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Sample records for apicomplexa

  1. INTESTINAL COCCIDIA (EUCOCCIDIA, SPOROZOA, APICOMPLEXA) OF SOME AMPHIBIA IN AZERBAIJAN

    OpenAIRE

    MAMEDOVA SIMUZER ORUJ KYZY

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium (Coccidia, Apicomplexa) oocysts were detected by carbol-fucsin staining in feces of amphibia captured in different regions of Azerbaijan. Oocysts were released by 20 specimens of 39 examined Bufo viridis (prevalence 51.2%), 3 of 3 examined Bufo verrucosissimus (100%), 9 of 28 examined Rana ridibunda (32.1%). Invasion intensiveness varied from 12 to 30 oocysts per 1000 fields of vision. Cryptosporidium oocysts found in various amphibian species differed from each other by size ...

  2. Efficacy of eleven antimicrobials against a gregarine parasite (Apicomplexa: Protozoa

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    Whitman Douglas W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Apicomplexa are a diverse group of obligate protozoan parasites infesting a wide range of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts including humans. These parasites are notoriously difficult to control and many species continue to evolve resistance to commercial antibiotics. In this study, we sought to find an effective chemotherapeutic treatment against arthropod gregarines (Apicomplexa, and to identify candidate compounds for testing against other groups of protozoan parasites. Methods We tested eleven commercial antibiotics against a gregarine parasite of Romalea microptera grasshoppers. Infected insects were fed daily, lettuce containing known amounts of specific antibiotics. On Days 15 or 20, we measured the number of gregarines remaining in the digestive tract of each grasshopper. Results Treatment with metronidazole and griseofulvin in host insects significantly reduced gregarine counts, whereas, gregarine counts of insects fed, albendazole, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fumagillin, quinine, streptomycin, sulfadimethoxine, thiabendazole or tetracycline, were not significantly different from the controls. However, albendazole produced a strong, but non-significant reduction in gregarine count, and streptomycin exhibited a non-significant antagonistic trend. Conclusion Our results confirm that gregarine infections are difficult to control and suggest the possibility that streptomycin might aggravate gregarine infection. In addition, the insect system described here, provides a simple, inexpensive, and effective method for screening antibiotics.

  3. Eimeria fragilis and E. wambaensis, two new species of Eimeria Schneider (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from African anurans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2005), s. 167-173. ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1544; GA ČR(CZ) GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Anura * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.987, year: 2005

  4. A new coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the rufous elephant shrew, Elephantulus rufescens, from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Jirků, M.; Hůrková, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2005), s. 327-329. ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1548 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Eimeria elephantuli * Elephantulus rufescens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2005

  5. Evolutionary origin of Plasmodium and other Apicomplexa based on rRNA genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, A.A.; Ayala, F J

    1995-01-01

    We have explored the evolutionary history of the Apicomplexa and two related protistan phyla, Dinozoa and Ciliophora, by comparing the nucleotide sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA genes. We conclude that the Plasmodium lineage, to which the malarial parasites belong, diverged from other apicomplexan lineages (piroplasmids and coccidians) several hundred million years ago, perhaps even before the Cambrian. The Plasmodium radiation, which gave rise to several species parasitic to humans,...

  6. A first glimpse into the pattern and scale of gene transfer in the Apicomplexa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.L.; Mullapudi, N.; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas; Kissinger, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Reports of plant-like and bacterial-like genes for a number of parasitic organisms, most notably those within the Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida, have appeared in the literature over the last few years. Among the apicomplexan organisms, following discovery of the apicomplexan plastid (apicoplast...... combined with a phylogenomic approach to detect potential gene transfers in four apicomplexan genomes. We have detected genes of algal nuclear, chloroplast (cyanobacterial) and proteobacterial origin. Plant-like genes were detected in species not currently harbouring a plastid (e.g. Cryptosporidium parvum...

  7. Co-distribution pattern of a haemogregarine Hemolivia mauritanica (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) and its vector Hyalomma aegyptium (Metastigmata: Ixodidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Mikulíček, Peter; Jandzik, D.; Kami, H.; Mihalca, A. D.; Rouag, R.; Kamler, M.; Schneider, C.; Záruba, M.; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2009), s. 728-733. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Hemolivia * Testudo * Hyalomma * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2009

  8. Long-term occurrence of Hemolivia cf. mauretanica (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) in captive Testudo marginata (Reptilia: Testudinidae): evidence for cyclic merogony?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Kamler, M.; Modrý, David

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2004), s. 1391-1393. ISSN 0022-3395 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Adeleina * Haemogregarinidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.439, year: 2004

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of multi-subunit tethering complexes demonstrates an ancient pan-eukaryotic complement and sculpting in Apicomplexa.

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    Christen M Klinger

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa are obligate intracellular parasites that cause tremendous disease burden world-wide. They utilize a set of specialized secretory organelles in their invasive process that require delivery of components for their biogenesis and function, yet the precise mechanisms underpinning such processes remain unclear. One set of potentially important components is the multi-subunit tethering complexes (MTCs, factors increasingly implicated in all aspects of vesicle-target interactions. Prompted by the results of previous studies indicating a loss of membrane trafficking factors in Apicomplexa, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of MTC conservation. Building on knowledge of the ancient presence of most MTC proteins, we demonstrate the near complete retention of MTCs in the newly available genomes for Guillardiatheta and Bigelowiellanatans. The latter is a key taxonomic sampling point as a basal sister taxa to the group including Apicomplexa. We also demonstrate an ancient origin of the CORVET complex subunits Vps8 and Vps3, as well as the TRAPPII subunit Tca17. Having established that the lineage leading to Apicomplexa did at one point possess the complete eukaryotic complement of MTC components, we undertook a deeper taxonomic investigation in twelve apicomplexan genomes. We observed excellent conservation of the VpsC core of the HOPS and CORVET complexes, as well as the core TRAPP subunits, but sparse conservation of TRAPPII, COG, Dsl1, and HOPS/CORVET-specific subunits. However, those subunits that we did identify appear to be expressed with similar patterns to the fully conserved MTC proteins, suggesting that they may function as minimal complexes or with analogous partners. Strikingly, we failed to identify any subunits of the exocyst complex in all twelve apicomplexan genomes, as well as the dinoflagellate Perkinsus marinus. Overall, we demonstrate reduction of MTCs in Apicomplexa and their ancestors, consistent with modification during

  10. Isospora dromaii n. sp. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae (Casuariiformes, Casuariidae).

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    dos Santos Teixeira, Carina; Gallo, Samira Salim Mello; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Berto, Bruno Pereira; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2014-11-01

    A new species of Coccidia (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) isolated from emus, Dromaius novaehollandiae, which was observed in Brazil is described and named. Oocysts of Isospora dromaii n. sp. are subspheroidal to ovoid in shape, measure 21.6 × 19.8 μm, and have a double and smooth wall thickness of approximately 1.4 μm. In this species, micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granules are absent. The sporocysts are slightly ovoid in shape and measure 13.7 × 10.0 μm. Nipple-like Stieda body and prominent sub-Stieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of small dispersed granules of varying sizes. The sporozoites are characterized by an oblong refractile body and one centrally located nucleus. This is the first description of isosporid coccidia infecting birds of the family Dromaiidae. PMID:25195056

  11. Attenuated reproduction of Strombus gigas by an Apicomplexa: Emeriidae-like parasite in the digestive gland.

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    Baqueiro Cardenas, Erick; Montero, Jorge; Frenkiel, Liliane; Aldana Aranda, Dalila

    2012-07-01

    An intense and generalized sporozoan infection was detected in every population of the queen conch, Strombus gigas through the Caribbean. In this contribution we establish the relationship between occurrences of an Apicomplexa: Emeriidae-like organism and reproductive activity at San Andres archipelago, Colombia. Occurrence of the parasites was estimated counting the feeding stage Merozoites and cysts Sporozoites at 40× magnification. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) was made to correlate the parasites stages abundance with frequency of the reproductive stages. Gametogenesis and spawning were always low coinciding with high numbers of Merozoites, a positive correlation was established between parasite abundance with reabsorption and undifferentiated stages, and negative correlation was observed between parasite abundance with maturity and spawning stages. The nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) shows that gametogenesis, maturity and spawning increase as the number of parasites decrease, factor that could be threatening reproduction of S. gigas through the Caribbean. PMID:22484565

  12. Eimeria lokuma n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a new coccidium from the African helmeted turtle Pelomedusa subrufa (Lacepede) (Testudines: Pelomedusidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Kamler, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2006), s. 73-76. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Pelomedusa * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2006

  13. A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Zverkov, Oleg A; Seliverstov, Alexandr V.; Lyubetsky, Vassily A

    2015-01-01

    We report the database of plastid protein families from red algae, secondary and tertiary rhodophyte-derived plastids, and Apicomplexa constructed with the novel method to infer orthology. The families contain proteins with maximal sequence similarity and minimal paralogous content. The database contains 6509 protein entries, 513 families and 278 nonsingletons (from which 230 are paralog-free, and among the remaining 48, 46 contain at maximum two proteins per species, and 2 contain at maximum...

  14. Occurrence of Apicomplexa-like structures in the digestive gland of Strombus gigas throughout the Caribbean.

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    Aranda, Dalila Aldana; Frenkiel, Liliane; Brulé, Thierry; Montero, Jorge; Cárdenas, Erick Baqueiro

    2011-02-01

    The queen conch, Strombus gigas, is a marine resource of ecological and economical importance in the Caribbean region. Given its importance in this region, and the critical status of most populations, the reproductive biology of this species has been studied to support management decisions. It was from these studies that a generalized sporozoan infection was detected. This study describes the geographic distribution of a coccidian (Apicomplexa) parasite infecting the digestive gland of S. gigas throughout the Caribbean. The parasite was present in every location sampled. Based on histological analysis, the parasites from all locations are similar and appear to complete their life cycle within the digestive gland. The highest occurrence of the parasites was registered in samples from Puerto Rico (54 parasites per field) and Martinique (45 parasites per field). The lowest incidence was registered on the Mexican coast of Yucatan peninsula, at Alacranes and Chinchorro with 17 parasites per field. Data showed significant differences among sites (Kruskal Wallis H=106.957; p ≤ 0.05). The abundance of parasites found in the digestive ducts and in the faeces suggests the liberation of parasites to the environment. A gradual decrease in abundance was found from East to West of the Caribbean sea. PMID:20851703

  15. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae in Brazil

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    Karasawa Andréa Satie Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae. Fifty animals were evaluated for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. at the time of arrival and 30 and 60 days later. Intestinal washings with saline solution (1% body weight, fecal samples, and organ scrapings were collected during the study. Oocysts were concentrated by an ether-phosphate-buffered saline sedimentation technique and then separated by a density gradient centrifugation technique. Smears were made with the sediment and submitted to modified acid-fast and auramine-rhodamine staining. Cryptosporidium-positive smears were used as controls for the experimental findings. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was 14%. Among the positive snakes, oocysts were detected only in the intestinal washing in two specimens, only in the feces in four specimens, and in both materials at least once in one specimen. The positive snakes were predominantly from Santa Maria da Serra city State of São Paulo (57.1%. We also observed that all of the examinations that presented positive results were obtained at least 27 days after the capture of the animals.

  16. Endogenous development of Hemolivia mauritanica (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) in the marginated tortoise Testudo marginata (Reptilia: Testudinidae): evidence from experimental infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Kamler, M.; Frye, F. L.; Fictum, P.; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2007), s. 13-18. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant ostatní: Univerzita veterinárních a farmaceutických věd, Brno(CZ) IGA VFU 2/2004 FVHE; GA ČR(CZ) GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Hemolivia mauritanica * Testudo * merogony * cystogony * tick-born disease * life cycle Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2007

  17. Two Eimerian Coccidia (Apicomplexa : Eimeriidae) from the critically endangered Arakan forest turtle Heosemys depressa (Testudines: Geoemydidae), with description of Eimeria arakanensis n. sp.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2006), s. 183-189. ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Apicomplexa * Heosemys Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  18. Caryospora matatu sp.n., a new coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa : Eimeriidae) from the horned bush-viper, Atheris ceratophorus Werner, 1895 from Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Šlapeta, Jan Roger; Koudela, Břetislav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2002), s. 341-344. ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : coccidia * Apicomplexa * Caryospora matatu Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.564, year: 2002

  19. Eimeria atheridis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a new coccidium from the western bush viper Atheris chlorechis (Pel, 1851) from tropical Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Nečas, T.; Mazuch, T.; Kamler, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2004), s. 71-74. ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Eimeriidae * Eimeria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.669, year: 2004

  20. PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE

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    CLEBER O SOARES

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se realizó una investigación del parasitismo de Plasmodium juxtanucleare en gallinas sin raza definida, provenientes de criaderos rústicos en el município de Seropédica, estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Se realizaron frotis sanguineos periféricos, los cuales fueron coloreados con Giemsa diluído en tampon sorensen pH6,8. En el exámen hemoscópico se puede observar en aves con alto índice de parasitemia (>10% formas parasitarias de trofozoítas y esquizontes en el citoplasma de células de la linea leucocítica y trofozoítas en células de la linea trombocítica. Las observaciones en el presente estudio hacen inferir que la cepa de P. juxtanucleare que ocurre en Seropédica realiza esquizogonia fanerozóica. Este trabajo constituye el primer hallazgo de formas parasitárias de P. juxtanucleare en leucocitosPARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE A research about parasitism of the Plasmodium juxtanucleare in crossbred fowls from Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were done. Blood smear were done, and stained by Giemsa stain diluted in sorensen buffer pH6.8. The hemoscopical exam of fowls with high parasitaemia (>10% showed trophozoite and meront forms in the cytoplasm of leukocytic cells; and trophozoite forms in the cytoplasm of the thrombocytic cells. These observation do conclude that P. juxtanucleare strain from Seropédica produce phanerozoic meronts. This report constitutes the first finding of P. juxtanucleare forms in the leukocytes.

  1. New species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1907 (Apicomplexa) from amphibian host: morphology, biology and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirků, Miloslav; Valigurová, Andrea; Koudela, Bretislav; Krízek, Jaroslav; Modrý, David; Slapeta, Jan

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium fragile sp. n. (Apicomplexa) is described from black-spined toads, Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider) (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) from the Malay Peninsula. The parasitized animals were directly imported from Malaysia and harboured C. fragile at the time of arrival. Oocysts were subspherical to elliptical with irregular contour in optical section, measuring 6.2 (5.5-7.0) x 5.5 (5.0-6.5) microm. Oocyst wall was smooth and colourless in light microscopy. The endogenous development of C. fragile in the stomach of black-spined toad was analysed in detail using light and electron microscopy. Cryptosporidian developmental stages were confined to the surface of gastric epithelial cells. In transmission experiments, C. fragile has not been infective for one fish species, four amphibian species, one species of reptile and SCID mice. Full length small subunit rRNA gene sequence was obtained. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed distinct status of C. fragile within the clade of species with gastric localisation including Cryptosporidium muris Tyzzer, 1907, Cryptosporidium serpentis Levine, 1980 and Cryptosporidium andersoni Lindsay, Upton, Owens, Morgan, Mead et Blagburn, 2000. Described characteristics differentiate C. fragile from the currently recognized Cryptosporidium species. Our experience with the description of C. fragile has led us to revise the recommended criteria for an introduction of a new Cryptosporidium species name. C. fragile is the first species described and named from an amphibian host. Its prevalence of 83% (15/18) in black-spined toads within the 3 months after importation calls for strict quarantine measures and import regulation for lower vertebrates. PMID:18666410

  2. A new isosporoid coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae)from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823 (Passeriformes: Troglodytidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    doBomfim Lopes, Bruno; Rodrigues, Mariana Borges; da Silva, Lidiane Maria; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Ildemar; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    A new isosporoid coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is reported from the southern house wren Troglodytes musculus, a very well distributed species in South and Central America. Isospora corruirae sp. nov. oocysts are subspherical to ovoidal, 24.1 × 21.4 μm, with smooth, bilayered wall. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but small spherules and splinter-like granules are frequently present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to piriform, 14.0 × 9.5 μm. Stieda body is prominent knob-like and substieda body is delicate. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered fragments of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with posterior refractile bodies, anterior striations and a nucleus. This is the second description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting a New World wren. PMID:27078670

  3. A new coccidian, Isospora rheae sp. nov. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae, from Rhea americana (Aves, Rheidae from South America

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    Samira S.M. Gallo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of coccidian (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae obtained from rheas, Rhea americana, is reported in Brazil. Oocysts of Isospora rheae sp. nov. are spherical to subspheroidal, measuring 22.6 × 21.0 µm, and have a double and smooth wall that is approximately 1.7 µm thick. The micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are slightly ovoid, measuring 13.9 × 9.6 µm. The Stieda body is flattened, the substieda body is pointed, irregular and wavy and the sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules of varying sizes. Sporozoites have an oblong refractile body and one nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporid coccidian infecting birds of the family Rheidae.

  4. Molecular phylogenetic relatedness of Frenkelia spp. (Protozoa, Apicomplexa) to Sarcocystis falcatula Stiles 1893: is the genus Sarcocystis paraphyletic?

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    Votýpka, J; Hypsa, V; Jirků, M; Flegr, J; Vávra, J; Lukes, J

    1998-01-01

    The coccidians Frenkelia microti and F. glareoli (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) form tissue cysts in the brain of small rodents (intermediate hosts) while oocysts are formed in the intestine of final hosts, buzzards of the genus Buteo. The inclusion of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences (SSU rRNA) of both Frenkelia species into the SSU rRNA trees of other, tissue cyst-forming coccidia strongly supports paraphyly of the genus Sarcocystis. Frenkelia spp. exhibit close relatedness to Sarcocystis falcatula Stiles 1893, a bird-opossum parasite, recognized under its junior synonym S. neurona Dubey et al. 1991, as the causative agent of equine protozoan myeloencephalitis on the American continent. As the definition of the genus Frenkelia is based on a plesiomorphic character (affinity to the neural tissue) of supposedly low phylogenetic value, the synonymization of the genus Frenkelia with Sarcocystis is proposed. This renders the genus Sarcocystis monophyletic. PMID:9495042

  5. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the western hognose snake, Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Xenodontidae), from Texas.

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    Daszak, Peter; Ball, Stanley J; Streicker, Daniel G; Snow, Keith R

    2011-06-01

    A new species of coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from the feces of a western hognose snake Heterodon nasicus (Serpentes: Xenodontidae) collected from Texas, and housed in the collection of the Zoological Society of London. Oocysts of Eimeria mchenryi n. sp. are cylindrical, 35.0 ± SD 1.4 (32-37) × 17.0 ± 0.7 (16-18) µm; the shape index (length/width) is 2.05. A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are subspherical 9.3 (7-11.5) × 7.7 (6-9) µm, with a shape index of 1.2. There is a sporocyst residuum, but the new species is lacking Stieda bodies. The new species is distinct from those previously named from the Xenodontidae and the allied family, Colubridae. PMID:21506855

  6. Entwicklung strukturell neuartiger Typ II FAS-Inhibitoren als Wirkstoffe gegen multiple Entwicklungsstadien von Apicomplexa und Entwicklung potenzieller Bid-Inhibitoren als Wirkstoffe gegen neuronalen Zelltod

    OpenAIRE

    Schrader, Florian Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Infektionen durch Apicomplexa zählen sowohl zu den häufigsten parasitären Erkrankungen als auch zu den häufigsten globalen Todesursachen des Menschen. Zu diesem Stamm gehören neben mehreren tausend weiteren Protozoen die Erreger der Malaria (Plasmodium spp.) und der Toxoplasmose (Toxoplasma gondii). Die Parasiten zeigen einen Generationswechsel mit komplexen asexuellen und sexuellen Entwicklungszyklen in verschiedenen Wirten. Inhi...

  7. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain).

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    Fernández-Alvarez, A; Modry, D; Foronda, P

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective of identifying the species of Eimeria present in a cynegetic farm. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species is described from Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara, from the Canary Islands. Experimental infections were carried out in order to determine the prepatent period, sporulation time, site of infection, and morphology of endogenous stages. One species is described as new. Eimeria barbarae n. sp. has ellipsoidal oocysts, 20.0 × 14.4 (16-23 × 13-16) μm, with a shape-index (SI) of 1.39. Sporocysts are almond-shaped, 9.0 × 5.4 (6.5-11 × 4.5-6) μm, SI = 1.56. The endogenous development takes place along the intestine. The present study showed that E. barbarae causes severe pathologies in A. barbara chickens, with impact on their health condition. Control strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis at studied farm. PMID:26792431

  8. Detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., and Apicomplexa protozoa in water buffaloes in the Northeast of Argentina.

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    Konrad, José L; Campero, Lucía M; Caspe, Gastón S; Brihuega, Bibiana; Draghi, Graciela; Moore, Dadin P; Crudeli, Gustavo A; Venturini, María C; Campero, Carlos M

    2013-11-01

    Water buffalo industry has become a profitable activity worldwide, including the Northeast of Argentina (NEA). However, research on diseases affecting this species is scarce. The aim of the present study was to detect antibodies against Brucella abortus, Leptospira spp., Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. in 500 water buffalo cows from five ranches (100 animals each) in the NEA. Serum samples were tested for B. abortus by fluorescence polarization assay, Leptospira spp. by microagglutination test, and N. caninum, T. gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. by indirect fluorescent antibody tests. Overall, the proportion of seropositive animals was 6.4, 22.2, 42.2, 25.4, and 50.8 % for brucellosis, leptospirosis, neosporosis, toxoplasmosis, and sarcocystosis, respectively. The proportion of seropositive animals for all diseases was statistically different among herds (p < 0.05). Statistical differences were also detected among age groups for brucellosis and neosporosis (p < 0.05). The detection of specific antibodies to B. abortus, Leptospira spp., and several Apicomplexa protozoans in water buffaloes in the NEA is reported in this study. PMID:23765549

  9. A new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Ruppell's agama Agama rueppelli (Vaillant) (Sauria: Agamidae) from East Africa, with a review of this genus in agamid lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mihalca, A. D.; Jirků, Miloslav; Malonza, P. K.; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 3 (2009), s. 219-223. ISSN 0165-5752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isospora * Agama * Kenya * coccidium * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.911, year: 2009

  10. A new Apicomplexa-specific protein kinase family : multiple members in Plasmodium falciparum, all with an export signature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercereau-Puijalon Odile

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium spp. is a major health burden in tropical countries. The development of new control tools, including vaccines and drugs, is urgently needed. The availability of genome sequences from several malaria parasite species provides a basis on which to identify new potential intervention targets. Database mining for orthologs to the Plasmodium falciparum trophozoite protein R45, a vaccine candidate, led us identify a new gene family. Results Orthologs to the P. falciparum trophozoite protein R45 were detected exclusively in protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, including several Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. All family members are hybrid genes with a conserved C-terminal protein kinase domain of a novel type, recently called FIKK kinase, associated with a non conserved N-terminal region without any known functional signature. While a single copy gene was detected in most species, considerable gene expansion was observed in P. falciparum and its closest phylogenic relative P. reichenowi, with 20 and six copies, respectively, each with a distinct N-terminal domain. Based on full length protein sequence, pairs of orthologs were observed in closely related species, such as P. berghei and P.y. yoelii, P. vivax and P. knowlesi, or P. reichenowi and P. falciparum. All 20 P. falciparum paralogs possess a canonical Plasmodium export element downstream of a signal / anchor sequence required for exportation outside the parasitophorous vacuole. This is consistent with the reported association of the trophozoite protein R45, the only paralog characterised to date, with the infected red blood cell membrane. Interestingly, most genes are located in the subtelomeric region of chromosomes, in association with other multigene families contributing to the remodelling of the infected red blood cell membrane, in particular the ring erythrocyte surface

  11. Aggregata (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) infection in the common octopus Octopus vulgaris from the West Mediterranean Sea: The infection rates and possible effect of faunistic, environmental and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Hernández, E.; Barcala, E.; Berriatua, E.; García-Ayala, A.; Muñoz, P.

    2013-10-01

    Prevalence and distribution of the coccidian parasite Aggregata octopiana (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) in the Mediterranean Spanish coasts were studied. A total of 114 octopuses were sampled from 30 geographic sectors by trawl fleet, and whitish macroscopic oocysts typical of A. octopiana infection were recorded in 96% of octopuses in the digestive tract and mainly in intestine and spiral caecum. The univariate analysis showed that lesion extension varied according to specific octopus, environmental and faunistic variables. A subsequent multivariable analysis indicated that the risk of macroscopic lesions in the caecum was greater in males compared to females, in octopuses living in deeper compared to shallower waters and in hauls where the crustacean Pagurus excavatus was present. The study provides further evidence of the abundance of A. octopiana in octopus ecosystems urging for further studies to evaluate its health impact. The combined abundance of infected octopuses and P. excavatus merits attention.

  12. A new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the snake Philodryas olfersii Lichtenstein (Colubridae) from a coastal habitat in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lúcio A; Winck, Gisele R; Coelho, Cleide D; Flausino, Walter; Duarte Rocha, Carlos F

    2013-06-01

    A new coccidian species of the genus Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) is reported from the colubrid snake host Philodryas olfersii Lichtenstein at a coastal area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. Oöcysts of Caryospora olfersii n. sp. are spherical to sub-spherical, 33.1 × 31.2 μm, with smooth, colourless, three-layered wall, c.1.4; middle layer lightly striated. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule are all absent. Sporocysts are ovoid, 22.9 × 17.4 μm on average, with one extremity in the shape of a short neck. Stieda body present, 3.2 × 1.3 μm, sub-Stieda body present, homogeneous, larger than Stieda body, 4.5 × 1.7 μm. Sporozoites are inserted in a bulky sporocyst residuum. PMID:23673697

  13. Dynamic organization of microtubules and microtubule-organizing centers during the sexual phase of a parasitic protozoan, Lecudina tuzetae (Gregarine, Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Ryoko; Besse, Colette; Gèze, Marc; Omoto, Charlotte K; Schrével, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    Lecudina tuzetae is a parasitic protozoan (Gregarine, Apicomplexa) living in the intestine of a marine polychaete annelid, Nereis diversicolor. Using electron and fluorescence microscopy, we have characterized the dynamic changes in microtubule organization during the sexual phase of the life cycle. The gametocyst excreted from the host worm into seawater consists of two (one male and one female) gamonts in which cortical microtubule arrays are discernible. Each gamont undergoes multiple nuclear divisions without cytokinesis, resulting in the formation of large multinucleate haploid cells. After cellularization, approximately 1000 individual gametes are produced from each gamont within 24 h. Female gametes are spherical and contain interphase cytoplasmic microtubule arrays emanating from a gamma-tubulin-containing site. In male gametes, both interphase microtubules and a flagellum with "6 + 0" axonemal microtubules extend from the same microtubule-organizing site. At the beginning of spore formation, each zygote secretes a wall to form a sporocyst. Following meiotic and mitotic divisions, each sporocyst gives rise to eight haploid cells that ultimately differentiate into sporozoites. The ovoid shaped sporocyst is asymmetric and forms at least two distinctive microtubule arrays: spindle microtubules and microtubule bundles originating from the protruding apical end corresponding to the dehiscence pole of the sporocyst. Because antibodies raised against mammalian centrosome components, such as gamma-tubulin, pericentrin, Cep135, and mitosis-specific phosphoproteins, react strongly with the microtubule-nucleating sites of Lecudina, this protozoan is likely to share common centrosomal antigens with higher eukaryotes. PMID:16240430

  14. Molecular assessment of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) infections in wild canids and rodents from north Africa, with implications for transmission dynamics across taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P; Alvares, Francisco; Boratyński, Zbyszek; Brito, José C; Leite, João V; Harris, D James

    2014-10-01

    Parasites play a major role in ecosystems, and understanding of host-parasite interactions is important for predicting parasite transmission dynamics and epidemiology. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about the distribution, diversity, and impact of parasites in wildlife, especially from remote areas. Hepatozoon is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that is transmitted by ingestion of infected arthropod vectors. However, alternative modes of transmission have been identified such as trophic transmission. Using the 18S rRNA gene as a marker, we provide an assessment of Hepatozoon prevalence in six wild canid and two rodent species collected between 2003 and 2012 from remote areas in North Africa. By combining this with other predator-prey systems in a phylogenetic framework, we investigate Hepatozoon transmission dynamics in distinct host taxa. Prevalence was high overall among host species (African jerboa Jaculus jaculus [17/47, 36%], greater Egyptian jerboa Jaculus orientalis [5/7, 71%], side-striped jackal Canis adustus [1/2, 50%], golden jackal Canis aureus [6/32, 18%], pale fox Vulpes pallida [14/28, 50%], Rüppell's fox Vulpes rueppellii [6/11, 55%], red fox Vulpes vulpes [8/16, 50%], and fennec fox Vulpes zerda [7/11, 42%]). Phylogenetic analysis showed further evidence of occasional transmission of Hepatozoon lineages from prey to canid predators, which seems to occur less frequently than in other predator-prey systems such as between snakes and lizards. Due to the complex nature of the Hepatozoon lifecycle (heteroxenous and vector-borne), future studies on these wild host species need to clarify the dynamics of alternative modes of Hepatozoon transmission and identify reservoir and definitive hosts in natural populations. We also detected putative Babesia spp. (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) infections in two canid species from this region, V. pallida (1/28) and V. zerda (1/11). PMID:25050803

  15. Research Advances in Calcium-dependent Protein Kinases of Apicomplexa%顶复门原虫钙依赖蛋白激酶的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张念章; 陈佳; 王萌; 朱兴全; 黄思扬

    2013-01-01

    钙依赖蛋白激酶(Calcium-dependent protein kinases,CDPKs)是一类大的蛋白激酶家族,属于丝氨酸/苏氨酸类蛋白激酶,广泛存在于各种植物和原生动物中,参与多种生命活动的调控.随着生物信息学、分子生物学及基因工程的迅速发展,对顶复门原虫CDPKs的研究日益增多.研究结果表明,这类蛋白家族成员参与调控寄生虫入侵、外出宿主细胞、配子形成、宿主体内移行等顶复门原虫生活史的多个重要时期,其特殊的分子结构或可成为研究抗寄生虫疫苗或药物的候选靶标.本文以疟原虫、弓形虫和艾美耳球虫CDPKs为重点,综述了顶复门原虫CDPKs的结构、功能及生物学意义,展望了顶复门原虫CDPKs的研究和应用前景,以期为研究顶复门原虫的致病机理及研发抗原虫生物制剂提供参考.%Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are a large gene family, which is one kind of serine-threonine protein kinases. CDPKs have a diverse array of functions in various plants and many protozoa. With the development of bioinformatics, molecular biology and gene engineering, increasing numbers of researches about CDPKs were published recently. Increasing evidence suggests that CDPKs can regulate many crucial steps of parasite's life cycle including host cell invasion and egress, gamete formation, and gliding motility. The special structure compared with proteins in human and mammal makes CDPKs an ideal target for novel vaccine and anti-parasite therapeutic drugs. This article reviews the structures, functions and applications of Apicomplexa 's CDPKs focusing on Plasmodium, Toxoplasma gondii and Eimeria, and prospects the research and application tendency, in order to provide references for the research of the pathogene-sis and biological agents against Apicomplexan parasites.

  16. Utilización del patrón de restricción del DNA codificante para el RNA Ribosomal de la subunidad pequeña para la caracterización de Apicomplexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Adelaida

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Apicomplexos constituyen un phylum de protozoarios que se caracterizan por ser parásitos obligados de una gran variedad de huéspedes vertebrados e invertebrados. Hoy en día hay fuertes polémicas en tomo a su clasificación taxonómica, sus relaciones filogenéticas, y los patrones de coevolución con sus hospederos. El gen que codifica para el ARN ribosomal de la subunidad pequeña (ARN-SURp se utiliza como marcador molecular para resolver estas inquietudes. A partir del ADN de las especies de la familia Sarcocystidae (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis sp. de Didelphis marsupialis y Sarcocystis sp. de Columbina talpacoti y Toxoplasma gondii, y de especies de la familia Plasmodiidae (Plasmodium de Anolis chloris, P. simium, y P. falciparumi, se amplificó por PCR el gen que codifica para el ARN de la subunidad ribosomal pequeña (ARN- SURp usando los iniciadores P5-P3, 0009-2134 Y566R-567R. Se compararon
    los patrones de restricción Hind III, Eco RI, Sau 3AI y Alw 261 del DNA ribosomal. La prueba de riboprini mostró que además de discriminar entre familias permite caracterizar diferencias a nivel de género y especie.Apicomplexa is a Protozoa phylum in which all members are obliged parasites of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. There is an ongoing controversy on
    systematics, phylogenetic relationships and parasite - host coevolution patterns. The SSU ribosomal gen has been used as a molecular marker in order to solve these issues.
    From DNA of the species of the Sarcocystidae family (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis sp. from Didelphis marsupialis, Sarcocystis sp. from Columbina talpacoti and Toxoplasma
    gondii, and from the species of the Plasmodiidae family (Plasmodium from Anolis ehloris, P. simium, and P. falciparum, the SSU ribosomal DNA fragemnt was
    amplified by PCR, using the pair of primers P5-P3, 0009-2134 and 566R-567R. Hind III, Eco RI, Sau 3AI and Alw 261 restriction pattems were compared

  17. Life cycle of Hammondia hammondi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammondia hammondi and Toxoplasma gondii are feline coccidian that are morphologically, antigenically, and phylogenitically related. Both parasites multiply asexually and sexually in feline intestinal enterocytes but H. hammondi remains confined to enterocytes whereas T. gondii also parasitizes extr...

