还为神经纤维网提供内部的分隔.中华蜜蜂神经胶质增殖的高峰期集中在幼虫发育末期和预蛹期.

  2. Identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infection in honey bees: establishment of a medium throughput screening assay based on N. ceranae infected cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many flowering plants in both natural ecosytems and agriculture are dependent on insect pollination for fruit set and seed production. Managed honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees are key pollinators providing this indispensable eco- and agrosystem service. Like all other organisms, bees are attacked by numerous pathogens and parasites. Nosema apis is a honey bee pathogenic microsporidium which is widely distributed in honey bee populations without causing much harm. Its congener Nosema ceranae was originally described as pathogen of the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) but jumped host from A. cerana to A. mellifera about 20 years ago and spilled over from A. mellifera to Bombus spp. quite recently. N. ceranae is now considered a deadly emerging parasite of both Western honey bees and bumblebees. Hence, novel and sustainable treatment strategies against N. ceranae are urgently needed to protect honey and wild bees. We here present the development of an in vitro medium throughput screening assay for the identification of candidate agents active against N. ceranae infections. This novel assay is based on our recently developed cell culture model for N. ceranae and coupled with an RT-PCR-ELISA protocol for quantification of N. ceranae in infected cells. The assay has been adapted to the 96-well microplate format to allow automated analysis. Several substances with known (fumagillin) or presumed (surfactin) or no (paromomycin) activity against N. ceranae were tested as well as substances for which no data concerning N. ceranae inhibition existed. While fumagillin and two nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, tinidazole) totally inhibited N. ceranae proliferation, all other test substances were inactive. In summary, the assay proved suitable for substance screening and demonstrated the activity of two synthetic antibiotics against N. ceranae.

  3. 中华蜜蜂肠道细菌群落的PCR-DGGE分析%Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of 16S Ribosomal DNA in Apis cerana cerana Gut Bacterial Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁进; 张国只; 苏丽娟

    2015-01-01

    肠道微生物与中华蜜蜂的生长发育密切相关,在为宿主提供营养、抵抗病原菌侵袭等方面起重要作用。为了探究中华蜜蜂在封盖一日龄蛹、破巢幼蜂和采集蜂三个重要发育阶段肠道细菌群落的结构组成及差异变化,我们对细菌16S rDNA的V6-V8可变区进行PCR-DGGE和克隆测序,并计算封盖一日龄蛹、破巣蜂和采集蜂阶段中华蜜蜂肠道菌群的多样性指数和相似性系数,结果表明:采集蜂肠道内细菌多样性指数最大,而封盖一日龄蛹和破巣幼蜂之间的肠道菌群相似性较高;测序结果初步得到了Gilliamella、Snodgrassella、Carnobacterium、Neisseriaceae、Frischella、Janthinobacterium、Pseudomonas、Lactobacillus、Lactococcus和Leuconostoc十种菌属,其中封盖一日龄蛹和破巢幼蜂的优势菌属为Snodgrassella和Pseudomonas;采集蜂的优势菌属为Gilliamella和Snodgrassella 。本研究旨在为提高中华蜜蜂的环境适应性和病虫害的防治提供依据。%Gut bacterial communities are closely related to the growth and development of Apis cerana cerana,and such communities play important roles both in the insect nutrition and colonization resistance against invasion of exotic microbes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the diversities of gut bacterial communities in different developmental stages(first instar pupa,pharate adult bee and forager bee)of A. cerana cerana and the structural differences among them. We amplified the V6-V8 region of the 16S rDNA gene of samples using universal primers and separated by DGGE. Then the separated DGGE bands were extracted,cloned and sequenced. The diversity index and similarity coefficient were calculated to reveal the constituents and dynamic changes of gut bacter ial communities in the three developmental stages of A. cerana cerana. The results showed that the microbial diversity of forager bee was significantly higher than that of first instar

  4. Effets de Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) sur la santé de l’abeille domestique Apis mellifera L. : changements physiologiques et comportementaux

    OpenAIRE

    Dussaubat, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Nosema ceranae est un parasite émergeant d’Apis mellifera décrit dans certaines régions comme la cause majeure de la mortalité des abeilles. Dans d’autres cas, il est soupçonné d’affaiblir les colonies par l’interaction avec d’autres facteurs de pression de l’environnement. Dans le cadre du phénomène global de la mortalité des abeilles, nous avons orienté nos recherches vers l’étude des effets N. ceranae, en faisant l’hypothèse que ce parasite est capable d’induire des changements comportemen...

  5. 维生素C对中华蜜蜂幼虫发育及工蜂生存能力的影响%Effects of Vitamin C on Development of Larvae and Viability of Worker Bees for Apis cerana cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩旭; 田柳青; 王子龙; 颜伟玉; 曾志将; 吴小波

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to explore the effects of vitamin C on the development of lar-vae and the viability of worker bees for Apis cerana cerana.The experiment contained 2 parts: larvae and worker bees’ feeding trails.Larvae bees’ feeding trail:eight hundred larvae for Apis cerana cerana were ran-domly distributed into 5 groups with 8 replicates in each group and 20 larvae in each replicate.The larvae in control group ( group Ⅰ) were fed a basal diet containing 1.6 mg/kg vitamin C, and those in 4 experimental groups were fed experiment diets supplemented with 10 ( group Ⅱ) , 20 ( group Ⅲ) , 30 ( group Ⅳ) and 40 mg/kg ( group Ⅴ) vitamin C, respectively.Worker bees’ feeding trail:one-day-old worker bees for Apis cerana cerana were distributed into 4 groups with 6 replicates in each group and 24 g ( about 300 bees) in each replicate.The worker bees in control group ( groupⅥ) were fed a 1∶1 sweet water, and those in 3 experimen-tal groups were fed 1∶1 sweet water supplemented with 50 ( group Ⅶ) , 500 ( group Ⅷ) and 2 500 mg/kg ( group Ⅸ) vitamin C, respectively.The results showed as follows: during the development stage of larvae, the body weight of 6-day-old larvae, 3-day-old pupae and new-emerged bees was increased firstly and then de-clined with the increase of vitamin C content, and that in groupsⅡandⅢwas significantly higher than that in control group ( P<0.05) .The pupation rate and eclosion rate of larvae showed trends similar with body weight. Moreover, the relative expression level of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase ( Cu/Zn-SOD) gene was also increased firstly and then declined with the increase of vitamin C content, and the relative expression level of Cu/Zn-SOD gene of 6-day-old larvae and 3-day-old pupae in experimental groups was significantly higher than that in con-trol group ( P<0.05) .In the aspect of viability of worker bees, the average lifespan of worker bees was in-creased firstly and then decreased with the

  6. 婚飞行为影响中华蜜蜂性成熟处女蜂王的基因表达%Mating flight behaviour affects gene expression in matured virgin queens of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小波; 王子龙; 张飞; 石元元; 曾志将

    2013-01-01

    Queen mating flight is an important prelude of sexual matured virgin queens mating with drones,which is usually accompanied by a series of important physiological changes in queens' bodies.In order to explore the differences of gene expression following queen mating flight behaviour,we analyzed the gene expression differences between the flying matured virgin queens and non-flying matured virgin queens of Apis cerana cerana using a high-throughput sequencing method.Through digital gene expression (DGE) sequencing,we obtained 5.98 and 6.01 million clean tags from the flying matured virgin queen and non-flying matured virgin queen samples,respectively.A total of 250 genes were differentially expressed between both,with 133 up-regulated and 117 down-regulated in the flying matured virgin queens.These differentially expressed genes can be classified into 348 functional categories and involved in 142 biochemical pathways,indicating that there are a large number of genes whose expression levels change during mating flight process of matured virgin queens.The results provide important gene expression information for further researching the molecular mechanisms of the physiological changes during queen mating flight in A.cerana cerana.%婚飞是性成熟处女蜂王与雄蜂交配过程中的一个重要前奏,在该过程中蜂王体内伴随着一系列重要的生理变化.为了探究中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana处女蜂王婚飞过程中基因表达变化,本研究利用数字基因表达谱(digital gene expression,DGE)技术分析了中华蜜蜂性成熟处女蜂王飞行与未飞行之间的基因表达差异.经DGE测序,分别从两个样品中获得5.98和6.01百万条Clean标签.通过分析检测到250个基因有差异表达,其中133个基因在飞行蜂王中上调表达,117个基因在飞行蜂王中下调表达.这些差异基因可以归类到348个功能性类别和142个生化途径.结果表明中华蜜蜂性成熟处女蜂王在婚飞过程中大

  7. In-Depth N-Glycosylation Reveals Species-Specific Modifications and Functions of the Royal Jelly Protein from Western (Apis mellifera) and Eastern Honeybees (Apis cerana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Fang, Yu; Han, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Fan, Pei; Hao, Yue; Qi, Yuping; Hu, Han; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-12-04

    Royal jelly (RJ), secreted by honeybee workers, plays diverse roles as nutrients and defense agents for honeybee biology and human health. Despite being reported to be glycoproteins, the glycosylation characterization and functionality of RJ proteins in different honeybee species are largely unknown. An in-depth N-glycoproteome analysis and functional assay of RJ produced by Apis mellifera lingustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc) were conducted. RJ produced by Aml yielded 80 nonredundant N-glycoproteins carrying 190 glycosites, of which 23 novel proteins harboring 35 glycosites were identified. For Acc, all 43 proteins glycosylated at 138 glycosites were reported for the first time. Proteins with distinct N-glycoproteomic characteristics in terms of glycoprotein species, number of N-glycosylated sites, glycosylation motif, abundance level of glycoproteins, and N-glycosites were observed in this two RJ samples. The fact that the low inhibitory efficiency of N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (MRJP2) against Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) and the absence of antibacterial related glycosylated apidaecin, hymenoptaecin, and peritrophic matrix in the Aml RJ compared to Acc reveal the mechanism for why the Aml larvae are susceptible to P. larvae, the causative agent of a fatal brood disease (American foulbrood, AFB). The observed antihypertension activity of N-glycosylated MRJP1 in two RJ samples and a stronger activity found in Acc than in Aml reveal that specific RJ protein and modification are potentially useful for the treatment of hypertensive disease for humans. Our data gain novel understanding that the western and eastern bees have evolved species-specific strategies of glycosylation to fine-tune protein activity for optimizing molecular function as nutrients and immune agents for the good of honeybee and influence on the health promoting activity for human as well. This serves as a valuable resource for the targeted probing of the biological

  8. Short communication: Survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera) infected with Crithidia mellificae (Langridge and McGhee: ATCC® 30254™) in the presence of Nosema ceranae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higes, M.; Rodríguez-García, C.; Gómez-Moracho, T.; Meana, A.; Bartolomé, C.; Maside, X.; Barrios, L.; Martín-Hernández, R.

    2016-11-01

    Crithidia mellificae, a trypanosomatid parasite of Apis mellifera, has been proposed to be one of the pathogens responsible for the serious honey bee colony losses produced worldwide in the last decade, either alone or in association with Nosema ceranae. Since this pathogenic effect contradicts the results of the experimental infections originally performed by Langridge and McGhee nearly 40 years ago, we investigated the potential linkage of this protozoan with colony decline under laboratory conditions. Nosema-free and trypanosomatid-free honey bees from three different colonies were experimentally infected with fresh C. mellificae spheroid forms (reference strain ATCC30254), with N. ceranae fresh spores and with both parasites at the same time. Replicate cages were kept at 27 °C and used to analyse survival. C. mellificae spheroid forms did not reduce significantly the survival of the worker bees (64.5% at 30 days post-infection vs. 77.8% for the uninfected bees used as controls; differences were non statistically significant) under these experimental conditions. In contrast, the cages infected with N. ceranae exhibited higher rates of mortality from the 20th day post-infection onwards, irrespective of the presence of C. mellificae, suggesting that the spheroid forms of the latter have no pathological effect on A. mellifera. (Author)

  9. Application of Asiatic Honey Bees (Apis cerana and Stingless Bees (Trigona laeviceps as Pollinator Agents of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. at Local Indonesia Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, hot pepper (Capsicum annuum is one of the most important spices. Despite the fact that high yield cultivars and fertilizers have been applied to increase the annual production of this spice, local farming is always unable to maintain constant production. Studies to find the explanation of this problem mostly focused on pest attack while possibility of low fruit production due to lack of pollination was neglected. In this study, the effect of pollinator visitation to fruit set and quality was assessed by application of two local domesticated honey bees, Asiatic honey bees (Apis cerana and stingless bees (Trigona laeviceps as potential pollinator agents at hot pepper plantation. This study found that both bees had similar visitation rate while A. cerana spend less time in flowers. Visitation by A. cerana and Trigona laeviceps improved fruit set, fruit production per plant, average fruit weight, and fruit size. This result confirms the importance of cross pollination for hot pepper production and both species could be used as pollination agent for hot pepper. Advantages and disadvantages for each species as pollination agent for local Indonesia farm system are discussed in this paper.

  10. Sequence analysis and mRNA expression of mab-21 gene in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)%中华蜜蜂mab-21基因序列分析及表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛菲; 吴鹏杰; 李雨时; 王秀红; 国占宝; 徐书法; 吴杰

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探究中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Male abnomal 21(mab-21)基因在不同发育阶段的表达特性及染螨条件下mab-21基因表达变化规律.[方法]本研究利用RT-PCR方法,克隆了中华蜜蜂mab-21的基因编码区;采用荧光定量PCR方法检测了中华蜜蜂mab-21在不同发育时期(新出房蜂、哺育蜂、守卫蜂及采集蜂)工蜂头部中mRNA的表达量以及接种大蜂螨Varroa destructor前后mab-21基因的表达变化.[结果]克隆获得中华蜜蜂mab-21cDNA,命名为Accmab21(GenBank登录号KR000001).序列分析显示,该编码区开放阅读框长为1 098 bp,编码365个氨基酸,推测的编码蛋白的相对分子量和等电点分别为41.63 kD和8.53.系统发育分析表明中华蜜蜂mab-21与西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera mab-21、小蜜蜂Apis florea mab-21和熊蜂Bombus impatiens mab-21聚成一支.该基因在中华蜜蜂工蜂的不同发育时期均有表达,其中哺育蜂阶段显著高于新出房蜂、守卫蜂和采集蜂(P<0.05).接种大蜂螨后,哺育蜂和守卫蜂中mab-21基因的表达下降显著(P<0.05);而在新出房蜂和采集蜂中表达量变化不显著.[结论]该基因可能与中华蜜蜂抗螨行为相关.

  11. Nosema ceranae is an old resident of honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies in Mexico, causing infection levels of one million spores per bee or higher during summer and fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, Cristina; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify Nosema spp. and to determine their infection levels in honey bee (Apis mellifera) samples collected in Mexico in 1995-1996. Samples of historical surveys from different countries are of particular interest to support or challenge the hypothesis that the microsporidium Nosema ceranae is a new parasite of A. mellifera that has recently dispersed across the world. We demonstrate that N. ceranae has parasitized honey bees in Mexico since at least 1995 and that the infection levels of this parasite during summer and fall, exceed the threshold at which treatment of honey bee colonies is recommended.

  12. Artificial Rearing and Morphological Determination of the Diploid Honey Bee in Apis cerana cerana%中华蜜蜂二倍体雄蜂人工培育及形态测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘海燕; 李淑云; 曾志将; 颜伟玉

    2014-01-01

    目的研究中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)二倍体雄蜂并进行人工培育,测定其形态指标,明确中华蜜蜂二倍体雄蜂的生物学特性。方法采用复式移虫方法培育中华蜜蜂蜂王,待蜂王性成熟时进行CO 2麻醉处理后放回原群,用糖水进行奖励饲喂。蜂王产下大量未受精卵,待雄蜂出房后采用颜料进行标记。雄蜂性成熟后,利用蜂王人工授精技术使蜂王与本群子代雄蜂进行母子回交(多雄交配)。控制蜂王产卵,将工蜂巢房中刚孵化的幼虫移至恒温恒湿培养箱(相对湿度:95%;温度:35℃)中进行人工培育。幼虫前3日龄食物配制为:蜂王浆90%,无菌水10%;第4—6日龄食物成分比例为:蜂王浆50%,葡萄糖6%,果糖6%,酵母抽出物1%,无菌水37%;从第7日龄起食物比例为:蜂王浆43%,葡萄糖9%,果糖9%,酵母抽出物1%,无菌水38%,直到幼虫进入排便期为止。采用流式细胞仪对人工培育和蜂群工蜂巢房出房的雄蜂进行倍性鉴定,并对蜂群工蜂巢房出房的单倍雄蜂和二倍体雄蜂进行形态指标测定比较。结果室内人工培育的中华蜜蜂总羽化率偏低,平均为36%,其中26.9%为雄蜂;通过流式细胞仪分析雄蜂倍性发现人工培育的雄蜂92%为二倍体,蜂群工蜂巢房中出房的雄蜂82%为二倍体雄蜂;形态指标测定显示,二倍体雄蜂的初生重与生殖器官重分别为99.78和6.05 mg,均比单倍体雄蜂(分别为105.64和7.02 mg)显著偏小,而前翅长、前翅宽、翅钩数等指标差异不显著。结论中华蜜蜂近亲交配的蜂群会产生二倍体雄蜂,部分二倍体雄蜂可在蜂群中发育至成蜂出房,其形态指标与单倍体雄蜂存在一定差异。%[Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study artificial rearing and determination of morphological index of diploid drones, and to

  13. Effects of the organic acids produced by a lactic acid bacterium in Apis mellifera colony development, Nosema ceranae control and fumagillin efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Matías; Negri, Pedro; Plischuk, Santiago; Szawarski, Nicolás; De Piano, Fiorella; De Feudis, Leonardo; Eguaras, Martín; Audisio, Carina

    2013-12-27

    The European honey bee Apis mellifera is known to be affected by many parasites and pathogens that have great impact over the insect development. Among parasites affecting bee health, Nosema ceranae is one of the main biotic factors affecting colony populations. As honey bee populations decline, interest in pathogenic and mutualistic relationships between bees and microorganisms has increased. The main goal of the current study was to assess the effect of the oral administration of the metabolites produced by Lactobacillus johnsonii CRL1647 (mainly organic acids) supplemented in syrup, on: (I) N. ceranae sporulation dynamics before and after fumagillin application, and (II) performance of A. mellifera colonies. Different experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these bacterial metabolites on bees: in vitro administration revealed no toxic effects against bees. Colonies fed with the lactic acids incremented their beehive population and also the amount of fat bodies per bee. Finally, the organic acids reduced the intensity of the pathogen after the second application of treatment as well as enhanced the fumagillin efficiency. This study provides important information for the development of new control substances against nosemosis.

  14. 两蜂种王浆蛋白质组分比较分析%Analysis of Royal Jelly Proteome of Apis mellifera and A.ccrana cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国占宝; 房宇; 李建科

    2009-01-01

    @@ 王浆高产蜜蜂(Apis mellifera L.浆蜂)是我国20世纪90年代从意大利蜜蜂培育成功的新蜂种,产浆性能明显高于未经选育的意大利蜜蜂.中华蜜蜂(A. cerana cerana F.中蜂)是我国土生土长的蜂种,其蜂王浆产量低于以意大利蜜蜂为代表的西方蜜蜂.两蜂种所产蜂王浆的蛋白质组研究还未见报道.本研究利用双向电泳技术对浆蜂和中蜂新鲜蜂王浆全蛋白质组进行分析比较,为鉴定和判断蜂王浆的来源和蜂王浆功能成分的开发利用提供科学依据.

  15. Cloning, tissue expression profiling and prokaryotic expression of a sensory neuron membrane protein gene from Apis cerana cerana(Hymenoptera: Apidae)%中华蜜蜂感觉神经元膜蛋白基因克隆、组织表达分析及原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡颖颖; 徐书法; 李薇; Abebe Jenberie WUBIE; 国占宝; 周婷

    2013-01-01

    为明确中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana嗅觉形成中重要功能因子的信号转导通路,本研究利用RT-PCR方法,克隆了中华蜜蜂感觉神经元膜蛋白(sensory neuron membrane protein,SNMP)基因编码区,GenBank登录号为KC012595,命名为AccSNMP1.序列分析表明,该编码区开放阅读框长1 563 bp,编码520个氨基酸,推测的编码蛋白的相对分子量和等电点分别为58.02 kD和5.83.同源性比较发现,中华蜜蜂AccSNMP1与其他昆虫感觉神经元膜蛋白基因同源性差异很大,在氨基酸水平上与西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera SNMP基因一致性达99.2%,与熊蜂Bombus impatiens SNMP基因一致性达90.9%,而与赤拟谷盗Tribolium castaneum SNMP基因一致性仅为22.7%.系统发育树显示中华蜜蜂与西方蜜蜂遗传距离最近.实时荧光定量PCR结果分析表明,AccSNMP1在触角中表达量最高,在足中表达量较高,与胸、腹、头(去除触角和喙)、喙中表达量相比差异显著(P<0.05).构建原核表达载体pEASY-El-AccSNMP1,经IPTG诱导,中华蜜蜂感觉神经元膜蛋白在大肠杆菌Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)中高效表达.结果为进一步研究AccSNMP1在中华蜜蜂体内的作用机理奠定了基础.%To explore the signal transduction pathway of important factors in olfactory formation in Apis cerana cerana, the cDNA sequence encoding a sensory neuron membrane protein ( SNMP) ( GenBank accession no. KCO12595) , named as AccSNMPl, was cloned by RT-PCR from the Chinese honey bee, Apis cerana cerana. Sequence analysis results showed that the open reading frame (ORF) is 1 563 bp in length, encoding 520 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 58. 02 kD and the theoretical isoelectric point of 5. 83. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that AccSNMPl from A. cerana cerana shares different identities with those from other nine insects at the amino acid level. The AccSNMPl gene from A. cerana cerana has high amino acid sequence identity with that of Apis

  16. The honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae: transmissible via food exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Smith

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cages were separated by one screen, food could be passed between the older bees and the young bees, but when separated by two screens, food could not be passed between the two cages. Young uninfected bees were also kept isolated in cages, as a solitary control. After 4 days of exposure to the older bees, and 10 days to incubate infections, young bees were more likely to be infected in the 1-Screen Test treatment vs. the 2-Screen Test treatment (P=0.0097. Young bees fed by older bees showed a 13-fold increase in mean infection level relative to young bees not fed by older bees (1-Screen Test 40.8%; 2-Screen Test 3.4%; Solo Control 2.8%. Although fecal-oral transmission is still possible in this experimental design, oral-oral infectivity could help explain the rapid spread of N. ceranae worldwide.

  17. Melissopalynology and trophic niche of Apis cerana ceraca and Apis mellifera ligustica in Yunnan Province of Southwest China%云南中华蜜蜂与意大利蜜蜂的蜂蜜孢粉学和营养生态位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇佳; 赵天瑞; 赵风云

    2013-01-01

    2010-2011年分别在云南昆明和蒙自地区采集中华蜜蜂与意大利蜜蜂的蜂蜜样品,进行蜂蜜孢粉学与营养生态位分析.结果表明:中华蜜蜂蜂蜜绝对花粉浓度为1.55万个·g-1,显著高于意大利蜜蜂(1.01万个·g-1).中华蜜蜂采集的蜜源植物种类为12.9个,显著多于意大利蜜蜂(7.7个).说明意大利蜜蜂对蜜源植物的选择性更强,中华蜜蜂则能利用更多的蜜源植物资源.中华蜜蜂的营养生态位宽度为0.35,显著大于意大利蜜蜂(0.23).中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂之间的营养生态位重叠度为0.71,种间竞争系数为0.93,表明2种蜜蜂对食物资源的竞争激烈.%In 2010 and 2011, the honey samples of Apis cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica were collected from Kunming and Mengzi of Yunnan Province, respectively, aimed to analyze the melissopalynology and tropic niche of the two bee species. The absolute pollen concentration of the honey of A. cerana cerana was 1.55×104 ind·g-1, being significantly higher than that (1.01·104 ind·g-1) of A. mellifera ligustica, and the number of nectar plant species collected by A. cerana cerana was 12.9, also significantly higher than that (7.7) collected by A. mellifera ligustica, indi-cating that A. cerana cerana could utilize more nectar plants, while A. mellifera ligustica had stron-ger selectivity to the nectar plants. The trophic niche breadth of A. cerana cerana was 0. 35, which was significantly higher than that (0. 23) of A. mellifera ligustica. The trophic niche overlap index between the two bee species was 0.71, and the interspecific competition index was 0. 93, sugges-ting that the food competition between A. cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica was fierce.

  18. 中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂蜂毒前溶血肽原蛋白 cDNA的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding prepromelittin in Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施婉君; 张素方; 张传溪; 程家安

    2003-01-01

    分别从中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana和意大利蜜蜂Apis mellifera工蜂毒腺中抽提总RNA,通过RT-PCR方法扩增,各得到了蜂毒前溶血肽原蛋白的cDNA,再将扩增产物克隆到pGEM(R)-T easy载体上,进行测序和序列分析.结果表明,所扩增到的这两个片段长度均为213 bp,均为编码蜂毒前溶血肽原的cDNA,并分别推导出两者所编码的氨基酸序列.经序列比较,中华蜜蜂前溶血肽原与意大利蜜蜂、印度蜜蜂Apis cerana indica前溶血肽原的同源性都为97%.所报道的中华蜜蜂蜂毒前溶血肽原的核苷酸序列的GenBank登录号为AF487907.

  19. Comparison of within hive sampling and seasonal activity of Nosema ceranae in honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Brenna E; Williams, Matthew R; Fell, Richard D

    2012-02-01

    Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite of the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, that is found worldwide and in multiple Apis spp.; however, little is known about the effects of N. ceranae on A. mellifera. Previous studies using spore counts suggest that there is no longer a seasonal cycle for N. ceranae and that it is found year round with little variation in infection intensity among months. Our goal was to determine whether infection levels differ in bees collected from different areas of the hive and if there may be seasonal differences in N. ceranae infections. A multiplex species-specific real-time PCR assay was used for the detection and quantification of N. ceranae. Colonies were sampled monthly from September 2009-2010 by collecting workers from honey supers, the fringe of the brood nest, and the brood nest. We found that all bees sampled were infected with N. ceranae and that there was no significant difference in infection levels among the different groups of bees sampled (P=0.74). However, significant differences in colony infection levels were found at different times of the year (Pbeekeepers on N. ceranae management.

  20. Effects of Malate Dehydrogenase I of Worker Bees on Nutritional Crossbreed between Apis cerana Cerana and Apis mellifera Ligustica%中蜂与意蜂营养杂交对工蜂苹果酸脱氢酶Ⅱ的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志将; 谢宪兵; 颜伟玉; 郭冬生

    2006-01-01

    本研究以中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)和意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica)为实验材料,进行中华蜜蜂与意大利蜜蜂营养杂交,然后应用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶等电聚焦电泳(IEF-PAGE)技术检测亲本和营养杂交后代的工蜂苹果酸脱氢酶Ⅱ的基因型、基因型频率、等位基因频率、杂合度和纯合度,结果表明:经过营养杂交后,杂交后代工蜂的苹果酸脱氢酶基因型发生了变化,并且苹果酸脱氢酶条带位置朝着对方蜂种偏移.

  1. 中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂蜂毒磷脂酶A2基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequencing of Genes Encoding Phospholipase A2 from the Venom of Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈立荣; 张传溪; 程家安

    2002-01-01

    从中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana)和意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)工蜂毒腺中快速抽提总RNA,用RT-PCR方法分别扩增各得到约含470 bp的cDNA片段,将这2个片段克隆入PGEMR-T载体,进行测序和序列分析.结果表明,这2个片段均含有405 bp、编码蜂毒PLA2成熟肽的cDNA,并分别由cDNA推导出两者所编码的氨基酸序列.经序列比较,中蜂PLA2与意蜂PLA2具有95%的同源性,与大蜜蜂PLA2、美国熊蜂PLA2及黑腹果蝇PLA2的同源性分别为90%、54%、39%.

  2. Studies on the genetic diversity detected by RAPD in the offspring of the nutritional crossbreed between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica%中蜂与意蜂营养杂交后代随机扩增多态DNA研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢宪兵; 苏松坤; 颜伟玉; 郭冬生; 曾志将

    2005-01-01

    以中华蜜蜂(Apis cerdna cerana Fabricius)和意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola)为实验材料,进行中华蜜蜂与意大利蜜蜂营养杂交,然后运用随机扩增多态DNA(RAPD)技术检测亲本和营养杂交后代的DNA多态性.结果表明:经过营养杂交,亲本蜜蜂与营养杂交子代的遗传相似系数变小,中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂的特有DNA条带发生了转移.说明通过营养杂交,基因可能发生了转移.

  3. Five-year cohort study of Nosema spp. in Germany: does climate shape virulence and assertiveness of Nosema ceranae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Hedtke, Kati; Möckel, Nadine; Frielitz, Marie-Charlotte; Linde, Andreas; Genersch, Elke

    2010-05-01

    Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are two fungal pathogens belonging to the phylum Microsporidia and infecting the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Recent studies have suggested that N. ceranae is more virulent than N. apis both at the individual insect level and at the colony level. Severe colony losses could be attributed to N. ceranae infections, and an unusual form of nosemosis is caused by this pathogen. In the present study, data from a 5-year cohort study of the prevalence of Nosema spp. in Germany, involving about 220 honeybee colonies and a total of 1,997 samples collected from these colonies each spring and autumn and analyzed via species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), are described. Statistical analysis of the data revealed no relation between colony mortality and detectable levels of infection with N. ceranae or N. apis. In addition, N. apis is still more prevalent than N. ceranae in the cohort of the German bee population that was analyzed. A possible explanation for these findings could be the marked decrease in spore germination that was observed after even a short exposure to low temperatures (+4 degrees C) for N. ceranae only. Reduced or inhibited N. ceranae spore germination at low temperatures should hamper the infectivity and spread of this pathogen in climatic regions characterized by a rather cold winter season.

  4. Effects of pollen dilution on infection of Nosema ceranae in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Cameron J; Uppala, Sai Sree; Lucas, Hannah M; Sagili, Ramesh R

    2016-04-01

    Multiple stressors are currently threatening honey bee health, including pests and pathogens. Among honey bee pathogens, Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian found parasitizing the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) relatively recently. Honey bee colonies are fed pollen or protein substitute during pollen dearth to boost colony growth and immunity against pests and pathogens. Here we hypothesize that N. ceranae intensity and prevalence will be low in bees receiving high pollen diets, and that honey bees on high pollen diets will have higher survival and/or increased longevity. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of different quantities of pollen on (a) the intensity and prevalence of N. ceranae and (b) longevity and nutritional physiology of bees inoculated with N. ceranae. Significantly higher spore intensities were observed in treatments that received higher pollen quantities (1:0 and 1:1 pollen:cellulose) when compared to treatments that received relatively lower pollen quantities. There were no significant differences in N. ceranae prevalence among different pollen diet treatments. Interestingly, the bees in higher pollen quantity treatments also had significantly higher survival despite higher intensities of N. ceranae. Significantly higher hypopharyngeal gland protein was observed in the control (no Nosema infection, and receiving a diet of 1:0 pollen:cellulose), followed by 1:0 pollen:cellulose treatment that was inoculated with N. ceranae. Here we demonstrate that diet with higher pollen quantity increases N. ceranae intensity, but also enhances the survival or longevity of honey bees. The information from this study could potentially help beekeepers formulate appropriate protein feeding regimens for their colonies to mitigate N. ceranae problems.

  5. Evaluation of pesticide toxicity at their field recommended doses to honeybees, Apis cerana and A. mellifera through laboratory, semi-field and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Johnson; Sah, Khushboo; Jain, S K; Bhatt, J C; Sushil, S N

    2015-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to determine the acute toxicity of pesticides in the laboratory, toxicity through spray on flowering plants of mustard (Tier II evaluation) and field on both Apis cerana and A. mellifera bees. The overall mortality of honey bees through topical (direct contact) were found significantly higher than that of indirect filter paper contamination assays. Insecticides viz., chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, malathion, profenofos, monocrotophos and deltamethrin when exposed directly or indirectly at their field recommended doses caused very high mortality up to 100% to both the bees at 48 HAT. The insecticides that caused less mortality through filter paper contamination viz., flubendiamide, methyl demeton, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam caused very high morality through direct exposure. Apart from all the fungicides tested, carbendazim, mancozeb, chlorothalonil and propiconazole, insecticides acetamiprid and endosulfan were found safer to both the bees either by direct or indirect exposures. Tier II evaluation by spray of pesticides at their field recommended doses on potted mustard plants showed monocrotophos as the highly toxic insecticide with 100% mortality even with 1h of exposure followed by thiamethoxam, dichlorvos, profenofos and chlorpyriphos which are not to be recommended for use in pollinator attractive flowering plants. Acetamiprid and endosulfan did not cause any repellent effect on honey bees in the field trials endorse the usage of acetamiprid against sucking pest in flowering plants.

  6. Dual function of a bee (Apis cerana) inhibitor cysteine knot peptide that acts as an antifungal peptide and insecticidal venom toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Geun; Kyung, Seung Su; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Choi, Yong Soo; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Kwon, Hyung Wook; Je, Yeon Ho; Jin, Byung Rae

    2014-12-01

    Inhibitor cysteine knot (ICK) peptides exhibit ion channel blocking, insecticidal, and antimicrobial activities, but currently, no functional roles for bee-derived ICK peptides have been identified. In this study, a bee (Apis cerana) ICK peptide (AcICK) that acts as an antifungal peptide and as an insecticidal venom toxin was identified. AcICK contains an ICK fold that is expressed in the epidermis, fat body, or venom gland and is present as a 6.6-kDa peptide in bee venom. Recombinant AcICK peptide (expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells) bound directly to Beauveria bassiana and Fusarium graminearum, but not to Escherichia coli or Bacillus thuringiensis. Consistent with these findings, AcICK showed antifungal activity, indicating that AcICK acts as an antifungal peptide. Furthermore, AcICK expression is induced in the fat body and epidermis after injection with B. bassiana. These results provide insight into the role of AcICK during the innate immune response following fungal infection. Additionally, we show that AcICK has insecticidal activity. Our results demonstrate a functional role for AcICK in bees: AcICK acts as an antifungal peptide in innate immune reactions in the body and as an insecticidal toxin in venom. The finding that the AcICK peptide functions with different mechanisms of action in the body and in venom highlights the two-pronged strategy that is possible with the bee ICK peptide.

  7. Harm of introducing the western honeybee Apis mellifera L. to the Chinese honeybee Apis cerana F. and its ecological impact%引入西方蜜蜂对中蜂的危害及生态影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冠煌

    2005-01-01

    作者阐述自1896年中国引进西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera L.的优良品种如意大利蜂Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola和喀尼阿兰蜂Apis mellifera Carnica Pollmann以来,使当地的东方蜜蜂Apis cerana F.受到严重危害,其分布区域缩小75%以上,种群数量减少80%以上.使山林植物授粉总量减少,导致植物多样性减少.文中提出:建立自然保护区保存本地蜜蜂遗传特性,和采用基因转移等技术,培育具有西方蜜蜂优良生产性能的中蜂新品种,逐步恢复中蜂的种群数量.

  8. High prevalence and infection levels of Nosema ceranae in bumblebees Bombus atratus and Bombus bellicosus from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbulo, N; Antúnez, K; Salvarrey, S; Santos, E; Branchiccela, B; Martín-Hernández, R; Higes, M; Invernizzi, C

    2015-09-01

    Nosema ceranae is one of the most prevalent pathogens in Apis mellifera and has recently been found in multiple host species including several species of bumblebees. Prevalence and infection intensity of N. ceranae was determined in two species of native bumblebees from Uruguay. Nosema ceranae was the only microsporidia identified and mean prevalence was 72% in Bombus atratus and 63% in Bombus bellicosus, values much higher than those reported elsewhere. The presence of this pathogen in bumblebees may be threatening not only for bumblebee populations, but also to the rest of the native pollinator community and to honeybees.

  9. Five-Year Cohort Study of Nosema spp. in Germany: Does Climate Shape Virulence and Assertiveness of Nosema ceranae?▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Hedtke, Kati; Möckel, Nadine; Frielitz, Marie-Charlotte; Linde, Andreas; Genersch, Elke

    2010-01-01

    Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are two fungal pathogens belonging to the phylum Microsporidia and infecting the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Recent studies have suggested that N. ceranae is more virulent than N. apis both at the individual insect level and at the colony level. Severe colony losses could be attributed to N. ceranae infections, and an unusual form of nosemosis is caused by this pathogen. In the present study, data from a 5-year cohort study of the prevalence of Nosema spp. in Germany, involving about 220 honeybee colonies and a total of 1,997 samples collected from these colonies each spring and autumn and analyzed via species-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), are described. Statistical analysis of the data revealed no relation between colony mortality and detectable levels of infection with N. ceranae or N. apis. In addition, N. apis is still more prevalent than N. ceranae in the cohort of the German bee population that was analyzed. A possible explanation for these findings could be the marked decrease in spore germination that was observed after even a short exposure to low temperatures (+4°C) for N. ceranae only. Reduced or inhibited N. ceranae spore germination at low temperatures should hamper the infectivity and spread of this pathogen in climatic regions characterized by a rather cold winter season. PMID:20228103

  10. 安徽省七种蜜蜂病毒的发生与流行研究%Occurrence and distribution of seven bee viruses in Apis mellifera andApis cerana in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪天澍; 施腾飞; 刘芳; 余林生; 齐磊; 孟祥金

    2015-01-01

    [目的]调查安徽省内7种常见蜜蜂病毒:蜜蜂畸翅病毒(Deformed wing virus,DWV)、以色列急性麻痹病毒(Israeli acute paralysis virus,IAPV)、急性蜜蜂麻痹病毒(Acute bee paralysis virus,ABPV)、慢性麻痹病毒(Chronic bee paralysis virus,CBPV)、黑蜂王台病毒(Black queen cell virus,BQCV)、囊状幼虫病病毒(Sacbrood virus,SBV)、克什米尔病毒(Kashmir bee virus,KBV)的感染发生情况,为安徽养蜂业可持续健康发展提供理论依据.[方法] 运用反转录 RT-PCR 和序列分析比对的方法对安徽省内 21 个乡镇中的 38 个蜂场蜜蜂样品进行研究分析,以获得以上 7 种蜜蜂病毒的特异性发生情况.[结果]意大利蜜蜂Apis mellifera蜂场感染率:DWV(64%),IAPV(43%),CBPV(32%),ABPV(14%), BQCV(11%);中华蜜蜂Apis cerana蜂场感染率:DWV (80%),IAPV (40%),CBPV (30%),ABPV (10%), BQCV(0).SBV和KBV在所有的蜜蜂样品中均未检测到.[结论] DWV,IAPV,CBPV,ABPV,BQCV在安徽省内大范围都存在发生流行现象,SBV和KBV对安徽蜜蜂的潜在危害可能性小.%[Objectives] To conduct the first detailed survey of seven bee viruses; deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), inApis mellifera andA. Cerana in Anhui. We hope this work will help bee researchers and related institutions monitor honey bee health in Anhui, and warn them of the potential threat from bee viruses to the sustainable development of apiculture in that province.[Methods] We used reverse transcriptase PCR and sequence analysis to survey the above seven honey bee viruses in most of Anhui. Samples of worker bees were collected from apiaries in 21 towns, including 28 samples ofA. Mellifera and 10 ofA. Cerana.[Results] Virus frequencies inA. Mellifera samples were as follows; 64% of apiaries were infected with DWV, 43% with IAPV, 32

  11. 在意蜂群内培育中蜂王抗中蜂囊状幼虫病的效果及其抗病机制探索%The Mechanism Reseach about the Apis cerana Queen Anti- Chinesescabrood when She was Breeding in the Swarm of Apis mellifera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆容; 魏福伦; 徐晓舒

    2012-01-01

    中华蜜蜂和意大利蜜蜂是两个较为接近的物种,其形态学特征和生物学特性有许多相似之处,但它们之间无法进行生殖杂交,存在生殖隔离。应用营养杂交技术,将中华蜜蜂受精卵发育的早期幼虫介绍到意大利蜜蜂蜂群中进行适当培养饲喂,结果培育的蜂王后代具有抗中蜂囊状幼虫病病毒的特性。作者就营养杂交王的抗病效果和抗病机制进行探讨,以期为广大蜜蜂饲养者和研究者提供研究思路。%The morphological characteristic and biological property are approximate about Apis cerana and Apis mellifera.They exists productive isolation between Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, so common cross-breeding is very difficult. By technology of nutritional crossbreed,Apis cerana's early stage insects from spermatovum devolopmental are introduced to Apis mellifera's swarm appropriate feeding, and the result is that the descendant of being cultivate queen have the characteristic of anti-Chinesescabrood. This text discusses the anti-disease effect and mechanism of nutritional crossbreed queen, in order to provide studing mentality for bee feeder and researcher.

  12. Transcriptome analyses of the honeybee response to Nosema ceranae and insecticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Aufauvre

    Full Text Available Honeybees (Apis mellifera are constantly exposed to a wide variety of environmental stressors such as parasites and pesticides. Among them, Nosema ceranae and neurotoxic insecticides might act in combination and lead to a higher honeybee mortality. We investigated the molecular response of honeybees exposed to N. ceranae, to insecticides (fipronil or imidacloprid, and to a combination of both stressors. Midgut transcriptional changes induced by these stressors were measured in two independent experiments combining a global RNA-Seq transcriptomic approach with the screening of the expression of selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Although N. ceranae-insecticide combinations induced a significant increase in honeybee mortality, we observed that they did not lead to a synergistic effect. According to gene expression profiles, chronic exposure to insecticides had no significant impact on detoxifying genes but repressed the expression of immunity-related genes. Honeybees treated with N. ceranae, alone or in combination with an insecticide, showed a strong alteration of midgut immunity together with modifications affecting cuticle coatings and trehalose metabolism. An increasing impact of treatments on gene expression profiles with time was identified suggesting an absence of stress recovery which could be linked to the higher mortality rates observed.

