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Sample records for apical sodium-chloride cotransporter

  1. Molecular Physiology of the Thiazide-sensitive Sodium Chloride Cotransporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Benjamin; Hoover, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the molecular physiology and regulation of the thiazide-sensitive cotransporter (NCC). Recent findings Mutations of With-No-Lysine (WNK) Kinases 1 and 4 result in hyperactivity of NCC and FHHt (Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension), a genetic syndrome of hypertension. Recent studies have shown that WNK1 and WNK4 activate the STE20 family protein kinases SPAK and OSR1, resulting in phosphorylation and activation of NCC. Additionally, a mouse knock-in model for a WNK4 FHHt mutant demonstrated increased SPAK/OSR1 and NCC phosphorylation. It is unclear how these studies fit with the data indicating that WNK4 inhibits NCC and the FHHt mutations of WNK4 are loss-of-function mutations. Another WNK kinase, WNK3, regulates NCC, activating NCC and antagonizing WNK4's effect. Recent studies examining the hormonal regulation of NCC have implicated angiotensin II and aldosterone in regulation of the WNK4-SPAK-NCC pathway. Angiotensin II may also play a role in pressure natriuresis via actions on NCC. Summary NCC is subject to a complex regulatory network of kinases which appear sensitive to alterations of the hormonal and physiologic milieu. PMID:19636250

  2. Vasopressin induces phosphorylation of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Hofmeister, Marlene Vind; Rosenbaek, Lena L;

    2010-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) is important for renal electrolyte balance and its phosphorylation causes an increase in its transport activity and cellular localization. Here, we generated phospho-specific antibodies against two conserved N-terminal phosphorylation sites...

  3. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, Mette; Pedersen, Nis Borbye;

    2012-01-01

    electron microscopy demonstrated that pS124-NCC co-localized with total NCC in the apical plasma membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells and intracellular vesicles. Acute treatment of Munich-Wistar rats or vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats with the vasopressin type 2 receptor-specific agonist d......, S124A and S124D mutants were able to traffic to the plasma membrane similarly to wildtype NCC....

  4. Evidence for an apical Na-Cl cotransporter involved in ion uptake in a teleost fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; Yasumasu, S.; McCormick, S.D.; Hwang, P.-P.; Kaneko, T.

    2008-01-01

    Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as the Na+/K +/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+/Cl - cotransporter (NCC), are localized to the apical or basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells and are involved in active ion absorption or secretion. The objectives of this study were to clone and identify 'freshwater-type' and 'seawater-type' cation-chloride cotransporters of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine their intracellular localization patterns within mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). From tilapia gills, we cloned four full-length cDNAs homologous to human cation-chloride cotransporters and designated them as tilapia NKCC1a, NKCC1b, NKCC2 and NCC. Out of the four candidates, the mRNA encoding NKCC1a was highly expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills (sites of the MRC localization) of seawater-acclimatized fish, whereas the mRNA encoding NCC was exclusively expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills of freshwater-acclimatized fish. We then generated antibodies specific for tilapia NKCC1a and NCC and conducted whole-mount immunofluorescence staining for NKCC1a and NCC, together with Na+/K+-ATPase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), on the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia embryos acclimatized to freshwater or seawater. The simultaneous quintuple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs clearly into four types: types I, II, III and IV. The NKCC1a immunoreactivity was localized to the basolateral membrane of seawater-specific type-IV MRCs, whereas the NCC immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical membrane of freshwater-specific type-II MRCs. Taking account of these data at the level of both mRNA and protein, we deduce that NKCC1a is the seawater-type cotransporter involved in ion secretion by type-IV MRCs and that NCC is the freshwater-type cotransporter involved in ion absorption by type-II MRCs. We propose a novel ion-uptake model by MRCs in

  5. Vasopressin alters the mechanism of apical Cl- entry from Na+:Cl- to Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, A.; Grossman, E.B.; Lombardi, M.; Hebert, S.C. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Experiments were performed using in vitro perfused medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle (MTAL) and in suspensions of MTAL tubules isolated from mouse kidney to evaluate the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on the K+ dependence of the apical, furosemide-sensitive Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter and on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO{sub 2}). In isolated perfused MTAL segments, the rate of cell swelling induced by removing K+ from, and adding one mM ouabain to, the basolateral solution (ouabain(zero-K+)) provided an index to apical cotransporter activity and was used to evaluate the ionic requirements of the apical cotransporter in the presence and absence of AVP. In the absence of AVP cotransporter activity required Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}}, but not K{sup +}, while the presence of AVP the apical cotransporter required all three ions. {sup 86}Rb{sup +} uptake into MTAL tubules in suspension was significant only after exposure of tubules to AVP. Moreover, {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was unaffected by extracellular K+ in the absence of AVP while after AVP exposure {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was strictly K{sup +}-dependent. The AVP-induced coupling of K{sup +} to the Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter resulted in a doubling in the rate of NaCl absorption without a parallel increase in the rate of cellular {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake or transport-related oxygen consumption. These results indicate that arginine vasopressin alters the mode of a loop diuretic-sensitive transporter from Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport to Na{sup +}:K{sup +}:2Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport in the mouse MTAL with the latter providing a distinct metabolic advantage for sodium transport. A model for AVP action on NaCl absorption by the MTAL is presented and the physiological significance of the coupling of K{sup +} to the apical Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter in the MTAL and of the enhanced metabolic efficiency are discussed.

  6. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  7. The Aldosterone Paradox: differential regulation of the sodium chloride cotransporter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van der Lubbe (Nils)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Maintaining total body Na+ and K+ balance is essential to the survival of most species. Hypovolemia (Na+ deficit) and hyperkalemia (K+ surplus) elicit different constellations of responses to maintain homeostasis. During hypovolemia, the extracellular fluid volume needs

  8. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  9. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiaojian; Lackeyram, Dale; Rideout, Todd C; Wang, Zirong; Stoll, Barbara; Yin, Yulong; Burrin, Douglas G; Fan, Ming Z

    2016-06-01

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA co-transporter (B(0)AT1, encoded by the SLC6A19 gene) plays a dominant role for apical uptake of large neutral AA including L-Gln, we hypothesized that high apical Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity, and B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) in co-expression with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) were expressed along the entire small intestinal crypt-villus axis in young animals via unique control mechanisms. Kinetics of Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity in the apical membrane vesicles, prepared from epithelial cells sequentially isolated along the jejunal crypt-villus axis from liquid formula-fed young pigs, were measured with the membrane potential being clamped to zero using thiocyanate. Apical maximal Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity was much higher (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus (by 29 %) and the crypt (by 30 %) cells, whereas Na(+)-Gln co-transport affinity was lower (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus and the crypt cells. The B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mRNA abundance was lower (p < 0.05) in the crypt (by 40-47 %) than in the villus cells. There were no significant differences in B(0)AT1 and ACE2 protein abundances on the apical membrane among the upper villus, the middle villus and the crypt cells. Our study suggests that piglet fast growth is associated with very high intestinal apical Na(+)-neutral AA uptake activities via abundantly co-expressing B(0)AT1 and ACE2 proteins in the apical membrane and by transcribing the B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) gene in the epithelia along the entire crypt-villus axis. PMID:26984322

  10. Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Saraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

  11. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Rajarao; Badekai Ramachandra Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs) on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe) as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental ef...

  12. Thermodynamic calculation of self-diffusion in sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baohua; Li, Chengbo; Shan, Shuangming

    2016-05-01

    Using the available pressure-volume-temperature equation of state of sodium chloride, we show that the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium and chloride in sodium chloride as a function of temperature and pressure can be successfully reproduced in terms of bulk elastic and expansivity data. We use a thermodynamic model that interconnects point-defect parameters with bulk properties. Our calculated diffusion coefficients and point-defect parameters, including activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume, well agree with reported experimental results when uncertainties are considered. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity of sodium chloride inferred from our predicted diffusivities of sodium through the Nernst-Einstein equation is compared with previous experimental data.

  13. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  14. Sodium chloride's effect on self-assembly of diphenylalanine bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junpyo; Lee, Myeongsang; Na, Sungsoo

    2016-07-15

    Understanding self-assembling peptides becomes essential in nanotechnology, thereby providing a bottom-up method for fabrication of nanostructures. Diphenylalanine constitutes an outstanding building block that can be assembled into various nanostructures, including two-dimensional bilayers or nanotubes, exhibiting superb mechanical properties. It is known that the effect of the ions is critical in conformational and chemical interactions of bilayers or membranes. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sodium chloride on diphenylalanine bilayer using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and calculated the bending Young's modulus and the torsional modulus by applying normal modal analysis using an elastic network model. The results showed that sodium chloride dramatically increases the assembling efficiency and stability, thereby promising to allow the precise design and control of the fabrication process and properties of bio-inspired materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241039

  15. Enthalpy and entropy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with some monosaccharides in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Kelei; WANG; Jianji; BAI; Guangyue; YAN; Haike; WANG

    2004-01-01

    Dilution enthalpies of sodium chloride and some monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fructose) in water and mixing enthalpies of aqueous sodium chloride and these monosaccharide solutions were measured by using an improved precision semimicro-titration calorimeter. Transfer enthalpies of sodium chloride from water to aqueous saccharide solutions were evaluated as well as enthalpy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with these monosaccharides in water. Combined with Gibbs energy interaction parameters, entropy interaction parameters were also obtained. The results show that interactions of the saccharides with sodium chloride depend on the stereochemistry of saccharide molecules. These interaction parameters can identify stereochemical structure of saccharide molecules.

  16. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  17. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetis, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride) on growth, viabi...

  18. Sodium Chloride, NaCl/{\\epsilon} : New Force Field

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raul; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    A new computational model for Sodium Chloride, the NaCl/{\\epsilon}, is proposed. The Force Fields employed here for the description of the NaCl is based on a set of radial particle-particle pair potentials involving Lennard-Jones (LJ) and Coulombic forces. The parameterization is obtained fitting the density of the crystal and the density and the dielectric constant of the mixture of salt with water at diluted solution. Our model shows good agreement with the experimental values for the densi...

  19. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  20. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Rajarao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental effects on the environment and even cost, have been avoided by using a water soluble support. The structure of products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The purity of the grown products and purified products were determined by the thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction method. Here we report the 7600, 7000 and 6500 wt% yield of CNFs synthesized over nickel, cobalt and iron oxalate. The long, curved and worm shaped CNFs were obtained on Ni, Co and Fe catalysts respectively. The lengthy process of calcination and reduction for the preparation of catalysts is avoided in this method. This synthesis route is simple and economical, hence, it can be used for CNF synthesis in industries.

  1. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    OpenAIRE

    Shiwei Zhou; Yonggang Wei; Bo Li; Hua Wang; Baozhong Ma; Chengyan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and...

  2. Influence of sodium chloride on the crystallization rate of gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandse, W.P. (Univ. of Technology, Delft, Netherlands); van Rosmalen, G.M.; Brouwer, G.

    1977-01-01

    The growth kinetics of gypsum was studied in supersaturated solutions both in pure water and in the presence of NaCl, using a seeded growth technique. Radioactive tracer techniques were employed to follow the growth process. The mean linear growth rate R was plotted against the relative supersaturation sigma. For low sigma values the relation between R and sigma is given by a linear law, for higher sigma values by a parabolic law and for the highest sigma values by a growth ''order'' higher than two. It was shown that the addition of sodium chloride increased the crystallization rate remarkably. The higher the NaCl concentration the higher the growth rate.

  3. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter;

    of ice appearing to be resistant to road salt, a comparative study has been made on a number of different surfaces measuring the friction index. The friction measurements were performed with a Portable Skid-Resistance Tester. Discontinuous surfaces consisting of small islands of hydrohalite...... was classified as potentially slippery surfaces. It is therefore possible that the formation of hydrohalite contributes to accidents on slippery roads.......From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  4. Sodium Chloride, NaCl/ϵ: New Force Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2016-03-10

    A new computational model for sodium chloride, the NaCl/ϵ, is proposed. The force field employed for the description of the NaCl is based on a set of radial particle-particle pair potentials involving Lennard-Jones (LJ) and Coulombic forces. The parametrization is obtained by fitting the density of the crystal and the density and the dielectric constant of the mixture of the salt with water at a diluted solution. Our model shows good agreement with the experimental values for the density and for the surface tension of the pure system, and for the density, the viscosity, the diffusion, and the dielectric constant for the mixture with water at various molal concentrations. The NaCl/ϵ together with the water TIP4P/ϵ models provide a good approximation for studying electrolyte solutions. PMID:26890321

  5. Corrosion of LY12 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程英亮; 张昭; 曹发和; 李劲风; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2003-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of LY12 alloy in sodium chloride solution and its electrochemical noise were reported. The development of the micro-pits on the alloy surface was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and electrochemical noise method. All the measurements show that the corrosion of LY12 alloy can be divided into two stages: a very reactive initial stage and a relative constant stable stage. The initial stage is corresponded to the adsorption of Cl ions and its reaction with the oxide film and the dissolution of Mg containing particles. The stable stage is corresponded to the development of the micro-pits by the galvanic attack formed by Al-Fe-Cu-Mn containing particles and the matrix. The initial stage lasts about 2-3 h while the stable stage dominates the whole corrosion process.

  6. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process. PMID:27374991

  7. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C) subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  8. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  9. Effect of Sodium Chloride on Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Synthetic Tissue Culture Medium

    OpenAIRE

    出来尾, 哲; 地土井, 襄爾

    1983-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus Smith was cultured in a synthetic tissue culture medium containing various concentrations of sodium chloride. The growth was at a higher level in the media containing sodium chloride of concentrations of 2.0 and 4.0% than in those of less than 2.0% and more than 4.0%. The result suggests that the bacteria grow more vigorously in the fairly high concentrations of sodium chloride than in the physiological concentration of it, in the synthetic medium. It may be considered t...

  10. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  11. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  12. Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

  13. HEPARIN OR 0.9% SODIUM CHLORIDE TO MAINTAIN CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER PATENCY: A RANDOMISED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Babu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maintaining the lumen patency of Central venous catheters (CVCsusing low dose Heparin is recommended in many guidelines of CVC maintenance. This study is to compare the efficacy of low - dose Heparin 3ml (10U/ml and 0.9% Sodium chloride (10ml flush solutions to maintain Centra l venous catheter (CVC lumen patency. METHODS: We s tudied 100 adult patients between March 2012 and August 2012 who required short - term CVC insertion to compare two flush solutions , Heparin and0.9% Sodium Chloride on catheter lumen patency . RESULTS : The crude catheter non patency was 4% ( two lumensin Heparin group and 8% (four lumens in the Sodium Chloride group . There was no incidence of thrombocytopenia in both the study groups. CONCLUSION : This study has demonstrated no significant difference bet ween Heparin and 0.9% Sodium Chloride flushes with regards to catheter patency in adult patients with short - term use of CVCs .

  14. Mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良宵; 虞利军

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of cement mortar in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions, uniaxial compression test and ultrasonic test were performed. Test results show that the relative dynamic elastic modulus, the mass variation, and the compressive strength of cement mortar increase first, and then decrease with increasing erosion time in sodium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions. The relative dynamic elastic moduli and the compressive strengths of cement mortars with water/cement ratios of 0.55 and 0.65 in sodium sulfate solution are lower than those in sodium chloride solution with the same concentration at the 420th day of immersion. The compressive strength of cement mortar with water/cement ratio of 0.65 is more sensitive to strain rate than that with water/cement ratio of 0.55. In addition, the strain-rate sensitivity of compressive strength of cement mortar will increase under attacks of sodium sulfate or sodium chloride solution.

  15. The effect on serum enzymes of intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine and isotonic sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Damsgaard, T

    1976-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of digoxin, bumetanide, pentazocine or isotonic sodium chloride have been given to 39 patients. We followed the serum concentrations of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzymes for 4 days. Ten patients receivi...

  16. Comparison of Sodium Chloride Tablets-Induced, Sodium Chloride Solution-Induced, and Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Fluid Balance Responses in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoie, Félix A; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2016-10-01

    Savoie, FA, Asselin, A, and Goulet, EDB. Comparison of sodium chloride tablets-induced, sodium chloride solution-induced, and glycerol-induced hyperhydration on fluid balance responses in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2880-2891, 2016-Sodium chloride solution-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-SolIH) is a powerful strategy to increase body water before exercise. However, NaCl-SolIH is associated with an unpleasant salty taste, potentially dissuading some athletes from using it and coaches from recommending it. Therefore, we evaluated the hyperhydrating potential of sodium chloride tablets-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-TabIH), which bypasses the palatability issue of NaCl-SolIH without sacrificing sodium chloride content, and compared it to NaCl-SolIH and glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH). Sixteen healthy males (age: 21 ± 2 years; fat-free mass (FFM): 65 ± 6 kg) underwent three, 3-hour long passive hyperhydration protocols during which they drank, over the first 60 minutes, 30-ml·kg FFM of an artificially sweetened solution. During NaCl-TabIH, participants swallowed 7.5, 1 g each, sodium chloride tablets with every liter of solution. During NaCl-SolIH, an equal quantity of sodium chloride tablets was dissolved in each liter of solution. With GIH, the glycerol concentration was 46.7 g·L. Urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the trials. Total fluid intake was 1948 ± 182 ml. After 3 hour, there were no significant differences among treatments for hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma volume changes. Fluid retention was significantly greater with NaCl-SolIH (1150 ± 287 ml) than NaCl-TabIH (905 ± 340 ml) or GIH (800 ± 211 ml), with no difference between NaCl-TabIH and GIH. No differences were found among treatments for perceptual variables. NaCl-TabIH and GIH are equally effective, but inferior than NaCl-SolIH. NaCl-TabIH represents an alternative to hyperhydration induced

  17. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    OpenAIRE

    J. Vanhanen; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Anttila, T.; T. Raatikainen; Viisanen, Y; H. Lihavainen

    2008-01-01

    Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentrati...

  18. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water ? surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    OpenAIRE

    H. Lihavainen; Viisanen, Y; Anttila, T.; A.-P. Hyvärinen; J. Vanhanen

    2008-01-01

    Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentrati...

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on glucose and sodium chloride solutions for injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of 40% glucose solution with 0.5-4.0 Mrads di not affect the detoxicating properties of glucose or its ability to raise blood sugar levels. Such doses had no effect on the toxicological properties of 40% glucose solution and on 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The biological and physicochemical properties of 40% solution and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions irradiated with sterilizing doses showed no significant alterations during storage for one and three years, respectively. It is concluded that the solutions studied may be sterilized by radiation. (auth.)

  20. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour; Errifi, Aziza

    1994-01-01

    The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR) caused by 4 essential oils (EO), 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%), camomile (0.4%) and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1%) on A. niger and between ...

  1. Electrical conductivity measurements for the ternary systems of glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water and their applications in cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Woods, Erik J; Gao, Dayong

    2009-03-01

    Electrical conductivity of a solution is a property that can be easily determined through the measurement of a conductivity probe. The present study demonstrates the measurements of electrical conductivity for two ternary solutions: glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water. When the concentration of sodium chloride to water ratio (R) is fixed, the existence of either glycerol or ethylene glycol, both cryoprotective agents (CPAs), can be quantitatively determined by their depressive influence on electrical conductivity of the solution. The measurements were performed on solutions with a set of 10 different concentrations of CPAs, ranging from 3.2% to 50% (v/v), along with five ratios of NaCl/water solutions. Equations to fit the experimental measurements were devised to characterize the relations among electrical conductivity, CPAs concentration, and R. A conductivity meter used in this study required conductivity, which is faster than the measurement using osmometry method. The charts of ternary solutions associated with their electrical conductivity and concentrations make it especially useful for monitoring the cryopreservation processes, including addition and removal of CPAs, to prevent osmotic damages to biological samples.

  2. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  3. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance–voltage (C–V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  4. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate : a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, Suzette V.; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J.; van der Sluis, Lucas W. M.; Wesselink, Paul R.; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput r

  5. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.V. van der Waal; L.M. Jiang; J.J. de Soet; L.W.M. van der Sluis; P.R. Wesselink; W. Crielaard

    2012-01-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput r

  6. The determination of hydroxide and carbonate in concentrated sodium chloride solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roolvink, W.B.; Bos, M.

    1980-01-01

    A computer method for the determination of carbonate and hydroxide in concentrated (2.89 M) sodium chloride solutions is described. The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting and can also be applied to salts of dibasic acids with unknown equilibrium constants. The systematic error is not m

  7. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  8. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04 mM Na(+)) for 3 d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/l, 3 d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake.

  9. Phosphorylation decreases ubiquitylation of the thiazide-sensitive cotransporter NCC and subsequent clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Aroankins, Takwa S; Fenton, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, is the major NaCl transport protein in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). The transport activity of NCC can be regulated by phosphorylation, but knowledge of modulation of NCC trafficking by phosphorylation is limited. In this study, we generated novel tetracycline-inducible Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) cell lines expressing NCC to examine the role of NCC phosphorylation and ubiquitylation on NCC endocytosis. In MDCKI-NCC cells, NCC was highly glycosylated at molecular weights consistent with NCC monomers and dimers. NCC constitutively cycles to the apical plasma membrane of MDCKI-NCC cells, with 20-30% of the membrane pool of NCC internalized within 30 min. The use of dynasore, PitStop2, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, nystatin, and filipin (specific inhibitors of either clathrin-dependent or -independent endocytosis) demonstrated that NCC is internalized via a clathrin-mediated pathway. Reduction of endocytosis resulted in greater levels of NCC in the plasma membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the association of NCC with the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway in rat DCT cells. Compared with controls, inducing phosphorylation of NCC via low chloride treatment or mimicking phosphorylation by replacing Thr-53, Thr-58, and Ser-71 residues with Asp resulted in increased membrane abundance and reduced rates of NCC internalization. NCC ubiquitylation was lowest in the conditions with greatest NCC phosphorylation, thus providing a mechanism for the reduced endocytosis. In conclusion, our data support a model where NCC is constitutively cycled to the plasma membrane, and upon stimulation, it can be phosphorylated to both increase NCC activity and decrease NCC endocytosis, together increasing NaCl transport in the DCT. PMID:24668812

  10. The Effect Of Sodium Chloride On Growth And Quality Of Plectranthus Forsteri Benth. ‘Nico’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzymińska Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted on the response of Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ to NaCl. Plants were grown in pots of 1.5 dm3 and 0.15 dm3 water solution of NaCl at concentrations 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 g dm−3 in 2011 and 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 g dm−3 in 2012 were applied one time in the beginning of experiment. Sodium chloride applied at 10-40 g NaCl·dm−3 water, reduced plant growth and values of SPAD readings. It may be stated that Plectranthus forsteri ‘Nico’ plants are tolerant to medium concentrations of sodium chloride (5-20 g NaCl·dm−3 water and therefore can be planted in flowerbeds in urbanized areas.

  11. Baroreflex impairment precedes hypertension during chronic cerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Buñag, R D; Miyajima, E

    1984-01-01

    Osmotic minipumps were implanted chronically for continuous 11-d infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl) into the third cerebral ventricle (ICV) of awake rats to determine whether baroreflex sensitivity would be altered. Systolic and mean pressures, recorded from aortic catheters on day 11 while the rats were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose, were significantly higher in rats infused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing hypertonic NaCl than in controls similarly infuse...

  12. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  13. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  14. Use of sodium chloride and zeolite during shipment of Ancistrus triradiatus under high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson F. Ramírez-Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sodium chloride (0.5 g/L and 1 g/L and zeolite (22.7 g/L during shipment (48 h of Ancistrus triradiatus at high temperatures (between 24.5 and 34ºC were evaluated. Several water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and total ammonia were measured before and after shipment. Glycemia was measured before shipment and at 24 and 48 h after shipment. After shipment, a resistance test was carried out in a high concentration of sodium chloride, and mortality was recorded after shipment, and 7 days post-shipment. While the two evaluated substances increased survival of A. triradiatus challenged by high temperatures during shipment, the best result was obtained with 1 g/L of sodium chloride.O uso de cloreto de sódio (0,5 g/L e 1 g/L e zeolita (22,7 g/L foram avaliados durante o transporte (48 h de Ancistrus triradiatus em altas temperaturas (entre 24,5 e 34ºC. Os seguintes parâmetros foram monitorados: pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade e amônia antes e depois do transporte. Também foi mensurada a concentração de glicose no sangue antes do transporte e 0, 24 e 48 h após o transporte. Foi realizado um teste de resistência a altas concentrações de cloreto de sódio após o transporte, sendo registrada a mortalidade no final do transporte e após 7 dias. As duas substâncias testadas aumentam a sobrevivência de A. triradiatus a altas temperaturas durante o transporte, porém o melhor resultado foi obtido com o uso de 1 g/L cloreto de sódio.

  15. Effect of Sodium Chloride on Efficiency of Cisplatinum Dissolved in Dimethyl Sulfoxide: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt’s solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt’s solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt’s stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMS...