  18. COCCIDIAN PARASITES (APICOMPLEXA: EUCOCCIDORIDA) IN HARDY HEAD FISH, ATHERINOMORUS CAPRICORNENSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authors describe coccidian merozoites (asexual stages) in theexocrine pancreas and oocysts in the gut epithelium of hardy heads,(Woodland) (family Atherinidae) collected at Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, during the pre-ICOPA (International Congress of Parasitology) workshop...

  19. Cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in hedgehogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Hofmannová, Lada; Hlásková, Lenka; Květoňová, Dana; Vítovec, Jiří; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2014-03-17

    The morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. is proposed to reflect its specificity for hedgehogs under natural and experimental conditions. Oocysts of C. erinacei are morphologically indistinguishable from Cryptosporidium parvum, measuring 4.5-5.8 μm (mean=4.9 μm) × 4.0-4.8 μm (mean=4.4 μm) with a length to width ratio of 1.13 (1.02-1.35) (n=100). Oocysts of C. erinacei obtained from a naturally infected European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) were infectious for naïve 8-week-old four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris); the prepatent period was 4-5 days post infection (DPI) and the patent period was longer than 20 days. C. erinacei was not infectious for 8-week-old SCID and BALB/c mice (Mus musculus), Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), or golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA, 60 kDa glycoprotein, actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium-1, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. erinacei is genetically distinct from previously described Cryptosporidium species. PMID:24529828

  20. Building the perfect parasite: cell division in apicomplexa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Striepen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexans are pathogens responsible for malaria, toxoplasmosis, and crytposporidiosis in humans, and a wide range of livestock diseases. These unicellular eukaryotes are stealthy invaders, sheltering from the immune response in the cells of their hosts, while at the same time tapping into these cells as source of nutrients. The complexity and beauty of the structures formed during their intracellular development have made apicomplexans the darling of electron microscopists. Dramatic technological progress over the last decade has transformed apicomplexans into respectable genetic model organisms. Extensive genomic resources are now available for many apicomplexan species. At the same time, parasite transfection has enabled researchers to test the function of specific genes through reverse and forward genetic approaches with increasing sophistication. Transfection also introduced the use of fluorescent reporters, opening the field to dynamic real time microscopic observation. Parasite cell biologists have used these tools to take a fresh look at a classic problem: how do apicomplexans build the perfect invasion machine, the zoite, and how is this process fine-tuned to fit the specific niche of each pathogen in this ancient and very diverse group? This work has unearthed a treasure trove of novel structures and mechanisms that are the focus of this review.

  1. Phylogeny of Fish-Infecting Calyptospora species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous species of apicomplexans that infect poikilothermic vertebrates such as fishes, and possess unique morphological features that provide insight into the evolution of this important phylum of parasites. Here the relationship of the fish-infecting Calyptospora spe...

  2. Cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in hedgehogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Hofmannová, L.; Hlásková, Lenka; Květoňová, Dana; Vitovec, J.; McEvoy, J.; Sak, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 201, 1-2 (2014), s. 9-17. ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium erinacei * taxonomy * morphology * molecular analyses * transmission studies * Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.460, year: 2014

  3. Developmental biology of Cystoisospora (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) monozoic tissue cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, David S; Houk, Alice E; Mitchell, Sheila M; Dubey, J P

    2014-08-01

    Tissue cyst stages are an intriguing aspect of the developmental cycle and transmission of species of Sarcocystidae. Tissue-cyst stages of Toxoplasma, Hammondia, Neospora, Besnoitia, and Sarcocystis contain many infectious stages (bradyzoites). The tissue cyst stage of Cystoisospora (syn. Isospora) possesses only 1 infectious stage (zoite), and is therefore referred to as a monozoic tissue cyst (MZTC). No tissue cyst stages are presently known for members of Nephroisospora. The present report examines the developmental biology of MZTC stages of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977 . These parasites cause intestinal coccidiosis in cats, dogs, pigs, and humans. The MZTC stages of C. belli are believed to be associated with reoccurrence of clinical disease in humans. PMID:24841928

  4. Natural infection of Cryptosporidium muris (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporiidae) in Siberian chipmunks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůrková, L.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Modrý, David

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2003), s. 441ů444. ISSN 0090-3558 Grant ostatní: GA FRVŠ(CZ) 1260/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003; CEZ:MSM 161700001 Keywords : BALB/c mice * Cryptosporidium muris * Eutamias sibiricus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2003

  5. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa em cardeais-amarelo Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.O cardeal-amarelo (Gubernatrix cristata é um pássaro que ocorre no sul do Brasil, principalmente na fronteira com Uruguai e Argentina. É uma ave ameaçada de extinção e sua população está decrescendo. Dentre, os parasitas que afetam a ordem Passeriformes, o gênero Isospora está entre o mais encontrado, tanto em aves de cativeiro quanto em aves de vida-livre. Comumente causam injúrias no tecido intestinal, podendo ocasionalmente afetar outros órgãos. Neste trabalho examinamos a ocorrência de coccidiose em cardeais mantidos em cativeiro e verificamos sua associação com fatores como sexo, uso de produtos parasiticidas, tipo de recinto, contato com fezes, tipo de alimentação e frequência de limpeza. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, ao entardecer, de 45 cardeais-amarelos, hígidos, mantidos em cativeiro, no final do período reprodutivo. O exame coproparasitológico revelou infecção parasitária por Isospora bocamontensis, em 44,5% das aves. Esta infecção não é influenciada pelo sexo das aves, mas é significativamente afetada pelo tipo de recinto, contato com as fezes, uso de parasiticidas, tipo de alimentação e frequência de limpeza. Indicando que para a manutenção em cativeiro estes fatores devem ser observados.

  6. Prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae among recently captured Brazilian snakes Prevalência de Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae em serpentes recém-capturadas no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. O'Dwyer

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in recently captured snakes from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood was collected from all snakes by ventral tail venipuncture. Blood smears were air dried, fixed with methanol, and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. The slides were microscopically examined for detection of hemoparasites by light microscopy at 250x magnification. A total of 238 snakes from 23 species were examined, of which 135 (56.7% were venomous and 103 (43.3% non-venomous snakes. The more numerous venomous species sampled were Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 and Bothrops jararaca (n=17 and non-venomous snakes were Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18, and Waglerophis merremi (n=13. Hepatozoon spp. infection was detected in 39 (16.4% snakes. The prevalence in venomous and non-venomous snakes was 20.0% and 11.7%, respectively. The highest prevalences observed were 38.9% for Boa constrictor amarali, 35.3% for Bothrops jararaca, and 19.4% for Crotalus durissus terrificus.O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência da infecção por Hepatozoon spp. em serpentes recém-capturadas da região de Botucatu, São Paulo. O sangue foi coletado de todas as serpentes por punção da veia caudal. Os esfregaços foram secos ao ar, fixados com metanol e corados com solução de Giemsa a 10%. Examinaram-se 238 serpentes pertencentes a 23 espécies, das quais 135 (56,7% eram venenosas e 103 (43,3% não venenosas. As espécies venenosas mais representativas foram Crotalus durissus terrificus (n=108 e Bothrops jararaca (n=17 e as não venenosas foram Oxyrhopus guibei (n=35, Boa constrictor amarali (n=18 e Waglerophis merremi (n=13. A infecção por Hepatozoon spp. foi detectada em 39 (16,4% serpentes. As prevalências em serpentes venenosas e não venenosas foram 20,0% e 11,7%, respectivamente. As maiores prevalências foram 38,9% para Boa constrictor amarali, 35,3% para Bothrops jararaca e 19,4% para Crotalus durissus terrificus.

  7. Prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) among recently captured Brazilian snakes Prevalência de Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) em serpentes recém-capturadas no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    L.H. O'Dwyer; T. C. Moço; T. H. Barrella; F.C. Vilela; R.J. Silva

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in recently captured snakes from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood was collected from all snakes by ventral tail venipuncture. Blood smears were air dried, fixed with methanol, and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. The slides were microscopically examined for detection of hemoparasites by light microscopy at 250x magnification. A total of 238 snakes from 23 species were examined, of which 135 (56.7%) we...

  8. Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae no cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Sarcocystis cruzi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae in the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina S. Rodrigues

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Esporocistos de Sarcocystis foram identificados nas amostras fecais de um cachorro-do-mato. Eles foram dados por via oral para um bezerro em aleitamento, sendo observados cistos com morfologia compatível com os de Sarcocystis cruzi na musculatura cardíaca e esquelética, três meses após a infecção. Musculatura cardíaca deste bezerro foi dada para um segundo cão doméstico livre de coccídios, que eliminou esporocistos compatíveis com os de Sarcocystis em suas fezes, tendo com períodos pré-patente e patente 11 e 12 dias após a infecção respectivamente. Para comparar a morfologia dos esporocistos e cistos, um segundo cão, também livre de coccídios, foi alimentado com musculatura cardíaca de um bovino infectando naturalmente e positivo para cistos de S. cruzi. Esporocistos compatíveis com os eliminados pelo primeiro cão foram encontrados nas fezes. Apesar dos esporocistos eliminados pelo cachorro-do-mato serem significativamente diferentes dos eliminados pelos cães infectados experimentalmente, pode se considerar com base na morfologia dos esporocistos, cistos e na transmissão biológica que a espécie encontrada nas fezes do cachorro-do-mato é Sarcocystis cruzi.Sporocysts of Sarcocystis were identified in feces samples of a crab-eating fox, and were orally given to a suckling calf; after 3 months of infection, sarcocysts morphologically similar to Sarcocystis cruzi were observed in cardiac and skeletal striated muscles. The cardiac muscles of this calf were orally given to a puppy free of coccidia, that shed sporocysts in its feces.with a prepatent and patent period of 11 and 12 days after infection, respectively. To compare the morphology of the sporocysts and cysts, a second puppy was fed on bovine cardiac muscles infected naturally, and sporocysts identical to those shed by the first dog were recovered from its feces. In spite of the significant difference between sporocysts found in the mucosa of the crab-eating fox and those shed by the first and second puppies, the species observed in this study was considered to be Sarcocystis cruzi, based on size of the sporocyts, morphology of the cyst wall, and the pray-predator cycle.

  9. A new coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousif, Mohamed S; Al-Shawa, Yaser R

    2002-04-01

    Oocysts of Eimeria oryxae sp. n. are described from the faeces of the scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah (Cretzschmar, 1826), from Zoo Garden, Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoid in shape measuring 20.9 x 17.1 (16.7-24.2 x 15.5-20.2) microm, with smooth brownish-yellow double layered wall. Micropyle and ellipsoidal polar granules are present, but micropylar cap and oocyst residuum are absent. Sporocysts are ovoid, reaching 10.0 x 5.7 (9.2-11.0 x 5.2-6.5) microm with Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. Sporozoites are elongated, each with large and small refractile body. PMID:12049259

  10. Sarcocystis arctica (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae): ultrastructural description and its new host record, the Alaskan wolf (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Mowery, Joseph; Carmena, David; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Dubey, Jitender P

    2016-07-01

    Sarcocystis sarcocysts are common in muscles of herbivores but are rare in muscles of carnivores. Here, we report sarcocysts in the muscles of a gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Alaska, USA, for the first time. Sarcocysts extracted from the tongue of the wolf were up to 900 μm long and slender and appeared to have a relatively thin wall by light microscope. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall most closely resembled "type 9c," and had a wavy parasitophorous vacuolar membrane folded as pleomorphic villar protrusions (vp), with anastomoses of tips. The vp and the ground substance (gs) layer were smooth without tubules or granules. The gs was up to 2.0 μm thick. The total width of the wall including vp and the gs was 3.5 μm. The vp were up to 1.5 μm long. Mature sarcocysts contained numerous bradyzoites and few metrocytes. The bradyzoites were 9.5 μm long and 1.5 μm wide, and contained all organelles found in Sarcocystis bradyzoites with at least two rhoptries. Molecular characterization showed the highest identity for 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-1, and cox1 sequences of Sarcocystis arctica of the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus) from Norway. The ultrastructure of S. arctica from the fox is unknown. Here, we provide ultrastructure of S. arctica from the Alaskan wolf for the first time. The definitive host of S. arctica remains unknown. PMID:27112760

  11. First Molecular Identification of Sarcocystis ovicanis (Protozoa, Apicomplexa in the Brain of Sheep in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Salehi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to survey the presence of Sarcocystis in sheep's brain in North Khorasan Province.In general, 80 samples of sheep's brain were collected from slaughtered sheep in slaughterhouses of North Khorasan Province. Tissue digestion method was used for observing bradyzoites in tissues. Histopathological processing tracing Sarcocystis and ensuing structural change in the brain tissue were conducted. PCR analysis was conducted on all the brain samples. Sequencing was done for one PCR product. Genotype was identified by Blast search and homology analysis.Sarcocystis spp. was found in one of the brain samples (1.25% using tissue digestion method. The presence of bradyzoite was also confirmed in the prepared histopathological sections. PCR analysis was positive in one of samples. Genotyping of one sample proved that Sarcocystis species was Sarcocystis ovicanis and the nucleotide sequence of this parasite was deposited in the GenBank database under accession number No.KF489431.Sarcocystis ovicanis can involve brain tissue of sheep and consequently causes clinical symptoms.

  12. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  13. Sarcocystis tuagulusi, n.sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Williamson's mouse deer (Tuagulus williamsoni) (Artiodactyla:Tragulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun Jie; Huang, Si; Chen, Ming Yong; Wen, Tao; Esch, Gerald Wisler; Liu, Qiong; Liu, Ting Ting

    2016-03-01

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants, but none has been from Williamson's mouse deer (Tuagulus williamsoni). Here, we describe a new species, Sarcocystis tuagulusi, infecting five of 12 Williamson's mouse deer from southwest China. Mature sarcocysts are microscopic, up to 2280-μm long. The sarcocyst wall had 8.2-μm long villar protrusions, type 24. Using transmission electron microscopy, the protrusions on sarcocysts appeared as elongated, lancet- or leaf-like shapes in longitudinal sections; in contrast, the cross-sections revealed mushroom-shaped protrusions. In the core of the protrusion, a bundle of microtubules penetrated diagonally into a ground substance along the longitudinal axis. A phyogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 sequences suggested S. tuagulusi is closely related to Sarcocystis species from ruminants that employ felids as definitive hosts. PMID:26677097

  14. SARCOCYSTIS URSUSI, N. SP (APICOMPLEXA; SARCOCYSTIDAE) FROM THE BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with Sarcocystis species is common in hervibores but is rare in bears. Histological sections of 374 black bears (Ursus americanus) from Pennsylvania were examined for sarcocysts. A total of 3 sarcocysts were found in 3 bears, 1 sarcocyst per section. Sarcocysts from 2 bears were considered...

  15. Sarcocystis mehlhorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Schafer, Laurence M; Van Wilpe, Erna; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-12-01

    Infection with Sarcocystis is common in many species of wild cervids but none is reported from the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). Here, we report Sarcocystis infection in two black-tailed deer from northwest USA for the first time. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 556 μm long and mature. The sarcocyst wall was up to 1.39 μm thick and had rectangular 1.17-μm-long villar protrusions, type 17, with thin (230 nm) electron dense ground substance layer. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Sarcocystis in the black-tailed deer is related to structurally distinct Sarcocystis species in cervids. A new name, Sarcocystis mehlhorni, is proposed for the Sarcocystis species in black-tailed deer. PMID:26346449

  16. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, namely Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, Sarcocystis hominis, and Sarcocystis rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (species of Sarcocystis with thin-walled sarcocysts in cattle. Two newborn calves were fed with sporocysts from the feces of a human volunteer who had ingested raw beef. The calves were killed 111 and 222 days later. In addition to thick-walled sarcocysts of S. hominis, both calves were coinfected with a Sarcocystis species that had a thin-walled sarcocysts, distinct from S. cruzi. The sarcocysts were mature, microscopic, up to 80 μm wide, and up to 1060 μm long. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was thin (species of Sarcocystis reported from livestock. This unique species is named in honor of Dr. Alfred Otto Heydorn who provided the sporocysts. PMID:26243573

  17. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Cattle (Bos taurus) and its Differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Moré, Gastón; van Wilpe, Erna; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Schares, Gereon

    2016-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for three named species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. Recently, a fourth species was identified and named S. sinensis. However, S. sinensis originally named a species of Sarcocystis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in China. Based on unverifiable evidence, it was suggested that the same parasite infects cattle. In addition, S. sinensis was recently declared as nomen nudum because its naming violated the rules of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Thus, the fourth species using cattle as an intermediate host does not have a valid name. Here, we propose a new name, Sarcocystis rommeli for the S. sinensis-like parasite from cattle in Argentina, and differentiate it ultrastructurally from S. hominis sarcocysts from experimentally infected cattle. Sarcocystis rommeli sarcocysts were microscopic with a 5-μm-thick wall with slender villar protrusions (Vp); the Vp were up to 5 μm long, up to 0.5 μm wide, and of uneven thickness, often bent at an angle. The ground substance layer (Gs) was up to 0.8 μm thick and smooth. Vesicular structures were seen at the base of the Vp. The bradyzoites were 10-12 μm long. Sarcocystis hominis sarcocysts had Vp that were often upright, up to 7.5 μm long, and up to 1.8 μm wide; the Gs was up to 2 μm thick and without vesicles. Its sarcocyst wall was up to 5.6 μm thick, the vp were bent at an angle, up to 5.8 μm long, the Gs was up to 2 μm thick, but without vesicles seen in S. rommeli. Beef containing sarcocysts of S. rommeli was not orally infectious for two human volunteers and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The Sarcocystis described here is molecularly different from S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 gene sequences. PMID:26111603

  18. Sarcocystis oreamni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Van Wilpe, Erna; White, Kevin; Verma, Shiv K; Cerqueira-Cézar, Camila K; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-11-01

    Numerous species of Sarcocystis have been reported from wild ruminants, but none has been named from the Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). Mature sarcocysts were found in frozen muscle samples of three of seven mountain goats from Alaska, USA. Two morphological types of sarcocysts were found; one had Sarcocystis cornagliai-like sarcocysts, previously named from the Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) from Europe. Two other goats were infected with a new species, Sarcocystis oreamni. Sarcocystis oreamni sarcocysts were microscopic with 2 μm-thick sarcocyst wall. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall had 1.7 μm-thick with unusual molar tooth-like villar protrusions (vp), type 29. The vp had an electron dense core and two disc-shaped plaques at the tip with fine microtubules. Bradyzoites were 8.6-9.1 μm long. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identified in 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA loci of rDNA regions that suggested S. oreamni molecularly apart from related species. The phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA sequences suggested S. oreamni is related with Sarcocystis species that employ members of the Canidae family as their definitive host. PMID:26255900

  19. Sarcocystis cafferi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Lane, Emily P; van Wilpe, Erna; Suleman, Essa; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Verma, S K; Rosenthal, B M; Mtshali, Moses S

    2014-12-01

    Sarcocystis infections have been reported from the African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ), but the species have not been named. Here we propose a new name Sarcocystis cafferi from the African buffalo. Histological examination of heart (92), skeletal muscle (36), and tongue (2) sections from 94 buffalos from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa, and a review of the literature revealed only 1 species of Sarcocystis in the African buffalo. Macrocysts were up to 12 mm long and 6 mm wide and were located in the neck muscles and overlying connective tissue. They were pale yellow; shaped like a lychee fruit stone or cashew nut; turgid or flaccid and oval to round (not fusiform). By light microscopy (LM) the sarcocyst wall was relatively thin. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the sarcocyst wall had a mesh-like structure with irregularly shaped villar protrusions (vp) that were of different sizes and folded over the sarcocyst wall. The entire surfaces of vp were covered with papillomatous structures. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the sarcocyst wall was up to 3.6 μm thick and had highly branched villar protrusions that were up to 3 μm long. The villar projections contained filamentous tubular structures, most of which were parallel to the long axis of the projections, but some tubules criss-crossed, especially at the base. Granules were absent from these tubules. Longitudinally cut bradyzoites were 12.1 × 2.7 μm in size, had a long convoluted mitochondrion, and only 2 rhoptries. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences indicated that this Sarcocystis species is very closely related to, but distinct from, Sarcocystis fusiformis and Sarcocystis hirsuta. Thus, morphological findings by LM, SEM, and TEM together with molecular phylogenetic data (from 18S rRNA and cox1) confirm that the Sarcocystis species in the African buffalo is distinct from S. fusiformis and has therefore been named Sarcocystis cafferi. PMID:25026178

  20. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae of snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moço Tatiana Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology and morphometry of the gamonts for the characterization of Hepatozoon species and to analyze the morphologic changes induced in the erythrocytes by the parasite. The studied species were H. terzii of Boa constrictor amarali, Hepatozoon sp. of Crotalus durissusterrificus, H. philodryasi of Philodryas patagoniensis, and H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi of Hydrodynastes gigas. We observed three different groups, one of them including the species H. terzii, H. philodryasi and Hepatozoon sp. of C. durissus terrificus; and the other two consisting of H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi. Degree of alterations in the erythrocytes was variable and it may be useful for characterization of Hepatozoon species.

  1. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) of snakes

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology a...

  2. Morphologic and morphometric analysis of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moço, Tatiana Cristina; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Vilela, Fabiana Custódio; Barrella, Thomaz Henrique; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2002-12-01

    Hepatozoon species are the most abundant hemoparasites of snakes. Its identification has been based mainly on the morphologic characterization of the gamonts in the peripheral blood of the vertebrate host and also of the cysts found in the internal organs of the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Using a computerized image analysis system, we studied five species of Hepatozoon from recently captured snakes in Botucatu, State of S o Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the importance of the morphology and morphometry of the gamonts for the characterization of Hepatozoon species and to analyze the morphologic changes induced in the erythrocytes by the parasite. The studied species were H. terzii of Boa constrictor amarali, Hepatozoon sp. of Crotalus durissusterrificus, H. philodryasi of Philodryas patagoniensis, and H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi of Hydrodynastes gigas. We observed three different groups, one of them including the species H. terzii, H. philodryasi and Hepatozoon sp. of C. durissus terrificus; and the other two consisting of H. migonei and H. cyclagrasi. Degree of alterations in the erythrocytes was variable and it may be useful for characterization of Hepatozoon species. PMID:12563486

  3. Sarcocystis cafferi, n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of Sarcocystis are currently recognized in the Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis): Sarcocystis fusiformis with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. buffalonis also with macrocysts and cats as definitive hosts, S. levinei with microcysts and dogs as definitive hosts, and S. dub...

  4. Schellackia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of the brazilian tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa (Amphibia: Anura from Amazonian Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paperna

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.

  5. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  6. Didelphis aurita (Marsupialia: Didelphidae): a new host for Sarcocystis lindsayi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Stabenow, Cristiane; Ederli, Nicole Brand; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Nine opossums, Didelphis aurita , were captured in the city of Seropédica, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and examined for species of Sarcocystis. Sporocysts were observed in the mucosal scrapings of the small intestine from 3 opossums. Five budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus , were infected with sporocysts from each of these infected opossums and 5 budgerigars were used as controls. Of the 15 sporocyst-treated budgerigars, 5 birds that received sporocysts from 1 of the infected opossums developed tissue parasites. Meronts in the vascular endothelium of the lung venous capillaries and cysts in the skeletal and cardiac muscle cells were observed in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The microscopic cysts, which were predominantly in the tongue and leg muscles, ranged from 65.3 to 118.1 μm in length and 14.0 to 29.4 μm in width and from 0.9 to 1.9 μm in thickness of the cystic wall. Sections examined by transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cyst wall contained numerous slender and jagged-shaped protrusions, each with a finger-like formation at the end. The morphology, especially of the cyst wall, and the morphometry of the tissue cysts indicate that the parasite is Sarcocystis lindsayi and, therefore, the opossum, D. aurita , is now considered a definitive host for this species in Brazil. PMID:22571294

  7. Phylogeny, Diversity, Distribution, and Host Specificity of Haemoproteus spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) of Palaearctic Tortoises

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javanbakht, H.; Kvičerová, Jana; Dvořáková, N.; Mikulíček, P.; Sharifi, M.; Kautman, M.; Maršíková, Aneta; Široký, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2015), s. 670-678. ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/1738 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Barcoding * cytochrome b * intraspecific variability * Leptoconops * morphology * Testudo Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.217, year: 2014

  8. A novel, simplified technique to amplify Eimeria (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) DNA from oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; McDougald, L R; Beckstead, R B

    2015-02-01

    A new method to amplify coccidia DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed by placing freeze-thawed oocysts in Ready-to-Go PCR bead tubes and using a 5-min initial heat denaturation step. Positive PCR reactions were found in 3 of 3 samples containing 20 or 50 oocysts; when ≤5 oocysts were used, 1 of 3 samples was positive. This technique shows potential for effectively and efficiently detecting and identifying oocysts from soil, feces, and other matter. PMID:25019284

  9. Eimeriid coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Geoemydid Turtles (Testudines: Geoemydidae) with a Description of Six New Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Modrý, David

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2010), s. 301-310. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Chelonians * oocysts * parasite diversity * Southeast Asia * Systematics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2010

  10. Prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) among recently captured Brazilian snakes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer L.H.; Moço T.C.; Barrella T.H.; Vilela F.C.; Silva R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in recently captured snakes from Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Blood was collected from all snakes by ventral tail venipuncture. Blood smears were air dried, fixed with methanol, and stained with 10% Giemsa solution. The slides were microscopically examined for detection of hemoparasites by light microscopy at 250x magnification. A total of 238 snakes from 23 species were examined, of which 135 (56.7%) we...

  11. New species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1907 (Apicomplexa) from amphibian host: morphology, biology and phylogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Valigurová, A.; Koudela, Břetislav; Křížek, Jaroslav; Modrý, David; Šlapeta, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 81-94. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA524/05/0992; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cryptosporidium fragile * new species * Duttaphrynus melanostictus * Host specificity * ultrastructure * global amphibian decline * hylogeny * quarantine Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  12. Sarcocystis neurona (Protozoa : Apicomplexa): Description of oocysts, sporocysts, sporozoites, excystation, and early development

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, D S; Mitchell, S. M.; Vianna, M. C.; Dubey, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis is a major cause of neurological disease in horses from the Americas. Horses are considered accidental intermediate hosts. The structure of sporocysts of the causative agent, Sarcocystis neurona, has never been described. Sporocysts of S. neurona were obtained from the intestines of a laboratory-raised opossum fed skeletal muscles from a raccoon that had been fed sporocysts. Sporocysts were 11.3 by 8.2 mum and contained 4 sporozoites. The appearance of the s...

  13. Has Sarcocystis neurona Dubey et al., 1991 (Sporozoa: Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) cospeciated with its intermediate hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikha, Hany M

    2009-08-26

    The question of how Sarcocystis neurona is able to overcome species barrier and adapt to new hosts is central to the understanding of both the evolutionary origin of S. neurona and the prediction of its field host range. Therefore, it is worth reviewing current knowledge on S. neurona host specificity. The available host range data for S. neurona are discussed in relation to a subject of evolutionary importance-specialist or generalist and its implications to understand the strategies of host adaptation. Current evidences demonstrate that a wide range of hosts exists for S. neurona. This parasite tends to be highly specific for its definitive host but much less so for its intermediate host (I.H.). The unique specificity of S. neurona for its definitive host may be mediated by a probable long coevolutionary relationship of the parasite and carnivores in a restricted ecological niche 'New World'. This might be taken as evidence that carnivores are the 'original' host group for S. neurona. Rather, the capacity of S. neurona to exploit an unusually large number of I.H. species probably indicates that S. neurona maintains non-specificity to its I.H. as an adaptive response to insure the survival of the parasite in areas in which the 'preferred' host is not available. This review concludes with the view that adaptation of S. neurona to a new host is a complex interplay that involves a large number of determinants. PMID:19375231

  14. The first report of Hepatozoon sp. (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Betina; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Pereira, Cristiane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-03-25

    In order to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon infection in Neotropical felids from Brazil, blood from the jugular or cephalic vein was taken from 29 non-domestic felids including ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus), margay (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarondi (Puma yagouaroundi) from the Northeast region of Brazil. Hepatozoon infection was confirmed by light microscopy and molecular techniques. The results showed five naturally infected felids. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of the Hepatozoon sp. from these felids were further analyzed. Sequences revealed that the isolates found are closely related to Hepatozoon sp. from domestic cats in Spain. Hepatozoon species from Neotropical felids were identified molecularly and characterized for the first time. This is also the first report of Hepatozoon infection in a little spotted cat. PMID:18243562

  15. Molecular and morphologic characterization of Sarcocystis felis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in South American wild felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; López-Orozco, Natalia; Christoff, Alexandre Uarth; de Castilho, Camila Schlieper; de Araújo, Flavio Antônio Pacheco; Verma, Shiv Kumar; Dubey, J P; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2016-02-15

    Wild felids are thought to share parasites with domestic cats. However, little is known of the coccidian parasites of wild felids. We investigated the presence of Sarcocystis spp. in tissues of 6 species of 90 Neotropical small felids killed in road accidents in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil by using microscopic and molecular techniques. Formalin-fixed tissues from 28 felids were examined, and Sarcocystis felis-like sarcocysts were detected in 4 wild cats (2 Puma yagouaroundi and 2 Leopardus guttulus). By transmission electron microscopy, sarcocysts from a P. yagouaroundi were identical to S. felis from domestic cats in the USA. Direct sequencing of PCR amplicons resulted the unambiguous sequences of the ITS-1 region from 18 of the 31 PCR positive wild cats; 5 sequences from each P. yagouaroundi, and Leopardus geoffroyi, 4 sequences from L. guttulus, and 2 sequences from each Leopardus wiedii, and Leopardus colocolo. Sequences analysis of ITS-1 region revealed the highest identiy (97-99%) with that of previously describe isolates of S. felis from domestic cats in the USA and identified them as S. felis. Tissues of 1 Leopardus pardalis tested by PCR and histology were negative. The phylogenetic relationship indicated that S. felis is quite different to species which employ opossums as their definitive host. This is the first report of S. felis infection in small wild felids from Brazil. PMID:26827854

  16. Phylogenetic position of the genus Perkinsus (Protista, Apicomplexa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, C L; Barker, S C

    1993-07-01

    Parasites of the genus Perkinsus destroy marine molluscs worldwide. Their phylogenetic position within the kingdom Protista is controversial. Nucleotide sequence data (1792 bp) from the small subunit rRNA gene of Perkinsus sp. from Anadara trapezia (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Moreton Bay, Queensland, was used to examine the phylogenetic affinities of this enigmatic genus. These data were aligned with nucleotide sequences from 6 apicomplexans, 3 ciliates, 3 flagellates, a dinoflagellate, 3 fungi, maize and human. Phylogenetic trees were constructed after analysis with maximum parsimony and distance matrix methods. Our analyses indicate that Perkinsus is phylogenetically closer to dinoflagellates and to coccidean and piroplasm apicomplexans than to fungi or flagellates. PMID:8366895

  17. Malabsorption syndrome observed in the common octopus Octopus vulgaris infected with Aggregata octopiana (Protista: Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestal, C; Páez de la Cadena, M; Pascual, S

    2002-08-15

    Octopus vulgaris infected with Aggregata octopiana were collected from an open-water culture system in the Ría of Aldán (NW Spain). Digestive tract infection values were determined with the use of a Neubauer chamber by counting the number of A. octopiana sporocysts. After determining enzyme activity values by the colorimetric Api-Zym system Biomerieux, one representative enzyme of glycosidases, peptid hydrolases and phosphoric hydrolases showing high activity was spectrophotometrically analysed. The enzymes were maltase and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) involved in the absorption process, and acid phosphatase, a lysosomic enzyme, respectively. Enzymatic activity of maltase and LAP decreased significantly, with increased sporocyst counts. However, acid phosphatase activity increased with severity of infection, indicating the presence of degradative enzymes from phagocytic cells in the infected area. A detrimental effect on gastrointestinal function may result from a decrease or malfunction of absorption enzymes. The results suggest a malabsorption syndrome resulting from parasitic infection. PMID:12240971

  18. Observations on associated histopathology with Aggregata octopiana infection (Protista: Apicomplexa) in Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestal, C; Abollo, E; Pascual, S

    2002-06-21

    Gamogony and sporogony of Aggregata octopiana were commonly observed during histological examination of the digestive tract of wild Octopus vulgaris from Ria de Vigo (NW Spain). A. octopiana infected noncuticularized caecum and intestine, and cuticularized oesophagus and crop. Infection was also observed in the gills and in covering mesenterium, mainly of the digestive gland and gonad. Histological and ultrastructural lesions associated with A. octopiana included host cell hypertrophy with nuclear displacement, inflammation, phagocytosis, ulceration and destruction of organ architecture. The possible existence of a malabsorption syndrome in the host is deduced. PMID:12152904