  13. 荧光光谱法研究中华蜜蜂化学感受蛋白与特异配基的相互作用%Interaction of Chemosensory Proteins of Apis cerana cerana with Special Ligands by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亮; 张林雅; 朱丽云; 倪翠侠; 商晗武

    2011-01-01

    The molecular interaction of N-phenyl-l-naphthylamine(1-NPN) with purified recombinant Chemosensory proteins 3 ( CSP3 ) of Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, was studied by fluorescence spectra. By static quenching mechanism, 1-NPN could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of CSP3 at 328 nm(λem). Thermodynamic analysis show that hydrophobic interaction of 1-NPN with CSP3 was predominant intermolecular force. According to the F(ǒ)rster-type dipole-dipole nonradiative energy-transfer mechanism, the binding distance( r = 9.3 nm) and energy-transfer efficiency( E = 0.054) bewteen donor( CSP3 ) and acceptor(1-NPN)were obtained. Synchronous fluorescence spectra and circular dichroism spectra show that the tryptophan contributed primary fluorescent emission. The redshift of λmax and the reduction α-helix indicated that 1-NPN can affect the conformation of CSP3 by increasing the polarity of the microenvironment of binding sites between them.%采用荧光光谱法研究了中华蜜蜂化学感受蛋白3(CSP3)与其特异性配基N-苯基-1-萘胺(N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine,1-NPN)的相互作用.结果表明,1-NPN能使CSP3在λem=328 nm处发生荧光猝灭,且猝灭机理为静态猝灭.另外,猝灭过程的△H0>0,△S0>0,表明二者间的主要作用力为疏水相互作用.依据F(o)rster 非辐射能量转移机制得到二者的结合距离为9.3 nm,能量转移效率E=0.054.采用同步荧光光谱和圆二色光谱考察了1-NPN对CSP3构象的影响,CSP3的荧光主要来源于色氨酸残基,且最大发射波长略有红移,表明结合位点微环境的极性增加,且CSP3的α-螺旋比例相应减少,从而使CSP3构象发生变化.

  14. Survival and immune response of drones of a Nosemosis tolerant honey bee strain towards N. ceranae infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Kryger, Per; Le Conte, Yves; Moritz, Robin F A

    2012-03-01

    Honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) have been selected for low level of Nosema in Denmark over decades and Nosema is now rarely found in bee colonies from these breeding lines. We compared the immune response of a selected and an unselected honey bee lineage, taking advantage of the haploid males to study its potential impact on the tolerance toward Nosema ceranae, a novel introduced microsporidian pathogen. After artificial infections of the N. ceranae spores, the lineage selected for Nosema tolerance showed a higher N. ceranae spore load, a lower mortality and an up-regulated immune response. The differences in the response of the innate immune system between the selected and unselected lineage were strongest at day six post infection. In particular genes of the Toll pathway were up-regulated in the selected strain, probably is the main immune pathway involved in N. ceranae infection response. After decades of selective breeding for Nosema tolerance in the Danish strain, it appears these bees are tolerant to N. ceranae infections.

  15. 基于免疫组织化学方法的中华蜜蜂蕈形体胚后发育过程中细胞增殖和凋亡的观察%Observation of neurogenesis and programmed cell death in the mushroom bodies of the honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae ),using immunohistochemistry method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆英; 奚耕思

    2011-01-01

    蕈形体是昆虫学习和其他复杂行为的整合中心.本研究通过形态解剖、BrdU免疫组织化学和原位末端转移酶标记(TUNEL)细胞凋亡检测等技术,对中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana蕈形体胚后发育过程中细胞的增殖和凋亡模式进行了比较研究.结果表明:中华蜜蜂的蕈形体起源自幼虫早期脑背侧的几个大型的成神经细胞,它们通过不对称的细胞分裂产生成神经细胞,随后这些细胞经过多次对称分裂形成中增殖细胞群和侧增殖细胞群,最终生成了所有的Kenyon细胞.蕈形体的蕈体柄出现在3龄幼虫;蕈体冠体积的迅速增加发生在蛹期.蕈形体发育过程中,细胞凋亡主要集中在蛹发育期的3-6 d内,细胞凋亡的开始和细胞增殖的终止在时间和空间上非常一致.本研究为蜜蜂学习记忆等行为学研究提供了理论依据.

  16. Evidence of the synergistic interaction of honey bee pathogens Nosema ceranae and Deformed wing virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huo-Qing; Gong, Hong-Ri; Huang, Shao-Kang; Sohr, Alex; Hu, Fu-Liang; Chen, Yan Ping

    2015-05-15

    Nosema ceranae and Deformed wing virus (DWV) are two of the most prevalent pathogens currently attacking Western honey bees, Apis mellifera, and often simultaneously infect the same hosts. Here we investigated the effect of N. ceranae and Deformed wing virus (DWV) interactions on infected honey bees under lab conditions and at different nutrition statuses. Our results showed that Nosema could accelerate DWV replication in infected bees in a dose-dependent manner at the early stages of DWV infection. When bees were restricted from pollen nutrition, inoculation with 1×10(4) and 1×10(5) spores/bee could cause a significant increase in DWV titer, while inoculation with 1×10(3) spores/bee did not show any significant effect on the DWV titer. When bees were provided with pollen, only inoculation with 1×10(5) spores/bee showed significant effect on DWV titer. However, our results also showed that the two pathogens did not act synergistically when the titer of DWV reached a plateau. This study suggests that the synergistic effect of N. ceranae and DWV is dosage- and nutrition-dependent and that the synergistic interactions between the two pathogens could have implications on honey bee colony losses.

  17. New insights on the genetic diversity of the honeybee parasite Nosema ceranae based on multilocus sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudel, Mathieu; Aufauvre, Julie; Corbara, Bruno; Delbac, Frederic; Blot, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    The microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae is a common pathogen of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) whose variable virulence could be related to its genetic polymorphism and/or its polyphenism responding to environmental cues. Since the genotyping of N. ceranae based on unique marker sequences had been unsuccessful, we tested whether a multilocus approach, assessing the diversity of ten genetic markers – encoding nine proteins and the small ribosomal RNA subunit – allowed the discrimination between N. ceranae variants isolated from single A. mellifera individuals in four distant locations. High nucleotide diversity and allele content were observed for all genes. Most importantly, the diversity was mainly present within parasite populations isolated from single honeybee individuals. In contrast the absence of isolate differentiation precluded any taxa discrimination, even through a multilocus approach, but suggested that similar populations of parasites seem to infect honeybees in distant locations. As statistical evolutionary analyses showed that the allele frequency is under selective pressure, we discuss the origin and consequences of N. ceranae heterozygosity in a single host and lack of population divergence in the context of the parasite natural and evolutionary history.

  18. Retrospective study of the Nosema ceranae infection of honey bee colonies in Iran (2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modirrousta, H.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nosemosis is the most common disease in adult bees. Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae species are agents of important economic losses to beekeepers around the world. The severity of disease at various area is different. Previously, N. apis was observed in areas with a long winter, especially in late winter and early spring. But in recent years, disease has been reported in the warm seasons. The studies indicated that a new species as N. ceranae is involvement in loss and mortality in adult bees. Therefore, diagnosis and differentiation of Nosema species is importance at colony collapse disorders (CCD. The aim of this Research was a retrospective study on Nosema samples isolated from apiaries. Forty- one Nosema Sp. Positive samples were collected from five provinces during 2004 to 2013. The samples were tested by multiplex PCR method using both primers of N. ceranea and N. apis were simultaneously. All of samples were positive for N. ceranea. The products were sent for sequencing. The results show that N. ceranea has spread in Iran, from previous years almost simultaneously with other parts of the world.

  19. Detection and identification of Nosema ceranae by dual fluorescent staining with Calcofluor White M2R and Sytox Green%Calcofluor White M2R与Sytox Green双重染色法鉴别蜜蜂微孢子虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦浩然; 李继莲; 和绍禹; 吴杰

    2012-01-01

    东方蜜蜂微孢子虫( Nosema ceranae)是一种广泛寄生于东方蜜蜂Apis cerana,西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera和熊蜂Bombus Latreille上的寄生虫,对蜜蜂和熊蜂的危害较大,进而影响养蜂业的发展.本实验采用荧光染色试剂Calcofluor White M2R与核酸染料Sytox Green双重染法来鉴别蜜蜂或熊蜂体内的N.ceranae及孢子的存活状态.结果得出,在荧光显微镜下可见死孢子被染上黄绿色荧光,活的呈现蓝白色荧光,而寄主细胞、细菌、病毒等不被染色.这是一种快速有效鉴别N.ceranae及其死活的方法,从而判定蜜蜂或熊蜂体内的微孢子虫在是否具有侵染活性,对微孢子虫的研究及药物防治具有重要作用.%Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite of Apis cerana, Apis mellifera and bumblebees that has an adverse effect on pollination, especially of fruits and vegetables, and apiculture. In this study, Calcofluor White M2R and Sytox Green stains were used to discriminate between live and dead N. ceranae. The results show that dead N. ceranae spores had yellow-green fluorescence whereas live spores fluoresced white - blue. This method allows easy detection and identification of live and dead N, ceranae and should therefore contribute to further research on TV. ceranae and its treatment.

  20. Honey bee microRNAs respond to infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Chen, Yanping; Wang, Rui Wu; Schwarz, Ryan S; Evans, Jay D

    2015-12-01

    In order to study the effects of Nosema ceranae infection on honey bee microRNA (miRNA) expression, we deep-sequenced honey bee miRNAs daily across a full 6-day parasite reproduction cycle. Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed in honey bees infected by N. ceranae that potentially target over 400 genes predicted to primarily involve ion binding, signaling, the nucleus, transmembrane transport, and DNA binding. Based on Enzyme Code analysis, nine biological pathways were identified by screening target genes against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, seven of which involved metabolism. Our results suggest that differentially expressed miRNAs regulate metabolism related genes of host honey bees in response to N. ceranae infection.

  1. Identification of MicroRNA-like small RNAs from fungus parasite Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously found transcripts encoding Dicer and Argonaute in the honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae. Since these proteins are involved in the production of regulatory microRNAs we carried out controlled infections and genetic screens in order to identify microRNAs in Nosema . We sequenced small R...

  2. Genomic analyses of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Cornman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent steep declines in honey bee health have severely impacted the beekeeping industry, presenting new risks for agricultural commodities that depend on insect pollination. Honey bee declines could reflect increased pressures from parasites and pathogens. The incidence of the microsporidian pathogen Nosema ceranae has increased significantly in the past decade. Here we present a draft assembly (7.86 MB of the N. ceranae genome derived from pyrosequence data, including initial gene models and genomic comparisons with other members of this highly derived fungal lineage. N. ceranae has a strongly AT-biased genome (74% A+T and a diversity of repetitive elements, complicating the assembly. Of 2,614 predicted protein-coding sequences, we conservatively estimate that 1,366 have homologs in the microsporidian Encephalitozoon cuniculi, the most closely related published genome sequence. We identify genes conserved among microsporidia that lack clear homology outside this group, which are of special interest as potential virulence factors in this group of obligate parasites. A substantial fraction of the diminutive N. ceranae proteome consists of novel and transposable-element proteins. For a majority of well-supported gene models, a conserved sense-strand motif can be found within 15 bases upstream of the start codon; a previously uncharacterized version of this motif is also present in E. cuniculi. These comparisons provide insight into the architecture, regulation, and evolution of microsporidian genomes, and will drive investigations into honey bee-Nosema interactions.

  3. Bee bread increases honeybee haemolymph protein and promote better survival despite of causing higher Nosema ceranae abundance in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, Marina; Barragán, Sergio; Antúnez, Karina

    2014-08-01

    Adequate protein nutrition supports healthy honeybees and reduces the susceptibility to disease. However little is known concerning the effect of the diet on Nosema ceranae development, an obligate intracellular parasite that disturbs the protein metabolism of honeybees (Apis mellifera). Here we tested the effect of natural (bee bread) and non-natural protein diets (substitute) on haemolymph proteins titers of honeybee and N. ceranae spore production. The natural diet induced higher levels of protein and parasite development, but the survival of bees was also higher than with non-natural diets. The data showed that the administration of an artificially high nutritious diet in terms of crude protein content is not sufficient to promote healthy bees; rather the protein ingested should be efficiently assimilated. The overall results support the idea that the physiological condition of the bees is linked to protein levels in the haemolymph, which affects the tolerance to parasite; consequently the negative impact of the parasite on host fitness is not associated only with the level of infection.

  4. Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia), a controversial 21st century honey bee pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higes, Mariano; Meana, Aránzazu; Bartolomé, Carolina; Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel

    2013-02-01

    The worldwide beekeeping sector has been facing a grave threat, with losses up to 100-1000 times greater than those previously reported. Despite the scale of this honey bee mortality, the causes underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, yet they are thought to be multifactorial processes. Nosema ceranae, a microsporidium recently detected in the European bee all over the world, has been implicated in the global phenomenon of colony loss, although its role remains controversial. A review of the current knowledge about this pathogen is presented focussing on discussion related with divergent results, trying to analyse the differences specially based on different methodologies applied and divisive aspects on pathology while considering a biological or veterinarian point of view. For authors, the disease produced by N. ceranae infection cannot be considered a regional problem but rather a global one, as indicated by the wide prevalence of this parasite in multiple hosts. Not only does this type of nosemosis causes a clear pathology on honeybees at both the individual and colony levels, but it also has significant effects on the production of honeybee products.

  5. Nosema spp. infection and its negative effects on honey bees (Apis mellifera iberiensis) at the colony level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botías, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Barrios, Laura; Meana, Aránzazu; Higes, Mariano

    2013-04-10

    Nosemosis caused by the microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are among the most common pathologies affecting adult honey bees. N. apis infection has been associated with a reduced lifespan of infected bees and increased winter mortality, and its negative impact on colony strength and productivity has been described in several studies. By contrast, when the effects of nosemosis type C, caused by N. ceranae infection, have been analysed at the colony level, these studies have largely focused on collapse as a response to infection without addressing the potential sub-clinical effects on colony strength and productivity. Given the spread and prevalence of N. ceranae worldwide, we set out here to characterize the sub-clinical and clinical signs of N. ceranae infection on colony strength and productivity. We evaluated the evolution of 50 honey bee colonies naturally infected by Nosema (mainly N. ceranae) over a one year period. Under our experimental conditions, N. ceranae infection was highly pathogenic for honey bee colonies, producing significant reductions in colony size, brood rearing and honey production. These deleterious effects at the colony level may affect beekeeping profitability and have serious consequences on pollination. Further research is necessary to identify possible treatments or beekeeping techniques that will limit the rapid spread of this dangerous emerging disease.

  6. Crop pollination exposes honey bees to pesticides which alters their susceptibility to the gut pathogen Nosema ceranae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery S Pettis

    Full Text Available Recent declines in honey bee populations and increasing demand for insect-pollinated crops raise concerns about pollinator shortages. Pesticide exposure and pathogens may interact to have strong negative effects on managed honey bee colonies. Such findings are of great concern given the large numbers and high levels of pesticides found in honey bee colonies. Thus it is crucial to determine how field-relevant combinations and loads of pesticides affect bee health. We collected pollen from bee hives in seven major crops to determine 1 what types of pesticides bees are exposed to when rented for pollination of various crops and 2 how field-relevant pesticide blends affect bees' susceptibility to the gut parasite Nosema ceranae. Our samples represent pollen collected by foragers for use by the colony, and do not necessarily indicate foragers' roles as pollinators. In blueberry, cranberry, cucumber, pumpkin and watermelon bees collected pollen almost exclusively from weeds and wildflowers during our sampling. Thus more attention must be paid to how honey bees are exposed to pesticides outside of the field in which they are placed. We detected 35 different pesticides in the sampled pollen, and found high fungicide loads. The insecticides esfenvalerate and phosmet were at a concentration higher than their median lethal dose in at least one pollen sample. While fungicides are typically seen as fairly safe for honey bees, we found an increased probability of Nosema infection in bees that consumed pollen with a higher fungicide load. Our results highlight a need for research on sub-lethal effects of fungicides and other chemicals that bees placed in an agricultural setting are exposed to.

  7. Crop pollination exposes honey bees to pesticides which alters their susceptibility to the gut pathogen Nosema ceranae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Andree, Michael; Stitzinger, Jennie; Rose, Robyn; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Recent declines in honey bee populations and increasing demand for insect-pollinated crops raise concerns about pollinator shortages. Pesticide exposure and pathogens may interact to have strong negative effects on managed honey bee colonies. Such findings are of great concern given the large numbers and high levels of pesticides found in honey bee colonies. Thus it is crucial to determine how field-relevant combinations and loads of pesticides affect bee health. We collected pollen from bee hives in seven major crops to determine 1) what types of pesticides bees are exposed to when rented for pollination of various crops and 2) how field-relevant pesticide blends affect bees' susceptibility to the gut parasite Nosema ceranae. Our samples represent pollen collected by foragers for use by the colony, and do not necessarily indicate foragers' roles as pollinators. In blueberry, cranberry, cucumber, pumpkin and watermelon bees collected pollen almost exclusively from weeds and wildflowers during our sampling. Thus more attention must be paid to how honey bees are exposed to pesticides outside of the field in which they are placed. We detected 35 different pesticides in the sampled pollen, and found high fungicide loads. The insecticides esfenvalerate and phosmet were at a concentration higher than their median lethal dose in at least one pollen sample. While fungicides are typically seen as fairly safe for honey bees, we found an increased probability of Nosema infection in bees that consumed pollen with a higher fungicide load. Our results highlight a need for research on sub-lethal effects of fungicides and other chemicals that bees placed in an agricultural setting are exposed to.

  8. Crop Pollination Exposes Honey Bees to Pesticides Which Alters Their Susceptibility to the Gut Pathogen Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Lichtenberg, Elinor M.; Andree, Michael; Stitzinger, Jennie; Rose, Robyn; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Recent declines in honey bee populations and increasing demand for insect-pollinated crops raise concerns about pollinator shortages. Pesticide exposure and pathogens may interact to have strong negative effects on managed honey bee colonies. Such findings are of great concern given the large numbers and high levels of pesticides found in honey bee colonies. Thus it is crucial to determine how field-relevant combinations and loads of pesticides affect bee health. We collected pollen from bee hives in seven major crops to determine 1) what types of pesticides bees are exposed to when rented for pollination of various crops and 2) how field-relevant pesticide blends affect bees’ susceptibility to the gut parasite Nosema ceranae. Our samples represent pollen collected by foragers for use by the colony, and do not necessarily indicate foragers’ roles as pollinators. In blueberry, cranberry, cucumber, pumpkin and watermelon bees collected pollen almost exclusively from weeds and wildflowers during our sampling. Thus more attention must be paid to how honey bees are exposed to pesticides outside of the field in which they are placed. We detected 35 different pesticides in the sampled pollen, and found high fungicide loads. The insecticides esfenvalerate and phosmet were at a concentration higher than their median lethal dose in at least one pollen sample. While fungicides are typically seen as fairly safe for honey bees, we found an increased probability of Nosema infection in bees that consumed pollen with a higher fungicide load. Our results highlight a need for research on sub-lethal effects of fungicides and other chemicals that bees placed in an agricultural setting are exposed to. PMID:23894612

  9. Drone competition at drone congregation areas in four Apis species

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    International audience; In Apis mellifera the estimated average number of drones visiting a drone congregation area (DCA) was 11 750 + 2 145. Drones of the species Apis cerana, A. koschevnikovi, A. dorsata and A. mellifera, which pursued a queen dummy moving in circular course, flew in a comet shaped formation. Median numbers of drones in a comet ranged from 9 drones (A. koschevnikovi) to 31 drones (A. mellifera). In none of the species we observed aggression between drones. Drone density beh...

  10. 云南中蜂几种转地饲养技术的探讨%Research about Migratory Beekeeping Technique of Apis Cerana Cerana in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玉生; 罗卫庭; 卢焕仙; 张祖芸

    2011-01-01

    @@ 云南大部分山区和半山区都群山环抱,纵横交错,形成天然的小温室.是中蜂理想的生存环境,但山区和半山区交通都不十分方便.通过从1987年到现在的不断实践和观察,我们总结出了云南中蜂定地结合小转地饲养,提高蜂蜜质量和产量的饲养管理技术,现提供给同行参考.

  11. Biological research on diploid drones produced by Apis cerana cerana%中华蜜蜂产生二倍体雄蜂的生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余林生; 孟祥金; 陈宏权

    2004-01-01

    对中华蜜蜂产生二倍体雄蜂的生物学研究表明,在高度近亲繁殖(兄妹交配的蜂王)条件下,中华蜜蜂产生二倍体雄蜂,二倍体雄蜂的成虫率高于西方蜜蜂和印度蜜蜂,形态特征和生物学特性与单倍体雄蜂存在明显差异.中蜂二倍体雄蜂排精量少,精子密度低,精子总数少,精子活力较差,死精率高.

  12. 简述防治中蜂巢虫的方法%The Method of Prevention and Cure Wax-mothes in Apis cerana cerana Fabricius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦文安

    2006-01-01

    防治巢虫是中蜂饲养的重要工作之一,要避免或减少巢虫对蜂群的危害,需要养蜂者持久、细致地做好多方面的防治工作才能收到良好的效果。防治巢虫的方法我认为可以分为两大类:一是如何提高蜂群自身的抵抗力;二是人工捕杀、阻隔和破坏巢虫的滋生场所。笔者把养蜂前辈和同行的多种经验同自己的一些方法结合起来运用,效果不错。现介绍给初学养蜂者参考。

  13. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Retschnig

    Full Text Available Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone and female (worker honey bees (Apis mellifera, inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV. These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  14. Sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Mehmann, Marion M; Yañez, Orlando; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in susceptibility to pathogens are a common phenomenon in animals. In the eusocial Hymenoptera the two female castes, workers and queens, are diploid and males are haploid. The haploid susceptibility hypothesis predicts that haploid males are more susceptible to pathogen infections compared to females. Here we test this hypothesis using adult male (drone) and female (worker) honey bees (Apis mellifera), inoculated with the gut endoparasite Nosema ceranae and/or black queen cell virus (BQCV). These pathogens were chosen due to previously reported synergistic interactions between Nosema apis and BQCV. Our data do not support synergistic interactions between N. ceranae and BQCV and also suggest that BQCV has limited effect on both drone and worker health, regardless of the infection level. However, the data clearly show that, despite lower levels of N. ceranae spores in drones than in workers, Nosema-infected drones had both a higher mortality and a lower body mass than non-infected drones, across all treatment groups, while the mortality and body mass of worker bees were largely unaffected by N. ceranae infection, suggesting that drones are more susceptible to this pathogen than workers. In conclusion, the data reveal considerable sex-specific differences in pathogen susceptibility in honey bees and highlight the importance of ultimate measures for determining susceptibility, such as mortality and body quality, rather than mere infection levels.

  15. Responses to Varroa destructor and Nosema ceranae by several commercial strains of Australian and North American honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential impact of varroa (Varroa destructor, Anderson & Trueman. 2000) on Australian beekeeping and agriculture depends in part on the levels of resistance to this parasite expressed by Australian commercial honey bees (Apis mellifera). The responses of seven lines of Australian honey bees to ...

  16. Survival and immune response of drones of a Nosemosis tolerant honey bee strain towards N. ceranae infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huanga, Qiang; Kryger, Per; Le Conte, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) have been selected for low level of Nosema in Denmark over decades and Nosema is now rarely found in bee colonies from these breeding lines. We compared the immune response of a selected and an unselected honey bee lineage, taking advantage of the haploid males...

  17. KAJIAN PENURUNAN TITIK LELEH LILIN LEBAH (Apis cerana DALAM PEMBUATAN MARGARIN OLES RENDAH KALORI 1 [Study on Decreasing the Melting Point of Beeswax (Apis cerana in the Production of Low -Calorie Margarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita L. Sarungallo 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax has been used to replace fat in order to produce low calorie margarine; however, the quality of the product was still low. To produce a good quality of beeswax-containing margarine, the melting point of beeswax must be lowered close to human body temperature. The o objectives of the research were : (1 to study the effect of addition of palm olein oil, fat solvent, emulsifier and stabilizer on the decrease of the melting point of beeswax, (2 to study the effect of enzymatic transesterification process, and (3 to produce margarine with low melting point and organoleptically acceptable. The results of the study revealed that addition of margarine ingredient lowered the melting point and solid fat content of the mixture, eventhough the melting point only reduced by 10°C, i.e. 64°C to 54°C. The process of transesterification was carried out on beeswax and palm olein with ratio of 50:50 and 40:60 using lipozyme IM 20 transesterification from Mucor miehei as a catalyst at 78,5°C for 24 hours with agitation at 200 rpm. Using this transesterification condition, the ratio of beeswax and palm oil of 50,50 produced fat with iodine value of 36,3 acid value of 18,5, free fatty acid of 8.45%, and melting point of 53°C, while ratio of 40: 60 produced fat with iodine value of 42,5, acid value of 15.44, free fatty acid of 7.24% and the melting point of 52°C produce fat with iodine value of 36,31 and 42,51, acid value of 18,5 and 15,44, free fatty acid of 8,45% and 7,24% at the melting point of 53°C and 52°C. It also produced solid fat content (40oC of 26,06% and 18,13%, with the consistency of 9,75 mm sec/gr and 13,96 mm sec/gr, respectively. The transesterification and non-transesterification beeswax with palm olein oil also can produce a low calorie margarine with the value of 12,3% - 50,5% lower than the comercial margarine, with the same physical and sensory characteristics

  18. Effects of Nutritional Crossbreeding Between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica on Morphological Characters of Worker Bees%中蜂与意蜂营养杂交对工蜂形态指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志将; 谢宪兵; 薛运波; 颜伟玉; 樊兆斌; 谢国秀

    2005-01-01

    测定了中蜂与意蜂营养杂交的亲本中蜂、亲本意蜂、以及连续3代营养杂交后代意蜂和连续3代营养杂交后代中蜂的工蜂11个形态指标,测定的数据用SPSS统计软件分析.结果表明:营养杂交后代工蜂的吻长(A)、右前翅面积(B)、腹部第3+4背板总长(D)、第4背板突间距(E)、第6腹节面积(F)和蜡镜面积(G)6个指标与亲本工蜂之间存在极显著的差异(P<0.01);营养杂交后代工蜂的肘脉指数(C)、跗节指数(H)、∠B4(J)、∠I10、(K)和翅钩数(I)与亲本工蜂之间差异不显著(P>0.05);营养杂交各代工蜂以上11个形态指标之间差异不显著.

  19. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia; Erler, Silvio; Kryger, Per; Lewkowski, Oleg; Müller, Thomas; Widder, Miriam; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host’s apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap)-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion. PMID:26445372

  20. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kurze

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host's apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion.

  1. Binding interaction between a queen pheromone component HOB and pheromone binding protein ASP1 of Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chen; Fu, Yuxia; Jiang, Hongtao; Zhuang, Shulin; Li, Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    The honeybee's social behavior is closely related to the critical response to pheromone, while pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in binding and transferring those pheromones. Here we report one known PBP, antennal special protein 1(ASP1), which has high affinity with a queen mandibular pheromone component, methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (HOB). In this study, multiple fluorescent spectra, UV absorption spectra, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and molecular docking analysis were combined to clarify the binding process. Basically, fluorescence intensity of ASP1 could be considerably quenched by HOB with an appropriate interaction distance (3.1 nm), indicating that a complex, which is more stable in lower temperature, was formed. The fact ΔH < 0, ΔS < 0, by thermodynamic analysis, indicated the van der Waals and hydrogen bond as main driving force. Moreover, synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD spectra analysis showed the change of partial hydrophilicity of ASP1 and the increase of α-helix after HOB addition. In conclusion, ASP1 can strongly and spontaneously interact with HOB. But the binding ability decreases with the rise of temperature, which may be necessary for sufficient social stability of hives. This study provides elucidation of the detailed binding mechanism and potential physicochemical basis of thermal stability to the social behavior of honeybee.

  2. Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. In this study winter worker bees were experimentally infected using three different experiments. Bees were inoculated orally or topically with CBPV to evaluate the l...

  3. csd alleles in the red dwarf honey bee (Apis florea,Hymenoptera: Apidae) show exceptionally high nucleotide diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong Liu; Zi-Long Wang; Xiao-Bo Wu; Wei-Yu Yan; Zhi-Jiang Zeng

    2011-01-01

    The single locus complementary sex determination (sl-csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp.).While the csd gene has been well studied in the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera),and comparable data exist in both the Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) and the giant honey bee (Apis dorsata),no studies have been conducted in the red dwarf honey bee,Apisflorea.In this study we cloned the genomic region 3 of the A.florea csd gene from 60 workers,and identified 12 csd alleles.Analysis showed that similar to A.mellifera,region 3 of the csd gene contains a RS domain at the N terminal,a proline-rich domain at the C terminal,and a hypervariable region in the middle.However,the A.florea csd gene possessed a much higher level of nucleotide diversity,compared to A.mellifera,A.cerana and Apis dorsata.We also show that similar to the other three Apis species,in A.florea,nonsynonymous mutations in the csd gene are selectively favored in young alleles.

  4. Selección bidireccional de Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae para aumento de la resistencia y la susceptibilidad a la nosemosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamandú MENDOZA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La nosemosis es una enfermedad que afecta las funciones digestivas de las abejas melíferas causada por los microsporidios Nosema apis y Nosema ceranae. En Uruguay la única especie detectada es N. ceranae. Para determinar si la incidencia de N. ceranae en las colonias tiene un componente genético se realizó una selección bidireccional para aumento de la resistencia y la susceptibilidad a este parásito sin control de la paternidad. Las colonias fueron evaluadas en una forestación de Eucalyptus grandis en otoño. La infección de las colonias se determinó como 1 el porcentaje de abejas pecoreadoras infectadas y 2 el número promedio de esporas por campo en 10 campos. El trabajo se inició con 138 colonias y se evaluaron dos generaciones de 30 y 63 colonias. La respuesta a la selección fue muy limitada, solo en la primera generación las colonias de la línea resistente presentaron menos esporas por abejas que las colonias de la línea susceptible (19,6 ± 5,8 y 26,8 ± 10,4, respectivamente, W = 41,5; P = 0.03. Esto indicaría que la resistencia a la nosemosis está fuertemente afectada por el ambiente. Futuros esfuerzos para aumentar la resistencia de las abejas a N. ceranae a través de mejora genética deberán incluir el control de la paternidad.

  5. Comparative analysis of detection limits and specificity of molecular diagnostic markers for three pathogens (Microsporidia, Nosema spp.) in the key pollinators Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Silvio; Lommatzsch, Stefanie; Lattorff, H Michael G

    2012-04-01

    Global pollinator decline has recently been discussed in the context of honey and bumble bee infections from various pathogens including viruses, bacteria, microsporidia and mites. The microsporidian pathogens Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae and Nosema bombi may in fact be major candidates contributing to this decline. Different molecular and non-molecular detection methods have been developed; however, a comparison, especially of the highly sensitive PCR based methods, is currently lacking. Here, we present the first comparative quantitative real-time PCR study of nine Nosema spp. primers within the framework of primer specificity and sensitivity. With the help of dilution series of defined numbers of spores, we reveal six primer pairs amplifying N. apis, six for N. bombi and four for N. ceranae. All appropriate primer pairs detected an amount of at least 10(4) spores, the majority of which were even as sensitive to detect such low amounts as 10(3) to ten spores. Species specificity of primers was observed for N. apis and N. bombi, but not for N. ceranae. Additionally, we did not find any significant correlation for the amplified fragments with PCR efficiency or the limit of detection. We discuss our findings on the background of false positive and negative results using quantitative real-time PCR. On the basis of these results, future research might be based on appropriate primer selection depending on the experimental needs. Primers may be selected on the basis of specificity or sensitivity. Pathogen species and load may be determined with higher precision enhancing all kinds of diagnostic studies.

  6. APIs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Daniel; Woods, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Programmers used to be the only people excited about APIs, but now a growing number of companies see them as a hot new product channel. This concise guide describes the tremendous business potential of APIs, and demonstrates how you can use them to provide valuable services to clients, partners, or the public via the Internet. You'll learn all the steps necessary for building a cohesive API business strategy from experts in the trenches. Facebook and Twitter APIs continue to be extremely successful, and many other companies find that API demand greatly exceeds website traffic. This book offe

  7. Characteristics of Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Carnica, Pollman 1879 Queens Reared in Slovenian Commercial Breeding Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorc Aleš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this three-year-trial study, we examined the quality of mated queens based on morphological and physiology traits. At each location, sister queen bees were reared each year from one Apis mellifera carnica breeder queen. Queens were also reared and mated in different locations. Altogether, we sampled and analysed 324 queens from 27 apiaries in 2006, 288 queens from 24 apiaries in 2008, and 276 queens from 23 apiaries in 2010. Nine queens from each apiary were sampled and dissected for morphological analyses and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae spores, if present, were quantified. Three queens from each apiary were prepared and tested for four viruses: acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, deformed wing virus (DWV, and sacbrood virus (SBV. The highest average queen weight of 209.49 ± 9.82 mg was detected in 2008. The highest average ovary weight of 78.67 ± 11.86 mg was detected in 2010, and the highest number of ovarioles was 161.59 ± 8.70 in 2006. The average number of spermatozoa in queens ranged from 3.30 x 106 in 2006 to 5.23 x 106 in 2010. Nosema ceranae spores were found in queens sampled in 2008 and 2010. Viruses were discovered sporadically during the queen testing periods from 2006 - 2010. This study importantly demonstrates that queens from rearing stations require regular evaluation for morphological and physiological changes as well as for infection from harmful pathogens. These results could also be used in establishing relevant commercial standards for rearing quality queens.

  8. 中蜂饲喂营养饲料效果的初步研究%Preliminary Research on the Effect of Feeding Nutritional Feed in Apis cerana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余玉生; 王艳辉; 卢焕仙; 宗德琴; 张学文

    2013-01-01

    为了使中蜂在秋繁季节饲喂营养饲料得到营养补充,繁蜂效果更好,达到采集冬季蜜源优质高产的目的.2009年8月25日至2009年10月12日饲喂几种营养饲料,进行蜂群的取食情况和蜂群群势增殖测定试验.结果表明:新鲜乳品+花粉+糖粉揉成的团状饲料蜜蜂取食较快,蜂群群势增殖效果较好.对中蜂蜂蜜质量安全和蜂群健康稳定发展有重要的启示作用.

  9. Analysis on the physics-chemical indexes of beeswax from Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera and me suggestion for its standardization%中、西蜂蜂蜡理化指标分析及蜂蜡标准化建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍; 胡福良; 胡元强; 邵巧云; 唐慧洋

    2007-01-01

    本文对不同来源的中、西蜂蜂蜡样品中的杂质含量、碳氢化合物含量、密度、熔点、折光率、酸值、皂化值、酯值、碘值、总黄酮等10项理化指标进行了测定,并对蜂蜡质量指标项目的确定、质量指标值的调整等方面提出了建议.

  10. Effects of Morphological Characters of Worker Bees on Nutritional Crossbreed between Apis cerana cerana and Apis mellifera ligustica%中华蜜蜂与意大利蜜蜂营养杂交对意蜂工蜂形态指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何旭江; 汪志平; 陈利华; 戴仕忠; 孙静; 吴小波; 曾志将

    2010-01-01

    通过人工添加中华蜜蜂王浆技术来培育"江山2号"与法国意蜂的杂交蜂王,并测定"江山2号"、法国意蜂、中华蜜蜂、营养杂交子一代、子二代、子三代和子四代工蜂的吻长、右前翅长度、右前翅宽度、第三腹节背板长度、肘脉指数、翅钩数6个外部形态指标.采用StatView分析软件中ANOVA and t-tests进行相关分析.结果表明:营养杂交子四代工蜂在吻长、右前翅长度、右前翅宽度、右后翅翅钩数和肘脉指数均有向中蜂性状靠拢的趋势,且营养杂交子四代工蜂的上述5个形态指标均小于亲本"江山2号"和法国意蜂,差异显著(P<0.05),也显著大于中华蜜蜂;营养杂交子四代工蜂的第三腹节背板长指标大于"江山2号"、法国意蜂和中蜂,差异显著(P<0.05).营养杂交子代工蜂随培育代数的增加在吻长、右前翅长度、右前翅宽度、右后翅翅钩数和肘脉指数均有向中蜂性状靠拢的趋势.子四代工蜂在吻长、右前翅宽度和肘脉指数指标上与前三代间差异显著;子四代工蜂在第三腹节背板长指标上显著高于前三代.

  11. 中蜂与意蜂营养杂交对意蜂工蜂初生重及春季繁殖率的影响%Effects on emergent weight of worker bees and reproductive capacity of colonies on nutritional crossbreed between Apis cerana cerana and Apis meUifera ligustica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何旭江; 吴小波; 曾志将; 汪志平; 陈利华; 戴仕忠; 黄斌

    2010-01-01

    本文通过人工添加中华蜜蜂王浆技术来培育江山2号与法国意蜂的杂交蜂王,并测定江山2号、中华蜜蜂、营养杂交子一代和子四代工蜂的初生重及春季繁殖率.结果表明:营养杂交F4代工蜂初生重与法国意蜂差异不显著,与其他两组蜜蜂差异显著;营养杂交F1和F4代蜂群春季繁殖率均显著高于亲本江山2号与中华蜜蜂,且F4代显著高于F1代蜂群.

  12. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) reared in brood combs containing high levels of pesticide residues exhibit increased susceptibility to Nosema (Microsporidia) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Judy Y; Smart, Matthew D; Anelli, Carol M; Sheppard, Walter S

    2012-03-01

    Nosema ceranae and pesticide exposure can contribute to honey bee health decline. Bees reared from brood comb containing high or low levels of pesticide residues were placed in two common colony environments. One colony was inoculated weekly with N. ceranae spores in sugar syrup and the other colony received sugar syrup only. Worker honey bees were sampled weekly from the treatment and control colonies and analyzed for Nosema spore levels. Regardless of the colony environment (spores+syrup added or syrup only added), a higher proportion of bees reared from the high pesticide residue brood comb became infected with N. ceranae, and at a younger age, compared to those reared in low residue brood combs. These data suggest that developmental exposure to pesticides in brood comb increases the susceptibility of bees to N. ceranae infection.

  13. 小蜜蜂雄蜂与中华蜜蜂雄蜂婚飞时间比较%Comparative mating flights time between Apis florea drone and Apis cerana drone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琪; 董诗浩; 董坤; 谭垦

    2016-01-01

    不同种类蜜蜂的繁殖季节和婚飞时间不尽相同.通过对云南省西双版纳州纳板河国家自然保护区内小蜜蜂雄蜂和中华蜜蜂雄蜂婚飞时间的观察,比较同域的小蜜蜂雄蜂和中华蜜蜂雄蜂的婚飞时间,结果显示,小蜜蜂雄蜂和中华蜜蜂雄蜂飞行时间存在重叠,说明小蜜蜂和东方蜜蜂的婚飞节律相似.

  14. 中华蜜蜂OBP18CDs序列及表达与抗螨性状相关性分析%Sequence Analysis of OBP18 Gene and Its Expression Changes upon Varroa destructor Resistance in Chinese Honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷玲; 吉挺; 李冠华; 牛德芳

    2015-01-01

    OBP18是蜜蜂气味结合蛋白质(odorant binding proteins,OBPs)家族中的成员,参与气味分子的识别,对嗅觉起着重要的作用.为研究蜜蜂OBP18基因功能及与抗螨性状的相关性,本研究以中华蜜蜂头部组织cDNA为模板,PCR扩增OBP18基因完整CDS序列,利用生物信息学方法分析其CDS序列及其编码的氨基酸序列,用RT-PCR方法检测OBP18基因在不同抗螨性状的中华蜜蜂头部组织中的相对表达量.结果表明:OBP18基因CDS全长为399 bp,编码132个氨基酸的分泌性蛋白,无跨膜螺旋,是比较保守的基因;RT-PCR检测在螨虫胁迫下的蜂螨抗性中华蜜蜂头部组织中OBP18基因表达量显著高于未受胁迫的抗性群体,及受到同等蜂螨胁迫的敏感性群体,显示中华蜜蜂OBP18基因的表达变化与蜂螨感染过程相关,提示OBP18基因在中华蜜蜂的抗螨行为中起着重要作用.

  15. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites infecting Apis mellifera colonies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yang, Bu; Peng, Guangda; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    The role of protozoan parasites in honey bee health and distribution in the world is not well understood. Therefore, we carried out a molecular survey for the presence of Crithidia mellificae and Apicystis bombi in the colonies of both non-native Apis mellifera and native Apis cerana japonica in Japan. We found that A. mellifera, but not A. c. japonica, colonies are parasitized with C. mellificae and A. bombi. Their absence in A. c. japonica colonies indicates that A. mellifera is their native host. Nevertheless, the prevalence in A. mellifera colonies is low compared with other pathogens such as viruses and Nosema microsporidia. Japanese C. mellificae isolates share well-conserved nuclear-encoded gene sequences with Swiss and US isolates. We have found two Japanese haplotypes (A and B) with two nucleotide differences in the kinetoplast-encoded cytochrome b sequence. The haplotype A is identical to Swiss isolate. These results demonstrate that C. mellificae and A. bombi distribute in Asia, Oceania, Europe, and South and North Americas.

  16. Molecular identification of chronic bee paralysis virus infection in Apis mellifera colonies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yang, Bu; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2012-07-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV), black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sac brood virus (SBV), previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6%) in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (-) strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985-2010) may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.