  16. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In2S3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  17. Sodium chloride detection threshold in the rat determined using a simple operant taste discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, B M

    1982-04-01

    A method for training rats to lick at high rates for a water reinforcer after presentation of one tastant and to inhibit or decrease response rate to avoid a time-out, punisher after presentation of another tastant is described and evaluated. The method produced rapid acquisition of simple discrimination and detection tasks, The absolute mean detection threshold for sodium chloride in three rats was 0.0038% (0.0031%-0.0043%. The operant conditioning technique is simple, efficient, and should prove useful for psychophysical and physiological studies of gustation. PMID:7079384

  18. Corrosion Behavior of Compocasted ZA27/SiCp Composites in Sodium Chloride Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bobić, B.; I. Bobić; A. Vencl; M. Babić; S. Mitrović

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of particulate ZA27/SiCp composites in an aerated sodium chloride solution was studied. The composites were synthesized via compocasting with addition of 1, 3 and 5 wt.% SiC particles in the matrix alloy. Composite samples were immersed for 30 days in the 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution open to the atmospheric air. Surface appearance and microstructure of the composites were examined by means of optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while corrosion rates of the co...

  19. Anodic behavior of hafnium in water-alcohol solutions of sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of hafnium anodic solution in the systems: sodium chloride-isopropanol-glycerin-water is clarified. The corrosiveness of the studied electrolytes relative to hafnium is evaluated. It is shown that the solution mechanism changes with increase in the potential: after reaching the 0.4-0.5 V potential the process diffusion control changes for kinetic one. The hafnium anodic solution also changes with increase of temperature in the electrolyte wherein the treatment is conducted. In this case the change in the composition and properties of the change in the composition and properties of the oxide film on the metal constitute surface the basis of the mechanism change

  20. Physiological engineering of Pseudomonas aurantiaca antimicrobial activity: effects of sodium chloride treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rozenfelde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sodium chloride (NaCl treatment on the antifungal activity of the bacterium Pseudomonas aurantiaca, a producer of biopesticide for vegetable plants, was investigated. It was shown that an increase in the NaCl concentration in incubation solutions from 1 M to 3 M led to a significant increase in the antifungal activity of this bacterium. Antifungal activity continued to increase with prolonged treatment of bacteria in fresh nutrient medium from 72 h to 96 h. These findings could be very important for the further development of biotechnological processes directed not only to the production of new active biopesticides but also of other valuable resources.

  1. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride was the m......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride....... The experiments proved that the obtained degradation of pesticide solely was caused by indirect electrochemical oxidation, mainly due to the electrolytic formation of hypochlorite during the treatment, and that direct electron transfer from the pesticide substances at the anode surface didn't significantly...... to electrolytic oxidation of chloride with subsequent indirect oxidation by hypochlorite due to the high impact of the electric field on the chloride ion. In this way, the theoretical calculations supported the experimental results....

  2. Changes in metabolites, antioxidant system, and gene expression in Microcystis aeruginosa under sodium chloride stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Mao, Feijian; Kirumba, George Chira; Jiang, Cheng; Manefield, Mike; He, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Microcystis (M.) aeruginosa, one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria, occurs worldwide. The Qingcaosha (QCS) Reservoir is undergoing eutrophication and faces the problem of saltwater intrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sudden salinity changes on physiological parameters and related gene transcription in M. aeruginosa under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that sodium chloride (50, 200 and 500 mg L(-1) NaCl) inhibited the algal growth and decreased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a, carotenoid and phycocyanin). Sodium chloride increased both the intracellular and extracellular microcystin contents and elevated the mcyD transcript level in M. aeruginosa. It also increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and caused cytomembrane damage. This damage caused the release of intracellular toxins into the culture medium. In addition, NaCl decreased the maximum electron transport rate, increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changed the cellular redox status. Consequently, NaCl inhibited the expression of cpcB, psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, NaCl increased the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and total glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The transcript levels of sod and reduced glutathione (gsh) were also increased after exposure to NaCl. Our results indicate that a sudden increase in salinity increases the production and excretion of microcystin, changes the cellular redox status, enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibits photosynthesis, and affects transcript levels of related genes in M. aeruginosa. PMID:26232039

  3. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters of dried salted pork meat with different sodium chloride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Cardoso da Silva Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of pork meat submitted to dry salting. Sodium chloride (NaCl was added at levels of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% or 10% by the meat weight. Dry salting technique was used, which consists of rubbing the sodium chloride manually, followed by a rest period. The data were submitted to analysis of variance using a completely randomized experimental design. The means were compared by Duncan test at 5%. The salting process reduced (P < 0.05 humidity and water activity, and it increased (P < 0.05 ash, chloride, palmitic acid, and water holding capacity levels compared to those of the control. Luminosity (L* was lower (P < 0.05 in the control, and a* color was more intense in samples with 2.5% NaCl. Cooking loss was lower (P < 0.05 in the samples salted with 5% and 10% NaCl, and similarity was observed between the levels 0 and 7.5% salt. The treatments with levels 0% and 2.5% NaCl had higher mesophilic counts. The other microbiological parameters were within limits established by law. Therefore, salting with 5% NaCl can be used in pork meat in order to maintain the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the final product.

  4. Effects of micronized sodium chloride on the sensory profile and consumer acceptance of turkey ham with reduced sodium content

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Teresa Esteves Lopes Galvão; Debora Braga Moura; Andrea Carla Silva Barretto; Marise Aparecida Rodrigues Pollonio

    2014-01-01

    The impact of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution for micronized salt on consumer acceptance of turkey ham was investigated. Five formulations - F1 (control - 2.0% NaCl), F2 (1.7% NaCl), F3 (1.4% NaCl), F4 (1.7% micronized NaCl), and F5 (1.4% micronized NaCl) - were evaluated with respect to sodium chloride content and by consumers using a nine-point hedonic scale for overall acceptability and CATA (check-all-that-apply) using 24 sensory descriptors. Trained panelists characterized...

  5. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  6. EFFECTS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON GROWTH AND MINERAL NUTRITION OF PURPLETOP VERVAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Salachna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a rising demand for salt-tolerant species for landscaping. Purpletop vervain is an excellent landscape plant for gardens and parks, with fragrant lavender to rose-purple flowers. However, little is known concerning the effect of sodium chloride on morphological characteristics, flowering and mineral uptake of purpletop vervain. In this study, carried out in 2013–2014, the plants of purpletop vervain were grown in pots in an unheated plastic tunnel. The plants were watered with 200 mM NaCl solution four times, every seven days. Salinity-exposed plants were characterized by slightly reduced plant height, weight of the aboveground part and visual score. Salt stress caused also an increase in leaf content sodium, chlorine and manganese. Salinity had no effect on earliness of flowering and content in leaves of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron. Purpletop vervain seems to be plant species able to tolerate salt stress under controlled conditions.

  7. Antifungal activity of essential oils when associated with sodium chloride or fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantatoui-Elaraki, Abdelthafour

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of mycelium growth in a Zygorhynchus sp. and an Aspergillus niger isolates was studied. The inhibition rates (IR caused by 4 essential oils (EO, 5 fatty acids and sodium chloride at various concentrations were determined in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar.
    A synergy of action was observed between sodium chloride at 7.5% and the EO of thyme (0.04%, camomile (0.4% and mugwort (0.2 and 0.1% on A. niger and between sodium chloride (5% and the EO of camomile (0.1% and mugwort (0.1 and 0.01% and sodium chloride (7.5% and eucalyptus EO (0.4 and 0.2% on Zygorhynchus sp.
    Camomile EO (0.13% associated with propionic acid (0.075%, lauric acid (0.05% or oleic acid (0.15% led to synergetic effect on Zygorhynchus sp. as well as thyme EO (0.04 and 0.05%, respectively with propionic acid (0.1% and linolenic acid (0.075% on A. niger. Other combinations exerted no higher effects than each of the substances used alone.
    Practical applications of the results observed were discussed

    Se ha estudiado la inhibición del crecimiento miceliar en un aislamiento de Zygorhynchus sp. y otro de Aspergillus niger. Se determinaron las tasas (o índices de inhibición (IR en Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa provocados por varias concentraciones de 4 aceites esenciales (EG, 5 ácidos grasos y cloruro sódico.
    Se observó un efecto sinérgico entre cloruro sódico al 7.5% y los aceites esenciales de tomillo (0.04%, manzanilla (0.4% y artemisa (0.2 y 0.1% sobre A. niger, y entre cloruro sódico (5% y los aceites esenciales de manzanilla (0.1% y de artemisa (0.1 y 0.01%, así como cloruro sódico (7.5% y aceite esencial de eucalipto (0.4 y 0.2%, sobre Zygorhynchus sp.
    El aceite esencial de manzanilla (0.13% en asociación con ácido propiónico (0.075%, ácido láurico (0.05% o ácido oleico (0.15% provocó un efecto sinérgico sobre Zygorhynchus sp., de la misma forma

  8. CORROSION MONITORING OF LY12 IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Q. Zhang; Z. Zhang; J.M. Wang; H.B. Shao; C.N. Cao

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous electrochemical noise (EN) can be a rich source of information concerning the processes simultaneously occurring on a corroding interface. But the noise signal is often difficult to be analyzed due to the complicated nature of the specific systems being investigated. In this paper, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of commercial aluminum alloy LY12 in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with different techniques. The typical results showed that the fractal dimension (D,n) obtained from spectral power density (SPD) is mainly directly proportional to the intensity of pitting corrosion and to the value of pitting parameter (SE) derived from dimensional analysis, while the fractal dimension (DE) obtained from EIS is mainly related to the uniform corrosion.

  9. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  10. EIS study on pitting corrosion of 7150 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, G.S; Chen, K.H.; Fang, H.C.; Chao, H.; Chen, S.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Hunan (China)

    2010-09-15

    The pitting corrosion behavior of 7150 aluminum alloy was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution. Based on EIS features and corrosion morphologies as well as corrosion potential, the process of pitting corrosion could be clearly divided into four stages: at the first stage, the Nyquist diagram was composed of two overlapping capacitive loops at the high-medial frequency and one inductive loop at the low frequency. At the second stage (metastable pits developing stage), there existed one small capacitive loop at the high frequency and one big capacitive loop at the medial frequency. At the third stage (stable pits developing stage), two time constants were more clearly distinguished, corresponding to two obvious capacitive loops. At the fourth stage, there appeared one capacitive loop, attributing to uniform corrosion. An equivalent circuit was designed to fit EIS, and the experimental results and the fitted results had good correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Analysis of corrosion behavior of LY12 in sodium chloride solution with wavelet transform technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昭; 曹发和; 程英亮; 张鉴清; 王建明; 曹楚南

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms(WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limitations of fast Fourier transforms(FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise(EN) data. The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposing electrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients(distinct type of events), which contains information about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. In this context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of commercial aluminum alloy LY12 in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transform technique. The typical results show that the EN signal is composed of distinct type of events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants. Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot(EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of EN signals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  12. ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE ANALYSIS OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION WITH WAVELET TRANSFORM TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; Q.D. Zhong; J.Q. Zhang; Y.L. Cheng; F.H. Cao; J.M. Wang; C.N. Cao

    2002-01-01

    Wavelet transforms (WT) are proposed as an alternative tool to overcome the limita-tions of Fourier transforms (FFT) in the analysis of electrochemical noise (EN) data.The most relevant feature of this method of analysis is its capability of decomposingelectrochemical noise records into different sets of wavelet coefficients, which containinformation about the time scale characteristic of the associated corrosion event. Inthis context, the potential noise fluctuations during the free corrosion of pure alu-minum in sodium chloride solution was recorded and analyzed with wavelet transformtechnique. The typical results showed that the EN signal is composed of distinct typeof events, which can be classified according to their scales, i.e. their time constants.Meanwhile, the energy distribution plot (EDP) can be used as "fingerprints" of ENsignals and can be very useful for analyzing EN data in the future.

  13. Effect of sodium chloride on photosynthetic 14CO2 assimilation in Portulaca oleracea Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of NaCl on ion uptake, photosynthetic rate and photosynthetic products in a C4 non-CAM succulent, P. oleracea has been investigated. NaCl causes accumulation of Na as well as Cl ions with decrease in K and Ca contents. Chlorophylls and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation rates are adversely affected due to sodium chloride salinity. Plants grown in the presence of NaCl show increase in C4 acid percentage with increase in labelling of organic acids in light. Labelling of amino acids (particularly alanine) and sugars (sucrose) is affected by NaCl. Enzyme studies reveal that PEP-carboxylase is stimulated at all concentrations of NaCl but higher concentrations affected the activity of RuBP-Carboxylase. (author)

  14. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 Tmelting). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ dk with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author)

  15. Study on the Diffusion Coefficient of Sodium Chloride at Infrinite Dilution in Supercritical Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 陆九芳; 陈健; 李以圭

    2003-01-01

    The molecular dynamics(MD) was employed to simulate the diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride at infinite dilution in supercritical water from 703.2K to 763.2K and from 30 MPa to 45 MPa ,Based on the simulated data and the Patel-Teja(PT) equation of state and the Liu-Ruckenstein equation,an equation for calculating the diffusion coefficient of NaCl at infinite dilution in supercritical water is proposed,Both the agreement between the simulated and correlated data,and that between the simulated and predicted data of diffusion coefficients for NaCl in supercritical water ranging from 703.2K to 803.2K and from 25 MPa to 50MPa show that this equation is applicable for calculation of diffusion coefficients.

  16. Manufacturing of soda chlorate by electrolysis of sodium chloride with graphite anodes; Fabrication du chlorate de soude par electrolyse du chlorure de sodium avec anodes en graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    Liquors containing soda chlorate and sodium chloride are injected into electrolyzers which transform chloride into chlorate with titanium anodes. The resulting liquors are then sent to a crystallizing pond where part of the chlorate is recovered. The remaining part is returned to the electrolyzers after addition of sodium chloride.

  17. Partial replacement of sodium chloride in Italian salami and the influence on the sensory properties and texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fieira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cured meat products, such as Italian salami, exhibit high levels of sodium from NaCl, added to ensure flavor and texture. Studies indicates a close relationship between the consumption of these products and hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride on the texture and sensory attributes of Italian salami and to quantify the levels of minerals in the finished product. Four formulations were prepared: without a starter culture (F1; with a starter culture (F2; partial replacement of 60% sodium chloride by  potassium chloride (F3; and partial replacement of sodium chloride by a mixture containing potassium chloride,  magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride (F4. Analyses of Na+, K+, Ca+2 and Mg+2 contents, texture profile and sensory attributes (acceptance test were carried out. Formulations F1, F2, F3 and F4 presented levels of Na+ 0.53, 0.44, 0.36 and 0.30, respectively. The formulations presented a reduction in the sodium chloride content over 25%, thus complying with the requirements of the current legislation. The addition of these salts affected certain important sensory attributes, such as flavor and global impression, and increased hardness and chewiness values.

  18. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  19. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  20. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vanhanen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid, as a surface active compound, tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data and extrapolated to the whole concentration range by using estimated surface tensions for pure compounds. As a result, we obtained an estimate of surface tensions beyond solubility limits in addition to a fit to the experimental data. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30°C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

  1. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2002-01-01

    between water transport and clamp current, cotransport of small hydrophilic molecules, and shifts in reversal potentials with osmolarity are discussed with examples from the Na+/glutamate and Na+/glucose cotransporters. Unstirred layers and electrode artifacts as alternative explanations...... for such cotransport can be ruled out for both experimental and theoretical reasons. Indeed, substrate fluxes mediated by channels or ionophores generate much smaller water fluxes than those observed with cotransporters. Theoretical models, using reasonable values for the intracellular diffusion coefficient, indicate...

  2. Pitting corrosion of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Pitting corrosion behavior of Al2024-T3 in sodium chloride solution was investigated by using potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. When pitting corrosion of the alloy occurs, there exists a passive region in the anodic branch of PDS polarization curve, which is enlarged with the increasing of immersion time due to the competition of the halide ions with OH- ions to adsorb on the oxide film to form the corrosion products film and the increase of pitting corrosion area. Two capacitive semicircles were observed in complex plane plot. For more extensive pitting and general corrosion of Al2024-T3, the passive region in PDS disappeared, while another depressed semicircle was observed in Nyquist plot because of the formation of corrosion products film. On the other hand, the low frequency inductive loop, which had often been regarded as a manifestation of pitting or formation and precipitation of a salt film, was not observed, which indicates that the low frequency inductive loop can not be the characteristic of pitting corrosion or the formation of salt film. The results also show that higher reactant CPE exponent values will correspond to more extensive transformation of a metal surface by very localized corrosion, while general corrosion can result in a smaller CPE exponent value.

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  4. Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Suzette V; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J; van der Sluis, Lucas W M; Wesselink, Paul R; Crielaard, Wim

    2012-10-01

    Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput resazurin metabolism assay (RMA) was used to test a range of organic acid salts. Then, to gain more insight into the efficacy of sorbate salt solutions, 48-h E. faecalis biofilms were evaluated in colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2) ] were tested in parallel as controls. Sorbate salt produced the largest and most significant reduction of fluorescence intensity in the RMA assay. Neither NaCl nor potassium sorbate (KS) alone induced a clinically relevant reduction of CFU counts after 1 h. Surprisingly, the combination of the two in a single solution had a synergistic effect on the inactivation of E. faecalis. Potassium sorbate amplified the efficacy of NaCl. Of the salts tested, NaCl with KS eradicated E. faecalis biofilms within 1 h. This study showed that the double-hurdle strategy indeed leads to synergistic efficacy and is a possible next step in the complete disinfection of endodontic infections. PMID:22985004

  5. EVOLUTION OF THE ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS DURING PITTING CORROSION OF PURE ALUMINUM IN SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Zhang; C. Cai; F.H. Cao; Z.N. Gao; J.Q. Zhang; C.N. Cao

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure aluminum in neutral 3.0% (mass fraction) sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has been studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (ELS) measurement in conjunction with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. EIS information on the evolution of pitting corrosion over a period of 15 days has been obtained and analyzed with equivalent circuit technique. The results shown that, during the ensemble constant immersion time, two time constants involved, the high frequency one originated from the protective layer on the corroding surface while the low frequency one from the diffusion process or the corrosion reaction and so on. And there existed a period for oxide film to growth and thickening prior to the commencement of the attacking of chloride ions to the substrate. Meanwhile, good relationship between EIS and the material corrosion type/severity has been obtained, which has been interpreted according to the characteristics of corrosion process such as auto acceleration of pitting corrosion and the protection of local anodic reaction to the area around them.

  6. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, 104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  7. Prediction of Swelling Behavior of N-Isopropylacrylamide Hydrogels in Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小平; 李忠琴; 黄兴华; 王绪绪; 付贤; HiitherAndreas; MaurerGerd

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a model is presented to correlate and predict the swelling behavior of hydrogels in aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The model is a combination of VERS-model, "phantom network" theory and "free-volume" contribution. The VERS-model is used to calculate Gibbs excess energy; "phantom network" theory to describe the elastic properties of polymer network, and "free-volume" contribution to account for additional difference in the size of the species. To test the model, a series of N-isopropylacrylamide based hydrogels are synthesized by free radical polymerization in oxygen-free, deionized water at 25~C under nitrogen atmosphere. Then, the degree of swelling of all investigated gels as well as the partition of the solute between the gel phase and the surrounding coexisting liquid phase are measured in aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The model test demonstrates that the swelling behavior correlated and predicted by the model agrees with the experimental data within the experimental uncertainty. The phase transition appeared in the experiment, and the influences of the total mass fraction of polymerizable materials ξgel as well as the mole fraction of the crosslinking agent YCR on the swelling behavior of IPAAm-gels can also be predicted correctly. All these show the potential of such model for correlation and prediction of the swelling behavior of hydrogels in aqueous solutions of electrolytes.

  8. Analysis of antibacterial efficacy of plasma-treated sodium chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsch, Mareike A. C.; Mann, Miriam; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the change of chemical composition of sodium chloride solutions (NaCl, 0.85%) induced by non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment and subsequent effects on bacteria (Escherichia coli) are investigated. Besides acidification caused by APP, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrite (\\text{NO}2- ), and nitrate (\\text{NO}3- ) are generated as stable end-products of various chemical reactions in APP-treated liquids. Inactivation kinetics and reduction factors were recorded for E. coli (K12). Almost identical antimicrobial effects were observed with both direct APP exposure to bacteria suspension and exposure of APP-treated liquids to bacteria (indirect treatment). Consequently, main bactericidal effects are caused by chemical reactions which are mediated via the liquid phase. Moreover, APP-treated liquids have shown long-term activity (30 min) that possibly correlates with the ratio of \\text{NO}2- /H2O2. Therefore, \\text{NO}2- and H2O2 are identified as key agents for antimicrobial short- and long-term effects, respectively. The antimicrobial stability observed is strongly dependent on the used treatment regime and correlates additionally with the altered chemical composition of APP-treated liquids. Besides these effects, it was also shown that bacteria do not acquire resistance to such APP-treated solutions.

  9. Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astha Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose. All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

  10. Stability of buprenorphine, haloperidol and glycopyrrolate mixture in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäppinen, A; Kokki, H; Naaranlahti, T J; Rasi, A S

    1999-12-01

    Combinations of opioids and adjuvant drug solutions are often used in clinical practice while little information is available on their microbiological or chemical stability. Currently there are no commercially available, prepacked, ready-to-use epidural or subcutaneous mixtures. Thus, epidural and subcutaneous analgesic mixtures must be prepared in the pharmacy on an as-needed basis. Such mixtures are typically used for the treatment of severe pain in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical stability of a buprenorphine, haloperidol and glycopyrrolate mixture in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method and pH-meter were used to conduct the analyses. Antimicrobial activity of each component was studied by an agar dilution method. According to the results from the chemical and microbiological stability studies, this mixture can be stored in polypropylene (PP) syringes and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) medication cassettes for at least 30 days at either 21 degrees C or 4 degrees C, and for 16 days in PP syringes at 36 degrees C, and for 9 days in PVC medication cassettes at 36 degrees C. PMID:10658237

  11. Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2014-04-01

    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.

  12. An eco-friendly approach for sodium chloride free cotton dyeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present study was conducted with an aim to develop an environmental friendly method of dyeing cotton as an alternative to standard reactive dyeing process that requires high level of salt. When dyeing was carried out in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), an extremely lighter depth of shade was experienced, and hence this particular research was focused on the reduction of the total colour difference (AE) to a minimum level. Instead of adding any other chemical or any additional process like cationization, salt-free reactive dyeing was carried out by varying three common process parameters (dyes, alkali, and process time) to achieve required depth of shade. The results obtained were compared with those of conventionally dyed fabrics in terms of depth of shade (AL), total colour difference (AE), washing fastness, and rubbing fastness. The results were found to be promising and comparable to those dyed with using NaCl. Moreover, the investigated method showed a significant reduction of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) in the wastewater, and thus proved to be an environment friendly process. (author)

  13. Chlorination of pyrene in soil components with sodium chloride under xenon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was previously reported that chlorinated pyrenes (1-chloropyrene and dichloropyrene) were produced from pyrene in soil under sunlight irradiation. It was suggested that pyrene reacted with chlorine ion under sunlight. In this work, the formation of chlorinated pyrenes is investigated on 9 metallic oxides as soil components with pyrene and sodium chloride under xenon lamp irradiation. The chlorinated pyrenes as the reaction products were extracted with benzene:ethanol (4:1), and analyzed by GC/MS (SIM). The chlorinated pyrenes were produced in high amounts on 5 metallic oxides [silicon dioxides (quartz, silicic anhydride and silica gel forms) and titanium dioxides (rutile and anatase forms)] and in small amounts in 3 sorts of metallic oxides (aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide and ferric oxide), whereas they were not produced on calcium oxide. It was found that the yields of chlorinated pyrenes depended on the amounts of pyrene and chlorine ions in metallic oxides. In silicon dioxides, the yields of chlorinated pyrenes increased as the irradiation time was extended. In the titanium dioxides, the yields of chlorinated pyrenes had a peak at 0.5 – 1 hours irradiation of xenon lamp, and decreased as the irradiation time elapsed. (author)

  14. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product. PMID:27060992

  15. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. PMID:25721585

  16. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, and hemolysin activities and heat susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes after growth in media containing sodium chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1990-01-01

    The activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and a thiol-activated hemolysin produced by four strains of Listeria monocytogenes propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride were examined. L. monocytogenes 7644 showed an increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and thiol-activated hemolysin activities when grown in a medium containing 2.5% (wt/vol) NaCl followed by a decrease in activities when propagated in media containing salt concentrations higher than 2...

  17. Comparison of the corrosion behavior and surface morphology of NiTi alloy and stainless steels in sodium chloride solution

    OpenAIRE

    Kožuh S.; Vrsalović L.; Gojić M.; Gudić S.; Kosec B.

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of NiTi alloy and stainless steels (AISI 316L and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3) in 0.9% sodium chloride (0.154 moll-1) solution was investigated using open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Microstructural analyses before and after electrochemical tests were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Th...

  18. Effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of lipids from dairy wastewater by replacing Gum Arabic emulsifier for sodium chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Aguiar Mendes; Heizir Ferreira de Castro

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the replacement of Gum Arabic for sodium chloride to reduce fat and organic contents in dairy wastewater using two low cost commercially available lipase preparations from animal source (Kin Master - LKM and Nuclear- LNU). The best performance was achieved when lipase Nuclear (LNU) was used as catalyst. In addition, this lipase preparation has also lower cost, which makes its use a quite promising technique for reduction of suspended solids as protei...