  19. Monocystis metaphirae sp. nov. (Protista: Apicomplexa: Monocystidae) from the earthworm Metaphire houlleti (Perrier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Mallik, Partha; Göçmen, Bayram; Mitra, Amlan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity studies in search of endoparasitic acephaline gregarines revealed a new species of the genus Monocystis Stein, 1848 in the seminal vesicles of the earthworm Metaphire houlleti (Perrier) residing in alluvial soil of the district of North 24 Parganas. The new species is characterized by having bean-shaped gamonts measuring 94.0-151.0 (119.0+/-16.0) microm x 53.0-81.0(66.0+/-8.0) microm. The anterior end of the gamont is always wider than the posterior end. The mucron is always present at the wider end. The occurrence of syzygy (end to end, cauda-frontal) is a very rare feature which has been observed in the life cycle of the new species. The gametocyst is ovoid consisting of two unequal gamonts, measuring 85.0-102.0 microm (93.0+/-6.0). Oocysts are navicular in shape, measuring 6.5-11.0 (9.0+/-1.1) microm x 4.0-7.5 (5.5+/-1.9) microm. PMID:17106857

  20. Cryptosporidium scrofarum n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, M.; Pinková, Martina; Květoňová, Dana; Kalinová, Jana; Wágnerová, Pavla; Kotková, Michaela; Vitovec, J.; Ditrich, Oleg; McEvoy, J.; Stenger, B.; Sak, Bohumil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 191, 3-4 (2013), s. 218-227. ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Grant ostatní: MSM 6007665806(CZ) MSM 6007665806 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : Cryptosporidium scrofarum * Taxonomy * Morphology * Molecular analyses * Transmission studies * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.545, year: 2013

  1. Phylogenetic relationships among Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) infecting rabbits: evolutionary significance of biological and morphological feature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvičerová, Jana; Pakandl, Michal; Hypša, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 4 (2008), s. 443-452. ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: Grantová agentura Jihočeské Univerzity v Českých Budějovicích(CZ) 46/2006/P-BF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : coccidia * Eimeria * oocysts * Oryctolagus * host specificity * 18S rDNA * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.071, year: 2008

  2. [Formation and diversity of parasitophorous vacuoles in parasitic protozoa. The Coccidia (Sporozoa, Apicomplexa)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beĭer, T V; Svezhova, N V; Radchenko, A I; Sidorenko, N V

    2003-01-01

    Data on parasitophorous vacuole (PV) formation in host cells (HC) harbouring different intracellular protozoan parasites have been reviewed and critically analysed, with special reference to the main representatives of the Coccidia. The vacuole membrane (PVM) is the interface between host and parasite, playing a role in nutrient acquisition by the parasite from the HC. The PV phenomenon is regarded as a generalized HC response to the introduction of alien bodies (microorganisms), which eventually reflects the evolutionary established host-parasite relationships at cellular, subcellular and molecular levels. Special attention has been paid to the existing morpho-functional diversity of the PVs within the same genera and species of parasites, and even at different stages of the parasite life cycle. The PVM is generally considered to derive from the HC plasmalemma, whose biochemical composition undergoes significant changes as the intravacuolar parasite grows. The original HC proteins are selectively excluded from the PVM, while those of the parasite are incorporated. As the result, the changed PVM becomes not fusigenic for HC lysosomes. For Toxoplasma gondii and other cyst-forming coccidia (Isospora, Sarcocystis), a definite correlation has been noticed between the extent of rhoptry and dense granule secrets released by a zoite during HC internalization, on the one hand, and the pattern of the PV that forms, on the other one. In T. gondii, tachyzoites, known to discharge abundant secrets, commonly force the development of PVs limited with a single unit membrane and equipped with a tubulovesicular network in the lumen. Unlike, bradyzoites known to be deficient in secretory materials trigger the formation of PVs with a three-membrane lining composed of the changed invaginated plasmalemma in addition to two membranes of endoplasmic reticulum. The two different types of PV harbour, respectively, exoenteric and enteric stages of T. gondii, the latter being confined to the cat intestine only. Unlike, all endogenous stages of the classic intestinal coccidia (Eimeria spp.) develop within PVs limited with a single membrane, with some invaginations extending into the PV lumen. Unusual PV patterns are characteristic of the extracytoplasmic eimerian coccidia (Cryptosporidium, Epieimeria) and adeleid haemogreagarines (Karyolysus). In cyst-forming coccidia, the PVM is actively involved in tissue cyst wall formation, thus protecting the encysted parasites from recognition by the host immune system. All this strongly suggests that the PV is far from being an indifferent membraneous vesicle containing a parasite, but represents a metabolically active compartment in infected cells. Since all the coccidia are obligate intracellular parasites, the mode of their intimate interaction with the HC, largely accomplished via the PV and its membrane, is vital for their survival as biological species. PMID:14520865

  3. Invasive Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasitized by a flagellate (Euglenozoa: Kinetoplastea) and a neogregarine (Apicomplexa: Neogregarinorida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Lange, Carlos E

    2009-11-01

    The flagellate Crithidia bombi and the neogregarine Apicystis bombi have been found in individuals of Bombus terrestris, a Palaearctic species of bumble bee commercially reared and shipped worldwide for pollination services. B. terrestris has recently entered into the northwestern Patagonia region of Argentina from Chile, where it was introduced in 1998. Prevalence was 21.6% for C. bombi and 3.6% for A. bombi (n=111). The pathogens were not detected in 441 bumble bees belonging to five of the eight known Argentine native species (Bombus atratus, Bombus morio, Bombus bellicosus, Bombus opifex, Bombus tucumanus) collected elsewhere in the country. Although the absence of natural occurrence of C. bombi and A. bombi in Argentine native bumble bees cannot be ascertained at present due to the limited surveys performed, it is important to report their detection in invasive B. terrestris. The invasion event is relatively recent and the accompanying pathogens are not species specific within the genus Bombus. PMID:19682459

  4. Apicystis bombi (Apicomplexa: Neogregarinorida) parasitizing Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plischuk, Santiago; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Lange, Carlos E

    2011-10-01

    The neogregarine Apicystis bombi is considered a low prevalence parasite of Bombus spp. Before our work it has only once been detected in one single specimen of the Western honeybee Apis mellifera. This contribution reports the presence of A. bombi parasitizing both A. mellifera and Bombus terrestris at a site in Northwestern Argentine Patagonia (Bariloche, close to the border with Chile) and analyses its possible absence in the Pampas region, the most important beekeeping region of the country. In Bariloche, prevalence of A. bombi in A. mellifera was 7.6% in 2009, and 13.6% in 2010, whereas in B. terrestris it was 12.1%. Infections were not detected in 302 bee hives periodically prospected along 3 years (almost 400 000 honeybee specimens) in the Pampas. Analysis with the probability program FreeCalc2 suggested a possible absence of A. bombi in this area. Because of high virulence showed in several species of Bombus in the Northern hemisphere, A. bombi should be closely monitored in A. mellifera and in native Bombus species or other Apidae. PMID:23761336

  5. A description of Isospora amphiboluri (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the inland bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Sauria: Agamidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Jacobson, E R; Kopit, W

    1995-04-01

    Fecal samples from 50 captive inland bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps (Ahl, 1926), bred in California, were examined for coccidian parasites. Sixteen (32%) of the lizards were found to be passing oocysts of Isospora amphiboluri Cannon, 1967, previously described from bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829) from Australia. Sporulated oocytes were spherical to subspherical, 25.3 x 25.1 (23-26 x 23-26) microns, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.0 (1.0-1.1). A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocyts were ovoidal, 17.0 x 11.4 (16-18 x 11-12) microns, with a shape index of 1.5 (1.4-1.7). A sporocyst residuum, Stieda, and substieda bodies were present, but parastieda bodies were absent. Sporozoites were elongated, 13.9 x 3.5 (12-15 x 3-4) microns in situ, containing spherical anterior and posterior refractile bodies. The occurrence of I. amphiboluri in P. vitticeps is a new host and geographic record for the parasite. Photomicrographs of the oocysts and endogenous life cycle stages of I. amphiboluri are presented for the first time. PMID:7707208

  6. Eimeria terraepokotorum sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Anura: Ranidae) from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 443-447. ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * coccidia * Anura Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  7. Cryptosporidium parvum (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) oocyst and sporozoite antigens recognized by bovine colostral antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Tilley, M; Fayer, R; Guidry, A; Upton, S J; Blagburn, B L

    1990-01-01

    Colostral whey from seven hyperimmunized and two control cows (hyperimmune bovine colostrum) was examined by Western immunoblotting for the presence of antibody against oocysts and sporozoites of Cryptosporidium parvum, using rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG1, IgG2, and IgM antibodies, followed by a horseradish peroxidase goat anti-rabbit polyvalent antibody. Although considerable variation was found in binding activity between cows on different immunization protocols, IgA and I...

  8. Sarcocystis heydorni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Protozoa) with cattle (Bos taurus) and human (Homo sapiens) cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle (Bos taurus) are intermediate hosts for four species of Sarcocystis, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli. Of these four species, mature sarcocysts of S. cruzi are thin-walled (< 1µm) whereas S. hirsuta, S. hominis, and S. rommeli have thick walls (4 µm or more). Here we describe ...

  9. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM HOMINIS N. SP (APICOMPLEXA : CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE) FROM HOMO SAPIENS. (R826138)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Eimeria divinolimai sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the rufous casiornis Casiornis rufus Vieillot, 1816 (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae in Brazil Eimeria divinolimi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae no caneleiro, Casiornis rufus Vieillot, 1816 (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria divinolimai sp. n. from the rufous casiornis, Casiornis rufus (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae was described in Brazil. Oocysts are subspherical 17.84 ± 1.52 by 15.90 ± 0.99µm (15.61-20.00 x 14.15-17.80. Shape-index (length/ width of 1.12 ± 0.05 (1.01-1.20. Wall smooth and bilayered, being yellowish outer and darker inner, 2.13 ± 0.16 µm (2.00-2.38 thick. Micropyle and residuum are absents, but one subspherical polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoid ranging from 14.98 ± 0.85 by 7.50 ± 0.44 µm (13.81-1619 x 6.76-8.09, with smooth, thin and single-layered wall. Stieda body prominent, without substiedal body and with residuum granulated. Sporozoites with refractile body at one end.Eimeria divinolimi sp. n. do caneleiro (Casiornis rufus foi descrita no Brasil. Os oocistos são subsféricos medindo 17,84 ± 1,52 por 15,90 ± 0,99 µm (15,61-20,00 x 14,15-17,80. O índice morfométrico de 1,12 ± 0,05 (1,01-1,20. Parede do oocisto lisa e dupla, sendo a externa amarelada e a interna escura, medindo 2,13 ± 0,16 µm (2,00-2,38. A micrópila e o resíduo estão ausentes, mas um grânulo polar subesférico está presente. Os esporocistos são ovóides medindo de 14,98 ± 0,85 por 7,50 ± 0,44 µm (13,81-16,19 x 6,76-8,09. A parede do esporocisto é única, lisa e fina. O corpo de Stieda é proeminente, sem corpo de substieda e com resíduo granular. Os esporozoítas com corpos refráteis em uma das extremidades.

  11. Heteroxenous coccidia (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the populations of their final and intermediate hosts: European buzzard and small mammals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, M.; Voříšek, P.; Votýpka, Jan; Weidinger, K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2004), s. 251-260. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Coccidia * Buteo * wildlife parasites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.986, year: 2004

  12. A New Species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Common Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus Linnaeus, 1758 (Aves: Columbidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jamriška, J.; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2012), s. 329-333. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeria columbapalumbi * Columbiformes * Columba palumbus. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2012

  13. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Carlia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from rainbow skinks, Carlia ailanpalai Zug and Carlia eothen Zug is described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Oöcysts of Eimeria zugi n. sp. from one of one (100%) C. eothen are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 25.1 × 15.5 μm and have a length/width ratio of 1.6. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal and 10.3 × 7.1 μm in size and do not contain Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies; and the sporocyst residuum is composed of a compact mass of large globules. The sporozoites are elongate, 12.8 × 2.9 μm in size, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. This is the ninth species of coccidium described from skinks from PNG, and the new species described herein is apparently endemic to the skink genus Carlia (Gray).

  14. A New Species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Himalayan Black Bulbul Hypsipetes leucocephalus (Gmelin, 1789) (Passeriformes: Pycnonotidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jamriška, J.; Lopéz, F.J.; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2012), s. 81-85. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccidia * Isospora annthomassonae, * Black Bulbul * passeriformes Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2012 http://www.wuj.pl/UserFiles/File/Acta%20Protozoologica_51_2012/51_1/acta7.pdf

  15. A New Species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Blue-crowned Laughingthrush Dryonastes courtoisi (Passeriformes: Timaliidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jamriška, J.; Barbon, A.R.; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2013), s. 99-103. ISSN 0065-1583 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccidia * Isospora courtoisi * Blue-crowned Laughingthrush * passeriformes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.179, year: 2013

  16. Endogenous Life Cycle of Eimeria marmosopos (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Opossum, Didelphis marsupialis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Duszynski, Donald

    2015-08-01

    The endogenous life cycle of Eimeria marmosopos was studied in experimentally infected young opossums, Didelphis marsupialis . All the endogenous stages were located in the epithelial cells of villi in the small intestine. Giemsa-stained mucosal scrapings and histological sections were studied for the diagnosis of all the life cycle stages. Eimeria marmosopos has 3 generations of meronts (M) that differ by size, shape, and number of merozoites (m), which also differ in their size, shape, and location of their nuclei within the cytoplasm of the meronts. The 3 meront types, M(1)-M(3), respectively, had 8-15 (m(1)), 4-9 (m(2)), and 22-30 (m(3)) merozoites. Macrogametocytes and microgametocytes, as well as macrogametes and microgametes, completed the sexual cycle, finishing with the formation of unsporulated oocysts. This parasite's endogenous development produced severe intestinal lesions in experimentally infected opossums. There are 56 Eimeria species known from all marsupials worldwide, but this is the first complete life cycle in which both the asexual and sexual stages have been documented. PMID:25807059

  17. Rodents as intermediate hosts of Hepatozoon ayorgbor (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Hepatozoidae) from the African ball python, Python regius?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Kamler, M.; Bulantová, J.; Votýpka, Jan; Modrý, David

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2008), s. 13-16. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : haemogregarines * Adeleina * Hepatozoon * transmission * ICR mice * life cycle Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  18. A new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from Python regius (Serpentes: Pythonidae) and its experimental transmission by a mosquito vector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Kamler, M.; Bulantová, J.; Votýpka, Jan; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2007), s. 1189-1198. ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Hepatozoon * Python * Culex * transmission * SSU Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.129, year: 2007

  19. Two new species of Sarcocystis, Sarcocystis caninum and Sarcocystis svanai (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcocystis species have a 2-host life cycle with carnivores as definitive hosts and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Occasionally dogs are definitive as well as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis species. There are several reports of Sarcocystis sarcocysts in muscles of dogs but these species have...

  20. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa) and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda) in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, João P.; Crottini, Angelica; Harris, David James

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is one of the world’s top twelve “megadiversity” hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899) filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar. PMID:25224723

  1. Sarcocystis eothenomysi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the large oriental vole Eothenomys miletus (Thomas) (Cricetidae: Microtinae) from Anning, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Qiong; Yang, Yan-Fen; Esch, Gerald W; Guo, Yan-Mei; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2014-09-01

    Fifty-six oriental voles, Eothenomys miletus (Thomas), were collected in Anning prefecture of Yunnan Province (China) between March 2012 and December 2013 and examined for the presence of sarcocysts. Sarcosysts of a new species, Sarcocystis eothenomysi n. sp., were found in 14 out of 56 E. miletus (25%); they possessed a striated cyst wall, c.1-2 μm thick. Under transmission electron microscopy the cysts of S. eothenomysi exhibited numerous small, irregular protrusions, which may appear T-shaped in some sections. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences indicated that S. eothenomysi shares closest affinity with those species of Sarcocystis Lankester, 1982, which use cobra or viperid snakes as definitive hosts. We therefore, hypothesise that a venomous snake may serve as the definitive host for S. eothenomysi. This is the first species of Sarcocystis reported from Eothenomys spp. PMID:25079817

  2. Morphologic and molecular characteristics of Sarcocystis atraii n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the common coot (Fulica atra) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Morsey, Ahmed; El-Seify, Mahmoud; Desouky, Abdel-Razik Y; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed M; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Kasem, Samy; Abdo, Walied; Haridy, Mohie; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2015-12-01

    A single morphologic type of Sarcocystis cysts found in two out of 43 examined common coots, Fulica atra, is considered to represent a new species for which the name Sarcocystis atraii n. sp. is proposed and its description is provided. Coots were hunted from the vicinity of Brolos Lake located at KafrElsheikh province, Egypt. The structural morphology of the revealed sarcocysts was described using light and transmission electron microscopy. Sarcocysts were found in the leg and thigh muscles. The cysts were microscopic and measured 165-850 μm in length × 50-85 μm in width. Histologically; the sarcocyst wall was wavy and had minute undulations. Ultrastructurally, it measured 1-3 μm in thickness and possessed many mushroom-like villar protrusions sometimes originating from other mushroom-like villar protrusions that measured approximately 0.5-2 μm in length and up to 2 μm in width, with the presence of electron dense ground substance of 300 nm to 1 μm thick. The bradyzoites were elongated, banana-shaped and measured 7.5-14 × 1.5-2.5 μm, with centrally or terminally located nuclei. The ultrastructural features of the cyst wall belonged to type 24. On the basis of sequencing and phylogenic analyses for 18S rRNA , 28S rRNA genes and ITS-1 region; S. atraii n. sp. is considered a genetically distinct species, being most closely related to avian Sarcocystis spp. whose definitive hosts are predatory mammals. PMID:26408592

  3. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saad El-Shahawy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16 × 12 (10-12.9 μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3. The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~1.7 μm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11 × 4 (4-4.7 μm; their average shape-index is 2.5 μm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 μm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  4. Microscopic and molecular characterization of Hepatozoon domerguei (Apicomplexa and Foleyella furcata (Nematoda in wild endemic reptiles from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia João P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar is one of the world’s top twelve “megadiversity” hot spots hosting unique and threatened flora and fauna. Parasites are a major component of biodiversity but remain largely uncharacterized in wildlife. In this study we combine microscopic and molecular assessment of hemoparasites in endemic reptile species from Madagascar. We detected three distinct parasites: the apicomplexans Hepatozoon and Sarcocystis, and filarial nematodes. The prevalence and intensity of these apicomplexans were low overall, while microfilarial infections in chameleons were relatively high. We detected mixed infections of two Hepatozoon haplotypes in Madagascarophis colubrinus, and of Hepatozoon and microfilariae in a Furcifer sp. Phylogenetic analyses of Hepatozoon showed evidence of prey-predator transmission, with identical sequences found in the snakes M. colubrinus and Ithycyphus oursi, and their prey Furcifer sp. Based on previous studies regarding the life cycle of Hepatozoon domerguei Landau, Chabaud, Michel, and Brygoo, 1970 in these hosts and due to their morphological similarity, we propose that this Hepatozoon haplotype is Hepatozoon domerguei. Future studies, including the examination of invertebrate hosts, are needed to verify this preliminary taxonomic identification. A distinct hemogregarine haplotype was found in Oplurus sp., which displayed morphologically different gametocytes, some of which were apparently inside leukocytes. The Sarcocystis identified from Tracheloptychus petersi was identical to that reported in a North African snake, indicating that the same lineage is found in geographically distinct regions. By combining morphological and genetic information, Foleyella furcata (Linstow, 1899 filarial nematodes were identified in several Furcifer chameleons. This study provides insights into the distribution, diversity and host-parasite interactions of hemoparasites in wild reptile populations from Madagascar.

  5. Garnia karyolytica n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemosporina: Garniidae), a blood parasite of the Brazilian lizard Thecodactylus rapicaudus (Squamata: Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainson, R; Naiff, R D

    1999-09-01

    Development of meronts and gametocytes of Garnia karyolytica nov. sp., is described in erythrocytes of the neotropical forest gecko Thecodactylus rapicaudus from Pará State, north Brazil. Meronts are round to subspherical and predominantly polar in position: forms reaching 12.0 x 10.0 microns contain from 20-28 nuclei. Macrogametocytes and microgametocytes are predominantly elongate, lateral in the erythrocyte and average 16.6 x 6.3 microns and 15.25 x 6.24 microns respectively. Occasional spherical forms of both sexes occur in a polar or lateropolar position. All stages of development are devoid of malarial pigment. They have a progressively lytic effect on the host-cell nucleus, particularly the mature gametocytes, which enlarge and deform the erythrocyte. Possible vector(s) of garniid parasites are considered, and phlebotomine sandflies are high on the list of suspects. PMID:10511968

  6. Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes: Falconidae), in mainland Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, Sergian Vianna; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Caetano, Inês; Maniero, Viviane Camara; Fonseca, Isabel Pereira da; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-06-01

    The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19%) of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 × 37.6 µm with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 × 24.3 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus. PMID:27334821

  7. Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the common kestrel, Falco tinnunculus (Falconiformes: Falconidae, in mainland Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergian Vianna Cardozo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The common kestrel Falco tinnunculus Linnaeus, 1758, is a widespread raptor, native in Europe, Asia and Africa, and vagrant in the Americas. In the current work, 27 fecal samples were collected from common kestrels kept in the Lisbon Center for Wild Animal Recovery, located at Monsanto Forest Park, Lisbon, Portugal. Five (19% of them were found to be passing an undescribed species of Caryospora in their feces. The oocysts of Caryospora peneireiroi n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 47.1 × 37.6 µm with a shape index of 1.25. No micropyle, oocyst residuum or polar granule was present. The sporocysts were subspherical, measuring 25.1 × 24.3 µm. Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many homogenous globules scattered throughout the periphery of the sporocyst. This is the fourth caryosporan species reported from F. tinnunculus.

  8. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  9. Tyzzeria boae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, a New Coccidium from the Kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae

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    Ralph Lainson

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tyzzeria is described from the kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor Linnaeus, from the State of Pará, north Brazil. Oocysts from the coacal contents matured in eight days, at approximately 24°C. They measured 19.0 x 18.0 (15.0 x 15.0 - 22.5 x 21.5 µm, shape-index (length/width 1.0 (1.0 - 1.1. The oocyst wall is of an extremely delicate single, colourless layer, with no micropyle. Division of the oocyst contents into the 8 naked sporozoites leaves a bulky, spherical oocyst residuum averaging 15.5 x 14.8 (13.5 x 13.5 - 18.5 x 17.5 µm; the sporozoites measure an average of 11.0 x 1.8 (8.5 x 1.25 - 12.5 x 2.0 µm, and possess both anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Tyzzeria boae n.sp. is unique among the recorded species of the genus by virtue of its development in the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules of the kidney: stages in the merogony and gametogony of the parasite are described and figured.

  10. A new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from Python regius (Serpentes: Pythonidae) and its experimental transmission by a mosquito vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Michal; Kamler, Martin; Bulantová, Jana; Votýpka, Jan; Modrý, David

    2007-10-01

    Hepatozoon ayorgbor n. sp. is described from specimens of Python regius imported from Ghana. Gametocytes were found in the peripheral blood of 43 of 55 snakes examined. Localization of gametocytes was mainly inside the erythrocytes; free gametocytes were found in 15 (34.9%) positive specimens. Infections of laboratory-reared Culex quinquefasciatus feeding on infected snakes, as well as experimental infection of juvenile Python regius by ingestion of infected mosquitoes, were performed to complete the life cycle. Similarly, transmission to different snake species (Boa constrictor and Lamprophis fuliginosus) and lizards (Lepidodactylus lugubris) was performed to assess the host specificity. Isolates were compared with Hepatozoon species from sub-Saharan reptiles and described as a new species based on the morphology, phylogenetic analysis, and a complete life cycle. PMID:18163356

  11. Seasonal variation of Hepatozoon spp. (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) parasitemia from Boa constrictor amarali (Serpentes, Boidae) and Hydrodynastes gigas (Serpentes, Colubridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vieira Santos, Mariana Morena; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitemia variation of three Hepatozoon species in Brazilian snakes. This study was conducted between 2001 and 2003 and included Hepatozoon terzii from Boa constrictor amarali, and Hepatozoon migonei and Hepatozoon cyclagrasi from Hydrodynastes gigas. It was observed that the parasitemia tended to decrease in all three Hepatozoon species but the parasites were not eliminated. This data suggest that Hepatozoon infection may be similar to Toxoplasma gondii infection, in that it persists throughout host life. PMID:15999279

  12. Tyzzeria boae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a New Coccidium from the Kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Lainson; Ilan Paperna

    1994-01-01

    A new species of Tyzzeria is described from the kidney of the snake Boa constrictor constrictor Linnaeus, from the State of Pará, north Brazil. Oocysts from the coacal contents matured in eight days, at approximately 24°C. They measured 19.0 x 18.0 (15.0 x 15.0 - 22.5 x 21.5) µm, shape-index (length/width) 1.0 (1.0 - 1.1). The oocyst wall is of an extremely delicate single, colourless layer, with no micropyle. Division of the oocyst contents into the 8 naked sporozoites leaves a bulky, spheri...

  13. Morphologic and molecular characterization of the sarcocysts of Sarcocystis rileyi (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from the mallard duck ( Anas platyrhynchos ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, B M; Felix, T A

    2010-08-01

    Macroscopic sarcocysts are often observed in ducks, but at present their taxonomic status remains uncertain because ducks serve as intermediate hosts for several such parasites in the genus Sarcocystis . One such species, Sarcocystis rileyi , was long ago established to involve the northern shoveler duck ( Anas clypeata ) and the striped skunk ( Mephitis mephitis ) as its intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. Here, we employed light microscopy, electron microscopy, and DNA sequencing to more precisely describe diagnostic attributes of parasites presumed to represent S. rileyi occurring in a naturally-infected mallard duck ( Anas platyrhynchos ). By light and transmission electron microscopy, sarcocysts from the mallard duck resembled the S. rileyi described from A. clypeata . We document 18S, ITS-1, and 28S rDNA sequences from the mallard duck, the first for S. rileyi from any host. Sequences of conserved and variable portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA indicated that S. rileyi is related to, but distinct from, parasites employing opossums as their definitive host (including Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis falcatula ). Diagnostic ultrastructural features and nucleotide sequences should aid in future studies and communications regarding this parasitic taxon, which lends itself to experimentation because its sarcocysts are macroscopic and easily excised from infected birds. PMID:20496959

  14. A new species of Monocystis stein, 1848 (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) from the Indian earthworm, Amynthas Hawayanus Rosa, 1891 (Annelida: Oligochaeta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Probir K; Göçmen, Bayram; Bhowmik, Biplab; Mitra, Amlan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    As a part of an ongoing biodiversity survey of aseptate gregarine fauna of oligochaete hosts of West Bengal, an expedition was carried out in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal and most of the earthworms collected were found to be infested with a species of Monocystis Stein, 1848. The monocystid species was collected from the seminal vesicles of the earthworm and was identified as a new species, Monocystis amynthae sp. nov. The gamont of the new species is characterized by having an elongated body with broad anterior end, separated from the narrow posterior end by a prominent constriction measuring 49.0-77.0 (66.0+/-1.3) microm x 32.0-41.0 (37.0+/-2.8) microm. The gametocysts are oval-shaped, measuring 40.0-65.0 (58.0+/-2.1) microm. The oocysts are navicular, measuring 8.0-12.0 (10.5+/-1.1) microm x 4.0-6.0 (5.5+/-1.1) microm. PMID:17124669

  15. Molecular characterization of gregarines from sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and description of Psychodiella n. g. (Apicomplexa: Gregarinida)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votýpka, Jan; Lantová, L.; Ghosh, K.; Braig, H.; Volf, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 6 (2009), s. 583-588. ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) MSM0021620828 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : accessory glands * Ascogregarina * Lutzomyia * neogregarines * parasite * Phlebotomus * SSU rDNA phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2009

  16. Identification of a divergent environmental DNA sequence clade using the phylogeny of gregarine parasites (Apicomplexa from crustacean hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Rueckert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental SSU rDNA surveys have significantly improved our understanding of microeukaryotic diversity. Many of the sequences acquired using this approach are closely related to lineages previously characterized at both morphological and molecular levels, making interpretation of these data relatively straightforward. Some sequences, by contrast, appear to be phylogenetic orphans and are sometimes inferred to represent "novel lineages" of unknown cellular identity. Consequently, interpretation of environmental DNA surveys of cellular diversity rely on an adequately comprehensive database of DNA sequences derived from identified species. Several major taxa of microeukaryotes, however, are still very poorly represented in these databases, and this is especially true for diverse groups of single-celled parasites, such as gregarine apicomplexans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study attempts to address this paucity of dna sequence data by characterizing four different gregarine species, isolated from the intestines of crustaceans, at both morphological and molecular levels: Thiriotia pugettiae sp. n. from the graceful kelp crab (Pugettia gracilis, Cephaloidophora cf. communis from two different species of barnacles (Balanus glandula and B. balanus, Heliospora cf. longissima from two different species of freshwater amphipods (Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and E. vittatus, and Heliospora caprellae comb. n. from a skeleton shrimp (Caprella alaskana. SSU rDNA sequences were acquired from isolates of these gregarine species and added to a global apicomplexan alignment containing all major groups of gregarines characterized so far. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of these data demonstrated that all of the gregarines collected from crustacean hosts formed a very strongly supported clade with 48 previously unidentified environmental DNA sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This expanded molecular phylogenetic context enabled us to establish a major clade of intestinal gregarine parasites and infer the cellular identities of several previously unidentified environmental SSU rDNA sequences, including several sequences that have formerly been discussed broadly in the literature as a suspected "novel" lineage of eukaryotes.

  17. Hemolivia mauritanica (Haemogregarinidae: Apicomplexa) infection in the tortoise Testudo graeca in the Near East with data on sporogonous development in the tick vector Hyalomna aegyptium

    OpenAIRE

    Paperna I.

    2006-01-01

    Testudo graeca tortoises were collected in the northern and southern Golan Heights (Israeli occupied territory of south Syria), and various locations in Israel and Palestine. Hyalomma aegyptium ticks were found only on Golan Height tortoises, and only the tortoises and ticks from the northern Golan Heights were infected with Hemolivia mauritanica. Tortoises became infected after ingesting infected ticks. Male ticks carrying sporocysts, which remain attached to tortoises for extended durations...

  18. Hemolivia mauritanica (Haemogregarinidae: Apicomplexa infection in the tortoise Testudo graeca in the Near East with data on sporogonous development in the tick vector Hyalomna aegyptium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna I.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Testudo graeca tortoises were collected in the northern and southern Golan Heights (Israeli occupied territory of south Syria, and various locations in Israel and Palestine. Hyalomma aegyptium ticks were found only on Golan Height tortoises, and only the tortoises and ticks from the northern Golan Heights were infected with Hemolivia mauritanica. Tortoises became infected after ingesting infected ticks. Male ticks carrying sporocysts, which remain attached to tortoises for extended durations, apparently served as the source for dissemination of new infections among tortoises. Sporogenesis followed the pattern observed in the two other known species of Hemolivia, though there was some evident variation in fine-structural detail. The sutural slit detected in the H. mauritanica mature sporocyst wall was reminiscent of the suture characteristic of Coccidia of heterothermic vertebrate hosts; it could be a common ancestral character for both hemogregarines and Coccidia.

  19. Fylogeneze, diverzita, distribuce a hostitelská specifita parazitů Haemoproteus spp. (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) u suchozemských želv Palearktu.

    OpenAIRE

    MARŠÍKOVÁ, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    This study provides unique data on distribution, prevalence, host specificity, phylogeny, and intraspecific variability of two Haemoproteus species of Palearctic tortoises. Analyses based on cytochrome b sequences confirm the existence of two monophyletic lineages/species of Haemoproteus infecting Testudo tortoises. Microscopically, the species corresponding to H. anatolicum was revealed in blood smears of T. graeca, and H. caucasica was detected in two tortoise species, T. graeca and T. hors...