  17. Molecular Identification of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Infection in Apis mellifera Colonies in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Morimoto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV infection causes chronic paralysis and loss of workers in honey bee colonies around the world. Although CBPV shows a worldwide distribution, it had not been molecularly detected in Japan. Our investigation of Apis mellifera and Apis cerana japonica colonies with RT-PCR has revealed CBPV infection in A. mellifera but not A. c. japonica colonies in Japan. The prevalence of CBPV is low compared with that of other viruses: deformed wing virus (DWV, black queen cell virus (BQCV, Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV, and sac brood virus (SBV, previously reported in Japan. Because of its low prevalence (5.6% in A. mellifera colonies, the incidence of colony losses by CBPV infection must be sporadic in Japan. The presence of the (− strand RNA in dying workers suggests that CBPV infection and replication may contribute to their symptoms. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a geographic separation of Japanese isolates from European, Uruguayan, and mainland US isolates. The lack of major exchange of honey bees between Europe/mainland US and Japan for the recent 26 years (1985–2010 may have resulted in the geographic separation of Japanese CBPV isolates.

  18. Large pathogen screening reveals first report of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitizing Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menail, Ahmed Hichem; Piot, Niels; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida

    2016-06-01

    As it is most likely that global warming will also lead to a shift in pollinator-habitats northwards, the study of southern species becomes more and more important. Pathogen screenings in subspecies of Apis mellifera capable of withstanding higher temperatures, provide an insight into future pathogen host interactions. Screenings in different climate regions also provide a global perspective on the prevalence of certain pathogens. In this project, we performed a pathogen screening in Apis mellifera intermissa, a native subspecies of Algeria in northern Africa. Colonies were sampled from different areas in the region of Annaba over a period of two years. Several pathogens were detected, among them Apicystis bombi, Crithidia mellificae, Nosema ceranae, Paenibacillus larvae, Lake Sinai Virus, Sacbrood Virus and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV). Our screening also revealed a phoroid fly, Megaselia scalaris, parasitizing honey bee colonies, which we report here for the first time. In addition, we found DWV to be present in the adult flies and replicating virus in the larval stages of the fly, which could indicate that M. scalaris acts as a vector of DWV.

  19. Adaptive evolution of a key gene affecting queen and worker traits in the honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Clement F; Issa, Amer; Bunting, Alexandra C; Zayed, Amro

    2011-12-01

    The vitellogenin egg yolk precursor protein represents a well-studied case of social pleiotropy in the model organism Apis mellifera. Vitellogenin is associated with fecundity in queens and plays a major role in controlling division of labour in workers, thereby affecting both individual and colony-level fitness. We studied the molecular evolution of vitellogenin and seven other genes sequenced in a large population panel of Apis mellifera and several closely related species to investigate the role of social pleiotropy on adaptive protein evolution. We found a significant excess of nonsynonymous fixed differences between A. mellifera, A. cerana and A. florea relative to synonymous sites indicating high rates of adaptive evolution at vitellogenin. Indeed, 88% of amino acid changes were fixed by selection in some portions of the gene. Further, vitellogenin exhibited hallmark signatures of selective sweeps in A. mellifera, including a significant skew in the allele frequency spectrum, extreme levels of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium. Finally, replacement polymorphisms in vitellogenin were significantly enriched in parts of the protein involved in binding lipid, establishing a link between the gene's structure, function and effects on fitness. Our case study provides unequivocal evidence of historical and ongoing bouts of adaptive evolution acting on a key socially pleiotropic gene in the honey bee.

  20. Nosema Tolerant Honeybees (Apis mellifera) Escape Parasitic Manipulation of Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurze, Christoph; Le Conte, Yves; Dussaubat, Claudia;

    2015-01-01

    apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing...

  1. Cold Ambient Temperature Promotes Nosema spp. Intensity in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retschnig, Gina; Williams, Geoffrey R; Schneeberger, Annette; Neumann, Peter

    2017-02-09

    Interactions between parasites and environmental factors have been implicated in the loss of managed Western honey bee (=HB, Apis mellifera) colonies. Although laboratory data suggest that cold temperature may limit the spread of Nosema ceranae, an invasive species and now ubiquitous endoparasite of Western HBs, the impact of weather conditions on the distribution of this microsporidian in the field is poorly understood. Here, we conducted a survey for Nosema spp. using 18 Swiss apiaries (four colonies per apiary) over a period of up to 18 months. Samples consisting of 60 workers were collected monthly from each colony to estimate Nosema spp. intensity, i.e., the number of spores in positive samples using microscopy. Ambient apiary temperature was measured daily to estimate the proportion of days enabling HB flight (>10 °C at midday). The results show that Nosema spp. intensities were negatively correlated with the proportion of days enabling HB flight, thereby suggesting a significant and unexpected positive impact of cold ambient temperature on intensities, probably via regulation of defecation opportunities for infected hosts.

  2. Cold Ambient Temperature Promotes Nosema spp. Intensity in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Retschnig

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between parasites and environmental factors have been implicated in the loss of managed Western honey bee (=HB, Apis mellifera colonies. Although laboratory data suggest that cold temperature may limit the spread of Nosema ceranae, an invasive species and now ubiquitous endoparasite of Western HBs, the impact of weather conditions on the distribution of this microsporidian in the field is poorly understood. Here, we conducted a survey for Nosema spp. using 18 Swiss apiaries (four colonies per apiary over a period of up to 18 months. Samples consisting of 60 workers were collected monthly from each colony to estimate Nosema spp. intensity, i.e., the number of spores in positive samples using microscopy. Ambient apiary temperature was measured daily to estimate the proportion of days enabling HB flight (>10 °C at midday. The results show that Nosema spp. intensities were negatively correlated with the proportion of days enabling HB flight, thereby suggesting a significant and unexpected positive impact of cold ambient temperature on intensities, probably via regulation of defecation opportunities for infected hosts.

  3. Comparative analysis of C-terminal repetitive sequences of MRJP2 among six species of the genus Apis%蜜蜂属六蜂种间MRJP2基因C-端重复序列的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈飞英; ALBERT Stefan; 苏松坤; 楼程富; 钟伯雄; 戎映君; 陈盛禄

    2007-01-01

    构建了中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana,中蜂)8日龄工蜂头部cDNA文库,获得了中蜂王浆主蛋白2(major royal jelly protein 2,MRJP2)的全长cDNA序列,该序列长1 605 bp,包含一个编码468个氨基酸的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF).在中蜂MRJP2的cDNA序列的C-端,首次发现存在串联重复片段长度多态性(variable numbers of tandem repeat,VNTR).克隆并测定了蜜蜂属Apis内其他5个种的MRJP2基因的C-端重复序列,结果表明:在蜜蜂属的其他5个种中,C-端重复片段的核心序列是以碱基高度突变方式而表现出个体之间的多态性,而重复片段长度基本一致.中蜂与西方蜜蜂A.mellifera,大蜜蜂A.dorsata与黑大蜜蜂A.laboriosa,以及小蜜蜂A.florea与黑小蜜蜂A.andreniformis分别形成3个进化枝.中蜂和西方蜜蜂与大蜜蜂和黑大蜜蜂之间的亲缘关系较近,而与小蜜蜂和黑小蜜蜂的亲缘关系较远.

  4. Regulation of genes related to immune signaling and detoxification in Apis mellifera by an inhibitor of histone deacetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yee-Tung; Wu, Tsai-Chin; Yang, En-Cheng; Wu, Pei-Chi; Lin, Po-Tse; Wu, Yueh-Lung

    2017-01-01

    The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) is essential for the global economy due to its important role in ecosystems and agriculture as a pollinator of numerous flowering plants and crops. Pesticide abuse has greatly impacted honeybees and caused tremendous loss of honeybee colonies worldwide. The reasons for colony loss remain unclear, but involvement of pesticides and pathogen-pesticide interactions has been hypothesized. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) inhibit the activity of histone acetylase, which causes the hyperacetylation of histone cores and influences gene expression. In this study, sodium butyrate, an HDACi, was used as a dietary supplement for honeybees; after treatment, gene expression profiles were analyzed using quantitative PCR. The results showed that sodium butyrate up-regulated genes involved in anti-pathogen and detoxification pathways. The bioassay results showed that honeybees treated with sodium butyrate were more tolerant to imidacloprid. Additionally, sodium butyrate strengthened the immune response of honeybees to invasions of Nosema ceranae and viral infections. We also performed a bioassay in which honeybees were exposed to pesticides and pathogens. Our results provide additional data regarding the mechanism by which honeybees react to stress and the potential application of HDACis in beekeeping. PMID:28112264

  5. Limitations to the use of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae for driven pollination of cultivars: a case study with European pear (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Amarildo Sezerino

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of pollinators able to promote xenogamy is a decisive factor in the yield of orchards. As it is allogamous, due to gametophytic self-incompatibility, most European pear cultivars do not produce fruits with seeds in the absence of pollinating insects. Therefore, the correct management and quality of Apis mellifera hives installed in the orchards are indispensable to ensure economically viable yields. In this context, we aimed to evaluate some aspects of the driven pollination system with A. mellifera that can decisively interfere with pollination effectiveness in a commercial orchard of European pear under the ecological conditions of Santa Catarina’s Mountain Plateau, in Brazil’s South region. We observed low visitation of bees on the pear flowers, possibly due to two factors: floral competition and insufficient density of hives installed in the orchard. No pollen deposition was observed on the stigmas, something which confirms pollination failure in the area. The quality of rented hives showed differences between years, with presence of the mite Varroa destructor and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, which may have contributed to the depopulation of hives within the flowering period and, consequently, the decreased pollen deposition on the stigmas of flowers of the main fruit-producing cultivar.

  6. Research Progress in Malate Dehydrogenase(MDH) of Honeybees%蜜蜂(Apis)苹果酸脱氢酶同工酶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳荷; 张传溪; 胥保华; 陈盛禄

    2002-01-01

    苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)是糖代谢中重要的酶.在西方蜜蜂(Apis mellifera L.)中,MDH分为3个区带MDHⅠ、MDHⅡ和MDH Ⅲ.不同级型和不同发育阶段,MDHⅠ和MDH Ⅲ变化不大;MDHⅡ呈现多态现象,由a、b、c3个等位基因编码.东方蜜蜂(A.cerana F.)的MDH由S、F两个等位基因编码,也有报道它是单态性的.MDH在西方蜜蜂研究中应用较多,主要有处女王交配次数;蜂群中的劳动分工;蜜蜂种群遗传组成分析等.MDH和分子生物学的结合研究势必将推动蜜蜂研究的深入和发展.

  7. Reproductive interference between honeybee species in artificial sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Emily J; Koetz, Anna; Tan, Ken; Hinson, Eloise; Beekman, Madeleine; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2014-03-01

    Reproductive isolation between closely related species is often incomplete. The Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the Eastern hive bee, Apis cerana, have been allopatric for millions of years, but are nonetheless similar in morphology and behaviour. During the last century, the two species were brought into contact anthropogenically, providing potential opportunities for interspecific matings. Hybrids between A. mellifera and A. cerana are inviable, so natural interspecific matings are of concern because they may reduce the viability of A. cerana and A. mellifera populations - two of the world's most important pollinators. We examined the mating behaviour of A. mellifera and A. cerana queens and drones from Caoba Basin, China and Cairns, Australia. Drone mating flight times overlap in both areas. Analysis of the spermathecal contents of queens with species-specific genetic markers indicated that in Caoba Basin, 14% of A. mellifera queens mated with at least one A. cerana male, but we detected no A. cerana queens that had mated with A. mellifera males. Similarly, in Cairns, no A. cerana queens carried A. mellifera sperm, but one-third of A. mellifera queens had mated with at least one A. cerana male. No hybrid embryos were detected in eggs laid by interspecifically mated A. mellifera queens in either location. However, A. mellifera queens artificially inseminated with A. cerana sperm produced inviable hybrid eggs or unfertilized drones. This suggests that reproductive interference will impact the viability of honeybee populations wherever A. cerana and A. mellifera are in contact.

  8. Varroa destructor changes its cuticular hydrocarbons to mimic new hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Conte, Y; Huang, Z Y; Roux, M; Zeng, Z J; Christidès, J-P; Bagnères, A-G

    2015-06-01

    Varroa destructor (Vd) is a honeybee ectoparasite. Its original host is the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana, but it has also become a severe, global threat to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera. Previous studies have shown that Varroa can mimic a host's cuticular hydrocarbons (HC), enabling the parasite to escape the hygienic behaviour of the host honeybees. By transferring mites between the two honeybee species, we further demonstrate that Vd is able to mimic the cuticular HC of a novel host species when artificially transferred to this new host. Mites originally from A. cerana are more efficient than mites from A. mellifera in mimicking HC of both A. cerana and A. mellifera. This remarkable adaptability may explain their relatively recent host-shift from A. cerana to A. mellifera.

  9. Iridescent Virus and Nosema ceranae Linked to Honeybee Colony Collapse Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    added to tubes and allowed to sit at room temperature for 5 min. Tubes were washed using 100 mM ammonium bicarbonate ( ABC ) solution and then spun...down at 14,1 OOg for 30-40 min. The isolated proteins were then digested with 5 mL trypsin (Promega, USA) in 240 mL of ABC solution + 5 mL ACN...IGPISEVASGVK 12 ABM 94 72 1 VP4 protein 1 12 2008-08 13-04 1679 1679 2 out 1614 9 1485 0 35 2 82 617 0 IIV6 1 rilTTKVQNINIEK 14 NP 149513 1 050L 0

  10. Genomic analyses of the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, an emergent pathogen of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent steep declines in honey bee health have severely impacted the beekeeping industry, presenting new risks for agricultural commodities that depend on insect pollination. Honey bee declines could reflect increased pressures from parasites and pathogens. The incidence of the microsporidian pathog...

  11. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Lecocq; Annette Bruun Jensen; Per Kryger; Nieh, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators and their health is threatened worldwide by persistent exposure to a wide range of factors including pesticides, poor nutrition, and pathogens. Nosema ceranae is a ubiquitous microsporidian associated with high colony mortality. We used lab micro-colonies of honey bees and video analyses to track the effects of N. ceranae infection and exposure on a range of individual and social behaviours in young adult bees. We provide detailed data sho...

  12. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of honey bee viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and parasitic mites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bu; Peng, Guangda; Li, Tianbang; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2013-02-01

    China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in Chinese apiaries. We thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee RNA viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative Apis mellifera ligustica and native Apis cerana cerana colonies in China. We found the presence of black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), but not that of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) or Kashmir bee virus (KBV). DWV was the most prevalent in the tested samples. Phylogenies of Chinese viral isolates demonstrated that genetically heterogeneous populations of BQCV, CBPV, DWV, and A. cerana-infecting SBV, and relatively homogenous populations of IAPV and A. meliifera-infecting new strain of SBV with single origins, are spread in Chinese apiaries. Similar to previous observations in many countries, Nosema ceranae, but not Nosema apis, was prevalent in the tested samples. Crithidia mellificae, but not Apicystis bombi was found in five samples, including one A. c. cerana colony, demonstrating that C. mellificae is capable of infecting multiple honey bee species. Based on kinetoplast-encoded cytochrome b sequences, the C. mellificae isolate from A. c. cerana represents a novel haplotype with 19 nucleotide differences from the Chinese and Japanese isolates from A. m. ligustica. This suggests that A. c. cerana is the native host for this specific haplotype. The tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, was detected in one A. m. ligustica colony. Our results demonstrate that honey bee RNA viruses, N. ceranae, C. mellificae, and tracheal mites are present in Chinese apiaries, and some might be originated from native Asian honey bees.

  13. Helioviewer API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Helioviewer Project maintains a set of Public APIs with the goal of improving access to solar and heliospheric datasets to scientists, educators, developers,...

  14. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  15. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  16. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators and their health is threatened worldwide by persistent exposure to a wide range of factors including pesticides, poor nutrition, and pathogens. Nosema ceranae is a ubiquitous microsporidian associated with high colony mortality. We used lab...... micro-colonies of honey bees and video analyses to track the effects of N. ceranae infection and exposure on a range of individual and social behaviours in young adult bees. We provide detailed data showing that N. ceranae infection significantly accelerated the age polyethism of young bees, causing...... them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite...

  17. Interspecific utilisation of wax in comb building by honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, H. Randall; Radloff, Sarah E.; Duangphakdee, Orawan; Phaincharoen, Mananya

    2009-06-01

    Beeswaxes of honeybee species share some homologous neutral lipids; but species-specific differences remain. We analysed behavioural variation for wax choice in honeybees, calculated the Euclidean distances for different beeswaxes and assessed the relationship of Euclidean distances to wax choice. We tested the beeswaxes of Apis mellifera capensis, Apis florea, Apis cerana and Apis dorsata and the plant and mineral waxes Japan, candelilla, bayberry and ozokerite as sheets placed in colonies of A. m. capensis, A. florea and A. cerana. A. m. capensis accepted the four beeswaxes but removed Japan and bayberry wax and ignored candelilla and ozokerite. A. cerana colonies accepted the wax of A. cerana, A. florea and A. dorsata but rejected or ignored that of A. m. capensis, the plant and mineral waxes. A. florea colonies accepted A. cerana, A. dorsata and A. florea wax but rejected that of A. m. capensis. The Euclidean distances for the beeswaxes are consistent with currently prevailing phylogenies for Apis. Despite post-speciation chemical differences in the beeswaxes, they remain largely acceptable interspecifically while the plant and mineral waxes are not chemically close enough to beeswax for their acceptance.

  18. Parasites, pathogens, and pests of honeybees in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia is home to at least nine honey bee species, including the introduced Apis mellifera. Despite both A. mellifera and Apis cerana being widely employed for commerical beekeeping, the remaining non-managed species also have important ecological and economic roles on the continent. Species distribut...

  19. Varroa destructor virus 1: a new picorna-like virus in Varroa mites as well as honey bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongus, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Varroa destructor mite is an ectoparasite of the honey bee Apis mellifera. This species was recently differentiated from Varroa jacobsoni species which infests the Asian bee Apis cerana. Varroa mites feed entirely on the bee's haemolymph and have been associated with the spread of a number of viruse

  20. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  1. Asymptomatic presence of Nosema spp. in Spanish commercial apiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José Manuel; Puerta, Francisco; Cousinou, Mercedes; Dios-Palomares, Rafaela; Campano, Francisco; Redondo, Laura

    2012-10-01

    Nosemosis is caused by intracellular parasites (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae) that infect the midgut epithelial cells in adult honey bees. Recent studies relate N. ceranae to Colony Collapse Disorder and there is some suggestion that Nosema spp., especially N. ceranae, induces high mortality in honey bees, a fact that is considered as a serious threat for colony survival. 604 samples of adult honey bees for Nosema spp. analysis were collected from beekeeping colonies across Spain and were analysed using PCR with capillary electrophoresis. We also monitored 77 Andalusian apiaries for 2 years; the sampled hives were standard healthy colonies, without any special disease symptoms. We found 100% presence of Nosema spp. in some locations, indicating that this parasite was widespread throughout the country. The two year monitoring indicated that 87% of the hives with Nosema spp. remained viable, with normal honey production and biological development during this period of time. The results of these trials indicated that both N. ceranae and N. apis could be present in these beehives without causing disease symptom and that there is no evidence for the replacement of N. apis by N. ceranae, supporting the hypothesis that nosemosis is not the main reason of the collapse and death of beehives.

  2. Study of an API migration for two XML APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomei, T.T.; Czarnecki, K.; Lämmel, R.; Storm, T. van der; Brand, M.G.J. van den; Gasevic, D.; Gray, J.

    2010-01-01

    API migration refers to adapting an application such that its dependence on a given API (the source API) is eliminated in favor of depending on an alternative API (the target API) with the source and target APIs serving the same domain. One may attempt to automate API migration by code transformatio

  3. Crop pollination exposes honey bees to pesticides which alters their susceptibility to the gut pathogen Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent declines in honey bee populations and increasing demand for insect-pollinated crops raise concerns about pollinator shortages. Pesticide exposure and pathogens may interact to have strong negative effects on managed honey bee colonies. Such findings are of great concern given the large number...

  4. Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, D.

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the Change-Proneness of APIs and web APIs APIs and web APIs are used to expose existing business logic and, hence, to ease the reuse of functionalities across multiple software systems. Software systems can use the business logic of legacy systems by binding their APIs and web APIs. With t

  5. Healthcare Finder API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — All of the data used on the Finder.HealthCare.gov web application is available through this API. There are multiple collections of data available through the API. 1....

  6. NASA Techport API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA TechPort system provides a RESTful web services API to make technology project data available in a machine-readable format. This API can be used to export...

  7. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  8. Ligand selectivity in tachykinin and natalisin neuropeptidergic systems of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a devastating ectoparasite of the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana. Control of these mites in beehives is a challenge in part due to the lack of toxic agents that are specific to mites and not to the host honey bee. In searching for a specific toxic targ...

  9. Multiyear survey targeting disease incidence in US honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHK238 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plementary sex dete... 34 5.6 AC116984_95( AC116984 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoi... Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value DQ324975_1( DQ324975 |pid:none) Apis cerana com

  11. API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Shannon

    2010-09-01

    The API Global Sourcing Strategies 2010 Conference, held in Berlin, included topics covering new developments in the field of global sourcing of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). This conference report highlights selected presentations on development in Eastern API markets, specifically India and China, factors influencing changes in global API sourcing, and risk mitigation in API sourcing.

  12. 阿坝蜜蜂的现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金涛; 王晓玲; 胡永松

    2010-01-01

    @@ 蜜蜂在分类学上属昆虫纲膜翅目蜜蜂总科.世界目前广泛饲养的主要有西方蜜蜂(Apis mellifera)和中华蜜蜂(或称东方蜜蜂)(Apis cerana) 两大类.目前全世界已知蜜蜂约1.5万种,中国已知约1 000种.

  13. Google Ajax Search API

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Use the Google Ajax Search API to integrateweb search, image search, localsearch, and other types of search intoyour web site by embedding a simple, dynamicsearch box to display search resultsin your own web pages using a fewlines of JavaScript. For those who do not want to write code,the search wizards and solutions builtwith the Google Ajax Search API generatecode to accomplish common taskslike adding local search results to a GoogleMaps API mashup, adding videosearch thumbnails to your web site, oradding a news reel with the latest up todate stories to your blog. More advanced users can

  14. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  15. Mars Rover Photos API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This API is designed to collect image data gathered by NASA's Curiosity, Opportunity, and Spirit rovers on Mars and make it more easily available to other...

  16. GIBS API for Developers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — API using Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) designed to deliver global, full-resolution satellite imagery to users in a highly responsive manner, enabling...

  17. IBM System i APIs at Work

    CERN Document Server

    Vining, Bruce; Hawkins, Ron

    2007-01-01

    This new edition of the bestselling i5 application programming interface (API) book includes powerful new APIs and updated code to give programmers a working knowledge of the APIs available under i5/OS. Using real business-world examples, this book explains APIs that serve webpages, list APIs, APIs that work with user spaces, dynamic index APIs, APIs that retrieve system values, job information and job queue information APIs, APIs that work with data queues, APIs for error handling and message handling, and spool file APIs, among many others. Completely revised and including eight new chapters

  18. Contracting the Facebook API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Rubinger

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper we present an experience report on applying Microsoft's new code contract system for the .NET framework to the Facebook API.We wrote contracts for several classes in the Facebook API wrapper which allows Microsoft .NET developers to implement Facebook applications. We evaluated the usefulness of these contracts during implementation of a new Facebook application. Our experience indicates that having code contracts provides a better and quicker software development experience.

  19. Mars Atmospheric Aggregation System API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The {MAAS} API is an open source REST API built to help make it easier and more efficient to build interactive applications that want to utilize the wealth of...

  20. Data.gov CKAN API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data.gov catalog is powered by CKAN, a powerful open source data platform that includes a robust API. Please be aware that data.gov and the data.gov CKAN API...

  1. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per; Nieh, James C

    2016-02-25

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators and their health is threatened worldwide by persistent exposure to a wide range of factors including pesticides, poor nutrition, and pathogens. Nosema ceranae is a ubiquitous microsporidian associated with high colony mortality. We used lab micro-colonies of honey bees and video analyses to track the effects of N. ceranae infection and exposure on a range of individual and social behaviours in young adult bees. We provide detailed data showing that N. ceranae infection significantly accelerated the age polyethism of young bees, causing them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite manipulation to increase colony infection. However, reduction in queen contacts could help bees limit the spread of infection. Such accelerated age polyethism may provide a form of behavioural immunity, particularly if it is elicited by a wide variety of pathogens.

  2. Effect of flumethrin on survival and olfactory learning in honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Flumethrin has been widely used as an acaricide for the control of Varroa mites in commercial honeybee keeping throughout the world for many years. Here we test the mortality of the Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana after treatment with flumethrin. We also ask (1 how bees react to the odor of flumethrin, (2 whether its odor induces an innate avoidance response, (3 whether its taste transmits an aversive reinforcing component in olfactory learning, and (4 whether its odor or taste can be associated with reward in classical conditioning. Our results show that flumethrin has a negative effect on Apis ceranàs lifespan, induces an innate avoidance response, acts as a punishing reinforcer in olfactory learning, and interferes with the association of an appetitive conditioned stimulus. Furthermore flumethrin uptake within the colony reduces olfactory learning over an extended period of time.

  3. Web API Fragility: How Robust is Your Web API Client

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-to-application interaction. A large number of mobile applications makes use of web APIs to integrate services into apps. Each Web API’s evolution pace is determined by their respective developer and mobile application developers a

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSD875 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9 0.086 (Q6DAV7) RecName: Full=DNA repair protein radC homolog; &BX9508... 35 1.6 DQ324946_1( DQ324946 |pid:none) Apis cerana complem...entary sex dete... 35 1.6 (Q54FD8) RecName: Full=Protein psiD; Flags: Precursor; 35

  5. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  6. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  7. Contracting the Facebook API

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an explosive growth in the popularity of online social networks such as Facebook. In a new twist, third party developers are now able to create their own web applications which plug into Facebook and work with Facebook's "social" data, enabling the entire Facebook user base of more than 400 million active users to use such applications. These client applications can contain subtle errors that can be hard to debug if they misuse the Facebook API. In this paper w...

  8. Volatile organic compounds of Thai honeys produced from several floral sources by different honey bee species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamayutanon, Praetinee; Angeli, Sergio; Thakeow, Prodpran; Abraham, John; Disayathanoowat, Terd; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2017-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of four monofloral and one multifloral of Thai honeys produced by Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Apis mellifera were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The floral sources were longan, sunflower, coffee, wild flowers (wild) and lychee. Honey originating from longan had more VOCs than all other floral sources. Sunflower honey had the least numbers of VOCs. cis-Linalool oxide, trans-linalool oxide, ho-trienol, and furan-2,5-dicarbaldehyde were present in all the honeys studied, independent of their floral origin. Interestingly, 2-phenylacetaldehyde was detected in all honey sample except longan honey produced by A. cerana. Thirty-two VOCs were identified as possible floral markers. After validating differences in honey volatiles from different floral sources and honeybee species, the results suggest that differences in quality and quantity of honey volatiles are influenced by both floral source and honeybee species. The group of honey volatiles detected from A. cerana was completely different from those of A. mellifera and A. dorsata. VOCs could therefore be applied as chemical markers of honeys and may reflect preferences of shared floral sources amongst different honeybee species. PMID:28192487

  9. Twitter manager GO API intended for GNU Social API

    OpenAIRE

    Janiga, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The bachelor’s thesis had two goals. The first one was to create API for GO programming language that communicates with GNU Social API. The second one was to create an application that uses the mentioned API. The main purpose of creating the application was to reduce the time spent with the login and logout of the accounts by the members in the white team. The application is intended for training purposes in JYVSECTEC project at JAMK University of Applied Sciences. JYVSECTEC sta...

  10. A Review on Genomics APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Swaminathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant improvement and falling prices of whole human genome Next Generation Sequencing (NGS has resulted in rapid adoption of genomic information at both clinics and research institutions. Considered together, the complexity of genomics data, due to its large volume and diversity along with the need for genomic data sharing, has resulted in the creation of Application Programming Interface (API for secure, modular, interoperable access to genomic data from different applications, platforms, and even organizations. The Genomics APIs are a set of special protocols that assist software developers in dealing with multiple genomic data sources for building seamless, interoperable applications leading to the advancement of both genomic and clinical research. These APIs help define a standard for retrieval of genomic data from multiple sources as well as to better package genomic information for integration with Electronic Health Records. This review covers three currently available Genomics APIs: a Google Genomics, b SMART Genomics, and c 23andMe. The functionalities, reference implementations (if available and authentication protocols of each API are reviewed. A comparative analysis of the different features across the three APIs is provided in the Discussion section. Though Genomics APIs are still under active development and have yet to reach widespread adoption, they hold the promise to make building of complicated genomics applications easier with downstream constructive effects on healthcare.

  11. Intro to the Zotero API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Morton

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use python with the Zotero API to interact with your Zotero library. The Zotero API is a powerful interface that would allow you to build a complete Zotero client from scratch if you so desired. But like most APIs, it works in small, discrete steps, so we have to build our way up to the complicated requests we might want to use to access our Zotero libraries. But this incremental building gives us plenty of time to learn as we go along.

  12. Imidacloprid alters foraging and decreases bee avoidance of predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Chen, Weiwen; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Yuchong; Nieh, James C

    2014-01-01

    Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb) imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana) showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera), to other important bee species.

  13. Imidacloprid alters foraging and decreases bee avoidance of predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera, to other important bee species.

  14. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  15. Winter losses of honeybee colonies (Hymenoptera: Apidae): the role of infestations with Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Marc O; Ritter, Wolfgang; Pettis, Jeff S; Neumann, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Multiple infections of managed honeybee, Apis mellifera, colonies are inevitable due to the ubiquitous ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor and might be an underlying cause of winter losses. Here we investigated the role of adult small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, alone and in combination with V. destructor for winter losses and for infections with the microsporidian endoparasite Nosema ceranae. We found no significant influence of A. tumida and V. destructor alone or in combination on the numbers of N. ceranae spores. Likewise, A. tumida alone had no significant effects on winter losses, which is most likely due to the observed high winter mortality of the adult beetles. Therefore, our data suggest that A. tumida is unlikely to contribute to losses of overwintering honeybee colonies. However, high losses occurred in all groups highly infested with V. destructor, supporting the central role of the mite for colony losses.

  16. Interspecific variation in beeswax as a biological construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Robert; Breed, Michael D; Greenberg, Alan R; Otis, Gard

    2006-10-01

    Beeswax is a multicomponent material used by bees in the genus Apis to house larvae and store honey and pollen. We characterized the mechanical properties of waxes from four honeybee species: Apis mellifera L., Apis andreniformis L., Apis dorsata L. and two subspecies of Apis cerana L. In order to isolate the material effects from the architectural properties of nest comb, we formed raw wax in to right, circular cylindrical samples, and compressed them in an electromechanical tensometer. From the resulting stress-strain curves, values for yield stress, yield strain, stress and strain at the proportional limit, stiffness, and resilience were obtained. Apis dorsata wax was stiffer and had a higher yield stress and stress at the proportional limit than all of the other waxes. The waxes of A. cerana and A. mellifera had intermediate strength and stiffness, and A. andreniformis wax was the least strong, stiff and resilient. All of the waxes had similar strain values at the proportional limit and yield point. The observed differences in wax mechanical properties correlate with the nesting ecology of these species. A. mellifera and A. cerana nest in cavities that protect the nest from environmental stresses, whereas the species with the strongest and stiffest wax, A. dorsata, constructs relatively heavy nests attached to branches of tall trees, exposing them to substantially greater mechanical forces. The wax of A. andreniformis was the least strong, stiff and resilient, and their nests have low masses relative to other species in the genus and, although not built in cavities, are constructed on lower, often shielded branches that can absorb the forces of wind and rain.

  17. Detection of neural activity in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a "hot defensive bee ball".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Ugajin

    Full Text Available Anti-predator behaviors are essential to survival for most animals. The neural bases of such behaviors, however, remain largely unknown. Although honeybees commonly use their stingers to counterattack predators, the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana japonica uses a different strategy to fight against the giant hornet (Vespa mandarinia japonica. Instead of stinging the hornet, Japanese honeybees form a "hot defensive bee ball" by surrounding the hornet en masse, killing it with heat. The European honeybee (A. mellifera ligustica, on the other hand, does not exhibit this behavior, and their colonies are often destroyed by a hornet attack. In the present study, we attempted to analyze the neural basis of this behavior by mapping the active brain regions of Japanese honeybee workers during the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. First, we identified an A. cerana homolog (Acks = Apis cerana kakusei of kakusei, an immediate early gene that we previously identified from A. mellifera, and showed that Acks has characteristics similar to kakusei and can be used to visualize active brain regions in A. cerana. Using Acks as a neural activity marker, we demonstrated that neural activity in the mushroom bodies, especially in Class II Kenyon cells, one subtype of mushroom body intrinsic neurons, and a restricted area between the dorsal lobes and the optic lobes was increased in the brains of Japanese honeybee workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball. In addition, workers exposed to 46°C heat also exhibited Acks expression patterns similar to those observed in the brains of workers involved in the formation of a hot defensive bee ball, suggesting that the neural activity observed in the brains of workers involved in the hot defensive bee ball mainly reflects thermal stimuli processing.

  18. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  19. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) SOAP API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The purpose of the SOAP based API is to provide the full Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content to the consumer. It is anticipated that this API will be...

  20. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  1. The Genome of Nosema sp. Isolate YNPr: A Comparative Analysis of Genome Evolution within the Nosema/Vairimorpha Clade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhenggang; Li, Tian; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Debrunner-Vossbrinck, Bettina A.; Zhou, Zeyang; Vossbrinck, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian parasite designated here as Nosema sp. Isolate YNPr was isolated from the cabbage butterfly Pieris rapae collected in Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The genome was sequenced by Illumina sequencing and compared to those of two related members of the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade, Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis. Based upon assembly statistics, the Nosema sp. YNPr genome is 3.36 x 106bp with a G+C content of 23.18% and 2,075 protein coding sequences. An “ACCCTT” motif is present approximately 50-bp upstream of the start codon, as reported from other members of the clade and from Encephalitozoon cuniculi, a sister taxon. Comparative small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) analysis as well as genome-wide phylogenetic analysis confirms a closer relationship between N. ceranae and Nosema sp. YNPr than between the two honeybee parasites N. ceranae and N. apis. The more closely related N. ceranae and Nosema sp. YNPr show similarities in a number of structural characteristics such as gene synteny, gene length, gene number, transposon composition and gene reduction. Based on transposable element content of the assemblies, the transposon content of Nosema sp. YNPr is 4.8%, that of N. ceranae is 3.7%, and that of N. apis is 2.5%, with large differences in the types of transposons present among these 3 species. Gene function annotation indicates that the number of genes participating in most metabolic activities is similar in all three species. However, the number of genes in the transcription, general function, and cysteine protease categories is greater in N. apis than in the other two species. Our studies further characterize the evolution of the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade of microsporidia. These organisms maintain variable but very reduced genomes. We are interested in understanding the effects of genetic drift versus natural selection on genome size in the microsporidia and in developing a testable hypothesis for further studies on the genomic

  2. A Comparative Study of Environmental Conditions, Bee Management and the Epidemiological Situation in Apiaries Varying in the Level of Colony Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pohorecka Krystyna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Explaining the reasons for the increased mortality of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L. in recent years, in Europe and North America, has become a global research priority in apicultural science. Our project was aimed at determining the relationship between environmental conditions, beekeeping techniques, the epidemiological situation of pathogens, and the mortality rate of bee colonies. Dead bee samples were collected by beekeepers from 2421 colonies. The samples were examined for the presence of V. destructor, Nosema spp. (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV, acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV, deformed wing virus (DWV, and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV.

  3. 蜂蜜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    本刊编辑部

    2001-01-01

    本品为蜜蜂科昆虫中华蜜蜂Apis cerana Fabricius或意大利蜂Apis mellifera Linnaeus所酿的蜜。春至秋季采收,滤过。 【性状】本品为半透明、带光泽、浓稠的液体,白色至淡黄色或橘黄色至黄褐色,放久或遇冷渐有白色颗粒状结晶析出。气芳香,味极甜。

  4. Honey Bees Modulate Their Olfactory Learning in the Presence of Hornet Predators and Alarm Component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Wang

    Full Text Available In Southeast Asia the native honey bee species Apis cerana is often attacked by hornets (Vespa velutina, mainly in the period from April to November. During the co-evolution of these two species honey bees have developed several strategies to defend themselves such as learning the odors of hornets and releasing alarm components to inform other mates. However, so far little is known about whether and how honey bees modulate their olfactory learning in the presence of the hornet predator and alarm components of honey bee itself. In the present study, we test for associative olfactory learning of A. cerana in the presence of predator odors, the alarm pheromone component isopentyl acetate (IPA, or a floral odor (hexanal as a control. The results show that bees can detect live hornet odors, that there is almost no association between the innately aversive hornet odor and the appetitive stimulus sucrose, and that IPA is less well associated with an appetitive stimulus when compared with a floral odor. In order to imitate natural conditions, e.g. when bees are foraging on flowers and a predator shows up, or alarm pheromone is released by a captured mate, we tested combinations of the hornet odor and floral odor, or IPA and floral odor. Both of these combinations led to reduced learning scores. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the prey-predator system between A. cerana and V. velutina.

  5. Automated information extraction from web APIs documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Papa Alioune; Pedrinaci, Carlos; Domingue, John

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental characteristic of Web APIs is the fact that, de facto, providers hardly follow any standard practices while implementing, publishing, and documenting their APIs. As a consequence, the discovery and use of these services by third parties is significantly hampered. In order to achieve further automation while exploiting Web APIs we present an approach for automatically extracting relevant technical information from the Web pages documenting them. In particular we have devised two ...

  6. Accessing Inaccessible Android APIs: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, LI; Bissyande, Tegawendé François D Assise; Le Traon, Yves; Klein, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    As Android becomes a de-facto choice of development platform for mobile apps, developers extensively leverage its accompanying Software Development Kit to quickly build their apps. This SDK comes with a set of APIs which developers may find limited in comparison to what system apps can do or what framework developers are preparing to harness capabilities of new generation devices. Thus, developers may attempt to explore in advance the normally “inaccessible” APIs for building unique API-based...

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12122-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available andersenii chromosome ... 37 1.4 AY350618_1( AY350618 |pid:none) Apis mellifera complementary sex d... 37 1...9( AL034559 |pid:none) Plasmodium falciparum MAL3P7, com... 37 1.4 AY569696_1( AY569696 |pid:none) Apis mellifera complementary...hromo... 36 4.0 AY569694_1( AY569694 |pid:none) Apis mellifera complementary sex d... 36 4.0 (A5E1T3) RecNam.... 35 8.9 DQ324999_1( DQ324999 |pid:none) Apis cerana complementary sex dete... 35....2 CP001327_10( CP001327 |pid:none) Micromonas sp. RCC299 chromosome ... 35 5.2 DQ325133_1( DQ325133 |pid:none) Apis mellifera comple

  8. BusinessUSA Resource Access API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — BusinessUSA connects businesses to government services and information. The API provides access to resource abstracts including programs, services, data, events, and...

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN EFEK HEPATOPROTEKTIF DAUN BAKAU API-API PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    safrina dyah hardiningtyas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan ekstrak kasar daun api-api putih yang memiliki aktivitas antioksidan terbaik, menentukan kandungan fitokimia dan efek Hepatoprotektif ekstrak kasar yang dipilih secara in vivo. Daun api-api putih diekstrak menggunakan tiga jenis pelarut, yakni metanol, etil asetat dan n-heksana. Dalam uji in vivo dilakukan evaluasi terhadap kadar malondialdehid (MDA, enzim aspartat transaminase (AST, enzim alanin transaminase (ALT, dan histopatologi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstraksi daun api-api putih dengan pelarut etil asetat menghasilkan aktivitas antioksidan terbaik dengan kandungan fitokimia terdiri dari flavonoid dan steroid/triterpenoid. Pemberian ekstrak etil asetat daun api-api putih pada tikus yang telah diinduksi CCl4 dapat menormalkan berbagai parameter biokimia stres oksidatif (kadar MDA, AST, dan ALT dibandingkan dengan standar Silymarin. Ekstrak daun api-api putih berpotensi untuk melindungi hati tikus dari kerusakan oksidatif yang diinduksi CCl4. Efek Hepatoprotektif ekstrak daun api-api putih berkorelasi dengan aktivitas antioksidannya.Kata kunci: antioksidan, Avicennia marina, ekstrak, hepatoprotektor

  10. Validation of the Parlay API through prototyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellenthal, J.W.; Planken, F.J.M.; Wegdam, M.

    2001-01-01

    The desire within the telecommunications world for new and faster business growth has been a major drive towards the development of open network API. Over the past 7 years several (semi) standardization groups have announced work on network API, including TINA-C, JAIN, IEEE P1520, INforum, 3GPP, JAI

  11. How do developers use APIs? A case study in concurrency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Kiniry, Joseph; Huisman, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    With the omnipresent usage of APIs in software development, it has become important to analyse how the routines and functionalities of APIs are actually used. This information is in particular useful for API developers, to make decisions about future updates of the API. However, also for developers

  12. Web API Growing Pains: Loosely Coupled yet Strongly Tied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Web APIs provide a systematic and extensible approach for application-toapplication interaction. Developers using web APIs are forced to accompany the API providers in their software evolution tasks. In order to understand the distress caused by this imposition on web API client developers we perfor

  13. Analysis and Applications API eBay

    OpenAIRE

    ŠIK, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis "Analysis and Applications API eBay" is to create application based on the use of Application Programming Interface (API), released by eBay. The theoretical part is focused on explaining the fundamental issue of Internet auctions, e-commmerce, comparsion of auction portals and term "trust" as a key attribute of e-commerce. The practical part is based on analyse of principles and instruments of eBay API and create an application based on this interface. The ...