  19. Heparin versus 0.9% sodium chloride intermittent flushing for prevention of occlusion in central venous catheters in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Briz, E. (Eduardo); Ruiz Garcia, V.; Cabello, J. B.; Bort-Marti, S.; Carbonell Sanchis, R.; Burls, A

    2014-01-01

    Background Heparin intermittent flushing is a standard practice in the maintenance of patency in central venous catheters. However, we could find no systematic review examining its effectiveness and safety. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of intermittent flushing with heparin versus 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline) solution in adults with central venous catheters in terms of prevention of occlusion and overall benefits versus harms. Search methods The Cochrane Peri...

  20. Effects of micronized sodium chloride on the sensory profile and consumer acceptance of turkey ham with reduced sodium content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Esteves Lopes Galvão

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution for micronized salt on consumer acceptance of turkey ham was investigated. Five formulations - F1 (control - 2.0% NaCl, F2 (1.7% NaCl, F3 (1.4% NaCl, F4 (1.7% micronized NaCl, and F5 (1.4% micronized NaCl - were evaluated with respect to sodium chloride content and by consumers using a nine-point hedonic scale for overall acceptability and CATA (check-all-that-apply using 24 sensory descriptors. Trained panelists characterized the products using the flash profiling technique. Reductions in the salt content by up to 30% did not affect the overall acceptability of the samples by the consumers. However, the consumers characterized the formulations with lower salt content as "less salty and less seasoned" in comparison to the contents in the control. Products containing 1.7% NaCl were considered very similar to the control. The results obtained indicate that it is possible to reduce NaCl content by 30% without affecting consumer acceptance of the product. The use of micronized salt did not affect the sensory characteristics when compared with those of formulations containing the same level of sodium chloride indicating that micronized salt does not influence perception of salt.

  1. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220. PMID:26935095

  2. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  3. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs.

  4. Stream Tracer Integrity: Comparative Analyses of Rhodamine-WT and Sodium Chloride through Transient Storage Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport in natural channels describes the transport of water and dissolved matter through a river reach of interest. Conservative tracers allow us to label a parcel of stream water, such that we can track its movement downstream through space and time. A transient storage model (TSM) can be fit to the breakthrough curve (BTC) following a stream tracer experiment, as a way to quantify advection, dispersion, and transient storage processes. Arctic streams and rivers, in particular, are continuously underlain by permafrost, which provides for a simplified surface water-groundwater exchange. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Rhodamine-WT (RWT) are widely used tracers, and differences between the two in conservative behavior and detection limits have been noted in small-scale field and laboratory studies. This study seeks to further this understanding by applying the OTIS model to NaCl and RWT BTC data from a field study on the Kuparuk River, Alaska, at varying flow rates. There are two main questions to be answered: 1) Do differences in NaCl and RWT manifest in OTIS parameter values? 2) Are the OTIS model results reliable for NaCl, RWT, or both? Fieldwork was performed in the summer of 2012 on the Kuparuk River, and modeling was performed using a modified OTIS framework, which provided for parameter optimization and further global sensitivity analyses. The results of this study will contribute to the greater body of literature surrounding Arctic stream hydrology, and it will assist in methodology for future tracer field studies. Additionally, the modeling work will provide an analysis for OTIS parameter identifiability, and assess stream tracer integrity (i.e. how well the BTC data represents the system) and its relation to TSM performance (i.e. how well the TSM can find a unique fit to the BTC data). The quantitative tools used can be applied to other solute transport studies, to better understand potential deviations in model outcome due to stream tracer choice and

  5. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, T.M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  6. Stress corrosion cracking of 13% Cr martensitic steels in sodium chloride solutions in the presence of thiosulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of 13% Cr martensitic (UNS S42000) and supermartensitic (UNS S41125) steels in sodium chloride solutions in the presence of thiosulphate was evaluated by slow strain rate tests (SSRT). The tests were performed in 5% sodium chloride solutions buffered at pH 2.7, 3.5, 4.5 and 6.0 in the absence and presence of thiosulphate in a concentration range between 10-6 and 10-3 M, at 25 ± 0.1 C. The electrochemical behaviour of the two steels in the different solutions was determined by recording the anodic and cathodic polarisation curves. 13% Cr martensitic steel showed SCC in 5% sodium chloride solutions with pH ≤ 4.5 in the presence of 3 x 10-6 thiosulphate. Decreasing the chloride ion concentration from 50 to 10 g/l, the critical concentration of thiosulphate to provoke SCC susceptibility increased from 3 x 10-6 to 1 x 10-5 M. The resistance to SCC of the supermartensitic steel was higher than that of the martensitic steel. The critical concentration of thiosulphate to induce SCC on the supermartensitic steel were 1 x 10-5 M at pH 2.7 and 1 x 10-4 M at pH 3.5. At pH ≥ 4.5 the supermartensitic steel did not crack. The anodic and cathodic polarisation curves evidenced the influence of the thiosulphate on the corrosion and the activation effect on the steels. The SCC of the two steels was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement produced by sulphur and hydrogen sulphide formed by dismutation and reduction of thiosulphate. (orig.)

  7. The physical and chemical stability of cisplatin (Teva) in concentrate and diluted in sodium chloride 0.9%

    OpenAIRE

    Karbownik, Agnieszka; Szałek, Edyta; Urjasz, Hanna; Głęboka, Aleksandra; Mierzwa, Emilia; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The subject of study was the stability of cisplatin in concentrate in glass vials and diluted in polyethylene (PE) bags stored at 15–25°C for up to 30 days. Material and methods Original vials of cisplatin injection (1 mg/ml, Teva) were stored at room temperature and subjected to re-piercing after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 30 days following the initial piercing. Cisplatin infusions at nominal concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride (1000 ml) in PE b...

  8. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

  10. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  11. Voltage and cosubstrate dependence of the Na-HCO3 cotransporter kinetics in renal proximal tubule cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, E.; Hopfer, U

    1998-01-01

    The voltage dependence of the kinetics of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter was studied in proximal tubule cells. This electrogenic cotransporter transports one Na+, three HCO3-, and two negative charges. Cells were grown to confluence on a permeable support, mounted on a Ussing-type chamber, and permeabilized apically to small monovalent ions with amphotericin B. The steady-state, di-nitro-stilbene-di-sulfonate-sensitive current was shown to be sodium and bicarbonate dependent and therefo...

  12. Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-04-16

    The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial reduction of sodium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vespúcio BIS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sodium chloride in meat products provides microbiological stability and desirable technological and sensory effects. Therefore, the reduction of this ingredient is a challenge for the meat industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of ready-to-eat sliced frozen roast beef with partial replacement of sodium chloride by a commercial additive mostly composed of potassium chloride. The analyses performed were chemical composition, cooking yield and post defrosting loss, microbiological evaluation and sensory analysis. There was higher moisture content (p < 0.05 in the control treatment (without the presence of the replacement additive and all treatments were not different (p ≥ 0.05 in the cooking yield and in post-defrosting loss. The results of microbiological analysis are according to Brazilian Legislation. The sensory evaluation showed no difference between the control treatment and the T1 treatment (with the reduction of 35% of NaCl, while the T2 treatment (with reduction of 70% of NaCl had the lowest average values in all attributes. The study showed that the reduction of 35% NaCl for commercial additive, mostly composed of potassium chloride, in roast beef is feasible since no changes were observed in sensory and technological characteristics evaluated.

  14. Lactated Ringer's solution or 0.9% sodium chloride as fluid therapy in pigeons (Columba livia submitted to humerus osteosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano B. Carregaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the effects of intraosseous infusion of lactated Ringer's and 0.9% sodium chloride solutions on the electrolytes and acid-base balance in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis. Eighteen pigeons were undergoing to isoflurane anesthesia by an avalvular circuit system. They were randomly assigned into two groups (n=9 receiving lactated Ringer's solution (LR or 0.9% sodium chloride (SC, in a continuous infusion rate of 20mL/kg/h, by using an intraosseous catheter into the tibiotarsus during 60-minute anesthetic procedure. Heart rate (HR, and respiratory rate (RR were measured every 10 min. Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30 and 60 minutes to analyze blood pH, PvCO2, HCO3 -, Na+ and K+. Blood gases and electrolytes showed respiratory acidosis in both groups during induction, under physical restraint. This acidosis was evidenced by a decrease of pH since 0 min, associated with a compensatory response, observed by increasing of HCO3 - concentration, at 30 and 60 min. It was not observed any changes on Na+ and K+ serum concentrations. According to the results, there is no reason for choosing one of the two solutions, and it could be concluded that both fluid therapy solutions do not promote any impact on acid-base balance and electrolyte concentrations in pigeons submitted to humerus osteosynthesis.

  15. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (hxy, hxxy, and hxyy) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients hxy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  16. Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

  17. Influence of brine concentration on sugar and sodium chloride diffusion during the processing of the green olive variety Arauco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miras, N.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The green olive variety Arauco were debittered using lye concentrations of, 2.50% NaOH.They were then subjected to two rinsing processes with tap water. Next, the olives were cured with brines at 7%, 10% and 13% sodium chloride concentration. During this curing process, the loss of reducing sugars from the olives, and the diffusion of sodium chloride into the olives were quantified. Effective diffusion coefficients of both solutes in the skin and the flesh were calculated for this period using a diffusion model for a composite hollow sphere. The skin effective diffusion coefficients for both solutes ranged from entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s to 4,04x10-13 m2/s. The flesh coefficients varied from 2,92x10-9 m2/s to 3,99x10-9 m2/s for sodium chloride and from 9,76x10-11 m2/s to 2,22x10-10 m2/s for reducing sugars.Aceitunas verdes variedad Arauco fueron tratadas con soluciones de hidróxido de sodio al 2,5%. Estas fueron luego sometidas a dos procesos de lavado con agua corriente. Posteriormente, las aceitunas fueron curadas en salmueras con concentraciones de 7%, 10% y 13% de cloruro de sodio. Durante este proceso de curado, se cuantificó la pérdida de azúcares reductores desde, y la difusión de cloruro de sodio hacia el interior de las aceitunas. Durante este período se calcularon los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel y la pulpa, utilizando un modelo de difusión en una esfera hueca compuesta. Los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel estuvieron en un rango entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s y 4,04x10-13 m2/s. Los coeficientes de la pulpa variaron entre 2,92x10-9 m2/s y 3,99x10-9 m2/s para el cloruro de sodio, y entre 9,76x10-11 m2/s y 2,22x10-10 m2/s para los azúcares reductores.

  18. Influence of sodium chloride and weak organic acids (flux residues) on electrochemical migration of tin on surface mount chip components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    The electrolytic properties of sodium chloride and no-clean solder flux residue, and their effects on electrochemical migration and dendrite growth on surface mount chip capacitors were investigated. The leakage current dependency on concentration of contaminants was measured by a solution...... conductivity method and compared with current measurements using DC voltage. The effect of electrolyte concentration and potential bias on the probability of electrochemical migration was investigated using a water droplet method on chip capacitors. The results from leakage current and conductivity measurement...... showed a difference which is caused by polarization effects, and demonstrated existing issues when indexing contamination levels on printed circuit board assemblies using a standardised solvent extract method. The experimental results showed that dendrite growth was dependent on the type and amount...

  19. Effect of heat treatment on pitting corrosion of austenitic Cr-Ni-Mo steels in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pitting corrosion resistance of Cr17Ni12Mo2,5 type steel under potentiostatic polarization in a sodium chloride solution is adversely affected by previous annealing. The data obtained were systematically dependent on annealing temperature, time and surface roughness. The corrosion current, the number of pits or the mean area of pit opening and the corrosion rate within the pits were increased by previous annealing at 550 to 7500C for 1-100 hrs. The highest corrosion rate estimated corresponded to heat treatments provoking severe sensitization to intergranular corrosion. The paercentage area of corrosion pit openings and the estimated pit penetration rates were several times higher for as-machined than for polished surfaces. It can be assumed that pitting corrosion is little affected by the carbon content and that molybdenum depletion of grain-boundary zones is responsible for the reduced pitting resistance of annealed steels. (orig./HP)

  20. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  1. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content.

  2. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content. PMID:26852809

  3. Changes of free, soluble conjugated and bound polyamine titers of jojoba explants under sodium chloride salinity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Peter A; Pontikis, Constantine A

    2007-07-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis L.) single node explants were cultured in a basal medium supplemented with 17.8 microM 6-benzyladenine and four levels of sodium chloride concentration (0, 56.41, 112.82 and 169.23 mM). The free, the soluble conjugated and the insoluble bound forms of polyamines (PAs) (putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)) were determined monthly during a 3-month proliferation stage. Free Put and Spd were found in higher levels in the control treatment, while Spm content was higher in the salt treatments. All soluble conjugated PAs were found to be in lower concentrations in explants growing on medium supplemented with salt, while the opposite was true for the insoluble bound PAs. It appeared that certain PAs and PAs forms could play a significant role in the adaptation mechanism of jojoba under saline conditions.

  4. Stability of Melphalan in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solutions Prepared in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags for Intravenous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmaris, Romain-Pacôme; Mercier, Lionel; Paci, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Melphalan is an alkylating agent frequently used in an intravenous formulation to treat hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in both adults and children. According to the manufacturer, melphalan is stable in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride for 90 min at room temperature (RT). Several authors have studied the stability of different concentrations of melphalan; however, most were not adapted to the current manufacturing process applied in pharmaceutical centralized units. This study was conducted to determine the stability of melphalan in 0.9% sodium chloride solutions at concentrations used for intravenous injection in practice. Melphalan is commonly prepared in diluted solutions ranging from 2 to 4 mg/ml for the treatment of adult patients and at lower concentrations (down to 0.5 mg/ml) for pediatric use. Accordingly, these were the three concentrations chosen for this study. Melphalan concentrations were measured with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). At RT, admixtures prepared at 4 mg/ml were stable for up to 8 h without protection from light; however, at lower concentrations, such as 0.5 and 2 mg/ml, stability did not exceed 2 h. When refrigerated, melphalan was stable for 24 h at 2 mg/ml; however, at 0.5 and 4 mg/ml, the drug was not stable. Melphalan solutions present with limited stability at 0.5, 2, and 4 mg/ml and are not adapted for delayed administration in pharmaceutical centralized units. However, at 4 mg/ml and at RT, a stability of 8 h is very interesting in practice and allows sufficient time for preparation, pharmaceutical control, transport, and administration.

  5. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  6. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Koeypudsa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day and long-term (30 days exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C.Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs, high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s, low temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (LtWs, and low temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride (LtW/s.Blood was taken from caudal vessel of anaesthetized fish to investigate blood clotting time, cortisol, glucose, osmolarity,Na+, K+ and Cl-. Ratios of Na+/K+, Na+/Cl- and Na+ + K+ / Cl- were also analyzed. In the short-term (1 day experiment, values ofall catfish blood parameters varied. These imply that catfish attempt to maintain internal balance, homeostasis. Osmolarityexhibited complete homeostasis in 2 h. From long-term (30 days exposure, non-significant means of Na+/Cl- ratio (HtWsand decreasing trend lines direction of blood clotting time (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs indicated that 0.1% sodium chloride and/orLt helped stress reduction in catfish. Sum of Na+ and K+ to Cl- ratio among 4 groups (HtW/s, HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs revealedthat catfish spent 10 days for adjustment themselves under stress circumstance (HtWs, LtW/s, LtWs to natural situation(HtW/s. This information could be useful to improve the survival rate and health condition during rearing, handling andtransporting aquatic animals.

  7. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: Influence of temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: aguerrero@ietcc.csic.es; Goni, S. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: sgoni@ietcc.csic.es; Allegro, V.R. [Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science (CSIC), C/Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: allegro@ietcc.csic.es

    2009-03-15

    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste that was rich in chloride (0.5 M), and demineralised water as a reference, at 20 and 40 deg. C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanism of chloride ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated chloride radioactive liquid waste (SCRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive Friedel's salt inside the pores; accordingly, the microstructure was refined.

  8. Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (conservative tracer additions in large rivers. Differences in RWT behavior at various flow conditions indicate limitations for its use as a conservative tracer at lower discharges on a given reach. At higher discharges, RWT provides the benefit of a broader data set without considerable effects from sorption-desorption processes. Figure 1: NaCl and RWT BTC tails (tpk - t99) under two contrasting discharge conditions. A more defined difference in tail shape is present at 500 l/s compared to 1400 l/s. Also, the window of detection is longer for RWT compared to NaCl under both flow conditions.

  9. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  10. Comparison of the corrosion behavior and surface morphology of NiTi alloy and stainless steels in sodium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožuh S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of NiTi alloy and stainless steels (AISI 316L and X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 in 0.9% sodium chloride (0.154 moll-1 solution was investigated using open circuit potential measurements, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. Microstructural analyses before and after electrochemical tests were performed with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS. The lowest corrosion current density has NiTi alloy and the extent of the passive range increased in the order AISI 316L stainless steel < NiTi alloy < X2CrNiMoN22-5-3 duplex stainless steel. The oxide film formed on all samples has a double-layer structure consisting of a barrier-type inner layer and a porous outer layer. Oxide films formed on the surface of steels mainly contains iron oxides and chromium oxide, while the surface film of the NiTi alloy mainly contains TiO2 oxide.

  11. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  12. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jae Yoo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident.

  13. Impact of water temperature and sodium chloride (NaCl) on stress indicators of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell x C. macrocephalus Gunther)

    OpenAIRE

    Weena Koeypudsa; Malinee Jongjareanjai

    2011-01-01

    This research was composed of 2 experiments. Short-term (1 day) and long-term (30 days) exposure were conductedin the laboratory. Each experiment had 2 temperature levels, high (Ht, 29.5 ± 0.5C) and low temperature (Lt, 19.5 ± 0.5C).Initial weight and length of catfish were 7.54±1.82 g and 9.90±0.96 cm respectively. Experimental catfish were subjected to 4conditions as follows: high temperature with 0.1% sodium chloride (HtWs), high temperature without 0.1% sodium chloride(HtW/s), low tempe...

  14. Study of The Effect of Initial Height of Powder on Compressibility of Aspirin,Sodium Chloride and Pota¬ssium Bromide

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Zarrintan; A Rostami

    1990-01-01

    At present study three crystaline materials of aspirin, sodium chloride and potassium bromide have been compressed with an hydraulic press at different compactional pressures . The effect of initial height of powder on compressibility has been investigated via determination of relative volume in comparison with the true volume of the material.From the results it has been shown that at almost all the cases a linear relationship exists between the compactional pressure and the logarithm of reci...

  15. 不同钠水摄入对大鼠血压的影响%Effects of different intakes of sodium chloride and water on rat blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国东; 全洪兵; 周路; 胡建锋; 梁劲生

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds Long-term high intake of sodium chloride would result in high blood pressure, however the mechanism is uncertain. It is not conclusive whether there exists a retention of sodium and water, and it is still unclear regarding the interactions between sympathetic-adrenal system (SAS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS).Objective To analyze the effects of different sodium chloride amounts of intake and water on the blood pressure of Wistar rats. Methods Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups according to daily different intakes of sodium chloride and water with 5 rats in each group: low intake of sodium chloride with unlimited water supply,low intake of sodium chloride with physiologically-indispensable water (40 mL/d), high intake of sodium chloride with unlimited water supply, and high intake of sodium chloride with physiologically-indispensable water (40 mL/d).The intakes of water were measured daily, and urine samples were collected in the metabolic cages in each group.The difference values ( D-value) were calculated between the intake of water and the volume of urine daily.Weight and rat tail systolic arterial pressures were measured weekly for a total of 8 weeks. Blood noradrenalin (NE) and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ ) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) 8 weeks later. Results The blood pressures in high sodium chloride intake groups with a slow increase of body weight were significantly higher than those of low intake of sodium chloride(P<0. 01 ) ;the D-value between the intake of water and the volume of urine, and Ang Ⅱ were significantly lower while blood NEs were higher. Furthermore, there exist significant differences in the blood pressures [(166.7±2.2)and (156.2±2.3)mm Hg], NEs [(3.5±0. 6) and (2.2 ± 0. 5 )μg/L] and Ang Ⅱ [(203. 5 ± 98.0 ) and(233.4 ± 101.7) ng/L] between high intake of sodium chloride group with physiologically-indispensable water and high intake of sodium chloride group with

  16. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pirrie Stockwell

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  17. Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

    2014-11-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10(-4) mM SA, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM NaCl, 150 mM NaCl, SA + 50 mM NaCl, SA + 100 mM NaCl and SA + 150 mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5 weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50 mM and 100 mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50 mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50 mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

  18. Effect of Sodium Chloride and Cadmium on the Growth, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunsheng; XU Ying; JIANG Wei; LV Xin; DONG Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly under-stood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6%NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory ef-fect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  19. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. PMID:26613570

  20. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO3) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO3, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The higher

  1. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.

  2. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  3. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  4. Effects of pH, sodium chloride, and curing salt on the infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, S; Koethe, M; Bangoura, B; Zöller, B; Daugschies, A; Straubinger, R K; Fehlhaber, K; Ludewig, M

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common zoonotic parasites in the world. The parasite causes no or mild symptoms in immunocompetent humans. However, a high potential hazard exists for seronegative pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. The consumption of meat containing tissue cysts or oocyst-contaminated vegetables and fruits or the handling of cat feces poses a high risk of infection with T. gondii. It is known that raw minced meat, raw fresh sausages, and locally produced raw meat products are possible causes of T. gondii infection. The infectivity of T. gondii tissue cysts in meat products depends, among other factors, on the pH and the salt concentration. Therefore, the impact of these two factors on the tissue cysts was examined. For this purpose, dissected musculature and brain from experimentally infected mice (donor mice) were placed in a cell culture medium (RPMI 1640). The medium was adjusted to different pH values (pH 5, 6, and 7) with lactic acid and to different salt concentrations (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%) with sodium chloride (NaCl) or nitrite-enriched curing salt (NCS) for the various tests. After storage at 4°C for different time periods, the materials were fed to bioassay mice. Later, the brains were examined for presence of T. gondii to assess the infectivity. The data show that T. gondii tissue cysts have a high pH tolerance. Cysts were infectious in the muscle for up to 26 days (pH 5). In contrast to their tolerance to pH, cysts were very sensitive to salt. Muscle cysts survived at an NaCl concentration of up to 2.0% only, and for no longer than 8 days. At NaCl concentrations of 2.5 and 3.0%, the cysts lost their infectivity after 1 day. When NCS instead of NaCl was used under the same conditions, T. gondii muscle cysts retained infectivity for only 4 days at 2.0%. Consequently, NCS (NaCl plus 0.5% nitrite) has a stronger effect on T. gondii cysts than does common table salt. Sausages produced with low NaCl concentration and short

  5. The effect of initial tonicity on freeze/thaw injury to human red cells suspended in solutions of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, D E; Diaper, M P

    1991-02-01

    Human red blood cells, suspended in solutions of sodium chloride, have been frozen to temperatures between -2 and -14 degrees C and thawed, and the extent of hemolysis was measured. In parallel experiments, red cells were exposed to similar cycles of change in the composition of the suspending solution, but by dialysis at 21 degrees C. The tonicity of the saline in which the cells were initially suspended was varied between 0.6x isotonic and 4x isotonic; some samples from each experimental treatment were returned to isotonic saline before hemolysis was measured. It was found that the tonicity of the saline used to suspend the cells for the main body of the experiment affected the amount of hemolysis measured: raising the tonicity from 0.6x to 1x to 2x reduced hemolysis, both in the freezing and in the dialysis experiments, whereas raising the tonicity further to 4x reversed that trend. There was little difference between the freeze/thaw and the dialysis treatments for the cells suspended in 1x or 2x saline, whether or not the cells were returned to isotonic conditions. However, the cells suspended in 0.6x saline showed greater damage from freezing and thawing than from the comparable change in the composition of the solution, whether or not they were returned to isotonic conditions. Cells that were suspended in 4x saline and exposed to changes in salt concentration by dialysis showed less hemolysis when they were assayed in the 4x solution than cells that had received the comparable freezing/thaw treatment, but when the experiment included a return to isotonicity, the two treatments gave similar results. Returning the cells to isotonic saline had a negligible affect on the cells in 0.6x and 1x saline, but caused considerable hemolysis in the 2x and 4x samples, more so after dialysis than after freezing and thawing. We conclude that cells suspended in 0.6x and 4x saline behave differently from cells suspended in 1x and 2x saline and hence that cells suspended in a

  6. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchio MA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Megan A Rocchio, Caryn D Belisle, Bonnie C Greenwood, Michael C Cotugno, Paul M SzumitaDepartment of Pharmacy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USABackground: Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797.Methods: At time “0” three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C–8°C [36°F–46°F], and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours.Results: The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL.Conclusion: Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours

  7. Oral salt supplements to compensate for jejunostomy losses: comparison of sodium chloride capsules, glucose electrolyte solution, and glucose polymer electrolyte solution.

    OpenAIRE

    Nightingale, J M; Lennard-Jones, J E; Walker, E. R.; Farthing, M J

    1992-01-01

    Six patients with jejunostomies and residual jejunal lengths of 105 to 250 cm took the same food and water each day for eight study days. In random order, three methods of salt replacement were tested, each over 48 hours, against a period without added salt. During the three test periods the patients took 120 mmol of sodium chloride daily, as salt in gelatine capsules, as an isotonic glucose electrolyte (280 mOsmol/kg; 30 kcal) solution, and as a glucose polymer (Maxijul) solution (280 mOsmol...

  8. Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A; Meinild, A K;

    1999-01-01

    1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from the c...