  20. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru. PMID:26932444

  1. Extra-intestinal localization of Goussia sp (Apicomplexa) oocysts in Rana dalmatina (Anura: Ranidae), and the fate of infection after metamorphosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 3 (2006), s. 237-241. ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Goussia * Rana * Coccidia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  2. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Haemogregarina sp. (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Haemogregarinidae) from the blood of the Caspian freshwater turtle Mauremys caspica (Gmelin) (Geoemydidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sharifiyazdi, Hassan; Ahmadi, Amin

    2016-06-01

    To date, a number of species of Haemogregarina have been described from different turtle hosts, mainly based on the morphology of the developmental stages detected in the host erythrocytes. The diversity and overlapping morphological features in the old and recent descriptions has led to considerable complications in the taxonomy of Haemogregarina spp. In this study, different stages of maturity and developing gamonts of a putative new species of Haemogregarina were detected in erythrocytes of the Caspian turtle Mauremys caspica (Gmelin) (Geoemydidae) originating from a southern province in Iran. Although some of the morphological characteristics were consistent with Haemogregarina stepanowi Danilewsky, 1885, some new observations were made, particularly in the gamont stage. The phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA sequences revealed that the present isolate appears as basal to a large clade of Haemogregarina spp. with sequences available in the GenBank database. In accordance with the phylogenetic results, the present Iranian isolate showed a higher degree of interspecific divergence (up to 3.3%) compared to the data for the taxa available in the GenBank database. Thus, molecular data indicate that this isolate may represent a new species. However, further genetic analyses are needed as a complementary tool to the morphological characterisation in order to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of Haemogregarina spp. PMID:27221004

  3. Sarcocystis clethrionomyelaphis Matuschka, 1986 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the large oriental vole Eothenomys miletus (Thomas) (Cricetidae: Microtinae) and its phylogenetic relationships with other species of Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Qiong; Esch, G W; Chen, Jin-Qing

    2015-07-01

    Sarcocystis clethrionomyelaphis Matuschka, 1986 was first identified in skeletal muscles of 47 (75.8%) of 62 large oriental voles Eothenomys miletus (Thomas) captured between March 2012 and May 2014 in Anning Prefecture of Yunnan Province (China). Sarcocyst walls were thick and possessed villous protrusions measuring 3.5-5.5 μm in length. Beauty rat snakes Elaphe taeniura (Cope) fed sarcocysts of the species shed sporulated oöcysts measuring 13-18×9-13 (16×12) μm with a prepatent period of 16 to 17 days. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed a close relationship between S. clethrionomyelaphis and other colubrid-transmitted species of Sarcocystis Lankester, 1882. This is the first report identifying S. clethrionomyelaphis from its natural intermediate host. PMID:26063304

  4. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  5. First report and description of a Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) from a freshwater Cururu Stingray Potamotrygon cf. histrix (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae), from the Amazon Region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, N M; de Oliveira, A T; O'Dwyer, L H

    2016-08-01

    A haemogregarine is described in 12 cururu stingray (Potamotrygon cf. histrix), from Mariuá Archipelago, Negro River, in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. All animals, both male and female, were parasitized by the haemogregarine and parasitaemia varied between 0.8% and 10% of erythrocytes. The stages observed included trophozoites or merozoites, suspected meronts, and gamonts presumed to be of two types, macrogamonts and microgamonts. Most stages were observed inside mature erythrocytes, while others were extracellular. The stages observed were most similar to those characteristics of the genus Cyrilia, than to any other fish haemogregarine and may represent a new Cyrilia species. PMID:26642832

  6. A new Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), possessing mitra-shaped oocysts, from the Neotropical chelid turtle Batrachemys heliostemma (Testudines: Chelidae), and its comparison with Eimeria mitraria (Laveran & Mesnil 1902)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Kamler, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 5 (2006), s. 555-558. ISSN 0074-0276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Batrachemys * Eimeria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2006

  7. Intestinal coccidiosis of anadromous and landlocked alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, caused by Goussia ameliae n. sp. and G. alosii n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae

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    Jan Lovy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anadromous alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, have experienced significant population level declines caused by factors including habitat destruction. Alewives occur in two different life histories, anadromous and landlocked forms. The landlocked alewife evolved from ancestral anadromous populations, resulting in an exclusively freshwater and phenotypically unique form. The occurrence of parasites in a host is linked to the environment, making alewives an ideal model to compare parasitology within a single species with contrasting life histories. Currently, little information exists on the presence and impacts of parasites in these fish populations; the present study sets out to better understand coccidiosis in the threatened anadromous populations and to understand how coccidian parasites compare in both life history forms. The intestinal coccidian, Goussia ameliae n. sp., was described infecting the pyloric cecum of 76% and 86% of young-of-the-year and adult anadromous alewives, respectively, from the Maurice River, New Jersey, USA. The coccidian was found in landlocked alewife populations with a prevalence of 92% and 34% in YOY and adult fish, respectively. An analysis of the small subunit 18S ribosomal RNA gene of G. ameliae from both life history forms demonstrated that the coccidian had 100% sequence identity, confirming the same parasite species in both forms. Though genetic analysis demonstrated G. ameliae to be identical, some differences were observed in sporulation and morphology of the parasite within the two populations. The sporocysts in anadromous populations were shorter and wider, and sporulation timing differed from that of landlocked fish. These differences may either be attributed to differences in the host type or to the sporulation environment. Lastly, alewives from landlocked populations were frequently co-infected with a second coccidian species in the posterior intestine, which occurred at a lower prevalence. This species, G. alosii n. sp., was described based on morphological characters of the sporulated oocysts in fresh parasitological preparations.

  8. Coccidial dispersion across New World marsupials: Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Caroline Spitz; Berto, Bruno Pereira; do Bomfim Lopes, Bruno; Cordeiro, Matheus Dias; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique; Filho, Walter Leira Teixeira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Klossiella tejerai Scorza, Torrealba & Dagert, 1957 is a primitive coccidian parasite reported from the New World marsupials Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus) and Marmosa demerarae (Thomas). The current work describes K. tejerai from the Brazilian common opossum Didelphis aurita (Wied-Neuwied) in Southeastern Brazil, evidencing the coccidial dispersion across opossums of the same family. The sporocysts recovered from urine samples were ellipsoidal, 20.4 × 12.7 µm, with sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules and c.13 sporozoites per sporocyst, with refractile bodies and nucleus. Macrogametes, microgametes, sporonts, sporoblasts/sporocysts were identified within parasitophorous vacuoles of epithelial cells located near the renal corticomedullary junction. Didelphis marsupialis should not have transmitted K. tejerai to D. aurita because they are not sympatric; however M. demerarae is sympatric with D. marsupialis and D. aurita. Therefore, D. aurita becomes the third host species for K. tejerai in South America. PMID:25079818

  9. Goussia Labbé , 1896 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriorina) in Amphibia: Diversity, Biology, Molecular Phylogeny and Comments on theStatus of the Genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 1 (2009), s. 123-136. ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Anura * coccidia * cryptic species * Goussia * phylogeny * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.853, year: 2009

  10. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Duszynski, Donald W.; Bush, Sarah E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan n. sp. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi n. sp. from L. smaragdina collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one to four polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules.

  11. Three new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the lesser seed-finch, Oryzoborus angolensis (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) from Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trachta e Silva, E. A.; Literák, I.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 5 (2006), s. 573-576. ISSN 0074-0276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Isospora * coccidia * lesser seed-finch Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2006

  12. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria purpureicephali n. sp. (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a red-capped parrot (Purpureicephalus spurius, Kuhl, 1820) in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2016-01-01

    A new Eimeria species is described from a red-capped parrot (Purpureicephalus spurius). Sporulated oocysts (n = 31) were spherical to subspherical, with a rough bilayered oocyst wall 0.8 μm thick. Oocysts measured 24.0 × 22.8 (20.4–26.4 × 18.3–25.9) μm, oocyst length/width ratio, 1.10. Oocyst residuum, polar granule and micropyle were absent. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 11.0 × 7.3 (12.7–9.2 × 7.9–6.6) μm, sporocyst length/width ratio, 1.51 (1.33–1.71). The thin convex Stieda body and indistinct substieda bodies were present and the sporocyst residuum was composed of numerous small granules less than 1.0 μm in diameter dispersed randomly. Each sporocyst contained 2 sausage-shaped sporozoites in head-to-tail arrangement. The sporozoite nuclei were located centrally surrounded by refractile bodies. Molecular analysis was conducted at two loci; the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. At the18S locus, the new isolate shared 99.0% genetic similarity with Eimeria dispersa and Eimeria innocua from the turkey. At the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene locus, this new isolate was most closely related to E. dispersa and E. innocua, presented 99.0% and 98.0% genetic similarity, respectively. This new isolate and E. dispersa grouped together in the same clade. Based on the morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite, which is named Eimeria purpureicephali n. sp. after its host, the red-capped parrot (Purpureicephalus spurius). PMID:26977403

  13. Description of Pythonella scleruri n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from a Brazilian Bird Rufous-Breasted-Leaftosser Sclerurus scansor, 1835 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawazoe Urara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidian oocysts containing 16 sporocysts with 4 sporozoites in each were observed in a faecal sample from Sclerurus scansor collected in the Itatiaia National Park, southeastern region of Brazil. The oocysts are characterized by ellipsoidal shape measuring 42.5 x 32.8 mm, with smooth, thick double-layered wall of a greenish-orange colour. An oocyst residuum of numerous scattered granules among the sporocysts in sporulated ones; 16 round sporocysts, averaging 10.5 x 10 mm each containing four elongated sporozoites; presence of residuum; absence of Stieda body. The presently described coccidian, recorded for the first time in birds, is a new species named P. scleruri.

  14. Description of the Oocysts of Three New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from Iguanid Lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae of Central and South America

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    Daszak P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Eimeria are described from iguanid lizards of Central and South America. The oocysts of each species have no micropyles or residua and the sporocysts lack Stieda bodies, but all have a sporocyst residuum. Eimeria sanctaluciae n.sp. was found in the St. Lucia tree lizard, Anolis luciae, collected from the Maria Islands, Lesser Antilles. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, averaging 17.3 x 16.5 µm, with a single layered colourless wall; about 60% contain polar granules. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal and average 7.7 x 5.5 µm. Eimeria liolaemi n.sp. was recovered from the blue-gold swift, Liolaemus taenius, from Chile. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, measuring 21 x 20.1 µm with a single-layered colourless wall. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 7.4 x 6.8 µm. Eimeria caesicia n.sp. is described from the Brazilian collared iguanid, Tropidurus torquatus. The oocysts measure 27.4 x 23.7 µm, are spherical to subspherical, with a bilayered wall, the outer surface of which appears pale blue in colour, the thin, inner wall appearing brown, when viewed by direct light under the optical microscope. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 9.4 x 7.2 µm. Unnamed polysporocystid oocysts with dizoic sporocysts are reported from the faeces of the lesser St. Vincent tree lizard, Anolis trinitatis and the possibility of spurious parasitism briefly discussed. In addition, oocysts of an unnamed Isospora sp. with a smooth oocyst wall which closely resembles I. reui were recovered from A. trinitatis.

  15. Sarcocystis caninum and Sarcocystis svanai n. spp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) Associated with Severe Myositis and Hepatitis in the Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Sykes, Jane E; Shelton, G Diane; Sharp, Nick; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Viviano, Jenifer; Sundar, Natarajan; Khan, Asis; Grigg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    There are several reports of Sarcocystis sarcocysts in muscles of dogs, but these species have not been named. Additionally, there are two reports of Sarcocystis neurona in dogs. Here, we propose two new names, Sarcocystis caninum, and Sarcocystis svanai for sarcocysts associated with clinical muscular sarcocystosis in four domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), one each from Montana and Colorado in the USA, and two from British Columbia, Canada. Only the sarcocyst stage was identified. Most of the sarcocysts identified were S. caninum. Sarcocysts were studied using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polymerase chain reaction. Based on collective results two new species, S. caninum and S. svanai were designated. Sarcocystis caninum and S. svanai were structurally distinct. Sarcocystis caninum sarcocysts were up to 1.2 mm long and up to 75 μm wide. By light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was relatively thin and smooth. By TEM, the sarcocyst wall was "type 9", 1-2 μm thick, and contained villar protrusions that lacked microtubules. Bradyzoites in sections were 7-9 μm long. Sarcocysts of S. svanai were few and were identified by TEM. Sarcocystis svanai sarcocysts were "type 1", thin walled (< 0.5 μm), and the wall lacked villar protrusions but had tiny blebs that did not invaginate. DNA was extracted either from infected frozen muscle biopsies or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Dogs were either singly infected with S. caninum or multiply co-infected with S. caninum and S. svanai (the result of a mixed infection) based on multilocus DNA sequencing and morphology. BLASTn analysis established that the sarcocysts identified in these dogs were similar to, but not identical to Sarcocystis canis or Sarcocystis arctosi, parasites found to infect polar bears (Ursus maritimus) or brown bears (Ursus arctosi), respectively. However, the S. caninum sequence showed 100% identify over the 18S rRNA region sequenced to that of S. arctica, a parasite known to infect Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus). PMID:25256157

  16. Morphological and morphometrical characterization of gametocytes of Hepatozoon procyonis Richards, 1961 (Protista, Apicomplexa) from a Brazilian wild procionid Nasua nasua and Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares Ferreira Rodrigues, André Flávio; Daemon, Erik; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2007-01-01

    The species Hepatozoon procyonis Richards, 1961 was described in Procyon lotor in the USA and then in other reports in the USA, while in Panama H. procyonis has been described in Procyon cancrivorus. The objective of this paper is to report the occurrence of this species in the Brazilian procionids P. cancrivorus and Nasua nausa and to describe the morphology and morphometrics of the gametocytes. The analysis was based on blood smears, stained with Giemsa, which were examined under a photonic microscope. The morphometry was done with an ocular micrometer. It was based on the morphological characteristics and morphometric data on the gametocyte. It can be concluded that the species of the genus Hepatozoon that occurs in Brazilian procionids is the same as that occurring in procionids in Central and North America. PMID:16941187

  17. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 μm, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of Choleoeimeria pogonae n. sp. coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, 1989, Paperna and Landsberg) in a western bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Ryan, Una

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Choleoeimeria pogonae n. sp. is described from a Western bearded dragon (Pogona minor minor) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 48) were cylindroidal in shape. Oocyst length, 27.0 (26.0-28.3) μm, oocyst width, 15.2 (14.0-16.5) μm, oocyst length/width ratio (L/W) 1.8 (1.6-1.9), each with 4 sporocysts (Eimeria-like) and a polar granule, but lacking a micropyle and oocyst residuum. Sporocysts are ovoidal in shape, sporocyst length, 10.0 (9.0-11.0) μm, sporocyst width 8.5 (7.0-9.5) μm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.2 (1.1-1.3). Stieda, substieda and parasubstieda bodies were all absent. Molecular analysis was conducted at the 18S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) loci. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S sequences revealed that C. pogonae n. sp. grouped together with another four Choleoeimeria spp. and exhibited 99.1%-99.4% genetic similarity. At the COI locus, C. pogonae n. sp. was in an independent clade and had the highest similarity (80.4%) to Eimeria cf. mivati from a chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). According to the morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite. This study further supports the taxonomy of Choleoeimeria spp. as a new genus based on molecular phylogenetic analysis. PMID:26586629

  19. Evolutionary relationships among cyst-forming coccidia Sarcocystis spp. (Alveolata: Apicomplexa: Coccidea) in endemic African tree vipers and perspective for evolution of heteroxenous life cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlapeta, Jan Roger; Modrý, David; Votýpka, Jan; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius; Koudela, Břetislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2003), s. 464-475. ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/P015; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Grant ostatní: GA FRVŠ(CZ) 1268/2001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : coccidia * Sarcocystis * evolution Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2003

  20. Oocyst shedding by green-winged-saltator (Saltator similis) in the diagnostic of coccidiosis and Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cleide Domingues; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Neves, Daniel Medeiros; Oliveira, Vinícius Modesto de; Flausino, Walter; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Diurnal periodicity is a phenomenon that has been observed in coccidian of Isospora parasites of passerines, which have been eliminated great number of oocysts at dusk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of periodicity of oocysts presence in the green-winged-saltator Saltator similis, and its use in the diagnosis of coccidiosis in wild birds in captivity. A total of 220 fecal samples were collected from birds, apprehended from illegal trading and kept in quarantine in CETAS∕IBAMA, in the morning and late afternoon, from May to November 2010. It was observed that 1.82% of the samples collected in the morning were positive, while 31.36% of samples were positive in the late afternoon. In addition, the number of oocysts shed was greater in the afternoon. Therefore, it was concluded that the sampling in the late afternoon provided greater reliability for the diagnosis of coccidiosis in green-winged-saltators. Moreover, in this study a new isosporoid coccidian parasite from the green-winged-saltator S. similis was observed and is herein described. Isospora similisi n. sp. oocysts are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, 27.5 × 25.9 µm, with a smooth and bi-layered wall, ∼1.2 mm. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but splinter-like or comma-like granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal or slightly ovoidal, 17.4 × 12.2 mm. A stieda body and substieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with a single refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting S. similis and the sixth description from Cardinalidae. PMID:24252953

  1. Third lineage of rodent eimerians: morphology, phylogeny and re-description of Eimeria myoxi (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Eliomys quercinus (Rodentia: Gliridae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvičerová, Jana; Mikeš, V.; Hypša, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 10 (2011), s. 1217-1223. ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/1019; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601410816 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : coccidia * Eimeriidae * Rodents * garden dormouse * 18S rDNA * ORF 470 * oocyst morphology * oocyst residuum * phylogenetic analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.961, year: 2011

  2. Oocyst shedding by green-winged-saltator (Saltator similis in the diagnostic of coccidiosis and Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae Eliminação de oocistos por trinca-ferro-verdadeiro (Saltator similis no diagnóstico da coccidiose e Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Domingues Coelho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal periodicity is a phenomenon that has been observed in coccidian of Isospora parasites of passerines, which have been eliminated great number of oocysts at dusk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of periodicity of oocysts presence in the green-winged-saltator Saltator similis, and its use in the diagnosis of coccidiosis in wild birds in captivity. A total of 220 fecal samples were collected from birds, apprehended from illegal trading and kept in quarantine in CETAS∕IBAMA, in the morning and late afternoon, from May to November 2010. It was observed that 1.82% of the samples collected in the morning were positive, while 31.36% of samples were positive in the late afternoon. In addition, the number of oocysts shed was greater in the afternoon. Therefore, it was concluded that the sampling in the late afternoon provided greater reliability for the diagnosis of coccidiosis in green-winged-saltators. Moreover, in this study a new isosporoid coccidian parasite from the green-winged-saltator S. similis was observed and is herein described. Isospora similisi n. sp. oocysts are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, 27.5 × 25.9 µm, with a smooth and bi-layered wall, ∼1.2 mm. Micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but splinter-like or comma-like granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal or slightly ovoidal, 17.4 × 12.2 mm. A stieda body and substieda body are present. The sporocyst residuum is composed of granules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with a single refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidium infecting S. similis and the sixth description from Cardinalidae.A periodicidade diurna é um fenômeno que tem sido observado em coccídios do gênero Isospora parasitas de pássaros, os quais eliminam uma maior quantidade de oocistos ao entardecer. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a periodicidade de eliminação de oocistos pelas fezes no trinca-ferro-verdadeiro Saltator similis, e sua utilização no diagnóstico da coccidiose. Foram colhidas 220 amostras fecais de aves oriundas de apreensões do tráfico de animais silvestres e mantidas na quarentena do CETAS∕IBAMA, nos períodos da manhã e ao entardecer, de maio a novembro de 2010. Observou-se que 1,82% das amostras colhidas no período da manhã foram positivas, enquanto que 31,36% das amostras colhidas foram positivas ao entardecer, onde o maior número de oocistos foi observado no período da tarde. Portanto, concluiu-se que a colheita de amostras ao entardecer oferece maior confiabilidade para o diagnóstico da coccidiose. Além disso, descreve-se um novo coccídio do trinca-ferro-verdadeiro S. similis. Isospora similisi n. sp. possui oocistos esféricos a subesféricos, 27,5 × 25,9 µm, com parede dupla e lisa, ∼1,2 µm. A micrópila e o resíduo do oocisto estão ausentes, porém pequenos grânulos estão presentes. Os esporocistos são elipsóides ou levemente ovóides, 17,4 × 12,2 µm. Os corpos de Stieda e substieda estão presentes. O resíduo do esporocisto está presente e os esporozoítos possuem um corpo refrátil posterior e um núcleo. Esta é a quarta espécie isosporóide descrita de S. similis e a sexta descrição na família Cardinalidae.

  3. Isospora vanriperorum Levine, 1982 (apicomplexa: eimeriidae in the green-winged saltator, Saltator similis Lafresnaye and D'orbigny, 1837 (passeriformes: cardinalinae in southeastern Brazil Isospora vanriperorum Levine, 1982 (apicomplexa: eimeriidae no trinca-ferro Saltator similis Lafresnaye and D'orbigny, 1837 (passeriformes: cardinalinae no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno do B. Lopes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Isospora vanriperorum from the green-winged saltator (Saltator similis is described in Southeastern Brazil. Oocysts are spherical to subspherical, 19.4-26 by 18.3-26μm (23.1 by 22.4μm, shape index 1.04 with a single layered wall, fine, smooth and yellowish. Micropyle and residuum are absents, but one elliptical polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoid, 14.5-20.2 by 8.1-12.5μm (16.3 by 10.8μm, shape index 1.53 with prominent Stieda body, barely discernible substieda body and residuum centered and granulated.Isospora vanriperorum de trinca-ferro verdadeiro (Saltator similis é descrita no sudeste do Brasil. Os oocistos são esféricos a subesféricos medindo 19,4-26 por 18,3-26μm (23,1 por 22,4μm, índice morfométrico de 1,04 com parede única, fina, lisa e amarelada. A micrópila e o resíduo estão ausentes, mas um grânulo polar elíptico está presente. Os esporocistos são ovóides medindo 14,5-20,2 por 8,1-12,5μm (16,3 por 10,8μm, índice morfométrico de 1,53 com corpo de Stieda proeminente, corpo de substieda mal discernível e resíduo central e granular.

  4. A Model for Taxonomic Work on Homoxenous Coccidia: Redescription, Host Specificity, and Molecular Phylogeny of Eimeria ranae Dobell, 1909, with a Review of Anuran-Host Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Miloslav; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2009), s. 39-51. ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Amphibia * Anura * experimental infections * metamorphosis * morphotypes * SSU rDNA sequence * tadpoles * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2009

  5. Endogenous development, pathogenicity and host specificity of Eimeria cahirinensis Couch, Blaustein, Duszynski, Shenbrot and Nevo, 1997 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Acomys dimidiatus (Cretzschmar 1826) (Rodentia: Muridae) from the Near East

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvičerová, Jana; Ptáčková, P.; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 2 (2007), s. 219-226. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1548 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria cahirinensis * Acomys * Near East Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007

  6. Isospora coerebae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from the bananaquit Coereba flaveola (Passeriformes: Coerebidae in South America Isospora coerebae n. sp. do caga-sebo Coereba flaveola (Passeriformes: Coerebidae na América do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Pereira Berto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes a new isosporoid coccidian parasite from the bananaquit Coereba flaveola, in Brazil. This new species is similar to I. cagasebi, but it can be distinguished by the size and shape of Stieda and susbstieda bodies. Isospora coerebae n. sp. oocysts are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal, 24.8 × 23.3 µm, with a smooth and bi-layered wall, ~1.2 µm. Micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are elongate ovoidal, 17.9 × 10.9 µm. Stieda and substieda bodies are present. Sporocyst residuum is present and sporozoites have a posterior refractile body.Um novo parasito coccídio isosporóide do caga-sebo Coereba flaveola, do Brasil, é relatado no estudo atual. Essa nova espécie é semelhante à Isospora cagasebi, no entanto, pode ser distinguida pelos tamanho e forma dos corpos de Stieda e substieda. Os oocistos de I. coerebae n. sp. são esféricos a subesféricos, 24,8 × 23,3 µm, com parede dupla e lisa, ~ 1,2 µm. A micrópila, resíduo e grânulo polar do oocisto estão ausentes. Os esporocistos são ovóides alongados, 17,9 × 10,9 µm. Os corpos de Stieda e substieda estão presentes. O resíduo do esporocisto está presente e os esporozoítos possuem um corpo refrátil posterior.

  7. Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 μm (averaged 42.66 μm) in width and 62.4-173.6 μm (averaged 82.14 μm) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 μm thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 μm in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated. PMID:25112213

  8. Three new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina) from the Marble-throated skink, Marmorosphax tricolor Bavay, 1869 (Reptilia: Scincidae), endemic to New Caledonia with a taxonomic revision of Eimeria spp. from scincid hosts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Jirků, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2006), s. 419-428. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GA524/00/P015; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Coccdia * Reptilia * Eimeria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.140, year: 2006

  9. Présence de trois espèces de grégarines (Apicomplexa : Eugregarinorida chez l’Annélide Polychete Marphysa sanguinea (Montagu, 1815 dans le lac de Tunis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbarhoumi M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trois espèces de grégarines ont été trouvées dans des spécimens de l’annélide polychète Marphysa sanguinea récoltés dans le lac de Tunis : Bhatiella marphysae Setna, 1931, parasite de Marphysa sanguinea (Inde, Europe; Ferraria cornucephala iwamusi H. Hoshide, 1956, parasite de Marphysa iwamusi (Japon ; et Viviera sp. qui présente des similitudes avec Viviera marphysae Schrével, 1963, aussi décrite chez Marphysa sanguinea (France. Ces grégarines sont rapportées pour la première fois chez ce dernier hôte en Tunisie. Bhatiella marphysae et Viviera sp. appartiennent à la famille des Lecudinidae (Aseptatorina. La présence d’un septum proto-deutoméritique est confirmée chez Ferraria cornucephala qui doit être maintenue dans les Polyrhabdinae.

  10. Uso del microhábitat por el protozoo parásito Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae en su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae en el sur de Chile Microhabitat use by the protozoan parasite Aggregata patagonica Sardella, Ré & Timi, 2000 (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae in his definitive host Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Gould, 1852 (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN M. IBÁÑEZ

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Los protozoos de la familia Aggregatidae requieren de dos hospedadores para completar su ciclo biológico: un crustáceo y un cefalópodo. En este estudio se busca evidenciar si existe un uso diferencial de microhábitats de las infrapoblaciones de Aggregata patagonica entre dos zonas del tracto digestivo de su hospedador definitivo, el pulpo Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Para ello, se examinaron 40 ejemplares de Ancud y 37 de Quellón, provenientes de las capturas artesanales de la Isla de Chiloé. El tamaño y la densidad de los ooquistes se cuantificaron en el ciego y el intestino del hospedador. Además, se efectuaron observaciones histológicas para determinar cuantitativamente la ocurrencia de los distintos estados de desarrollo del parásito. En Ancud el 80 % de los pulpos estaban parasitados en el ciego y el intestino, mientras que en Quellón era el 100 %. Se determinaron cuatro estados de desarrollo (microgametos, cigotos, esporoquistes inmaduros y maduros. Los ooquistes de A. patagonica fueron más pequeños y abundantes en el ciego, pero la cobertura fue mayor en el intestino. Además, la densidad y cobertura aumenta en pocos meses entre una muestra y otra. Al parecer, A. patagonica no usaría a los dos microhábitats como lugares de preferencia para pasar los diferentes estados de desarrollo, sino más bien, y según las condiciones del microhábitat, en el intestino crecerían más los ooquistes pero en menos cantidad, ocupando una mayor superficie del microhábitat, contrario a lo que ocurre en el ciego. Por esto se sugiere que A. patagonica hace un uso diferencial del microhábitat, mediante dos estrategias distintas de historia de vidaThe protozoan parasites of the family Aggregatidae, require two hosts to complete their life cycle, a crustacean and a cephalopod. This research looks for evidence of differential microhabitat use of Aggregata patagonica infrapopulations between two zones of the digestive tract of his definitive host, the octopus Enteroctopus megalocyathus. Forty specimens from Ancud and 37 from Quellón coming from artisanal catch from Chiloé Island in southern Chile were examined. The size and density of the oocysts were quantified in the caecum and intestine of the host. Histological preparations were carried out to determine quantitatively the occurrence of the different development stages of the parasite. In Ancud, 80 % of octopuses were parasited in the caecum and intestine, while in Quellón 100 % had oocyst. Four development stages (microgametes, zygotes, immature and mature sporocysts were recognized. The oocysts of Aggregata patagonica were smaller and more abundant in the caecum, but their coverage was higher in the intestine. Moreover, density and coverage increased in few months between samples. Apparently, Aggregata patagonica does not use the two microhabitats as preferential places to pass the different developmental stages, but rather, and according to the conditions of the microhabitat, the oocysts would grow more in the intestine albeit in small number, occupying a higher surface of the microhabitat, contrary to what happens in the caecum. This suggests that A. patagonica may have two distinct life history strategies

  11. Treatment of atoxoplasmosis in the Blue-crowned Laughing Thrush (Dryonastes courtoisi)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jamriška, J.; Lavilla, L.A.; Thomasson, A.C.; Barbon, A.R.; Lopez, j.F.; Modrý, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2013), s. 569-571. ISSN 0307-9457 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : leucopsar-rothschildi * Apicomplexa * Isospora * blood Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.041, year: 2013

  12. Coprology of a single Northern white-breasted hedgehog (Erinaceus roumanicus): first report of Isospora rastegaievae in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyziel, Anna M; Jeżewski, Witold

    2016-09-01

    Coprological analysis of a sample from one free-living hedgehog was done with the use of a direct flotation method with additional incubation of fecal material. The study revealed three types of eggs and oocysts in the feces. The most commonly diagnosed were oocysts of Isospora rastegaievae (543/3g), while oocysts of Monocystis sp. (267/3g) and eggs of Aonchotheca/Eucoleus spp. (52/3g) were seen less often. This is the first report of coccidia I. rastegaievae (Apicomplexa: Eimeriida) and acephaline gregarine Monocystis sp. (Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) infection in a hedgehog in Poland. PMID:27447231

  13. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that recognize the Eimeria tenella microneme protein MIC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Apicomplexan pathogens of the species Eimeria cause coccidiosis, an intestinal disease of chickens, which has a major economic impact on the poultry industry. Members of the phylum Apicomplexa share an assortment of unique secretory organelles (rhoptries, micronemes and dense granules) that me...

  14. Population genetics, diversity and spread of virulence in Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, an estimated third of the human population harbors infection with Toxoplasma gondii, a single-celled eukaryotic parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa (Dubey, 2010). Most infected persons are unaware of, and evidently unharmed by, the parasite cysts established in their muscles and/...

  15. Cell fractionation of parasitic protozoa: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Wanderley de; Cunha-e-Silva Narcisa Leal da

    2003-01-01

    Cell fractionation, a methodological strategy for obtaining purified organelle preparations, has been applied successfully to parasitic protozoa by a number of investigators. Here we present and discuss the work of several groups that have obtained highly purified subcellular fractions from trypanosomatids, Apicomplexa and trichomonads, and whose work have added substantially to our knowledge of the cell biology of these parasites.

  16. Haemogregarines from western Palaearctic freshwater turtles (genera Emys, Mauremys) are conspecific with Haemogregarina stepanowi Danilewsky, 1885

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvořáková, N.; Kvičerová, Jana; Papoušek, I.; Javanbakht, H.; Tiar, G.; Kami, H.; Široký, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 4 (2014), s. 522-530. ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/1738 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Haemogregarina * Emys * Mauremys * 18S rDNA * phylogenetic analysis * host specificity * Pelusios Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.560, year: 2014

  17. A common red algal origin of the apicomplexan, dinoflagellate, and heterokont plastids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janouškovec, J.; Horák, A.; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius; Keeling, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 24 (2010), s. 10949-10954. ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Chromera velia * CCMP3155 * plastid evolution * chloroplast genome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 9.771, year: 2010

  18. Hemolivia and Hepatozoon: Haemogregarines with Tangled Evolutionary Relationships

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvičerová, Jana; Hypša, Václav; Dvořáková, N.; Mikulíček, P.; Jandzik, D.; Gardner, M. G.; Javanbakht, H.; Tiar, G.; Široký, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 5 (2014), s. 688-700. ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/1738 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Apicomplexa * haemogregarines * Hemolivia * Hepatozoon * host specificity * phylogeny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.045, year: 2014

  19. Fancy a gene? A surprisingly complex evolutionary history/nof peroxiredoxins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Alena; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2015), s. 33-37. E-ISSN 2311-2638 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : horizontal gene transfer * Apicomplexa * endosymbiont * Plasmodium * Chromera * peroxiredoxin * oxidative stress Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  20. Cell fractionation of parasitic protozoa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Wanderley de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell fractionation, a methodological strategy for obtaining purified organelle preparations, has been applied successfully to parasitic protozoa by a number of investigators. Here we present and discuss the work of several groups that have obtained highly purified subcellular fractions from trypanosomatids, Apicomplexa and trichomonads, and whose work have added substantially to our knowledge of the cell biology of these parasites.

  1. The Organellar Genomes of Chromera and Vitrella, the Phototrophic Relatives of Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, October 2015 (2015), s. 129-144. ISSN 0066-4227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : organellar genomes * mitochondrion * plastid * Apicomplexa * Alveolata * Chromera Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 12.182, year: 2014

  2. Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera

    OpenAIRE

    Hasle, Gunnar; Bjune, Gunnar A; Christensson, Dan; Knut H. Røed; Whist, Anne C; Leinaas, Hans P

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida) has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods ...