  14. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas;

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...... lightweight debugging models scale well, they can currently only debug a subset of bug classes. DySectAPI fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySectAPI scales and can run with a low overhead...

  15. REVIEW: The Diversity of Indigenous Honey Bee Species of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOESILAWATI HADISOESILO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that Indonesia has the most diverse honey bee species in the world. At least five out of nine species of honey bees are native to Indonesia namely Apis andreniformis, A. dorsata, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi, and A. nigrocincta. One species, A. florea, although it was claimed to be a species native to Indonesia, it is still debatable whether it is really found in Indonesia or not. The new species, A. nuluensis, which is found in Sabah, Borneo is likely to be found in Kalimantan but it has not confirmed yet. This paper discusses briefly the differences among those native honey bees.

  16. Tratamentos alternativos no combate à Varroa: aplicação na apicultura biológica em Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro

    OpenAIRE

    Vilas-Boas, Miguel

    2005-01-01

    A varroose é urna doença parasitária externa das abelhas causada por um ácaro denominado por Varroa destructor. Este parasita original mente presente nas abelhas melíferas asiáticas Apis cerana, onde coexiste numa relação simbiótica parasita/hospedeiro,foi detectado pela primeira vez em 1963 em colónias de abelhas Appis mellífera. Este salto imediato não Ihes permitiu criar os seus mecanismos de resistência ao parasita, pelo que se verifica actualmente urna mortalidade eleva...

  17. Real World Uses For Nagios APIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Janice

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the Nagios 4 APIs and how the NASA Advanced Supercomputing at Ames Research Center is employing them to upgrade its graphical status display (the HUD) and explain why it's worth trying to use them yourselves.

  18. BeXRB Monitor Data API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples. This is a monitor using data from Swift/BAT, MAXI and Fermi/GBM...

  19. ChemSpell Web Service API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The ChemSpell Web Service API provides chemical name spell checking and chemical name synonym look-up. ChemSpell contains more than 1.3 million chemical names...

  20. System for Award Management (SAM) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The SAM API is a RESTful method of retrieving public information about the businesses, organizations, or individuals (referred to as entities) within the SAM entity...

  1. Pollinator-mediated selection on nectary depth in Urophysa (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollinator-mediated selection has been considered to be one of major factors that shapes the evolution of flowers by matching flowers to their pollinators on traits associated with attraction of pollinators or mechanical fit. The match between nectary depth, which means the length of the tubular structure formed in many plant species to hide the nectary and store nectar, and the mouthparts length of its major nectar-foraging pollinators has been repeatedly demonstrated as an example, because this trait have shown a positive relationship with pollen removal and deposition in experimental manipulations in many synpetalous plants and orchid family. However, it remains unclear how pollinator-mediated selection affects the evolution of nectary depth in choripetalous and actinomorphic flowers, such as most flowers in Ranunculaceae. Here we investigated floral characteristics and pollinators in Urophysa rockii Ulbr. and U. henryi (Oliv. Ulbr., as they are quite the same in habitat, anthesis and morphological characteristics except for nectary depth. Both of these species have flat white sepals and yellow petals each has a spatial structure at the base that contains nectar, but the nectary depth of U. rockii is deeper than that of U. henryi, for the former petals are shortly spurred about 3-4mm in length while the latter are saccate. Meanwhile, the flowers of both species are most frequently visited by Apis cerana, the Chinese honey bee, and one or two species of hover fly, Syrphidae, but only A. cerana was able to forage nectar in U. rockii while all visitors can forage nectar in U. henryi. A. cerana always lands on the center of a flower and projects its proboscis into each petal when its thorax touches anthers and stigmas. The difference between two species is that U. rockii was visited by A. cerana with a higher frequency, longer visiting time per flower and more activities on flowers than U. henryi. Besides, the petal width and its nectary depth of

  2. APIs and Researchers: The Emperor's New Clothes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edmond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Europeana Cloud (eCloud project, Trinity College Dublin investigated best practice in the use of web services, such as APIs, for accessing large data sets from cultural heritage collections. This research looked into the provision and use of APIs, and moreover, whether or not more customised programmatic access to datasets is what researchers want or need. In order to understand whether current patterns of API usage reflect a skills gap on the part of researchers or a mismatch of tool to purpose, we looked not only at the creators and developer/users of APIs, but also at humanists already re-using big data; approaches in cultural heritage institutions and other research infrastructures to bring API use to non-technical audiences; and the kinds of training and other support services available or emerging within the data-intensive humanities research lifecycle. We conducted both desk research and a series of 11 interviews with figures working as researchers, developers or data providers, including figures from both the API development and the data usage communities. This research, conducted under the eCloud project and supported by the European Commission’s ICT Policy and Support Programme (Grant number 325091, was begun in March 2014 and is now in its concluding validation stage. The results of the research are not yet finalised, but the contribution is already emerging of this work to the debate about APIs being either the way forward for digital cultural heritage collections, or the Emperor’s New Clothes (or maybe a bit of both.

  3. CALIBRATION, OPTIMIZATION, AND SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ALGORITHMS APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACE (COSU-API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, and Parameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) tool development, here fore referred to as the Calibration, Optimization, and Sensitivity and Uncertainty Algorithms API (COSU-API), was initially d...

  4. Advanced API security securing APIs with OAuth 2.0, OpenID Connect, JWS, and JWE

    CERN Document Server

    Siriwardena, Prabath

    2014-01-01

    Advanced API Security is a complete reference to the next wave of challenges in enterprise security--securing public and private APIs. API adoption in both consumer and enterprises has gone beyond predictions. It has become the 'coolest' way of exposing business functionalities to the outside world. Both your public and private APIs, need to be protected, monitored and managed. Security is not an afterthought, but API security has evolved a lot in last five years. The growth of standards, out there, has been exponential. That's where AdvancedAPI Security comes in--to wade through the weeds

  5. Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana possesses a vibrational "stop signal," which can be triggered by predator attacks upon foragers and inhibits waggle dancing. Large hornet attacks were more dangerous and resulted in higher bee mortality. Per attack at the colony level, large hornets elicited more stop signals than small hornets. Unexpectedly, stop signals elicited by large hornets (SS large hornet had a significantly higher vibrational fundamental frequency than those elicited by small hornets (SS small hornet and were more effective at inhibiting waggle dancing. Stop signals resulting from attacks upon the nest entrance (SS nest were produced by foragers and guards and were significantly longer in pulse duration than stop signals elicited by attacks upon foragers (SS forager. Unlike SS forager, SS nest were targeted at dancing and non-dancing foragers and had the common effect, tuned to hornet threat level, of inhibiting bee departures from the safe interior of the nest. Meanwhile, nest defenders were triggered by the bee alarm pheromone and live hornet presence to heat-ball the hornet. In A. cerana, sophisticated recruitment communication that encodes food location, the waggle dance, is therefore matched with an inhibitory/alarm signal that encodes information about the context of danger and its threat level.

  6. Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Dong, Shihao; Li, Xinyu; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Chao; Li, Jianjun; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-01

    Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana possesses a vibrational "stop signal," which can be triggered by predator attacks upon foragers and inhibits waggle dancing. Large hornet attacks were more dangerous and resulted in higher bee mortality. Per attack at the colony level, large hornets elicited more stop signals than small hornets. Unexpectedly, stop signals elicited by large hornets (SS large hornet) had a significantly higher vibrational fundamental frequency than those elicited by small hornets (SS small hornet) and were more effective at inhibiting waggle dancing. Stop signals resulting from attacks upon the nest entrance (SS nest) were produced by foragers and guards and were significantly longer in pulse duration than stop signals elicited by attacks upon foragers (SS forager). Unlike SS forager, SS nest were targeted at dancing and non-dancing foragers and had the common effect, tuned to hornet threat level, of inhibiting bee departures from the safe interior of the nest. Meanwhile, nest defenders were triggered by the bee alarm pheromone and live hornet presence to heat-ball the hornet. In A. cerana, sophisticated recruitment communication that encodes food location, the waggle dance, is therefore matched with an inhibitory/alarm signal that encodes information about the context of danger and its threat level.

  7. Unified Medical Language System Terminology Services (UTS) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The UTS API is intended for application developers to perform Web service calls and retrieve UMLS data within their own applications. The UTS API provides the...

  8. MODAPS Web Services API for LANCE-MODIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODAPS Web Services API for LANCE-MODIS. This Application Programming Interface (API) encompasses a library of functions that provides programmatic data access to...

  9. Comparing Speech Recognition Systems (Microsoft API, Google API And CMU Sphinx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veton Këpuska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The idea of this paper is to design a tool that will be used to test and compare commercial speech recognition systems, such as Microsoft Speech API and Google Speech API, with open-source speech recognition systems such as Sphinx-4. The best way to compare automatic speech recognition systems in different environments is by using some audio recordings that were selected from different sources and calculating the word error rate (WER. Although the WER of the three aforementioned systems were acceptable, it was observed that the Google API is superior.

  10. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  11. 47 CFR 61.46 - Adjustments to the API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the API. 61.46 Section 61.46... Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.46 Adjustments to the API. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (d) and... carrier must calculate an API for each affected basket pursuant to the following methodology: APIt =...

  12. Standard methods for Apis mellifera propolis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propolis is one of the most fascinating honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) products. It is a plant derived product that bees produce from resins that they collect from different plant organs and with which they mix beeswax. Propolis is a building material and a protective agent in the beehive. It also pl...

  13. The Apis mellifera filamentous virus genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double strand DNA molecule of approximately 498’500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 251 non overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), e...

  14. Integrated platform and API for electrophysiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Andrey; Stoewer, Adrian; Leonhardt, Aljoscha; Rautenberg, Philipp L; Kellner, Christian J; Garbers, Christian; Wachtler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in technology and methodology have led to growing amounts of increasingly complex neuroscience data recorded from various species, modalities, and levels of study. The rapid data growth has made efficient data access and flexible, machine-readable data annotation a crucial requisite for neuroscientists. Clear and consistent annotation and organization of data is not only an important ingredient for reproducibility of results and re-use of data, but also essential for collaborative research and data sharing. In particular, efficient data management and interoperability requires a unified approach that integrates data and metadata and provides a common way of accessing this information. In this paper we describe GNData, a data management platform for neurophysiological data. GNData provides a storage system based on a data representation that is suitable to organize data and metadata from any electrophysiological experiment, with a functionality exposed via a common application programming interface (API). Data representation and API structure are compatible with existing approaches for data and metadata representation in neurophysiology. The API implementation is based on the Representational State Transfer (REST) pattern, which enables data access integration in software applications and facilitates the development of tools that communicate with the service. Client libraries that interact with the API provide direct data access from computing environments like Matlab or Python, enabling integration of data management into the scientist's experimental or analysis routines.

  15. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas;

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...

  16. How Do Developers Use APIs? A Case Study in Concurrency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Stefan; Kiniry, Joseph; Huisman, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    With the omnipresent usage of APIs in software development, it has become important to analyse how the routines and functionalities of APIs are actually used. This information is in particular useful for API developers, to make decisions about future updates of the API. However, also for developers...... of static analysis and verification tools this information is highly important, because it indicates where and how to put the most efficient effort in annotating APIs, to make them usable for the static analysis and verification tools. This paper presents an analysis of the usage of the routines...

  17. An Implementation Model of Parlay MMCCS API Based on SIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN You-qing; SHEN Su-bin

    2006-01-01

    Parlay Multi Media Call Control Services(MMCCS) Application Programming Interfaces (API) based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is essential for the implementation of Parlay Call Control (CC) API. This paper first proposes an implementation model of Parlay MMCCS API based on SIP, then presents a mapping between SIP and MMCCS API as far as methods and parameters are concerned, illustrates corresponding relationships between different components of SIP and MMCCS API by means of an application collaboration diagram, and finally presents an application using Java codes as well as some SIP messages. The application shows that a majority of MMCCS API based on SIP can be implemented and therefore verifies our mapping between MMCCS API and SIP.

  18. Stable genetic diversity despite parasite and pathogen spread in honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Laura; Muñoz, Irene; Cepero, Almudena; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Serrano, José; Higes, Mariano; De la Rúa, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    In the last decades, the rapid spread of diseases, such as varroosis and nosemosis, associated with massive honey bee colonies mortality around the world has significantly decreased the number and size of honey bee populations and possibly their genetic diversity. Here, we compare the genetic diversity of Iberian honey bee colonies in two samplings performed in 2006 and 2010 in relation to the presence of the pathogenic agents Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae, and Varroa destructor in order to determine whether parasite and pathogen spread in honey bee colonies reflects changes in genetic diversity. We found that the genetic diversity remained similar, while the incidence of N. ceranae increased and the incidence of N. apis and V. destructor decreased slightly. These results indicate that the genetic diversity was not affected by the presence of these pathogenic agents in the analyzed period. However, the two groups of colonies with and without Nosema/Varroa detected showed significant genetic differentiation (G test). A detailed analysis of the allelic segregation of microsatellite loci in Nosema/Varroa-negative colonies and parasitized ones revealed two outlier loci related to genes involved in immune response.

  19. Social apoptosis in honey bee superorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Paul; Lin, Zheguang; Buawangpong, Ninat; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Eusocial insect colonies form superorganisms, in which nestmates cooperate and use social immunity to combat parasites. However, social immunity may fail in case of emerging diseases. This is the case for the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which switched hosts from the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana, to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and currently is the greatest threat to A. mellifera apiculture globally. Here, we show that immature workers of the mite’s original host, A. cerana, are more susceptible to V. destructor infestations than those of its new host, thereby enabling more efficient social immunity and contributing to colony survival. This counterintuitive result shows that susceptible individuals can foster superorganism survival, offering empirical support to theoretical arguments about the adaptive value of worker suicide in social insects. Altruistic suicide of immature bees constitutes a social analogue of apoptosis, as it prevents the spread of infections by sacrificing parts of the whole organism, and unveils a novel form of transgenerational social immunity in honey bees. Taking into account the key role of susceptible immature bees in social immunity will improve breeding efforts to mitigate the unsustainably high colony losses of Western honey bees due to V. destructor infestations worldwide. PMID:27264643

  20. Molecular Identification of Nosema species in East Azerbaijan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmaraii, N.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nosema is a genus of microsporidia, which have significant negative impacts on honeybees. The aim of thisstudy is the epidemiological evaluation and molecular characterization of Nosema spices in various countiesof East-Azerbaijan province (Northwest of Iran. 387 samples were collected from colonies maintained invarious counties of East-Azerbaijan province. Samples after preparation were examined by a lightmicroscope for presence of Nosema spores. PCR method (SSUrRNA gene was used to differentiatebetween Nosema apis (N. apis and N. ceranae. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Totalinfection prevalence of the microscopic evaluation and PCR tests were 225 (58.1% and 260 (67.1%respectively, total validity of PCR test against the microscopic test was computed equal to 1.1 in this case.Disease distribution in various counties of study area was variable and N. ceranae was the only Nosema species found to infect honeybees. The one species presence and different distribution of Nosema positive samples in various counties of East-Azerbaijan province may be due to multiple reasons. Furthermore,epidemiological information helps us to improve disease management practices in the studied area, apply new hygiene policy and reduce extra costs of production.

  1. Microsporidia infection impacts the host cell's cycle and reduces host cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higes, Mariano; Sagastume, Soledad; Juarranz, Ángeles; Dias-Almeida, Joyce; Budge, Giles E.; Meana, Aránzazu; Boonham, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular parasites can alter the cellular machinery of host cells to create a safe haven for their survival. In this regard, microsporidia are obligate intracellular fungal parasites with extremely reduced genomes and hence, they are strongly dependent on their host for energy and resources. To date, there are few studies into host cell manipulation by microsporidia, most of which have focused on morphological aspects. The microsporidia Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are worldwide parasites of honey bees, infecting their ventricular epithelial cells. In this work, quantitative gene expression and histology were studied to investigate how these two parasites manipulate their host’s cells at the molecular level. Both these microsporidia provoke infection-induced regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and the cell cycle. The up-regulation of buffy (which encodes a pro-survival protein) and BIRC5 (belonging to the Inhibitor Apoptosis protein family) was observed after infection, shedding light on the pathways that these pathogens use to inhibit host cell apoptosis. Curiously, different routes related to cell cycle were modified after infection by each microsporidia. In the case of N. apis, cyclin B1, dacapo and E2F2 were up-regulated, whereas only cyclin E was up-regulated by N. ceranae, in both cases promoting the G1/S phase transition. This is the first report describing molecular pathways related to parasite-host interactions that are probably intended to ensure the parasite’s survival within the cell. PMID:28152065

  2. 营养杂交对工蜂初生重的影响%Effects of Nutritional Crossbreed on Emergent Weight of Worker Bees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志将; 谢宪兵; 颜伟玉

    2005-01-01

    为寻找蜜蜂营养杂交的潜在规律,将中华蜜蜂(Apis cerana cerana Fabricius,简称中蜂)和意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola,简称意蜂)进行营养杂交,测量其营养杂交后代工蜂的初生重,结果表明,营养杂交中蜂第1代工蜂初生重(99.58±5.70)mg比中蜂亲本对照组工蜂初生重(89.5±4.3)mg增加10.08mg,两者差异极显著(P<0.01);营养杂交意蜂第1代工蜂初生重(109.19±6.22)mg比意蜂亲本对照组工蜂初生重(134.8±8.7)mg减小了25.61 mg,两者差异也是极显著(P<0.01).但营养杂交各代工蜂初生重之间差异不显著.

  3. 常春油麻藤有气味花蜜及其生态功能%Scented nectar of Mucuna sempervirens and its ecological function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈高; 张蕊蕊; 董坤; 公维昌; 马永鹏

    2012-01-01

    Scented nectar secreted by flowers is an interesting natural phenomenon in angiosperms that is often overlooked by most researchers. Scented nectar is an evolutionary feature coupling the behavior between flower-visitors and their rewards. The effect of scented nectar on pollinator or nectar-thief is a scientific problem which deserves further exploration. We evaluated Mucuna sempervirens flowering dynamics, floral nectar volatiles, behaviors of Dremomys pernyi and Callosciurus erythraeus to inflorescence opening, nectar's attraction effect to Apis cerana cerana, and the toxic effect of M sempervirens nectar to Tapinoma sp. Aliphatic compounds (87.2%) were the main volatiles in nectar of M. sempervirens, whereas ketones accounted for 56.1% of the total volatiles. Lastly, volatile components with sulfur elements were absent from nectar samples. Previous studies of bat pollinated plant species have found that plants in the genus Mucuna always release sulfur compounds. Additionally, we found that the nectar of M. sempervirens was poisonous to Tapinoma sp. ant species, whereas it attracted A. cerana cerana using the Y olfactory bioassay. Squirrel species (D. pernyi and C. erythraeus) were effective pollinators of M sempervirens, so we suspected that M. sempervirens might not be pollinated by bats only. This study provides data of pollination mechanisms in Mucuna and provides a new perspective of composition and function study of nectar in other plant groups in future.%一些被子植物能够分泌有气味的花蜜,但这一自然现象很少被关注.作为嗅觉信号线索,有气味的花蜜可能是将访花者和气味信号结合在一起的特征,它与传粉者及盗蜜者的关系值得探索.本研究以常春油麻藤(Mucuna sempervirens)为对象,研究了其开花动态及泊氏长吻松鼠(Dremomys pernyi)和赤腹松鼠(Callosciurus erythraeus)的访花行为,采用顶空固相微萃取和气相色谱-质谱法收集并分析了花蜜的挥发物成

  4. APIs for QoS configuration in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    such as configuration of devices, ports, queues, etc. An Application Programming Interface (API) for dynamic configuration of QoS resources in the network devices is implemented herein, by using the capabilities of OVSDB. Further, the paper demonstrates the possibility to create network services with coarse granularity...... on top of the fine granular services exposed by the QoS configuration API at the SDNC. A series of tests emphasize the capabilities and the performance of the implemented QoS configuration API....

  5. Privacy Issues of the W3C Geolocation API

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, Nick; Wilde, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The W3C's Geolocation API may rapidly standardize the transmission of location information on the Web, but, in dealing with such sensitive information, it also raises serious privacy concerns. We analyze the manner and extent to which the current W3C Geolocation API provides mechanisms to support privacy. We propose a privacy framework for the consideration of location information and use it to evaluate the W3C Geolocation API, both the specification and its use in the wild, and recommend some modifications to the API as a result of our analysis.

  6. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Samuel F.; Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O' Brien, John K.

    2016-10-11

    A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface (API). Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

  7. Adaptive runtime for a multiprocessing API

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Samuel F.; Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O' Brien, John K.

    2016-11-15

    A computer-implemented method includes selecting a runtime for executing a program. The runtime includes a first combination of feature implementations, where each feature implementation implements a feature of an application programming interface (API). Execution of the program is monitored, and the execution uses the runtime. Monitor data is generated based on the monitoring. A second combination of feature implementations are selected, by a computer processor, where the selection is based at least in part on the monitor data. The runtime is modified by activating the second combination of feature implementations to replace the first combination of feature implementations.

  8. Rare royal families in honeybees, Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Lattorff, H. Michael G.; Neumann, Peter; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Radloff, Sarah E.; Hepburn, H. Randall

    2005-10-01

    The queen is the dominant female in the honeybee colony, Apis mellifera, and controls reproduction. Queen larvae are selected by the workers and are fed a special diet (royal jelly), which determines caste. Because queens mate with many males a large number of subfamilies coexist in the colony. As a consequence, there is a considerable potential for conflict among the subfamilies over queen rearing. Here we show that honeybee queens are not reared at random but are preferentially reared from rare “royal” subfamilies, which have extremely low frequencies in the colony's worker force but a high frequency in the queens reared.

  9. 关于俄罗斯蜜蜂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方兵兵

    2005-01-01

    俄罗斯远东地区的普里莫尔斯基(primorsky).属俄罗斯太平洋沿岸,位于北纬43°~48°,冬季气温通常在零下40℃,东方蜜蜂(Apis cerana)是本地蜂种,蜂螨原始寄主是东方蜜蜂,在当地早已存在。19世纪末,乌克兰移民从欧洲引入西方蜜蜂&Apis mellifera),经过近百年的繁衍而来俄罗斯蜜蜂。

  10. 蜂蜡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    本刊编辑部

    2001-01-01

    本品为蜜蜂科昆虫中华蜜蜂Apis cerana Fabricius或意大利峰Apis mellifera Linnaeus分泌的蜡。将蜂巢置水中加热,滤过,冷凝取蜡或再精制而成。 【性状】本品为不规则团块,大小不一。呈黄色、淡黄棕色或黄白色,不透明或微透明,表面光滑。体较轻,蜡质,断面砂粒状,用手搓捏能软化。有蜂蜜样香气,味微甘。

  11. grlc Makes GitHub Taste Like Linked Data APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroño-Peñuela, A.; Hoekstra, Rinke; Sack, H; Rizzo, G; Steinmetz, N; Mladenić, D; Auer, S; Lange, C

    2016-01-01

    Building Web APIs on top of SPARQL endpoints is becoming a common practice to enable universal access to the integration favorable dataspace of Linked Data. However, the Linked Data community cannot expect users to learn SPARQL to query this dataspace, and Web APIs are the most extended way of enabl

  12. API and CPTDC Jointly Promote Chinese Enterprises to Go Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chunhui

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to push the certification forward and help more Chinese enterprises to go abroad, API (American Petroleum Institute) and CPTDC (China Petroleum Technology & Development Corporation) jointly held a meeting between March 4 and 8, 2004, to promote API certification of Chinese enterprises.

  13. Interfacing RASCAL with Java APIs. Automated mapping with Apache POI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmanidis, G.

    2013-01-01

    Interfacing RASCAL with Java APIs and reusing existing implementations is a required functionality in order to reduce effort and time in contrast with implementing a new one from scratch. In this study we are trying to interface RASCAL with Apache POI, a Java implemented API in order to import and a

  14. Experience API: Flexible, Decentralized and Activity-Centric Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Jonathan M.; Ryan, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    This emerging technology report describes the Experience API (xAPI), a new e-learning specification designed to support the learning community in standardizing and collecting both formal and informal distributed learning activities. Informed by Activity Theory, a framework aligned with constructivism, data is collected in the form of activity…

  15. Investigating an API for resilient exascale computing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stearley, Jon R.; Tomkins, James; VanDyke, John P.; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Laros, James H.,; Bridges, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Increased HPC capability comes with increased complexity, part counts, and fault occurrences. In- creasing the resilience of systems and applications to faults is a critical requirement facing the viability of exascale systems, as the overhead of traditional checkpoint/restart is projected to outweigh its bene ts due to fault rates outpacing I/O bandwidths. As faults occur and propagate throughout hardware and software layers, pervasive noti cation and handling mechanisms are necessary. This report describes an initial investigation of fault types and programming interfaces to mitigate them. Proof-of-concept APIs are presented for the frequent and important cases of memory errors and node failures, and a strategy proposed for lesystem failures. These involve changes to the operating system, runtime, I/O library, and application layers. While a single API for fault handling among hardware and OS and application system-wide remains elusive, the e ort increased our understanding of both the mountainous challenges and the promising trailheads. 3

  16. API E MIELE NEL MEDITERRANEO ANTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bormetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available L’importanza del miele come sostanza culturalmente ed economicamente rilevante nel mondo antico non è stata ancora del tutto indagata. Il miele e le api sono nondimeno presenze assidue e trasversali ai generi e alle tipologie di fonti antiche greche e romane, ed è pertanto da esse che una ricerca sull’argomento deve partire. I manufatti, le tecniche e i concetti descritti dagli antichi devono però essere relazionati con cautela al materiale archeologico rinvenuto, per fare ciò pare indispensabile un approccio che tenga conto delle nozioni biologiche, etologiche e zootecniche di base. Attraverso quest’ottica sono state ricapitolate le evidenze materiali provenienti dal bacino del Mediterraneo e concernenti gli strumenti e le strutture relative all’apicoltura, dalle arnie agli apiari, peril lungo arco cronologico che va dall’età del bronzo alla tarda antichità. Ciò è possibile per la tematica apicola grazie alla conservatività delle tecniche, strettamente legate ai severi dettami della natura fino alla rivoluzione ottocentesca delle arnie razionali a telai mobili del reverendo Langstroth. Sono inoltre analizzati gli utilizzi più frequenti del miele per come descritti dalle fonti letterarie nonché le implicazioni di api e miele nella ritualità e nel simbolismo della morte, del genere e della regalità, sebbene i risultati siano scarsi data la povertà dei riscontri archeologici e la limitata attenzione di cui questo argomento ha fin ora goduto.

  17. Coming 5th Edition of the API Standard 618: major changes compared to the API 618, 4th edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyle, A.; Eijk, A.; Elferink, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will present the highlights of changes that will be found in the 5th Edition of API 618, which is expected to be published in late 2003 or early 2004. Approximately every 5 years the API Standards are revised in such a way that the latest field experiences and proven designs are included

  18. Prospects of apicultural entrepreneurship in coastal districts of eastern India: a melissopalynological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Debasis; Bhattacharya, Swapan; Ferguson, David K; Bera, Subir

    2014-01-01

    A melissopalynological analysis of fifty-one natural honey samples (twenty four spring, fifteen summer and twelve winter) collected during 2010-2011 from two east-coastal districts (20(0)20/ to 22(0)11/ N, 82(0)39/ to 87(0)01/ E) of Orissa, India was performed. Out of 37 unifloral samples found 25 were contributed by Apis cerana indica, seven by A. dorsata and the remaining five by A. florea. Out of 14 multifloral samples five were contributed by A. cerana indica, five by A. dorsata and the remaining four by A. florea. Principal component analysis confirmed the palynological classification of the unifloral honey samples. Eighty-two bee-plant taxa belonging to forty four families were recovered. The predominant nectariferous taxa of the spring season were Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia marina, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Cocos nucifera, Eucalyptus globulus, Phoenix paludosa, Pongamia pinnata, Prosopis juliflora, Sonneratia apetala and Syzygium cumini. In the summer the predominant nectariferous taxa were Borassus flabellifer, C. nucifera, E. globulus, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia arjuna, Aegiceras corniculatum, P. paludosa and Sonneratia apetala while those of the winter were Brassica nigra, Coriandrum sativum, Zizyphus jujuba, Alstonia scholaris, E. globulus and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza. Very low (entrepreneurship. This should improve the socio-economic status of the people of this region.

  19. Nanoindentation Mechanical Properties and Structural Biomimetic Models of Three Species of Insects Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jin; CHANG Zhiyong; YANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin; LIU Xianping; CHETWYND Derek G; CHEN Donghui; SUN Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking insect flights were used to design and develop new engineering materials. Although extensive research was done to study various aspects of lfying insects. Because the detailed mechanics and underlying principles involved in insect lfights remain largely unknown. A systematic study was carried on insect lfights by using a combination of several advanced techniques to develop new models for the simulation and analysis of the wing membrane and veins of three types of insect wings, namely dragonfly (Pantala lfavescensFabricius), honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabricius) and lfy (Sarcophaga carnaria Linnaeus). In order to gain insights into the lfight mechanics of insects, reverse engineering methods were used to establish three-dimensional geometrical models of the membranous wings, so we can make a comparative analysis. Then nano-mechanical test of the three insect wing membranes was performed to provide experimental parameter values for mechanical models in terms of nano-hardness and elastic modulus. Finally, a computational model was established by using the ifnite element analysis (ANSYS) to analyze and compare the wings under a variety of simpliifed load regimes that are concentrated force, uniform line-load and a torque. This work opened up the possibility towards developing an engineering basis for the biomimetic design of thin solid iflms and 2D advanced engineering composite materials.

  20. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  1. A framework for API solubility modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Crafts, Peter

    The solubility of solid organic compounds in water and organic solvents is a fundamental thermodynamic property for many purposes such as product-process design and optimization, for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry. Experimental literature solubility data are usually scarce and temperature......-dependent measurements are expensive in terms of time and resources. The few available data are badly organized and difficult to use for fast solubility calculations and solvent screening. Available models often require time consuming and complex implementation together with a good user expertise for their efficient use....... In addition, most of the models are not predictive and requires experimental data for the calculation of the needed parameters. This work aims at developing an efficient framework for the solubility modelling of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in water and organic solvents. With this framework...

  2. Building Hypermedia APIs with HTML5 and Node

    CERN Document Server

    Amundsen, Mike

    2011-01-01

    With this concise book, you'll learn the art of building hypermedia APIs that don't simply run on the Web, but that actually exist in the Web. You'll start with the general principles and technologies behind this architectural approach, and then dive hands-on into three fully-functional API examples. Too many APIs rely on concepts rooted in desktop and local area network patterns that don't scale well-costly solutions that are difficult to maintain over time. This book shows system architects and web developers how to design and implement human- and machine-readable web services that remain

  3. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per;

    2016-01-01

    them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite...

  4. Practical Implementation of 10 Rules for Writing REST APIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Hradil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a practical implementation of “10 Rules for Writing REST APIs introduced in the article” (Hradil, 2016. The application is done in Invoice Home (Wikilane, 2016, an invoicing web application for small business and entrepreneurs available world-wide. The API is implemented in JSON hypermedia format (ECMA International, 2016 and with Ruby on Rails framework (Hansson, 2016. The main purpose of the API is to allow connection of Invoice Home with external systems and offer Invoice Home data in simpler format compared to the current HTML format of the full-stack web application. The paper could be also used as a basic template or pattern for any other implementation of the JSON API in any web-based application.

  5. Pengaruh Busur Api Terhadap Kekuatan Dielektrik Gas SF6

    OpenAIRE

    Jhony

    2011-01-01

    Bahan isolasi gas yang sering digunakan adalah gas SF6. Sifat –sifat dari gas SF6 ini tidak berwarna, tidak beracun, tidak berbau. Salah satu pemanfaatan dari gas SF6 ini sebagai bahan isolasi adalah pada pemutus tenaga (circuit breaker). Jika pemutus tenaga SF6 membuka, maka pada sela kontaknya akan terjadi busur api. Busur api akan menaikkan temperatur gas SF6 sehingga ada dugaan gas SF6 mengalami perubahan struktur kimia, sehingga sifat listriknya berubah. Tugas akhir ini ak...

  6. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew M.; Wong, Aaron K.; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu. PMID:27098035

  7. Mining Effective Temporal Specifications from Heterogeneous API Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Wu; Guang-Tai Liang; Qian-Xiang Wang; Hong Mei

    2011-01-01

    Temporal specifications for Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) serve as an important basis for many defect detection tools.As these specifications are often not well documented,various approaches have been proposed to automatically mine specifications typically from API library source code or from API client programs.However,the library-based approaches take substantial computational resources and produce rather limited useful specifications,while the client-based approaches suffer from high false positive rates.To address the issues of existing approaches,we propose a novel specification miniug approach,called MineHEAD,which exploits heterogeneous API data,including information from API client programs as well as API library source code and comments,to produce effective specifications for defect detection with low cost.In particular,MineHEAD first applies client-based specification mining to produce a collection of candidate specifications,and then exploits the related library source code and comments to identify and refine the real specifications from the candidates.Our evaluation results on nine open source projects show that MineHEAD produces effective specifications with average precision of 97.2%.

  8. GIANT API: an application programming interface for functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew M; Wong, Aaron K; Fisk, Ian; Troyanskaya, Olga G

    2016-07-08

    GIANT API provides biomedical researchers programmatic access to tissue-specific and global networks in humans and model organisms, and associated tools, which includes functional re-prioritization of existing genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Using tissue-specific interaction networks, researchers are able to predict relationships between genes specific to a tissue or cell lineage, identify the changing roles of genes across tissues and uncover disease-gene associations. Additionally, GIANT API enables computational tools like NetWAS, which leverages tissue-specific networks for re-prioritization of GWAS results. The web services covered by the API include 144 tissue-specific functional gene networks in human, global functional networks for human and six common model organisms and the NetWAS method. GIANT API conforms to the REST architecture, which makes it stateless, cacheable and highly scalable. It can be used by a diverse range of clients including web browsers, command terminals, programming languages and standalone apps for data analysis and visualization. The API is freely available for use at http://giant-api.princeton.edu.

  9. Identification of Complete Repertoire of Apis florea Odorant Receptors Reveals Complex Orthologous Relationships with Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpe, Snehal D; Jain, Rikesh; Brockmann, Axel; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-09-26

    We developed a computational pipeline for homology based identification of the complete repertoire of olfactory receptor (OR) genes in the Asian honey bee species, Apis florea Apis florea is phylogenetically the most basal honey bee species and also the most distant sister species to the Western honey bee Apis mellifera, for which all OR genes had been identified before. Using our pipeline, we identified 180 OR genes in A. florea, which is very similar to the number of ORs identified in A. mellifera (177 ORs). Many characteristics of the ORs including gene structure, synteny of tandemly repeated ORs and basic phylogenetic clustering are highly conserved. The composite phylogenetic tree of A. florea and A. mellifera ORs could be divided into 21 clades which are in harmony with the existing Hymenopteran tree. However, we found a few nonorthologous OR relationships between both species as well as independent pseudogenization of ORs suggesting separate evolutionary changes. Particularly, a subgroup of the OR gene clade XI, which had been hypothesized to code cuticular hydrocarbon receptors showed a high number of species-specific ORs RNAseq analysis detected a total number of 145 OR transcripts in male and 162 in female antennae. Most of the OR genes were highly expressed on the female antennae. However, we detected five distinct male-biased OR genes, out of which three genes (AfOr11, AfOr18, AfOr170P) were shown to be male-biased in A. mellifera, too, thus corroborating a behavioral function in sex-pheromone communication.

  10. Variance in spermatozoa number among Apis dorsata drones and among Apis mellifera drones

    OpenAIRE

    Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Tingek, Salim; Phiancharoen, Mananya

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Published estimates of the mean spermatozoa numbers for Apis dorsata drones vary from 1.2 × 106 and 2.4 × 106; the number of spermatozoa per individual drone vary from 0.22 × 106 to 2.65 × 106. Counts presented here revealed 1.19 × 106 + 0.25 × 106 spermatozoa in drones sampled near a colony and 1.59 × 106 + 0.18 × 106 in drones sampled at a drone congregation area (DCA) in Sabah, Borneo. The difference between the two sites is significant. Further, the degree of varia...

  11. Honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) drone embryo proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianke; Fang, Yu; Zhang, Lan; Begna, Desalegn

    2011-03-01

    Little attention has been paid to the drone honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) which is a haploid individual carrying only the set of alleles that it inherits from its mother. Molecular mechanisms underlying drone embryogenesis are poorly understood. This study evaluated protein expression profiles of drone embryogenesis at embryonic ages of 24, 48 and 72h. More than 100 reproducible proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry on 2D electrophoresis gels. Sixty-two proteins were significantly changed at the selected three experimental age points. Expression of the metabolic energy requirement-related protein peaked at the embryonic age of 48h, whereas development and metabolizing amino acid-related proteins expressed optimally at 72h. Cytoskeleton, protein folding and antioxidant-related proteins were highly expressed at 48 and 72h. Protein networks of the identified proteins were constructed and protein expressions were validated at the transcription level. This first proteomic study of drone embryogenesis in the honeybee may provide geneticists an exact timetable and candidate protein outline for further manipulations of drone stem cells.

  12. The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gauthier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double stranded DNA molecule of approximately 498,500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 247 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs, equally distributed on both strands, which cover 65% of the genome. While most of the ORFs lacked threshold sequence alignments to reference protein databases, twenty-eight were found to display significant homologies with proteins present in other large double stranded DNA viruses. Remarkably, 13 ORFs had strong similarity with typical baculovirus domains such as PIFs (per os infectivity factor genes: pif-1, pif-2, pif-3 and p74 and BRO (Baculovirus Repeated Open Reading Frame. The putative AmFV DNA polymerase is of type B, but is only distantly related to those of the baculoviruses. The ORFs encoding proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism had the highest percent identity to viral proteins in GenBank. Other notable features include the presence of several collagen-like, chitin-binding, kinesin and pacifastin domains. Due to the large size of the AmFV genome and the inconsistent affiliation with other large double stranded DNA virus families infecting invertebrates, AmFV may belong to a new virus family.

  13. The Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Laurent; Cornman, Scott; Hartmann, Ulrike; Cousserans, François; Evans, Jay D; de Miranda, Joachim R; Neumann, Peter

    2015-07-09

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double stranded DNA molecule of approximately 498,500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 247 non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), equally distributed on both strands, which cover 65% of the genome. While most of the ORFs lacked threshold sequence alignments to reference protein databases, twenty-eight were found to display significant homologies with proteins present in other large double stranded DNA viruses. Remarkably, 13 ORFs had strong similarity with typical baculovirus domains such as PIFs (per os infectivity factor genes: pif-1, pif-2, pif-3 and p74) and BRO (Baculovirus Repeated Open Reading Frame). The putative AmFV DNA polymerase is of type B, but is only distantly related to those of the baculoviruses. The ORFs encoding proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism had the highest percent identity to viral proteins in GenBank. Other notable features include the presence of several collagen-like, chitin-binding, kinesin and pacifastin domains. Due to the large size of the AmFV genome and the inconsistent affiliation with other large double stranded DNA virus families infecting invertebrates, AmFV may belong to a new virus family.

  14. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    CERN Document Server

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  15. A knowledge discovery object model API for Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Steven JM

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological data resources have become heterogeneous and derive from multiple sources. This introduces challenges in the management and utilization of this data in software development. Although efforts are underway to create a standard format for the transmission and storage of biological data, this objective has yet to be fully realized. Results This work describes an application programming interface (API that provides a framework for developing an effective biological knowledge ontology for Java-based software projects. The API provides a robust framework for the data acquisition and management needs of an ontology implementation. In addition, the API contains classes to assist in creating GUIs to represent this data visually. Conclusions The Knowledge Discovery Object Model (KDOM API is particularly useful for medium to large applications, or for a number of smaller software projects with common characteristics or objectives. KDOM can be coupled effectively with other biologically relevant APIs and classes. Source code, libraries, documentation and examples are available at http://www.bcgsc.ca/bioinfo/software.

  16. Thermodynamic phase behavior of API/polymer solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2014-07-07

    To improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), these materials are often integrated into a polymer matrix that acts as a carrier. The resulting mixture is called a solid dispersion. In this work, the phase behaviors of solid dispersions were investigated as a function of the API as well as of the type and molecular weight of the carrier polymer. Specifically, the solubility of artemisinin and indomethacin was measured in different poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG 400, PEG 6000, and PEG 35000). The measured solubility data and the solubility of sulfonamides in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) K10 and PEG 35000 were modeled using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The results show that PC-SAFT predictions are in a good accordance with the experimental data, and PC-SAFT can be used to predict the whole phase diagram of an API/polymer solid dispersion as a function of the kind of API and polymer and of the polymer's molecular weight. This remarkably simplifies the screening process for suitable API/polymer combinations.

  17. Acinetobacter apis sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Joon Yong; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Hyun, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2014-08-01

    A novel Gram-negative, obligate aerobic, non-motile, and both coccobacillus- and bacillus-shaped bacterium, designated strain HYN18(T), was isolated from the intestinal tract of a honey bee (Apis mellifera). The isolate was oxidase-negative and catalase-positive. Strain HYN18(T) showed optimum growth at 25°C, pH 6-7, and in the presence of 1% (w/v) NaCl in trypticase soy broth medium. The isolate was negative for hydrolyses of starch, casein, gelatin and urea, indole production from tryptone and hemolysis on sheep blood agar. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene sequence showed that strain HYN18(T) was most closely related to Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) and A. boissieri SAP 284.1(T) with 98.3% and 98.1% similarity (16S rRNA gene), respectively, and 84.4% similarity with Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T) (rpoB gene). The major cellular fatty acids were summed features 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c /C16:1ω6c ), C12:0 and C16:0. The main isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-9 (Q-9). The polar lipids of strain HYN18(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified lipids, an unidentified phospholipid and an unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 40.6 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated less than 33 ± 10% relatedness to the closest phylogenetic species, Acinetobacter nectaris SAP 763.2(T). Thus, the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genotypic analyses indicate that strain HYN18(T) is a novel species within the genus Acinetobacter, for which the name Acinetobacter apis is proposed. The type strain is HYN18(T) (=KACC 16906(T) =JCM 18575(T)).