  9. Synergism between sodium chloride, sucrose and tricalcium phosphate in the osmotic dehydration of oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arroyo Portal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergistic effect of three solutes (sodium chloride, sucrose, tricalcium phosphate in different combinations of concentration, on the moisture, solid gain and calcium gain in oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan (CR and SR. In both cases applied the Simplex with Extended Centroid mixture design. Were used cylinders of oca of 0.9 cm of diameter and 3.4 cm of length. The kinetics of moisture, solid gain and calcium gain for 48 hours was evaluated. The effective diffusivity of water, solids and calcium was determined. We found that in samples CR is greater loss of water and less solid gain compared with SR samples mainly as sodium chloride or sucrose participate independently, while for the gain of calcium, in all cases, the CR samples gain more of calcium than SR samples. The effective diffusivities found are: water, 1.19E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.34E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; for solid, 3.67E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 5.43E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; and, for calcium 3.32E-11 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.57E-09 m2 /s in SR samples.

  10. Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, Megan A; Belisle, Caryn D; Greenwood, Bonnie C; Cotugno, Michael C; Szumita, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    Background Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797. Methods At time “0” three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C–8°C [36°F–46°F]), and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours. Results The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL). At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL. Conclusion Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours when stored at 2°C–8°C (36°F–46°F). PMID:24143117

  11. Studies on growth and toxin production of C. botulinum type E on cod homogenate treated with a combination of spices, sodium chloride and gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, A.K. (Atomic Energy Centre, Dacca (Bangladesh)); Ando, Y.; Karashimada, T.; Kameyama, K.

    1979-09-01

    Cod homogenates inoculated with spores of C. botulinum type E strain Erimo at 10/sup 2/ and 10/sup 4//g were treated with 1% and 2% sodium chloride, 0.25% each of mustard, garlic and turmeric and 0.3 Mrad ..gamma..-radiation either in single or combination treatments. The growth and toxin production of type E spores in the inoculated homogenates were followed at incubation temperatures of 30/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/ and 5/sup 0/C for 7, 28 and 56 days respectively. Growth and gas formation were noted in all the samples but type E toxin could not be detected. The reason for the absence of toxin in both the untreated and treated homogenates could not be ascertained. Inadequate detection method, unfavourable growth conditions in the homogenate and weak toxigenicity of the strain employed have been advanced as probable factors that contributed to the negative results on the toxin assay.

  12. Influence of cold work and sigma phase on the pitting corrosion behavior of 25 chromium super duplex stainless steel in 3.5% sodium chloride solution.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhoud, A.; Deans, W. [School of Engineering, Kings College, University of Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Ezuber, H. [College of Engineering, University of Bahrain (Bahrain)

    2010-03-15

    The effect of cold work (up to 16% strain) and sigma phase precipitation (at 850 C for 10 and 60 min) on the pitting resistance of 25 chromium super duplex stainless steel were investigated in 3.5% sodium chloride solution at 70 and 90 C. Anodic polarization scans for cold worked samples revealed immunity to pitting attack at 70 C even with 16% strain. At 90 C, the alloy still showed high pitting resistance, pitting occurring at about 600 mV (SCE) for the 16% plastic strain samples. A serious deterioration of the pitting corrosion resistance was found after heating the alloy at 850 C for 10 min resulting in a clear drop in the pitting potential at 90 C. After heating for 60 min, the material showed rapid deterioration of pitting corrosion resistance at 70 C. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Toxicity of sodium chloride and methyl parathion on the macrophyte Lemna minor (Linnaeus, 1753 with respect to frond number and chlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Duckweed, Lemna minor L., is a suitable plant model for toxicity evaluation of many contaminants due to its small size and rapid growth. Methyl parathion is a toxic compound which is utilized to eliminate aquatic insect larvae, among other purposes. Its toxicity was evaluated with the use of L. minor in this study. Methyl parathion was added to Hoagland’s nutrient medium at concentrations of 0, 8, 16, 22, 28 and 32mg.L–1. Lemna minor is used as a tool in evaluating chemical test products for toxic effects. The sensitivity of Lemna to sodium chloride, the reference substance, at concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 g.L–1, was determined for comparison and resulted in an IC50 of 6.87g.L–1. Methyl parathion in L. minor showed an IC50 of 49.48mg.L–1.

  14. Study of The Effect of Initial Height of Powder on Compressibility of Aspirin,Sodium Chloride and Pota¬ssium Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Zarrintan

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available At present study three crystaline materials of aspirin, sodium chloride and potassium bromide have been compressed with an hydraulic press at different compactional pressures . The effect of initial height of powder on compressibility has been investigated via determination of relative volume in comparison with the true volume of the material.From the results it has been shown that at almost all the cases a linear relationship exists between the compactional pressure and the logarithm of reciprocal porosity • From the slope of the lines it is clear that the compressibility of these three materials are different."nIt has also been shown that increased prowder initial height at the same compaction pressure, reduces compressibility which may be related to friction increase. Compaction with perspex die, and picturing compression pattern from the die during compaction, with polarized light, showed that transferred pressure to the die wall has an invert relationship with initial powder height.

  15. Determination of sodium chloride in ion - exchange membrane caustic soda%离子膜碱中氯化钠的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋昕; 孙士娟; 邱雪松

    2000-01-01

    The determination of sodium chloride in ion- exchange membrane caustic soda by potentiometry and by spectrophotometry are introduced, and the results obtained by the above two methods are compared. It is concluded that potentiometry is suitable to macro analysis with characteristics of simple operation, rapid analysis and accurate measurement.%介绍了用电位滴定法和分光光度法测定离子膜碱中氯化钠含量的方法,并对这2种方法的测试结果进行了比较。电位滴定法适用于常量分析,具有操作简便、分析速度快、测量结果准确等特点。

  16. 氯化钠增白煅烧高岭土的反应热力学%Thermodynamics of Reaction of Whitening Calcined Kaolin by Sodium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦化; 吴红丹; 雷新荣; 于吉顺; 裴大婷; 李启超

    2011-01-01

    采用氯化钠作为氯化剂氯化增白煅烧高岭土,并对相关反应进行化学热力学计算.结果表明,当氯化钠的添加量为6%,煅烧温度为900℃,煅烧时间为2h时,产品白度提高到92.3%,Fe2O3的去除率达到16.9%.其反应机理:在Al2O3参与的情况下,Fe2O3被氯化生成气态的FeCl3,900℃时,该反应的吉布斯自由能△rGθm约为-350 kJ/mol,且随着反应温度的提高,△rGθm减小,有利于反应的进行.%The calcined kaolin was whitened with sodium chloride as chloridizing agent, and thermodynamics calculations of the relative reactions were performed for the Gibbs free energy. The results showed that the whiteness of the calcined kaolin was increased to 92. 3% and the leaching rate of Fe2O3 reached 16. 9% at 900 'C for 2 h with sodium chloride added at 6 %. The reaction mechanism was that Fe2 O3 was chlorinated and formed gaseous FeCl3 with the participation of alumina. The Gibbs free energy of the reaction was about -350 kJ/mol. With increase in reaction temperature, the Gibbs free energy decreased, which was suitable to the synthesis reaction.

  17. Altered expression of renal bumetanide-sensitive sodium-pota-ssium-2 chloride cotransporter and Cl- channel -K2 gene in angiotensin Ⅱ-infused hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tao; LIU Zhi-quan; SUN Chao-feng; ZHENG Yong; MA Ai-qun; FANG Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Little information is available regarding the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) on the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2), the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), and the Cl- channel (CLC)-K2 at both mRNA and protein expression level in Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertensive rats. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of Ang Ⅱ with chronic subpressor infusion on nephron-specific gene expression of NKCC2, NCC and CLC-K2. Results Ang Ⅱ significantly increased blood pressure and up-regulated NKCC2 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney. Expression of CLC-K2 mRNA in the kidney increased 1.6 fold (P<0.05).There were no changes in NCC mRNA or protein expression in AngII-treated rats versus control. Conclusions Chronic subpressor Ang Ⅱ infusion can significantly alter NKCC2 and CLC-K2 mRNA expression in the kidney, and protein abundance of NKCC2 in kidney is positively regulated by Ang Ⅱ. These effects may contribute to enhanced renal Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in response to Ang Ⅱ.

  18. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia. PMID:26994581

  19. Corrosion Resistance ofAA6063-TypeAl-Mg-SiAlloy by Silicon Carbide in Sodium Chloride Solution for MarineApplication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ojo Sunday Isaac Fayomi; Malik Abdulwahab; Ferdinand Asuke

    2015-01-01

    The present work focused on corrosion inhibition of AA6063 type Al-Mg-Si alloy in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a silicon carbide inhibitor, using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method. The aluminium alloy surface morphology was examined, in the as-received and as-corroded in the un-inhibited state, with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results obtained via linear polarization indicated a high corrosion potential for the unprotected as-received alloy. Equally, inhibition efficiency as high as 98.82% at 10.0 g/v silicon carbide addition was obtained with increased polarization resistance (Rp), while the current density reduced significantly for inhibited samples compared to the un-inhibited aluminium alloy. The adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor aluminium alloy follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This shows that the corrosion rate of aluminium alloy with silicon carbide in NaCl environment decreased significantly with addition of the inhibitor.

  20. Corrosion resistance of AA6063-Type Al-Mg-Si alloy by silicon carbide in sodium chloride solution for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayomi, Ojo Sunday Isaac; Abdulwahab, Malik; Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu; Asuke, Ferdinand

    2015-12-01

    The present work focused on corrosion inhibition of AA6063 type (Al-Mg-Si) alloy in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a silicon carbide inhibitor, using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method. The aluminium alloy surface morphology was examined, in the as-received and as-corroded in the un-inhibited state, with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results obtained via linear polarization indicated a high corrosion potential for the unprotected as-received alloy. Equally, inhibition efficiency as high as 98.82% at 10.0 g/v silicon carbide addition was obtained with increased polarization resistance ( R p), while the current density reduced significantly for inhibited samples compared to the un-inhibited aluminium alloy. The adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor aluminium alloy follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This shows that the corrosion rate of aluminium alloy with silicon carbide in NaCl environment decreased significantly with addition of the inhibitor.

  1. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles.

  2. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages.

  3. Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively.

  4. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-02-01

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P 7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA. PMID:26637600

  5. Synergistic bactericidal action of phytic acid and sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells protected by a biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-06-16

    The food industry must prevent the build-up of strong Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms in food processing environments. The present study examined the bactericidal action of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran and the hulls/peels of legumes, against E. coli O157:H7 biofilms. The synergistic bactericidal effects of PA plus sodium chloride (NaCl) were also examined. E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were allowed for form on stainless steel coupons by culture in both rich (tryptic soy broth, TSB) and minimal (M9) medium at 22°C for 6days. Bacterial cells within biofilms grown in M9 medium were significantly more resistant to PA than those grown in TSB (p6.5logCFU/cm(2) reduction). Neither PA nor NaCl alone were this effective (PA, 1.6-2.7logCFU/cm(2) reduction; NaCl, <0.5logCFU/cm(2) reduction). Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of propidium iodide-treated cells showed that PA (0.4%) plus NaCl (2-4%) had marked membrane permeabilizing effects. These results suggest that a sanitizer that combines these two naturally occurring antimicrobial agents may be useful to food safety managers who encounter thick biofilm formation in food processing environments. PMID:27043385

  6. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia.

  7. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  8. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles. PMID:22062918

  9. Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively. PMID:22062917

  10. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

    2007-07-01

    Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages. PMID:22060988

  11. Technical modification and benefits analysis for production of sodium fiuosilicate from sodium sulfate instead of sodium chloride%硫酸钠代替氯化钠生产氟硅酸钠的技改及效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秀梅

    2012-01-01

    分析以氯化钠为原料生产氟硅酸钠存在的问题,提出用硫酸钠代替氯化钠生产氟硅酸钠,并从工艺、设备、仪表和土建等方面介绍装置技改情况,以及改造后的经济效益。%The existing problems in production of sodium fluosilicate with sodium chloride as raw material are analyzed, using sodium sulfate instead of sodium chloride for production of sodium fluosilicate is put forward, the technical modification from process, equipment, instrument and civil engineering etc., and the economic benefit after the transformation are introduced.

  12. Determination of lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K; Determinacion de las constantes de hidrolisis del lutecio (III), en medio de fuerza ionica 1M de cloruro de sodio, a 303 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez G, J.J.; Rojas H, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Dept. de Quimica

    1997-07-01

    With the purpose to complete information about the lutetium (III) hydrolysis constants here is used the potentiometric method to determine those in the middle of ion force 1M sodium chloride at 303 K. (Author)

  13. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  14. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers. PMID:23587714

  15. 降低肉制品中氯化钠含量研究进展%Progress towards Sodium Chloride Reduction in Meat Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海舟; 张迎阳; 唐静; 余翔; 黎良浩; 王建; 章建浩

    2014-01-01

    An excessive intake of meat products, particularly dry-cured meat products, is not recommended from a health point of view, at least for some population groups, due to their high levels of sodium. Nevertheless, despite the importance of sodium chloride in producing food, over-consumption of sodium has the propensity to develop hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this paper attempts are made to make a detailed review on the role of NaCl in processed meats, ways of reducing salt and their effect on the quality of meat precuts. It can provide some useful information for reducing salt levels of traditional meat products in our country and make meat products healthier.%从健康的观点来看,过度的摄入肉制品特别是传统的干腌肉制品不被推荐。因为这些肉制品钠含量较高,过度的摄入可能使人们导致高血压等心血管疾病。本文综述了氯化钠在肉产品加过过程中的作用、降低盐含量的方法以及他们对肉制品加工过程中品质的影响。为探索减低我国传统肉质品盐含量提供参考,有效提高肉制品的健康性。

  16. Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2010-12-01

    Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis.

  17. Accuracy of indirect immunofluorescence on sodium chloride-split skin in the differential diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoqi Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous reports have shown that indirect immunofluorescence (IIF performed on sodium chloride-split skin (SSS is helpful to differentiate epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA from bullous pemphigoid (BP. Antibodies of BP may bind to the epidermal side of SSS, while antibodies of EBA bind to the dermal side. Aims: To determine the accuracy of IIF-SSS in the differential diagnosis of EBA and BP utilizing immunoblotting (IB analysis. Methods: Sera from 78 patients, diagnosed with BP by clinical features, histopathology, and direct immunofluorescence (DIF, were assayed using IIF-SSS and IB. Results: Of the 43 serum samples with an epidermal reaction to IIF-SSS assay, 42 were recognized with BP antigens (180 kDa or 230 kDa. Of the 11 serum samples with a dermal reaction pattern, 7 were recognized with the 290 kDa antigen of EBA and 3 with sera bound BP antigens. Seven serum samples with epidermal and dermal combined staining, of which 5 of them reacted with BP antigens, 1 reacted with both BP and EBA antigens. One serum sample from each group showed a negative result by IB. Approximately 9.0% (7/78 of patients diagnosed with BP using regular methods were actually EBA. Conclusions: Epidermal reaction using the IIF-SSS assay highly correlated with the diagnosis of BP. However, dermal reactions correlated poorly with EBA, with some serum samples from BP patients binding to dermal-side antigens. In both epidermal and dermal stained sera using IIF-SSS, there was a possibility of BP and EBA. Differential diagnosis should be confirmed using IB, especially in cases of dermal and double staining patterns assayed using IIF-SSS.

  18. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  19. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    Science.gov (United States)

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  20. Solvation of sodium chloride in the 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Wipff, Georges

    2007-06-28

    We report molecular dynamics studies on the solvation of sodium chloride in the 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid ([BMI][Tf2N] IL). We first consider the potential of mean force for dissociating a single Na+Cl- ion pair, showing that the latter prefers to be undissociated rather than dissociated (by ca. 9 kcal/mol), with a free energy barrier of ca. 5 kcal/mol (at d approximately 5.2 A) for the association process. The preference for Na+Cl- association is also observed from a 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation of a concentrated solution, where the Na+Cl- ions tend to form oligomers and microcrystals in the IL. Conversely, the simulation of Na13Cl14- and Na14Cl13+ cubic microcrystals (with, respectively, Cl- and Na+ at the vertices) does not lead to dissolution in the IL. Among these, Na14Cl13+ is found to be better solvated than Na13Cl14-, mainly due to the stronger Na+...Tf2N- interactions as compared to the Cl-...BMI+ interactions at the vertices of the cube. We finally consider the solid/liquid interface between the 100 face of NaCl and the IL, revealing that, in spite of its polar nature, the crystal surface is solvated by the less polar IL components (CF3(Tf2N) and butyl(BMI) groups) rather than by the polar ones (O(Tf2N) and imidazolium(BMI) ring). Specific ordering at the interface is described for both Tf2N- anions and BMI+ cations. In the first IL layer, the ions are rather parallel to the surface, whereas in the second "layer" they are more perpendicular. A similar IL structure is found at the surface of the all-neutral Na0Cl0 solid analogue, confirming that the solvation of the crystal is rather "apolar", due to the mismatch between the IL and the crystal ions. Several comparisons with water, methanol, or different BMI+-based ILs as solvents are presented, allowing us to better understand the specificity of the ionic liquid-NaCl interactions.

  1. Stress corrosion crack growth studies on nitrogen added AISI type 316 stainless steel and its weld metal in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution using the fracture mechanics approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, H.; George, G.; Khatak, H.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Div. of Metallurgy; Schneider, F.; Mummert, K. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung Dresden e.V. (Germany). Inst. fuer Metallische Werkstoffe

    2000-10-01

    Compact tension specimens of nitrogen-added AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steel and its weld metal were subject to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) testing in a boiling solution containing 5 M sodium chloride + 0.15 M sodium sulphate + 2.5 ml/l hydrochloric acid solution using the constant extension rate testing (CERT) technique. The extension rate of testing was 10 microns per hour. The threshold values of stress intensify factor (K{sub ISCC}) and J-integral (J{sub ISCC}) were taken as those values of K{sub I} and J{sub I} at which about 25 microns of SCC crack growth was observed. These threshold values were about four times higher and plateau crack growth rates (PCGR) were nearly one order of magnitude lower for the base metal vis-a-vis the weld metal. Fractographic observations indicated failure by transgranular SCC (TGSCC) of austenite in both the base and weld metal. No stress-assisted dissolution of delta-ferrite or its interface with austenite, was observed. (orig.) [German] CT-Proben von Grund- und Schweissnahtwerkstoff des stickstoffhaltigen Stahles AISI 316 LN wurden Spannungsrisskorrosionstests in siedender chloridhaltiger Loesung (5 M Natriumchlorid/0,15 M Natriumsulfat/0,03 M Salzsaeure) unterzogen. Die Tests erfolgten bei konstanter Dehnrate (CERT-Test) von 10 {mu}m/h. Als Schwellwerte der Initiierung von Spannungsrisskorrosion K{sub ISCC} und I{sub ISCC} wurden die Werte des Spannungsintensitaetsfaktors K{sub I} und des J-Integrals J{sub I} ermittelt, bei denen ein Risswachstum von 25 {mu}m auftrat. Dabei wies der Grundwerkstoff 4-fach hoehere Schwellwerte K{sub ISCC} und J{sub ISCC} auf als der Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Auch die Risswachstumsraten im Plateaubereich der Risswachstumsrate-Spannungsintensitaetskruven waren am Grundwerkstoff um eine Groessenordnung geringer als am Schweissnahtwerkstoff. Die fraktorgrahischen Untersuchungen zeigten an beiden Materialien Schaedigung durch transkristalline Spannungsrisskorrosion. Eine

  2. 改进电热法测定氯化钠溶液比热容的研究%Study on Using Improved Electrothermal Method to Test Specific Heat Capacity of Sodium Chloride Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付睿丽; 马镛; 李磊; 吴修治

    2014-01-01

    改进电热法测定比热容装置,省去电流表,用阻值恒定的 FeCrAl 合金电阻丝代替,并且设置静音搅拌叶轮,实现溶液自动搅拌。为防止氯化钠溶液电解,用石墨电极代替传统铜电极,测出氯化钠溶液比热容随浓度的变化规律:即在初温相同的条件下,氯化钠溶液比热容随浓度增加而线性降低;随着初始温度的升高,氯化钠溶液比热容随浓度变化曲线整体向上平移。%The experimental device,by which the improved electrothermal method is used to test the specific heat capacity,may leave out an ammeter,and the ammeter can be replaced by the re-sistance wire of FeCrAl Alloy which has constant resistance.The device has mute stirring impel-ler,and can mix the solution automatically.In order to prevent the sodium chloride solution from being electrolysed,the traditional copper electrode is replaced by graphite electrode.Then,the variations of the specific heat capacity of sodium chloride solution with the temperature are test-ed.The results of the experiment indicate that the specific heat capacity of sodium chloride solu-tion decreases linearly along with the increase of concentration,and with the changes of the initial temperature,the curve offset slightly.

  3. Thiazide diuretics directly induce osteoblast differentiation and mineralized nodule formation by targeting a NaCl cotransporter in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Melita M; De Joussineau, Cyrille; Carter, D Howard; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A; Gamba, Gerardo; Kemp, Paul J; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Thiazide diuretics are used, worldwide, as the first-choice drug for patients with uncomplicated hypertension. In addition to their anti-hypertensive actions, they increase bone mineral density and reduce the prevalence of fractures, indicating that thiazides may have a role in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Traditionally, the bone-protective effects of thiazides have been attributed to an increase in renal calcium reabsorption, secondary to the inhibition of the sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, expressed in the kidney distal tubule. Whether thiazides exert a direct osteoanabolic effect independently of their renal action is controversial. Here we demonstrate that freshly frozen sections of human and rat bone express NCC, principally in bone-forming cells, the osteoblasts. In primary and established culture models of osteoblasts, fetal rat calvarial (FRC) and human MG63 cells, NCC protein is virtually absent in proliferating cells while its expression is dramatically increased during differentiation. Thiazides directly stimulate the production of osteoblast markers, runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2) and osteopontin, in the absence of a proliferative effect. Using overexpression/knockdown studies in FRC cells, we show that thiazides, but not loop diuretics, increase mineralized nodule formation acting on NCC. Overall, our study demonstrates that thiazides stimulate osteoblast differentiation and bone mineral formation independently of their renal actions. In addition to their use as part of a therapeutic treatment plan for elderly, hypertensive individuals, our discovery opens up the possibility that bone-specific drug targeting by thiazides may be developed for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in the patient population as a whole. PMID:17656470

  4. 盐酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液无菌检查方法学验证%Study of sterile examination method of levofloxacin hydrochloride and sodium chloride injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴羽岚; 嵇海澄

    2013-01-01

      目的对盐酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液的无菌检查方法进行探讨,建立其无菌检查方法。方法按《中国药典》(2010年版)附录ⅪH无菌检查方法进行。结果在验证条件下,该方法能消除对微生物生长的抑制作用。结论可以采用此法对本品的无菌进行检查。%Objective To discuss and establish the sterile examination method of levofloxacin hydrochloride and sodium chloride injection. Methods The test were done according to appendix XIH-sterile examination method in"Chinese Pharmacopeia"(2010 edition). Results The method could eliminate the inhibition of microbe growth under the validation condition. Conclusion This method can be used for the sterile examination of levofloxacin hydrochloride and sodium chloride injection.