  3. A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moore, R. B.; Oborník, Miroslav; Janouškovec, Jan; Chrudimský, Tomáš; Vancová, Marie; Green, D. H.; Wright, S. W.; Davies, N. W.; Bolch, Ch. J. S.; Heimann, K.; Šlapeta, J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Logsdon, J. M.; Carter, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 451, 21-02-2008 (2008), s. 959-963. ISSN 0028-0836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : alveolate * photosynthesis * Chromera velia * evolution * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 31.434, year: 2008

  4. Divergent Mitochondrial Respiratory Chains in Phototrophic Relatives of Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontov, P.; Michálek, J.; Janouškovec, J.; Lai, D. H.; Jirků, M.; Hajdušková, E.; Tomčala, A.; Otto, T.D.; Keeling, P. J.; Pain, A.; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2015), s. 1115-1131. ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : respiratory chain * Apicomplexa * Chromera Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 9.105, year: 2014

  5. Multimammate rat (Mastomys natalensis), Tristram's jird (Meriones tristrami) and Wagner's gerbil (Gerbillus dasyurus) as laboratory models of acute neosporosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hůrková-Hofmannová, L.; Václavek, P.; Škorič, M.; Fictum, P.; Modrý, David

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2007), s. 377-381. ISSN 0034-5288 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Neosporosis * Apicomplexa * rodents * multimammate rat * jird * gerbil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.274, year: 2007

  6. Phylogeny, Morphology, and Metabolic and Invasive Capabilities of Epicellular Fish Coccidium Goussia janae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dogga, S.K.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; Lukeš, Julius; Soldati-Favre, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 6 (2015), s. 659-676. ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Coccidia * Goussia janae * phylogeny * ultrastructure * invasion * central carbon metabolism. Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.045, year: 2014

  7. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino; Jociery Einhardt Vergara-Parente; Carla Verônica Carrasco Aguilar; Fábia de Oliveira Luna; Danielle dos Santos Lima; Leucio Câmara Alves; João Carlos Gomes Borges; Ana Maria Alves Lima; Miriam Marmontel

    2007-01-01

    The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon) and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus). The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrenc...

  8. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Life Cycle of Vitrella brassicaformis n. sp., n. gen., a Novel Chromerid from the Great Barrier Reef

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oborník, Miroslav; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Martin; Černotíková, Eva; Cihlář, J.; Tesařová, Martina; Kotabová, Eva; Vancová, Marie; Prášil, Ondřej; Lukeš, Julius

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 163, č. 2 (2012), s. 306-323. ISSN 1434-4610 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410907; GA MŠk 2B06129 Grant ostatní: GA MSMT(CZ) MSM6007665801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Chromera * morphology * ultrastructure * life cycle * phylogeny * coral Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.140, year: 2012

  9. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contri...

  10. FINE STRUCTURE OF SYZYGY IN SELENIDIUM PENNATUM (SPOROZOA, ARCHIGREGARINIDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvardina, Olga; Simdyanov, Timur

    2002-01-01

    Here we describe fine structure of the syzygy partner in Selenidium pennatum Simdyanov 1992 (Sporozoa, Archigregarinida as proposed by Grasse and Schrevel). The presence of an apical complex (conoid and rhoptries) and the absence of nucleus are the most interesting properties of this object. Long term presence of the apical complex during the life cycle is a plesiomorph character for Apicomplexa. Among other things, it distinguishes archigregarines from other sporozoans and confirms the sugge...

  11. Intravacuolar Membranes Regulate CD8 T Cell Recognition of Membrane-Bound Toxoplasma gondii Protective Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Jodie Lopez; Amina Bittame; Céline Massera; Virginie Vasseur; Grégory Effantin; Anne Valat; Célia Buaillon; Sophie Allart; Barbara A. Fox; Leah M. Rommereim; David J. Bzik; Guy Schoehn; Winfried Weissenhorn; Jean-François Dubremetz; Jean Gagnon

    2015-01-01

    Apicomplexa parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii target effectors to and across the boundary of their parasitophorous vacuole (PV), resulting in host cell subversion and potential presentation by MHC class I molecules for CD8 T cell recognition. The host-parasite interface comprises the PV limiting membrane and a highly curved, membranous intravacuolar network (IVN) of uncertain function. Here, using a cell-free minimal system, we dissect how membrane tubules are shaped by the parasite effecto...

  12. 4-Bromophenacyl Bromide Specifically Inhibits Rhoptry Secretion during Toxoplasma Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Ravindran; Lodoen, Melissa B.; Verhelst, Steven H.L.; Matthew Bogyo; Boothroyd, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa that is able to infect a wide variety of host cells. During its active invasion process it secretes proteins from discrete secretory organelles: the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. Although a number of rhoptry proteins have been shown to be involved in important interactions with the host cell, very little is known about the mechanism of secretion of any Toxoplasma protein into the host cell. We used a chemical inh...

  13. A Cleavable Propeptide Influences Toxoplasma Infection by Facilitating the Trafficking and Secretion of the TgMIC2–M2AP Invasion Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Jill M.; Huynh, My-Hang; Coppens, Isabelle; Parussini, Fabiola; Moreno, Silvia; Carruthers, Vern B.

    2006-01-01

    Propeptides regulate protein function and trafficking in many eukaryotic systems and have emerged as important features of regulated secretory proteins in parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. Regulated protein secretion from micronemes and host cell invasion are inextricably linked and essential processes for the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. TgM2AP is a propeptide-containing microneme protein found in a heterohexameric complex with the microneme protein TgMIC2, a protein that has ...

  14. Biochemische Charakterisierung der Zyklin-abhängigen Kinase 2,Aktivator-Komplexe des Parasiten Eimeria tenella sowie deren Nutzung in der Wirkstoffforschung

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez Fernandez, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Der Stamm der Apicomplexa ist eine artenreiche Gruppe, der einzellige, meist obligat intrazelluläre Parasiten angehören, darunter auch erstzunehmende Krankheitserreger wie Plasmodium sp. sowie tierpathogene Vertreter wie Eimeria sp. und Theileria sp. Eimeria sp. verursacht die Kokzidiose beim Huhn. Diese Krankheit bedingt weltweite Verluste in der Geflügelindustrie von etwa 3 Milliarden US$ pro Jahr [DALLOUL & LILLEHOJ, 2006; SHIRLEY et al., 2007; LUCIUS & LOOS-FRANK, 2008]. Die Parasiten wei...

  15. Intestinal Coccidia

    OpenAIRE

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycl...

  16. Haemosporidian infection in captive masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies of the northern bobwhite quail

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Escalante, Ananias A; Garner, Michael M.; Bradley, Gregory A.; Aguilar, Roberto F.

    2011-01-01

    The avian haemosporidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa) are taxonomically diverse and cosmopolitan in distribution; infecting most bird families. Sources of concern are reports of clinical haemosporidian infections in birds kept as part of zoo and aviary collections. Recently, severe and acute mortality episodes have been reported in masked bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus ridgwayi), an endangered subspecies from the American Southwest. Two hundred and five eggs of the captive flock held i...

  17. Eugregarine trophozoite detachment from the host epithelium via epimerite retraction: Fiction or fact?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valigurová, A.; Michalková, V.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 11 (2009), s. 1235-1242. ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) MSM0021622416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Apicomplexa * epimerite retraction * trophozoite Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.819, year: 2009

  18. Efficient Gene Disruption in Diverse Strains of Toxoplasma gondii Using CRISPR/CAS9

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Bang; Brown, Kevin M; Lee, Tobie D.; Sibley, L. David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Toxoplasma gondii has become a model for studying the phylum Apicomplexa, in part due to the availability of excellent genetic tools. Although reverse genetic tools are available in a few widely utilized laboratory strains, they rely on special genetic backgrounds that are not easily implemented in natural isolates. Recent progress in modifying CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), a system of DNA recognition used as a defense mechanism in bacteria and a...

  19. The use of vaccines for chicken coccidiosis control
    Uso de vacinas no controle da coccidiose aviária

    OpenAIRE

    José da Silva Guimarães Junior; Alexey Leon Gomel Bogado; Guilherme Felippelli Martins; João Luis Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The genus Eimeria belonging to the Subphylum Apicomplexa, Family Eimeriidae, have seven recognized species infecting chickens: E.acervulina, E. maxima, E.tenella, E.brunetti, E.necatrix, E.mitis and E.praecox. It’s an obligate intracellular parasite that causes disease by the destruction of intestinal epithelial cells in the replication process. The indiscriminate use of anticoccidial drugs has resulted in the selection of drug-resistant strains, which reduce de effectiveness of various antic...

  20. Ionophore-Resistant Mutants of Toxoplasma gondii Reveal Host Cell Permeabilization as an Early Event in Egress

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Michael W.; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; John C Boothroyd

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular pathogen within the phylum Apicomplexa. Invasion and egress by this protozoan parasite are rapid events that are dependent upon parasite motility and appear to be directed by fluctuations in intracellular [Ca2+]. Treatment of infected host cells with the calcium ionophore A23187 causes the parasites to undergo rapid egress in a process termed ionophore-induced egress (IIE). In contrast, when extracellular parasites are exposed to this ionophore, ...

  1. Toxoplasma gondii sequesters centromeres to a specific nuclear region throughout the cell cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Carrie F; Francia, Maria E.; Gissot, Mathieu; Croken, Matthew M.; Kim, Kami; Striepen, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Members of the eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa are the cause of important human diseases including malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis. These obligate intracellular parasites produce new invasive stages through a complex budding process. The budding cycle is remarkably flexible and can produce varied numbers of progeny to adapt to different host-cell niches. How this complex process is coordinated remains poorly understood. Using Toxoplasma gondii as a genetic model, we show that a ke...

  2. Sarcocystis neurona Merozoites Express a Family of Immunogenic Surface Antigens That Are Orthologues of the Toxoplasma gondii Surface Antigens (SAGs) and SAG-Related Sequences†

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, Daniel K.; Rajshekhar Y Gaji; Mroz-Barrett, Meaghan; Gubbels, Marc-Jan; Striepen, Boris; Stamper, Shelby

    2005-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is a member of the Apicomplexa that causes myelitis and encephalitis in horses but normally cycles between the opossum and small mammals. Analysis of an S. neurona expressed sequence tag (EST) database revealed four paralogous proteins that exhibit clear homology to the family of surface antigens (SAGs) and SAG-related sequences of Toxoplasma gondii. The primary peptide sequences of the S. neurona proteins are consistent with the two-domain structure that has been describe...

  3. Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii Strains from Different Hosts and Geographical Regions by Sequence Analysis of GRA20 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Hong-Rui; Huang, Si-Yang; Wang, Jin-Lei; Xu, Qian-Ming; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, which infects all warm-blood animals, including humans. In the present study, we examined sequence variation in dense granule 20 (GRA20) genes among T. gondii isolates collected from different hosts and geographical regions worldwide. The complete GRA20 genes were amplified from 16 T. gondii isolates using PCR, sequence were analyzed, and phylogenetic reconstruction was analyzed by maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelih...

  4. Detection of Theileria luwenshuni in sheep from Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, L. Paul; Hernández-Triana, Luis M.; Goharriz, Hooman; Welchman, David; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background Theileria spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites of the Phylum Apicomplexa, Order Piroplasmida that infect a wide range of wild and domestic animals. In Great Britain, Theileria spp. have been reported from livestock associated with transmission by the tick Haemaphysalis punctata. However, these reports have not been associated with disease. This study has investigated the cause of a disease outbreak accompanied by mortality in a flock of sheep grazing reclaimed marshland in north...

  5. Babesia Infection in the Southwest of China, A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huixuan; Huang, Fen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Babesiosis is caused by apicomplexa parasites of the genus Babesia. Humans are commonly infected by Babesia through tick bites. There is limited information available about Babesia infection of humans in China. The aim of this study was to isolate the pathogen from a patient with severe parasitemia. Case Presentation: Blood samples were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and red blood cells of bone marrow and blood smears ...

  6. Divergent Mitochondrial Respiratory Chains in Phototrophic Relatives of Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontov, P.; Michálek, Jan; Janouškovec, J.; Lai, De Hua; Jirků, Milan; Hajdušková, Eva; Tomčala, Aleš; Otto, T.D.; Keeling, P.J.; Pain, A.; Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2015), s. 1115-1131. ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/1522; GA ČR GA13-33039S; GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : respiratory chain * Apicomplexa * Chromera * anaerobic metabolism * evolution * Vitrella Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 9.105, year: 2014

  7. Malaria immunity in man and mosquito: insights into unsolved mysteries of a deadly infectious disease

    OpenAIRE

    Crompton, Peter D.; Moebius, Jacqueline; Portugal, Silvia; Waisberg, Michael; Hart, Geoffrey; Garver, Lindsey S.; Louis H Miller; Barillas, Carolina; Pierce, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites of the obligate intracellular Apicomplexa family, the most deadly of which, Plasmodium falciparum, prevails in Africa. Malaria imposes a huge health burden on the world’s most vulnerable populations, claiming the lives of nearly a million children and pregnant women each year in Africa alone. Although there is keen interest in eradicating malaria, we do not yet have the necessary tools to meet this challenge, including an effective malar...

  8. Recent advances in understanding apicomplexan parasites [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seeber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular single-celled parasites belonging to the large phylum Apicomplexa are amongst the most prevalent and morbidity-causing pathogens worldwide. In this review, we highlight a few of the many recent advances in the field that helped to clarify some important aspects of their fascinating biology and interaction with their hosts. Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria, and thus the recent emergence of resistance against the currently used drug combinations based on artemisinin has been of major interest for the scientific community. It resulted in great advances in understanding the resistance mechanisms that can hopefully be translated into altered future drug regimens. Apicomplexa are also experts in host cell manipulation and immune evasion. Toxoplasma gondii and Theileria sp., besides Plasmodium sp., are species that secrete effector molecules into the host cell to reach this aim. The underlying molecular mechanisms for how these proteins are trafficked to the host cytosol (T. gondii and Plasmodium and how a secreted protein can immortalize the host cell (Theileria sp. have been illuminated recently. Moreover, how such secreted proteins affect the host innate immune responses against T. gondii and the liver stages of Plasmodium has also been unraveled at the genetic and molecular level, leading to unexpected insights. Methodological advances in metabolomics and molecular biology have been instrumental to solving some fundamental puzzles of mitochondrial carbon metabolism in Apicomplexa. Also, for the first time, the generation of stably transfected Cryptosporidium parasites was achieved, which opens up a wide variety of experimental possibilities for this understudied, important apicomplexan pathogen.

  9. The Conoid Associated Motor MyoH Is Indispensable for Toxoplasma gondii Entry and Exit from Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graindorge, Arnault; Frénal, Karine; Jacot, Damien; Salamun, Julien; Marq, Jean Baptiste; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the phylum of Apicomplexa have adopted an obligate intracellular life style and critically depend on active invasion and egress from the infected cells to complete their lytic cycle. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa, and as such, the invasive tachyzoite contains an organelle termed the conoid at its extreme apex. This motile organelle consists of a unique polymer of tubulin fibres and protrudes in both gliding and invading parasites. The class XIV myosin A, which is conserved across the Apicomplexa phylum, is known to critically contribute to motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. The MyoA-glideosome is anchored to the inner membrane complex (IMC) and is assumed to translocate the components of the circular junction secreted by the micronemes and rhoptries, to the rear of the parasite. Here we comprehensively characterise the class XIV myosin H (MyoH) and its associated light chains. We show that the 3 alpha-tubulin suppressor domains, located in MyoH tail, are necessary to anchor this motor to the conoid. Despite the presence of an intact MyoA-glideosome, conditional disruption of TgMyoH severely compromises parasite motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. We demonstrate that MyoH is necessary for the translocation of the circular junction from the tip of the parasite, where secretory organelles exocytosis occurs, to the apical position where the IMC starts. This study attributes for the first time a direct function of the conoid in motility and invasion, and establishes the indispensable role of MyoH in initiating the first step of motility along this unique organelle, which is subsequently relayed by MyoA to enact effective gliding and invasion. PMID:26760042

  10. Gómez Marín, Jorge Enrique

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Simposio: Enfermedades Transmisibles y Tropicales. Toxoplasma gondii es el agente responsable de la toxoplasmosis, una de las infecciones parasitarias más frecuentes en el mundo. Toxoplasma gondii pertenece al phylum Apicomplexa o Sporozoa, la clase de los Coccidea y a la orden de los Eimeriida (1). La infección en el hombre es habitualmente asintomática o puede tener un curso clínico benigno. Habitualmente sólo 15-30% de los pacientes inmunocompetentes presentan algún síntoma que consiste ge...

  11. Infección por protozoarios en individuos de tití bebe leche (saguinus fuscicollis), tití cabeza blanca (saguinus oedipus), tití ardilla (saimiri sciureus), suricata (suricata suricatta) y wallabie (macropus rufogriseus)

    OpenAIRE

    López Acosta, G. L. K.; Peña, J. (Jorge); Brieva, C. I.

    2014-01-01

    La toxoplasmosis es una de las zoonosis parasitarias más comunes y de especial atención en medicina humana y veterinaria en todo el mundo. Toxoplasma gondii comparte muchos de sus parámetros biológicos con otros parásitos apicomplexa, pero es único en su extremadamente amplio rango de huéspedes y su especificidad tisular (Smith, 1995). La susceptibilidad en especies de primates del Nuevo Mundo y macrópodos a la infección por protozoarios es alta. Bajo condiciones de cautiverio la toxoplasmosi...

  12. 畜禽隐孢子虫病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭德旺; 黄秀萍

    1993-01-01

    隐孢子虫隶属于原生动物界(Protozoa),顶器门(Apicomplexa)、孢子虫纲(Sporozoea)、球虫亚纲(Coccidia)、真球虫目(Eucoccidida)、艾美球虫亚目(Eimeriorina)、隐孢子虫科(Cryptosporidiidae)、隐孢子虫属(Cryptosporidium)(Levine等,1980)。迄今已发现可寄生在哺乳类、鸟类、爬行类及鱼类等44种动和人。

  13. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum on commercial swine farms in the Czech Republic and its associations with age and husbandry practices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němejc, K.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Kernerová, N.; Rost, M.; Cama, V. A.; Kváč, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 3 (2013), s. 1143-1154. ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) MSM6007665806; GAJU(CZ) 022/2010/Z Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : pig genotype II * post-weaned pig * molecular characterization * Sus scrofa * fecal transmission * Apicomplexa * risk factors * prevalence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00436-012-3244-8

  14. Análise dos padróns de diversidade xenética e epidemioloxía das especies e variedades de Cryptosporidium que parasitan humanos mediante o desenrolo dun protocolo multilocus de tipado xenético de alto rendemento

    OpenAIRE

    Abal Fabeiro, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    A criptosporidiose é unha enfermidade causada por un grupo de protozoos pertencentes ó phylum Apicomplexa que cursa xeralmente en forma de diarreas autolimitadas acompañadas de episodios de dor abdominal e vómitos. A falla dun tratamento específico contra dita doenza, a patoloxía soe resolverse de forma espontánea en poucas semanas, aínda que pode resultar letal en doentes inmunocomprometidos e naqueles países en vías de desenvolvemento destaca a súa potencial capacidade de compromete-lo norm...

  15. Structures of parasitic CDPK domains point to a common mechanism of activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernimont, Amy K.; Amani, Merhnaz; Qiu, Wei; Pizarro, Juan C.; Artz, Jennifer D.; Lin, Yu-Hui; Lew, Jocelyn; Hutchinson, Ashley; Hui, Raymond (Toronto)

    2011-11-23

    We recently determined the first structures of inactivated and calcium-activated calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) from Apicomplexa. Calcium binding triggered a large conformational change that constituted a new mechanism in calcium signaling and a novel EF-hand fold (CAD, for CDPK activation domain). Thus we set out to determine if this mechanism was universal to all CDPKs. We solved additional CDPK structures, including one from the species Plasmodium. We highlight the similarities in sequence and structure across apicomplexan and plant CDPKs, and strengthen our observations that this novel mechanism could be universal to canonical CDPKs. Our new structures demonstrate more detailed steps in the mechanism of calcium activation and possible key players in regulation. Residues involved in making the largest conformational change are the most conserved across Apicomplexa, leading us to propose that the mechanism is indeed conserved. CpCDPK3{_}CAD and PfCDPK{_}CAD were captured at a possible intermediate conformation, lending insight into the order of activation steps. PfCDPK3{_}CAD adopts an activated fold, despite having an inactive EF-hand sequence in the N-terminal lobe. We propose that for most apicomplexan CDPKs, the mode of activation will be similar to that seen in our structures, while specific regulation of the inactive and active forms will require further investigation.

  16. Inconsistencies of genome annotations in apicomplexan parasites revealed by 5'-end-one-pass and full-length sequences of oligo-capped cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugano Sumio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apicomplexan parasites are causative agents of various diseases including malaria and have been targets of extensive genomic sequencing. We generated 5'-EST collections for six apicomplexa parasites using our full-length oligo-capping cDNA library method. To improve upon the current genome annotations, as well as to validate the importance for physical cDNA clone resources, we generated a large-scale collection of full-length cDNAs for several apicomplexa parasites. Results In this study, we used a total of 61,056 5'-end-single-pass cDNA sequences from Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. yoelii, P. berghei, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Toxoplasma gondii. We compared these partially sequenced cDNA sequences with the currently annotated gene models and observed significant inconsistencies between the two datasets. In particular, we found that on average 14% of the exons in the current gene models were not supported by any cDNA evidence, and that 16% of the current gene models may contain at least one mis-annotation and should be re-evaluated. We also identified a large number of transcripts that had been previously unidentified. For 732 cDNAs in T. gondii, the entire sequences were determined in order to evaluate the annotated gene models at the complete full-length transcript level. We found that 41% of the T. gondii gene models contained at least one inconsistency. We also identified and confirmed by RT-PCR 140 previously unidentified transcripts found in the intergenic regions of the current gene annotations. We show that the majority of these discrepancies are due to questionable predictions of one or two extra exons in the upstream or downstream regions of the genes. Conclusion Our data indicates that the current gene models are likely to still be incomplete and have much room for improvement. Our unique full-length cDNA information is especially useful for further refinement of the annotations for the genomes of

  17. Gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitors make human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum cells swell and rupture to death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Toyama

    Full Text Available Malaria remains as one of the most devastating infectious disease, and continues to exact an enormous toll in medical cost and days of labor lost especially in the tropics. Effective malaria control and eventual eradication remain a huge challenge, with efficacious antimalarials as important intervention/management tool. Clearly new alternative drugs that are more affordable and with fewer side effects are desirable. After preliminary in vitro assays with plant growth regulators and inhibitors, here, we focus on biosynthetic inhibitors of gibberellin, a plant hormone with many important roles in plant growth, and show their inhibitory effect on the growth of both apicomplexa, Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with the gibberellin biosynthetic inhibitors resulted in marked morphological changes that can be reversed to a certain degree under hyperosmotic environment. These unique observations suggest that changes in the parasite membrane permeability may explain the pleiotropic effects observed within the intracellular parasites.

  18. Molecular identification of Sarcocystis hominis in native cattle of central Iran: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimohammadi, B; Eslami, G; Oryan, A; Zohourtabar, A; Pourmirzaei Tafti, H; Moghaddam Ahmadi, M

    2014-03-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are two-host protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Among different known species of Sarcocystis in cattle, only Sarcocystis hominis is important from the public health viewpoint, because of its zoonotic characteristics. This study presents the first molecular identification of S. hominis in native cattle in central Iran. A sample of diaphragm muscle from a 6-year-old native cow slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, Yazd, central Iran, was collected in May 2013. DNA extraction was performed, using the salting-out method. DNA purification and precipitation were performed consecutively. The amplicon and digestion results were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis. A PCR product with 926 bp in length was obtained after amplification, and 376 bp and 550 bp in length after digestion that identified S. hominis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to be reported from Iran. PMID:24862059

  19. Intravacuolar Membranes Regulate CD8 T Cell Recognition of Membrane-Bound Toxoplasma gondii Protective Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jodie; Bittame, Amina; Massera, Céline; Vasseur, Virginie; Effantin, Grégory; Valat, Anne; Buaillon, Célia; Allart, Sophie; Fox, Barbara A; Rommereim, Leah M; Bzik, David J; Schoehn, Guy; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Gagnon, Jean; Mercier, Corinne; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Blanchard, Nicolas

    2015-12-15

    Apicomplexa parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii target effectors to and across the boundary of their parasitophorous vacuole (PV), resulting in host cell subversion and potential presentation by MHC class I molecules for CD8 T cell recognition. The host-parasite interface comprises the PV limiting membrane and a highly curved, membranous intravacuolar network (IVN) of uncertain function. Here, using a cell-free minimal system, we dissect how membrane tubules are shaped by the parasite effectors GRA2 and GRA6. We show that membrane association regulates access of the GRA6 protective antigen to the MHC I pathway in infected cells. Although insertion of GRA6 in the PV membrane is key for immunogenicity, association of GRA6 with the IVN limits presentation and curtails GRA6-specific CD8 responses in mice. Thus, membrane deformations of the PV regulate access of antigens to the MHC class I pathway, and the IVN may play a role in immune modulation. PMID:26628378

  20. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Life Cycle of Vitrella brassicaformis n. sp., n. gen., a Novel Chromerid from the Great Barrier Reef

    KAUST Repository

    Oborník, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Chromerida are photoautotrophic alveolates so far only isolated from corals in Australia. It has been shown that these secondary plastid-containing algae are closely related to apicomplexan parasites and share various morphological and molecular characters with both Apicomplexa and Dinophyta. So far, the only known representative of the phylum was Chromera velia. Here we provide a formal description of another chromerid, Vitrella brassicaformis gen. et sp. nov., complemented with a detailed study on its ultrastructure, allowing insight into its life cycle. The novel alga differs significantly from the related chromerid C. velia in life cycle, morphology as well as the plastid genome. Analysis of photosynthetic pigments on the other hand demonstrate that both chromerids lack chlorophyll c, the hallmark of phototrophic chromalveolates. Based on the relatively high divergence between C. velia and V. brassicaformis, we propose their classification into distinct families Chromeraceae and Vitrellaceae. Moreover, we predict a hidden and unexplored diversity of the chromerid algae. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Immunity to gastrointestinal microparasites of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Estensoro, Itziar; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-11-01

    Fish intestinal parasites cause direct mortalities and also morbidity, poor growth, higher susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens and lower resistance to stress. This review is focused on microscopic parasites (Protozoa and Metazoa) that invade the gastrointestinal tract of fish. Intracellular parasites (mainly Microsporidia and Apicomplexa) evoke almost no host immune reaction while they are concealed in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, and can even use fish cells (macrophages) as Trojan horses to spread in the host. Inflammatory reaction only appears when the parasite bursts infected cells. Immunity against extracellular parasites is depicted for the myxozoans Ceratonova shasta and Enteromyxum spp. The cellular and humoral innate responses and the production of antibodies are crucial for resolving some of these myxozoonoses, but an excessive inflammatory reaction (concerted by cytokines) can become a fatal pathophysiological consequence. The local immune response plays a key role, with numerous genes more strongly regulated in the intestine than at lymphohaematopoietic organs. PMID:26828391

  2. Protective effect of intranasal immunization with Neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreirinha, Pedro; Dias, Joana; Correia, Alexandra; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santos, Carlos; Teixeira, Luzia; Ribeiro, Adília; Rocha, António; Vilanova, Manuel

    2014-02-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite that in the last two decades was acknowledged as the main pathogenic agent responsible for economic losses in the cattle industry. In the present study, the effectiveness of intranasal immunization with N. caninum membrane antigens plus CpG adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of intragastrically established neosporosis. Immunized mice presented a lower parasitic burden in the brain on infection with 5 × 10(7) tachyzoites, showing that significant protection was achieved by this immunization strategy. Intestinal IgA antibodies raised by immunization markedly agglutinated live N. caninum tachyzoites whereas previous opsonization with IgG antibodies purified from immunized mice sera reduced parasite survival within macrophage cells. Although an IgG1 : IgG2a ratio parasite-specific mucosal and circulating antibodies have a protective role against this parasitic infection. PMID:24128071

  3. Functional characterization of a redundant Plasmodium TRAP family invasin, TRAP-like protein, by aldolase binding and a genetic complementation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Kirsten; Nie, Hui; Kumar, Sumit; Daly, Thomas M; Bergman, Lawrence W; Matuschewski, Kai

    2008-06-01

    Efficient and specific host cell entry is of exquisite importance for intracellular pathogens. Parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa are highly motile and actively enter host cells. These functions are mediated by type I transmembrane invasins of the TRAP family that link an extracellular recognition event to the parasite actin-myosin motor machinery. We systematically tested potential parasite invasins for binding to the actin bridging molecule aldolase and complementation of the vital cytoplasmic domain of the sporozoite invasin TRAP. We show that the ookinete invasin CTRP and a novel, structurally related protein, termed TRAP-like protein (TLP), are functional members of the TRAP family. Although TLP is expressed in invasive stages, targeted gene disruption revealed a nonvital role during life cycle progression. This is the first genetic analysis of TLP, encoding a redundant TRAP family invasin, in the malaria parasite. PMID:18441124

  4. Malaria immunity in man and mosquito: insights into unsolved mysteries of a deadly infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Peter D; Moebius, Jacqueline; Portugal, Silvia; Waisberg, Michael; Hart, Geoffrey; Garver, Lindsey S; Miller, Louis H; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pierce, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites of the obligate intracellular Apicomplexa phylum the most deadly of which, Plasmodium falciparum, prevails in Africa. Malaria imposes a huge health burden on the world's most vulnerable populations, claiming the lives of nearly one million children and pregnant women each year. Although there is keen interest in eradicating malaria, we do not yet have the necessary tools to meet this challenge, including an effective malaria vaccine and adequate vector control strategies. Here we review what is known about the mechanisms at play in immune resistance to malaria in both the human and mosquito hosts at each step in the parasite's complex life cycle with a view toward developing the tools that will contribute to the prevention of disease and death and, ultimately, to the goal of malaria eradication. In so doing, we hope to inspire immunologists to participate in defeating this devastating disease. PMID:24655294

  5. Malaria immunity in man and mosquito: insights into unsolved mysteries of a deadly infectious disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Peter D.; Moebius, Jacqueline; Portugal, Silvia; Waisberg, Michael; Hart, Geoffrey; Garver, Lindsey S.; Miller, Louis H.; Barillas, Carolina; Pierce, Susan K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites of the obligate intracellular Apicomplexa family, the most deadly of which, Plasmodium falciparum, prevails in Africa. Malaria imposes a huge health burden on the world’s most vulnerable populations, claiming the lives of nearly a million children and pregnant women each year in Africa alone. Although there is keen interest in eradicating malaria, we do not yet have the necessary tools to meet this challenge, including an effective malaria vaccine and adequate vector control strategies. Here we review what is known about the mechanisms at play in immune resistance to malaria in both the human and mosquito hosts at each step in the parasite’s complex life cycle with a view towards developing the tools that will contribute to the prevention of disease and death and ultimately the goal of malaria eradication. In so doing we hope to inspire immunologists to participate in defeating this devastating disease. PMID:24655294

  6. Survey for natural Neospora caninum infection in wild and captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Tiago W P; Carrasco, Adriano O T; Raso, Tânia F; Werther, Karin; Pinto, Aramis A; Machado, Rosangela Z

    2011-12-15

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that presents worldwide distribution and is mainly implicated as responsible for bovine abortion. Although the presence of birds in cattle-raising properties is positively correlated to higher infection rates, very little has been described about the role of these animals in the parasite's life cycle. In that sense, this work aimed to investigate the serological and histological positivity of different avian species sampled in its natural habitat or in captivity. No serological positivity was observed in the 294 tested serum samples. On the other hand, Apicomplexa-like cysts found in muscular tissues of two Psittaciformes were immunostained with N. caninum antisera. These findings indicate that N. caninum may infect a wider range of hosts than described to date, and that further studies should be performed in order to determine the presence of the infection in different avian species. PMID:21680099

  7. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus. The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatee. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from ten free-ranging Amazonian manatees, two specimens in captivity, and 103 supernatants fecal samples. The samples were processed by the sedimentation method in formol-ether and Kinyoun stain technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp.. The positive samples were then submitted to Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed 4.34% (05/115 of positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Amazonian manatee.