  18. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress.

  19. Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis: dermatitis due to live bee acupuncture therapy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting.

  20. 贵州仁怀斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂研究%Study on Syntretomorpha szaboi (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Euphorinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谌电周; 曾爱平; 陈绍鹄; 游兰韶; 刘劲军

    2011-01-01

    Syntretomorpha szabói Papp is a harmful solitary endoparasitoid which attack and parasitize the oriential honey bees Apis cerana Fabricius, parasitized bees are sluggish and die young. Similar oviposition and foraging behavior of flower visiting by S.szaboi has been observed, it is certainly that wild and domestic foraging adult oriential honey bees are attacked and parasitized in a rapid movement while visiting flowers in the wild of Renhuai, Guizhou. Genrally, an egg has laid in each bee host by piercing the ovipositor through the membrane between the second and third abdominal segments when the both of wild honey bee and domestic honey bee fled nonstop from wild to hive.The geographical range of the host, Oriental honey bees Apis cerana cerana Fabricius, extends westward as far as Xinjiang in China, and it is certainly that the parasitoids is widely distributed in China (expect Xinjiang), of course the articles and specimens are collected in seven provinces of central, West-South of China, Jiangxi, Hubei, Shanxi, Sichun, Yunan, Guizhou and Taiwan in China. After compare with species of 5. Szaboi from Renhuai and SEM photographs of S. Szaboi from India, it is very probable that in the world geographical range of the parasitoid, Syntretomorphy szabói extends to northern India through import oriential honey bees or nature extension from Western China. Is the conclusion true, there is a need of a experiment of molecular phylogenetic studies of Syntretomorpha szaboi in two countries.%调查发现,在贵州仁怀野外常有斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂快速攻击野生和家养中蜂,并在中蜂体内产卵,中蜂返巢后,体内已有斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂的卵.观察发现,斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂可在野生和家养中蜂巢内完成世代发育.对贵州仁怀斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂(标本)与印度产斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂(电镜照片)形态进行比较,发现并无形态上的差异.由于中蜂起源于中国西南地区,估计印度北部的斯氏蜜蜂茧蜂是

  1. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina;

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  2. Standard methods for research on apis mellifera gut symbionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut microbes can play an important role in digestion, disease resistance, and the general health of animals, but little is known about the biology of gut symbionts in Apis mellifera. This paper is part of a series on honey bee research methods, providing protocols for studying gut symbionts. We desc...

  3. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-04-05

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc).

  4. Fertile diploid drones in africanized honeybees, Apis mellifera adansonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J

    1977-02-15

    59 diploid drones of Apis mellifera adansonii, 12-37 days old, were tested for the presence of semen after provoked ejaculation; 13 drones ejaculated semen enough to be used in an instrumental insemination, but only three on them (5%) furnished 1 mm3 of semen. The problems referring to the attainment of descendants from the 2n drones are briefly discussed.

  5. The MPO API: A tool for recording scientific workflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, John C., E-mail: jcwright@mit.edu [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Greenwald, Martin; Stillerman, Joshua [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Abla, Gheni; Chanthavong, Bobby; Flanagan, Sean; Schissel, David; Lee, Xia [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Romosan, Alex; Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • A description of a new framework and tool for recording scientific workflows, especially those resulting from simulation and analysis. • An explanation of the underlying technologies used to implement this web based tool. • Several examples of using the tool. - Abstract: Data from large-scale experiments and extreme-scale computing is expensive to produce and may be used for high-consequence applications. The Metadata, Provenance and Ontology (MPO) project builds on previous work [M. Greenwald, Fusion Eng. Des. 87 (2012) 2205–2208] and is focused on providing documentation of workflows, data provenance and the ability to data-mine large sets of results. While there are important design and development aspects to the data structures and user interfaces, we concern ourselves in this paper with the application programming interface (API) – the set of functions that interface with the data server. Our approach for the data server is to follow the Representational State Transfer (RESTful) software architecture style for client–server communication. At its core, the API uses the POST and GET methods of the HTTP protocol to transfer workflow information in message bodies to targets specified in the URL to and from the database via a web server. Higher level API calls are built upon this core API. This design facilitates implementation on different platforms and in different languages and is robust to changes in the underlying technologies used. The command line client implementation can communicate with the data server from any machine with HTTP access.

  6. PrismTech Data Distribution Service Java API Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Cortney

    2008-01-01

    My internship duties with Launch Control Systems required me to start performance testing of an Object Management Group's (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) specification implementation by PrismTech Limited through the Java programming language application programming interface (API). DDS is a networking middleware for Real-Time Data Distribution. The performance testing involves latency, redundant publishers, extended duration, redundant failover, and read performance. Time constraints allowed only for a data throughput test. I have designed the testing applications to perform all performance tests when time is allowed. Performance evaluation data such as megabits per second and central processing unit (CPU) time consumption were not easily attainable through the Java programming language; they required new methods and classes created in the test applications. Evaluation of this product showed the rate that data can be sent across the network. Performance rates are better on Linux platforms than AIX and Sun platforms. Compared to previous C++ programming language API, the performance evaluation also shows the language differences for the implementation. The Java API of the DDS has a lower throughput performance than the C++ API.

  7. The Automatic Start Method of Application Program Using API

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces on a method about the au-tomactic start of application program. Through defining Registryby API function, the automatic start of specified application pro-gram is fulfilled when Windows98 is taking action. It gives facil-ities to many computer application works.

  8. Modelling the subgenual organ of the honeybee, Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Jesper; Kilpinen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In a recent study on the honeybee (Apis mellifera), the subgenual organ was observed moving inside the leg during sinusoidal vibrations of the leg (Kilpinen and Storm 1997). The subgenual organ of the honeybee is suspended in a haemolymph channel in the tibia of each leg. When the leg accelerates...

  9. EXPERIENCE API – NEW STANDARD OF E-LEARNING SOFTWARE AND EXAMPLES OF ITS PRACTICAL USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr A. Shcherbyna

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to analyze features of the new standard of e-learning software - Experience API (xAPI, previously also known as the Tin Can API. The standard defines a way of interaction between xAPI-clients – software which students work with while e-learning process, and xAPI-servers – Learning Record Stores (LRS, which store data about their results. Standard also defines LRS data representation format and a way of data transfers between LRS, which makes it possible to combine several LRS into distributed database that could accumulate information about people training in formal, non-formal and informal education throughout life. The article contains review of available xAPI-clients, xAPI-servers, and the results of their testing, which prove the possibility of their usage in our educational institutions.

  10. The tolerant effect of free amino acid and microelement diversity in haemolymph of honeybee larva to Varroa destructor%蜜蜂幼虫血淋巴游离氨基酸和微量元素含量的差异对其抗螨特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王星; 王强; 代平礼; 刘锋; 周婷

    2007-01-01

    重新界定的外寄生螨类--狄斯瓦螨Varroa destructor(Anderson and Trueman),严重危害全世界的西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera.但是对其原始寄主东方蜜蜂Apis cerana不构成可见的危害.在西方蜜蜂群中,狄斯瓦螨在雄蜂房和工蜂房都能进行繁殖.在其亚洲的原始寄主东方蜜蜂群中,它们可以寄生于雄蜂和工蜂,但在工蜂房中不育.蜜蜂的血淋巴是狄斯瓦螨生存和繁殖需要摄取的惟一食物来源,推测血淋巴中的某种物质含量会影响狄斯瓦螨的繁殖.对中华蜜蜂Apis cerana Fabricius和意大利蜜蜂Apis meUifera L.工蜂和雄蜂封盖幼虫血淋巴中游离氨基酸和与营养有关的微量元素含量进行了比较,发现其存在明显差异,并推测这些差异与东方蜜蜂抗螨能力强有关.

  11. “Wrapping” X3DOM around Web Audio API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stamoulias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial sound has a conceptual role in the Web3D environments, due to highly realism scenes that can provide. Lately the efforts are concentrated on the extension of the X3D/ X3DOM through spatial sound attributes. This paper presents a novel method for the introduction of spatial sound components in the X3DOM framework, based on X3D specification and Web Audio API. The proposed method incorporates the introduction of enhanced sound nodes for X3DOM which are derived by the implementation of the X3D standard components, enriched with accessional features of Web Audio API. Moreover, several examples-scenarios developed for the evaluation of our approach. The implemented examples established the achievability of new registered nodes in X3DOM, for spatial sound characteristics in Web3D virtual worlds.

  12. The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service

    CERN Document Server

    Lamy, Laurent; Henry, Florence; Sidaner, Pierre Le

    2015-01-01

    The Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy (APIS) service, accessible online, provides an open and interactive access to processed auroral observations of the outer planets and their satellites. Such observations are of interest for a wide community at the interface between planetology and magnetospheric and heliospheric physics. APIS consists of (i) a high level database, built from planetary auroral observations acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) since 1997 with its mostly used Far-UltraViolet spectro-imagers, (ii) a dedicated search interface aimed at browsing efficiently this database through relevant conditional search criteria and (iii) the ability to interactively work with the data online through plotting tools developed by the Virtual Observatory (VO) community, such as Aladin and Specview. This service is VO compliant and can therefore also been queried by external search tools of the VO community. The diversity of available data and the capability to sort them out by relevant physical...

  13. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Adjlane, Noureddine; Saini, Deepti; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; AlShagoor, Banan; Batainh, Ahmed Mahmud; Mugasimangalam, Raja

    2015-06-01

    Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  14. Metadata and API Based Environment Aware Content Delivery Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the limitations of current content delivery networks is lack of support for environment aware content delivery. This paper first discusses the requirements of such support, and proposes a new metadata gateway based environment aware content delivery architecture. The paper discusses in some details key functions and technologies of environment aware content delivery architecture, including its APIs and control policies. Finally the paper presents an application to illustrate advantages of environment aware content delivery architecture in the context of next generation network.

  15. Apis florea en Jordanie : origine de la population fondatrice

    OpenAIRE

    HADDAD, Nizar; FUCHS, Stefan; Randall Hepburn, H.; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A recent isolated population of Apis florea has been reported from Aqaba in Jordan at the Red Sea, consisting of numerous colonies within a still limited range which apparently is expanding. This region is about 1500 km apart from its next occurrences in Sudan where it had been introduced and first detected in 1985 and about 2000 km apart from its next natural occurrences in Iran and Oman. These bees apparently have been imported by human transport, most likely by ship...

  16. ADS 2.0: New Architecture, API and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyla, R.; Accomazzi, A.; Holachek, A.; Grant, C. S.; Elliott, J.; Henneken, E. A.; Thompson, D. M.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.; Sudilovsky, V.

    2015-09-01

    The ADS platform is undergoing the biggest rewrite of its 20-year history. While several components have been added to its architecture over the past couple of years, this talk will concentrate on the underpinnings of ADS's search layer and its API. To illustrate the design of the components in the new system, we will show how the new ADS user interface is built exclusively on top of the API using RESTful web services. Taking one step further, we will discuss how we plan to expose the treasure trove of information hosted by ADS (10 million records and fulltext for much of the Astronomy and Physics refereed literature) to partners interested in using this API. This will provide you (and your intelligent applications) with access to ADS's underlying data to enable the extraction of new knowledge and the ingestion of these results back into the ADS. Using this framework, researchers could run controlled experiments with content extraction, machine learning, natural language processing, etc. In this talk, we will discuss what is already implemented, what will be available soon, and where we are going next.

  17. Carbonic anhydrase from Apis mellifera: purification and inhibition by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Ercan; Güler, Ahmet; Bıyık, Selim; Şentürk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ekinci, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes have been shown to play an important role in ion transport and in pH regulation in several organisms. Despite this information and the wealth of knowledge regarding the significance of CA enzymes, few studies have been reported about bee CA enzymes and the hazardous effects of chemicals. Using Apis mellifera as a model, this study aimed to determine the risk of pesticides on Apis mellifera Carbonic anhydrase enzyme (Am CA). CA was initially purified from Apis mellifera spermatheca for the first time in the literature. The enzyme was purified with an overall purification of ∼35-fold with a molecular weight of ∼32 kDa. The enzyme was then exposed to pesticides, including tebuconazole, propoxur, carbaryl, carbofuran, simazine and atrazine. The six pesticides dose-dependently inhibited in vitro AmCA activity at low micromolar concentrations. IC50 values for the pesticides were 0.0030, 0.0321, 0.0031, 0.0087, 0.0273 and 0.0165 μM, respectively. The AmCA inhibition mechanism of these compounds is unknown at this moment.

  18. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.

  19. Improving the API dissolution rate during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion I: Effect of the API particle size, and the co-rotating, twin-screw extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Gogos, Costas G; Ioannidis, Nicolas

    2015-01-15

    The dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion is the most critical elementary step during the extrusion of amorphous solid solutions - total dissolution has to be achieved within the short residence time in the extruder. Dissolution and dissolution rates are affected by process, material and equipment variables. In this work, we examine the effect of one of the material variables and one of the equipment variables, namely, the API particle size and extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate, in a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. By rapidly removing the extruder screws from the barrel after achieving a steady state, we collected samples along the length of the extruder screws that were characterized by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the amount of undissolved API. Analyses of samples indicate that reduction of particle size of the API and appropriate selection of screw design can markedly improve the dissolution rate of the API during extrusion. In addition, angle of repose measurements and light microscopy images show that the reduction of particle size of the API can improve the flowability of the physical mixture feed and the adhesiveness between its components, respectively, through dry coating of the polymer particles by the API particles.

  20. The end of polling: why and how to transform a REST API into a Data Streaming API?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    We know interactivity is the key to keep our user’s interest alive but we can’t reduce animation to UI anymore. Twitter, Waze, Slack… users are used to have real-time data in applications they love. But how can you turn your static API into a stream of data? By pulling? Pushing? Webhook-ing? When talking about data streaming, we often think about WebSockets. But have you ever heard of Server-Sent Events? In this tools-in-action we will compare those technologies to understand which one you should opt for depending on your usecase, and I’ll show you how we have been reducing the amount of data to transfer even further with JSON-Patch. And because real-time data is not only needed by web (and because it’s much more fun), I’ll show you how we can make a drone dance on streamed APIs.

  1. Aggressiveness index of Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Aapidae) Índice de agresividad en Apis mellifera ( Hymenoptera: Aapidae )

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Omar Danilo; Insuasty Torres Jennyfer

    2004-01-01

    An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999). The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968). In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicat...

  2. Induction bending of API 5L X80 pipes; Curvamento a quente de tubos API 5L X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Gilmar Z. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: g.zacca@petrobras.com.br; Naschpitz, Leonardo [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. - PROTUBO, Campo Grande, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: naschpitz@protubo.com.br

    2005-07-01

    The present work is a part of an extensive program to make possible the application of API 5L X80 in pipeline construction in Brazil. At this stage, the effect of the induction bending process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the pipe is presented. For this study an API 5L X80 pipe, made by the UOE process, is used. The pipe was manufactured from a plate produced by thermo-mechanically controlled rolling without accelerated cooling. The pipe bending was carried out applying a local induction heating following by water quenching. The bend section, outer and inner curvature regions, of the pipe bend were evaluated and compared with the original pipe. The longitudinal weld and transition zones were not evaluated at this stage. Dimensional analyses, microstructural evaluation, Charpy-V impact tests, and tensile tests were performed. A significant microstructural change was verified in the bend area. The yield strength of the pipe bend was found to be lower than original pipe and standard requirements. Other tensile properties and impact properties are compatible with API 5L X80 requirements. (author)

  3. Is the Sample Good Enough? Comparing Data from Twitter's Streaming API with Twitter's Firehose

    OpenAIRE

    Morstatter, Fred; Pfeffer, Jürgen; Liu, Huan; Carley, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter is a social media giant famous for the exchange of short, 140-character messages called "tweets". In the scientific community, the microblogging site is known for openness in sharing its data. It provides a glance into its millions of users and billions of tweets through a "Streaming API" which provides a sample of all tweets matching some parameters preset by the API user. The API service has been used by many researchers, companies, and governmental institutions that want to extract...

  4. Use of the API 20E system to identify veterinary Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, E C; Collins, M T

    1980-01-01

    A total of 503 veterinary enteric bacterial pathogens obtained from state veterinary diagnostic laboratories were tested on API 20E strips to determine whether this rapid microidentification system could be utilized for veterinary clinical microbiology. The API 20E strip accurately identified 96% of the veterinary isolates and misidentified 3%. Identifications by the API system and the diagnostic laboratories were in agreement in 85% of the isolates, disagreement on 16% of the isolates, and 1...

  5. Dead or alive: deformed wing virus and Varroa destructor reduce the life span of winter honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Elevated winter losses of managed honeybee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among the suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, and associated viruses. Here we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expectancy of winter bees, thereby constituting a proximate mechanism for colony losses. A monitoring of colonies was performed over 6 months in Switzerland from summer 2007 to winter 2007/2008. Individual dead workers were collected daily and quantitatively analyzed for deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), N. ceranae, and expression levels of the vitellogenin gene as a biomarker for honeybee longevity. Workers from colonies that failed to survive winter had a reduced life span beginning in late fall, were more likely to be infected with DWV, and had higher DWV loads. Colony levels of infection with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and individual infections with DWV were also associated with reduced honeybee life expectancy. In sharp contrast, the level of N. ceranae infection was not correlated with longevity. In addition, vitellogenin gene expression was significantly positively correlated with ABPV and N. ceranae loads. The findings strongly suggest that V. destructor and DWV (but neither N. ceranae nor ABPV) reduce the life span of winter bees, thereby constituting a parsimonious possible mechanism for honeybee colony losses.

  6. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  7. Mechanism of action of recombinant acc-royalisin from royal jelly of Asian honeybee against gram-positive bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Shen

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from the royal jelly produced by honeybees, has been addressed extensively. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant royalisin, RAcc-royalisin from the royal jelly of Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana, was expressed by fusing with glutathione S-transferase (GST in Escherichia coli BL21, isolated and purified. The agar dilution assays with inhibition zone showed that RAcc-royalisin, similar to nisin, inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin was associated with its concentration, and was weakened by heat treatment ranging from 55°C to 85°C for 15 min. Both RAcc-royalisin and nisin exhibited the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 250 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus flavus and Staphyloccocus aureus in the microplate assay, respectively. However, RAcc-royalisin did not show antimicrobial activity against tested Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin agrees well with the decrease in bacterial cell hydrophobicity, the leakage of 260-nm absorbing materials, and the observation by transmission electron microscopy, all indicating that RAcc-royalisin induced the disruption and dysfunction of cell walls and membranes. This is the first report detailing the antibacterial mechanism of royalisin against Gram-positive bacteria, and provides insight into the application of recombinant royalisin in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent.

  8. Mechanism of action of recombinant acc-royalisin from royal jelly of Asian honeybee against gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lirong; Liu, Dandan; Li, Meilu; Jin, Feng; Din, Meihui; Parnell, Laurence D; Lai, Chao-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of royalisin, an antimicrobial peptide from the royal jelly produced by honeybees, has been addressed extensively. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a recombinant royalisin, RAcc-royalisin from the royal jelly of Asian honeybee Apis cerana cerana, was expressed by fusing with glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Escherichia coli BL21, isolated and purified. The agar dilution assays with inhibition zone showed that RAcc-royalisin, similar to nisin, inhibits the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin was associated with its concentration, and was weakened by heat treatment ranging from 55°C to 85°C for 15 min. Both RAcc-royalisin and nisin exhibited the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 62.5 µg/ml, 125 µg/ml, and 250 µg/ml against Gram-positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus flavus and Staphyloccocus aureus in the microplate assay, respectively. However, RAcc-royalisin did not show antimicrobial activity against tested Gram-negative bacterial and fungal strains. The antibacterial activity of RAcc-royalisin agrees well with the decrease in bacterial cell hydrophobicity, the leakage of 260-nm absorbing materials, and the observation by transmission electron microscopy, all indicating that RAcc-royalisin induced the disruption and dysfunction of cell walls and membranes. This is the first report detailing the antibacterial mechanism of royalisin against Gram-positive bacteria, and provides insight into the application of recombinant royalisin in food and pharmaceutical industries as an antimicrobial agent.

  9. Seasonal Variation of Honeybee Pathogens and its Association with Pollen Diversity in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Branchiccela, Belén; Harriet, Jorge; Campa, Juan; Invernizzi, Ciro; Santos, Estela; Higes, Mariano; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Zunino, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Honeybees are susceptible to a wide range of pathogens, which have been related to the occurrence of colony loss episodes reported mainly in north hemisphere countries. Their ability to resist those infections is compromised if they are malnourished or exposed to pesticides. The aim of the present study was to carry out an epidemiological study in Uruguay, South America, in order to evaluate the dynamics and interaction of honeybee pathogens and evaluate their association with the presence of external stress factors such as restricted pollen diversity and presence of agrochemicals. We monitored 40 colonies in two apiaries over 24 months, regularly quantifying colony strength, parasite and pathogen status, and pollen diversity. Chlorinated pesticides, phosphorus, pyrethroid, fipronil, or sulfas were not found in stored pollen in any colony or season. Varroa destructor was widespread in March (end of summer-beginning of autumn), decreasing after acaricide treatments. Viruses ABPV, DWV, and SBV presented a similar trend, while IAPV and KBV were not detected. Nosema ceranae was detected along the year while Nosema apis was detected only in one sample. Fifteen percent of the colonies died, being associated to high V. destructor mite load in March and high N. ceranae spore loads in September. Although similar results have been reported in north hemisphere countries, this is the first study of these characteristics in Uruguay, highlighting the regional importance. On the other side, colonies with pollen of diverse botanical origins showed reduced viral infection levels, suggesting that an adequate nutrition is important for the development of healthy colonies.

  10. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J Bromenshenk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV (Iridoviridae associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1 bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2 bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3 bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey

  11. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees.

  12. Improvements and extensions to API 618 related to pulsation and mechanical response studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Smeulers, J.P.M.; Blodgett, L.E.; Smalley, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Purchasers of reciprocating compressors need a standard to help ensure reliable installations. The PNEUROP standard evolved in Europe, and the API 618 Standard in the U.S.A. Frequent application and generally good experience, worldwide, have led to four releases of API 618, the last dated June 1995.

  13. Influence of humidity on the phase behavior of API/polymer formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Luebbert, Christian; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous formulations of APIs in polymers tend to absorb water from the atmosphere. This absorption of water can induce API recrystallization, leading to reduced long-term stability during storage. In this work, the phase behavior of different formulations was investigated as a function of relative humidity. Indomethacin and naproxen were chosen as model APIs and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64) as excipients. The formulations were prepared by spray drying. The water sorption in pure polymers and in formulations was measured at 25°C and at different values of relative humidity (RH=25%, 50% and 75%). Most water was absorbed in PVP-containing systems, and water sorption was decreasing with increasing API content. These trends could also be predicted in good agreement with the experimental data using the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. Furthermore, the effect of absorbed water on API solubility in the polymer and on the glass-transition temperature of the formulations was predicted with PC-SAFT and the Gordon-Taylor equation, respectively. The absorbed water was found to significantly decrease the API solubility in the polymer as well as the glass-transition temperature of the formulation. Based on a quantitative modeling of the API/polymer phase diagrams as a function of relative humidity, appropriate API/polymer compositions can now be selected to ensure long-term stable amorphous formulations at given storage conditions.

  14. APIS - a novel approach for conditioning honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Hagen Kirkerud

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees perform robustly in different conditioning paradigms. This makes them excellent candidates for studying mechanisms of learning and memory at both an individual and a population level. Here we introduce a novel method of honey bee conditioning: APIS, the Automatic Performance Index System. In an enclosed walking arena where the interior is covered with an electric grid, presentation of odours from either end can be combined with weak electric shocks to form aversive associations. To quantify behavioural responses, we continuously monitor the movement of the bee by an automatic tracking system. We found that escapes from one side to the other, changes in velocity as well as distance and time spent away from the punished odour are suitable parameters to describe the bee’s learning capabilities.Our data show that in a short-term memory test the response rate for the conditioned stimulus in APIS correlates well with response rate obtained from conventional Proboscis Extension Response (PER-conditioning. Additionally, we discovered that bees modulate their behaviour to aversively learned odours by reducing their rate, speed and magnitude of escapes and that both generalisation and extinction seem to be different between appetitive and aversive stimuli. The advantages of this automatic system make it ideal for assessing learning rates in a standardised and convenient way, and its flexibility adds to our toolbox for studying honey bee behaviour.

  15. From where did the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera) originate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fan; Wallberg, Andreas; Webster, Matthew T

    2012-08-01

    The native range of the honeybee Apis mellifera encompasses Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, whereas the nine other species of Apis are found exclusively in Asia. It is therefore commonly assumed that A. mellifera arose in Asia and expanded into Europe and Africa. However, other hypotheses for the origin of A. mellifera have also been proposed based on phylogenetic trees constructed from genetic markers. In particular, an analysis based on >1000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers placed the root of the tree of A. mellifera subspecies among samples from Africa, suggestive of an out-of-Africa expansion. Here, we re-evaluate the evidence for this and other hypotheses by testing the robustness of the tree topology to different tree-building methods and by removing specimens with a potentially hybrid background. These analyses do not unequivocally place the root of the tree of A. mellifera subspecies within Africa, and are potentially consistent with a variety of hypotheses for honeybee evolution, including an expansion out of Asia. Our analyses also support high divergence between western and eastern European populations of A. mellifera, suggesting they are likely derived from two distinct colonization routes, although the sources of these expansions are still unclear.

  16. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  17. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  18. Polymorphism analysis of csd gene in six Apis mellifera subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zilong; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Xiaobo; Yan, Weiyu; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2012-03-01

    The complementary sex determination (csd) gene is the primary gene determining the gender of honey bees (Apis spp). In this study we analyzed the polymorphism of csd gene in six Apis mellifera subspecies. The genomic region 3 of csd gene in these six A. mellifera was cloned, and identified. A total of 79 haplotypes were obtained from these six subspecies. Analysis showed that region 3 of csd gene has a high level of polymorphism in all the six A. mellifera subspecies. The A. m. anatolica subspecies has a slightly higher nucleotide diversity (π) than other subspecies, while the π values showed no significant difference among the other five subspecies. The phylogenetic tree showed that all the csd haplotypes from different A. mellifera subspecies are scattered throughout the tree, without forming six different clades. Population differentiation analysis showed that there are significant genetic differentiations among some of the subspecies. The NJ phylogenetic tree showed that the A. m. caucasica and A. m. carnica have the closest relationship, followed by A. m. ssp, A. m. ligustica, A. m. carpatica and A. m. anatolica that were gathered in the tree in turn.

  19. 往复压缩机标准API-618、API-11P的异同点及其应用浅谈%The Similarities and Differences of Reciprocating Compressor Standards of API-618 and API-11P and Discussion of Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明悦; 扈滨

    2011-01-01

    PI Standard 618 and API Specification 11P are the standards for reciprocating compressors by American Petroleum Institute ( API) .This paper has speeified the applications of the two standards in the compressors which used in the Cas Treatment Plant of SES natural gas pmject.And the similarities and differences between them are compared.%API Standard 618和API Specification 11P都是美国石油学会(API)针对往复压缩机制定的标准.结合中海石油SES天然气项目中的气体处理厂压缩机单元对这两个标准的应用,对两者之间的异同点进行比较.

  20. Towards Standardized Patient Data Exchange: Integrating a FHIR Based API for the Open Medical Record System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Interoperability is essential to address limitations caused by the ad hoc implementation of clinical information systems and the distributed nature of modern medical care. The HL7 V2 and V3 standards have played a significant role in ensuring interoperability for healthcare. FHIR is a next generation standard created to address fundamental limitations in HL7 V2 and V3. FHIR is particularly relevant to OpenMRS, an Open Source Medical Record System widely used across emerging economies. FHIR has the potential to allow OpenMRS to move away from a bespoke, application specific API to a standards based API. We describe efforts to design and implement a FHIR based API for the OpenMRS platform. Lessons learned from this effort were used to define long term plans to transition from the legacy OpenMRS API to a FHIR based API that greatly reduces the learning curve for developers and helps enhance adhernce to standards.

  1. The Ruby UCSC API: accessing the UCSC genome database using Ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishima Hiroyuki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC genome database is among the most used sources of genomic annotation in human and other organisms. The database offers an excellent web-based graphical user interface (the UCSC genome browser and several means for programmatic queries. A simple application programming interface (API in a scripting language aimed at the biologist was however not yet available. Here, we present the Ruby UCSC API, a library to access the UCSC genome database using Ruby. Results The API is designed as a BioRuby plug-in and built on the ActiveRecord 3 framework for the object-relational mapping, making writing SQL statements unnecessary. The current version of the API supports databases of all organisms in the UCSC genome database including human, mammals, vertebrates, deuterostomes, insects, nematodes, and yeast. The API uses the bin index—if available—when querying for genomic intervals. The API also supports genomic sequence queries using locally downloaded *.2bit files that are not stored in the official MySQL database. The API is implemented in pure Ruby and is therefore available in different environments and with different Ruby interpreters (including JRuby. Conclusions Assisted by the straightforward object-oriented design of Ruby and ActiveRecord, the Ruby UCSC API will facilitate biologists to query the UCSC genome database programmatically. The API is available through the RubyGem system. Source code and documentation are available at https://github.com/misshie/bioruby-ucsc-api/ under the Ruby license. Feedback and help is provided via the website at http://rubyucscapi.userecho.com/.

  2. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of honey bee viruses in the Biobío Region of Chile and their association with other honey bee pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Different episodes of mortalities of honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies have been associated with the presence of honey bee pathogens. Since the Biobío Region has among the highest number of apiaries in Chile, the aim of the present study was to identify viruses in the Region affecting honey bees, evaluate their relation to other pathogens, and conduct a phylogenetic analysis. Pupae and adult bees were collected from 60 apiaries of Apis mellifera L. in the Biobío Region over 2 yr. RNA viruses were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR, and Acarapis woodi, Nosema spp., and Varroa destructor via PCR. Three viruses were detected: Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV, Black queen cell virus (BQCV and Deformed wing virus (DWV in 2%, 10%, and 42% of the apiaries, respectively. No statistical correlation was observed between the presence of the different viruses, V. destructor, A. woodi, and the two Nosema species, and the bee development stages. One year after the first sampling, DWV and BQCV were detected mainly in foraging adult bee samples. Three percent of the apiaries were infected with N. apis and 18% with N. ceranae, 5% were positive for V. destructor, while A. woodi was not detected. PCR products were sequenced and compared to the Genbank database. Chilean sequences of ABPV, BQCV, and DWV showed high percentages of similarity to other isolates in South America.

  3. The influence of Nosema (Microspora: Nosematidae) infection on honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) defense against Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the costs and benefits of co-parasitism with Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) and Nosema (Nosema ceranae Fries and Nosema apis Zander) on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) with different defense levels. Newly-emerged worker bees from either high-mite-mortality-rate (high-MMR) bees or low-mite-mortality-rate (low-MMR) bees were confined in forty bioassay cages which were either inoculated with Nosema spores [Nosema (+) group] or were left un-inoculated [Nosema (-) group]. Caged-bees were then inoculated with Varroa mites [Varroa (+) group] or were left untreated [Varroa (-) group]. This established four treatment combinations within each Nosema treatment group: (1) low-MMR Varroa (-), (2) high-MMR Varroa (-), (3) low-MMR Varroa (+) and (4) high-MMR Varroa (+), each with five replicates. Overall mite mortality in high-MMR bees (0.12±0.02 mites per day) was significantly greater than in the low-MMR bees (0.06±0.02 mites per day). In the Nosema (-) groups bee mortality was greater in high-MMR bees than low-MMR bees but only when bees had a higher mite burden. Overall, high-MMR bees in the Nosema (-) group showed greater reductions in mean abundance of mites over time compared with low-MMR bees, when inoculated with additional mites. However, high-MMR bees could not reduce mite load as well as in the Nosema (-) group when fed with Nosema spores. Mean abundance of Nosema spores in live bees and dead bees of both strains of bees was significantly greater in the Nosema (+) group. Molecular analyses confirmed the presence of both Nosema species in inoculated bees but N. ceranae was more abundant than N. apis and unlike N. apis increased over the course of the experiment. Collectively, this study showed differential mite mortality rates among different genotypes of bees, however, Nosema infection restrained Varroa removal success in high-MMR bees.

  4. Asynchronous API Pattern and its Application%异步接口模式及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何华海; 丁柯

    2002-01-01

    In distributed systems,high efficiency can be achieved using asynchronous API between client and server.This paper provides an architectural pattern that implements asynchronous API generally. Asynchronous methods donot execute operations directly,however,they delegate the sending and receiving process to individual threads via aqueue ,the client deals with results by means of callback ,wait or check. Synchronous API is implemented on the baseof asynchronous API. Presently the asynchronous API pattern has been employed in the implementation of messagequeue middleware ISMQ.

  5. Research on API Based on Visual Programming Platforms%基于可视化平台的 API 接口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关玉蓉

    2015-01-01

    In a variety of visual programming platforms, especially with the external network environment, , a large number of API functions under Windows can help reflect strong advanced programming skills proving to be a multiplier effect. This paper firstly introduces the API function and the dynamic link library DLL, then briefly ex-plains the classification of API functions, and focuses on how to call the API function and its application of API function in the visual platform. The paper finally describes the skills and notes to pay attention for users when call-ing the API function, which enables them to master the advanced programming skills of API interface.%在各种可视化编程平台中,尤其是与外部网络环境相结合,为了体现强大的高级编程能力,可用Windows系统提供的大量API函数,必然会起到事半功倍的效果。本文首先介绍了API函数以及动态链接库DLL,其次简要说明了API函数的分类,然后重点分析了在可视化平台中如何调用API函数及其应用API函数的高级编程能力,最后阐述了用户调用API函数的技巧和注意事项,以提高用户灵活掌握API接口的高级编程应用能力。

  6. API5 confers cancer stem cell-like properties through the FGF2-NANOG axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K-H; Cho, H; Kim, S; Lee, H-J; Oh, S J; Woo, S R; Hong, S-O; Jang, H S; Noh, K H; Choi, C H; Chung, J-Y; Hewitt, S M; Kim, J-H; Son, M; Kim, S-H; Lee, B I; Park, H-C; Bae, Y-K; Kim, T W

    2017-01-01

    Immune selection drives the evolution of tumor cells toward an immune-resistant and cancer stem cell (CSC)-like phenotype. We reported that apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API5) acts as an immune escape factor, which has a significant role in controlling immune resistance to antigen-specific T cells, but its functional association with CSC-like properties remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that API5 confers CSC-like properties, including NANOG expression, the frequency of CD44-positive cells and sphere-forming capacity. Critically, these CSC-like properties mediated by API5 are dependent on FGFR1 signaling, which is triggered by E2F1-dependent FGF2 expression. Furthermore, we uncovered the FGF2-NANOG molecular axis as a downstream component of API5 signaling that is conserved in cervical cancer patients. Finally, we found that the blockade of FGFR signaling is an effective strategy to control API5high human cancer. Thus, our findings reveal a crucial role of API5 in linking immune resistance and CSC-like properties, and provide the rationale for its therapeutic application for the treatment of API5+ refractory tumors. PMID:28092370

  7. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5; AAC-11; FIF) is upregulated in human carcinomas in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koci, Lenka; Chlebova, Katarina; Hyzdalova, Martina; Hofmanova, Jirina; Jira, Miroslav; Kysela, Petr; Kozubik, Alois; Kala, Zdenek; Krejci, Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) is a 55 kDa nuclear protein with potent anti-apoptotic signaling in tumor cells in vitro. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the API-5 protein in vivo in a broad spectrum of human carcinomas, including those of the colon, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, stomach and esophagus using tumor tissues obtained during tumor resection. The results showed significant upregulation of API-5 expression in biopsies of lung (23%, n=13) and colorectal tumors (33%, n=27) in comparison with biopsies from the adjacent normal tissue. Colon cancer biopsies were used to study the cell populations with an upregulated level of expression of API-5 more closely. Using a magnetic bead-based selection for the epithelial cell marker EpCAM, we purified epithelial cells from the tumor and control tissues and analyzed these cells for API-5 expression by western immunoblotting. We observed that EpCAM-positive tumor cells expressed API-5 in all three colorectal cancer cases tested, in contrast to the control EpCAM-positive and EpCAM-negative cells isolated from the control or tumor tissues. These data suggest that the expression of the API-5 protein is upregulated in tumor epithelial cells and may serve as a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer.

  8. api, A novel Medicago truncatula symbiotic mutant impaired in nodule primordium invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teillet, Alice; Garcia, Joseph; de Billy, Françoise; Gherardi, Michèle; Huguet, Thierry; Barker, David G; de Carvalho-Niebel, Fernanda; Journet, Etienne-Pascal

    2008-05-01

    Genetic approaches have proved to be extremely useful in dissecting the complex nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium-legume endosymbiotic association. Here we describe a novel Medicago truncatula mutant called api, whose primary phenotype is the blockage of rhizobial infection just prior to nodule primordium invasion, leading to the formation of large infection pockets within the cortex of noninvaded root outgrowths. The mutant api originally was identified as a double symbiotic mutant associated with a new allele (nip-3) of the NIP/LATD gene, following the screening of an ethylmethane sulphonate-mutagenized population. Detailed characterization of the segregating single api mutant showed that rhizobial infection is also defective at the earlier stage of infection thread (IT) initiation in root hairs, as well as later during IT growth in the small percentage of nodules which overcome the primordium invasion block. Neither modulating ethylene biosynthesis (with L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinylglycine or 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) nor reducing ethylene sensitivity in a skl genetic background alters the basic api phenotype, suggesting that API function is not closely linked to ethylene metabolism or signaling. Genetic mapping places the API gene on the upper arm of the M. truncatula linkage group 4, and epistasis analyses show that API functions downstream of BIT1/ERN1 and LIN and upstream of NIP/LATD and the DNF genes.

  9. Investigation into process-induced de-aggregation of cohesive micronised API particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Magnus; Wray, Patrick S; Gamble, John F; Tobyn, Mike

    2015-09-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of unit processes on the de-aggregation of a cohesive micronised API within a pharmaceutical formulation using near-infrared chemical imaging. The impact on the primary API particles was also investigated using an image-based particle characterization system with integrated Raman analysis. The blended material was shown to contain large, API rich domains which were distributed in-homogeneously across the sample, suggesting that the blending process was not aggressive enough to disperse aggregates of micronised drug particles. Cone milling, routinely used to improve the homogeneity of such cohesive formulations, was observed to substantially reduce the number and size of API rich domains; however, several smaller API domains survived the milling process. Conveyance of the cone milled formulation through the Alexanderwerk WP120 powder feed system completely dispersed all remaining aggregates. Importantly, powder feed transmission of the un-milled formulation was observed to produce an equally homogeneous API distribution. The size of the micronised primary drug particles remained unchanged during powder feed transmission. These findings provide further evidence that this powder feed system does induce shear, and is in fact better able to disperse aggregates of a cohesive micronised API within a blend than the blend-mill-blend step.

  10. EDGE REMOVAL OF 3D POLYGONAL MODEL USING MAYA API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMEER ARORA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In various applications of computer graphics, 3D polygonal modeling is used, which consists millions of triangular polygon. In this polygon attributes – vertices, edges and faces’ details are to be stored. In order to control the processing time, storing space, and transfer speed, it is often required to reduce the information ofthese polygonal 3D models. In this paper an effort is made to reduce the number of edges. There are various methods to reduce faces and edges of these 3D models. A C++ dynamic link library as Maya Plugin has been created to remove number of edges of 3D triangular polygon model using the Quadric Error Metrics (QEM in MAYA v2010 x64 API. QEM allows fast and accurate geometric simplification of 3D models.

  11. AES Encryption and Decryption Using Direct3D 10 API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Marius Chiuta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Current video cards (GPUs – Graphics Processing Units are very programmable, have become much more powerful than the CPUs and they are very affordable. In this paper, we present an implementation for the AES algorithm using Direct3D 10 certified GPUs. The graphics API Direct3D 10 is the first version that allows the use of integer operations, making from the traditional GPUs (that works only with floating point numbers, General Purpose GPUs that can be used for a large number of algorithms, including encryption. We present the performance of the symmetric key encryption algorithm – AES, on a middle range GPU and on a middle range quad core CPU. On the testing system, the developed solution is almost 3 times faster on the GPU than on one single core CPU, showing that the GPU can perform as an efficient cryptographic accelerator.

  12. Fragilización por Hidrógeno de los Aceros API 5L X60 y API 5L X80 Hydrogen Embrittlement of API 5L X60 and API 5L X80 Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno A Araújo; Jorge A Palma; Vilar, Eudésio O.; Silva, Antonio A.

    2011-01-01

    Se ha determinado el comportamiento mecánico de los aceros API 5L grados X60 y X80, fragilizados por hidrógeno ambiental y por hidrógeno interno. El potencial y la densidad de corriente para la generación del hidrógeno fueron determinados por polarización potenciodinámica, y el tiempo de saturación estimado a partir de datos de difusividad y solubilidad obtenidos en ensayos de permeación con una célula electroquímica. La carga de hidrógeno para reproducir las condiciones de la fragilización p...