  5. Sterility test method for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and sodium chloride injection%盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液无菌检查方法的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红岩; 于风平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a sterility test method for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and sodium chloride injection. Methods A test method was set up and improved on the basis of the officia line of Chinese Pharmacopoeia(edited in 2010). Results Antibacterial activity of moxifloxacin hydrochloride could be eliminated by membrane filtration method in which a water solution of 0.1% peptone was used as rinse solution. The volume of the rinse solution was 400 ml, 0.1 mol/L of manganese sulfate solution was used for neutralization. Conclusion The method established in the paper is valid in sterility test for moxifloxacin hydrochloride and sodium chloride injection.%目的:建立盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液无菌检查方法。方法参照《中国药典》2010年版方法进行试验。结果采用薄膜过滤法(冲洗量:400 ml/膜)并结合中和法(每100 ml培养基加入:0.1 mol/L的硫酸锰溶液5 ml)即可消除样品对各菌株的抗菌活性。结论建立的方法可行,可用于盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液无菌检查。

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  7. 纯净水加氯化钠在洗胃中的临床应用%The clinical application of pure water and sodium chloride in gastric lavage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗天玉; 张红梅; 陈凤玲; 马小萍; 夏秋江; 王青丽; 张希洲

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察纯净水加氯化钠在口服药物中毒中的临床应用效果.方法:将248例口服中毒患者随机分为观察组(127例)和对照组(121例).对照组以纯净水洗胃,观察组以纯净水加氯化钠(每桶纯净水10 L加氯化钠90 g,相当于0.9%氯化钠)洗胃,两组均用自制特殊加温装置加热到36℃.观察洗胃前后的平均动脉压、心率、血常规、血钠和血钾情况,并留剩余洗胃液送培养.结果:洗胃后两组血清钠浓度、平均动脉压水平的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).剩余洗胃液送培养结果,对照组大肠杆菌超标,观察未见超标大肠杆菌生长.结论:纯净水水源充足,符合饮用水卫生标准,加入一定量的氯化钠后,接近生理盐水的浓度,能避免洗胃时出现的低钠血症及血压下降现象,减少院内交叉感染.%Objective:The clinical application of pure water and sodium chloride in gastric lavage of oral drug poisoning patients. Method: Two hundred and forty-eight oral drug poisoning patients were divided into the observation group (127 cases) and the control group (121 cases) randomly. 36℃ clean water was used for gastric lavage in the control group. The observation group had gastric lavage with 36℃ pure water and sodium chloride(a barrel of pure water 10 L with sodium chloride 90 g,as much as 0. 9% sodium chloride). The water was heated to 36℃ with homemade special warming device. The mean arterial pressure,heart rate,hemogram,blood sodium and potassium during gastric lavage were observed and gastric juice was sent to culture. Result: There were significant differences (P<0. 01)in the concentration of serum sodium,mean arterial pressure level between the two groups. The culture results showed that the E. Coli was overproof in control group, while there was no overproof in the observation group. Conclusion:Purified water is abundant,and meet the drinking water health standards. It is close to the concentration of the

  8. 注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性%InjectedwithSodiumAmoxicillinClavulanicAcidPotassiumandSodiumChlorideInjectionCompatibilityStability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability was analyzed to explore, to provide a reference basis for the rational use of drugs in the future. Methods Select A batch of injection with sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection for compatibility, and 3 hours after compatibility respectively under different temperature to observation of the appearance of the liquid, pH value, at the same time the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) amoxicillin clavulanic acid and sodium potassium content determination, determine the stability of compatibility of liquid. Results In the study found that sodium amoxicillin clavulanic acid potassium and sodium chloride injection compatibility stability is affected by the factors such as temperature and sunlight. Conclusion Poor compatibility stability of liquid, should avoid direct sunlight or at high temperatures is not easy to for a long time.%  目的对注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性进行分析探讨,为今后的合理用药提供参考依据。方法选取一批注射用阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾和氯化钠注射液进行配伍,并在配伍后的3h内分别在不同温度下对药液的外观、pH值进行观察,同时采取高效液相色谱法对阿莫西林钠与克拉维酸钾含量进行测定,判断配伍液的稳定性。结果研究中发现阿莫西林钠克拉维酸钾与氯化钠注射液配伍稳定性受到温度、日光等因素的影响。结论配伍液稳定性不佳,应避免阳光直射或者是在高温条件下不易久置。

  9. Study on the Diffusion Coefficient of Sodium Chloride at Infinite Dilution in Supercritical Water%超临界水中NaCl无限稀释扩散系数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖吉; 陆九芳; 陈健; 李以圭

    2003-01-01

    The molecular dynamics (MD) was employed to simulate the diffusion coefficient of sodium chloride at infinite dilution in supercritical water from 703.2 K to 763.2 K and from 30 MPa to 45 MPa. Based on the simulated data and the Patel-Teja(PT) equation of state and the Liu-Ruckenstein equation, an equation for calculating the diffusion coefficient of NaCl at infinite dilution in supercritical water is proposed. Both the agreement between the simulated and correlated data, and that between the simulated and predicted data of diffusion coefficients for NaCl in supercritical water ranging from 703.2 K to 803.2 K and from 25 MPa to 50 MPa show that this equation is applicable for the calculation of diffusion coefficients.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and...

  12. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:27628629

  13. Water transport by the renal Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, A K; Loo, D D; Pajor, A M;

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of the renal Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter, NaDC-1, to transport water. Rabbit NaDC-1 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, cotransporter activity was measured as the inward current generated by substrate (citrate or succinate), and water transport....... This solute-coupled influx of water took place in the absence of, and even against, osmotic gradients. There was a strict stoichiometric relationship between Na(+), substrate, and water transport of 3 Na(+), 1 dicarboxylate, and 176 water molecules/transport cycle. These results indicate that the renal Na...

  14. Determination of Calcium Chloride in Compound Sodium Chloride Injection by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry%原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液中氯化钙含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童永鑫; 何宇新

    2014-01-01

    A method was established to determine the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection .By atom-ic absorption spectrometry , the content of calcium chloride in compound sodium chloride injection was determined under the condition as follows:detection wavelength was 422.7 nm,the flame tape was air/acetylene(13.5∶2.0),the lamp current was 10 mA,slit width was 0.5 nm.Good linear relationship of concentration and absorption of Ca 2+was within the range of 1μg/mL-9μg/mL, the recovery rate range from 98.42%to 100.93%, detectability was 0.008206μg/mL,the RSD between results obtained from official method and ones obtained from comparative method is 1.21%.This method has good specificity, stability, reproducibility, and is accurate for de-tecting the content of Ca 2+,and can be supplementary method to official one .The concentration of calcium chloride in compound sodi-um chloride injection is between 0.0329296%g/mL and 0.0340398%g/mL, which meets the required quality standards .%目的:建立原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙含量的方法。方法:采用火焰原子吸收光谱法测定复方氯化钠注射液氯化钙的含量,检测波长为422.7 nm;燃气类型为空气-乙炔,燃气比为空气体积︰乙炔体积=13.5∶2;灯电流:10 mA;狭缝宽度:0.5 nm。结果:Ca2+浓度在1~9μg/mL之间,与对应吸光度值呈良好的线性关系,回收率在98.42%~100.93%,检测限为0.008206μg/mL,与药典方法含量检测结果之间的RSD值为1.21%。结论:该方法进行复方氯化钠注射液Ca2+含量的测定专属性好,精密度高,稳定性强,重复性好,可作为药典补充方法。复方氯化钠注射液CaCl2·2H2 O质量浓度测定结果为0.0329296%~0.0340398% g/mL,符合质量标准要求。

  15. Effects of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the cross-linking reaction of cassava starch%氯化钠及硫酸钠对木薯淀粉交联反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊小雅; 叶为标; 高群玉

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was designed to determine the relationships between osmotic pressure and degree of substitution,and the viscosity characteristics of the starch samples. Brabender viscometer was used for the determination of cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure. When sodium chloride was used as osmotic pressure enhancer in cross–linking reaction,with the increase of osmotic pressure,the initial gelatinization temperature increased,and the peak viscosity and the final viscosity decreased. As the osmotic pressure reached high,the retrogradation value and the breakdown value both tended to zero. When sodium sulfate was used instead of sodium chloride,as the osmotic pressure increased,the initial gelatinization temperature didn’t change significantly,the peak viscosity leveled off following decrease,the final viscosity increased(not significant)after decrease,the breakdown value was in contrast with the final viscosity,and the retrogradation decreased. The degree of crosslinking increased with the increase of osmotic pressure that produced by sodium chloride or sodium sulfate. In addition,we utilized polarizing microscope and FTIR to analyze the cross–linked cassava starch that dealed with osmotic pressure,and measured their transparency,shear resistance and retrogradation resistance,the results showed that the corresponding properties of the cross–linked starch changed.%旨在确定渗透压与交联取代度和所得淀粉糊黏度间的关系。应用Brabender连续黏度计对渗透压处理交联木薯淀粉进行了测定。当氯化钠作为交联反应渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压增大,所得淀粉样品的起始糊化温度增加,峰值黏度和最终黏度减小;高渗透压时,凝沉值和崩解值都趋于0。而硫酸钠作渗透压促进剂时,随渗透压的增大,起始糊化温度变化不明显,峰值黏度先下降后缓慢下降,最终黏度先减后增(增加不显著),崩解值先增

  16. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. III. Effect of sodium chloride and gibberellin on the activity of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of Pennisetum typhoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Rustagi, P.N.; Sankhla, N.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of Pennisetum typhoides were grown in sodium chloride (NaCl) and gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) separately and in combination, and the effects on the activity of amylase, phosphorylase, aldolase, invertase, hexose-phosphateisomerase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase were studied. Treatment of the seedlings with NaCl caused an inhibition of the activity of amylase and invertase in the leaf homogenate, but enhanced that of phosphorylase, aldolase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase. GA/sub 3/ alone, as observed earlier, promoted the activity of invertase but indicated no significant influence on the other enzymes tested. In combination with salt, however, GA/sub 3/ tended to counteract, partially or wholly, the effect of NaCl on the activity of severe enzymes tested. The possible significance of the similarities between the action of abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity in influencing growth and metabolism of plants during stress is discussed. 34 references, 3 figures.

  17. Sodium chloride in supercritical water as a function of density: potentials of mean force and an equation for the dissociation constant from 723 to 1073 K and from 0 to 0.9 g/cm(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wood, Robert H; Doren, Douglas J

    2008-06-19

    The potential of mean force (PMF) of sodium chloride in water has been calculated by using the ab initio classical free-energy perturbation method at five state points: at 973 K with densities of 0.2796, 0.0935, and 0.0101 g/cm (3) and at 723 K with densities of 0.0897 and 0.0098 g/cm (3). The method is based on a QM-MM model in which Na-H 2O, Cl-H 2O, and Na-Cl interactions are calculated by ab initio methods. The water-water interactions are from the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. The logarithm of the dissociation constant (log K c) has been calculated from the PMF. These predictions, together with experimental measurements, were used to derive an equation for log K c at densities from 0 to 0.9 g/cm (3) and temperatures from 723 to 1073 K, as well as from 600 to 1073 K for densities from 0.29 g/cm (3) to 0.9 g/cm (3). Extrapolation of the present equation below 723 K for densities less than 0.29 g/cm (3) does not fit the experimental results. This is attributed to long-range changes in the local dielectric constant due to the high compressibility. Comparisons with previous predictions and simulations are presented.

  18. NaCl胁迫对甘薯试管苗生长和离子含量的影响%Effects of Sodium Chloride Stress on Growth of Sweet Potato Plantlets in vitro and Ion Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高叶; 赵术珍; 陈敏; 宋晓征; 王宝山

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the salt-tolerance mechanism of sweet potato. [Method] Two sweet potato varieties of Xu 25-2 (salt-tolerant cuhivar) and Triumph 100 (salt-sensitive cultivar) were treated by sodium chloride with the concentration of 0 mmol/L and 100 mmol/L. After 20 days, Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in the roots, shoots and leave were determined by the flame photometer, while dry weight and fresh weight of roots, shoots and leave in different varieties were also studied. [Result] The growth of two sweet potato varieties was inhibited under salt stress, so the plant became shorter, leaf and root became fewer, dry weight of roots and leave decreased, but seedlings of Xu 25-2 were inhibited slightly. Furthermore, Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in roots, shoots and leaves of two sweet potato varieties increased. Na+ content of salt-tolerant Xu 25-2 was low in roots, shoots and leaves, while Na+ content of salt-sensitive Triumph 100 was high in shoots and leave of seedlings, but the change range of Xu 25-2 was less than that of Triumph 100. [Conclusion] The lower Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in leaves under salt stress were the most important characteristics for salt-tolerance of sweet potato varieties.

  19. Cotransport of water by Na¿-K¿-2Cl¿ cotransporters expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Macaulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    The NKCC1 and NKCC2 isoforms of the mammalian Na¿–K¿–2Cl¿ cotransporter were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the relation between external ion concentration and water fluxes determined.Water fluxes were determined from changes in the oocytes volume and ion fluxes from 86Rb+ uptake. Isotonic...

  20. Clinical curative effect analysis of hypertonic sodium chloride in the treatment of severe craniocerebral trauma in plateau section%高原地区高渗氯化钠治疗重型颅脑外伤临床疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 范应磊; 魏林节; 韩宾; 张顺立; 朱静

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the curative effect of 3% hypertonic sodium chloride in the treatment of severe craniocerebral trauma in plateau section.Methods:50 patients with severe craniocerebral trauma in plateau section were randomly divided into the control group(mannitol group) and the experimental group(3% hypertonic sodium chloride group).The prognosis of two groups were compared.Results:Compared with the control group,the experimental group had more significant effect in relieving cerebral edema and improving cerebral blood flow perfusion,which could effectively improve the cardiac output quantity and prevent kidney damage,and reduce the incidence rate of recovery of hemorrhagic shock.Conclusion:The hypertonic sodium chloride and mannitol all have good dehydration effects,but hypertonic sodium chloride has obvious superiority in curative effect and safety.%目的:探讨高原地区3%高渗氯化钠在重型颅脑外伤中的疗效。方法:将50例高原地区重型颅脑外伤患者随机分成对照组(甘露醇组)和试验组(3%高渗氯化钠组),对比两组患者的预后。结果:与对照组相比,试验组在缓解脑水肿和改善脑血流灌注方面效果更加显著,并且能有效提高心排出量并预防肾功能受损,降低失血性休克发生率。结论:高渗氯化钠、甘露醇均具有较好的脱水效果,但高渗氯化钠在疗效及安全性上具有明显优势。

  1. Compatible Stability of Fluconazole Injection with Levofloxacine Lactate and Sodium Chloride Injection%氟康唑注射液与乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液的配伍稳定性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航; 卢海波; 魏志奇; 李鹏

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the compatible stability of Fluconazole injection and Levofloxacine lactate and sodium chloride injection. METHODS: The change of appearance, pH value and indissoluble particle in the mixture within 8 h at 20 °C were observed after Fluconazole injection combined with Levofloxacine lactate and sodium chloride injection. The contents of drugs were determined by HPLC. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: No significant change was found in content, pH value, appearance and indissoluble particle in 8h after Fluconazole injection combined with Levofloxacine lactate and sodium chloride injection.%目的:考察氟康唑注射液与乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液配伍的稳定性.方法:考察20℃下8h内氟康唑注射液与乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液配伍后,其配伍液的外观、pH值、不溶性微粒变化,并用高效液相色谱法测定药物的含量.结果与结论:氟康唑注射液与乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液配伍后8h内的含量、pH值、外观及不溶性微粒均无明显变化.

  2. Potassium channel and NKCC cotransporter involvement in ocular refractive control mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila G Crewther

    Full Text Available Myopia affects well over 30% of adult humans globally. However, the underlying physiological mechanism is little understood. This study tested the hypothesis that ocular growth and refractive compensation to optical defocus can be controlled by manipulation of potassium and chloride ion-driven transretinal fluid movements to the choroid. Chicks were raised with +/-10D or zero power optical defocus rendering the focal plane of the eye in front of, behind, or at the level of the retinal photoreceptors respectively. Intravitreal injections of barium chloride, a non-specific inhibitor of potassium channels in the retina and RPE or bumetanide, a selective inhibitor of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter were made, targeting fluid control mechanisms. Comparison of refractive compensation to 5 mM Ba(2+ and 10(-5 M bumetanide compared with control saline injected eyes shows significant change for both positive and negative lens defocus for Ba(2+ but significant change only for negative lens defocus with bumetanide (Rx(SAL(-10D = -8.6 +/- .9 D; Rx(Ba2+(-10D = -2.9 +/- .9 D; Rx(Bum(-10D = -2.9 +/- .9 D; Rx(SAL(+10D = +8.2 +/- .9 D; Rx(Ba2+(+10D = +2.8 +/- 1.3 D; Rx(Bum(+10D = +8.0 +/- .7 D. Vitreous chamber depths showed a main effect for drug conditions with less depth change in response to defocus shown for Ba(2+ relative to Saline, while bumetanide injected eyes showed a trend to increased depth without a significant interaction with applied defocus. The results indicate that both K channels and the NKCC cotransporter play a role in refractive compensation with NKCC blockade showing far more specificity for negative, compared with positive, lens defocus. Probable sites of action relevant to refractive control include the apical retinal pigment epithelium membrane and the photoreceptor/ON bipolar synapse. The similarities between the biometric effects of NKCC inhibition and biometric reports of the blockade of the retinal ON response, suggest a

  3. Surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Mi Kyung; Bai, Sang Wook

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition, occurring in up to 11% of women in the United States. Often, pelvic organ prolapse recurs after surgery; when it recurs after hysterectomy, it frequently presents as vaginal apical prolapse. There are many different surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse; among them, abdominal sacral colpopexy is considered the gold standard. However, recent data reveal that other surgical procedures also result in good outcome. This review discusses the various surgical treatments for vaginal apical prolapse including their risks and benefits. PMID:27462591

  4. Preparation and Property of Morphine Sulfate Sustained-Release Liquid Suppository Reinforced by Sodium Chloride%氯化钠强化硫酸吗啡缓释液体栓制备及其性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁明和; 娄杰; 洪春雪; 耿琴; 曹宇; 李星; 束家有

    2011-01-01

    Morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppositories were prepared by morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppositories with poloxamer 407/188,cabopol,sodium chloride,azone,2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol according to the properties of in situ gel.The physicochemical properties such as gelation temperature,gel strength,bioadhesive force were studied.The drug released from the morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppository was studied with new device,and the drug absorption was performed in beagle dogs.The 3p97 program was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters of morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppositories,and their characteristics between in vitro release and in vivo absorption were evaluated.The drug release pattern in vitro is best described as zero-order kinetics and in vivo profile is demonstrated to fit one compartment model.The pharmacokinetics pharmerers of prescription reinforced by sodium chloride(cabopol 0.8%,NaCl 1.0%) are: ρ_max=409.7 ng·mL-1,AUC=5 708 ng·h·mL-1,MRT=10.92 h.The release time of morphine sulfate sustained-release liquid suppositories reinforced by sodium chloride is 7~10 h in vitro,and 9~18 h in vivo,which shows good sustained-realease characteristics.%根据温敏原位凝胶的特性制备了以泊洛沙姆407/188为主要基质,卡波姆、氯化钠、氮酮和2,6-二叔丁基-4-甲基苯酚为添加剂的硫酸吗啡缓释液体栓,测定了其凝胶温度、凝胶强度和生物黏附力,研究了其体外溶出和在Beagle犬体内的药物吸收.用3p97程序计算药物代谢动力学参数,进行体外释放和体内吸收的相关性研究.结果表明,一定量的氯化钠与卡波姆产生协同作用,使凝胶温度下降,凝胶强度增加.该缓释液体栓在体外释药符合零级模式,在Beagle犬体内释药过程符合一室模型.其中,经氯化钠强化的处方(卡波姆为0.8%,氯

  5. AVALIAÇÃO MICROBIOLÓGICA DA CARNE-DE-SOL ELABORADA COM BAIXOS TEORES DE CLORETO DE SÓDIO MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SUN DRIED MEAT WITH LOW SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Lourenço da COSTA

    2001-08-01

    as water activity and sodium chloride were analyzed. In both groups the results obtained in microbial analysis were quite high. In the samples of the inspected establishments the averages of mesophylic counts bacterias, molds and yeasts, Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms were 6,2Log UFC/g, 3,8Log UFC/g, 7,4Log UFC/g and 1,34Log NMP/g respectively and, in the samples without inspection, the averages were 7,41Log UFC/g, 4,44Log UFC/g, 6,78Log UFC/g and 2,6Log NMP/g, respectively. The microbial results suggest errors in the processing and manipulation of both samples, and the fecal contamination was much higher in the samples collected in establishments without inspection. The variation of the sodium chloride content and water activity of the sample indicated lack of standardization during sun dried meat processing. There is the need tho establish microbiological and physical-chemical legal parameters capable of offering safe food to the consumer.

  6. The Na+/glucose cotransporters: from genes to therapy

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sabino-Silva; R.C. Mori; A. David-Silva; M.M. Okamoto; H.S. Freitas; U.F. Machado

    2010-01-01

    Glucose enters eukaryotic cells via two types of membrane-associated carrier proteins, the Na+/glucose cotransporters (SGLT) and the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT). The SGLT family consists of six members. Among them, the SGLT1 and SGLT2 proteins, encoded by the solute carrier genes SLC5A1 and SLC5A2, respectively, are believed to be the most important ones and have been extensively explored in studies focusing on glucose fluxes under both physiological and pathological conditions. ...

  7. Determination Method Improvement about Tinidazole Sodium Chloride Injection Content and Related Substances%替硝唑氯化钠注射液含量及有关物质检测方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵峰辉; 李新图; 陈跃

    2013-01-01

    Objective To use purified water instead of the mobile phase containing methanol as diluent measure tinidazole sodium chloride injection content and related substances. Methods Hromatographic column:Amethyst C18-H, 150 mm×4.6 mm, 5μm. mobile phase:0.05 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution-methanol water (20∶80) .flow rate : 1.0 mL/min, column temperature : 35℃, detection wavelength: 310 nm. Results Two determination result no significant difference. Conclusion Purified water instead of the mobile phase containing methanol as diluent convenient, safe, etermination result is accurate.%目的用纯化水代替含甲醇的流动相作为稀释剂测定替硝唑氯化钠注射液含量及有关物质。方法色谱柱:Amethyst C18-H,150mm ×4.6mm,5μm;流动性:0.05mol/L磷酸二氢钾溶液-甲醇水(20∶80);流速:1.0mL/.min;柱温35℃;检测波长:310nm。结果两种方法测定结果一致,没有显著性差异。结论用纯化水代替含甲醇的流动相作为稀释剂方便、安全,测定结果准确。

  8. Efeito do cloreto de sódio na produção de proteínas (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentação semi-sólida Effect of sodium chloride on protein production (Saccharomyces cerevisae by semi-solid fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria RODRIGUES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do cloreto de sódio sobre a produção de biomassa e proteínas extracelulares totais, durante o cultivo de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A levedura foi desenvonvida em fermentador de leito fluidizado, com vazão de ar de 70L/min, temperatura de 33° C, e umidade relativa de 99-100%. Foi utilizado substrato semi-sólido de batatas, previamente hidrolizado, acrescido de cloreto de sódio 0,6M. O crescimento celular foi monitorado por densidade óptica à 595 nm. Observou-se, como resultado, que a adição de cloreto de sódio 0,6M induziu um aumento de 36,86% na produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, mas inibiu o crescimento celular em 27,62% quando os meios com e sem cloreto de sódio foram testados. A produção máxima de biomassa, tanto para os experimentos com adição de cloreto de sódio quanto para o sem adição, ocorreu no período de 7 a 9 horas de fermentacão, enquanto que a produção de proteínas extracelulares totais, independentemente da adição do sal, ocorreu durante o período de 9 a 12 horas de fermentação. As velocidades específicas máximas de crescimento foram de 0,350/h para os experimentos com sal, e de 0,339/h para aqueles sem a adição do sal. A combinação de alta vazão de ar e a presença de cloreto de sódio 0,6M na fermentação parece não ter tido efeito sobre a duração da fase lag na curva de crescimento celular de Saccharomyces cerevisiae.The effect of sodium chloride on the cell's growth and total extracellular protein production during fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an air-fluidized bed fermentation, with a 70 L/min air flow at 33° C and 99-100% relative unidity was studied. A semi-solid potato substrate (previously hydrolized with 0.6M sodium chloride was used. Cell's growth was monitored by optical density at 595 nm. Results showed that the addition of 0.6M sodium chloride enhanced total extracellular protein level (36.86%. On the other hand, the addition of

  9. A Comparative Study of Apical Healing of Open Apices Using MTA and Ca(OH2 Apical Plugs in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Zarrabi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Endodontic treatment of necrotic teeth with open apices is a challenge. After ruling out surgery as a treatment scheme and introduction of the multivisit apexification which in turn had its disadvantages, apical plug seems to be a suitable substitute treatment plan for such cases. Apical plug makes the treatment through formation of a barrier against the obturating material in a single visit.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare histologically the periapical healing using MTA and calcium hydroxide apical plugs after intervals of 4 and 12 weeks in cats.Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study 64 canines of 16 healthy and mature cats were divided into 3 groups after a periapical lesion formation by over instrumentation in the apical area with files up to no.120. The first group included 24 teeth on which MTA apical plug was applied. The second group included 24 teeth on which Ca (OH 2 apical plug was applied. In both groups the canals were filled with gutta percha and sealer. The third group included 16 control teeth whose canals were left empty after instrumentation and debridement. The access cavities of all teeth were sealed with varnish and amalgam and the vital perfusion of cats was performed in 4 and 12 week intervals. Statistical analysis was established by χ2 and independence test.Results: After 4 weeks, periapical healing in the first group was 90%, in the second group 80% and in the third group, it was only 12.5 %. After 12 weeks, periapical healing occurred in 100% of the MTA group, while it was 57.1% in the second and 40%in the third group .Generally, in the study of histological parameters of healing, no statistical significant difference was observed between the 2 experimental groups,although the MTA group results were much better than the Ca (OH 2 group especially at 12 weeks.Conclusion: The use of MTA apical plug is more effective than Ca (OH 2 in treatment of necrotic teeth with open

  10. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conić Vesna T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II sulfate (PbSO4 sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It was found that 100% Pb by leaching can be achieved with NaCl concentration of 250 g/dm3, time 20 min, temperature 353 K and solid:liquid phase ratio =1:20.

  11. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    OpenAIRE

    Conić Vesna T.; Pešovski Branka D.; Cvetkovski Vladimir B.; Stanojević-Šimšić Zdenka S.; Dragulović Suzana S.; Simonović Danijela B.; Dimitrijević Silvana B.

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4) sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It wa...