  8. Emergence of Mutations in the K13 Propeller Gene of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Dakar, Senegal, in 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaroque, Agathe; Fall, Bécaye; Madamet, Marylin; Camara, Cheikhou; Benoit, Nicolas; Fall, Mansour; Nakoulima, Aminata; Dionne, Pierre; Fall, Kadidiatou Ba; Diatta, Bakary; Diémé, Yaya; Wade, Boubacar; Pradines, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The kelch 13 (K13) propeller gene is associated with artemisinin resistance. In a previous work, there were no mutations found in 138 Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in 2012 and 2013 from patients residing in Dakar, Senegal (M. Torrentino-Madamet et al., Malar J 13:472, 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-472). However, the N554H, Q613H, and V637I mutations were identified in the propeller region of K13 in 92 (5.5%) isolates in 2013 and 2014. There were five polymorphisms identified in the Plasmodium/Apicomplexa-specific domain (K123R, N137S, N142NN/NNN, T149S, and K189T/N). PMID:26503652

  9. [The taxonomic rank and place of Colpodellida in the system of the Protista].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myl'nikov, A P; Krylov, M V; Frolov, A O

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of ultrastructure organisation and divergent processes in Colpodellida, Perkinsida, Gregarinea and Coccidea has confirmed the presence of unique basic structures in all of these organisms and the necessity to combine them into the single phylum Sporozoa. A taxonomic rank and place of Colpodellida in the system of living organisms is represented as follows: phylum Sporozoa Leuckart, 1879; em. Krylov, Mylnikov, 1986. (Syn.: Apicomplexa Levine, 1970). Predators or parasites. Common basic structure: pellicular membranes, subpellicular microtubules, micropores, conoid, rhoptries and micronemes, tubular mitochondrial cristae. Class Perkinsea Levine, 1978. Predators or parasites, vegetative stages with two heterodynamic flagella. Subclass 1. Colpodellia nom. nov. (Syn.: Spiromonadia Krylov, Mylnikov, 1986). Predators, two heterodynamic flagella with string-like mastigonemes (if present), division is exclusively within a cyst, with 2-4 daughter cells being produced, extrusomes are trichocyst-like. Subclass 2. Perkinsia Levine, 1978. Parasites, zoospores with two heterodynamic flagella, mastigonemes (if present) bristle-like or string-like. PMID:10750150

  10. Expression of Cryptosporidium parvum Cpa135/CpCCP1 chimeras in Giardia duodenalis: organization of the protein domains affects the protein secretion pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalle, Marco; Rosati, Maria Adelaide; Bien, Justina; Hehl, Adrian B; Pozio, Edoardo; Tosini, Fabio

    2011-03-01

    Cpa135 is a multidomain antigenic protein secreted at the sporozoite stage of the Apicomplexa protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum. Previous studies have shown that the protozoan flagellate parasite Giardia duodenalis is a suitable system for the heterologous expression of secreted proteins of Apicomplexa. Here, we designed three different Cpa135 variants fused to a C-terminal HA tag in order to test their expression in G. duodenalis under the control of the inducible promoter of the cyst wall protein 1 gene (cwp1). The three Cpa135 chimeras encompassed different portions of the protein; CpaG encodes the entire polypeptide of 1574 amino acids (aa); CpaGΔC includes the first 826 aa at the N-terminus; and CpaGΔN consists in of the final 833 aa at the C-terminus. Immunoblot experiments showed that CpaG and CpaGΔN maintained the epitopes recognized by anti-C. parvum-specific human serum. The intracellular localization and transport of the three Cpa135 variants were studied by immunofluorescence in combination with G. duodenalis-specific antibodies. CpaGΔC was mainly accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum and the intact form was also excreted in the medium. Differently, the Cpa135 chimeras possessing an intact C-terminus (CpaG and CpaGΔN) were transported towards the forming cyst wall possibly and were not detected in the medium. Furthermore, the full-length CpaG was incorporated into the cyst wall. The data presented suggest that the C-terminus of Cpa135, which includes a cysteine reach domain, could influence the secretion of the chimeric proteins. PMID:21112325

  11. Novel type of linear mitochondrial genomes with dual flip-flop inversion system in apicomplexan parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikosaka Kenji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial (mt genomes vary considerably in size, structure and gene content. The mt genomes of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes important human pathogens such as the malaria parasite Plasmodium, also show marked diversity of structure. Plasmodium has a concatenated linear mt genome of the smallest size (6-kb; Babesia and Theileria have a linear monomeric mt genome (6.5-kb to 8.2-kb with terminal inverted repeats; Eimeria, which is distantly related to Plasmodium and Babesia/Theileria, possesses a mt genome (6.2-kb with a concatemeric form similar to that of Plasmodium; Cryptosporidium, the earliest branching lineage within the phylum Apicomplexa, has no mt genome. We are interested in the evolutionary origin of linear mt genomes of Babesia/Theileria, and have investigated mt genome structures in members of archaeopiroplasmid, a lineage branched off earlier from Babesia/Theileria. Results The complete mt genomes of archaeopiroplasmid parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini, were sequenced. The mt genomes of B. microti (11.1-kb and B. rodhaini (6.9-kb possess two pairs of unique inverted repeats, IR-A and IR-B. Flip-flop inversions between two IR-As and between two IR-Bs appear to generate four distinct genome structures that are present at an equi-molar ratio. An individual parasite contained multiple mt genome structures, with 20 copies and 2 – 3 copies per haploid nuclear genome in B. microti and B. rodhaini, respectively. Conclusion We found a novel linear monomeric mt genome structure of B. microti and B. rhodhaini equipped with dual flip-flop inversion system, by which four distinct genome structures are readily generated. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the presence of two pairs of distinct IR sequences within a monomeric linear mt genome. The present finding provides insight into further understanding of evolution of mt genome structure.

  12. Ocorrência de anticorpos anti-Neospora caninum em pequenas propriedades leiteiras do Uruguai Occurrence of anti-Neospora caninum antibodies in small dairy farms in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Furtado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neosporose é uma doença de distribuição mundial causada por um protozoário (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae, denominado Neospora caninum (N. caninum. Na América Latina, o protozoário foi diagnosticado no Uruguai, Brasil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguai e Peru. No Uruguai a prevalência em rebanhos leiteiros não foi determinada, havendo somente levantamentos sorológicos de algumas regiões do país em propriedades rurais de médio e grande porte. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a presença de animais sorologicamente positivos contra N. caninum em bacias leiteiras de pequenas propriedades com baixos recursos socioeconômicos da zona central do Uruguai (Estados de Durazno e Tacuarembó. Utilizando um Kit de ELISA comercial, foram analisados 734 soros provenientes de vacas leiteiras adultas, obtendo-se 211 positivos (28,8%, 517 negativos (70,5% e seis animais com resultado não determinado (0,7%. Nossos resultados demonstram a exposição destes rebanhos ao parasito, sendo este o primeiro inquérito sorológico de N. caninum em bacias leiteiras de pequenas propriedades no Uruguai.Neosporosis is a worldwide disease caused by a protozoan (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae, called Neospora caninum (N. caninum. In Latin America was diagnosed in Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Peru. In Uruguay, the prevalence in dairy cattle is undetermined, with only a few reports in some areas from medium and large farmers. The main of this study was to determine the presence of serologically positive animals against N. caninum in small dairy farmers in critical context from central region of Uruguay (Departments of Durazno and Tacuarembó. Using a commercial ELISA kit, 734 sera of adult dairy cows were analyzed, resulting in 211 positive (28.8%, 517 negative (70.5% and six animals with uncertain outcome (0.7%. The results demonstrated the exposure of cattle to the parasite, which is the first serological survey of N. caninum in basins of small dairy

  13. Recombinant production, purification and crystallization of the Toxoplasma gondii coronin WD40 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Juha Pekka; Kursula, Inari

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely spread parasitic organisms in the world. Together with other apicomplexan parasites, it utilizes a special actin-myosin motor for its cellular movement, called gliding motility. This actin-based process is regulated by a small set of actin-binding proteins, which in Apicomplexa comprises only 10-15 proteins, compared with >150 in higher eukaryotes. Coronin is a highly conserved regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, but its functions, especially in parasites, have remained enigmatic. Coronins consist of an N-terminal actin-binding β-propeller WD40 domain, followed by a conserved region, and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain implicated in oligomerization. Here, the WD40 domain and the conserved region of coronin from T. gondii were produced recombinantly and crystallized. A single-wavelength diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 1.65 Å. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 55.13, b = 82.51, c = 156.98 Å. PMID:24699753

  14. The apical complex provides a regulated gateway for secretion of invasion factors in Toxoplasma.

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    Nicholas J Katris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring--the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites.

  15. Translational repression of the cpw-wpc gene family in the malaria parasite Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pavitra N; Santos, Jorge M; Pain, Arnab; Templeton, Thomas J; Mair, Gunnar R

    2016-10-01

    The technical challenges of working with the sexual stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium have hindered the characterization of sexual stage antigens in the quest for a successful malaria transmission-blocking vaccine. One such predicted and largely uncharacterized group of sexual stage candidate antigens is the CPW-WPC family of proteins. CPW-WPC proteins are named for a characteristic domain that contains two conserved motifs, CPxxW and WPC. Conserved across Apicomplexa, this family is also present earlier in the Alveolata in the free-living, non-parasitophorous, photosynthetic chromerids, Chromera and Vitrella. In Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei blood stage parasites, the transcripts of all nine cpw-wpc genes have been detected in gametocytes. RNA immunoprecipitation followed by reverse transcriptase-PCR reveals all P. berghei cpw-wpc transcripts to be bound by the translational repressors DOZI and CITH, and thus are likely under translational control prior to transmission from the rodent host to the mosquito vector in P. berghei. The GFP tagging of two endogenous P. berghei genes confirmed translational silencing in the gametocyte and translation in ookinetes. By establishing a luciferase transgene assay, we show that the 3' untranslated region of PF3D7_1331400 controls protein expression of this reporter in P. falciparum gametocytes. Our analyses suggest that cpw-wpc genes are translationally silenced in gametocytes across Plasmodium spp. and activated during ookinete formation and thus may have a role in transmission to the mosquito. PMID:27312996

  16. Chromerid genomes reveal the evolutionary path from photosynthetic algae to obligate intracellular parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Woo, Yong H.

    2015-07-15

    The eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa encompasses thousands of obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals with immense socio-economic and health impacts. We sequenced nuclear genomes of Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, free-living non-parasitic photosynthetic algae closely related to apicomplexans. Proteins from key metabolic pathways and from the endomembrane trafficking systems associated with a free-living lifestyle have been progressively and non-randomly lost during adaptation to parasitism. The free-living ancestor contained a broad repertoire of genes many of which were repurposed for parasitic processes, such as extracellular proteins, components of a motility apparatus, and DNA- and RNA-binding protein families. Based on transcriptome analyses across 36 environmental conditions, Chromera orthologs of apicomplexan invasion-related motility genes were co-regulated with genes encoding the flagellar apparatus, supporting the functional contribution of flagella to the evolution of invasion machinery. This study provides insights into how obligate parasites with diverse life strategies arose from a once free-living phototrophic marine alga. © Woo et al.

  17. Histopathological survey of the mussel Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae and the clam Gari solida (Psammobiidae from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Cremonte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 175 specimens of mussels, Mytilus chilensis (Mytilidae, and 56 specimens of clams, Gari solida (Psammobiidae, were collected in natural beds and culture sites of southern Chile. Juvenile mussel specimens (3 cm of maximum length were free of parasites and diseases, whilst the commercial sized populations was parasitized by intracellular inclusions of bacteria-like organisms in the digestive gland epithelium and in the gills, by ciliates in the gills, turbellarians similar to Paravortex (Rhabocoela in the intestine lumen and copepods attached to the gills. In addition, the disseminated neoplasia disease was also present although in low prevalences. In the clam, G. solida, prokariotic inclusions were found in the digestive gland epithelium and bacteria-like organisms in the gills, often encapsulated by haemocytes; oocysts containing up to 8 sporozoites similar to Nematopsis (Apicomplexa in the connective tissue, causing haemocytic infiltration when the intensity of infection was high; ciliates belonging to two different species (one of them similar to Trichodina inhabiting the gills; and a turbellarian similar to Paravortex in the lumen of digestive system without apparent host reaction. The populations of the bivalve species here studied were devoid of serious pathogens.

  18. Intravacuolar Membranes Regulate CD8 T Cell Recognition of Membrane-Bound Toxoplasma gondii Protective Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie Lopez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii target effectors to and across the boundary of their parasitophorous vacuole (PV, resulting in host cell subversion and potential presentation by MHC class I molecules for CD8 T cell recognition. The host-parasite interface comprises the PV limiting membrane and a highly curved, membranous intravacuolar network (IVN of uncertain function. Here, using a cell-free minimal system, we dissect how membrane tubules are shaped by the parasite effectors GRA2 and GRA6. We show that membrane association regulates access of the GRA6 protective antigen to the MHC I pathway in infected cells. Although insertion of GRA6 in the PV membrane is key for immunogenicity, association of GRA6 with the IVN limits presentation and curtails GRA6-specific CD8 responses in mice. Thus, membrane deformations of the PV regulate access of antigens to the MHC class I pathway, and the IVN may play a role in immune modulation.

  19. Organisation and sequence determination of glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2003-01-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II encodes the first enzymic step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is essential for Toxoplasma gondii replication and virulence. In this study, we characterised the primary structure of a 28kb gene encoding Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II. The carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II gene was interrupted by 36 introns. The predicted protein encoded by the 37 carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II exons was a 1,687 amino acid polypeptide with an N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase domain fused with C-terminal carbamoyl phosphate synthetase domains. This bifunctional organisation of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II is unique, so far, to protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Babesia, Toxoplasma) or zoomastigina (Trypanosoma, Leishmania). Apicomplexan parasites possessed the largest carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II enzymes due to insertions in the glutamine amidotransferase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase domains that were not present in the corresponding gene segments from bacteria, plants, fungi and mammals. The C-terminal allosteric regulatory domain, the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase linker domain and the oligomerisation domain were also distinct from the corresponding domains in other species. The novel C-terminal regulatory domain may explain the lack of activation of Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II by the allosteric effector 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate. Toxoplasma gondii growth in vitro was markedly inhibited by the glutamine antagonist acivicin, an inhibitor of glutamine amidotransferase activity typically associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II, guanosine monophosphate synthetase, or CTP synthetase. PMID:12547350

  20. 4-Bromophenacyl bromide specifically inhibits rhoptry secretion during Toxoplasma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Sandeep; Lodoen, Melissa B; Verhelst, Steven H L; Bogyo, Matthew; Boothroyd, John C

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a eukaryotic parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa that is able to infect a wide variety of host cells. During its active invasion process it secretes proteins from discrete secretory organelles: the micronemes, rhoptries and dense granules. Although a number of rhoptry proteins have been shown to be involved in important interactions with the host cell, very little is known about the mechanism of secretion of any Toxoplasma protein into the host cell. We used a chemical inhibitor of phospholipase A2s, 4-bromophenacyl bromide (4-BPB), to look at the role of such lipases in the secretion of Toxoplasma proteins. We found that 4-BPB was a potent inhibitor of rhoptry secretion in Toxoplasma invasion. This drug specifically blocked rhoptry secretion but not microneme secretion, thus effectively showing that the two processes can be de-coupled. It affected parasite motility and invasion, but not attachment or egress. Using propargyl- or azido-derivatives of the drug (so-called click chemistry derivatives) and a series of 4-BPB-resistant mutants, we found that the drug has a very large number of target proteins in the parasite that are involved in at least two key steps: invasion and intracellular growth. This potent compound, the modified "click-chemistry" forms of it, and the resistant mutants should serve as useful tools to further study the processes of Toxoplasma early invasion, in general, and rhoptry secretion, in particular. PMID:19956582

  1. Complex polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance protein 2 gene and its contribution to antimalarial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Maria Isabel; Osório, Nuno S; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo; Franzén, Oscar; Dahlstrom, Sabina; Lum, J Koji; Nosten, Francois; Gil, José Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum has the capacity to escape the actions of essentially all antimalarial drugs. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins are known to cause multidrug resistance in a large range of organisms, including the Apicomplexa parasites. P. falciparum genome analysis has revealed two genes coding for the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) type of ABC transporters: Pfmrp1, previously associated with decreased parasite drug susceptibility, and the poorly studied Pfmrp2. The role of Pfmrp2 polymorphisms in modulating sensitivity to antimalarial drugs has not been established. We herein report a comprehensive account of the Pfmrp2 genetic variability in 46 isolates from Thailand. A notably high frequency of 2.8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/kb was identified for this gene, including some novel SNPs. Additionally, we found that Pfmrp2 harbors a significant number of microindels, some previously not reported. We also investigated the potential association of the identified Pfmrp2 polymorphisms with altered in vitro susceptibility to several antimalarials used in artemisinin-based combination therapy and with parasite clearance time. Association analysis suggested Pfmrp2 polymorphisms modulate the parasite's in vitro response to quinoline antimalarials, including chloroquine, piperaquine, and mefloquine, and association with in vivo parasite clearance. In conclusion, our study reveals that the Pfmrp2 gene is the most diverse ABC transporter known in P. falciparum with a potential role in antimalarial drug resistance. PMID:25267670

  2. Towards a molecular understanding of the apicomplexan actin motor: on a road to novel targets for malaria remedies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpula, Esa-Pekka [University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); German Electron Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kursula, Inari, E-mail: inari.kursula@helmholtz-hzi.de [University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); German Electron Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, 5009 Bergen (Norway)

    2015-04-16

    In this review, current structural understanding of the apicomplexan glideosome and actin regulation is described. Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of notorious human and animal diseases that give rise to considerable human suffering and economic losses worldwide. The most prominent parasites of this phylum are the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, which are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, and Toxoplasma gondii, which infects one third of the world’s population. These parasites share a common form of gliding motility which relies on an actin–myosin motor. The components of this motor and the actin-regulatory proteins in Apicomplexa have unique features compared with all other eukaryotes. This, together with the crucial roles of these proteins, makes them attractive targets for structure-based drug design. In recent years, several structures of glideosome components, in particular of actins and actin regulators from apicomplexan parasites, have been determined, which will hopefully soon allow the creation of a complete molecular picture of the parasite actin–myosin motor and its regulatory machinery. Here, current knowledge of the function of this motor is reviewed from a structural perspective.

  3. Transcriptome of Aphanomyces euteiches: new oomycete putative pathogenicity factors and metabolic pathways.

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    Elodie Gaulin

    Full Text Available Aphanomyces euteiches is an oomycete pathogen that causes seedling blight and root rot of legumes, such as alfalfa and pea. The genus Aphanomyces is phylogenically distinct from well-studied oomycetes such as Phytophthora sp., and contains species pathogenic on plants and aquatic animals. To provide the first foray into gene diversity of A. euteiches, two cDNA libraries were constructed using mRNA extracted from mycelium grown in an artificial liquid medium or in contact to plant roots. A unigene set of 7,977 sequences was obtained from 18,864 high-quality expressed sequenced tags (ESTs and characterized for potential functions. Comparisons with oomycete proteomes revealed major differences between the gene content of A. euteiches and those of Phytophthora species, leading to the identification of biosynthetic pathways absent in Phytophthora, of new putative pathogenicity genes and of expansion of gene families encoding extracellular proteins, notably different classes of proteases. Among the genes specific of A. euteiches are members of a new family of extracellular proteins putatively involved in adhesion, containing up to four protein domains similar to fungal cellulose binding domains. Comparison of A. euteiches sequences with proteomes of fully sequenced eukaryotic pathogens, including fungi, apicomplexa and trypanosomatids, allowed the identification of A. euteiches genes with close orthologs in these microorganisms but absent in other oomycetes sequenced so far, notably transporters and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and suggests the presence of a defense mechanism against oxidative stress which was initially characterized in the pathogenic trypanosomatids.

  4. Subcompartmentalisation of proteins in the rhoptries correlates with ordered events of erythrocyte invasion by the blood stage malaria parasite.

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    Elizabeth S Zuccala

    Full Text Available Host cell infection by apicomplexan parasites plays an essential role in lifecycle progression for these obligate intracellular pathogens. For most species, including the etiological agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, infection requires active host-cell invasion dependent on formation of a tight junction - the organising interface between parasite and host cell during entry. Formation of this structure is not, however, shared across all Apicomplexa or indeed all parasite lifecycle stages. Here, using an in silico integrative genomic search and endogenous gene-tagging strategy, we sought to characterise proteins that function specifically during junction-dependent invasion, a class of proteins we term invasins to distinguish them from adhesins that function in species specific host-cell recognition. High-definition imaging of tagged Plasmodium falciparum invasins localised proteins to multiple cellular compartments of the blood stage merozoite. This includes several that localise to distinct subcompartments within the rhoptries. While originating from the same organelle, however, each has very different dynamics during invasion. Apical Sushi Protein and Rhoptry Neck protein 2 release early, following the junction, whilst a novel rhoptry protein PFF0645c releases only after invasion is complete. This supports the idea that organisation of proteins within a secretory organelle determines the order and destination of protein secretion and provides a localisation-based classification strategy for predicting invasin function during apicomplexan parasite invasion.

  5. Translational repression of the cpw-wpc gene family in the malaria parasite Plasmodium

    KAUST Repository

    Rao, Pavitra N.

    2016-06-14

    The technical challenges of working with the sexual stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium have hindered the characterization of sexual stage antigens in the quest for a successful malaria transmission-blocking vaccine. One such predicted and largely uncharacterized group of sexual stage candidate antigens is the CPW-WPC family of proteins. CPW-WPC proteins are named for a characteristic domain that contains two conserved motifs, CPxxW and WPC. Conserved across Apicomplexa, this family is also present earlier in the Alveolata in the free-living, non-parasitophorous, photosynthetic chromerids, Chromera and Vitrella. In P. falciparum and P. berghei blood stage parasites the transcripts of all nine cpw-wpc genes have been detected in gametocytes. RNA immunoprecipitation followed by reverse transcriptase-PCR reveals all P. berghei cpw-wpc transcripts to be bound by the translational repressors DOZI and CITH, and thus are likely under translational control prior to transmission from the rodent host to the mosquito vector in P. berghei. The GFP tagging of two endogenous P. berghei genes confirmed translational silencing in the gametocyte and translation in ookinetes. Establishing a luciferase transgene assay we show that the 3′ untranslated region of PF3D7_1331400 controls protein expression of this reporter in P. falciparum gametocytes. Our analyses suggest that cpw-wpc genes are translationally silenced in gametocytes across Plasmodium spp. and activated during ookinete formation and thus may have a role in transmission to the mosquito.

  6. Characterization of eukaryotic microbial diversity in hypersaline Lake Tyrrell, Australia

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    Karla B Heidelberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the community structure of the microbial eukaryotic community from hypersaline Lake Tyrrell, Australia, using near full length 18S rRNA sequences. Water samples were taken in both summer and winter over a four year period. The extent of eukaryotic diversity detected was low, with only 35 unique phylotypes using a 97% sequence similarity threshold. The water samples were dominated (91% by a novel cluster of the Alveolate, Apicomplexa Colpodella spp., most closely related to C. edax. The Chlorophyte, Dunaliella spp. accounted for less than 35% of water column samples. However, the eukaryotic community entrained in a salt crust sample was vastly different and was dominated (83% by the Dunaliella spp. The patterns described here represent the first observation of microbial eukaryotic dynamics in this system and provide a multiyear comparison of community composition by season. The lack of expected seasonal distribution in eukaryotic communities paired with abundant nanoflagellates suggests that grazing may significantly structure microbial eukaryotic communities in this system.

  7. Amplicon-Based Pyrosequencing Reveals High Diversity of Protistan Parasites in Ships' Ballast Water: Implications for Biogeography and Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagenkopp Lohan, K M; Fleischer, R C; Carney, K J; Holzer, K K; Ruiz, G M

    2016-04-01

    Ships' ballast water (BW) commonly moves macroorganisms and microorganisms across the world's oceans and along coasts; however, the majority of these microbial transfers have gone undetected. We applied high-throughput sequencing methods to identify microbial eukaryotes, specifically emphasizing the protistan parasites, in ships' BW collected from vessels calling to the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland, USA) from European and Eastern Canadian ports. We utilized tagged-amplicon 454 pyrosequencing with two general primer sets, amplifying either the V4 or V9 domain of the small subunit (SSU) of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene complex, from total DNA extracted from water samples collected from the ballast tanks of bulk cargo vessels. We detected a diverse group of protistan taxa, with some known to contain important parasites in marine systems, including Apicomplexa (unidentified apicomplexans, unidentified gregarines, Cryptosporidium spp.), Dinophyta (Blastodinium spp., Euduboscquella sp., unidentified syndinids, Karlodinium spp., Syndinium spp.), Perkinsea (Parvilucifera sp.), Opisthokonta (Ichthyosporea sp., Pseudoperkinsidae, unidentified ichthyosporeans), and Stramenopiles (Labyrinthulomycetes). Further characterization of groups with parasitic taxa, consisting of phylogenetic analyses for four taxa (Cryptosporidium spp., Parvilucifera spp., Labyrinthulomycetes, and Ichthyosporea), revealed that sequences were obtained from both known and novel lineages. This study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing is a viable and sensitive method for detecting parasitic protists when present and transported in the ballast water of ships. These data also underscore the potential importance of human-aided dispersal in the biogeography of these microbes and emerging diseases in the world's oceans. PMID:26476551

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of inner membrane complex (IMC) subcompartment protein 1 (ISP1) from Toxoplasma gondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the ISP family of proteins present in apicomplexan parasites, ISP1 from T. gondii was expressed, purified and crystallized. Two crystal forms (cubic and orthorhombic) were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and data were processed to 2.05 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively. The protozoan parasites of the Apicomplexa phylum are devastating global pathogens. Their success is largely due to phylum-specific proteins found in specialized organelles and cellular structures. The inner membrane complex (IMC) is a unique apicomplexan structure that is essential for motility, invasion and replication. The IMC subcompartment proteins (ISP) have recently been identified in Toxoplasma gondii and shown to be critical for replication, although their specific mechanisms are unknown. Structural characterization of TgISP1 was pursued in order to identify the fold adopted by the ISPs and to generate detailed insight into how this family of proteins functions during replication. An N-terminally truncated form of TgISP1 was purified from Escherichia coli, crystallized and subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis. Two crystal forms of TgISP1 belonging to space groups P4132 or P4332 and P212121 diffracted to 2.05 and 2.1 Å resolution, respectively

  9. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae proteins into infected cells suggests an active role of microsporidia in the control of host programs and metabolic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderskiy, Igor V; Timofeev, Sergey A; Seliverstova, Elena V; Pavlova, Olga A; Dolgikh, Viacheslav V

    2014-01-01

    Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species), strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema) locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs. PMID:24705470

  10. Secretion of Antonospora (Paranosema locustae proteins into infected cells suggests an active role of microsporidia in the control of host programs and metabolic processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V Senderskiy

    Full Text Available Molecular tools of the intracellular protozoan pathogens Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastida for manipulation of host cell machinery have been the focus of investigation for approximately two decades. Microsporidia, fungi-related microorganisms forming another large group of obligate intracellular parasites, are characterized by development in direct contact with host cytoplasm (the majority of species, strong minimization of cell machinery, and acquisition of unique transporters to exploit host metabolic system. All the aforementioned features are suggestive of the ability of microsporidia to modify host metabolic and regulatory pathways. Seven proteins of the microsporidium Antonospora (Paranosema locustae with predicted signal peptides but without transmembrane domains were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Western-blot analysis with antibodies against recombinant products showed secretion of parasite proteins from different functional categories into the infected host cell. Secretion of parasite hexokinase and α/β-hydrolase was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, this method showed specific accumulation of A. locustae hexokinase in host nuclei. Expression of hexokinase, trehalase, and two leucine-rich repeat proteins without any exogenous signal peptide led to their secretion in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In contrast, α/β-hydrolase was not found in the culture medium, though a significant amount of this enzyme accumulated in the yeast membrane fraction. These results suggest that microsporidia possess a broad set of enzymes and regulatory proteins secreted into infected cells to control host metabolic processes and molecular programs.

  11. Sarcocystid organisms found in bile from a dog with acute hepatitis: a case report and review of intestinal and hepatobiliary Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine L; Walker, Julie M; Friedrichs, Kristen R

    2016-03-01

    Sarcocystidae is a family of coccidian protozoa from the phylum Apicomplexa that includes Toxoplasma, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Hammondia, and Besnoitia spp. All species undergo a 2-host sexual and asexual cycle. In the definitive host, replication is enteroepithelial, and infection is typically asymptomatic or less commonly causes mild diarrhea. Clinical disease is most frequently observed in the intermediate host, often as an aberrant infection, and is mostly associated with neurologic, muscular, or hepatic inflammation. Here, we review the literature regarding intestinal Sarcocystidae infections in dogs and cats, with emphasis on the life cycle stages and the available diagnostic assays and their limitations. We also report the diagnostic findings for an 11-year-old dog with acute neutrophilic hepatitis, biliary protozoa, and negative biliary culture. Although Toxoplasma and Neospora IgG titers were both high, PCR for these 2 organisms was negative for bile. The organisms were identified by 18S rDNA PCR as most consistent with Hammondia, either H heydorni or H triffittae. This is the first report of presumed Hammondia organisms being found in canine bile. PMID:26870918

  12. Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera

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    Røed Knut H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT. Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI. Results The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. Conclusions Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area.

  13. Identification of bovine Neospora parasites by PCR amplification and specific small-subunit rRNA sequence probe hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M S; Barr, B C; Marsh, A E; Anderson, M L; Rowe, J D; Tarantal, A F; Hendrickx, A G; Sverlow, K; Dubey, J P; Conrad, P A

    1996-05-01

    Neospora is a newly recognized genus of pathogenic coccidia, closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, that can cause abortion or congenital disease in a variety of domestic animal hosts. On the basis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences of Neospora spp. and other apicomplexa coccidia, oligonucleotide primers COC-1 and COC-2 were used for PCR amplification of conserved sequences of approximately 300 bp in size. A Neospora-specific chemiluminescent probe hybridized to Southern blots of amplification products from Neospora DNA but not to Southern blots with amplified DNA from the other coccidian parasites tested. A Toxoplasma-specific probe whose sequence differed from that of the probe for Neospora spp. by a single base pair was used to distinguish these parasites by specific Southern blot hybridization. The PCR system detected as few as one Neospora tachyzoite in the culture medium or five tachyzoites in samples of whole blood or amniotic fluid spiked with Neospora parasites. In addition, Neospora PCR products were successfully amplified from whole blood and amniotic fluid samples of experimentally infected bovine and rhesus macaque fetuses. These results indicate that this PCR and probe hybridization system could be a valuable adjunct to serology and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Neospora infections in bovine or primate fetuses. PMID:8727903

  14. Purine salvage in the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona, and generation of hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient clones for positive-negative selection of transgenic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Zhang, Zijing; Howe, Daniel K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that causes severe neurological disease in horses and marine mammals. The Apicomplexa are all obligate intracellular parasites that lack purine biosynthesis pathways and rely on the host cell for their purine requirements. Hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) and adenosine kinase (AK) are key enzymes that function in two complementary purine salvage pathways in apicomplexans. Bioinformatic searches of the S. neurona genome revealed genes encoding HXGPRT, AK and all of the major purine salvage enzymes except purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Wild-type S. neurona were able to grow in the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) but were inhibited by 6-thioxanthine (6-TX), suggesting that the pathways involving either HXGPRT or AK are functional in this parasite. Prior work with Toxoplasma gondii demonstrated the utility of HXGPRT as a positive-negative selection marker. To enable the use of HXGPRT in S. neurona, the SnHXGPRT gene sequence was determined and a gene-targeting plasmid was transfected into S. neurona. SnHXGPRT-deficient mutants were selected with 6-TX, and single-cell clones were obtained. These Sn∆HXG parasites were susceptible to MPA and could be complemented using the heterologous T. gondii HXGPRT gene. In summary, S. neurona possesses both purine salvage pathways described in apicomplexans, thus allowing the use of HXGPRT as a positive-negative drug selection marker in this parasite. PMID:24923662

  15. First Molecular Characterization of Theileria ornithorhynchi Mackerras, 1959: yet Another Challenge to the Systematics of the Piroplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparini, Andrea; Macgregor, James; Ryan, Una M; Irwin, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Piroplasms, tick-transmitted Apicomplexa of the genera Theileria, Babesia and Cytauxzoon, are blood-borne parasites of clinical and veterinary importance. The order Piroplasmida shows a puzzling systematics characterized by multiple clades, soft polytomies and paraphyletic/polyphyletic genera. In the present study, screening of platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), was performed to infer the parasite molecular phylogeny. DNA was extracted from blood, ectoparasites and tick eggs and the 18S rRNA- hsp70-genes were used for the phylogenetic reconstructions. Microscopic analyses detected pleomorphic intra-erythrocytic organisms and tetrads consistent with previous descriptions of Theileria ornithorhynchi Mackerras, 1959, but observation of possible schizonts could not be confirmed. DNA sequences obtained from blood and ticks allowed resolving the systematics of the first piroplasm infecting a monotreme host. Molecularly, T. ornithorhynchi formed a novel monophyletic group, basal to most known piroplasms' clades. The ancestral position of this clade, isolated from an ancient lineage of mammalian host appears particularly fascinating. The present paper discusses the inadequacies of the current molecular systematics for the Piroplasmida and the consequences of incomplete sampling, morphology-based classification and ambiguous microscopic identifications. Likely when the current sampling bias is rectified and more sequence data is made available, the phylogenetic position of T. ornithorhynchi will be further contextualized without ambiguity. PMID:26599724

  16. Towards a molecular understanding of the apicomplexan actin motor: on a road to novel targets for malaria remedies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, current structural understanding of the apicomplexan glideosome and actin regulation is described. Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of notorious human and animal diseases that give rise to considerable human suffering and economic losses worldwide. The most prominent parasites of this phylum are the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, which are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, and Toxoplasma gondii, which infects one third of the world’s population. These parasites share a common form of gliding motility which relies on an actin–myosin motor. The components of this motor and the actin-regulatory proteins in Apicomplexa have unique features compared with all other eukaryotes. This, together with the crucial roles of these proteins, makes them attractive targets for structure-based drug design. In recent years, several structures of glideosome components, in particular of actins and actin regulators from apicomplexan parasites, have been determined, which will hopefully soon allow the creation of a complete molecular picture of the parasite actin–myosin motor and its regulatory machinery. Here, current knowledge of the function of this motor is reviewed from a structural perspective

  17. Three-dimensional visualisation of developmental stages of an apicomplexan fish blood parasite in its invertebrate host

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    Hayes Polly M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although widely used in medicine, the application of three-dimensional (3D imaging to parasitology appears limited to date. In this study, developmental stages of a marine fish haemogregarine, Haemogregarina curvata (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina, were investigated in their leech vector, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis; this involved 3D visualisation of brightfield and confocal microscopy images of histological sections through infected leech salivary gland cells. Findings 3D assessment demonstrated the morphology of the haemogregarine stages, their spatial layout, and their relationship with enlarged host cells showing reduced cellular content. Haemogregarine meronts, located marginally within leech salivary gland cells, had small tail-like connections to the host cell limiting membrane; this parasite-host cell interface was not visible in two-dimensional (2D light micrographs and no records of a similar connection in apicomplexan development have been traced. Conclusions This is likely the first account of the use of 3D visualisation to study developmental stages of an apicomplexan parasite in its invertebrate vector. Elucidation of the extent of development of the haemogregarine within the leech salivary cells, together with the unusual connections between meronts and the host cell membrane, illustrates the future potential of 3D visualisation in parasite-vector biology.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Plasmodium based on the gene encoding adenylosuccinate lyase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Lukasz; Escalante, Ananias A; Isea, Raul; Black, Casilda G; Barnwell, John W; Coppel, Ross L

    2002-07-01

    Phylogenetic studies of the genus Plasmodium have been performed using sequences of the nuclear, mitochondrial and plastid genes. Here we have analyzed the adenylosuccinate lyase (ASL) gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the salvage of host purines needed by malaria parasites for DNA synthesis. The ASL gene is present in several eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic organisms and does not have repeat regions, which facilitates the accuracy of the alignment. Furthermore, it has been shown that ASL is not subject to positive natural selection. We have sequenced the ASL gene of several different Plasmodium species infecting humans, rodents, monkeys and birds and used the obtained sequences along with the previously known P. falciparum ASL sequence, for structural and phylogenetic analysis of the genus Plasmodium. The genetic divergence of ASL is comparable with that observed in other nuclear genes such as cysteine proteinase, although ASL cannot be considered conserved when compared to aldolase or superoxide dismutase, which exhibit a slower rate of evolution. Nevertheless, a protein like ASL has a rate of evolution that provides enough information for elucidating evolutionary relationships. We modeled 3D structures of the ASL protein based on sequences used in the phylogenetic analysis and obtained a consistent structure for four different species despite the divergence observed. Such models would facilitate alignment in further studies with a greater number of plasmodial species or other Apicomplexa. PMID:12798008

  19. PRODUÇÃO DE HIBRIDOMAS SECRETORES DE ANTICORPOS ANTI- Neospora caninum PARA USO EM IMUNODIAGNÓSTICO

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    Bruna Alves Devens

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neospora caninum is a protozoan Apicomplexa with greater involvement in abortions worldwide. The economic losses determined by neosporosis also include abortions besides the early disposal of cows, costs for replacing animals in the herd, drop in milk production as well as milk in fat production. The immunological diagnosis involves purchasing costly diagnostic kits on the market. Therefore, the aim of this study was the production of hybridomas secreting polyclonal antibodies with affinity to Neospora caninum (Nc-1 strain for immunodiagnostic use. For antibodies production, we used sonicated protozoa from Vero cells in culture, purified by filtration. These tachyzoites were employed for immunization of BALB / c mice using saponin as adjuvant, which allowed obtaining polyclonal antibodies capable of revealing fluorescein reaction in indirect immunofluorescence. The fusion of splenic cells, from the immunized mice with myeloma cells SP2 / 0 resulted in 72.4% hybridomas secreting anti-Nc-1antibodies. These hybridomas secreted antibodies positive to N. caninum and negative to Toxoplasma gondii.