  13. API, Cloud computing, WebGIS and cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Favretto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the digital mapping processes available on the Internet in order to analyse their cartographic congruence. It will focus on WebGIS-based cartography in relation to what is produced using Mash-up site maps. These websites often use Googlebased maps in order to produce their own cartography. Thus, we can identify two main typologies of Internet mapping sites, which are characterized by the ownership or non-ownership of their cartographic bases. This paper will critically assess the cartography employed in the two different instances. A concise introduction to the Cloud Computing Internet propagated phenomenon is also premised in order to provide the reader with an accurate frame of reference. Cloud Computing has encouraged a significant Internet participation via the Application Programming Interface software (API, leading to mash-up cartographic websites.

  14. Pheromonal contest between honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, R. F. A.; Simon, U. E.; Crewe, R. M.

    2000-10-01

    Queenless workers of the Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis) can develop into reproductives termed pseudoqueens. Although they morphologically remain workers they become physiologically queenlike, produce offspring, and secrete mandibular gland pheromones similar to those of true queens. However, after queen loss only very few workers gain pseudoqueen status. A strong intracolonial selection governs which workers start oviposition and which remain sterile. The "queen substance", 9-keto-2(E)-decenoic acid (9-ODA), the dominant compound of the queen's mandibular gland pheromones, suppresses the secretion of queenlike mandibular gland pheromones in workers. It may act as an important signal in pseudoqueen selection. By analysing the mandibular gland pheromones of workers kept in pairs, we found that A. m. capensis workers compete to produce the strongest queen-like signal.

  15. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-09-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  16. Genetic structure of Apis mellifera macedonica in the Balkan Peninsula based on microsatellite DNA polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uzunov, Aleksandar; Meixner, Marina D; Kiprijanovska, Hrisula;

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variability of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) from south eastern Europe was investigated using microsatellite analyses of 107 samples from Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Bulgaria together with 42 reference samples (Apis mellifera carnica) from Slovenia. Genetic structure...... and spatial analyses of the microsatellite data showed a clear distinction between the Slovenian bees and all other populations, and confirmed the existence of Apis mellifera macedonica as an indigenous honey bee population in the regions that were sampled. In most areas however, varying degrees...

  17. Clarification of some api characteristics in relation to caribou (Rangifer tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William O. Pruitt, Jr.

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2177 comparisons of api hardness vs. density in northern Saskatchewan, southeastern Manitoba and northeastern Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.70 to -.17. A total of 1395 comparisons of horizontal hardness of the top layer of api to vertical hardness of the same layer of api in southeastern Manitoba, northeastern Finland and far eastern middle Finland revealed no consistent correlation (r varied from +.99 to -.20. Therefore one cannot substitute density for hardness nor horizontal hardness of the top layer for vertical hardness of the top layer in the terms of the Värriö Snow Index.

  18. The Arabidopsis apyrase AtAPY1 is localized in the Golgi instead of the extracellular space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiller Madlen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The two highly similar Arabidopsis apyrases AtAPY1 and AtAPY2 were previously shown to be involved in plant growth and development, evidently by regulating extracellular ATP signals. The subcellular localization of AtAPY1 was investigated to corroborate an extracellular function. Results Transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1 fused to the SNAP-(O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase-tag were used for indirect immunofluorescence and AtAPY1 was detected in punctate structures within the cell. The same signal pattern was found in seedlings stably overexpressing AtAPY1-GFP by indirect immunofluorescence and live imaging. In order to identify the nature of the AtAPY1-positive structures, AtAPY1-GFP expressing seedlings were treated with the endocytic marker stain FM4-64 (N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl-4-(p-diethylaminophenyl-hexatrienyl-pyridinium dibromide and crossed with a transgenic line expressing the trans-Golgi marker Rab E1d. Neither FM4-64 nor Rab E1d co-localized with AtAPY1. However, live imaging of transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing AtAPY1-GFP and either the fluorescent protein-tagged Golgi marker Membrin 12, Syntaxin of plants 32 or Golgi transport 1 protein homolog showed co-localization. The Golgi localization was confirmed by immunogold labeling of AtAPY1-GFP. There was no indication of extracellular AtAPY1 by indirect immunofluorescence using antibodies against SNAP and GFP, live imaging of AtAPY1-GFP and immunogold labeling of AtAPY1-GFP. Activity assays with AtAPY1-GFP revealed GDP, UDP and IDP as substrates, but neither ATP nor ADP. To determine if AtAPY1 is a soluble or membrane protein, microsomal membranes were isolated and treated with various solubilizing agents. Only SDS and urea (not alkaline or high salt conditions were able to release the AtAPY1 protein from microsomal membranes. Conclusions AtAPY1 is an integral Golgi protein with the substrate specificity typical for Golgi apyrases. It is

  19. IgE recognition of chimeric isoforms of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom allergen Api m 10 evaluated by protein array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; De Smet, Lina; Rafei-Shamsabadi, David; Blank, Simon; Spillner, Edzard; Ebo, Didier G; Devreese, Bart; Jakob, Thilo; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-02-01

    Api m 10 has recently been established as novel major allergen that is recognized by more than 60% of honeybee venom (HBV) allergic patients. Previous studies suggest Api m 10 protein heterogeneity which may have implications for diagnosis and immunotherapy of HBV allergy. In the present study, RT-PCR revealed the expression of at least nine additional Api m 10 transcript isoforms by the venom glands. Two distinct mechanisms are responsible for the generation of these isoforms: while the previously known variant 2 is produced by an alternative splicing event, novel identified isoforms are intragenic chimeric transcripts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the identification of chimeric transcripts generated by the honeybee. By a retrospective proteomic analysis we found evidence for the presence of several of these isoforms in the venom proteome. Additionally, we analyzed IgE reactivity to different isoforms by protein array technology using sera from HBV allergic patients, which revealed that IgE recognition of Api m 10 is both isoform- and patient-specific. While it was previously demonstrated that the majority of HBV allergic patients display IgE reactivity to variant 2, our study also shows that some patients lacking IgE antibodies for variant 2 display IgE reactivity to two of the novel identified Api m 10 variants, i.e. variants 3 and 4.

  20. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Fiscal Year Quarterly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our quarterly national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for the current fiscal year. A fiscal year runs from October through September...

  1. Telephone Interpreter Services (TIS)-Asian and Pacific Islander (API) Language Yearly Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset displays our national TIS call volume for over 45 API languages for the last three fiscal years. A fiscal year runs from October through September. We...

  2. Bilingual education, indigenous language and culture: the case of Apyãwa Tapirapé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gorete Neto

    Full Text Available Bilingual schools are recognized as an important resource to increase the chances of language survival but in many cases have proven to be ineffective. Within the Apyãwa Tapirapé Indian Tribe (central Brazil, an effective bilingual school does exist; however, this study shows that even a successful school brings complications for the community. Audio-recorded interviews, in which teachers and leaders discuss their bilingual school and its consequences for the Apyãwa Tapirapé people, reveal that they feel that the school has changed the Apyãwa Tapirapé lifestyle in both negative and positive ways. A continuous evaluation and ongoing reconstruction of educational aspects is proposed as a way to both attend to the needs and to relieve the worries of groups like the Apyãwa Tapirapé with respect to the impact of their school on the community.

  3. A review on the taste masking of bitter APIs: hot-melt extrusion (HME) evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Boateng, Joshua S; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Snowden, Martin J; Douroumis, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) found in oral dosage forms have a bitter taste. Masking the unpleasant taste of bitter, APIs is a major challenge in the development of such oral dosage forms. Taste assessment is an important quality-control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations of any new molecular entity. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) techniques, have very recently, been accepted from an industrial compliance viewpoint in relation to both manufacturing operations and development of pharmaceuticals. HME achieves taste masking of bitter APIs via various mechanisms such as the formation of solid dispersions and inter-molecular interactions and this has led to its wide-spread use in pharmaceutical formulation research. In this article, the uses of various taste evaluation methods and HME as continuous processing techniques for taste masking of bitter APIs used for the oral delivery of drugs are reviewed.

  4. Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) --- GSM1231690_Slide_43 API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  5. Dosis Letal Media (DL50 de algunos aceites esenciales y biocidas efectivos para el control de Ascosphaera apis en Apis mellifera L. - Median Lethal Dose (LD50 of some essential oils and biocides effective for the control of Ascosphaera apis on Apis mellifera L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albo, Graciela N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa ascofaeriosis o cría yesificada, es una enfermedad de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera L. causada por el hongo Ascosphaera apis que produce la momificación de las larvas. Los aceites esenciales poseen efectos antimicrobianos y han sido utilizados para el control de cría yesificada. Por otra parte, a nivel mundial se han probado gran cantidad de productos de síntesis, pero ninguno ha resultado 100 % eficaz. SummaryChalkbrood is a disease of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L caused by the fungus Ascosphaera apis that transforms larvae into mummies. Essential oils have showed antimicrobial activity and have been used in the control of chalkbrood. Moreover, world-wide, great number of synthesized products have been assayed but no one has resulted 100% effective.

  6. S E- GEOD-50881 Study Samples --- Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  7. A E- GEOD-50881 Gene Chip Assay --- Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115) API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A fully queryable REST API with JSON, XML, and CSV output as well as inline, runable examples using data from the transcriptional profiling and phenotypic...

  8. BUILDING MODEL ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS WITH THE JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY (JUPITER) API

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open-source, public domain JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) API (Application Programming Interface) provides conventions and Fortran-90 modules to develop applications (computer programs) for analyzing process models. The input ...

  9. Three-dimensional model of the honeybee venom allergen Api m 7: structural and functional insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Dessislava; Greunke, Kerstin; Betzel, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Api m 7 is one of the major protease allergens of the honeybee venom. It consists of a serine protease-like (SPL) and a CUB domain. The knowledge about the structure and function of Api m 7 is limited mainly to its amino acid sequence. Three-dimensional models of the two structural domains were constructed using their amino acid sequences and the crystallographic coordinates of prophenoloxidase-activating factor (PPAF-II) as a template for the SPL domain and the coordinates of porcine spermadhesin PSP-II for the CUB domain. The structural organization of Api m 7 suggests that the CUB domain is involved in interactions with natural substrates while the SPL domain probably activates zymogens. IgE epitopes and antigenic sites were predicted. Api m 7 shows structural and functional similarity to the members of the PPAF-II family. Possible substrates, function and evolution of the enzyme are discussed in the paper.

  10. Antagonistic Effect of Gut Bacteria in the Hybrid Carniolan Honey Bee, Apis Mellifera Carnica, Against Ascosphaera Apis, the Causal Organism of Chalkbrood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Mohamed O. M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial strains associated with the gut of the hybrid Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, and to determine their in vitro and in vivo potential against Ascosphaera apis, the causal organism of chalkbrood disease, with the purpose of exploring feasible biological control. Six bacterial strains were isolated from healthy worker honey bees by culture-dependent methods. Six fungal strains (A3, A4, A7, A8, A9, and A15 of A. apis were isolated from larvae suffering from chalkbrood disease on Yeast-Glucose-Starch agar (YGPSA medium. All bacteria were identified by a combination of morphology, Gram stain, and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, and fungal strains were identified by morphology and 5.8S rRNA. In vitro and in vivo inhibition assays were carried out to determine the ability of bacterial isolates to inhibit A. apis, the causal agent of chalkbrood disease. The analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that four bacterial strains (B2, B4, B10, and B100 belong to Bacillus subtilis species, and two strains (P1 and P5 belong to Pseudomonas fluorescence. Significant differences in antagonistic activity of all bacterial strains were observed. B. subtilis isolate B2 showed the highest antagonistic activity, as measured by the inhibition zone against A. apis, followed by the P1 strain of P. fluorescence. SEM analysis also supports the antagonistic activity of these bacteria against A. apis. This study provides a theoretical basis for biological control of honey bee chalkbrood disease.

  11. Revoke and Let Live: A Secure Key Revocation API for Cryptographic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Cortier, Véronique; Steel,Graham; Wiedling, Cyrille

    2012-01-01

    While extensive research addresses the problem of establishing session keys through cryptographic protocols, relatively little work has appeared addressing the problem of revocation and update of long term keys. We present an API for symmetric key management on embedded devices that supports revocation and prove security properties design in the symbolic model of cryptography. Our API supports two modes of revocation: a passive mode where keys have an expiration time, and an active mode where...

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels. PMID:26601024

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Fatigue Crack Growth Model for API Steels in Gaseous Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Robert L; Rustagi, Neha; Drexler, Elizabeth S; Slifka, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    A model to predict fatigue crack growth of API pipeline steels in high pressure gaseous hydrogen has been developed and is presented elsewhere. The model currently has several parameters that must be calibrated for each pipeline steel of interest. This work provides a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters in order to provide (a) insight to the underlying mathematical and mechanistic aspects of the model, and (b) guidance for model calibration of other API steels.

  14. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Andreas; Bischof, Jared; Harrison, Travis; Brettin, Tom; D'Souza, Mark; Gerlach, Wolfgang; Matthews, Hunter; Paczian, Tobias; Wilkening, Jared; Glass, Elizabeth M; Desai, Narayan; Meyer, Folker

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MG-RAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface) we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http://kbase.us) we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase's microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer) implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.

  15. A RESTful API for accessing microbial community data for MG-RAST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomic sequencing has produced significant amounts of data in recent years. For example, as of summer 2013, MG-RAST has been used to annotate over 110,000 data sets totaling over 43 Terabases. With metagenomic sequencing finding even wider adoption in the scientific community, the existing web-based analysis tools and infrastructure in MG-RAST provide limited capability for data retrieval and analysis, such as comparative analysis between multiple data sets. Moreover, although the system provides many analysis tools, it is not comprehensive. By opening MG-RAST up via a web services API (application programmers interface we have greatly expanded access to MG-RAST data, as well as provided a mechanism for the use of third-party analysis tools with MG-RAST data. This RESTful API makes all data and data objects created by the MG-RAST pipeline accessible as JSON objects. As part of the DOE Systems Biology Knowledgebase project (KBase, http://kbase.us we have implemented a web services API for MG-RAST. This API complements the existing MG-RAST web interface and constitutes the basis of KBase's microbial community capabilities. In addition, the API exposes a comprehensive collection of data to programmers. This API, which uses a RESTful (Representational State Transfer implementation, is compatible with most programming environments and should be easy to use for end users and third parties. It provides comprehensive access to sequence data, quality control results, annotations, and many other data types. Where feasible, we have used standards to expose data and metadata. Code examples are provided in a number of languages both to show the versatility of the API and to provide a starting point for users. We present an API that exposes the data in MG-RAST for consumption by our users, greatly enhancing the utility of the MG-RAST service.

  16. Using DLL as Interface between API an VC#.NET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DARDALA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for using complex Win32API data structures and functions in Visual C# .NET applications. We built DLL (Dynamic Link Library to manage the API functions and data structures and we used DLL modules in a C# application. This is an easier working way compared with the traditional way of importing and managing API’s functions in C# programs.

  17. Hot-stage microscopy for determination of API particles in a formulated tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simek, Michal; Grünwaldová, Veronika; Kratochvíl, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Although methods exist to readily determine the particle size distribution (PSD) of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) before its formulation into a final product, the primary challenge is to develop a method to determine the PSD of APIs in a finished tablet. To address the limitations of existing PSD methods, we used hot-stage microscopy to observe tablet disintegration during temperature change and, thus, reveal the API particles in a tablet. Both mechanical and liquid disintegration were evaluated after we had identified optimum milling time for mechanical disintegration and optimum volume of water for liquid disintegration. In each case, hot-stage micrographs, taken before and after the API melting point, were compared with image analysis software to obtain the PSDs. Then, the PSDs of the APIs from the disintegrated tablets were compared with the PSDs of raw APIs. Good agreement was obtained, thereby confirming the robustness of our methodology. The availability of such a method equips pharmaceutical scientists with an in vitro assessment method that will more reliably determine the PSD of active substances in finished tablets.

  18. The Matchmaker Exchange API: automating patient matching through the exchange of structured phenotypic and genotypic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Orion J; Schiettecatte, François; Hutton, Benjamin; Dumitriu, Sergiu; Misyura, Andriy; Huang, Lijia; Hartley, Taila; Girdea, Marta; Sobreira, Nara; Mungall, Chris; Brudno, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of clinical sequencing, the difficulty of identifying additional affected families is a key obstacle to solving many rare diseases. There may only be a handful of similar patients worldwide, and their data may be stored in diverse clinical and research databases. Computational methods are necessary to enable finding similar patients across the growing number of patient repositories and registries. We present the Matchmaker Exchange Application Programming Interface (MME API), a protocol and data format for exchanging phenotype and genotype profiles to enable matchmaking among patient databases, facilitate the identification of additional cohorts, and increase the rate with which rare diseases can be researched and diagnosed. We designed the API to be straightforward and flexible in order to simplify its adoption on a large number of data types and workflows. We also provide a public test data set, curated from the literature, to facilitate implementation of the API and development of new matching algorithms. The initial version of the API has been successfully implemented by three members of the Matchmaker Exchange and was immediately able to reproduce previously identified matches and generate several new leads currently being validated. The API is available at https://github.com/ga4gh/mme-apis.

  19. An analysis of multifractal characteristics of API time series in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Huang, Yi; Yan, Ya-ni

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes multifractal characteristics of daily air pollution index (API) records in Nanjing from 2001 to 2012. The entire daily API time series is first divided into 12 parts that serve as research objects, and the generalized Hurst exponent is calculated for each series. And then, the multifractal sources are analyzed and singularity spectra are shown. Next, based on a singularity spectrum, the multifractal-characteristics parameters (maximum exponent α0, spectrum width Δ α, and asymmetry Δ αas) are introduced. The results show that the fractality of daily API for each year is multifractal. The multifractal sources originate from both a broad probability density function and different long-range correlations with small and large fluctuations. The strength of the distribution multifractality is stronger than that of the correlation multifractality. The variation in the structure of API time series with increasing years is mainly related to long-range correlations. The structure of API time series in some years is richer. These findings can provide a scientific basis for further probing into the complexity of API.

  20. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy's RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4phpDatabase URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php.

  1. When API Mass Spectrometry Meets Super Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin

    2015-01-01

    In a tutorial paper on the application of free-jet technique for API-MS, John Fenn mentioned that "…for a number of years and a number of reasons, it has been found advantageous in many situations to carry out the ionization process in gas at pressures up to 1000 Torr or more" (Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 200: 459-478, 2000). In fact, the first ESI mass spectrometer constructed by Yamashita and Fenn had a counter-flow curtain gas source at 1050 Torr (ca. 1.4 atm) to sweep away the neutral (J. Phys. Chem. 88: 4451-4459, 1984). For gaseous ionization using electrospray plume, theoretical analysis also shows that "super-atmospheric operation would be more preferable in space-charge-limited situations."(Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 300: 182-193, 2011). However, electrospray and the corona-based chemical ion source (APCI) in most commercial instrument are basically operated under an atmospheric pressure ambient, perhaps out of the concern of safety, convenience and simplicity in maintenance. Running the ion source at pressure much higher than 1 atm is not so common, but had been done by a number of groups as well as in our laboratory. A brief review on these ion sources will be given in this paper.

  2. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  3. Energetic feedings influence beeswax production by Apis mellifera L. honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Pedraza Carrillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different types of energy feeding (sugar syrup, inverted sugar and juice of sugar-cane on beeswax production and its economic feasibility are evaluated. Twenty beehives of Africanized Apis mellifera were selected, and five were used for each type of feeding. The treatments were T1 (sugar-cane juice, T2 (sugar syrup and T3 (inverted sugar. Feedings was provided by Boardman feeders and the amount was adjusted according to consumption. A layer of beeswax was manually set up into the honeybee nest and beeswax built area was measured weekly. Total reducing sugar, calorimetry, dry matter and ashes of all feedings were analyzed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with Tukey’s test to determine differences among averages. The average consumption of inverted sugar was significantly lower than that of other treatments. The highest beeswax production average occurred in the sugar syrup treatment. The highest average of ashes, dry matter and reducing sugar occurred, respectively, in sugar-cane juice, inverted sugar and sugar syrup. Sugar syrup may be an alternative energy source for beeswax production, although sugar-cane juice may be more profitable.

  4. Web API for biology with a workflow navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeondae; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Kuwana, Yoshikazu; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) provides Web-based systems for biological analysis, called Web APIs for biology (WABI). So far, we have developed over 20 SOAP services and several workflows that consist of a series of method invocations. In this article, we present newly developed services of WABI, that is, REST-based Web services, additional workflows and a workflow navigation system. Each Web service and workflow can be used as a complete service or a building block for programmers to construct more complex information processing systems. The workflow navigation system aims to help non-programming biologists perform analysis tasks by providing next applicable services on Web browsers according to the output of a previously selected service. With this function, users can apply multiple services consecutively only by following links without any programming or manual copy-and-paste operations on Web browsers. The listed services are determined automatically by the system referring to the dictionaries of service categories, the input/output types of services and HTML tags. WABI and the workflow navigation system are freely accessible at http://www.xml.nig.ac.jp/index.html and http://cyclamen.ddbj.nig.ac.jp/, respectively.

  5. The Influence of Niobium on SSC Resistance in API Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malina, J.; Malina, M.; Novosel-Radovic, V. [Zagreb Univ., Faculty of Metallurgy (Croatia)

    2004-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Oil country tubular goods are often exposed to aggressive sour environments in oil wells where H{sub 2}S promotes sulfide stress cracking, SSC. This is one of the most dangerous corrosion phenomena characterized by unpredictable and sudden cracking of steel constructions in service. SSC results in a variety of fracture features having a common relationship to the presence of hydrogen in metal and therefore it belongs to hydrogen embrittlement phenomena, HE. For the production of sulfide stress cracking resistant (SSC) tubing from steels included in Group 3 of API Specification 5CT, in this study two experimental Cr-Mo steels (without niobium and with niobium microalloyed) were tested. The influence of Nb precipitates in pipeline steels on the sensitivity to sulfide stress cracking was examined in laboratory experiments using three point bent beam tests. High mechanical properties were achieved through quenching and tempering procedures. Better corrosion resistance of Nb-containing steel is the consequence of microstructural parameters obtained through strengthening mechanism with microalloying element. Besides the usual mechanical, metallographic, SEM and TEM analyses, as complementary method the X-ray diffraction was used. It was revealed that tetragonality of crystal lattice, dislocation density and residual stresses are in good correlation with Sc-vales from corrosion tests. Nb precipitates (especially niobium carbides) have beneficial influence when producing the steels with low sensitivity to SSC. (authors)

  6. SIP APIs for Voice and Video Communications on the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Davids, Carol; Singh, Kundan; Sinnreich, Henry; Wimmreuter, Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    Existing standard protocols for the web and Internet telephony fail to deliver real-time interactive communication from within a web browser. In particular, the client-server web protocol over reliable TCP is not always suitable for end-to-end low latency media path needed for interactive voice and video communication. To solve this, we compare the available platform options using the existing technologies such as modifying the web programming language and protocol, using an existing web browser plugin, and a separate host resident application that the web browser can talk to. We argue that using a separate application as an adaptor is a promising short term as well as long-term strategy for voice and video communications on the web. Our project aims at developing the open technology and sample implementations for web-based real-time voice and video communication applications. We describe the architecture of our project including (1) a RESTful web communication API over HTTP inspired by SIP message flows, (2)...

  7. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera worker genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Magne Koscielniak Rasmussen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provides a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, includes cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the social repertoire of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  8. blend4php: a PHP API for galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wytko, Connor; Soto, Brian; Ficklin, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy is a popular framework for execution of complex analytical pipelines typically for large data sets, and is a commonly used for (but not limited to) genomic, genetic and related biological analysis. It provides a web front-end and integrates with high performance computing resources. Here we report the development of the blend4php library that wraps Galaxy’s RESTful API into a PHP-based library. PHP-based web applications can use blend4php to automate execution, monitoring and management of a remote Galaxy server, including its users, workflows, jobs and more. The blend4php library was specifically developed for the integration of Galaxy with Tripal, the open-source toolkit for the creation of online genomic and genetic web sites. However, it was designed as an independent library for use by any application, and is freely available under version 3 of the GNU Lesser General Public License (LPGL v3.0) at https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php. Database URL: https://github.com/galaxyproject/blend4php PMID:28077564

  9. Activity of telomerase and telomeric length in Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korandová, Michala; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková

    2016-06-01

    Telomerase is an enzyme that adds repeats of DNA sequences to the ends of chromosomes, thereby preventing their shortening. Telomerase activity is associated with proliferative status of cells, organismal development, and aging. We report an analysis of telomerase activity and telomere length in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Telomerase activity was found to be regulated in a development and caste-specific manner. During the development of somatic tissues of larval drones and workers, telomerase activity declined to 10 % of its level in embryos and remained low during pupal and adult stages but was upregulated in testes of late pupae, where it reached 70 % of the embryo level. Upregulation of telomerase activity was observed in the ovaries of late pupal queens, reaching 160 % of the level in embryos. Compared to workers and drones, queens displayed higher levels of telomerase activity. In the third larval instar of queens, telomerase activity reached the embryo level, and an enormous increase was observed in adult brains of queens, showing a 70-fold increase compared to a brain of an adult worker. Southern hybridization of terminal TTAGG fragments revealed a high variability of telomeric length between different individuals, although the same pattern of hybridization signals was observed in different tissues of each individual.

  10. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  11. The construction of prokaryotic expression system for human Api6 fusion protein%人Api6融合蛋白原核表达系统的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方严; 练雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To further study the pathophysiological function of human Api6 fusion protein expression using a prokaryotic expression system. Methods: Api6 cDNA was inserted into ppSUMO vector to form recombinant plasmid pp-SUMO-Api6;recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was trans-formed into prokaryotic expression host E.coli Rosetta;prokaryotic expression method was optimized to induce expression of recombi-nant protein Api6 in different conditions of E.coli density,temperature,IPTG concentration and induction time;recombinant protein Api6 was identified by Western blot. Results:The recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was successfully constructed;the recombinant protein Api6 was successfully induced,and the expression of recombinant protein ppSUMO-Api6 from the prokaryotic expression system was optimized in the condition of OD600=0.5-0.8,16℃,0.5 mmol/L IPTG and 16 h induction.Conclusion:Recombinant plasmid ppSUMO-Api6 was converted into the prokaryotic expression host E.coli Rosetta to get the recombinant strain ppSUMO-Api6-Rosetta.Recombinant protein ppSUMO-Api6 was expressed using a prokaryotic expression system at the optimal expression conditions.%目的:本研究拟采用蛋白原核表达的方法,诱导表达人Api6(Apoptosis inhibitor 6)融合蛋白,为进一步研究Api6在凋亡抑制、脂质代谢和肿瘤发生中的作用奠定基础.方法:利用PCR技术扩增人Api6基因,将其克隆至原核表达载体ppSUMO,构建重组质粒ppSUMO-Api6;重组质粒转化原核表达宿主菌E.coli Rosetta感受态;采用蛋白原核表达的方法,不同诱导前菌液浓度,不同温度、不同异丙基硫化半乳糖苷(Isopropy 1-β-D-thiogalaotopyrano-side,IPTG)浓度、不同诱导时间,筛选诱导表达Api6重组蛋白的最优条件;Western blot鉴定其表达情况.结果:成功构建重组质粒ppSUMO-Api6;成功诱导Api6重组蛋白的原核表达,表达的最优条件为:OD600=0.5~0.8的重组菌,16℃、0.5 mmol/L IPTG诱导16 h.结论:含有人Api6 c

  12. Comparison of API 20E and invA PCR for identification of Salmonella enterica isolates from swine production units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Daniele M; Maddox, Carol W; Hoien-Dalen, Patricia; Weigel, Ronald M

    2006-09-01

    API 20E and invA PCR were evaluated for the identification of Salmonella enterica isolates from swine farms. API 20E had the highest agreement with other tests at the 99.9% likelihood level. Both tests had 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity compared to 16S rRNA sequencing. Compared to serotyping, both tests had 96% sensitivity; specificity was 86% for API 20E and 79% for invA PCR.

  13. Mutational epitope analysis and cross-reactivity of two isoforms of Api g 1, the major celery allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangorsch, Andrea; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Rösch, Paul; Holzhauser, Thomas; Vieths, Stefan

    2007-04-01

    For better understanding the cross-reactivity between the major birch pollen and celery allergens, Bet v 1 and Api g 1, respectively, putative epitope areas and structurally important positions for IgE-binding of the isoforms Api g 1.01 and Api g 1.02 were point mutated. The IgE binding capacities were measured in ELISA, the IgE cross-reactivity between the isoforms, mutants and Bet v 1 investigated by ELISA-inhibition experiments with serum pools from patients with confirmed celery allergy (DBPCFC). Api g 1.01 displayed a clearly higher frequency and capacity of IgE binding than Api g 1.02. In Api g 1.01, substitution of lysine against glutamic acid at amino acid position 44, a key residue of the Bet v 1 "P-loop", increased the IgE-binding properties. Structural instability due to proline insertion at position 111/112 resulted in loss of IgE binding of Api g 1.01, but not of Api g 1.02. Between Api g 1.01 and Api g 1.02 only partial cross-reactivity was seen. The data suggest that the IgE epitopes of the two isoforms are distinct and that in contrast to Api g 1.01, the "P-loop" region plays an important role for IgE binding of celery allergic subjects to Api g 1.02. Understanding and investigation of the molecular mechanisms in celery allergy is an important step to generate hypoallergenic proteins for safe and efficacious immunotherapy of food allergy.

  14. Software Defined GPS API: Development and Implementation of GPS Correlator Architectures Using MATLAB with Focus on SDR Implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-18

    NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - UU UU UU UU Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Software Defined GPS API : Development...and Implementation of GPS Correlator Architectures Using MATLAB with Focus on SDR Implementations The Software Defined GPS API was created with the...ABOVE ADDRESS. Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico 377 Ponce de Leon Ave. Hato Rey, PR 00918 -0000 ABSTRACT Software Defined GPS API : Development and

  15. Windows API funkcijų sekų perėmimo bibliotekų tyrimas Windows API Hooking Libraries Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Radvilavičius

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Nagrinėjamos bibliotekos, skirtos Windows API funkcijų sekų perėmimui. Sekų perėmimas gali būti panaudojamas įvairiose srityse: siekiant išsiaiškinti operacinės sistemos veikimo principus, norint atlikti programos derinimą arba pridėti papildomą funkcionalumą prie jau esamo. Straipsnyje apžvelgiamos Windows API ir pateikiamos trečiųjų šalių priemonės funkcijų sekoms  perimti. Aptariamos jų teikiamos galimybės, panaudojimo specifika. Taip pat atlikti testai, siekiant išsiaiškinti, kuri biblioteka su užduotimis susitvarko greičiausiai. Tyrimui pasirinkti du nemokami gaminiai: Microsoft Detours ir EasyHook bibliotekos.

    Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

    The paper describes methods how to apply Windows API hooking with third party libraries and solutions. In this research were used Windows API function SetWindowsHookEx, Detours and EasyHook libraries. Libraries methods, features and advantages were discussed in this paper. The practical part contains libraries tests. In analysis we tested target program start with hooking library and injected function call.

    Article in Lithuanian

  16. Development of API 5 CT grade P110 steel casing; Desenvolvimento de tubos casing API 5 CT grau P110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sergio Seijo; Roza, Juliana Espinossi

    2003-07-01

    This paper has as objective to discuss the results gotten in experiences carried through in industrial scale for the development of pipes class API 5CT P110 (1), with 244 mm of diameter and 12 mm of thickness. The pipes were welded longitudinally by process ERW (electric resistance welding) and submitted to quenching and tempering heat treatments. A C-Mn-Cr alloy with adequate quenching ability was used for the attainment of a martensite microstructure after quenching. The pipes at a temperature of 880 deg C were quenched in water and subsequently tempered at 515 deg C. The integrity of the weld region was evaluated through non destructive tests and flattening tests, Charpy impact tests and fracture toughness tests (CTOD). The pipes achieved the tension properties stipulated in the standard (yield strength bigger limit of 758 Mpa), and also the energy in the Charpy impact test (transversal), considering that the energy value obtained was 55 J (at 0 deg C) for base metal and 44 J in the weld metal. (author)

  17. 一种基于新型图模型的 API 推荐系统%APISynth:A New Graph-Based API Recommender System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晨; 姜伟; 虎嵩林

    2015-01-01

    对象实例化是软件工程类库复用中一个常见、复杂的问题.即根据已知源类型的对象,用户需要编写代码对目标类型进行实例化.研究人员提出了若干种 API 自动推荐系统辅助用户解决上述问题.然而这些系统不能同时兼顾准确率和查全率,因此在一定程度上影响了系统的实用性.该文提出了一种兼顾准确率和查全率,基于新型图模型的 API 推荐系统———APISynth.在查全率方面,APISynth 使用一个新颖的全局图模型来表达类库中所有的API 依赖关系和 API 历史使用信息.利用新的全局图模型具有的特殊 Tag 元素和可达性质以避免错误的 API 调用.在准确率方面,APISynth 首先将对象实例化问题建模为 Top-K 子图查询问题,然后设计一种新的支持 DAG 形式解的图搜索算法,避免了传统的最短路径图搜索算法导致的查不准问题.实验结果表明,与现有多种方法相比, APISynth 在准确率和查全率两方面均获得了较大提升.%How to perform object instantiation is a common and complex problem in reusing an existing library.In this problem,given the object of source type,users need to write code to instantiate the destination type.Recently,researchers have proposed a variety of related API automatic recommender systems to fulfill this problem.These systems can assist users to solve the above issue in some degree.However,it is very difficult for such systems to achieve both good recall and precision,which affects the usability.This paper presents APISynth,a new graph-based API recommender system.In order to improve the recall,APISynth utilizes a new global graph model to give a better representation for the API dependencies in the relevant class library,and to include API historical usage information in.A special tag element is added to the new graph together with a new reach ability property to avoid false invocation of APIs

  18. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Premarathna, N Y S

    2012-04-01

    Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee's honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of 'Kalahe' in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee's honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee's honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee's honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee's honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses.

  19. Insect pollination and self-incompatibility in edible and/or medicinal crops in southwestern China, a global hotspot of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zong-Xin; Wang, Hong; Bernhardt, Peter; Li, De-Zhu

    2014-10-01

    An increasing global demand for food, coupled with the widespread decline of pollinator diversity, remains an international concern in agriculture and genetic conservation. In particular, there are large gaps in the study of the pollination of economically important and traditionally grown species in China. Many plant species grown in China are both edible and used medicinally. The country retains extensive written records of agricultural and apicultural practices, facilitating contemporary studies of some important taxa. Here, we focus on Yunnan in southwestern China, a mega-biodiversity hotspot for medicinal/food plants. We used plant and insect taxa as model systems to understand the patterns and consequences of pollinator deficit to crops. We identified several gaps and limitations in research on the pollination ecology and breeding systems of domesticated taxa and their wild relatives in Yunnan and asked the following questions: (1) What is known about pollination systems of edible and medicinal plants in Yunnan? (2) What are the most important pollinators of Codonopsis subglobosa (Campanulaceae)? (3) How important are native pollinator species for maximizing yield in Chinese crops compared with the introduced Apis mellifera? We found that some crops that require cross-pollination now depend exclusively on hand pollination. Three domesticated crops are dependent primarily on the native but semidomesticated Apis cerana and the introduced A. mellifera. Other species of wild pollinators often play important roles for certain specialty crops (e.g., Vespa velutina pollinates Codonopsis subglobosa). We propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in the future.

  20. Building Walkways: Observation on Nest Duplication of Stingless Bee Trigona iridipennins Smith (1854

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti S. Virkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping for honey and other bee products is an age old practice. Besides the popular honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera, stingless bees belonging to the tribe Meliponini, subfamily Apinae and family Apidae (Michener, 2007 are also reared for honey, having high medicinal value. Stingless bees are exclusive to tropics and their size ranges from 2mm to slightly bigger than the popular honeybee A. mellifera (O'Toole & Raw, 1999. The practice of keeping stingless bees is called meliponiculture, and once it was an integral part of the culture of indigenous people of South and Central America. It held a social and religious significance in the meso-American culture, mainly the ancient Mayans (Sommeijer, 1999. Stingless bee products such as honey, wax and propolis formed a small-scale economy in their livelihood as well (Cortopassi-Laurino et al., 2006. Although least explored, meliponiculture is an age old practice in India also. Kani tribe in Western Ghats is the only reported reference, keeping stingless bees (Kumar et al., 2012. Trigona iridipennis is the widespread stingless bee species in the Indian subcontinent and used for meliponiculture.

  1. Nutritional Crossbreed Technology of Honeybee and Its Application on Genetics and Breeding%蜜蜂营养杂交技术及其在遗传育种中的应用(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志; 李志勇; 朱红微; 李杰銮

    2009-01-01

    东方蜜蜂(Apis cerana Fabricius)和西方蜜蜂(Apis mellifera L.)之间存在生殖隔离,无法进行正常的生殖杂交.应用营养杂交技术,将甲蜂种的幼虫介入乙蜂种内进行适当饲喂.结果甲蜂种后代工蜂在生物学特性方面与亲本具有较显著的差异.总结了蜜蜂营养杂交的定义、方法、制约因素及营养杂交对后代工蜂的形态、分子等方面的影响,概括了东方蜜蜂与西方蜜蜂营养杂交在遗传育种工作中的应用现状,并对蜜蜂营养杂交的研究趋势进行了展望.

  2. Social waves in giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) elicit nest vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Hoetzl, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Giant honeybees (Apis dorsata) nest in the open and have developed a wide array of strategies for colony defence, including the Mexican wave-like shimmering behaviour. In this collective response, the colony members perform upward flipping of their abdomens in coordinated cascades across the nest surface. The time-space properties of these emergent waves are response patterns which have become of adaptive significance for repelling enemies in the visual domain. We report for the first time that the mechanical impulse patterns provoked by these social waves and measured by laser Doppler vibrometry generate vibrations at the central comb of the nest at the basic (='natural') frequency of 2.156 ± 0.042 Hz which is more than double the average repetition rate of the driving shimmering waves. Analysis of the Fourier spectra of the comb vibrations under quiescence and arousal conditions provoked by mass flight activity and shimmering waves gives rise to the proposal of two possible models for the compound physical system of the bee nest: According to the elastic oscillatory plate model, the comb vibrations deliver supra-threshold cues preferentially to those colony members positioned close to the comb. The mechanical pendulum model predicts that the comb vibrations are sensed by the members of the bee curtain in general, enabling mechanoreceptive signalling across the nest, also through the comb itself. The findings show that weak and stochastic forces, such as general quiescence or diffuse mass flight activity, cause a harmonic frequency spectrum of the comb, driving the comb as an elastic plate. However, shimmering waves provide sufficiently strong forces to move the nest as a mechanical pendulum. This vibratory behaviour may support the colony-intrinsic information hypothesis herein that the mechanical vibrations of the comb provoked by shimmering do have the potential to facilitate immediate communication of the momentary defensive state of the honeybee nest to

  3. Viruses associated with ovarian degeneration in Apis mellifera L. queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gauthier

    Full Text Available Queen fecundity is a critical issue for the health of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. colonies, as she is the only reproductive female in the colony and responsible for the constant renewal of the worker bee population. Any factor affecting the queen's fecundity will stagnate colony development, increasing its susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. We discovered a pathology affecting the ovaries, characterized by a yellow discoloration concentrated in the apex of the ovaries resulting from degenerative lesions in the follicles. In extreme cases, marked by intense discoloration, the majority of the ovarioles were affected and these cases were universally associated with egg-laying deficiencies in the queens. Microscopic examination of the degenerated follicles showed extensive paracrystal lattices of 30 nm icosahedral viral particles. A cDNA library from degenerated ovaries contained a high frequency of deformed wing virus (DWV and Varroa destructor virus 1 (VDV-1 sequences, two common and closely related honeybee Iflaviruses. These could also be identified by in situ hybridization in various parts of the ovary. A large-scale survey for 10 distinct honeybee viruses showed that DWV and VDV-1 were by far the most prevalent honeybee viruses in queen populations, with distinctly higher prevalence in mated queens (100% and 67%, respectively for DWV and VDV-1 than in virgin queens (37% and 0%, respectively. Since very high viral titres could be recorded in the ovaries and abdomens of both functional and deficient queens, no significant correlation could be made between viral titre and ovarian degeneration or egg-laying deficiency among the wider population of queens. Although our data suggest that DWV and VDV-1 have a role in extreme cases of ovarian degeneration, infection of the ovaries by these viruses does not necessarily result in ovarian degeneration, even at high titres, and additional factors are likely to be involved in this pathology.

  4. Detection of Illicit Drugs by Trained Honeybees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schott

    Full Text Available Illegal drugs exacerbate global social challenges such as substance addiction, mental health issues and violent crime. Police and customs officials often rely on specially-trained sniffer dogs, which act as sensitive biological detectors to find concealed illegal drugs. However, the dog "alert" is no longer sufficient evidence to allow a search without a warrant or additional probable cause because cannabis has been legalized in two US states and is decriminalized in many others. Retraining dogs to recognize a narrower spectrum of drugs is difficult and training new dogs is time consuming, yet there are no analytical devices with the portability and sensitivity necessary to detect substance-specific chemical signatures. This means there is currently no substitute for sniffer dogs. Here we describe an insect screening procedure showing that the western honeybee (Apis mellifera can sense volatiles associated with pure samples of heroin and cocaine. We developed a portable electroantennographic device for the on-site measurement of volatile perception by these insects, and found a positive correlation between honeybee antennal responses and the concentration of specific drugs in test samples. Furthermore, we tested the ability of honeybees to learn the scent of heroin and trained them to show a reliable behavioral response in the presence of a highly-diluted scent of pure heroin. Trained honeybees could therefore be used to complement or replace the role of sniffer dogs as part of an automated drug detection system. Insects are highly sensitive to volatile compounds and provide an untapped resource for the development of biosensors. Automated conditioning as presented in this study could be developed as a platform for the practical detection of illicit drugs using insect-based sensors.