  12. Apical root resorption in orthodontically treated adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L

    1996-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship in orthodontically treated adults between upper central incisor displacement measured on lateral cephalograms and apical root resorption measured on anterior periapical x-ray films. A multiple linear regression examined incisor displacements in four directions (retraction, advancement, intrusion, and extrusion) as independent variables, attempting to account for observed differences in the dependent variable, resorption. Mean apical resorption was 1.36 mm (sd +/- 1.46, n = 73). Mean horizontal displacement of the apex was -0.83 mm (sd +/- 1.74, n = 67); mean vertical displacement was 0.19 mm (sd +/- 1.48, n = 67). The regression coefficients for the intercept and for retraction were highly significant; those for extrusion, intrusion, and advancement were not. At the 95% confidence level, an average of 0.99 mm (se = +/- 0.34) of resorption was implied in the absence of root displacement and an average of 0.49 mm (se = +/- 0.14) of resorption was implied per millimeter of retraction. R2 for all four directional displacement variables (DDVs) taken together was only 0.20, which implied that only a relatively small portion of the observed apical resorption could be accounted for by tooth displacement alone. In a secondary set of univariate analyses, the associations between apical resorption and each of 14 additional treatment-related variables were examined. Only Gender, Elapsed Time, and Total Apical Displacement displayed statistically significant associations with apical resorption. Additional multiple regressions were then performed in which the data for each of these three statistically significant variables were considered separately, with the data for the four directional displacement variables. The addition of information on Elapsed Time or Total Apical Displacement did not explain a significant additional portion of the variability in apical resorption. On the other hand, the addition of information on Gender to the

  13. Apical domain polarization localizes actin-myosin activity to drive ratchet-like apical constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Frank M; Tworoger, Michael; Martin, Adam C

    2013-08-01

    Apical constriction promotes epithelia folding, which changes tissue architecture. During Drosophila gastrulation, mesoderm cells exhibit repeated contractile pulses that are stabilized such that cells apically constrict like a ratchet. The transcription factor Twist is required to stabilize cell shape. However, it is unknown how Twist spatially coordinates downstream signals to prevent cell relaxation. We find that during constriction, Rho-associated kinase (Rok) is polarized to the middle of the apical domain (medioapical cortex), separate from adherens junctions. Rok recruits or stabilizes medioapical myosin II (Myo-II), which contracts dynamic medioapical actin cables. The formin Diaphanous mediates apical actin assembly to suppress medioapical E-cadherin localization and form stable connections between the medioapical contractile network and adherens junctions. Twist is not required for apical Rok recruitment, but instead polarizes Rok medioapically. Therefore, Twist establishes radial cell polarity of Rok/Myo-II and E-cadherin and promotes medioapical actin assembly in mesoderm cells to stabilize cell shape fluctuations.

  14. Synthesis of nano-carbon materials by decomposing acetylene using iron supported on sodium chloride as catalyst%NaCl担载Fe催化裂解乙炔制备纳米碳材料

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存景; 王艳博; 陈改荣

    2011-01-01

    Nano-carbon materials were synthesized by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene at 400 ℃ and 420℃ in a chemical vapor deposition process using iron supported on sodium chloride as catalyst Hie catalyst was examined by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that the active composition iron was dispersed into nanoparticles with diameters in the range 10-40 nm on the surface of NaCl support successfully. The products were examined by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results show that nano onion-like fullerenes encapsulating Fe cores with diameters in the range 20-50 nm were obtained when the reaction temperature was 400℃ and there were no carbon nanotubes in the product These onion-like fullerenes are composed of concentric graphene layers with an interlayer distance of 0. 348 nm between the layers. When the reaction temperature was 420℃ , carbon nanotubes with a structure of rope were obtained and the graphitization degree of these carbon nanotubes was not high due to the low reaction temperature.%以水溶性NaCl担载Fe作催化剂,于400℃和420C下化学气相沉积法催化裂解乙炔进行了反应.通过X射线衍射仪、扫描电子显微镜和能谱分析仪对催化剂进行了表征,表征结果显示:活性组分Fe被分散成了粒径在10~40nm之间的纳米颗粒;通过扫描电子显微镜和高分辨透射电镜对产物进行了表征,表征结果显示:当裂解温度为400℃时,主要产物为直径在20~50 nm之间,基本具有清晰同心石墨壳层结构的内包铁NOLFs,同心石墨壳层的层间距约为0.348nm,产物中没有碳纳米管出现;当裂解温度为420℃时,主要产物为直径在10 ~40 nm之间结构呈绳结状的碳纳米管,其石墨壳层不是十分规整,石墨化程度较低.

  15. 显色基质法检测乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠注射液的细菌内毒素%Bacterial endotoxin test of Ciprofloxacin Lactate and Sodium Chloride Injection by chromogenic substrate limulus amebocytelysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾云胜; 张玲莉; 彭燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare bacterial endotoxin test of Ciprofloxacin Lactate and Sodium Chloride Injection by chromogenic substrate limulus amebocytelysate method and sol-gel method. Methods Sample dilution method was used to study of chromogenic substrate limulus reagent on different batches of Ciprofloxacin Lactate and Sodium Chloride Injection, compared with interfering test of sol-gel limulus reagent sample. Results The standard curve correlation co-efficient of chromogenic substrate limulus amebocytelysate was above 0.98. Ciprofloxacin Lactate and Sodium Chloride Injection was not interfere with the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL, which was obviously higher than that of gel colt method (0.125 mg/mL). Conclusion Compared with sol-gel method, chromogenic substrate method has the characteristic of sen-sitive, rapid, quantitative and good repeatability, can be used for content determination on endotoxin of Ciprofloxacin Lactate and Sodium Chloride Injection.%目的:比较显色基质法与凝胶法检测乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠注射液的细菌内毒素的效果。方法采用样品稀释法研究显色基质鲎试剂对不同批号乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠注射液的干扰,并与凝胶法鲎试剂对样品的干扰试验比较。结果显色基质法标准曲线的线性相关系数≥0.98,乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠注射液在0.5 mg/mL浓度时无干扰作用,明显高于凝胶法无干扰浓度(0.125 mg/mL)。结论与凝胶法比较,显色基质法有灵敏、快速、能定量、重复性好的特点,可用于乳酸环丙沙星氯化钠注射液内毒素含量的测定。

  16. Apical dominance in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Apical dominance in Alstroemeria is studied to develop an improved propagation protocol for this crop. Four types of explants were prepared: an intact rhizome with two intact shoots (+R+2S), an intact rhizome with two decapitated shoots (+R-2S), a decapitated rhizome with two intact shoots (-R+2S),

  17. Cell division activity during apical hook development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raz, V.; Koornneef, M.

    2001-01-01

    Growth during plant development is predominantly governed by the combined activities of cell division and cell elongation. The relative contribution of both activities controls the growth of a tissue. A fast change in growth is exhibited at the apical hypocotyl of etiolated seedlings where cells gro

  18. Effect of Potassium Chloride as Partial Sodium Chloride Substitution in Salted Duck Eggs%KCl部分替代NaCl腌制咸蛋效果的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲; 孙静; 乐立强; 马美湖

    2011-01-01

    用KCl 5%、6.5%、8.5%、12.5%不同质量分数的替代量部分替代NaCl进行咸蛋腌制,25%的饱和食盐水浸泡作为腌制对照组,通过这种混合腌制的方法可直接降低食盐的添加量,改善腌制过程中咸蛋白口感偏重的问题,以腌制出品质优良的低盐咸蛋;另外,对咸蛋中NaCl含量、蛋黄出油率、水分的相关理化指标、质地结构、色度及对微观结构影响的测定,并且对咸蛋品质进行综合感官评定。结果表明:用6.5%部分替代NaCl组较好,蛋清NaCl含量从54.4mg/g降到40.1mg/g,降幅为26.29%。感官评定的结果表%Salted eggs are important egg products in our country.Sodium chloride(NaCl) is an essential component in the manufacturing of salted eggs,and can improve the structure and texture of eggs and special flavor formation.In this study,potassium chloride(KCl) was added at ratios of 5%,6.5%,8.5% and 12.5% as a partial substitute for NaCl to process salted duck eggs and 25% saturated NaCl immersion was used as the blank.Using this mixed method,the amount of salt addition was directly reduced,and partial substitution with KCl could improve the salting process.In addition,the oil release rate of egg yolk,the water contents of egg white and yolk,and the NaCl content,texture,structure,color parameters and microstructure of whole salted eggs were determined and the sensory quality of salted eggs was comprehensively evaluated.The results indicated that 6.5% sodium chloride was the best addition.The NaCl content in egg white protein was decreased from 54.4 to 40.1 mg/g with a range of 26.29%.Sensory evaluation revealed that potassium ions at excess concentrations could result in bitter taste.However,partial substitution of NaCl with KCl did not affect egg texture and the oil release rate and loose sand-like mouthfeel of egg yolk.Therefore,this method is feasible for reducing sodium content.

  19. EFECTO DE LA REDUCCIÓN DE CLORURO DE SODIO SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CALIDAD DE UNA SALCHICHA TIPO SELECCIONADA EFFECT OF REDUCTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF A SAUSAGE TYPE SELECTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Augusto Pacheco Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Una propuesta para reducir los niveles de sodio en productos cárnicos, y desarrollar productos más saludables, es disminuir la cantidad de cloruro de sodio (NaCl en las formulaciones. En este estudio fue evaluado el efecto de disminuir y sustituir NaCl por KCl modificado, sobre los niveles de sodio y las características sensoriales y microbiológicas en una salchicha tipo Seleccionada. El porcentaje de reducción y sustitución de NaCl por KCl modificado con relación a un control fue de 50 y 75%, respectivamente. La reducción de NaCl en estos niveles, causó efectos significativos (P≤0,05 sobre el contenido de sodio en el producto final en relación al control, lo que implicaría beneficios nutricionales. De otro lado, diferencias significativas (P≤0,05 en las propiedades de textura, tanto a nivel instrumental como sensorial, fueron detectadas en la formulación con reducción del 75% de NaCl. En cuanto a la estabilidad microbiológica, y demás atributos sensoriales, no se detectaron diferencias entre los tratamientos y el control. Este estudio sugiere que es posible reducir la concentración de NaCl en un 50% en salchichas tipo Seleccionada mediante el uso de KCl modificado, sin cambios desfavorables en las características sensoriales y microbiológicas. Esta reducción permitiría una disminución en los niveles de sodio del 24% en el producto final.Abstract. A proposal to reduce the sodium levels in meat products to develop healthier products is to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl in the formulations. In this study, the effect of reducing NaCl and its substituting by modified KCl on sodium levels, sensory and microbiological characteristics in a selected type sausage was evaluated. The percentage of reduction and substitution of NaCl by modified KCl compared to control was 50 and 75%, respectively. The reduction of NaCl caused significant effects (P≤0.05 on the sodium content in the end product relative to the

  20. Níveis de cloreto de sódio para aves de corte da linhagem Colonial criadas em semiconfinamento Sodium chloride levels for Colonial broiler chickens reared in free-range system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Freitas Pinheiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar níveis de inclusão de cloreto de sódio (NaCl em rações para aves machos e fêmeas da linhagem Colonial nas fases inicial (1 a 28 dias, de crescimento (28 a 56 dias e final (56 a 84 dias criadas em semiconfinamento. Em cada ensaio, 480 aves com idade correspondente à fase de criação foram alojadas em 24 unidades experimentais contendo áreas de abrigo e de pastejo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 × 2 (níveis de NaCl e sexos, totalizando oito tratamentos e três repetições de 20 aves. Os níveis de NaCl avaliados foram: 0,20; 0,40; 0,60 e 0,80% na fase inicial; 0,10; 0,30; 0,50 e 0,70% na fase de crescimento e 0,10; 0,25; 0,40 e 0,55% na fase final. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, a ingestão de água, a conversão alimentar, o potencial hidrogeniônico, a pressão parcial de gás carbônico no sangue, a concentração de hematócritos e os teores de sódio e cloro no sangue. Para a fase inicial, o nível recomendado é de 0,53% de NaCl na ração para aves de ambos os sexos. Para a fase de crescimento, os níveis de 0,40 e 0,43% de NaCl, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas e, para a fase final, de 0,25% para aves de ambos os sexos, atendem às exigências nutricionais.The objective of this work was to determine inclusion levels of sodium chloride (NaCl in diets for male and female Colonial strain birds in the starter (from one to 28 days of age, growing (from 28 to 56 days of age and finisher (from 56 to 84 days of age phases reared in free-range system. In each trial, 480 birds at age corresponding to the rearing phase were housed in 24 experimental units containing areas of shelter and pasture. The experimental design used was a completely randomized in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (NaCl levels × sex, totaling eight treatments and three replications of 20 birds. Levels of NaCl evaluated were: 0.20, 0.40, 0.60 and 0.80% in

  1. Water transport by the Na+/glucose cotransporter under isotonic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Klaerke, D A;

    1997-01-01

    Solute cotransport in the Na+/glucose cotransporter is directly coupled to significant water fluxes. The water fluxes are energized by the downhill fluxes of the other substrates by a mechanism within the protein itself. In the present paper we investigate the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed ...... of water molecules and the number of Na+ ions transported, equivalent to 390 water molecules per glucose molecule. Unstirred layer effects are ruled out on the basis of experiments on native oocytes incubated with the ionophores gramicidin D or nystatin....

  2. Exploring the intricate regulatory network controlling the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimke, Henrik Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) plays key roles in renal electrolyte transport and blood pressure maintenance. Regulation of this cotransporter has received increased attention recently, prompted by the discovery that mutations in the with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases are the molecular...... by acting as a scaffold between the dephosphorylated cotransporter and the regulatory kinase. As more molecular regulators of NCC are identified, the system-controlling NCC activity is becoming increasingly complex. This intricacy confers an ability to integrate a variety of stimuli, thereby regulating NCC...

  3. 盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液的配伍稳定性考察%Study on Compatible Stability of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and Sodium Chlorid Injection Mixed with Fluconazole Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 张丽梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 考察盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液的配伍稳定性.方法 分别观察配伍液在室温(20±1)℃下放置8 h内的外观并测定pH变化,用紫外分光光度法测定主药含量.结果 两药配伍后4 h内,外观、pH、含量均无明显变化.结论 盐酸莫西沙星氯化钠注射液与氟康唑注射液在4 h内可以配伍使用.%Objective To observe the compatibility of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride and sodium Chloride Injection with Fluconazole Injec-tion. Methods The change in appearance and pH value of the compatible solution placed at room temperature (20 ± 1) ℃ for 8 h was ob-served, while the content of moxifloxacin and fluconazole was determined by UV spectrophotometry as well. Results There were no signifi-cant changes in appearance, pH value and concentration after the mixture of the two drugs within 4 h. Conclusion Moxifloxacin Hydrochlo-ride and Sodium Chloride Injection can be mixed with Fluconazole Injection for use within 4 h.

  4. Analgesic effect of intrathecal bumetanide is accompanied by changes in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbing He; Shiyuan Xu; Junjie Huang; Qingjuan Gong

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 have a role in the modulation of pain transmission at the spinal level through chloride regulation in the pain pathway and by effecting neuronal excitability and pain sensitization. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the speciifc sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 inhibitor bumetanide, and the change in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain. Results showed that intrathecal bumetanide could decrease cumulative pain scores, and could increase thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression in-creased in neurons from dorsal root ganglion and the deep laminae of the ipsilateral dorsal horn following incision. By contrast, potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression decreased in neurons of the deep laminae from the ipsilateral dorsal horn. These ifndings suggest that spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression was up-regulated and spinal potassi-um-chloride co-transporter 2 expression was down-regulated following incision. Intrathecal bumetanide has analgesic effects on incisional pain through inhibition of sodium-potassi-um-chloride co-transporter 1.

  5. [Electrophysiology principles of Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Mei; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-25

    Ion channels and transporters represent two major types of pathways of transmembrane transport for ions. Distinct from ion channels which conduct passive ionic diffusion, ion transporters mediate active transport of ions. In the perspective of biochemistry, ion transporters are enzymes that catalyze the movement of ions across the plasma membrane. In the present review, we selected the Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter (NBC) as an example to analyze the key biochemical and biophysical properties of ion transporters, including stoichiometry, turnover number and transport capacity. Moreover, we provided an analysis of the electrophysiological principles of NBC based on the laws of thermodynamics. Based on the thermodynamical analysis, we showed how the stoichiometry of an NBC determines the direction of its ion transport. Finally, we reviewed the methodology for experimental determination of the stoichiometry of NBC, as well as the physiological significance of the stoichiometry of NBCs in specific tissues. PMID:27350205

  6. The Electrogenic Na+/HCO3- Cotransporter, NBC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero MF

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrogenic Na(+/HCO(3(- (NBC function has been characterized in many mammalian tissues including, kidney, pancreas, and brain. Cloning efforts identified a single cDNA, NBC/NBC1, that possesses all the functional attributes of the electrogenic Na(+/HCO(3(- cotransporter. This NBC clone is related to the anion exchangers and thus forms a bicarbonate transporter superfamily. Presently two N-terminal and one C-terminal isoforms are known. All three isoforms appear to arise from the same gene and seem to have identical function. NBC antibodies have localized NBC isoforms in kidney, pancreas, brain, small intestine, colon, epididymis, eye, heart, liver, salivary glands, stomach, and testis. Functionally, NBC appears HCO(3(- and Na(+ selective. NBC stoichiometry in Xenopus oocytes is 1 Na(+ : 2 HCO(3(-, implicating a possible accessory protein interaction.

  7. Type III apical transportation of root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv P Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedural accidents leading to complications such as canal transportation have been ascribed to inapt cleaning and shaping concepts. Canal transportation is an undesirable deviation from the natural canal path. Herewith a case of apical transportation of root canal resulting in endodontic retreatment failure and its management is presented. A healthy 21-year-old young male presented discomfort and swelling associated with painful endodontically retreated maxillary incisor. Radiograph revealed periradicular radiolucency involving underfilled 11 and overfilled 12. Insufficiently obturated 11 exhibited apical transportation of canal. This type III transportation was treated by periradicular surgery and repair using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Comfortable asymptomatic patient presented uneventful healing at third and fourth month recall visits. A decrease in the size of radiolucency in radiograph supported the clinical finding. In the present case, MTA is useful in repairing the transportation defect. The result of these procedures is predictable and successful.

  8. Cystic fibrosis: model of pathogenesis based on the apical membrane potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrica Kurbel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple model of cystic fibrosis (CF is proposed, based on the apical membrane (ApM potential. The ApM of epithelial cells is highly permeable to sodium and activation of CFTRs makes it permeable to chloride. Calculated ApM potentials of cells with activated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulators (CFTRs are between the sodium and chloride Nernst values and thus allow rapid absorption of both ions in exocrine glands. In CF patients the potential is near the sodium Nernst value and thus more salt is left in the ducts. Simulation predicts that the sodium driving force increases more than 3.5 times if the ApM permeability for Cl- increases from 5-94% of the sodium permeability. In pancreatic ductal cells basolateral sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (pNBC1 allows influx of bicarbonates with sodium. Bicarbonates are exchanged for intraductal chloride by anion exchanger 1 (AE1 in the ApM. Activated CFTRs let some chloride to leak back to ducts, followed by water that dilutes ductal proteins. Replenished intraductal chloride allows more bicarbonate secretion. In CF patients, pancreatic water and bicarbonate secretion is limited by the intraductal chloride pool.

  9. Water transport by the Na+/glucose cotransporter under isotonic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Klaerke, D A;

    1997-01-01

    Solute cotransport in the Na+/glucose cotransporter is directly coupled to significant water fluxes. The water fluxes are energized by the downhill fluxes of the other substrates by a mechanism within the protein itself. In the present paper we investigate the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed in...... Xenopus oocytes. We present a method which allows short-term exposures to sugar under voltage clamp conditions. We demonstrate that water is cotransported with the solutes despite no osmotic differences between the external and intracellular solutions. There is a fixed ratio of 195:1 between the number of...... water molecules and the number of Na+ ions transported, equivalent to 390 water molecules per glucose molecule. Unstirred layer effects are ruled out on the basis of experiments on native oocytes incubated with the ionophores gramicidin D or nystatin....

  10. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis. PMID:26602450

  11. Cotransport of water by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José J; Zeuthen, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    ionic and osmotic gradients. The coupling between salt and water transport in NKCC1 represents a novel aspect of cellular water homeostasis where cells can change their volume independently of the direction of an osmotic gradient across the membrane. This has relevance for both epithelial......Water transport by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) was studied in confluent cultures of pigmented epithelial (PE) cells from the ciliary body of the fetal human eye. Interdependence among water, Na+ and Cl(-) fluxes mediated by NKCC1 was inferred from changes in cell water volume, monitored...... by intracellular self-quenching of the fluorescent dye calcein. Isosmotic removal of external Cl(-) or Na+ caused a rapid efflux of water from the cells, which was inhibited by bumetanide (10 µm). When returned to the control solution there was a rapid water influx that required the simultaneous presence...

  12. 10%氯化钠藏红花浸泡液在老年人失禁性皮炎治疗中的应用%Application of 10% sodium chloride soaking liquid of saffron to elderly incontinence-associated dermatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进翠; 刘瑜; 陈芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of 10%sodium chloride soaking liquid of saffron on elderly incontinence-associated der-matitis.Methods All the seventy-four old patients with incontinence-associated dermatitis were randomized into control group (38 pa-tients) and observation group (36 patients).In the control group, patients’ local skin soaked by defecation was thoroughly rinsed with warm water and dried with a sterile gauze , in order to keep clean and dry .Patients in the observation group were applied with 10%so-dium chloride soaking liquid of saffron based on the treatment of the control group .Results The efficacy and the healing time in the observation group was much more significant than those in the control group ( P<0.05).Conclusions It’s convenient and practical to apply 10%sodium chloride soaking liquid of saffron to the elderly with incontinence-associated dermatitis .It can improve the effica-cy and shorten the healing time as well .%目的:观察10%氯化钠藏红花浸泡液治疗老年人失禁性皮炎的临床效果。方法将74例老年人失禁性皮炎患者随机分为观察组38例,对照组36例。对照组用温水彻底清洗被大小便浸渍的皮肤,用无菌纱布擦干,保持皮肤清洁干燥。观察组在此基础上用10%氯化钠藏红花浸泡液湿敷患处。结果观察组治疗效果显著优于对照组(P<0.05),治愈时间显著短于对照组( P<0.05)。结论10%氯化钠藏红花浸泡液湿敷治疗老年人失禁性皮炎,方便实用;可提高治疗效果;缩短治愈时间。

  13. Effects of Sodium Sulfate and Sodium Chloride on Ca2+ , Mg2+ Removal from Glauber Type Brine by Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate%芒硝型卤水中盐硝组分对碱法脱除钙镁的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董泽亮; 张琦; 王俐聪; 蔡荣华; 马来波; 黄西平

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ 、Mg2+ removal from Glauber type brine by sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate has been studied.The effects of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride on removal efficiency of Ca2+,Mg2+ at room temperature were investigated in detail when addition amount of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate was theoretical value,reaction time was 30 min,aging time was 60 min.The experimental results show that the presence of sodium sulfate has large effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+.The removal rate of Ca2+ is more than 90% when the concentration of sodium sulfate is below 30 g/L.The presence of sodium sulfate has good but little effect on removal efficiency of Mg2+.The presence of sodium chloride has small effect on removal efficiency of Ca2+ and Mg2+.When the concentration of sodium chloride increases,the removal rate of Ca2+ increases significantly,but the removal rate of Mg2+ declines slightly.%采用“烧碱-纯碱”法,对芒硝型卤水中Ca2+和Mg2+的脱除进行了研究,在常温、两碱用量为理论用量、反应时间为30 min和陈化时间为60 min的条件下详细考察了卤水中氯化钠和硫酸钠含量的变化对Ca2+和Mg2脱除效果的影响.结果表明,硫酸钠组分对Ca2+的脱除效果影响较大,当硫酸钠含量在30 g/L以下时,Ca2+脱除率在90%以上,硫酸钠浓度增加有利于Mg2+的脱除,但影响不大.氯化钠组分对Ca2、Mg2+脱除效果的影响相对较小,氯化钠含量增加,Ca2+脱除率明显增加,而Mg2+脱除率略有下降.

  14. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC: CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rose

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20–220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650–1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5–1.0 L min−1 aerosol flow rate, 20–30°C inlet temperature, 4–34 K m−1 temperature gradient. For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations.

    High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5–7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature.

    To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05–2%, the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH42SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH42SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff

  15. Apical dominance in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R. G. F.; Klerk, de, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    Apical dominance in Alstroemeria is studied to develop an improved propagation protocol for this crop. Four types of explants were prepared: an intact rhizome with two intact shoots (+R+2S), an intact rhizome with two decapitated shoots (+R-2S), a decapitated rhizome with two intact shoots (-R+2S), and a decapitated rhizome with two decapitated shoots (-R-2S). The explants were cultivated on solid MS medium with 9 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). -R-2S explants showed the highest and +R+2S the l...

  16. Multimodality imaging in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosario; Parisi; Francesca; Mirabella; Gioel; Gabrio; Secco; Rossella; Fattori

    2014-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(AHCM) is a relatively rare morphologic variant of HCM in which the hypertrophy of myocardium is localized to the left ventricular apex. Symptoms of AHCM might vary from none to others mimic coronary artery disease including acute coronary syndrome, thus resulting in inappropriate hospitalization. Transthoracic echocardiography is the firstline imaging technique for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. However, when the hypertrophy of the myocardium is localized in the ventricular apex might results in missed diagnosis. Aim of this paper is to review the different imaging techniques used for the diagnosis of AHCM and their role in the detection and comprehension of this uncommon disease.