  20. Prevalence of Protozoa Species in Drinking and Environmental Water Sources in Sudan

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    Salah Shanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8% amoebae, 17 (25.7% Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9% ciliates, and 5 (7.6% flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  1. Unconventional endosome-like compartment and retromer complex in Toxoplasma gondii govern parasite integrity and host infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaré, Lamba Omar; Alayi, Tchilabalo Dilezitoko; Westermann, Benoit; Hovasse, Agnes; Sindikubwabo, Fabien; Callebaut, Isabelle; Werkmeister, Elisabeth; Lafont, Frank; Slomianny, Christian; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Schaeffer-Reiss, Christine; Tomavo, Stanislas

    2016-01-01

    Membrane trafficking pathways play critical roles in Apicomplexa, a phylum of protozoan parasites that cause life-threatening diseases worldwide. Here we report the first retromer-trafficking interactome in Toxoplasma gondii. This retromer complex includes a trimer Vps35–Vps26–Vps29 core complex that serves as a hub for the endosome-like compartment and parasite-specific proteins. Conditional ablation of TgVps35 reveals that the retromer complex is crucial for the biogenesis of secretory organelles and for maintaining parasite morphology. We identify TgHP12 as a parasite-specific and retromer-associated protein with functions unrelated to secretory organelle formation. Furthermore, the major facilitator superfamily homologue named TgHP03, which is a multiple spanning and ligand transmembrane transporter, is maintained at the parasite membrane by retromer-mediated endocytic recycling. Thus, our findings highlight that both evolutionarily conserved and unconventional proteins act in concert in T. gondii by controlling retrograde transport that is essential for parasite integrity and host infection. PMID:27064065

  2. Chemotherapy against babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Henri J; Gorenflot, A

    2006-05-31

    Babesiosis is caused by a haemotropic protozoal parasite of the genus Babesia, member of the phylum Apicomplexa and transmitted by the bite of an infected tick. There are many Babesia species affecting livestock, dogs, horses and rodents which are of economic significance. Infections can occur without producing symptoms, but babesiosis may also be severe and sometimes fatal caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite development. The disease can cause fever, fatigue and haemolytic anemia lasting from several days to several months. There are a number of effective babesiacides, but imidocarb dipropionate (which consistently clears the parasitaemia; often the only available drug on the market) and diminazene aceturate are the most widely used. Some Babesia spp. can infect humans, particularly Babesia microti and Babesia divergens, and human babesiosis is a significant emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease. Clinical manifestations differ markedly between European and North American diseases. In clinical cases, a combination of clindamycin and quinine is administered as the standard treatment, but also administration of atovaquone-azithromycin is successful. Supportive therapy such as intravenous fluids and blood transfusions are employed when necessary. More specific fast-acting new treatments for babesiosis have now to be developed. This should be facilitated by the knowledge of the Babesia spp. genome and increased interest for this malaria-like parasite. PMID:16504402

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF TWO NOVEL COCCIDIAN SPECIES SHED BY CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Johnson, Christine K.; Miller, Robin H.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Wasmuth, James D.; Colegrove, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst–forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal. PMID:22091999

  4. Mechanisms of invasion from sporozoite and merozoíto of Plasmodium

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    Lilian M. Spencer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria or paludismo is caused in humans by four species of Plasmodium belonging to phylum Apicomplexa: ovale, malaria, vivax and falciparum, being the last, the responsible of the clinical complication and death in the vertebrate host. Plasmodium parasite possess a specialized secretory organelles called rhoptries, micronemes and dense granules that facilitate invasion of host cells. The sporozoite stage of Plasmodium travels through the different cells of vertebrate host until it reaches the hepatocyte and have been form the parasitophorous vacuole. The infected hepatocytes rupture, results in the releasing thousands of daughter merozoites that invade the erythrocytes with the formation of parasitophorous vacuole too. Several researchers suggest the gliding motility mechanism as the responsible of hepatocyte invasion. While, which the erythrocyte invasion process has been described as the result of tree steps: first contact, re-orientation and invasion. In this review the surface proteins of merozoites and esporozoites are pointed out as the most important factors for the molecular invasion mechanisms until the elaboration of the parasitophorous vacuole. These proteins that take part in these mechanisms are the possible candidates in the design of an anti-malaria vaccine.

  5. Screening of potential targets in Plasmodium falciparum using stage-specific metabolic network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Neel; Dhandhukia, Pinakin; Roy, Nilanjan

    2015-11-01

    The Apicomplexa parasite Plasmodium is a major cause of death in developing countries which are less equipped to bring new medicines to the market. Currently available drugs used for treatment of malaria are limited either by inadequate efficacy, toxicity and/or increased resistance. Availability of the genome sequence, microarray data and metabolic profile of Plasmodium parasite offers an opportunity for the identification of stage-specific genes important to the organism's lifecycle. In this study, microarray data were analysed for differential expression and overlapped onto metabolic pathways to identify differentially regulated pathways essential for transition to successive erythrocytic stages. The results obtained indicate that S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase/ornithine decarboxylase, a bifunctional enzyme required for polyamine synthesis, is important for the Plasmodium cell growth in the absence of exogenous polyamines. S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase/ornithine decarboxylase is a valuable target for designing therapeutically useful inhibitors. One such inhibitor, [Formula: see text]-difluoromethyl ornithine, is currently in use for the treatment of African sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei. Structural studies of ornithine decarboxylase along with known inhibitors and their analogues were carried out to screen drug databases for more effective and less toxic compounds. PMID:26303382

  6. Neospora caninum in bovine fetuses of Minas Gerais, Brazil: genetic characteristics of rDNA Neospora caninum em fetos bovinos de Minas Gerais, Brasil: características genéticas do rDNA

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    Domingos Sávio dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neosporosis is an important cause of abortion in cattle and information on their genetics and host parasite relationships are desirable. Neospora caninum samples obtained from 24 bovine fetuses from Minas Gerais, were genetically analyzed in part of the rDNA region, coding for rRNAs. Previously, brain, heart, liver, skeletal muscle, lung, kidney, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, ovary or testis, uterus and skin of the ear were analyzed by conventional histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Of these, eight had lesions compatible in the brain and heart and two also in skeletal muscle and liver. Three brains showed antigen identification in immunohistochemistry. Brain and heart tissues were subjected to DNA extraction for PCR, whose product of 588 bp of ITS-1 region was sequenced in three samples. We obtained 96% similarity with dozens of sequences N. caninum deposited in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree showed great conservation among isolates of N. caninum in this study and those deposited in GenBank, while well-defined and specific branches were generated against other Apicomplexa. PCR for this region is useful as a diagnosis, with good analytical specificity, but the ITS-1 region is not suitable for genetic differentiation intra species because the sequences obtained were identical to the others analyzed.A neosporose é uma importante causa de abortos em bovinos, e informações sobre sua genética e relação parasito-hospedeiro são desejáveis. Amostras de Neospora caninum, obtidas de 24 conceptos bovinos oriundos de Minas Gerais, foram analisadas geneticamente em parte da região rDNA, codificadora de rRNAs. Previamente, cérebro, coração, fígado, músculo esquelético, pulmão, rim, baço, timo, linfonodos, ovário ou testículo, útero e pele da orelha foram analisados por histopatologia convencional e imuno-histoquímica. Dessas, oito apresentaram lesões compatíveis no encéfalo e coração e dois também no músculo esquelético e f

  7. [A potential zoonotic parasitosis: Coccidial dermatitis due to Caryospora. New techniques for exploration within human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euzeby, J

    1991-12-01

    The genus Caryospora belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, class Sporozasida, order Eucoccidiorida. The primary hosts of its species, the best known of which are C. simplex Leger 1904 and C. bigenetica Wacha and Christiansen 1982, are carnivorous reptiles and birds of prey. The life cycle of the parasites, in these primary hosts, is a typical coccidian one, monoxenous, leading to the production of sporulated oocysts, infectious for snakes and birds, in the enterocytes of which the parasite will evolve. Beside this life-cycle, another one may take place, involving secondary hosts; these are rodents, getting infected by sporulated oocysts produced by the primary hosts, and which allow an exenteral but complete life-cycle, in various tissues, mainly connective tissue and dermis. The upshot of this life-cycle is the production of caryocysts formed from sporozoïtes having left the sporulated oocysts in the infected exenteral tissues. An interesting point is that dog and pig may be infected either from oocysts emitted by primary hosts, or by consuming infected secondary hosts bearing caryoscysts. As a matter of fact, the infection can evolve among secondary hosts, without any passage in primary hosts. The infected dogs exhibit a severe, sometimes generalized pyo-granulomatous dermatitis, that, in deficient animals, may be associated with a poor general state of health. On the other hand, Caryospora species may grow and evolve in human cells grown in vitro. According to all these facts, one cannot help conjuring up the possibility, for man, to get the caryosporan infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1811832

  8. The unique adaptation of the life cycle of the coelomic gregarine Diplauxis hatti to its host Perinereis cultrifera (Annelida, Polychaeta): an experimental and ultrastructural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensier, Gerard; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Schrevel, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The coelomic gregarine Diplauxis hatti exhibits a unique adaptation of its life cycle to its polychaete host Perinereis cultrifera. Experimental and ultrastructural observations on natural populations from the English Channel showed that release of parasite spores is concomitant with the polychaete spawning. As the development of P. cultrifera is direct, the notochete larva ingest parts of the jelly coat covered with numerous sporocysts of D. hatti during hatching. Transepithelial migration of the sporozoites takes place in the gut of three- or four-segment notochete larvae and syzygies of about 20 microm are observed in the coelom. Growth of these young syzygies is slow: after 18-24 mo they reach only 60-70 microm. They exhibit active pendular movements. In the English Channel, female and male gametogenesis of P. cultrifera begins at 19 mo and 2 yr, respectively; the somatic transformations (epitoky) in the last 4 mo of their 3-year life. During epitoky, the syzygies undergo an impressive growth and reach 700-800 microm within a few weeks. A shift from pendular to active peristaltic motility is observed when the syzygies reach 200-250 microm. When gamogony occurs, syncytial nuclear divisions are initiated and cellularization produces hundred to thousands of male and female gametes of similar size. The male gametes exhibit a flagellum with 3+0 axoneme. The mixing of the gametes ("danse des gametes") and fertilization are observed during 4-5 h. Zygotes differentiate sporoblasts with eight sporozoites. The sporozoites exhibit the canonical structure of Apicomplexa, a polarized cell with micronemes and rhoptries. PMID:19120801

  9. The complete plastid genome sequence of the parasitic green alga Helicosporidium sp. is highly reduced and structured

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    Keeling Patrick J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of photosynthesis has occurred independently in several plant and algal lineages, and represents a major metabolic shift with potential consequences for the content and structure of plastid genomes. To investigate such changes, we sequenced the complete plastid genome of the parasitic, non-photosynthetic green alga, Helicosporidium. Results The Helicosporidium plastid genome is among the smallest known (37.5 kb, and like other plastids from non-photosynthetic organisms it lacks all genes for proteins that function in photosynthesis. Its reduced size results from more than just loss of genes, however; it has little non-coding DNA, with only one intron and tiny intergenic spaces, and no inverted repeat (no duplicated genes at all. It encodes precisely the minimal complement of tRNAs needed to translate the universal genetic code, and has eliminated all redundant isoacceptors. The Helicosporidium plastid genome is also highly structured, with each half of the circular genome containing nearly all genes on one strand. Helicosporidium is known to be related to trebouxiophyte green algae, but the genome is structured and compacted in a manner more reminiscent of the non-photosynthetic plastids of apicomplexan parasites. Conclusion Helicosporidium contributes significantly to our understanding of the evolution of plastid DNA because it illustrates the highly ordered reduction that occurred following the loss of a major metabolic function. The convergence of plastid genome structure in Helicosporidium and the Apicomplexa raises the interesting possibility that there are common forces that shape plastid genomes, subsequent to the loss of photosynthesis in an organism.

  10. Transcriptional Profiling of Chromera velia Under Diverse Environmental Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Tayyrov, Annageldi

    2014-05-01

    Since its description in 2008, Chromera velia has drawn profound interest as the closest free-­‐living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan parasites that are significant pathogens, causing enormous health and economic problems. There-­‐ fore, this newly described species holds a great potential to understand evolu-­‐ tionary basis of how photosynthetic algae evolved into the fully pathogenic Apicomplexa and how their common ancestors may have lived before they evolved into obligate parasites. Hence, the aim of this work is to understand how C. velia function and respond to different environmental conditions. This study aims to reveal how C. velia is able to respond to environmental perturbations that are applied individually and simultaneously since, studying stress factors in separation fails to elucidate complex responses to multi stress factors and un-­‐ derstanding the systemic regulation of involved genes. To extract biologically significant information and to identify genes involved in various physiological processes under variety of environmental conditions (i.e. a combination of vary-­‐ ing temperatures, iron availability, and salinity in the growth medium) we pre-­‐ pared strand specific RNA-­‐seq libraries for 83 samples in diverse environmental conditions. Here, we report the set of significantly differentially expressed genes as a re-­‐ sponse to the each condition and their combinations. Several interesting up-­‐ regulated and down-­‐regulated genes were found and their functions and in-­‐ volved pathways were studied. We showed that the profound regulation of HSP20 proteins is significant under stress conditions and hypothesized that the-­‐ se proteins might be involved in their movements.

  11. A survey of innovation through duplication in the reduced genomes of twelve parasites.

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    Jeremy D DeBarry

    Full Text Available We characterize the prevalence, distribution, divergence, and putative functions of detectable two-copy paralogs and segmental duplications in the Apicomplexa, a phylum of parasitic protists. Apicomplexans are mostly obligate intracellular parasites responsible for human and animal diseases (e.g. malaria and toxoplasmosis. Gene loss is a major force in the phylum. Genomes are small and protein-encoding gene repertoires are reduced. Despite this genomic streamlining, duplications and gene family amplifications are present. The potential for innovation introduced by duplications is of particular interest. We compared genomes of twelve apicomplexans across four lineages and used orthology and genome cartography to map distributions of duplications against genome architectures. Segmental duplications appear limited to five species. Where present, they correspond to regions enriched for multi-copy and species-specific genes, pointing toward roles in adaptation and innovation. We found a phylum-wide association of duplications with dynamic chromosome regions and syntenic breakpoints. Trends in the distribution of duplicated genes indicate that recent, species-specific duplicates are often tandem while most others have been dispersed by genome rearrangements. These trends show a relationship between genome architecture and gene duplication. Functional analysis reveals: proteases, which are vital to a parasitic lifecycle, to be prominent in putative recent duplications; a pair of paralogous genes in Toxoplasma gondii previously shown to produce the rate-limiting step in dopamine synthesis in mammalian cells, a possible link to the modification of host behavior; and phylum-wide differences in expression and subcellular localization, indicative of modes of divergence. We have uncovered trends in multiple modes of duplicate divergence including sequence, intron content, expression, subcellular localization, and functions of putative recent duplicates that

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleus-Encoded Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases Targeted at the Cytosol and Plastid of Algae.

    KAUST Repository

    Huerlimann, Roger

    2015-07-01

    The understanding of algal phylogeny is being impeded by an unknown number of events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and primary and secondary/tertiary endosymbiosis. Through these events, previously heterotrophic eukaryotes developed photosynthesis and acquired new biochemical pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis and elongation pathways in algae, where ACCase exists in two locations (cytosol and plastid) and in two forms (homomeric and heteromeric). All algae contain nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase in the cytosol, independent of the origin of the plastid. Nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase is also found in plastids of algae that arose from a secondary/tertiary endosymbiotic event. In contrast, plastids of algae that arose from a primary endosymbiotic event contain heteromeric ACCase, which consists of three nucleus-encoded and one plastid-encoded subunits. These properties of ACCase provide the potential to inform on the phylogenetic relationships of hosts and their plastids, allowing different hypothesis of endosymbiotic events to be tested. Alveolata (Dinoflagellata and Apicomplexa) and Chromista (Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta) have traditionally been grouped together as Chromalveolata, forming the red lineage. However, recent genetic evidence groups the Stramenopiles, Alveolata and green plastid containing Rhizaria as SAR, excluding Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Sequences coding for plastid and cytosol targeted homomeric ACCases were isolated from Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO), Chromera velia and Nannochloropsis oculata, representing three taxonomic groups for which sequences were lacking. Phylogenetic analyses show that cytosolic ACCase strongly supports the SAR grouping. Conversely, plastidial ACCase groups the SAR with the Haptophyta, Cryptophyta and Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta). These two ACCase based, phylogenetic relationships suggest that the plastidial homomeric ACCase was acquired by the

  13. Identification of a novel and unique transcription factor in the intraerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Kanako Komaki-Yasuda

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of stage-specific gene regulation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are largely unclear, with only a small number of specific regulatory transcription factors (AP2 family having been identified. In particular, the transcription factors that function in the intraerythrocytic stage remain to be elucidated. Previously, as a model case for stage-specific transcription in the P. falciparum intraerythrocytic stage, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of pf1-cys-prx, a trophozoite/schizont-specific gene, and suggested that some nuclear factors bind specifically to the cis-element of pf1-cys-prx and enhance transcription. In the present study, we purified nuclear factors from parasite nuclear extract by 5 steps of chromatography, and identified a factor termed PREBP. PREBP is not included in the AP2 family, and is a novel protein with four K-homology (KH domains. The KH domain is known to be found in RNA-binding or single-stranded DNA-binding proteins. PREBP is well conserved in Plasmodium species and partially conserved in phylum Apicomplexa. To evaluate the effects of PREBP overexpression, we used a transient overexpression and luciferase assay combined approach. Overexpression of PREBP markedly enhanced luciferase expression under the control of the pf1-cys-prx cis-element. These results provide the first evidence of a novel transcription factor that activates the gene expression in the malaria parasite intraerythrocytic stage. These findings enhance our understanding of the evolution of specific transcription machinery in Plasmodium and other eukaryotes.

  14. A description of Haemogregarina species naturally infecting white-spotted gecko (Tarentola annularis) in Qena, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Soheir A H; Hussein, Abdel-Nasser A

    2014-08-01

    The present study describes the developmental stages of Haemogregarina species in the blood and tissues of naturally infecting white-spotted gecko Tarentola annularis collected from Qena, Egypt. Different parasite's forms were observed infecting the erythrocytes. The gamonts enclosed within parasitophorous vacuole and seems to have no clear effect on the host cell especially in case of immature parasite forms. But in the presence of mature gamonts the host cell nucleus displaced. The parasitaemia level is up to 280 per 10,000 erythrocytes counted. Trophozoites and gamonts have been recognized in the blood smears. The rounded trophozoite diameter is 3.84 ±0.87 μm, while the elongated trophozoite measured 4.42 ± 0.69 x 2.8 ± 0.56 μm. The mature gamonts were differentiated into two forms; short gamont measuring 10.82 ± 0.82 x 3.30 ± 0.73 μm (range: 10-12.1 x 2.2-4.4 μm) and the long gamont measured 14.67 ± 0.83 x 3.96 ± 0.77 μm (range: 14.1-16.5 x 3.3-5.5 μm). Merogony carried out only in the endothelial cells of the blood capillaries in the lung. Different merogonic stages have been recognized and differentiated in two forms; micromeront measured 13.25 ± 0.50 x 12 ± 0.0 μm and produces a few number of large merozoites, macromeront measured 19.75+0.87x13.25+0.50 im and produces more small sized merozoites. The gamonts and merozoites have the general characteristic ultrastructures of the Apicomplexa containing components of the apical complex, e.g. pellicle, micronemes, rhoptries, and few dense bodies and subpellicular microtubules. PMID:25597149

  15. Discovery of a Splicing Regulator Required for Cell Cycle Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suvorova, Elena S.; Croken, Matthew; Kratzer, Stella; Ting, Li-Min; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Balu, Bharath; Markillie, Lye Meng; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami; White, Michael W.

    2013-02-01

    In the G1 phase of the cell division cycle, eukaryotic cells prepare many of the resources necessary for a new round of growth including renewal of the transcriptional and protein synthetic capacities and building the machinery for chromosome replication. The function of G1 has an early evolutionary origin and is preserved in single and multicellular organisms, although the regulatory mechanisms conducting G1 specific functions are only understood in a few model eukaryotes. Here we describe a new G1 mutant from an ancient family of apicomplexan protozoans. Toxoplasma gondii temperature-sensitive mutant 12-109C6 conditionally arrests in the G1 phase due to a single point mutation in a novel protein containing a single RNA-recognition-motif (TgRRM1). The resulting tyrosine to asparagine amino acid change in TgRRM1 causes severe temperature instability that generates an effective null phenotype for this protein when the mutant is shifted to the restrictive temperature. Orthologs of TgRRM1 are widely conserved in diverse eukaryote lineages, and the human counterpart (RBM42) can functionally replace the missing Toxoplasma factor. Transcriptome studies demonstrate that gene expression is downregulated in the mutant at the restrictive temperature due to a severe defect in splicing that affects both cell cycle and constitutively expressed mRNAs. The interaction of TgRRM1 with factors of the tri-SNP complex (U4/U6 & U5 snRNPs) indicate this factor may be required to assemble an active spliceosome. Thus, the TgRRM1 family of proteins is an unrecognized and evolutionarily conserved class of splicing regulators. This study demonstrates investigations into diverse unicellular eukaryotes, like the Apicomplexa, have the potential to yield new insights into important mechanisms conserved across modern eukaryotic kingdoms.

  16. INFECCIÓN POR PROTOZOARIOS EN INDIVIDUOS DE TITÍ BEBE LECHE -S. fuscicollis-, TITÍ CABEZA BLANCA -S. oedipus-, TITÍ ARDILLA -S. sciureus-, SURICATO -S. suricatta- Y WALLABIE DE BENNETT -M. rufogriseus-: DESCRIPCIÓN DE CASOS

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    G. L. K. López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La toxoplasmosis es una de las zoonosis parasitarias más comunes y de especial atención en medicina humana y veterinaria en todo el mundo. Toxoplasma gondii comparte mu - chos de sus parámetros biológicos con otros parásitos apicomplexa, pero es único por su extremadamente amplio rango de huéspedes y su especificidad tisular. La susceptibilidad en especies de primates del Nuevo Mundo y diprotodontos a la infección por protozoarios es alta. Bajo condiciones de cautiverio la toxoplasmosis es una de las infecciones más comunes en macrópodos australianos. En el presente trabajo se exponen los hallazgos clínicos y postmortem de 11 individuos de primates ( Saguinus oedipus, S. fuscicollis, Saimiri sciureus , carnívoros ( Suricata suricatta y diprotodontos ( Macropus rufogriseus , de la Fundación Zoológica de Cali, diagnosticados con toxoplasmosis mediante métodos paraclínicos e histopatológicos. En la mayoría de los casos el cuadro clínico se caracterizó principalmente por disnea, secreción nasal espumosa y signos neurológicos. Los hallazgos más importantes de la necropsia fueron lesiones en pulmón, hígado y encéfalo. Los casos aquí descritos corresponden a cuadros clínicos de ocurrencia natural y permiten entender el desarrollo fisiopatológico y la presentación clínica de las infecciones por protozoarios en especies de fauna silvestre, a pesar de la falta de un diagnóstico definitivo mediante técnicas específicas de inmunohistoquímica para las distintas etiologías.

  17. Transcript and protein expression profile of PF11_0394, a Plasmodium falciparum protein expressed in salivary gland sporozoites

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    Schlarman Maggie S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a significant problem around the world today, thus there is still a need for new control methods to be developed. Because the sporozoite displays dual infectivity for both the mosquito salivary glands and vertebrate host tissue, it is a good target for vaccine development. Methods The P. falciparum gene, PF11_0394, was chosen as a candidate for study due to its potential role in the invasion of host tissues. This gene, which was selected using a data mining approach from PlasmoDB, is expressed both at the transcriptional and protein levels in sporozoites and likely encodes a putative surface protein. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and green fluorescent protein (GFP-trafficking studies, a transcript and protein expression profile of PF11_0394 was determined. Results The PF11_0394 protein has orthologs in other Plasmodium species and Apicomplexans, but none outside of the group Apicomplexa. PF11_0394 transcript was found to be present during both the sporozoite and erythrocytic stages of the parasite life cycle, but no transcript was detected during axenic exoerythrocytic stages. Despite the presence of transcript throughout several life cycle stages, the PF11_0394 protein was only detected in salivary gland sporozoites. Conclusions PF11_0394 appears to be a protein uniquely detected in salivary gland sporozoites. Even though a specific function of PF11_0394 has not been determined in P. falciparum biology, it could be another candidate for a new vaccine.

  18. Molecular approaches to malaria and Babesisosis diagnosis

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    G. L. McLaughlin

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of additional methods for detecting and identifuing Babesia and Plasmodium infections may be useful in disease monitoring, management and control efforts. To preliminarily evaluate sunthetic peptide-based serodiagnosis, a hydrophilic sequence (DDESEFDKEKwas selected from published BabR gene of B. bovis. Immunization of rabbits and cattle with the hemocyanin-conjugated peptide elicited antibody responses that specifically detected both P. falciparum and B. bovis antigens by immunofluorescence and Western blots. Using a dot-ELISA with this peptide, antisera from immunized and naturally-infected cattle, and immunized rodents, were specifically detected. Reactivity was weak and correlated with peptide immunization or infection. DNA-based detection using repetitive DNA was species-specific in dot-blot formats for B. bovis DNA, and in both dot-blot and in situ formats for P. falciparum; a streamlined enzymelinked synthetic DNA assay for P. falciparum detected 30 parasites/mm(cúbicos from patient blood using either colorimetric (2-15 h color development or chemiluminescent detection (0.5-6-min. exposures. Serodiagnostic and DNA hybridization methods may be complementary in the respective detection of both chronic and acute infections. However, recent improvements in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR make feasible a more sensitive and uniform approach to the diagnosis of these and other infectious disease complexes, with appropriate primers and processing methods. An analysis of ribosomal DNA genes of Plasmodium and Toxoplasma identified Apicomplexa-conserved sequence regions. Specific and distinctive PCR profiles were obtained for primers spanning the internal transcribed spacer locus for each of several Plasmodium and Babesia species.

  19. Cats and Toxoplasma gondii: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran

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    Mohammad T. Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic intracellular coccidian of the phylum Apicomplexa infecting warm-blooded animals and human beings. This protozoan causes a significant public health problem in humans and imposes considerable economic losses and damages to husbandry industries. The final host, cats, accounts for all of these significant burdens. Hence the present study was designed to analyse and review the overall prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats in Iran for the first time. In the present study data collection (published and unpublished papers, abstracts of proceedings of national parasitology congresses and dissertations was systematically undertaken on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex and Scientific Information Database. A total of 21 studies from 1975 to 2013 reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in cats from different areas in Iran met the eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis using the random-effect model amongst cats was estimated at 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.05–46.41. The prevalence rate of cat toxoplasmosis in various regions of Iran ranged from 1.2% to 89.2%. Firstly, this study establishes a crude prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats. Secondly, it discusses the role of significant risk factors including sex, age and being either household or stray cats, in the epidemiology of the disease. Furthermore, the current study determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies that are useful to keep in mind to assist in designing more accurate investigations in future.