  5. Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17 while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15. The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication

  6. Neutralization of Apis mellifera bee venom activities by suramin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kik, Camila Z; Fernandes, Fabrício F A; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Gaban, Glauco A; Fonseca, Tatiane F; Calil-Elias, Sabrina; Oliveira, Suellen D S; Silva, Claudia L M; Martinez, Ana Maria Blanco; Melo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    In this work we evaluated the ability of suramin, a polysulfonated naphthylurea derivative, to antagonize the cytotoxic and enzymatic effects of the crude venom of Apis mellifera. Suramin was efficient to decrease the lethality in a dose-dependent way. The hemoconcentration caused by lethal dose injection of bee venom was abolished by suramin (30 μg/g). The edematogenic activity of the venom (0.3 μg/g) was antagonized by suramin (10 μg/g) in all treatment protocols. The changes in the vascular permeability caused by A. mellifera (1 μg/g) venom were inhibited by suramin (30 μg/g) in the pre- and posttreatment as well as when the venom was preincubated with suramin. In addition, suramin also inhibited cultured endothelial cell lesion, as well as in vitro myotoxicity, evaluated in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle, which was inhibited by suramin (10 and 25 μM), decreasing the rate of CK release, showing that suramin protected the sarcolemma against damage induced by components of bee venom (2.5 μg/mL). Moreover, suramin inhibited the in vivo myotoxicity induced by i.m. injection of A. mellifera venom in mice (0.5 μg/g). The analysis of the area under the plasma CK vs. time curve showed that preincubation, pre- and posttreatment with suramin (30 μg/g) inhibited bee venom myotoxic activity in mice by about 89%, 45% and 40%, respectively. Suramin markedly inhibited the PLA2 activity in a concentration-dependent way (1-30 μM). Being suramin a polyanion molecule, the effects observed may be due to the interaction of its charges with the polycation components present in A. mellifera bee venom.

  7. An Effective Method for Protecting Native API Hook Attacks in User-mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthumanickam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many modern malware developers is taking the advantage of Application Programming Interface (API hook technique to take the control of the victim computer which making it difficult to detect their presence. Because of the sophistication of rootkit tools, a remote attacker can use native API to compromise any computer which can later be used for many illegal activities such as sniffing network lines, capturing passwords, sending spam and DDoS attack, etc. Thus to protect end-system by identifying and preventing native API malicious code hooking is a challenging problem to the defenders. Today, many different malware-analysis tools incur specific features against malwares but manual and error-prone. In this study, we proposed a behavior-based monitoring detection system to effectively deal native API hooks in user-mode. Unlike other malware identification techniques, our approach involved dynamically analyzing the behavior of native API call hooking malwares. Comparing our experimental evaluation results with existing tools show better performance with no false positive.

  8. Produtos naturais no comportamento defensivo de Apis mellifera L. = Natural products in the defensive behaviour of Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Leonardo Lomele

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do estudo foram investigar a influência de produtos naturais como capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, folhas de abacateiro (Persea americana, casca de café (Coffea arabica e sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis na defensividade de Apis mellifera, e avaliar o efeito destes produtos no desenvolvimento populacional da colmeia. O comportamento defensivo foi avaliado por meio do tempo da primeira ferroada (TPF, número de ferrões (NFB e, o desenvolvimento populacional, pela área de cria aberta e fechada. Observou-se que o tratamento fumaça + sete sementes de mamona apresentou aumento significativo no TPF, em relação ao tratamento sem e com fumaça de maravalha. Com relação ao NFB, verificou-se que os tratamentos fumaça de maravalha + sete sementes de mamona e fumaça de maravalha + 20% de folhas de café foram diferentes do tratamento sem e com fumaça. Os demais tratamentos não diferiram significativamente em relação ao uso da fumaça ou sua ausência. A casca de café e a semente de mamona nãointerferiram no desenvolvimento populacional, sugerindo que estes compostos não foram tóxicos. Pode-se concluir que o uso de sementes de mamona e casca de café na fumaça pode representar importante ferramenta para a redução da defensividade, sem promover toxicidade para A. mellifera.The goal was to investigate the influence of natural products such as lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus, dried avocado leaves (Persea americana, coffee husk (Coffea arabica and castor bean (Ricinus communis in the defense of Apis mellifera, as well the effect of these products on the population development of the beehive. Defensive behavior was evaluated by time of first sting (TFS and number of stingers (NS, and population development, by open brood area and operculated brood. It was observed that the treatment with smoke + seven castor beans presented significant increase in the TFS, for treatment without and with smoke. Regarding NS, it was verified

  9. [New Approach to the Mitotype Classification in Black Honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera and Iberian Honeybee Apis mellifera iberiensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyasov, R A; Poskryakov, A V; Petukhov, A V; Nikolenko, A G

    2016-03-01

    The black honeybee Apis mellifera mellifera L. is today the only subspecies of honeybee which is suitable for commercial breeding in the climatic conditions of Northern Europe with long cold winters. The main problem of the black honeybee in Russia and European countries is the preservation of the indigenous gene pool purity, which is lost as a result of hybridization with subspecies, A. m. caucasica, A. m. carnica, A. m. carpatica, and A. m. armeniaca, introduced from southern regions. Genetic identification of the subspecies will reduce the extent of hybridization and provide the gene pool conservation of the black honeybee. Modern classification of the honeybee mitotypes is mainly based on the combined use ofthe DraI restriction endonuclease recognition site polymorphism and sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA COI-COII region. We performed a comparative analysis of the mtDNA COI-COII region sequence polymorphism in the honeybees ofthe evolutionary lineage M from Ural and West European populations of black honeybee A. m. mellifera and Spanish bee A. m. iberiensis. A new approach to the classification of the honeybee M mitotypes was suggested. Using this approach and on the basis of the seven most informative SNPs of the mtDNA COI-COII region, eight honeybee mitotype groups were identified. In addition, it is suggested that this approach will simplify the previously proposed complicated mitotype classification and will make it possible to assess the level of the mitotype diversity and to identify the mitotypes that are the most valuable for the honeybee breeding and rearing.

  10. API SPEC 5L会标认证审核企业需做的主要准备工作%The Main Preparatory Work for Enterprise API SPEC 5L Monogram Certification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓东

    2009-01-01

    随着TSG Z0004标准实施和API SPEC 5L以及API SPEC Q1标准的换版,当前申请API SPEC 5L会标使用许可证的企业应及时做好各项准备工作,接受审核组的审核.审核前需做的准备工作主要包括:①及时与审核员充分沟通;②各种审核文件的整理和完善;③维护和保养生产现场设备,完善各岗位现场作业指导文件,确保现场各种记录完整清楚.%Along TSG Z0004 standard implement and renewal edition of API SPEC 5L and API SPEC Q1,enterprises should make all preparations for applying API SPEC 5L monogram use permit right to receive auditor check.The main preparatory work include:①to completely communicate with auditor in time;②to file and improve all kinds of documents which will be checked;③to maintain equipments in production site,improve each job-site guidance document,and insure all kinds of records integrity and clarity. Key words:certification audit;API SPEC 5L;API SPEC Q1;monogram use permit

  11. A Comparison of Article Search APIs via Blinded Experiment and Developer Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Rochkind

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at perceived user preference between products that can provide a scholarly article search service via an application programming interface (API. The study set up a blinded review and asked users at Johns Hopkins to select the service that provided the most useful results. Few statistically significant preferences were detected, and some interpretation is provided of what the results might tell us. The specific products evaluated for this study are: Serials Solutions Summon, Ex Libris Primo, EBSCO EDS, EBSCOHost ‘traditional’ API, and Elsevier Scopus. Re-usable open source tools for implementing article search were created to support the study and future development, and a developer review of the APIs is included based on the developer's experience in this implementation.

  12. Studi Eksperimen Distribusi Temperatur Nyala Api Kompor Bioetanol Tipe Side Burner dengan Variasi Diameter Firewall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Vienna Sona Saputri Soetadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Untuk mendapatkan kompor bioetanol efisiensi thermal maksimal diperlukan penelitian komprehensif. Salah satunya adalah penelitian terhadap posisi peletakkan beban pada kompor bioetanol kompak. Pengujian dilakukan pada kompor uji bioetanol dengan kadar 99%, yaitu kompor bioetanol tipe side burner dengan firewall 2.5 inci dan firewall 3 inci. Pengukuran temperatur api dengan 13 thermocouple K dengan pengukuran searah api keatas setiap 5 mm-an. Kemudian, water boiling test dilakukan untuk mendapatkan daya dan beban dan dilanjutkan mengukur waktu pendidihan air. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan gambaran total distribusi temperatur nyala api difusi. Hasil menunjukkan untuk kompor 2.5 inci dengan daya 1.6 kW mempunyai temperatur 542 ºC dengan jarak ketinggian 5 mm dari rim kompor sedangkan kompor 3 inci menghasilkan daya 2.38 kW dengan temperatur 516 ºC.

  13. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C

    2016-02-26

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor-induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While the intrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for non-canonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to

  14. The SEMAINE API: Towards a Standards-Based Framework for Building Emotion-Oriented Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schröder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the SEMAINE API, an open source framework for building emotion-oriented systems. By encouraging and simplifying the use of standard representation formats, the framework aims to contribute to interoperability and reuse of system components in the research community. By providing a Java and C++ wrapper around a message-oriented middleware, the API makes it easy to integrate components running on different operating systems and written in different programming languages. The SEMAINE system 1.0 is presented as an example of a full-scale system built on top of the SEMAINE API. Three small example systems are described in detail to illustrate how integration between existing and new components is realised with minimal effort.

  15. Using the RxNorm web services API for quality assurance purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lee; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2008-11-06

    Auditing large, rapidly evolving terminological systems is still a challenge. In the case of RxNorm, a standardized nomenclature for clinical drugs, we argue that quality assurance processes can benefit from the recently released application programming interface (API) provided by RxNav. We demonstrate the usefulness of the API by performing a systematic comparison of alternative paths in the RxNorm graph, over several thousands of drug entities. This study revealed potential errors in RxNorm, currently under review. The results also prompted us to modify the implementation of RxNav to navigate the RxNorm graph more accurately. The RxNav web services API used in this experiment is robust and fast.

  16. An API for Integrating Spatial Context Models with Spatial Reasoning Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2006-01-01

    The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible and ...... modeling. The utility of the API is evaluated in several real-world cases from an indoor location system, and spans several types of spatial reasoning algorithms.......The integration of context-aware applications with spatial context models is often done using a common query language. However, algorithms that estimate and reason about spatial context information can benefit from a tighter integration. An object-oriented API makes such integration possible...

  17. APIS : a value-added database of HST UV planetary auroral observations acquired since 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, L.; Henry, F.; Prangé, R.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2014-04-01

    The APIS service http://lesia.obspm.fr/apis/ (Auroral Planetary Imaging and Spectroscopy), aimed at facilitating the use of planetary auroral observations, was presented at EPSC last year, following its opening to the community in July 2013. This facility consists of : - a high level database derived from public Far-UV observations of Jupiter, Io, Ganymede, Saturn, Titan and Uranus acquired by the Hubble Space Telescope since 1997 (36 observational campaigns so far) ; - a specific search interface (Figure 1), aimed at browsing the database freely, quickly and efficiently through relevant search criteria (as planetary longitudes, moon or spacecraft ephemeris etc.). - Virtual-Observatory tools which enable the user to interactively work with images and spectra online. We will present the updated capabilities of APIS and illustrate them with several examples. Several tutorials are also directly available online.

  18. API2-MALT1 oncoprotein promotes lymphomagenesis via unique program of substrate ubiquitination and proteolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaun Rosebeck; Megan S Lim; Kojo SJ Elenitoba-Johnson; Linda MMcAllister-Lucas; Peter C Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue(MALT lymphoma) is the most common extranodal B cell tumor and accounts for 8% of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Gastric MALT lymphoma is the best-studied example and is a prototypical neoplasm that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation brought on by persistent infection or autoimmune disease. Cytogenetic abnormalities are commonly acquired during the course of disease and the most common is chromosomal translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21), which creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein. t(11;18)-positive lymphomas can be clinically aggressive and have a higher rate of dissemination than t(11;18)-negative tumors. Many cancers, including MALT lymphomas, characteristically exhibit deregulated over-activation of cellular survival pathways, such as the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) pathway. Molecular characterization of API2-MALT1 has revealed it to be a potent activator of NF-κB, which is required for API2-MALT1-induced cellular transformation, however the mechanisms by which API2-MALT1 exerts these effects are only recently becoming apparent. The API2 moiety of the fusion binds tumor necrosis factor(TNF) receptor associated factor(TRAF) 2 and receptor interacting protein 1(RIP1), two proteins essential for TNF receptor induced NF-κB activation. By effectively mimicking ligand-bound TNF receptor, API2-MALT1 promotes TRAF2-dependent ubiquitination of RIP1, which then acts as a scaffold for nucleating and activating the canonical NF-κB machinery. Activation occurs, in part, through MALT1 moiety-dependent recruitment of TRAF6, which can directly modify NF-κB essential modulator, the principal downstream regulator of NF-κB. While theintrinsic MALT1 protease catalytic activity is dispensable for this canonical NF-κB signaling, it is critical for noncanonical NF-κB activation. In this regard, API2-MALT1 recognizes NF-κB inducing kinase(NIK), the essential upstream regulator of non-canonical NF-κB, and cleaves it to generate

  19. MicroRNA-1 promotes apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells by targeting apoptosis inhibitor-5 (API-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Yu; Li, Hua; Peng, Jing-Jing; Tan, Yan; Zou, Qiang; Song, Xiao-Feng; Du, Min; Yang, Zheng-Hui; Tan, Yong; Zhou, Jin-Jun; Xu, Tao; Fu, Zeng-Qiang; Feng, Jian-Qiong; Cheng, Peng; chen, Tao; Wei, Dong; Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Huan-Yi; Qi, Zhong-Chun; Tang, Li-Jun; Wang, Tao; Guo, Xin; Hu, Yong-He; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-02

    Although microRNA-1 (miR-1) is a known liver cancer suppressor, the role of miR-1 in apoptosis of hepatoma cells has remained largely unknown. Our study shows that ectopic miR-1 overexpression induced apoptosis of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API-5) was found to be a potential regulator of miR-1 induced apoptosis, using a bioinformatics approach. Furthermore, an inverse relationship between miR-1 and API-5 expression was observed in human liver cancer tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues. Negative regulation of API-5 expression by miR-1 was demonstrated to promote apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Our study provides a novel regulatory mechanism of miR-1 in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells.

  20. The Design and Implementation of Cryptographic API%加密API的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2004-01-01

    文章设计了一种简单易用、可扩展和可移植的加密API,简称SEPC-API.SEPC-API采用标准的C/C++来编写,并使用抽象密钥类分层结构来构造.文中详细描述了SEPC-API的设计和实现,并给出了应用示例.此外,SEPC-API中的多数函数设计遵循微软Crypto API的语法,这意味着微软Crypto API用户只需修改很少的代码就可以移植到SEPC-API.

  1. AN OVERVIEW OF THE UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS, SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, AND PARAMETER ESTIMATION (UA/SA/PE) API AND HOW TO IMPLEMENT IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Programming Interface (API) for Uncertainty Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis, andParameter Estimation (UA/SA/PE API) (also known as Calibration, Optimization and Sensitivity and Uncertainty (CUSO)) was developed in a joint effort between several members of both ...

  2. An overview of the CellML API and its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halstead Matt

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CellML is an XML based language for representing mathematical models, in a machine-independent form which is suitable for their exchange between different authors, and for archival in a model repository. Allowing for the exchange and archival of models in a computer readable form is a key strategic goal in bioinformatics, because of the associated improvements in scientific record accuracy, the faster iterative process of scientific development, and the ability to combine models into large integrative models. However, for CellML models to be useful, tools which can process them correctly are needed. Due to some of the more complex features present in CellML models, such as imports, developing code ab initio to correctly process models can be an onerous task. For this reason, there is a clear and pressing need for an application programming interface (API, and a good implementation of that API, upon which tools can base their support for CellML. Results We developed an API which allows the information in CellML models to be retrieved and/or modified. We also developed a series of optional extension APIs, for tasks such as simplifying the handling of connections between variables, dealing with physical units, validating models, and translating models into different procedural languages. We have also provided a Free/Open Source implementation of this application programming interface, optimised to achieve good performance. Conclusions Tools have been developed using the API which are mature enough for widespread use. The API has the potential to accelerate the development of additional tools capable of processing CellML, and ultimately lead to an increased level of sharing of mathematical model descriptions.

  3. There-apy: The Use of Task, Imagery, and Symbolism To Connect the Inner and Outer Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein-Naveh, A. Rosa

    2001-01-01

    Presents a model of therapy called there-apy, which weaves together the use of task, symbolism, and imagery into an ongoing process. Concrete tasks take on symbolic meaning, and symbolism gets actualized through achieving concrete tasks. There-apy connects the individual's outside and inside worlds and often involves the partner or family in the…

  4. Physicochemical characterisation and investigation of the bonding mechanisms of API-titanate nanotube composites as new drug carrier systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Barbara; Pintye-Hódi, Klára; Kónya, Zoltán; Kelemen, András; Regdon, Géza; Sovány, Tamás

    2017-02-25

    Titanate nanotube (TNT) has recently been explored as a new carrier material for active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). The aim of the present work was to reveal the physicochemical properties of API-TNT composites, focusing on the interactions between the TNTs and the incorporated APIs. Drugs belonging to different Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) classes were loaded into TNTs: diltiazem hydrochloride (BCS I.), diclofenac sodium (BCS II.), atenolol (BCS III.) and hydrochlorothiazide (BCS IV.). Experimental results demonstrated that it is feasible for spiral cross-sectioned titanate nanotubes to carry drugs and maintain their bioactivity. The structural properties of the composites were characterized by a range of analytical techniques, including FT-IR, DSC, TG-MS, etc. The interactions between APIs and TNTs were identified as electrostatic attractions, mainly dominated by hydrogen bonds. Based on the results, it can be stated that the strength of the association depends on the hydrogen donor strength of the API. The drug release of incorporated APIs was evaluated from compressed tablets and compared to that of pure APIs. Differences noticed in the dissolution profiles due to incorporation showed a correlation with the strength of interactions between the APIs and the TNTs observed in the above analytical studies.

  5. A geographical information system using the Google Map API for guidance to referral hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujioka, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Yuji; Inoue, Michiyoshi; Niho, Yoshiyuki; Miyoshi, Akira

    2010-12-01

    Our hospital acts as a regional core hospital through inter-hospital collaboration. Geographical information is necessary to guide patients to the other hospitals. Although paper maps, which contain directions, nearest public transportation, etc., are usually provided to guide patients to the hospitals, the geographical information tends to change daily. However, updating the geographical information on the maps is costly. We constructed an electronic geographical information system using the Google Map API ( http://code.google.com/apis/maps/ ) with open source software to improve our ability to collaborate with other clinics.

  6. When is it Biased? Assessing the Representativeness of Twitter's Streaming API

    OpenAIRE

    Morstatter, Fred; Pfeffer, Jürgen; Liu, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Twitter has captured the interest of the scientific community not only for its massive user base and content, but also for its openness in sharing its data. Twitter shares a free 1% sample of its tweets through the "Streaming API", a service that returns a sample of tweets according to a set of parameters set by the researcher. Recently, research has pointed to evidence of bias in the data returned through the Streaming API, raising concern in the integrity of this data service for use in res...

  7. Develop 3G Application with The J2ME SATSA API

    Science.gov (United States)

    JunWu, Xu; JunLing, Liang

    This paper describes research in the use of the Security and Trust Services API for J2ME (SATSA) to develop mobile applications. for 3G networks. SATSA defines a set of APIs that allows J2ME applications to communicate with and access functionality, secure storage and cryptographic operations provided by security elements such as smart cards and Wireless Identification Modules (WIM). A Java Card application could also work as an authentication module in a J2ME-based e-bank application. The e-bank application would allow its users to access their bank accounts using their cell phones.

  8. Heterosis en la longevidad de obreras Apis mielífera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares AE.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó la media y la heterosis de la longevidad en obreras de abejas Apis mellifera. El expe-rimento fue desarrollado en el Apiario del Departamento de Genética de la Facultad de Medi-cina de la USP-Ribeirão Preto-Brasil y en Jaboticabal-SP, de 03/1997 a 05/1999. Seleccionamos 8 matrices inseminadas del apiário-USP (2africanizadas, 2italianas, 2cárnicasy 2italianas*cárnicos y 2 matrices (grupo-testigo de abejas Africanizadas-Silvestres.

  9. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...... a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. METHODS: HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified...

  10. In-depth phosphoproteomic analysis of royal jelly derived from western and eastern honeybee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Lu, Xiaoshan; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2014-12-01

    The proteins in royal jelly (RJ) play a pivotal role in the nutrition, immune defense, and cast determination of honeybee larvae and have a wide range of pharmacological and health-promoting functions for humans as well. Although the importance of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in protein function is known, investigation of protein phosphorylation of RJ proteins is still very limited. To this end, two complementary phosphopeptide enrichment materials (Ti(4+)-IMAC and TiO2) and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry were applied to establish a detailed phosphoproteome map and to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phosphoproteomes of RJ produced by Apis mellifera ligustica (Aml) and Apis cerana cerana (Acc). In total, 16 phosphoproteins carrying 67 phosphorylation sites were identified in RJ derived from western bees, and nine proteins phosphorylated on 71 sites were found in RJ produced by eastern honeybees. Of which, eight phosphorylated proteins were common to both RJ samples, and the same motif ([S-x-E]) was extracted, suggesting that the function of major RJ proteins as nutrients and immune agents is evolutionary preserved in both of these honeybee species. All eight overlapping phosphoproteins showed significantly higher abundance in Acc-RJ than in Aml-RJ, and the phosphorylation of Jelleine-II (an antimicrobial peptide, TPFKLSLHL) at S(6) in Acc-RJ had stronger antimicrobial properties than that at T(1) in Aml-RJ even though the overall antimicrobial activity of Jelleine-II was found to decrease after phosphorylation. The differences in phosphosites, peptide abundance, and antimicrobial activity of the phosphorylated RJ proteins indicate that the two major honeybee species employ distinct phosphorylation strategies that align with their different biological characteristics shaped by evolution. The phosphorylation of RJ proteins are potentially driven by the activity of extracellular serine/threonine protein kinase FAM20C-like protein (FAM20C

  11. Bees under stress: sublethal doses of a neonicotinoid pesticide and pathogens interact to elevate honey bee mortality across the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublet, Vincent; Labarussias, Maureen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Moritz, Robin F A; Paxton, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Microbial pathogens are thought to have a profound impact on insect populations. Honey bees are suffering from elevated colony losses in the northern hemisphere possibly because of a variety of emergent microbial pathogens, with which pesticides may interact to exacerbate their impacts. To reveal such potential interactions, we administered at sublethal and field realistic doses one neonicotinoid pesticide (thiacloprid) and two common microbial pathogens, the invasive microsporidian Nosema ceranae and black queen cell virus (BQCV), individually to larval and adult honey bees in the laboratory. Through fully crossed experiments in which treatments were administered singly or in combination, we found an additive interaction between BQCV and thiacloprid on host larval survival likely because the pesticide significantly elevated viral loads. In adult bees, two synergistic interactions increased individual mortality: between N. ceranae and BQCV, and between N. ceranae and thiacloprid. The combination of two pathogens had a more profound effect on elevating adult mortality than N. ceranae plus thiacloprid. Common microbial pathogens appear to be major threats to honey bees, while sublethal doses of pesticide may enhance their deleterious effects on honey bee larvae and adults. It remains an open question as to whether these interactions can affect colony survival.

  12. An example of how to handle amorphous fractions in API during early pharmaceutical development: SAR114137--a successful approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzoldt, Christine; Bley, Oliver; Byard, Stephen J; Andert, Doris; Baumgartner, Bruno; Nagel, Norbert; Tappertzhofen, Christoph; Feth, Martin Philipp

    2014-04-01

    The so-called pharmaceutical solid chain, which encompasses drug substance micronisation to the final tablet production, at pilot plant scale is presented as a case study for a novel, highly potent, pharmaceutical compound: SAR114137. Various solid-state analytical methods, such as solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Water Vapour Sorption Gravimetry (DWVSG), hot-stage Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) were applied and evaluated to characterise and quantify amorphous content during the course of the physical treatment of crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). DSC was successfully used to monitor the changes in amorphous content during micronisation of the API, as well as during stability studies. (19)F solid-state NMR was found to be the method of choice for the detection and quantification of low levels of amorphous API, even in the final drug product (DP), since compaction during tablet manufacture was identified as a further source for the formation of amorphous API. The application of different jet milling techniques was a critical factor with respect to amorphous content formation. In the present case, the change from spiral jet milling to loop jet milling led to a decrease in amorphous API content from 20-30 w/w% to nearly 0 w/w% respectively. The use of loop jet milling also improved the processability of the API. Stability investigations on both the milled API and the DP showed a marked tendency for recrystallisation of the amorphous API content on exposure to elevated levels of relative humidity. No significant impact of amorphous API on either the chemical stability or the dissolution rate of the API in drug formulation was observed. Therefore, the presence of amorphous content in the oral formulation was of no consequence for the clinical trial phases I and II.

  13. Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Williamson, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves mo...

  14. Sperm use economy of honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Collins, Jason; Maalaps, Kristiina;

    2016-01-01

    the fecundity and longevity of queens and therefore colony fitness. We quantified the number of sperm that honeybee (Apis mellifera) queens use to fertilize eggs. We examined sperm use in naturally mated queens of different ages and in queens artificially inseminated with different volumes of semen. We found...

  15. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-07

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner.

  16. Gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (GC-API-MS): review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Du-Xin; Gan, Lin; Bronja, Amela; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2015-09-03

    Although the coupling of GC/MS with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) has been reported in 1970s, the interest in coupling GC with atmospheric pressure ion source was expanded in the last decade. The demand of a "soft" ion source for preserving highly diagnostic molecular ion is desirable, as compared to the "hard" ionization technique such as electron ionization (EI) in traditional GC/MS, which fragments the molecule in an extensive way. These API sources include atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI), electrospray ionization (ESI) and low temperature plasma (LTP). This review discusses the advantages and drawbacks of this analytical platform. After an introduction in atmospheric pressure ionization the review gives an overview about the history and explains the mechanisms of various atmospheric pressure ionization techniques used in combination with GC such as APCI, APPI, APLI, ESI and LTP. Also new developments made in ion source geometry, ion source miniaturization and multipurpose ion source constructions are discussed and a comparison between GC-FID, GC-EI-MS and GC-API-MS shows the advantages and drawbacks of these techniques. The review ends with an overview of applications realized with GC-API-MS.

  17. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation.

  18. ApiNATOMY: a novel toolkit for visualizing multiscale anatomy schematics with phenotype-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bono, Bernard; Grenon, Pierre; Sammut, Stephen John

    2012-05-01

    A significant proportion of biomedical resources carries information that cross references to anatomical structures across multiple scales. To improve the visualization of such resources in their anatomical context, we developed an automated methodology that produces anatomy schematics in a consistent manner,and provides for the overlay of anatomy-related resource information onto the same diagram. This methodology, called ApiNATOMY, draws upon the topology of ontology graphs to automatically lay out treemaps representing body parts as well as semantic metadata linking to such ontologies. More generally, ApiNATOMY treemaps provide an efficient and manageable way to visualize large biomedical ontologies in a meaningful and consistent manner. In the anatomy domain, such treemaps will allow epidemiologists, clinicians, and biomedical scientists to review, and interact with, anatomically aggregated heterogeneous data and model resources. Such an approach supports the visual identification of functional relations between anatomically colocalized resources that may not be immediately amenable to automation by ontology-based inferencing. We also describe the application of ApiNATOMY schematics to integrate, and add value to, human phenotype-related information—results are found at http://apinatomy.org. The long-term goal for the ApiNATOMY toolkit is to support clinical and scientific graphical user interfaces and dashboards for biomedical resource management and data analytics.

  19. Spatial and temporal variation of metal concentrations in adult honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Kraker, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.

    2012-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) have great potential for detecting and monitoring environmental pollution, given their wide-ranging foraging behaviour. Previous studies have demonstrated that concentrations of metals in adult honeybees were significantly higher at polluted than at control locations. T

  20. Testing of the structure of macromolecular polymer films containing solid active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelcskei, E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary); Suevegh, K. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1518 Budapest 112, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Marek, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Group for Nuclear Techniques in Structural Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1518 Budapest 112, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Regdon, G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary); Pintye-Hodi, K., E-mail: klara.hodi@pharm.u-szeged.h [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Eoetvoes u. 6 (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit{sup L} 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration. Films containing 5% of the API exhibited a different behavior during storage (17 {sup o}C, 65% relative humidity (RH)) in consequence of the uptake of water from the air. -- Highlights: {yields} The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure of free films of Eudragit{sup L} 30D-55 containing different concentrations (0%, 1% or 5%) of diclofenac sodium by positron annihilation spectroscopy. {yields} The data revealed that the size of the free-volume holes and the lifetimes of ortho-positronium atoms decreased with increase of the API concentration (). {yields} The API distorts the original polymer structure, but as time goes by, the metastable structure relaxes and it is almost totally restored after 3 weeks of storage (17 {sup o}C, 65% RH).

  1. ACME algorithms for contact in a multiphysics environment API version 2.2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Glass, Micheal W.; Gullerud, Arne S.; Brown, Kevin H.; Voth, Thomas Eugene; Jones, Reese E.

    2004-07-01

    An effort is underway at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a library of algorithms to search for potential interactions between surfaces represented by analytic and discretized topological entities. This effort is also developing algorithms to determine forces due to these interactions for transient dynamics applications. This document describes the Application Programming Interface (API) for the ACME (Algorithms for Contact in a Multiphysics Environment) library.

  2. Reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) Scoring System for the Bender Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)

  3. Identification of clinical yeasts by Vitek MS system compared with API ID 32 C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Valle, M Teresa; Sanz-Rodríguez, Nuria; Muñoz-Paraíso, Carmen; Almagro-Moltó, María; Gómez-Garcés, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    We performed a clinical evaluation of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system with the commercial database version 2.0 for rapid identification of medically important yeasts as compared with the conventional phenotypic method API ID 32 C. We tested 161 clinical isolates, nine isolates from culture collections and five reference strains. In case of discrepant results or no identification with one or both methods, molecular identification techniques were employed. Concordance between both methods was observed with 160/175 isolates (91.42%) and misidentifications by both systems occurred only when taxa were not included in the respective databases, i.e., one isolate of Candida etchellsii was identified as C. globosa by Vitek MS and two isolates of C. orthopsilosis were identified as C. parapsilosis by API ID 32 C. Vitek MS could not identify nine strains (5.14%) and API ID 32 C did not identify 13 (7.42%). Vitek MS was more reliable than API ID 32 C and reduced the time required for the identification of clinical isolates to only a few minutes.

  4. Continuous API-crystal coating via coacervation in a tubular reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besenhard, M O; Thurnberger, A; Hohl, R; Faulhammer, E; Rattenberger, J; Khinast, J G

    2014-11-20

    We present a proof-of-concept study of a continuous coating process of single API crystals in a tubular reactor using coacervation as a microencapsulation technique. Continuous API crystal coating can have several advantages, as in a single step (following crystallization) individual crystals can be prepared with a functional coating, either to change the release behavior, to protect the API from gastric juice or to modify the surface energetics of the API (i.e., to tailor the hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics, flowability or agglomeration tendency, etc.). The coating process was developed for the microencapsulation of a lipophilic core material (ibuprofen crystals of 20 μm- to 100 μm-size), with either hypromellose phthalate (HPMCP) or Eudragit L100-55. The core material was suspended in an aqueous solution containing one of these enteric polymers, fed into the tubing and mixed continuously with a sodium sulfate solution as an antisolvent to induce coacervation. A subsequent temperature treatment was applied to optimize the microencapsulation of crystals via the polymer-rich coacervate phase. Cross-linking of the coating shell was achieved by mixing the processed material with an acidic solution (pH<3). Flow rates, temperature profiles and polymer-to-antisolvent ratios had to be tightly controlled to avoid excessive aggregation, leading to pipe plugging. This work demonstrates the potential of a tubular reactor design for continuous coating applications and is the basis for future work, combining continuous crystallization and coating.

  5. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  6. An Auto-Configuration System for the GMSEC Architecture and API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholt, Joseph; Mayorga, Arturo

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on an automated configuration concept for The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) architecture and Application Program Interface (API) is shown. The topics include: 1) The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC); 2) Automated Configuration Concept; 3) Implementation Approach; and 4) Key Components and Benefits.

  7. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed wing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The negative impact of Deformedwing virus (DWV) on European honey bees Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks, pure Russian honey bees (RHB) and out-crossed Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees, Pol-line (POL)...

  8. Young and old honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae differentially prime the developmental maturation of their caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    In eusocial insects daughters rear the offspring of the queen to adulthood. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurses differentially regulate larval nutrition. Among worker-destined larvae, younger instars receive an unrestricted diet paralleling that of queen larvae in protein composition but with r...

  9. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  10. Polymorphic DNA sequences of the fungal honey bee pathogen Ascosphaera apis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette B; Welker, Dennis L; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    was then compared among the different loci, and three were found to have the greatest detection power for identifying A. apis haplotypes. The described loci can help to resolve strain differences and population genetic structures, to elucidate host–pathogen interaction and to test evolutionary hypotheses...

  11. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  12. Alteration Summary of the 8th Edition API SPEC Q1 as Opposed to the 7th Edition%API SPEC Q1第8版相对第7版变更摘要

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方晓东

    2009-01-01

    @@ API SPEC Q1是API标准中一项重要的技术政策性标准,通用于API的所有产品规范.API Q1第8版于2007年12月发布, 2008年6月15日生效.2008年6月15日以后对申请会标公司质量管理体系的审核,将按API Q1第8版的要求进行.

  13. Small Molecule APY606 Displays Extensive Antitumor Activity in Pancreatic Cancer via Impairing Ras-MAPK Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Liu, Zuojia; Zhao, Wenjing; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has been found with abnormal expression or mutation in Ras proteins. Oncogenic Ras activation exploits their extensive signaling reach to affect multiple cellular processes, in which the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling exerts important roles in tumorigenesis. Therapies targeted Ras are thus of major benefit for pancreatic cancer. Although small molecule APY606 has been successfully picked out by virtual drug screening based on Ras target receptor, its in-depth mechanism remains to be elucidated. We herein assessed the antitumor activity of APY606 against human pancreatic cancer Capan-1 and SW1990 cell lines and explored the effect of Ras-MAPK and apoptosis-related signaling pathway on the activity of APY606. APY606 treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cancer cell viability. Additionally, APY606 exhibited strong antitumor activity, as evidenced not only by reduction in tumor cell invasion, migration and mitochondrial membrane potential but also by alteration in several apoptotic indexes. Furthermore, APY606 treatment directly inhibited Ras-GTP and the downstream activation of MAPK, which resulted in the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, leading to the up-regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway-related proteins (Bax, cytosolic Cytochrome c and Caspase 3) and of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Cyclin A, E. These data suggest that impairing Ras-MAPK signaling is a novel mechanism of action for APY606 during therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer. PMID:27223122

  14. Pim-2 activates API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through NF-kappaB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ke; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Yujun; Gong, Jianping

    2010-06-01

    Pim-2 is proved to be relevant to the tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the mechanism is unclear. We studied the relationship among Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5. In our experiment, expression level of the three factors and phosphorylation level of API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were detected in HCC tissues and the nontumorous controls. Then Pim-2 gene was transfected into nontumorous liver cells L02, and Pim-2 SiRNA was transfected into hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2. Parthenolide was added as NF-kappaB inhibitor. The same detections as above were repeated in the cells, along with the apoptosis analysis. We found the levels of Pim-2, NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity, were significantly higher in HCC tissues. Pim-2 level was increased in L02 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 gene, but decreased in HepG2 cells after the transfection of Pim-2 SiRNA. The levels of NF-kappaB and API-5, as well as NF-kappaB activity and API-5 phosphorylation level, were in accordance with Pim-2 level, but could be reversed by Parthenolide. Cell apoptosis rates were negatively correlated with API-5 phosphorylation level. Therefore, we infer that Pim-2 could activate API-5 to inhibit the apoptosis of liver cells, and NF-kappaB is the key regulator.

  15. Are commercial probiotics and prebiotics effective in the treatment and prevention of honeybee nosemosis C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyńska, Aneta A; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Cytryńska, Małgorzata; Małek, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (a commercial probiotic) and inulin (a prebiotic) on the survival rates of honeybees infected and uninfected with Nosema ceranae, the level of phenoloxidase (PO) activity, the course of nosemosis, and the effect on the prevention of nosemosis development in bees. The cells of L. rhamnosus exhibited a high rate of survival in 56.56 % sugar syrup, which was used to feed the honeybees. Surprisingly, honeybees fed with sugar syrup supplemented with a commercial probiotic and a probiotic + prebiotic were more susceptible to N. ceranae infection, and their lifespan was much shorter. The number of microsporidian spores in the honeybees fed for 9 days prior to N. ceranae infection with a sugar syrup supplemented with a commercial probiotic was 25 times higher (970 million spores per one honeybee) than in a control group fed with pure sucrose syrup (38 million spores per one honeybee). PO activity reached its highest level in the hemolymph of this honeybee control group uninfected with N. ceranae. The addition of probiotics or both probiotics and prebiotics to the food of uninfected bees led to the ~2-fold decrease in the PO activity. The infection of honeybees with N. ceranae accompanied an almost 20-fold decrease in the PO level. The inulin supplemented solely at a concentration of 2 μg/mL was the only administrated factor which did not significantly affect honeybees' survival, the PO activity, or the nosemosis infection level. In conclusion, the supplementation of honeybees' diet with improperly selected probiotics or both probiotics and prebiotics does not prevent nosemosis development, can de-regulate insect immune systems, and may significantly increase bee mortality.

  16. Variation morphogeometrics of Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera in Brazil Variação morfogeométrica das abelhas africanizadas (Apis mellifera no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena A. Nunes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphometrics of the honey bee Apis mellifera L., 1758 has been widely studied mainly because this species has great ecological importance, high adaptation capacity, wide distribution and capacity to effectively adapt to different regions. The current study aimed to investigate the morphometric variations of wings and pollen baskets of honey bees Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 from the five regions in Brazil. We used geometric morphometrics to identify the existence of patterns of variations of shape and size in Africanized honey bees in Brazil 16 years after the classic study with this species, allowing a temporal and spatial comparative analysis using new technological resources to assess morphometrical data. Samples were collected in 14 locations in Brazil, covering the five geographical regions of the country. The shape analysis and multivariate analyses of the wing allowed to observe that there is a geographical pattern among the population of Apis mellifera in Brazil. The geographical variations may be attributed to the large territorial extension of the country in addition to the differences between the bioregions.Apis mellifera L., 1758 têm sido alvo de muitos estudos morfométricos principalmente pela sua importância ecológica, pela sua grande capacidade de adaptação, sua ampla distribuição e por serem capazes de se estabelecer eficientemente em diversas regiões. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar as variações da forma em asas e corbículas de operárias de Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier, 1836 provenientes das cinco regiões biogeográficas do Brasil utilizando análises morfogeométricas, a fim de verificar a existência de padrões de variação de forma e tamanho das abelhas africanizadas no Brasil após 16 anos do estudo clássico realizado com esta espécie, possibilitando uma análise espaço-temporal comparativa utilizando recursos tecnológicos atuais para a avaliação de dados morfom

  17. Vitellogenins are new high molecular weight components and allergens (Api m 12 and Ves v 6 of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anaphylaxis due to hymenoptera stings is one of the most severe clinical outcomes of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Although allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are often considered as a general model for the underlying principles of allergic disease, venom immunotherapy is still hampered by severe systemic side effects and incomplete protection. The identification and detailed characterization of all allergens of hymenoptera venoms might result in an improvement in this field and promote the detailed understanding of the allergological mechanism. Our aim was the identification and detailed immunochemical and allergological characterization of the low abundant IgE-reactive 200 kDa proteins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of a 200 kDa venom protein yielded peptides that could be assigned to honeybee vitellogenin. The coding regions of the honeybee protein as well as of the homologue from yellow jacket venom were cloned from venom gland cDNA. The newly identified 200 kDa proteins share a sequence identity on protein level of 40% and belong to the family of vitellogenins, present in all oviparous animals, and are the first vitellogenins identified as components of venom. Both vitellogenins could be recombinantly produced as soluble proteins in insect cells and assessed for their specific IgE reactivity. The particular vitellogenins were recognized by approximately 40% of sera of venom-allergic patients even in the absence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. CONCLUSION: With the vitellogenins of Apis mellifera and Vespula vulgaris venom a new homologous pair of venom allergens was identified and becomes available for future applications. Due to their allergenic properties the honeybee and the yellow jacket venom vitellogenin were designated as allergens Api m 12 and Ves v 6, respectively.