  17. 动态浊度法检测乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液中的细菌内毒素%Determination of Bacterial Endotoxin for Levofloxacin Lactate/Sodium Chloride Injection by Kinetic Turbidimetric Limulus Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 吴玲

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To apply kinetic turbidimetric limulus test for quantitative determination of bacterial endotoxin for Le-vofloxacin lactate/sodium chloride injection, compared with the gel-clot. METHODS: According to bacterial endotoxin test included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition) , interference test was conducted to determine maximum diluent fold. RESULTS: When the sample was 8-fold diluted, the recovery rate of kinetic turbidimetric limulus was high relatively (about 100%) without interference. The method and gel-clot were consistent and compliance, and both of them were up to the standard. CONCLUSION: Kinetic turbidimetric limulus test can effectively measure bacterial endotoxin for Levofloxacin lactate/sodium chloride injection.%目的:应用动态浊度法定量测定乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液中的细菌内毒素,并与凝胶法比较.方法:按《中国药典》2010年版二部收载的细菌内毒素检查方法及其指导原则进行干扰试验,确定样品最大稀释倍数.结果:当样品作8倍稀释时用动态浊度法的回收率值较高(100%左右),未见干扰作用;与凝胶法检测结果一致,均符合规定.结论:动态浊度法可以有效测定乳酸左氧氟沙星氯化钠注射液中的细菌内毒素含量.

  18. The Na+/glucose cotransporters: from genes to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabino-Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose enters eukaryotic cells via two types of membrane-associated carrier proteins, the Na+/glucose cotransporters (SGLT and the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT. The SGLT family consists of six members. Among them, the SGLT1 and SGLT2 proteins, encoded by the solute carrier genes SLC5A1 and SLC5A2, respectively, are believed to be the most important ones and have been extensively explored in studies focusing on glucose fluxes under both physiological and pathological conditions. This review considers the regulation of the expression of the SGLT promoted by protein kinases and transcription factors, as well as the alterations determined by diets of different compositions and by pathologies such as diabetes. It also considers congenital defects of sugar metabolism caused by aberrant expression of the SGLT1 in glucose-galactose malabsorption and the SGLT2 in familial renal glycosuria. Finally, it covers some pharmacological compounds that are being currently studied focusing on the interest of controlling glycemia by antagonizing SGLT in renal and intestinal tissues.

  19. Cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na água de transporte de tilápia-do-nilo Sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in tilapia transport water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Testou-se a ação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de sódio, benzocaína e óleo de cravo-da-índia na sobrevivência de alevinos e juvenis de tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem chitralada, por 5 horas visando ao transporte. Utilizaram-se 1.350 alevinos (9,74 ± 0,04 g e 6,79 ± 0,01 cm e 270 juvenis (29,6 ± 0,06 g e 11,52 ± 0,01. Os peixes foram mantidos em jejum por 24 horas em quatro caixas de amianto (500 L com aeração constante. Em seguida, os peixes foram distribuídos em 54 sacos plásticos, capacidade para 5 L e mantidos em soluções de: cloreto de sódio nas concentrações de (0; 4; ou 8 g/L, benzocaína (0; 20; ou 40 mg/L e óleo de cravo (0; 2; ou 5 mg/L. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em arranjo multifatorial, com três fatores: substâncias, peixes e concentrações de cada substância em estudo. Mensuraram-se, no início, os parâmetros oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade e amônia e, ao final do experimento, a glicose dos peixes. Maiores níveis de glicose foram registrados nos juvenis mantidos na água com óleo de cravo e cloreto de sódio. Não foi observada diferença significativa na sobrevivência entre os tipos de peixes e as substâncias. Entretanto, as dosagens de cloreto de sódio e benzocaína ocasionaram diferenças significativas na taxa de sobrevivência. A sobrevivência foi baixa nos alevinos com 0 g/L de cloreto de sódio e diferiu das dosagens 4 e 8 g/L. O óleo de cravo promoveu resultados similares, em todas as dosagens e substâncias, de taxas de glicose. Ao final do experimento, a sobrevivência foi satisfatória, com média geral de 97,26%, comprovando que as três substâncias podem ser usadas no transporte de alevinos e juvenis durante 5 horas. Sugere-se o cloreto de sódio por seu melhor custo-benefício.The action of different concentrations of sodium chloride, benzocaine and clove oil in the survival of fingerling and juvenile

  20. Apical dominance and growth in vitro of Alstroemeria

    OpenAIRE

    Pumisutapon, P.

    2012-01-01

    In Alstroemeria, micropropagation is achieved by axillary bud outgrowth. However, the multiplication rate is rather low (1.2–2.0 per cycle of 4 weeks) due to strong apical dominance. Even though several factors (i.e. culture media, growth regulators, and environmental conditions) have been studied, no significant improvements have been achieved. Basic research on apical dominance mechanism in Alstroemeria is therefore required. This may enhance the understanding how apical dominance con...

  1. Basolateral Na+/HCO3– cotransport activity is regulated by the dissociable Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Angelito A.; Kear, Felicidad T.; Santos, Anna V.P.; Ma, Jianfei; Steplock, Debra; Robey, R. Brooks; Weinman, Edward J.

    1999-01-01

    In the renal proximal tubule, the activities of the basolateral Na+/HCO3– cotransporter (NBC) and the apical Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3) uniformly vary in parallel, suggesting that they are coordinately regulated. PKA-mediated inhibition of NHE3 is mediated by a PDZ motif–containing protein, the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHE-RF). Given the common inhibition of these transporters after protein kinase A (PKA) activation, we sought to determine whether NHE-RF also plays a role in PKA-regulated NBC activity. Renal cortex immunoblot analysis using anti-peptide antibodies directed against rabbit NHE-RF demonstrated the presence of this regulatory factor in both brush-border membranes (BBMs) and basolateral membranes (BLMs). Using a reconstitution assay, we found that limited trypsin digestion of detergent solubilized rabbit renal BLM preparations resulted in NBC activity that was unaffected by PKA activation. Co-reconstitution of these trypsinized preparations with a recombinant protein corresponding to wild-type rabbit NHE-RF restored the inhibitory effect of PKA on NBC activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NBC activity was inhibited 60% by 10–8M NHE-RF; this effect was not observed in the absence of PKA. Reconstitution with heat-denatured NHE-RF also failed to attenuate NBC activity. To establish further a physiologic role for NHE-RF in NBC regulation, the renal epithelial cell line B-SC-1, which lacks detectable endogenous NHE-RF expression, was engineered to express stably an NHE-RF transgene. NHE-RF–expressing B-SC-1 cells (B-SC-RF) exhibited markedly lower basal levels of NBC activity than did wild-type controls. Inhibition of NBC activity in B-SC-RF cells was enhanced after 10 μM of forskolin treatment, consistent with a postulated role for NHE-RF in mediating the inhibition of NBC activity by PKA. These findings not only suggest NHE-RF involvement in PKA-regulated NBC activity, but also provide a unique molecular mechanism whereby

  2. Minimal Apical Enlargement for Penetration of Irrigants to the Apical Third of Root Canal System: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    OpenAIRE

    P. Srikanth; Krishna, Amaravadi Gopi; Srinivas, Siva; Reddy, E Sujayeendranatha; Battu, Someshwar; Aravelli, Swathi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine minimal apical enlargement for irrigant penetration into apical third of root canal system using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Distobuccal canals of 40 freshly extracted human maxillary first molar teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique. The teeth were divided into four test groups according to size of their master apical file (MAF) (#20, #25, #30, #35 0.06% taper), and two control groups. After final ...

  3. APICAL TUBERCULOSIS PRESENTING AS PANCOAST TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 73-year-old woman presented with pain in her right shoulder radiating to the right scapula and a tingling sensation of the right arm with involvement of the fourth and fifth finger. Chest x ray showed a well-defined mass in right apical area of lung. HRCT chest showed a well-defined mass in right upper zone in apex destroying the upper 2 ribs. Clinically the diagnosis of Pancoast tumor of the right lung was made. Computed tomographic guided fine needle aspiration cytology was done and it was inconclusive. So gun biopsy was done under ultrasound guidance. The histologic and microbiologic examinations established the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB.

  4. Apical-dominant particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Cui; Xingjuan Cai; Jianchao Zeng; Guoji Sun

    2008-01-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a new stochastic population-based search methodology by simulating the animal social behaviors such as birds flocking and fish schooling.Many improvements have been proposed within the framework of this biological assumption.However,in this paper,the search pattern of PSO is used to model the branch growth process of natural plants.It provides a different poten-tial manner from artificial plant.To illustrate the effectiveness of this new model,apical dominance phenomenon is introduced to construct a novel variant by emphasizing the influence of the phototaxis.In this improvement,the population is divided into three different kinds of buds associated with their performances.Furthermore,a mutation strategy is applied to enhance the ability escaping from a local optimum.Sim-ulation results demonstrate good performance of the new method when solving high-dimensional multi-modal problems.

  5. Absence of Na +/sugar cotransport activity in Barrett's metaplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisa J Murray; Owen Tully; David S Rudolph; Marysue Whitby; Mary C Valenzano; Giancarlo Mercogliano; James J Thornton; James M Mullin

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the presence of Na+-dependent,active,sugar transport in Barrett's epithelia as an intestinal biomarker,based on the well-documented,morphological intestinal phenotype of Barrett's esophagus (BE).METHODS:We examined uptake of the nonmeta-bolizable glucose analogue,alpha-methyl-D-glucoside (AMG),a substrate for the entire sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) family of transport proteins.During upper endoscopy,patients with BE or with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)allowed for duodenal,gastric fundic,and esophageal mucosal biopsies to be taken.Biopsies were incubated in bicarbonate-buffered saline (KRB) containing 0.1 mmol/L 14C-AMG for 60 min at 20℃.Characterized by abundant SGLT,duodenum served as a positive control while gastric fundus and normal esophagus,known to lack SGLT,sewed as negative controls.RESULTS:Duodenal biopsies accumulated 249.84± 35.49 (SEM) picomoles AMG/μg DNA (n = 12),gastric fundus biopsies 36.20 ± 6.62 (n = 12),normal esophagus 12.10 ± 0.59 (n = 3) and Barrett's metaplasia 29.79 ± 5.77 (n = 8).There was a statistical difference (P<0.01) between biopsies from duodenum and each other biopsy site but there was no statistically significant difference between normal esophagus and BE biopsies.0.5 mmol/L phlorizin (PZ) inhibited AMG uptake into duodenal mucosa by over 89%,but had no significant effect on AMG uptake into gastric fundus,normal esophagus,or Barrett's tissue.In the absence of Na+ (all Na+ salts replaced by Li+ salts),AMG uptake in duodenum was decreased by over 90%,while uptake into gastric,esophageal or Barrett's tissue was statistically unaffected.CONCLUSION:Despite the intestinal enterocyte phenotype of BE,Na+-dependent,sugar transport activity is not present in bhese cells.

  6. Human NKCC2 cation–Cl– co-transporter complements lack of Vhc1 transporter in yeast vacuolar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrezselyova, Silvia; Dominguez, Angel; Herynkova, Pavla; Macias, Juan F; Sychrova, Hana

    2013-10-01

    Cation–chloride co-transporters serve to transport Cl– and alkali metal cations. Whereas a large family of these exists in higher eukaryotes, yeasts only possess one cation–chloride co-transporter, Vhc1, localized to the vacuolar membrane. In this study, the human cation–chloride co-transporter NKCC2 complemented the phenotype of VHC1 deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its activity controlled the growth of salt-sensitive yeast cells in the presence of high KCl, NaCl and LiCl. A S. cerevisiae mutant lacking plasma-membrane alkali–metal cation exporters Nha1 and Ena1-5 and the vacuolar cation–chloride co-transporter Vhc1 is highly sensitive to increased concentrations of alkali–metal cations, and it proved to be a suitable model for characterizing the substrate specificity and transport activity of human wild-type and mutated cation–chloride co-transporters.

  7. Prolactin increases hepatic Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and messenger RNA post partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, T C; Liu, Y; Hyde, J F; Hagenbuch, B; Meier, P J; Vore, M

    1994-01-01

    We have shown that Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity is decreased in pregnancy, but rebounds post partum relative to non-pregnant controls, and that activity can be increased by treatment with ovine prolactin [Ganguly, Hyde and Vore (1993) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 267, 82-87]. To determine the basis for these effects, Na+/taurocholate co-transport was determined in purified basolateral liver plasma-membrane (bLPM) vesicles and compared with steady-state mRNA levels encoding the Na+/taurocholate-co-transporting polypeptide (Ntcp) in non-pregnant controls, pregnant rats (19-20 days pregnant), rats post partum (48 h post partum) and rats post partum treated with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion. Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity (nmol/5 s per mg of protein) in bLPM was decreased from 10.4 +/- 1.8 in non-pregnant controls to 7.9 +/- 0.6 in bLPM in pregnant rats, but rebounded to 17.5 +/- 1.3 post partum; treatment of rats post partum with bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin secretion decreased activity to 14.1 +/- 0.9. Northern and slot-blot analyses revealed similar changes in mRNA for Ntcp, so that a positive correlation was observed between Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity and Ntcp mRNA. Furthermore, treatment of ovariectomized rats with ovine prolactin increased Ntcp mRNA 10-fold compared with solvent-treated controls, consistent with the 2-fold increase in Vmax, for Na+/taurocholate co-transport in isolated hepatocytes. These data are the first to demonstrate endogenous physiological regulation by prolactin of Ntcp mRNA in parallel with Na+/taurocholate co-transport activity. Images Figure 2 PMID:7945260

  8. Reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with coronary lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunshan Cao; Min Zhang; Xiang Li; Ping Xie; Lynn Cronin

    2009-01-01

    Transient apical ballooning syndrome(Tako-Tsubo syndrome or ampulla cardiomyopathy) occurs predominantly in women over 60 years of age with a history of recent physical or psychological stress. We present a case of a male patient with reversible transient apical ballooning syndrome with significant coronary lesions and other ECG changes that did not explain the clinical symptoms.

  9. Influence of salinity on the localization of Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and CFTR anion channel in chloride cells of the Hawaiian goby (Stenogobius hawaiiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, S.D.; Sundell, K.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Brown, C.L.; Hiroi, J.

    2003-01-01

    Na+/K+-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are the three major transport proteins thought to be involved in chloride secretion in teleost fish. If this is the case, the levels of these transporters should be high in chloride cells of seawater-acclimated fish. We therefore examined the influence of salinity on immunolocalization of Na +/K+-ATPase, NKCC and CFTR in the gills of the Hawaiian goby (Stenogobius hawaiiensis). Fish were acclimated to freshwater and 20??? and 30??? seawater for 10 days. Na+/K +-ATPase and NKCC were localized specifically to chloride cells and stained throughout most of the cell except for the nucleus and the most apical region, indicating a basolateral/tubular distribution. All Na+/K +-ATPase-positive chloride cells were also positive for NKCC in all salinities. Salinity caused a slight increase in chloride cell number and size and a slight decrease in staining intensity for Na+/K +-ATPase and NKCC, but the basic pattern of localization was not altered. Gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity was also not affected by salinity. CFTR was localized to the apical surface of chloride cells, and only cells staining positive for Na+/K+-ATPase were CFTR-positive. CFTR-positive cells greatly increased in number (5-fold), area stained (53%) and intensity (29%) after seawater acclimation. In freshwater, CFTR immunoreactivity was light and occurred over a broad apical surface on chloride cells, whereas in seawater there was intense immunoreactivity around the apical pit (which was often punctate in appearance) and a light subapical staining. The results indicate that Na+/K +-ATPase, NKCC and CFTR are all present in chloride cells and support current models that all three are responsible for chloride secretion by chloride cells of teleost fish.

  10. Na+/HCO3- Cotransport in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler U; Bachmann O.; Jacob P; Christiani S; Blumenstein I; Rossmann H

    2001-01-01

    In a search for the HCO(3)(-) supply mechanisms to the enterocyte we cloned and sequenced an intestinal subtype of the Na(+)HCO(3)(-) cotransporter isoform I (dNBC1), which turned out to be identical to the pancreatic NBC1 subtype (pNBC1). Within the intestine, we found particularly high NBC1 expression levels in the duodenum and proximal colon. Experiments with stripped rabbit duodenum in Ussing-chambers revealed that Na(+)HCO(3)(-) cotransport (NBC) and CO(2) hydration/Na(+)/H(+) exchange w...

  11. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  12. The antimicrobial effect of apical box versus apical cone preparation using iodine potassium iodide as root canal dressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Dahlén, Gunnar; Reit, Claes-Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose. The purpose was to study the reduction of intra-canal microflora in premolars with apical periodontitis instrumented with either apical box or apical cone preparation and to provide measurements of intervention effects to allow proper power calculation in future clinical trials....... Methods. Twenty-four patients were centrally randomized to apical box preparation (size #60) or cone preparation (apical size #25). The groups were comparable regarding the presence of primary caries and type of coronal restoration. In the course of canal preparation each tooth was irrigated with 2.5% Na......OCl (12 ml). Lastly, the canals were filled with 17% EDTA (2 × 30 s) and 5% iodine potassium iodide (IKI) for 10 min. The canals were sampled for micro-organisms on four occasions: before instrumentation, after instrumentation, after application of IKI dressing and at the beginning of the second...

  13. 氯化钠-正丙醇-硫氰酸铵-水体系析相萃取分离和富集锡(Ⅳ)%Separation and enrichment of stannum (Ⅳ) by phase extraction in sodium chloride-1-propanol-ammonium thiocyanate-water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 陈彬; 马万山

    2013-01-01

    The behavior and conditions for extraction separation and enrichment of stannum (Ⅳ) from other metal ions in sodium chloride-1-propanol-ammonium thiocyanate-water system were investigated.The results showed that 1-propanol aqueous solution could be well divided into two phases in presence of sodium chloride.During the phase separation process,[Sn(SCN)5~6] [(5~6)-4]-formed from stannum (Ⅳ) and ammonium thiocyanate could reacted with protonized 1-propanol of C3H7OH2 + to form associated complex of [Sn(SCN)5~6][C3 H7OH2]1-2,which could be fully extracted by 1-propanol phase.When acidity of the solution was fixed at pH 2.0,and the concentration of 1-propanol,ammonium thiocyanate and sodium chloride was 30%(V/V),0.09 mol/L and 0.17 g/mL,respectively,the extraction yield of stannum(Ⅳ) was more than 98.3%.Simultaneously,Fe(Ⅱ),Ni(Ⅱ),Pb(Ⅱ),Al (Ⅲ),Mg(Ⅱ),Mn(Ⅱ),Ce(Ⅲ),Cr(Ⅲ),Zn(Ⅱ),Ag(Ⅰ),Cd(Ⅱ)and V(V) could not be extracted,realizing the separation of stannum (Ⅳ) from these metal ions.The method has been applied to the separation and determination of stannum (Ⅳ) in Pb-Ca-Sn-Al alloy sample with recovery of 97.4% and relative standard deviation(n=7) of 2.1%.%研究了氯化钠-正丙醇-硫氰酸铵-水体系析相萃取分离和富集Sn(Ⅳ)的行为及与一些金属离子分离的条件.结果表明,氯化钠能使正丙醇的水溶液分成两相,在分相过程中,Sn(Ⅳ)和硫氰酸铵生成的[Sn(SCN)5~6][(5~6)-4]-与质子化正丙醇C3H7OH2+形成的缔合物[Sn (SCN)5~6][C3H7OH2]1-2能被正丙醇相完全萃取.固定溶液酸度为pH 2,当正丙醇、硫氰酸铵和氯化钠的浓度分别为30% (V/V)、0.09 mol/L和0.17 g/mL时,Sn(Ⅳ)的萃取率在98.3%以上,Fe(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)、Pb(Ⅱ)、Al(Ⅲ)、Mg(Ⅱ)、Mn(Ⅱ)、Ce(Ⅲ)、Cr(Ⅲ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Ag(Ⅰ)、Cd(Ⅱ)和V(Ⅴ)不被萃取,实现了Sn(Ⅳ)与上述金属离子的分离.方法用于Pb-Ca-Sn-Al合金中Sn的分离和测定,平均回收率为97.4

  14. Analysis of ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter and related nuclear receptor genes in a family with multiple cases of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco Montagnani; Anna Abrahamsson; Cecilia G(a)lman; G(o)sta Eggertsen; Hanns-Ulrich Marschall; Elisa Ravaioli; Curt Einarsson; Paul A Dawson

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of most cases of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (TBAM) is unknown. Tn this study, a Swedish family with bile acid malabsorption in three consecutive generations was screened for mutations in the ileal apical sodium-bile acid cotransporter gene (ASBT; gene symbol, SLC10A2) and in the genes for several of the nuclear receptors known to be important for ASBT expression: the farnesoid X receptor (FXR)and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The patients presented with a clinical history of idiopathic chronic watery diarrhea, which was responsive to cholestyramine treatment and consistent with IBAM. Bile acid absorption was determined using 75Se-homocholic acid taurine(SeHCAT); bile acid synthesis was estimated by measuring the plasma levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4). The ASBT,FXR, and PPARα genes in the affected and unaffected family members were analyzed using single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing HPLC,and direct sequencing. No ASBT mutations were identified and the ASBT gene did not segregate with the bile acid malabsorption phenotype. Similarly, no mutations or polymorphisms were identified in the FXR or PPARα genes associated with the bile acid malabsorption phenotype. These studies indicate that the intestinal bile acid malabsorption in these patients cannot be attributed to defects in ASBT. In the absence of apparent ileal disease, alternative explanations such as accelerated transit through the small intestine may be responsible for the IBAM.

  15. Maxillary first premolars: I. Morphology of the apical constriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daming Wu; Younong Wu; Ming Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the apical constriction morphology of maxillary first premolars in the Chinese population. Methods: Eighty recently extracted human maxillary first premolars from a native Chinese population were used. The number and shape of apical constrictions were recorded under a dental operating microscope (DOM) at 12.5X2.5 magnification. After access preparation, a new K-file was inserted into the canal until the tip of the file was just seen at the apical constriction under the DOM. The teeth with files in the canals were X-rayed from a mesiodistal direction using a direct digital radiography (DDR) system, and the distance between the file tip and the center of radiographic apex was directly measured from the computer screen using DDR measurement software. Results: The percentage of teeth with an apical constriction was 78.5% (102/130). The most common apical constriction shapes were oval (55.9%) and round (35.3%). The mean distance between the apical constriction and the anatomical tip of the root was 0.61 mm, and 84.3% (86/102) were within 1 mm. Conclusion: The most common shape of an apical constriction was oval or round, and the distance to the apex was mostly within 1 mm, indicating that root canal therapy should stop 1 mm from the radiographic apex.

  16. Regulation of the sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter by calcium and cyclic AMP in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.; Smith, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    The activity of the Na/K/Cl cotransporter in smooth muscle cells cultured from rat aorta was assayed by measuring the initial rate of furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx or efflux. Five uM furosemide or 0.2 uM bumetanide inhibited influx by 50%. Furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx depended on the presence of all 3 ions in the external medium. The dependence on Na and K was hyperbolic with apparent Km values of 45 and 5 mM, respectively. The dependence on Cl was sigmoidal. Assuming a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 for Na:K:Cl, a Km for Cl of 60 mM was obtained from a Hofstee plot of the data. Rapidly growing cells had 3 fold higher cotransport activity than quiescent cells. Angiotensin II (ANG) stimulated furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb efflux by 2 fold. An ANG receptor antagonist prevented ANG from increasing cotransport activity. Two calcium ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, increased cotransport activity by 2 fold. Phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on cotransport activity. Isoproterenol, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholera toxin, or methylisobutylxanthine inhibited furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by 35 to 50%. From these findings they conclude that increasing cytoplasmic free calcium stimulates cotransport activity, whereas increasing cellular cyclic AMP inhibits the cotransporter.

  17. Difusão do cloreto de sódio no processo de salga de queijos: modelagem matemática com o emprego do método de elementos finitos The sodium chlorid diffusion during cheese brining: matematical model applying the finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sérgio Ferreira SILVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A transferência de um soluto (cloreto de sódio, através de uma matriz sólida tridimensional (queijo foi estudada aplicando-se o método de elementos finitos. A formulação variacional (Galerkin do problema diferencial (modelo de difusão teve como base teórica a 2ª lei de Fick. Os procedimentos para integração no tempo foram o de Crank-Nicolson e o de Euler-modificado, que foram escolhidos por apresentarem estabilidade incondicional. O programa computacional desenvolvido mostrou-se versátil para resolver situações de amostragem em condições mais realistas e pode ser aplicado para geometrias complexas. O modelo proposto permitiu uma boa estimativa do ganho de sal no queijo, usando um coeficiente de difusão cujo valor pode ser obtido por extrapolação de dados experimentais. A aplicação do método numérico (MEF, com o esquema de Crank-Nicolson, na simulação da difusão do cloreto de sódio na salga de queijos, mostrou boa aproximação quando os resultados foram comparados com os valores experimentais encontrados na literatura especializada.Solute (sodium chloride transference through a three-dimensional matrix (cheese was studied applying the finite element method (MEF. The variational formulation (Galerkin of the differential problem (diffusion model had as the theoretical basis Fick’s second law. The methods for time integration were developed according to Crank-Nicolson (central difference, and modified Euler (backward difference, which presented unconditional stability. The computational program proved to be versatile in solving sampling situations in realistic condition and can be used in complex geometry. The proposed method gave good estimation of salt gain in the cheese when using a diffusion coefficient which value can be calculated by extrapolation of experimental data. The application of numeric method (MEF, with Crank-Nicolson scheme, in the simulation of diffusion of sodium chloride in the brining showed to be

  18. Isotonic transport by the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 from humans and rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Loo, D D;

    2001-01-01

    water transport was divided about equally between cotransport, osmosis across the SGLT1 and osmosis across the native oocyte membrane. 6. Coexpression of AQP1 with the SGLT1 increased the water permeability more than 10-fold and steady state isotonic transport was achieved after less than 2 s of sugar...