  20. Genetic and biological diversity among isolates of Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, A; Innes, E A; Yamane, I; Latham, S M; Wastling, J M

    2001-07-01

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that causes bovine abortion. The epidemiology of N. caninum is poorly understood and little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite, or whether individual isolates differ in virulence. Such diversity may, among other factors, underlie the range of pathologies seen in cattle. In this study we analysed biological and genetic variation in 6 isolates of N. caninum originating from canine and bovine hosts by measurement of growth rate in vitro, Western blotting and random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). This comparative analysis of intra-species diversity demonstrated that heterogeneity exists within the species. The relative growth rate in vitro, as assessed by 3[H]uracil uptake, showed significant variation between isolates. However, no significant differences were detected between the antigenic profiles of each isolate by Western blotting. RAPD-PCR was performed on DNA from the 6 Neospora isolates; 3 strains of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium parvum were also analysed. Twenty-six RAPD primers gave rise to 434 markers of which 222 were conserved between all the Neospora isolates and distinguished them from the other Apicomplexa. An additional 54 markers were unique for Neospora but were polymorphic within the species and able to differentiate between the individual isolates. The RAPD data were subjected to pair-wise similarity and cluster analysis and showed that the Neospora isolates clustered together as a group, with T. gondii as their nearest neighbour. N. caninum isolates showed no clustering with respect either to host or geographical origin. The genetic similarity between Neospora isolates from cattle and dogs suggests that these hosts may be epidemiologically related, although further analysis of bovine and canine field samples are required. The genetic and biological diversity observed in this study may have important implications for our understanding of the pathology and

  1. Cryptic Eimeria genotypes are common across the southern but not northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Thenmozhi, V; Kundu, Krishnendu; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Ayoade, Simeon; Fornace, Kimberly M; Jatau, Isa Danladi; Moftah, Abdalgader; Nolan, Matthew J; Sudhakar, N R; Adebambo, A O; Lawal, I A; Álvarez Zapata, Ramón; Awuni, Joseph A; Chapman, H David; Karimuribo, Esron; Mugasa, Claire M; Namangala, Boniface; Rushton, Jonathan; Suo, Xun; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Tewari, Anup K; Banerjee, Partha S; Dhinakar Raj, G; Raman, M; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P

    2016-08-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes parasites of medical, zoonotic and veterinary significance. Understanding the global distribution and genetic diversity of these protozoa is of fundamental importance for efficient, robust and long-lasting methods of control. Eimeria spp. cause intestinal coccidiosis in all major livestock animals and are the most important parasites of domestic chickens in terms of both economic impact and animal welfare. Despite having significant negative impacts on the efficiency of food production, many fundamental questions relating to the global distribution and genetic variation of Eimeria spp. remain largely unanswered. Here, we provide the broadest map yet of Eimeria occurrence for domestic chickens, confirming that all the known species (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria tenella) are present in all six continents where chickens are found (including 21 countries). Analysis of 248 internal transcribed spacer sequences derived from 17 countries provided evidence of possible allopatric diversity for species such as E. tenella (FST values ⩽0.34) but not E. acervulina and E. mitis, and highlighted a trend towards widespread genetic variance. We found that three genetic variants described previously only in Australia and southern Africa (operational taxonomic units x, y and z) have a wide distribution across the southern, but not the northern hemisphere. While the drivers for such a polarised distribution of these operational taxonomic unit genotypes remains unclear, the occurrence of genetically variant Eimeria may pose a risk to food security and animal welfare in Europe and North America should these parasites spread to the northern hemisphere. PMID:27368611

  2. The evolutionary history of sarco(endoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianina Altshuler

    Full Text Available Investigating the phylogenetic relationships within physiologically essential gene families across a broad range of taxa can reveal the key gene duplication events underlying their family expansion and is thus important to functional genomics studies. P-Type II ATPases represent a large family of ATP powered transporters that move ions across cellular membranes and includes Na(+/K(+ transporters, H(+/K(+ transporters, and plasma membrane Ca(2+ pumps. Here, we examine the evolutionary history of one such transporter, the Sarco(endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA, which maintains calcium homeostasis in the cell by actively pumping Ca(2+ into the sarco(endoplasmic reticulum. Our protein-based phylogenetic analyses across Eukaryotes revealed two monophyletic clades of SERCA proteins, one containing animals, fungi, and plants, and the other consisting of plants and protists. Our analyses suggest that the three known SERCA proteins in vertebrates arose through two major gene duplication events after the divergence from tunicates, but before the separation of fishes and tetrapods. In plants, we recovered two SERCA clades, one being the sister group to Metazoa and the other to Apicomplexa clade, suggesting an ancient duplication in an early eukaryotic ancestor, followed by subsequent loss of one copy in Opisthokonta, the other in protists, and retention of both in plants. We also report relatively recent and independent gene duplication events within invertebrate taxa including tunicates and the leech Helobdella robusta. Thus, it appears that both ancient and recent gene duplication events have played an important role in the evolution of this ubiquitous gene family across the eukaryotic domain.

  3. Cats and Toxoplasma gondii: A systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Mohammad T; Daryani, Ahmad; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Shokri, Azar; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Teshnizi, Saeed H; Mizani, Azade; Sharif, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a cosmopolitan zoonotic intracellular coccidian of the phylum Apicomplexa infecting warm-blooded animals and human beings. This protozoan causes a significant public health problem in humans and imposes considerable economic losses and damages to husbandry industries. The final host, cats, accounts for all of these significant burdens. Hence the present study was designed to analyse and review the overall prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats in Iran for the first time. In the present study data collection (published and unpublished papers, abstracts of proceedings of national parasitology congresses and dissertations) was systematically undertaken on electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Ebsco, Science Direct, Scopus, Magiran, Irandoc, IranMedex and Scientific Information Database. A total of 21 studies from 1975 to 2013 reporting prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in cats from different areas in Iran met the eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of toxoplasmosis using the random-effect model amongst cats was estimated at 33.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.05-46.41). The prevalence rate of cat toxoplasmosis in various regions of Iran ranged from 1.2% to 89.2%. Firstly, this study establishes a crude prevalence rate of T. gondii infection in cats. Secondly, it discusses the role of significant risk factors including sex, age and being either household or stray cats, in the epidemiology of the disease. Furthermore, the current study determines gaps and drawbacks in the prior studies that are useful to keep in mind to assist in designing more accurate investigations in future. PMID:26017063

  4. The FIKK kinase of Toxoplasma gondii is not essential for the parasite's lytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skariah, S; Walwyn, O; Engelberg, K; Gubbels, M-J; Gaylets, C; Kim, N; Lynch, B; Sultan, A; Mordue, D G

    2016-05-01

    FIKK kinases are a novel family of kinases unique to the Apicomplexa. While most apicomplexans encode a single FIKK kinase, Plasmodium falciparum expresses 21 and piroplasms do not encode a FIKK kinase. FIKK kinases share a conserved C-terminal catalytic domain, but the N-terminal region is highly variable and contains no known functional domains. To date, FIKK kinases have been primarily studied in P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. Those that have been studied are exported from the parasite and associate with diverse locations in the infected erythrocyte cytosol or membrane. Deletion of individual P. falciparum FIKK kinases indicates that they may play a role in modification of the infected erythrocyte. The current study characterises the single FIKK gene in Toxoplasma gondii to evaluate the importance of the FIKK kinase in an apicomplexan that has a single FIKK kinase. The TgFIKK gene encoded a protein of approximately 280kDa. Endogenous tagging of the FIKK protein with Yellow Fluorescent Protein showed that the FIKK protein exclusively localised to the posterior end of tachyzoites. A Yellow Fluorescent Protein-tagged FIKK and a Ty-tagged FIKK both co-localised with T. gondii membrane occupation and recognition nexus protein to the basal complex and were localised apical to inner membrane complex protein-5 and Centrin2. Deletion of TgFIKK, surprisingly, had no detectable effect on the parasite's lytic cycle in vitro in human fibroblast cells or in acute virulence in vivo. Thus, our results clearly show that while the FIKK kinase is expressed in tachyzoites, it is not essential for the lytic cycle of T. gondii. PMID:26859096

  5. Comparative genomics of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum: Coccidia differing in host range and transmission strategy

    KAUST Repository

    Reid, Adam James

    2012-03-22

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite which infects nearly one third of the human population and is found in an extraordinary range of vertebrate hosts. Its epidemiology depends heavily on horizontal transmission, especially between rodents and its definitive host, the cat. Neospora caninum is a recently discovered close relative of Toxoplasma, whose definitive host is the dog. Both species are tissue-dwelling Coccidia and members of the phylum Apicomplexa; they share many common features, but Neospora neither infects humans nor shares the same wide host range as Toxoplasma, rather it shows a striking preference for highly efficient vertical transmission in cattle. These species therefore provide a remarkable opportunity to investigate mechanisms of host restriction, transmission strategies, virulence and zoonotic potential. We sequenced the genome of N. caninum and transcriptomes of the invasive stage of both species, undertaking an extensive comparative genomics and transcriptomics analysis. We estimate that these organisms diverged from their common ancestor around 28 million years ago and find that both genomes and gene expression are remarkably conserved. However, in N. caninum we identified an unexpected expansion of surface antigen gene families and the divergence of secreted virulence factors, including rhoptry kinases. Specifically we show that the rhoptry kinase ROP18 is pseudogenised in N. caninum and that, as a possible consequence, Neospora is unable to phosphorylate host immunity-related GTPases, as Toxoplasma does. This defense strategy is thought to be key to virulence in Toxoplasma. We conclude that the ecological niches occupied by these species are influenced by a relatively small number of gene products which operate at the host-parasite interface and that the dominance of vertical transmission in N. caninum may be associated with the evolution of reduced virulence in this species.

  6. DNA topoisomerases in apicomplexan parasites: promising targets for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Estrada, Carlos; Prada, Christopher Fernández; Fernández-Rubio, Celia; Rojo-Vázquez, Francisco; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2010-06-22

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes a large group of protozoan parasites responsible for a wide range of animal and human diseases. Destructive pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, causative agents of human malaria, Cryptosporidium parvum, responsible of childhood diarrhoea, and Toxoplasma gondii, responsible for miscarriages and abortions in humans, are frequently associated with HIV immunosuppression in AIDS patients. The lack of effective vaccines, along with years of increasing pressure to eradicate outbreaks with the use of drugs, has favoured the formation of multi-drug resistant strains in endemic areas. Almost all apicomplexan of medical interest contain two endosymbiotic organelles that contain their own mitochondrial and apicoplast DNA. Apicoplast is an attractive target for drug testing because in addition to harbouring singular metabolic pathways absent in the host, it also has its own transcription and translation machinery of bacterial origin. Accordingly, apicomplexan protozoa contain an interesting mixture of enzymes to unwind DNA from eukaryotic and prokaryotic origins. On the one hand, the main mechanism of DNA unwinding includes the scission of one-type I-or both DNA strands-type II eukaryotic topoisomerases, establishing transient covalent bonds with the scissile end. These enzymes are targeted by camptothecin and etoposide, respectively, two natural drugs whose semisynthetic derivatives are currently used in cancer chemotherapy. On the other hand, DNA gyrase is a bacterial-borne type II DNA topoisomerase that operates within the apicoplast and is effectively targeted by bacterial antibiotics like fluoroquinolones and aminocoumarins. The present review is an update on the new findings concerning topoisomerases in apicomplexan parasites and the role of these enzymes as targets for therapeutic agents. PMID:20200034

  7. Congenital Tick Borne Diseases: Is This An Alternative Route of Transmission of Tick-Borne Pathogens In Mammals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasik, Krzysztof P; Okła, Hubert; Słodki, Jan; Rozwadowska, Beata; Słodki, Aleksandra; Rupik, Weronika

    2015-11-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have become a popular topic in many medical journals. Besides the obvious participation of ticks in the transmission of pathogens that cause TBD, little is written about alternative methods of their spread. An important role is played in this process by mammals, which serve as reservoirs. Transplacental transfer also plays important role in the spread of some TBD etiological agents. Reservoir species take part in the spread of pathogens, a phenomenon that has extreme importance in synanthropic environments. Animals that accompany humans and animals migrating from wild lands to urban areas increase the probability of pathogen infections by ticks This article provides an overview of TBDs, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and TBDs caused by spirochetes, α-proteobacteria, γ-proteobacteria, and Apicomplexa, with particular attention to reports about their potential to cross the maternal placenta. For each disease, the method of propagation, symptoms of acute and chronic phase, and complications of their course in adults, children, and animals are described in detail. Additional information about transplacental transfer of these pathogens, effects of congenital diseases caused by them, and the possible effects of maternal infection to the fetus are also discussed. The problem of vertical transmission of pathogens presents a new challenge for medicine. Transfer of pathogens through the placenta may lead not only to propagation of diseases in the population, but also constitute a direct threat to health and fetal development. For this reason, the problem of vertical transmission requires more attention and an estimation of the impact of placental transfer for each of listed pathogens. PMID:26565770

  8. Characterisation and expression of a PP1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase (PfPP1 from the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum: demonstration of its essential role using RNA interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiyenko Alla

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversible protein phosphorylation is relatively unexplored in the intracellular protozoa of the Apicomplexa family that includes the genus Plasmodium, to which belong the causative agents of malaria. Members of the PP1 family represent the most highly conserved protein phosphatase sequences in phylogeny and play essential regulatory roles in various cellular pathways. Previous evidence suggested a PP1-like activity in Plasmodium falciparum, not yet identified at the molecular level. Results We have identified a PP1 catalytic subunit from P. falciparum and named it PfPP1. The predicted primary structure of the 304-amino acid long protein was highly similar to PP1 sequences of other species, and showed conservation of all the signature motifs. The purified recombinant protein exhibited potent phosphatase activity in vitro. Its sensitivity to specific phosphatase inhibitors was characteristic of the PP1 class. The authenticity of the PfPP1 cDNA was further confirmed by mutational analysis of strategic amino acid residues important in catalysis. The protein was expressed in all erythrocytic stages of the parasite. Abrogation of PP1 expression by synthetic short interfering RNA (siRNA led to inhibition of parasite DNA synthesis. Conclusions The high sequence similarity of PfPP1 with other PP1 members suggests conservation of function. Phenotypic gene knockdown studies using siRNA confirmed its essential role in the parasite. Detailed studies of PfPP1 and its regulation may unravel the role of reversible protein phosphorylation in the signalling pathways of the parasite, including glucose metabolism and parasitic cell division. The use of siRNA could be an important tool in the functional analysis of Apicomplexan genes.

  9. Effects of ionizing radiation over the structure, metabolism and infectivity of a pathogenic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa), has as definitive host domestic and wild felines and as intermediate hosts most species of mammals and birds, Including man. The infection in man is usually asymptomatic, but can become a severe and lethal illness in some special groups like the fetus of primoinfected pregnant woman, or in AIDS and transplanted patients. The transmission is due to ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts from cat feces as well as raw or rare cooked cyst containing meet. There is no available vaccine against toxoplasmosis, with some reports of the use ionizing radiation in order to attenuate or suppress the parasite. These studies are promising, but more research is needed to optimize the radiation process and to clarify those alterations caused on T gondii.Using a increasing doses of 60 Co irradiation on T.gondii tachyzoites, we studied many parameters such as morphology, both at optical and electron microscopy level, detection of DNA fragmentation, metabolism alterations (cellular oxidative burst, protein, nucleic acids and DNA synthesis), determination of the parasite survival both in in vivo and in vitro models, antigenicity and immunogenicity after the process, cellular invasion and irradiated tachyzoite induced protection. After definition of 200 Gy of 60 Co irradiation as the lower radiation dose that suppress parasite growth in vitro and in vivo, we found no detectable changes in parasite viability, its cell invasion capacity or in its structural proteins. DNA fragmentation like apoptosis or alterations of the parasite metabolism were similarly not affected by radiation. Mice infection with irradiated parasites induce partial protection when these animals were re-inoculated with non irradiated virulent parasites, inducing greater specific IgG levels as well as a longer survival. Irradiated T.gondii maintains its the ability of invasion, even under radiation effects. Based on our results we conclude that

  10. Bovine besnoitiosis in Switzerland: imported cases and local transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Lesser, Maren; Grimm, Felix; Hilbe, Monika; Sydler, Titus; Trösch, Luzia; Ochs, Hansueli; Braun, Ueli; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of cattle, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Protozoa, Apicomplexa). A considerable spreading of this parasitic infection has been observed in Europe in the last ten years, mainly related to animal trade. In order to investigate the possibility of B. besnoiti being unnoticed introduced and getting established in Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a total of 767 animals (650 cattle imported from France and 117 cattle that had contact with B. besnoiti positive cattle in Swiss farms) were screened for antibodies against B. besnoiti by both a commercial ELISA and by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 101 (13.17%) samples showed a positive reaction in ELISA (cut-off: percent of positivity [PP] ≥ 15) and 16 (2.09%) samples had IFAT titers ≥ 1:100. Eight of those samples reacted positive in Western blot (WB), corresponding to five imported Limousin cattle (two cows and one bull from France and two cows from Germany) and to three cattle born in Switzerland (one Limousin heifer born from one of the positive German cows, and two adult Braunvieh cows, that had been in contact with one of the French cows at a Swiss farm). Seven of those animals were subclinically infected and one animal showed only very mild signs. They were subsequently slaughtered, and the serological diagnosis could be confirmed by real-time PCR and/or histopathology in seven animals. The most frequent parasite localizations were the tendons and surrounding connective tissue of the distal limbs and the skin of the head region. Furthermore, B. besnoiti could be successfully isolated in vitro from one French, one German and one Swiss cattle (isolates Bb-IPZ-1-CH, Bb-IPZ-2-CH and Bb-IPZ-3-CH). In the current situation in Switzerland, prophylactic and control measures should include a serological examination of cattle to be imported from endemic areas and the culling of all confirmed positive animals from

  11. Planktonic microbes in the Gulf of Maine area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William K W Li

    Full Text Available In the Gulf of Maine area (GoMA, as elsewhere in the ocean, the organisms of greatest numerical abundance are microbes. Viruses in GoMA are largely cyanophages and bacteriophages, including podoviruses which lack tails. There is also evidence of Mimivirus and Chlorovirus in the metagenome. Bacteria in GoMA comprise the dominant SAR11 phylotype cluster, and other abundant phylotypes such as SAR86-like cluster, SAR116-like cluster, Roseobacter, Rhodospirillaceae, Acidomicrobidae, Flavobacteriales, Cytophaga, and unclassified Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria clusters. Bacterial epibionts of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense include Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Cytophaga spp., Sulfitobacter spp., Sphingomonas spp., and unclassified Bacteroidetes. Phototrophic prokaryotes in GoMA include cyanobacteria that contain chlorophyll (mainly Synechococcus, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs that contain bacteriochlorophyll, and bacteria that contain proteorhodopsin. Eukaryotic microalgae in GoMA include Bacillariophyceae, Dinophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Prasinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Dictyochophyceae, Chrysophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, Pelagophyceae, Synurophyceae, and Xanthophyceae. There are no records of Bolidophyceae, Aurearenophyceae, Raphidophyceae, and Synchromophyceae in GoMA. In total, there are records for 665 names and 229 genera of microalgae. Heterotrophic eukaryotic protists in GoMA include Dinophyceae, Alveolata, Apicomplexa, amoeboid organisms, Labrynthulida, and heterotrophic marine stramenopiles (MAST. Ciliates include Strombidium, Lohmaniella, Tontonia, Strobilidium, Strombidinopsis and the mixotrophs Laboea strobila and Myrionecta rubrum (ex Mesodinium rubra. An inventory of selected microbial groups in each of 14 physiographic regions in GoMA is made by combining information on the depth-dependent variation of cell density and the depth-dependent variation of water volume. Across the entire GoMA, an

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation over the structure, metabolism and infectivity of a pathogenic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante sobre a estrutura, metabolismo e infectividade de um protozoario patogenico, Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole and Manceau, 1908)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramoto, Roberto Mitsuyoshi

    1998-07-01

    The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa), has as definitive host domestic and wild felines and as intermediate hosts most species of mammals and birds, Including man. The infection in man is usually asymptomatic, but can become a severe and lethal illness in some special groups like the fetus of primoinfected pregnant woman, or in AIDS and transplanted patients. The transmission is due to ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts from cat feces as well as raw or rare cooked cyst containing meet. There is no available vaccine against toxoplasmosis, with some reports of the use ionizing radiation in order to attenuate or suppress the parasite. These studies are promising, but more research is needed to optimize the radiation process and to clarify those alterations caused on T gondii.Using a increasing doses of {sup 60} Co irradiation on T.gondii tachyzoites, we studied many parameters such as morphology, both at optical and electron microscopy level, detection of DNA fragmentation, metabolism alterations (cellular oxidative burst, protein, nucleic acids and DNA synthesis), determination of the parasite survival both in in vivo and in vitro models, antigenicity and immunogenicity after the process, cellular invasion and irradiated tachyzoite induced protection. After definition of 200 Gy of {sup 60} Co irradiation as the lower radiation dose that suppress parasite growth in vitro and in vivo, we found no detectable changes in parasite viability, its cell invasion capacity or in its structural proteins. DNA fragmentation like apoptosis or alterations of the parasite metabolism were similarly not affected by radiation. Mice infection with irradiated parasites induce partial protection when these animals were re-inoculated with non irradiated virulent parasites, inducing greater specific IgG levels as well as a longer survival. Irradiated T.gondii maintains its the ability of invasion, even under radiation effects. Based on our results we

  13. Morphological and molecular characterization of Isospora manorinae n. sp. in a yellow-throated miner (Manorina flavigula wayensis) (Gould, 1840).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Jian, Fuchun; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    A new Isospora (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) species is described from a single yellow-throated miner bird (Manorina flavigula) (subspecies M. f. wayensis) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 32) of this isolate are spherical to subspherical, 22.8 (20.3-23.8) × 18.3 (17.7-18.7) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.25 (1.2-1.3); and a smooth and bilayered oocyst wall, 1.3 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.4 μm). A polar granule is present, but the micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 15.5 (14.6-15.8) × 9.5 (9.5-10.2) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being knob-like and the substieda body being subspherical-shaped. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different size scattered among the sporozoites, a spheroid or subspheroid refractile body is present in the sporozoite. Morphologically, the oocysts from this isolate are different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. At the 18S locus, this new isolate exhibited 99.2% similarity to Isospora gryphoni and three other Isospora spp. Further analysis of a subgroup of 300 bp long 18S sequences (8), including Isospora anthochaerae was conducted. This new isolate grouped in a clade with I. anthochaerae and exhibited 99.3% similarity. At the 28S locus, this new isolate grouped with I. anthochaerae with which it shared 99.1% similarity. At the COI locus, this new isolate exhibited 96.8% similarity to Isospora sp. JCI-2015 from a spectacled warbler (Sylvia conspicillata) in Spain. Further analysis from a subgroup of shorter COI sequences (n = 13) was performed and this new isolate exhibited 99.1% similarity to I. anthochaerae. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of Isospora, which is named Isospora manorinae n. sp

  14. Genome BLAST distance phylogenies inferred from whole plastid and whole mitochondrion genome sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holland Barbara R

    2006-07-01

    judged by their δ values, distance methods are able to recover all major plant lineages, and are more in accordance with Apicomplexa organelles being derived from "green" plastids than from plastids of the "red" type. GBDP-like methods can be used to reliably infer phylogenies from different kinds of genomic data. A framework is established to further develop and improve such methods. δ values are a topology-independent tool of general use for the development and assessment of distance methods for phylogenetic inference.

  15. A Complex Small RNA Repertoire Is Generated by a Plant/Fungal-Like Machinery and Effected by a Metazoan-Like Argonaute in the Single-Cell Human Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortet, Philippe; Barakat, Mohamed; Sautel, Céline F.; Kieffer, Sylvie; Garin, Jérôme; Bastien, Olivier; Voinnet, Olivier; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2010-01-01

    In RNA silencing, small RNAs produced by the RNase-III Dicer guide Argonaute-like proteins as part of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) to regulate gene expression transcriptionally or post-transcriptionally. Here, we have characterized the RNA silencing machinery and exhaustive small RNAome of Toxoplasma gondii, member of the Apicomplexa, a phylum of animal- and human-infecting parasites that cause extensive health and economic damages to human populations worldwide. Remarkably, the small RNA-generating machinery of Toxoplasma is phylogenetically and functionally related to that of plants and fungi, and accounts for an exceptionally diverse array of small RNAs. This array includes conspicuous populations of repeat-associated small interfering RNA (siRNA), which, as in plants, likely generate and maintain heterochromatin at DNA repeats and satellites. Toxoplasma small RNAs also include many microRNAs with clear metazoan-like features whose accumulation is sometimes extremely high and dynamic, an unexpected finding given that Toxoplasma is a unicellular protist. Both plant-like heterochromatic small RNAs and metazoan-like microRNAs bind to a single Argonaute protein, Tg-AGO. Toxoplasma miRNAs co-sediment with polyribosomes, and thus, are likely to act as translational regulators, consistent with the lack of catalytic residues in Tg-AGO. Mass spectrometric analyses of the Tg-AGO protein complex revealed a common set of virtually all known RISC components so far characterized in human and Drosophila, as well as novel proteins involved in RNA metabolism. In agreement with its loading with heterochromatic small RNAs, Tg-AGO also associates substoichiometrically with components of known chromatin-repressing complexes. Thus, a puzzling patchwork of silencing processor and effector proteins from plant, fungal and metazoan origin accounts for the production and action of an unsuspected variety of small RNAs in the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma and possibly in other

  16. Resolving the Divergence Times and Major Evolutionary Relationships of Protoctists%原生生物物种分歧时间和主要演化关系的定量计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李可群

    2016-01-01

    The divergence times and evolutionary relationships of some major protoctist clades were resolved by equation for molecular absolute evolutionary rates and several protein molecules:EF-1α,EF-2,NADH1 and CytB.The results showed that protoctists evolved from the route as:algae→fungi→protozoan.Their respective evolutionary routes are:(1) After the seperation of red algae at 1.331 Ga ago,the green algae separated from it around 1.1744 Ga ago, Mosses seperated at 0.4527 Ga ago,ferns seperated at 0.437 Ga ago.The divergence times of club-mosses,liverworts, Chlamydomonadales and Chlorellales are 0.4185,0.4457,0.5202 and 0.5239 Ga ago,respectively;(2) both Slime molds and oomycetes belonge to Fungi evolutionary branch,which separated about 1.0456 and 0.9032 Ga ago;(3) In protozoan branch,Apicomplexa and Choanoflagellates separated about 1.045 and 0.8122 Ga ago,respectively.Our results agreed well with the references work based on fossil records,and provided a new way to precisely resolve the evolutionary relationships of all protoctists.%使用本文作者提出的分子绝对进化速率的计算公式和EF-1α,EF-2,NADH1和CytB等蛋白质分子,对原生生物的一些主要类群:藻类、真菌和原生动物的物种分歧时间和演化关系进行了定量计算.结果显示,原核生物沿着藻类→真菌→原生动物的方向演化.它们的演化关系为:(1)红藻自13.31亿年前分化出后,于11.74亿年前分化出绿藻,绿藻于4.527亿年前分化出藓类,4.37亿年前分化出蕨类;其他物种如石松类、肝苔类、团藻和小球藻分别于4.185亿年前、4.457亿年前、5.202亿年前和5.239亿年前分化出;(2)黏菌和卵菌均属于真菌进化分枝,分别于10.456亿年前和9.032亿年前分化出;(3)原生动物进化分枝中于10.45亿年前分化出孢子虫等,8.122亿年前领鞭毛虫与多细胞动物分化.这些结果均与基于化石记录的文献报道相符.

  17. Antiprotozoan lead discovery by aligning dry and wet screening: prediction, synthesis, and biological assay of novel quinoxalinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Alho, Miriam A; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Barigye, Stephen J; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; Machado Tugores, Yanetsy; Montero-Torres, Alina; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Nogal, Juan J; García-Sánchez, Rory N; Vega, María Celeste; Rolón, Miriam; Martínez-Fernández, Antonio R; Escario, José A; Pérez-Giménez, Facundo; Garcia-Domenech, Ramón; Rivera, Norma; Mondragón, Ricardo; Mondragón, Mónica; Ibarra-Velarde, Froylán; Lopez-Arencibia, Atteneri; Martín-Navarro, Carmen; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, Maria Gabriela; Piñero, Jose; Tytgat, Jan; Chicharro, Roberto; Arán, Vicente J

    2014-03-01

    which the individual QSAR outputs are the inputs of the aforementioned fusion approach. Finally, the fusion model was used for the identification of a novel generation of lead-like antiprotozoan compounds by using ligand-based virtual screening of 'available' small molecules (with synthetic feasibility) in our 'in-house' library. A new molecular subsystem (quinoxalinones) was then theoretically selected as a promising lead series, and its derivatives subsequently synthesized, structurally characterized, and experimentally assayed by using in vitro screening that took into consideration a battery of five parasite-based assays. The chemicals 11(12) and 16 are the most active (hits) against apicomplexa (sporozoa) and mastigophora (flagellata) subphylum parasites, respectively. Both compounds depicted good activity in every protozoan in vitro panel and they did not show unspecific cytotoxicity on the host cells. The described technical framework seems to be a promising QSAR-classifier tool for the molecular discovery and development of novel classes of broad-antiprotozoan-spectrum drugs, which may meet the dual challenges posed by drug-resistant parasites and the rapid progression of protozoan illnesses. PMID:24513185

  18. Intestinal Coccidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycle that has 20% thin layer and 80% thick layer. Oocyst with thick layer is able to live a long time in nature. They are the third or forth of gastroentritis disease that have digestive disorder like anorexia, nausea, persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption and leanness. The disease forms choronic and acute stages and it is able to kill the immunodeficiency cases. Sometimes it has HIV symptoms similar to pneumonia and respiratory track infection. Laboratory diagnosis is based on Oocyst finding in stool exam and that shitter floatation and Cr (KOH2 are the best methods. Modified zyh-lnelson and fleocroum are the best staining methods too. This parasite is transmitted by zoonotic and Antroponotic origin. Molecular studies have shown two Genotypes (I&II. Genotype I is aquatic and II is zoonotic. The prevalence rate is 3% in infants and 10% in calves. Cyclospora: This parasite is novel and is bigger than cryptosporidium.It isn't known a clear life cycle but is transmitted by water, vegetables and fruits as raspberries. and mulberries. Human is a specific host. When a parasite is in the intestine it causes inflammatory reaction in Entrocyte.The patient shows watery diarrhoea with nausea, vomitting, pain, Stomach cramp, anorexia, malabsorption and cachexia. The disease period is 3 monthes in immunodeficiency cases but it is selflimited in normal cases. Autofluorescence characteristic is differential diagnosis, prevalence rate of disease is unknown. Isospora: This

  19. 艾美耳球虫子孢子从宿主细胞中逸出机制的初步研究%PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE MECHANISMS OF RAPID EGRESS OF EIMERIA TENELLA SPOROZOITES FROM HOST CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫鑫磊; 计永胜; 田秀玲; 索静霞; 刘贤勇; 索勋

    2014-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites infect nearly all vertebrate hosts even including humans and cause some severe diseases such as malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis which are responsible for substantial economic losses. Like most intracellular pathogens, egress from host cells is a vital step of the apicomplexan parasites, which attracted attentions of many research groups.Unfortunately, as an important genus of Phylum Apicomplexa, little information of egress is known on Eimeria species which leads large amount of losses to poultry industry annually.In this report we used ethanol to induce egress of E.tenella M2e transgenic strain (EtM2e) sporozoites which express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP).Results showed that ethanol could induce egress of EtM2e sporozoites from infected Madin Derby Bovine Kidney ( MDBK) cells, and this process was depended on the mobility of the parasites.We also found that ethanol could also stimulate microneme protein discharge.Furthermore, both the course of egress and the secretion of microneme were controlled by the flux of intracellular Ca2+of the parasite.Taken together, our results preliminarily explained the mechanism of egress of eimerian parasites, which provided clues to the further study.%艾美耳球虫是一类重要的肠道病原,其裂殖生殖阶段的虫体逸出过程是造成畜禽肠道破坏的主要原因之一,但此逸出过程的机制仍鲜有报道。本研究以乙醇作为诱导剂研究柔嫩艾美耳球虫M2 e株子孢子从宿主细胞中逸出的机制。结果显示,乙醇可诱导子孢子从MDBK细胞中逸出,此逸出过程依赖于虫体的运动能力;同时,乙醇可激发子孢子逸出相关的微线体蛋白2( Mic2)的分泌释放。进一步实验证实,螯合虫体内部钙离子明显阻断了子孢子逸出及Mic2蛋白的释放。本研究初步证实了与柔嫩艾美耳球虫逸出相关的蛋白和离子,为深入解析球虫致病的分子机制、研发新型抗球

  20. 我国鸟类原虫种类与感染状况研究进展%RESEARCH PROGRESS ON PROTOZOAN SPECIES AND INFECTION STATUS IN BIRDS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李榴佳; 黄兵; 舒凡帆; 吴有陵

    2013-01-01

    的防控和保护鸟类具有十分重要的指导意义。%Protozoa are a group of common parasites in birds and puts a threaten to public health in humans. In order to keep abreast of the recent protozoan species and infection status in birds in China, we have reviewed a lot of literatures about protozoan studies. In summary, 70 species of protozoa have been recorded in birds of China. These species are classified into 3 phyla (Apicomplexa, Sarcomastigophora, Sarcomastigophora), 4 classes (Sporozoa, Zoomastigophora, Lobosasida, Blastocystidea), 5 orders (Eucoccidiorida,Haemospororida, Trichomonadorida, Amoebida, Blastocystida), 9 families (Eimeiridae, Cryptosporidiidae, Sarcocystidae, Plasmodiidae, Leucocystozoidae, Monocercomonadidae, Trichomonadidae, Entamoebidae, Blastocystidae), and 12 genera. There are 23 species in Plasmodium, 20 species in Eimeria, 15 species in Leucocytozoon, 3 species in Cryptosporidium, 2 species in Isospora, and 1 species in each of Toxoplasm, Haemoproteus, Histomonas, Trichomonas, Entamoeba, Endolimax and Blastocystis. All in all, common protozoa in birds are coccidia, Plasmodium and Cryptosporidium. Coccidia, Plasmodium, Haemoproteus and Trichomonad often cause infection in birds and Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, Amoeba and Blastocystis can infect humans. Understanding on protozoan species and infections in birds may provide important guidance for the control of protozoosis in China.