  18. OpenSearch (ECHO-ESIP) & REST API for Earth Science Data Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A.; Cechini, M.; Pilone, D.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will provide a brief technical overview of OpenSearch, the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federated Search framework, and the REST architecture; discuss NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse’s (ECHO) implementation lessons learned; and demonstrate the simplified usage of these technologies. SOAP, as a framework for web service communication has numerous advantages for Enterprise applications and Java/C# type programming languages. As a technical solution, SOAP has been a reliable framework on top of which many applications have been successfully developed and deployed. However, as interest grows for quick development cycles and more intriguing “mashups,” the SOAP API loses its appeal. Lightweight and simple are the vogue characteristics that are sought after. Enter the REST API architecture and OpenSearch format. Both of these items provide a new path for application development addressing some of the issues unresolved by SOAP. ECHO has made available all of its discovery, order submission, and data management services through a publicly accessible SOAP API. This interface is utilized by a variety of ECHO client and data partners to provide valuable capabilities to end users. As ECHO interacted with current and potential partners looking to develop Earth Science tools utilizing ECHO, it became apparent that the development overhead required to interact with the SOAP API was a growing barrier to entry. ECHO acknowledged the technical issues that were being uncovered by its partner community and chose to provide two new interfaces for interacting with the ECHO metadata catalog. The first interface is built upon the OpenSearch format and ESIP Federated Search framework. Leveraging these two items, a client (ECHO-ESIP) was developed with a focus on simplified searching and results presentation. The second interface is built upon the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. Leveraging the REST architecture, a

  19. Polinização de morangueiro por Apis mellifera em ambiente protegido Strawberry polinization through Apis mellifera in protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Oliveira Calvete

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou comparar a produtividade e a qualidade dos frutos comerciáveis no morangueiro, em ambiente protegido, utilizando a espécie de abelha Apis mellifera em relação à ausência de um agente polinizador. Foram instalados dois experimentos, utilizando-se das cultivares Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante e Aromas (tratamentos, no período de 05 de maio a 19 de dezembro de 2006. No primeiro experimento, não havia polinizadores (testemunha. O segundo foi polinizado pela espécie de abelha Apis mellifera. Os tratamentos (cultivares foram dispostos, em cada experimento, em um delineamento completamente casualizado, com seis repetições. Foram avaliadas características de rendimento, bem como análise físico-química dos frutos de cada cultivar. Quanto ao rendimento, a maior produção obtida foi com a cultivar Camarosa tanto na ausência quanto na presença de polinizadores (907,46 g. planta-1 e 1.054,93 g. planta-1, respectivamente, ao passo que a cultivar Oso Grande apresentou menor número de frutos deformados.This work objectified to compare the productivity and the quality of the strawberry marketable fruits in protected environment, using the species of bee Apis mellifera in relation of the absence of a polinizator agent. It was installed two experiments using the cultivates Camarosa, Oso Grande, Diamante and Aromas (treatments, in the period of May 5 th until December 19th of 2006. The first experiment did not have polinizatores agents (control. The second was polinizated by the species of bee Apis mellifera. The treatments (cultivars had been arranged, in each experiment in a randomized blocks with 6 repetitions. They were evaluated income characteristics, as well as analysis physicist-chemistry of the fruits of each cultivar. For the income, the biggest production was gotten in cultivar Camarosa, for the first and the second experiment (907,46 g. plant-1 and 1054,93 g. plant-1, respectively, in the way that the cultivate

  20. Development of a GIS-Based Online Discussion System for Scientists with Google Earth API and Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, S.; Demura, H.; Hirata, N.; Terazono, J.

    2011-03-01

    This study has developed an online discussion system cooperating with GIS for researchers in planetary sciences. We focused on mushup approach with the existing web services; Google Earth API and Twitter.

  1. The indigenous honey bees of Saudi Arabia (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner): Their natural history and role in beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Hannan, Mohammed A; Owayss, Ayman A; Engel, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: videEngel 1999) has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of Apis mellifera jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only Apis mellifera jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from Apis mellifera jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.

  2. Construction and assembly of pipelines using API 5L grade X80 tubes - considerations to be observed with high-strength steels; Construcao e montagem de dutos terrestres utilizando tubos API 5L Gr. X80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ailton C. de; Rabello, Jose Mauricio B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80, at the point of view of designer allows: reduction of wall thickness and pipe weight or increase of design pressure. In the pipeline construction point of view, the use of line pipes API 5L Grade X80 provide some advantages, however some difficulties must be expected in several stages of the construction and assembly. The implications in cost, productivity, inspection and integrity, with the application of these high resistance steels, complying with PETROBRAS Standard N - 464 Construcao, Montagem e Condicionamento de Dutos Terrestres (Rev. H - 2004 Dec) and the experience consolidated in pipelines construction abroad were presented. At the design stage, a comparison between pipelines designed using API 5L-X70 and API 5L-X80 was carried out approaching the aspects of variation of thickness, pressure design and design factor. An evaluation of the expected gains when choosing API 5L Grade X80 steels were done, regarding reduction of costs and pipe weight. Regarding API 5L-X80 pipe fabrication, the obtained results were reported, proving that this aspect was already overcome, showing the viability of its production in Brazil. Difficulties were detected regarding construction and assembly stage and showing the need of revision of PETROBRAS standard N-464. (author)

  3. PERLETAKAN STASIUN KERETA API DALAM TATA RUANG KOTA-KOTA DI JAWA (KHUSUSNYA JAWA TIMUR PADA MASA KOLONIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handinoto Handinoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway Company in Indonesia started in 1860's. They were held by both government (SS- Staad Spoorwegen and private (NIS, etc. The same happened as in Europe after rev. industry, railway station's placement as new kind of building became very important in urban planning. Faster progression,in railway services in Indonesia in the begining 20 th century, that reached almost all of town in Java; caused railway station's placement, either in larger city or Kabupaten city will be importance. In the end of 19 th and 20 th century, railway transportation was one of important infrastructure.But in the second part of 20 th century, after independence, the roadway progression caused railway services become come down, so railway stations were careless. In the end of 20 th century, the dense of roadway in Java caused railway's function raise again. In general towns has been develop, so railway station placement which been though exactly in urban planning, become to make trouble for city trafic. The scoupe of this paper covered about the placement of railway station in the past, as input for development city in Java for the future. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Per kereta api an di Indonesia baru dimulai pada th. 1860 an. Perusahaan kereta api ditangani oleh dua instansi yaitu oleh pihak pemerintah (seperti: S.S - Staad Spoorwegen dan pihak swasta (seperti :NIS - Nederlandsch Indische Spoorweg Maatschappij, dan sebagainya. Seperti halnya di Eropa setelah revolusi industri, perletakkan stasiun sebagai suatu jenis bangunan baru, menjadi sangat penting dalam tata ruang kota. Dengan makin majunya per kereta api an di Indonesia pada awal abad ke 20, yang hampir mencapai seluruh kota di Jawa, maka penempatan stasiun kereta api baik di kota-kota besar maupun kota Kabupaten menjadi suatu pemikiran yang penting. Pada akhir abad ke 19 dan abad ke 20, angkutan dengan kereta api, menjadi salah satu sarana yang sangat penting, baik angkutan barang maupun manusia. Tapi

  4. Analysis of API2-MALT1 fusion, trisomies, and immunoglobulin VH genes in pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjing; Nakayama, Takahisa; Sakuma, Hidenori; Yamada, Seiji; Sato, Fumihiko; Takino, Hisashi; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Fujiyoshi, Yukio; Hattori, Hideo; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma is unique in that chronic inflammation is rare and that API2-MALT1 fusion, resulting from t(11;18)(q21;q21), occurs frequently. In this study, we examined 20 cases for API2-MALT1 fusion using the multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and looked for trisomy 3, trisomy 18, and abnormalities of MALT1 and IGH genes using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed VH genes by subcloning of the monoclonal polymerase chain reaction products. Of 20 cases studied, we detected gene abnormalities in 16: API2-MALT1 fusion in 9, trisomy 3 in 5, trisomy 18 in 4, MALT1 abnormality in 13, and IGH abnormality in 1. MALT1 gene abnormalities were concordant with API2-MALT1 fusion or trisomy 18. One case showed API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. On detection of API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomies, we were able to divide our cases into 3 groups, API2-MALT1 positive, trisomy positive, and no detectable gene abnormality, suggesting that tumor development had processed along different genetic pathways. All 20 cases were analyzed for VH genes. Most of the VH genes selected by the lymphomas belonged to the VH3 family, but there was no restriction to any particular VH fragment. Of interest, VH genes were unmutated in 7 cases, suggesting that T-cell-independent extrafollicular B-cell maturation may be important in the development of this lymphoma. In addition, both mutated and unmutated tumor cases were found to carry the API2-MALT1 fusion and trisomy 3. This observation suggests that these gene abnormalities may occur in microenvironments found before or outside of follicular germinal centers.

  5. 环境空气中臭氧API评价探讨%Study on Air Ozone API Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建平

    2012-01-01

    Air ozone API evaluation is considered that area of influence on ozone concentration exceed ambient air quality, ozone API correction on hours on ozone concentration exceed ambient air quality and Ozone average concentration exceed ambient air quality.%环境空气中臭氧API评价应考虑臭氧超标影响范围、臭氧超标小时数和超标平均浓度对臭氧API修正.

  6. Test-retest reliability of the Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt in chronic schizophrenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucone, E J; Wagner, E E; Raphael, A J; Golden, C J; Espe-Pfeifer, P; Dornheim, L; Seldon, J; Pospisil, T; Proctor-Weber, Z; Calabria, M

    2001-09-01

    This study assesses the test-retest reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT). The API system identifies 207 possible distortions in a BGT protocol. Test-retest reliability for 40 schizophrenic patients tested twice with a mean interval of 6.4 years (SD=3.8 years) was good, ranging from .71 to .80. Further reliability and validity studies are needed to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the system.

  7. OWL应用接口的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of APIs for OWL Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊振辉; 于娟

    2015-01-01

    The paper comparatively analyzes three types of APIs for OWL, including Jena API、Protégé API and OWL API, from aspects of characteristics, platforms which they base on, languages which they can process and OWL ontology models. It focuses on commonly-used functions of OWL API and obtains related conclusions: (1) Jena API cannot achieve all functions of OWL because it bases on RDF triple;(2) OWL API is specifically designed for OWL and it supports structural specification of OWL2 which is the latest edition of OWL;(3) current APIs for OWL ontology mostly base on Java platform, whereas APIs base on other platforms (e.g. .net plat-form) have not appeared.%比较分析了Jena API、Protégé API、OWL API这三种OWL应用接口(API)的特点、所基于的平台、可处理的语言以及描述OWL本体的模型,重点介绍了OWL API的常用基本功能,得出了相关结论:(1)Jena API基于RDF三元组的特点使其不能实现OWL语言的全部功能;(2)OWL API针对OWL语言设计,且支持最新的OWL2语言的结构规范;(3)目前这些API都是基于Java平台的,对于其它平台(如.net平台),尚未见有成熟的API出现。

  8. Evaluation of different glycoforms of honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) produced in insect cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Simon; Seismann, Henning; Plum, Melanie;

    2011-01-01

    Allergic reactions to hymenoptera stings are one of the major reasons for IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. However, proper diagnosis using venom extracts is severely affected by molecular cross-reactivity. In this study recombinant honeybee venom major allergen phospholipase A2 (Api m 1) was produced......-derived recombinant Api m 1 with defined CCD phenotypes might provide further insights into hymenoptera venom IgE reactivities and contribute to an improved diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy....

  9. The API2-MALT1 fusion exploits TNFR pathway-associated RIP1 ubiquitination to promote oncogenic NF-κB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, S; Rehman, A O; Apel, I J; Kohrt, D; Appert, A; O'Donnell, M A; Ting, A T; Du, M-Q; Baens, M; Lucas, P C; McAllister-Lucas, L M

    2014-05-08

    The API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein is created by the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We identified receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) as a novel API2-MALT1-associated protein, and demonstrate that RIP1 is required for API2-MALT1 to stimulate canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). API2-MALT1 promotes ubiquitination of RIP1 at lysine (K) 377, which is necessary for full NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we found that TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) recruitment is required for API2-MALT1 to induce RIP1 ubiquitination, NF-κB activation and cellular transformation. Although both TRAF2 and RIP1 interact with the API2 moiety of API2-MALT1, this moiety alone is insufficient to induce RIP1 ubiquitination or activate NF-κB, indicating that API2-MALT1-dependent RIP1 ubiquitination represents a gain of function requiring the concerted actions of both the API2 and MALT1 moieties of the fusion. Intriguingly, constitutive RIP1 ubiquitination was recently demonstrated in several solid tumors, and now our study implicates RIP1 ubiquitination as a critical component of API2-MALT1-dependent lymphomagenesis.

  10. Developing a Digital Video Library with the YouTube Data API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Clark

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MSU Library has created a digital video library using the YouTube API to power our local library channel. It is a complete search and browse application with item level views, microdata, a caching and optimization routine, and a file backup routine. The article will discuss applying the YouTube API as a database application layer: workflow efficiencies, metadata procedures and local backup and optimization procedures. Code samples in PHP, .htaccess examples, and shell commands used in developing the application and routines will be explained at length. And finally, a complete prototype application will be released on github for other libraries to get started using the lessons learned. A live version of the application is here: http://www.lib.montana.edu/channel/. The real benefit of this method is the low overhead for smaller shops and the ability to scale production and distribution of digital video.

  11. Temporal genetic structure of a drone congregation area of the giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, F B; Koeniger, N; Tingek, S; Moritz, R F A

    2005-12-01

    The giant Asian honeybee (Apis dorsata), like all other members of the genus Apis, has a complex mating system in which the queens and males (drones) mate at spatially defined drone congregation areas (DCAs). Here, we studied the temporal genetic structure of a DCA of A. dorsata over an 8-day time window by the genotyping of sampled drones with microsatellite markers. Analysis of the genotypic data revealed a significant genetic differentiation between 3 sampling days and indicated that the DCA was used by at least two subpopulations at all days in varying proportions. The estimation of the number of colonies which used the DCA ranged between 20 and 40 colonies per subpopulation, depending on the estimation procedure and population. The overall effective population size was estimated as high as N (e)=140. The DCA seems to counteract known tendencies of A. dorsata for inbreeding within colony aggregations by facilitating gene flow among subpopulations and increasing the effective population size.

  12. Opening the Door: A First Look at the OCLC WorldCat Metadata API

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Reese

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Libraries have long relied on OCLC’s WorldCat database as a way to cooperatively share bibliographic data and declare library holdings to support interlibrary loan services. As curator, OCLC has traditionally mediated all interactions with the WorldCat database through their various cataloging clients to control access to the information. As more and more libraries look for new ways to interact with their data and streamline metadata operations and workflows, these clients have become bottlenecks and an inhibitor of library innovation. To address some of these concerns, in early 2013 OCLC announced the release of a set of application programming interfaces (APIs supporting read and write access to the WorldCat database. These APIs offer libraries their first opportunity to develop new services and workflows that directly interact with the WorldCat database, and provide opportunities for catalogers to begin redefining how they work with OCLC and their data.

  13. Bauschinger effect on API 5L B and X56 steel plates under repeating bending load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Icho Y.; Korda, Akhmad A.

    2017-01-01

    During steel pipe fabrication, hot rolled coil steel will undergo coiling and uncoiling process, where the steel plate is bent repeatedly. When cyclic loading is imposed on steel, tensile and compressive stress will occur in it resulting in softening caused by Bauschinger effect. This research is focused on Bauschinger effect and cyclic loading during coiling and uncoiling process on API 5L B and API 5L X56 steel. Both types of steel were given repeated bend loading with variation in loading cycle and the curvature radius. The steel's response was then observed by using tensile testing, microhardness testing, and microstructure observation. A decrease in yield strength is observed during lower cycles and on smaller radii. After higher loading cycle, the yield strength of the steel was increased. Microhardness testing also reported similar results on the subsurface part of the steel where loading is at its highest.

  14. TogoWS: integrated SOAP and REST APIs for interoperable bioinformatics Web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2010-07-01

    Web services have become widely used in bioinformatics analysis, but there exist incompatibilities in interfaces and data types, which prevent users from making full use of a combination of these services. Therefore, we have developed the TogoWS service to provide an integrated interface with advanced features. In the TogoWS REST (REpresentative State Transfer) API (application programming interface), we introduce a unified access method for major database resources through intuitive URIs that can be used to search, retrieve, parse and convert the database entries. The TogoWS SOAP API resolves compatibility issues found on the server and client-side SOAP implementations. The TogoWS service is freely available at: http://togows.dbcls.jp/.

  15. Beginning the 21st century with advanced Automatic Parts Identification (API)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Fred; Roxby, Don

    1994-01-01

    Under the direction of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, the development and commercialization of an advanced Automated Parts Indentification (API) system is being undertaken by Rockwell International Corporation. The new API system is based on a variable sized, machine-readable, two-dimensioanl matrix symbol that can be applied directly onto most metallic and nonmetallic materials using safe, permanent marking methods. Its checkerboard-like structure is the most space efficient of all symbologies. This high data-density symbology can be applied to products of different material sizes and geometries using application-dependent, computer-driven marking devices. The high fidelity markings produced by these devices can then be captured using a specially designed camera linked to any IBM-compatible computer. Applications of compressed symbology technology will reduce costs and improve quality, productivity, and processes in a wide variety of federal and commercial applications.

  16. Novel insights into excipient effects on the biopharmaceutics of APIs from different BCS classes: Lactose in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubbinga, Marlies; Moghani, Laura; Langguth, Peter

    2014-09-30

    Excipients encompass a wide range of properties that are of importance for the resulting drug product. Regulatory guidelines on biowaivers for immediate release formulations require an in depth understanding of the biopharmaceutic effects of excipients in order to establish bioequivalence between two different products carrying the same API based on dissolution tests alone. This paper describes a new approach in evaluating biopharmaceutic excipient effects. Actually used quantities of a model excipient, lactose, formulated in combination with APIs from different BCS classes were evaluated. The results suggest that companies use different (relative) amounts depending on the characteristics of the API. The probability of bioinequivalence due to a difference in lactose content between test and reference products was classified as low for BCS class I APIs and medium for BCS class II and III APIs, whereas a high probability was assigned to the combination of lactose and BCS class IV APIs. If repeated for other excipients, this retrospective, top-down approach may lead to a new database and more widespread applications of the biowaiver approach.

  17. Dry coating of micronized API powders for improved dissolution of directly compacted tablets with high drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Davé, Rajesh

    2013-02-14

    Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 μm) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 μm API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t(80) for the tablets with dry coated APIs was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide corrosion of weld regions in API X52 steel; Corrosion por acido sulfhidrico de las regiones de soldadura en acero API X52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas-Martinez, L.F [Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.arenas@uadec.edu.mx; Garcia-Cerecero, G. [Corporacion Mexicana de Investigacion en Materiales S.A. de C.V., Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)]. E-mail: ggarcia@comimsa.com

    2012-10-15

    The corrosion behavior of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) regions has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and polarization resistance (LPR) techniques. Experiments were conducted in hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)-containing brine and in H{sub 2}S-free brine. Welds were made on API 5L X52 steel. Due to differences in their microstructure, chemical composition and residual stress level, weld regions exhibited different responses under H{sub 2}S corrosion. Base metal exhibited the highest corrosion rate (CR) and the most cathodic corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se estudio el comportamiento ante la corrosion de las regiones de soldadura de un cordon realizado por arco metalico con gas (GMAW) sobre un acero grado API X52 mediante las tecnicas de polarizacion potencio dinamica y resistencia a la polarizacion (LPR). Los experimentos se realizaron utilizando salmuera con 300 ppm de acido sulfhidrico (H{sub 2}S) y salmuera libre de H{sub 2}S como electrolitos. Debido a las diferencias en su microestructura, composicion quimica y el nivel de esfuerzos residuales, las regiones de soldadura mostraron diferentes respuestas a la corrosion por H{sub 2}S. El metal base exhibio la velocidad de corrosion (VC) mas alta y el potencial de corrosion mas catodico.

  19. Efeitos de atrativos e repelentes sobre o comportamento da abelha (Apis mellifera, l. Effect of attractants and repellents on the behavior of honey bees (Apis mellipera, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. MALERBO-SOUZA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente ensaio foi testar diversas substâncias e verificar sua atratividade e repelência para abelhas, Apis mellifera, L. Para isso, foram realizados testes em discos próximos às colméias e em cana picada oferecida como alimentação para gado bovino confinado. Nos discos próximos à colméia, o produto mais atrativo foi Bee-Here e o mais repelente foi o óleo de citronela. No cocho para bovinos, o repelente mais efetivo foi n-octyl-acetato.The experiment aimed to study honey bee (Apis mellifera attractants and repellents in vitro and on chopped sugar cane for bovine feeding. Tests were performed on plates located near to the hives and on bovine-hods. On plates, Bee-Here® was the most attractive and citronela oil the most repellent. On bovine-hods the most effective was n-octyl-acetate.

  20. Protease activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein in MALT lymphoma development and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebeck, Shaun; Lucas, Peter C; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M

    2011-05-01

    Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a prototypical cancer that occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation and an important model for understanding how deregulated NF-κB transcriptional activity contributes to malignancy. Most gastric MALT lymphomas require ongoing antigenic stimulation for continued tumor growth, and Stage I disease is usually cured by eradicating the causative microorganism, Helicobacter pylori, with antibiotics. However, in a subset of MALT lymphomas, chromosomal translocations are acquired that render the lymphoma antigen-independent. The recurrent translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) is associated with failure to respond to antibiotic therapy and increased rate of dissemination. This translocation creates the API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein, which comprises the amino terminus of inhibitor of apoptosis 2 (API2 or cIAP2) fused to the carboxy terminus of MALT1. A common characteristic of chromosomal translocations in MALT lymphoma, including t(11;18), is that genes involved in the regulation of the NF-κB transcription factor are targeted by the translocations, and these genetic perturbations thereby result in deregulated, constitutive NF-κB stimulation. In the last decade, great insights into the roles of API2 and MALT1 in NF-κB signaling have been made. For example, recent pivotal studies have uncovered the long sought-after proteolytic activity of MALT1 and have demonstrated its critical involvement in the survival of certain lymphomas. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of MALT1 in normal lymphocyte function and lymphomagenesis. We then highlight our recent work that has revealed an intriguing link between the proteolytic activity of the API2-MALT1 fusion and its ability to influence lymphomagenesis by cleaving a key NF-κB regulatory protein, NF-κB-inducing kinase.

  1. Manipulating API and AOD data to distinguish transportation of aerosol at high altitude in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.; Yoon, T. L.; Matjafri, M. Z.; Holben, B.

    2014-02-01

    Air pollution index (API) is an index commonly used in Malaysia to determine the air quality level. It is a ground truth data measurement which is unable to unambiguously quantify air quality level at higher atmosphere. On the other hand, aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AERONET data obtained using sun photometer provides reading of the air quality for a column of atmosphere from ground surface. We first determine the quantitative correlation between the API and AOD data collected in Penang, Malaysia, between January - September, 2012, using two independent methods, one based on regression analysis and the other interpolation. Our purpose is to establish a systematic numerical procedure to determine whether aerosol transported in high altitude from other location has occurred. Two independent methods for establishing the quantitative relationship between the API and AOD data were used as a way to facilitate the verification of our approach. In our method, data from southwest monsoon period (August to September) were used as "calibration dataset" to establish the quantitative correlation between the AOD and API data. The established calibrated coefficients is then used to predict the AOD of other months, which are then compared against the data actually measured. Discrepancy between the predicted and measured AOD data can then be interpreted as an indication of whether the atmosphere at high altitude is polluted by aerosol transported from other location. If the predicted AOD is much larger than that measured, back trajectory analysis was applied to identify the aerosol transported source. This procedure is very helpful to investigate the aerosol transportation and distribution patterns during monsoon and non monsoon periods.

  2. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene family of the honey bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew K.; Raymond-Delpech, Valerie; Steeve H Thany; Gauthier, Monique; Sattelle, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediate fast cholinergic synaptic transmission and play roles in many cognitive processes. They are under intense research as potential targets of drugs used to treat neurodegenerative diseases and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Invertebrate nAChRs are targets of anthelmintics as well as a major group of insecticides, the neonicotinoids. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is one of the most beneficial insects worldw...

  3. Hydrocarbon Composition of Beeswax (Apis Mellifera) Collected from Light and Dark Coloured Combs

    OpenAIRE

    Waś Ewa; Szczęsna Teresa; Rybak-Chmielewska Helena

    2014-01-01

    The hydrocarbon composition of beeswax secreted by Apis mellifera was characterised. In the studies, analyses were made of virgin beeswax (obtained from light combs, socalled „wild-built combs“) that was collected at different dates, and beeswax obtained from dark combs („brood combs“). A qualitative analysis did not show any differences in the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax originating from light and dark coloured combs. The same hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, alkenes, and dienes) were identif...

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of two API steels for iron ore pipelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Godefroid,Leonardo Barbosa; Cândido,Luiz Cláudio; Toffolo,Rodrigo Vicente Bayão; Barbosa,Luiz Henrique Soares

    2014-01-01

    This research compares the mechanical behavior of two API steels (X60 and X70) used in the longest pipeline in the world for the conveyance of iron ore. Tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, CTOD tests and fatigue crack growth tests are performed at ambient temperature. Metallographic examination showed a banded microstructure consisting of polygonal ferrite and pearlite in both steels, with smaller grain size and the presence of a small quantity of bainite in the X70 steel. All the mechanical ...

  5. Galenics: studies of the toxicity and distribution of sugar substitutes on Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    RADEMACHER, Eva; Fahlberg, Anja; Raddatz, Marlene; Schneider, Saskia; Voigt, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to find a substitute to sugar water in medicinal treatments of honey bee colonies with the same properties but without being ingested by bees or being toxic to them. Tylose MH, sorbitol and glycerol were tested for their attractiveness to Apis mellifera, their application ability, toxicity via individual application and distribution in small groups respectively a small colony. Neither of the substances proved attractive or toxic. All had good ...

  6. Use of oxalic acid to control Varroa destructor in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Akyol, Ethem; YENİNAR, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on reducing Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) populations in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in the fall. Twenty honeybee colonies, in wooden Langstroth hives, were used in this experiment. Average Varroa infestation levels (%) of the OA and control groups were 25.87% and 24.57% on adult workers before the treatments. The OA treatments were applied twice, on 3 November and 13 November 2006. Average Varroa infestation ...

  7. Phosphorus 30 CH to control Varroa population in Apis mellifera colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Moscatelli, Francesca; Pietropaoli, Marco; Brocherel, Giuseppina; Martini, Andrea; Formato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Varroa destructor is considered to be the main cause of European honeybee (Apis mellifera ssp. Linnaeus 1758) colony losses. The use of homeopathic products in veterinary practices has consistently increased in the last 50 years, but limited data are available on the application of homeopathic treatments to honeybees. The aims of this study were to investigate the acaricide efficacy and tolerability for honeybees treated for 35 days with the homeopathic product Phosphorus 30 CH. Methods...

  8. Transcriptional markers of sub-optimal nutrition in developing Apis mellifera nurse workers

    OpenAIRE

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Jones, Beryl M.; Walton, Alexander; Schwan, Melissa R; Kirk E Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute substantially to the worldwide economy and ecosystem health as pollinators. Pollen is essential to the bee’s diet, providing protein, lipids, and micronutrients. The dramatic shifts in physiology, anatomy, and behavior that accompany normal worker development are highly plastic and recent work demonstrates that development, particularly the transition from nurse to foraging roles, is greatly impacted by diet. However, the role that diet plays ...

  9. Studies of the eddy structure in the lower ionosphere by the API technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Grigoriev, Gennadii I.; Lapin, Victor G.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new application of the API technique to study of turbulent phenomena in the lower ionosphere. The main objective of these studies is experimental diagnostics of natural ordered eddy structures at the altitudes of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, such as those that occur when internal gravity waves propagate in stratified flows in the atmospheric boundary layer. To this end, we considered the impact of eddy motions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere on the relaxation time and the frequency of the signal scattered by periodic irregularities. Theoretical study of eddy structures base on experiments using SURA heating facility (56,14 N; 44,1 W). It is known, artificial periodic irregularities (APIs) are formed in the field of the powerful standing wave as a result of the interference of the incident wave and reflected from the ionosphere (Belikovich et al., Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities - 2002. Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. Copernicus GmbH. 160 p.). The relaxation or decay of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The atmospheric turbulence causes reduction of the amplitude and decay time of the API scattered signal in comparison with the diffusion time. We found a relation between the eddy period and the characteristic decay time of scattered signal, for which the synchronism of the waves scattered by a periodic structure is broken. Besides, it is shown, when the eddy structure moves by a horizontal wind exists at these heights, the frequency of the radio wave scattered by API structure will periodically increase and decrease compared with the frequency of the radiated diagnostic (probing) radio-wave. The work was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under grant No 14-12-00556.

  10. Comparison of ground based indices (API and AQI) with satellite based aerosol products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Cao, Chun-Xiang; Singh, Ramesh P

    2014-08-01

    Air quality in mega cities is one of the major concerns due to serious health issues and its indirect impact to the climate. Among mega cities, Beijing city is considered as one of the densely populated cities with extremely poor air quality. The meteorological parameters (wind, surface temperature, air temperature and relative humidity) control the dynamics and dispersion of air pollution. China National Environmental Monitoring Centre (CNEMC) started air pollution index (API) as of 2000 to evaluate air quality, but over the years, it was felt that the air quality is not well represented by API. Recently, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) of the People's Republic of China (PRC) started using a new index "air quality index (AQI)" from January 2013. We have compared API and AQI with three different MODIS (MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer, onboard the Terra/Aqua satellites) AOD (aerosol optical depth) products for ten months, January-October, 2013. The correlation between AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD was found to be reasonably good as compared with API, mainly due to inclusion of PM2.5 in the calculation of AQI. In addition, for every month, the correlation coefficient between AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD was found to be relatively higher in the month of February to May. According to the monthly average distribution of precipitation, temperature, and PM10, the air quality in the months of June-September was better as compared to those in the months of February-May. AQI and Aqua Deep Blue AOD show highly polluted days associated with dust event, representing true air quality of Beijing.

  11. An analysis of the intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements using DPCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Li, Cao-ling

    2016-03-01

    In order to reveal the intrinsic cross-correlations between air pollution index (API) records and synchronously meteorological elements data, the detrended partial cross-correlation (DPCC) coefficients are analyzed using a detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA). DPCC coefficients for different spatial locations and seasons are calculated and compared. The results show that DPCCA can uncover intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and most of their interactional mechanisms can be explained. DPCC coefficients are either positive or negative, and vary with spatial locations and seasons, with consistently interactional mechanisms. More remarkable, we find that detrended cross-correlation analysis can present the cross-correlations between the fluctuations in two nonstationary time series, but this cross-correlation does not always fully reflect the interactional mechanism for the original time series. Despite this, DPCCA is recommended as a comparatively reliable method for revealing intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and it can also be useful for our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.

  12. Super-Atmospheric Pressure Ion Sources: Application and Coupling to API Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee Chuin; Rahman, Md Matiur; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-01-01

    Pressurizing the ionization source to gas pressure greater than atmospheric pressure is a new tactic aimed at further improving the performance of atmospheric pressure ionization (API) sources. In principle, all API sources, such as ESI, APCI and AP-MALDI, can be operated at pressure higher than 1 atm if suitable vacuum interface is available. The gas pressure in the ion source can have different role for different ionization. For example, in the case of ESI, stable electrospray could be sustained for high surface tension liquid (e.g., pure water) under super-atmospheric pressure, owing to the absence of electric discharge. Even for nanoESI, which is known to work well with aqueous solution, its stability and sensitivity were found to be enhanced, particularly in the negative mode when the ion source was pressurized. For the gas phase ionization like APCI, measurement of gaseous compound also showed an increase in ion intensity with the ion source pressure until an optimum pressure at around 4-5 atm. The enhancement was due to the increased collision frequency among reactant ion and analyte that promoted the ion/molecule reaction and a higher intake rate of gas to the mass spectrometer. Because the design of vacuum interface for API instrument is based on the upstream pressure of 1 atm, some coupling aspects need to be considered when connecting the high pressure ion source to the mass spectrometer. Several coupling strategies are discussed in this paper.

  13. PEMANFAATAN TEKNOLOGI GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK APLIKASI LAPORAN KRIMINAL BERBASIS ANDROID PADA POLRESTABES MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rismayani Rismayani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polrestabes Makassar adalah institusi negara yang berada di bawah naungan kepolisian daerah Sulawesi Selatan yang memiliki tugas dan tanggung jawab untuk melayani masyarakat kota Makassar dalam proses penanganan berbagai macam permasalahan keamanan dan kriminalitas pada masyarakat kota Makassar. Adapun permasalahan pada penelitian ini adalah bagaimana masyarakat dapat melaporkan tindak kriminal yang terjadi di sekitar mereka tanpa harus datang ke kantor polisi dan bagaimana aparat dapat menerima langsung laporan kriminal dari masyarakat tanpa harus bertemu dan dapat melihat kejadian  dari foto yang dikirimkan serta dapat mengetahui lokasi kejadian tindak kriminal di wilayah kota Makassar. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat aplikasi berbasis android dengan memanfaatkan teknologi Google Maps API untuk mengirim laporan kriminal dalah bentuk foto serta mengirimkan lokasi kejadian tindak kriminal dari masyarakat ke aparat kepolisian. Adapun metode atau teknologi yang digunakan adalah Google Maps API dan berbasis Android, google maps api adalah adalah sebuah jasa peta global virtual gratis dan online yangdisediakan oleh perusahaan Google. Google Maps yang dapat ditemukan di alamat http://maps.google.com  dan berbasis android adalah sistem operasi berbasis Linux yang dirancang untuk perangkat bergerak layar sentuh seperti telepon pintar dan komputer tablet. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah dengan adanya aplikasi tersebut maka masyarakat dapat melaporkan tindak kriminal yang terjadi di sekitar mereka tanpa harus datang ke kantor polisi dan memudahkan para aparat kepolisian untuk melihat laporan kriminal dari masyarakat dengan melihat gambar dan lokasi kejadian kriminal.

  14. CernVM WebAPI - Controlling Virtual Machines from the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidis, I.; Berzano, D.; Blomer, J.; Buncic, P.; Ganis, G.; Meusel, R.; Segal, B.

    2015-12-01

    Lately, there is a trend in scientific projects to look for computing resources in the volunteering community. In addition, to reduce the development effort required to port the scientific software stack to all the known platforms, the use of Virtual Machines (VMs)u is becoming increasingly popular. Unfortunately their use further complicates the software installation and operation, restricting the volunteer audience to sufficiently expert people. CernVM WebAPI is a software solution addressing this specific case in a way that opens wide new application opportunities. It offers a very simple API for setting-up, controlling and interfacing with a VM instance in the users computer, while in the same time offloading the user from all the burden of downloading, installing and configuring the hypervisor. WebAPI comes with a lightweight javascript library that guides the user through the application installation process. Malicious usage is prohibited by offering a per-domain PKI validation mechanism. In this contribution we will overview this new technology, discuss its security features and examine some test cases where it is already in use.

  15. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliunaa Tsevegmid

    Full Text Available Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies, where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV and Chronic bee paralysis virus were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km. Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research.

  16. The Honey Bee Pathosphere of Mongolia: European Viruses in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsevegmid, Khaliunaa; Neumann, Peter; Yañez, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens are apparent key factors for the detrimental health of managed European honey bee subspecies, Apis mellifera. Apicultural trade is arguably the main factor for the almost global distribution of most honey bee diseases, thereby increasing chances for multiple infestations/infections of regions, apiaries, colonies and even individual bees. This imposes difficulties to evaluate the effects of pathogens in isolation, thereby creating demand to survey remote areas. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive survey for 14 honey bee pathogens in Mongolia (N = 3 regions, N = 9 locations, N = 151 colonies), where honey bee colonies depend on humans to overwinter. In Mongolia, honey bees, Apis spp., are not native and colonies of European A. mellifera subspecies have been introduced ~60 years ago. Despite the high detection power and large sample size across Mongolian regions with beekeeping, the mite Acarapis woodi, the bacteria Melissococcus plutonius and Paenibacillus larvae, the microsporidian Nosema apis, Acute bee paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus and Lake Sinai virus strain 2 were not detected, suggesting that they are either very rare or absent. The mite Varroa destructor, Nosema ceranae and four viruses (Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus, Deformed wing virus (DWV) and Chronic bee paralysis virus) were found with different prevalence. Despite the positive correlation between the prevalence of V. destructor mites and DWV, some areas had only mites, but not DWV, which is most likely due to the exceptional isolation of apiaries (up to 600 km). Phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses reveal their clustering and European origin, thereby supporting the role of trade for pathogen spread and the isolation of Mongolia from South-Asian countries. In conclusion, this survey reveals the distinctive honey bee pathosphere of Mongolia, which offers opportunities for exciting future research. PMID:26959221

  17. A Sensor Observation Service Extension for the GeoServices REST API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröring, A.; Sankaran, S.; Jirka, S.; Wytzisk, A.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation demonstrates an extension for the GeoServices REST API implemented on the ArcGIS server platform to provide near real time environmental data. The software has been developed by 52° North in context of a project with the European Environment Agency (EEA). The EEA collects huge amounts of environmental data from various agencies of the different EU member states and needs to redistribute them to decision makers as well as the general public. The key element of EEA's strategy to distribute these data is the compliancy to open standards. Relevant standards are developed and governed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC); on the one hand the GeoServices REST API, currently making its way through the standardization process, and on the other hand the Sensor Observation Service (SOS), a web service interface specialized for the retrieval of sensor observations. In this work, we have combined these two standards. Therefore, we have extended the GeoServices REST API to support the provision of sensor observations, by resembling the functionality of the SOS 2.0 interface. The defined extension for the GeoServices REST API offers a simple request and response encoding of the SOS 2.0. It is aligned with the abstract service model of the SOS 2.0 specification, but provides a new implementation of this standard which complies to the GeoServices REST API. The SOS extension allows querying of observations, metadata about sensors, as well as descriptions of features observed by the sensors. These data sets are made available as resources. Either all available resource instances can be queried or the resources can be filtered with powerful query operations. The software is implemented as a so-called Server Object Extension, or short SOE, for ArcGIS Server 10.1. This presentation will demonstrate the SOE deployed for air quality observations measured from a network of over 1.500 stations all across Europe. In the coming weeks, the SOS Extension will be further

  18. Comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium reveals Crithidia mellificae as a new contributory factor to winter mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen Ravoet

    Full Text Available Since the last decade, unusually high honey bee colony losses have been reported mainly in North-America and Europe. Here, we report on a comprehensive bee pathogen screening in Belgium covering 363 bee colonies that were screened for 18 known disease-causing pathogens and correlate their incidence in summer with subsequent winter mortality. Our analyses demonstrate that, in addition to Varroa destructor, the presence of the trypanosomatid parasite Crithidia mellificae and the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae in summer are also predictive markers of winter mortality, with a negative synergy being observed between the two in terms of their effects on colony mortality. Furthermore, we document the first occurrence of a parasitizing phorid fly in Europe, identify a new fourth strain of Lake Sinai Virus (LSV, and confirm the presence of other little reported pathogens such as Apicystis bombi, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV, Spiroplasma apis, Spiroplasma melliferum and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus (VdMLV. Finally, we provide evidence that ALPV and VdMLV replicate in honey bees and show that viruses of the LSV complex and Black Queen Cell Virus tend to non-randomly co-occur together. We also noticed a significant correlation between the number of pathogen species and colony losses. Overall, our results contribute significantly to our understanding of honey bee diseases and the likely causes of their current decline in Europe.

  19. ANALISIS PAKET TEKNOLOGI LOKAL DALAM PENGELOLAAN PRODUKSI MADU ORGANIK UNTUK PASAR GLOBAL DAN INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hilmanto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Production of honey conventionally by community do generate constraint at marketing to global market and industry. Model local technological packet is hoped improve the value sell honey commodity to go in global market and industry. Activity of production organic honey use local technological packet is hoped able to face Free Trade Agreement (FTA for local farmer. Local Technological packet at activity produce honey commodity, is expected be able to develop and strengthen production quality commodity. The objective of this research was to analyse the local technological packet at activity produce organic honey commodity to industrial and the global market in the form of technological model of management produce honey. The research method use Knowledge Base Creation constructively computer program of Agroekological Knowledge Toolkit 5 (AKT5. Result of research indicate that application local technological packet at activity produce organic honey had to watched five activity, namely: (a system agroforestry as source of nectar and pollen; (b to improve the stock honeybee; (c select, breeder, making bee hive honey; (d give meal artificial (e time and technique of cropping, till the product was sold. The result of reseach showed that the responder group applying activity produce honey organic at species Apis cerana yield 2,5 kg each stup, rate moisture content 20%, not turbid, and cleared at yielded honey. Result Interpretation was showed fulfill ideal technology management target

  20. So near and yet so far: harmonic radar reveals reduced homing ability of Nosema infected honeybees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Wolf

    Full Text Available Pathogens may gain a fitness advantage through manipulation of the behaviour of their hosts. Likewise, host behavioural changes can be a defence mechanism, counteracting the impact of pathogens on host fitness. We apply harmonic radar technology to characterize the impact of an emerging pathogen--Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia--on honeybee (Apis mellifera flight and orientation performance in the field. Honeybees are the most important commercial pollinators. Emerging diseases have been proposed to play a prominent role in colony decline, partly through sub-lethal behavioural manipulation of their hosts. We found that homing success was significantly reduced in diseased (65.8% versus healthy foragers (92.5%. Although lost bees had significantly reduced continuous flight times and prolonged resting times, other flight characteristics and navigational abilities showed no significant difference between infected and non-infected bees. Our results suggest that infected bees express normal flight characteristics but are constrained in their homing ability, potentially compromising the colony by reducing its resource inputs, but also counteracting the intra-colony spread of infection. We provide the first high-resolution analysis of sub-lethal effects of an emerging disease on insect flight behaviour. The potential causes and the implications for both host and parasite are discussed.