  19. Na+/D-glucose cotransporter based bilayer lipid membrane sensor for D-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugao, N; Sugawara, M; Minami, H; Uto, M; Umezawa, Y

    1993-02-15

    A new type of amperometric blosensor for glucose was fabricated using a Na+/D-glucose cotransporter as the signal-transducing sensory element that exploits the D-glucose-triggered Na+ ion current through bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The planar BLM was formed by the folding method across a small aperture of a thin Teflon film. The Na+/D-glucose cotransporter, isolated and purified from small intestinal brush border membrane of guinea pigs, was embedded into BLMs through proteoliposomes. The number of the protein molecules thus incorporated in the present sensing membrane was estimated to be ca. 10(7). The sensor response was measured as an ionic current through the BLM arising from cotransported Na+ ion flux under a constant applied potential and was only induced by D-glucose above 10(-9) M, but not by the other monosaccharides except for D-galactose. The effect of applied potentials, Na+ and K+ ion concentrations, and the addition of a competitive inhibitor, phlorizin, were scrutinized to characterize the sensor output. The results were briefly discussed in terms of the potential use of the Na+/D-glucose cotransporter as a sensory element for D-glucose.

  20. Alternative splice variant of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutakhel, Omar A Z; Jeleń, Sabina; Valdez-Flores, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is an important pharmacological target in the treatment of hypertension. Human SLC12A3 gene, encoding NCC, gives rise to three isoforms. Only the 3(rd) isoform has been extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to establ...

  1. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  2. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods : Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  3. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA were compared to those of untreated control plants.

  4. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac Branka; Janošević Dušica; Stojičić Dragana; Budimir Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA) were compared to those of untreated control...

  5. Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following apical approach TAVI

    OpenAIRE

    Vanezis Andrew P; Baig Mirza K; Mitchel Ian M; Shajar Matloob; Naik Surendra K; Henderson Robert A; Mathew Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Symptomatic severe aortic stenosis carries a two year survival of only 50%. However many patients are unsuitable for conventional aortic valve replacement as they are considered too high risk due to significant co-morbidities. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) offers a viable alternative for this high risk patient group, either by the femoral or apical route. This article reports a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle following an apical approach TAVI in an eld...

  6. Efeito da substituição de cloreto de sódio por cloreto de potássio em pão francês Effect of the substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in French rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karoline Ferreira Ignácio

    2013-03-01

    se produzir pão francês com até 30% de redução de sal (1,4% na formulação comercial, o que proporcionaria pães com a quantidade de sódio proposta para atender aos limites estabelecidos (234 mg.50 g-1, em relação a uma formulação padrão de 2% de sal (base farinha.There is a worldwide trend to reduce sodium in industrialized food products due to its relationship with high blood pressure. Since French rolls are one of the food products most contributing towards the ingestion of sodium by the Brazilian population, the objective of this research was to evaluate the substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl by potassium chloride (KCl in this product, as a way of complying with this tendency. Four formulations were evaluated, standard (FP with 2% NaCl, the substitution of 30% (F1 and 50% (F2 of this percentage by KCl, and F3 with no sodium chloride addition, equivalent to 307, 234, 176.5 and 4.5 mg sodium per French roll (50 g, respectively. All the reductions conformed with the recommendations made by ANVISA for 2014. The wheat flour used was characterized from its proximate composition, gluten content and index and the extensigraphic and farinographic analyses, being found adequate for breadmaking. The rheological characteristics of doughs prepared with saline solutions of the same concentrations as the formulations, were obtained using the extensigraph. The rolls were evaluated for specific volume and their sodium and potassium contents, and also submitted to an acceptance test with 53 bread consumers. The reduction in sodium content did not significantly alter their specific volumes. In the sensory analysis, it was not possible to differentiate up to 30% salt reduction in relation to the 2% salt standard, for all the attributes evaluated. However the formulation with 50% substitution was significantly less accepted for taste than the standard, its average acceptance score being equivalent to "I liked it slightly". The formulation with no added sodium chloride

  7. Haemostatic agents in apical surgery. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clé-Ovejero, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood presence in apical surgery can prevent the correct vision of the surgical field, change the physical properties of filling materials and reduce their sealing ability. Objetive To describe which are the most effective and safest haemostatic agents to control bleeding in patients undergoing apical surgery. Material and Methods TWe carried out a systematic review, using Medline and Cochrane Library databases, of human clinical studies published in the last 10 years. Results The agents that proved more effective in bleeding control were calcium sulphate (100%) and collagen plus epinephrine (92.9%) followed by ferric sulphate (60%), gauze packing (30%) and collagen (16.7%). When using aluminium chloride (Expasyl®), over 90% of the apical lesions improved, but this agent seemed to increase swelling. Epinephrine with collagen did not significantly raise either blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusions Despite the use of several haemostatic materials in apical surgery, there is little evidence on their effectiveness and safety. The most effective haemostatic agents were calcium sulphate and epinephrine plus collagen. Epinephrine plus collagen did not seem to significantly raise blood pressure or heart rate during surgery. Aluminium chloride did not increase postoperative pain but could slightly increase postoperative swelling. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the haemostatic effectiveness and adverse effects of haemostatic materials in apical surgery. Key words:Haemostasis, apical surgery. PMID:27475689

  8. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Mizerski Grzegorz; Kicinski Pawel; Jaroszynski Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2) - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the a...

  9. Effect of apical clearing technique on the treatment outcome of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem; Pandey, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to compare the periapical healing of teeth with asymptomatic apical periodontitis treated either by conventional apical preparation (CAP) or apical clearing technique (ACT). Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with bilateral nonvital similar teeth exhibiting comparable periapical index (PAI) score were enrolled and randomly allocated. Group I (CAP, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater (master apical file [MAF]) than the first binding file at the established working length. Group II (ACT, n = 20): Apical preparation three sizes greater than the MAF that was followed by dry reaming. Root canal therapy was accomplished in single-visit for all the teeth. They were pursued radiographically at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Pre- and post-treatment PAI scores were compared. To ascertain the proportion of healed teeth between the two groups, McNemar Chi-square test was applied. Results: At 3, 6, and 9 months’ time interval the proportion of healed teeth for Group II (ACT) was greater in comparison to Group I (CAP) (P < 0.05). However, at 12 months follow-up period this difference was not significant (P = 0.08). Conclusion: ACT enhanced the healing kinetics. However, the long-term (12 months) radiographic outcome was similar for either technique. PMID:27656054

  10. Differentiation of Apical Bud Cells in a Newly Developed Apical Bud Transplantation Model Using GFP Transgenic Mice as Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Ryuji; Yoshinaga, Yasunori; Okamura, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Rodent mandibular incisors have a unique anatomical structure that allows teeth to grow throughout the lifetime of the rodent. This report presents a novel transplantation technique for studying the apical bud differentiation of rodent mandibular incisors. Incisal apical end tissue with green fluorescent protein from transgenic mouse was transplanted to wild type mice, and the development of the transplanted cells were immunohistologically observed for 12 weeks after the transplantation. Results indicate that the green fluorescent apical end tissue replaced the original tissue, and cells from the apical bud differentiated and extended toward the incisal edge direction. The immunostaining with podoplanin also showed that the characteristics of the green fluorescent tissue were identical to those of the original. The green fluorescent cells were only found in the labial side of the incisor up to 4 weeks. After 12 weeks, however, they were also found in the lingual side. Here the green fluorescent cementocyte-like cells were only present in the cementum close to the dentin surface. This study suggests that some of the cells that form the cellular cementum come from the apical tissue including the apical bud in rodent incisors. PMID:26978064

  11. Changes of the Unique Odontogenic Properties of Rat Apical Bud Cells under the Developing Apical Complex Microenvironment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Fang; Liang Tang; Xiao-hui Liu; Ling-ying Wen; Yan Jin

    2009-01-01

    Aim To characterize the odontogenic capability of apical bud and phenotypical change of apical bud cells (ABCs) in different microenvironment. Methodology Incisor apical bud tissues from neonatal SD rat were dissected and transplanted into the renal capsules to determine their odontogenic capability. Meanwhile ABCs were cultured and purified by repeated differential trypsinization. Then ABCs were cultured with conditioned medium from developing apical complex cells (DAC-CM). Immunocytochemistry, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were performed to compare the biological change of ABC treated with or without DAC-CM. Results First we confirmed the ability of apical bud to form crown-like structure ectopically. Equally important, by using the developing apical complex (DAC) conditioned medium, we found the microenvironment created by root could abrogate the "crown" features of ABCs and promote their proliferation and differentiation. Conclusion ABCs possess odontogenic capability to form crown-like tissues and this property can be affected by root-produced microenvironment.

  12. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the prognosis of apical microsurgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Hänni, Stefan;

    2012-01-01

    Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment apical periodontitis. Knowledge of the long-term prognosis is necessary when weighing apical surgery against alternative treatments. This study assessed the 5-year outcome of apical surgery and its predictors in a cohor...

  13. Functional classification of mitochondrion-rich cells in euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) embryos, by means of triple immunofluorescence staining for Na+/K+-ATPase, Na +/K+/2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroi, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Ohtani-Kaneko, R.; Kaneko, T.

    2005-01-01

    Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus embryos were transferred from freshwater to seawater and vice versa, and short-term changes in the localization of three major ion transport proteins, Na+/K +-ATPase, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were examined within mitochondrion-rich cells (MRCs) in the embryonic yolk-sac membrane. Triple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs into four types: type I, showing only basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase staining; type II, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and apical NKCC; type III, basolateral Na+/K +-ATPase and basolateral NKCC; type IV, basolateral Na +/K+-ATPase, basolateral NKCC and apical CFTR. In freshwater, type-I, type-II and type-III cells were observed. Following transfer from freshwater to seawater, type-IV cells appeared at 12 h and showed a remarkable increase in number between 24 h and 48 h, whereas type-III cells disappeared. When transferred from seawater back to freshwater, type-IV cells decreased and disappeared at 48 h, type-III cells increased, and type-II cells, which were not found in seawater, appeared at 12 h and increased in number thereafter. Type-I cells existed consistently irrespective of salinity changes. These results suggest that type I is an immature MRC, type II is a freshwater-type ion absorptive cell, type III is a dormant type-IV cell and/or an ion absorptive cell (with a different mechanism from type II), and type IV is a seawater-type ion secretory cell. The intracellular localization of the three ion transport proteins in type-IV cells is completely consistent with a widely accepted model for ion secretion by MRCs. A new model for ion absorption is proposed based on type-II cells possessing apical NKCC.

  14. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L0) is 0.940 ± 0.361 and that of normal area (N0) is 1.186 ± 0.727 (p1) is 1.076 ± 0.069 and that of normal area (N1) is 1.192 ± 0.055 (p2) is 1.163 ± 0.074 and that of normal area (N2) is 1.225 ± 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  15. Water permeability of Na+-K+-2C1- cotransporters in mammalian epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, J.J.; Bundgaard, Magnus;

    2005-01-01

    Water transport properties of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) were studied in cultures of pigmented epithelial cells (PE) from the ciliary body of the eye. Here, the membrane that faces upwards contains NKCCs and can be subjected to rapid changes in bathing solution composition and osmolarity....... The anatomy of the cultured cell layer was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The transport rate of the cotransporter was determined from the bumetanide-sensitive component of 86Rb+ uptake, and volume changes were derived from quenching of the fluorescent dye calcein. The water permeability (Lp......) of the membrane was halved by the specific inhibitor bumetanide. The bumetanide-sensitive component of the water transport exhibited apparent saturation at osmotic gradients higher than 200 mosmol l-1. Cell shrinkages produced by NaCl or KCl were smaller than those elicited by equi-osmolar applications...

  16. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes: the emerging role of natriuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekeran, Harindra; Lytvyn, Yuliya; Cherney, David Z I

    2016-03-01

    Inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 causes both glycosuria and natriuresis, leading to reductions in hyperglycemia, body weight, blood pressure, and proteinuria. The recently published EMPA-REG OUTCOME study demonstrated significant cardiovascular and mortality benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease, and may suggest a broader role for sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition in patients with heart failure. PMID:26880444

  17. Abnormal Expression of Cerebrospinal Fluid Cation Chloride Cotransporters in Patients with Rett Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sofia Temudo Duarte; Judith Armstrong; Ana Roche; Carlos Ortez; Ana Pérez; Maria del Mar O'Callaghan; Antonina Pereira; Francesc Sanmartí; Aida Ormazábal; Rafael Artuch; Mercedes Pineda; Angels García-Cazorla

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rett Syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder caused mainly by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. The relevance of MeCP2 for GABAergic function was previously documented in animal models. In these models, animals show deficits in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Neuronal Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) play a key role in GABAergic neuronal maturation, and brain-derived...

  18. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a growing class of antidiabetic agents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for reabsorption of most o...

  19. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with insulin in type 2 diabetes: Clinical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew John; Deepa Gopinath; Rejitha Jagesh

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes is a challenging problem. Most subjects with type 2 diabetes have progression of beta cell failure necessitating the addition of multiple antidiabetic agents and eventually use of insulin. Intensification of insulin leads to weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycemia. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of antihyperglycemic agents which act by blocking the SGLT2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney. They have potential benefits in...

  20. γ-Adducin stimulates the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimke, Henrik Anthony; San-Cristobal, Pedro; de Graaf, Mark;

    2011-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) plays a key role in renal salt reabsorption and the determination of systemic BP, but the molecular mechanisms governing the regulation of NCC are not completely understood. Here, through pull-down experiments coupled to mass spectrometry, we found...... state, and consequently the activity, of the transporter. These data suggest that γ-adducin may influence BP homeostasis by modulating renal NaCl transport....

  1. The Structural Pathway for Water Permeation through Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters

    OpenAIRE

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Cuervo, Javier E.; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Noskov, Sergei Y.

    2011-01-01

    Although water permeation across cell membranes occurs through several types of membrane proteins, the only permeation mechanism resolved at atomic scale is that through aquaporins. Crystallization of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium-galactose transporter (vSGLT) allows investigation of putative water permeation pathways through both vSGLT and the homologous human Na-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) using computational methods. Grand canonical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations we...

  2. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Possible Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects Beyond Glucose Lowering

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Adachi, Hiroki; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Sako, Akahito

    2015-01-01

    The new drug for type 2 diabetes, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is reversible inhibitor of SGLT-2, leading to reduction of renal glucose reabsorption and decrease of plasma glucose, in an insulin-independent manner. In addition to glucose control, the management of coronary risk factors is very important for patients with diabetes. Here we reviewed published articles about the possible anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond glucose lowering of the SGLT-2 inhibitors. We s...

  3. Ipragliflozin: A novel sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor developed in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ohkura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition induces glucosuria and decreases blood glucose levels in diabetic patients and lowers hypoglycemic risk. SGLT1 is expressed in the kidney and intestine; SGLT1 inhibition causes abdominal symptoms such as diarrhea and reduces incretin secretion. Therefore, SGLT2 selectivity is important. Ipragliflozin is highly selective for SGLT2. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), urinary glucose excretion increased to 90 g/24 h after 28 d of treatment with ...

  4. The role of phosphorylation in the regulation of the Sodium/D-Glucose cotransporter SGLT1

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Supriya

    2006-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Effekt von Proteinphosphorylierung auf die Funktion und Konformation des Natrium/D- Glucose Cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) untersucht. Mögliche Auswirkungen auf die Funktion von SGLT1 wurden in intakten Zellen anhand der Effekte von Kinaseaktivatoren und -inhibitoren auf die Transportaktivität, die Lokalisation und die Präsenz des Transporters an der Zelloberfläche studiert. Durch Phosphorylierung induzierte Konformationsänderungen wurden an gereinigt...

  5. Modeling glial contributions to seizures and epileptogenesis: cation-chloride cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid M Rusan

    Full Text Available Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl- cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24-48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl- cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed.

  6. 氯化钠-硫氰酸钾-正丙醇体系析相萃取分离和富集钛(Ⅳ)%Study on extraction and enrichment of titanium(Ⅳ) by phase separation with sodium chloride-potassium thiocyanate-1-propanol system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢先春; 司学芝; 马冬冬; 许春萱

    2012-01-01

    研究了正丙醇-硫氰酸钾-水体系析相萃取分离和富集Ti(Ⅳ)的行为及与一些金属离子分离的条件.结果表明,氯化钠能使正丙醇的水溶液分成两相,在分相过程中,Ti(Ⅳ)和硫氢化钾生成的Ti(SCN)62-与质子化正丙醇C3 H7OH2+形成的缔合物[Ti(SCN)62-][C3 H7OH2+]2能被正丙醇相完全萃取.当正丙醇、硫氰酸钾和氯化钠的浓度分别为30%(V/V)、8.0×10-2 mol/L和0.17 g/mL时,Ti(Ⅳ)的萃取率达到98.9%以上,V(Ⅴ)、Ce(Ⅲ)、MgⅡ)、Mn(Ⅱ)、Cd(Ⅱ)、Cr(Ⅲ)、Al(Ⅲ)、Fe(Ⅱ)、Zn(Ⅱ)、Ni(Ⅱ)、Ag(Ⅰ)和W(Ⅵ)不被萃取,实现了Ti(Ⅳ)与上述金属离子的分离.对合成水样中的钛进行分离和测定,结果满意.%The enrichment and extraction behaviors of titanium(Ⅳ) in 1-propanol-potassium thiocyanate-aqueous system and the separation conditions from other metal ions were investigated. The results showed that the 1-propanol aqueous solution could be well divided into two phases in the presence of sodium chloride. The complex of [Ti(SCN)62- ][C3H7OH2+]2 formed from protonized 1-propanol ( [C3H7OH2 + ]2) and [Ti(SCN)62-] (which was generated by titanium (Ⅳ) and potassium thiocyanate) could be completely extracted by 1-propanol during the phase separation process. When the concentration of 1-propanol, potassium thiocyanate and sodium chloride was 30%(V/V) , 8. 0×10~2 mol/L and 0. 17 g/mL, respectively, the extraction yield of titaniumf(Ⅳ) was higher than 98. 9% while V(Ⅴ) Ce(Ⅲ), Mg(Ⅱ), Mn(Ⅱ), Cd(Ⅱ), Cr(Ⅲ), AI(Ⅲ), Fe(Ⅱ) , Zn(Ⅱ), Ni(Ⅱ), Ag(Ⅰ) and W(Ⅳ) were not extracted to realize the separation of titanium(Ⅳ) from the above-mentioned metal ions. This method has been successfully applied to the determination and extraction separation of titanium in the sample of synthetic water with satisfactory results.

  7. Cryopreservation of Pelargonium apices by droplet-vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard, Anthony; Panis, Bart; Dorion, Nöelle; Swennen, Rony; Grapin, Agnès

    2008-01-01

    The droplet-vitrification method was adapted to Pelargonium apices by optimizing the duration of the loading solution (LS) as well as the plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2). The excised apices were dehydrated in two steps (20 min in LS and 15 min in PVS2) and then immersed directly in liquid nitrogen (LN). After thawing and unloading in the recovery solution at room temperature for 15 min, apices were plated onto semi-solid Murashige and Skoog medium. This simple protocol without any pretreatment was successfully applied to eight cultivars with a survival level ranging between 55.6 - 96.2 percent and a regrowth level between 9.1 and 70.6 percent. These results prove the feasibility of the long-term storage of Pelargonium germplasm through cryopreservation.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite for use in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of iron based oxygen absorber systems comprising iron, sodium chloride, water, silica gel, activated carbon, monosodium glutamate, potassium acid tartrate, powdered cellulose, malic acid, chabazite, hydroxypropyl cellulose, potassium carbonate, sodium thiosulfate, propylene glycol, glycerin, polyethyleneglycol sorbitan monooleate, sodium propionate and clinoptilolite, incorporated in sachets, patches and cards. Iron, the main active ingredient reacts with oxygen to form iron hydroxide and iron oxide, thereby removing oxygen from the primary packaging. Only activated carbon has not been evaluated as such, but it meets the specifications for activated charcoal which is authorised as additive for plastic materials and articles in contact with foods. All other ingredients of the oxygen absorber formulations have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials and/or as food additives and/or food supplements or feed additives. The active system being based on solid ingredients and not intended for direct contact with liquid food or food with an external liquid surface, migration through the gas phase was screened for 9 representative active systems. No volatiles derived from the active mixtures were detected. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the substances do not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in sachets, patches or cards, placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with food, excluding liquid food or foods that have an external aqueous liquid phase on the surface such as sliced fruits and fresh meat.

  9. IN VIVO ANALYSIS OF SOME KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APICAL ZONE IN TEETH WITH CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathogenesis of internal and external resorptive processes in the dental tissues and those of the periapical zone is not fully understood, but the main purpose, either in teeth with internal resorption or in teeth with periapical lesions, is decontamination of the endodontic space and subsequent three-dimensional obturation in order to isolate periapical and oral tissues and prevent reinfection. Purpose: The aim of this article is to analyze in vivo some key characteristics of the apical zone in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: To facilitate the clinical protocol after the radiographic analysis and assessment of patency, the working lengths of 153 root canals (n = 153 in 106 teeth were determined. The clinical widths of the apical narrowing were measured by using the last instrument (ISO 0.02 tapered file, which can move freely through the apical narrowing after electrometric determination of the working length (Raypex 5 /VDW, Germany/. Results and Discussion: Determination of working width and working length is important for realizing the first stage of decontamination – maximum instrumentation of the endodontic space and choice of a clinical protocol. The classification of root canals in a particular group according to the relative patency or lysed apical opening is important for the selection of obturation technique, which is essential for reducing the microleakage in the zone. Conclusion: Since the target of this work were teeth with CAP, in the majority of the cases with clinical findings of root canals with preexisting filling, radicular pins, obliteration, separated canal instruments, perforations at different levels, via falsa or thresholds, the access to the apical zone was not subjected to a closely observed instrumental clinical protocol. In the treatment of each case, however, the clinical principles of modern endodontic treatment were closely observed.

  10. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation. PMID:2640036

  11. Assessment of apical periodontitis by MRI. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, M.A. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Schreiber, E.S.; Bracher, A.K.; Rasche, V. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Internal Medicine II; Hell, E.; Ulrici, J. [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim (Germany). Dental Imaging; Sailer, L.K. [DOC Praxisklinik im Wiley, Neu-Ulm (Germany). MKG; Ozpeynirci, Y. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-04-15

    The purpose of this clinical feasibility study was to evaluate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of apical periodontitis in direct comparison with cone beam CT (CBCT). 19 consecutive patients (average age 43 ± 13 years) with 34 lesions in total (13 molars, 14 premolars and 7 front teeth) were enrolled in this feasibility study. Periapical lesions were defined as periapical radiolucencies (CBCT) or structural changes in the spongy bone signal (MRI), which were connected with the apical part of a root and with at least twice the width of the periodontal ligament space. The location and dimension of the lesions were compared between MRI and CBCT. While mainly mineralized tissue components such as teeth and bone were visible with CBCT, complimentary information of the soft tissue components was assessable with MRI. The MRI images provided sufficient diagnostic detail for the assessment of the main structures of interest. Heterogeneous contrast was observed within the lesion, with often a clear enhancement close to the apical foramen and the periodontal gap. No difference for lesion visibility was observed between MRI and CBCT. The lesion dimensions corresponded well, but were slightly but significantly overestimated with MRI. A heterogeneous lesion appearance was observed in several patients. Four patients presented with a well circumscribed hyperintense signal in the vicinity of the apical foramen. The MRI capability of soft tissue characterization may facilitate detailed analysis of periapical lesions. This clinical study confirms the applicability of multi-contrast MRI for the identification of periapical lesions.

  12. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  13. The apical plasma membrane of chitin-synthesizing epithelia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bernard Moussian

    2013-01-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide on earth.It is produced at the apical side of epidermal,tracheal,fore-,and hindgut epithelial cells in insects as a central component of the protective and supporting extracellular cuticle.Chitin is also an important constituent of the midgut peritrophic matrix that encases the food supporting its digestion and protects the epithelium against invasion by possibly ingested pathogens.The enzyme producing chitin is a glycosyltransferase that resides in the apical plasma membrane forming a pore to extrude the chains of chitin into the extracellular space.The apical plasma membrane is not only a platform for chitin synthases but,probably through its shape and equipment with distinct factors,also plays an important role in orienting and organizing chitin fibers.Here,I review findings on the cellular and molecular constitution of the apical plasma membrane of chitin-producing epithelia mainly focusing on work done in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

  14. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical left ventricular aneurysm: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江腾勇; 韩智红; 王京; 吕强; 吴学思

    2002-01-01

    @@ Morphological diversity is one characteristic of hypertrophic cardi omyopathy (HCM), but it is not common that HCM is associated with apical left ve ntricular aneurysm (LVA) without evidence of a coronary artery lesion. We repor t on such a case and review the pathogenesis, manifestations and diagnostic meth ods by collecting the few available papers published on this topic.

  15. Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

  16. Effect of Sodium Chloride on Bakers' Yeast Growing in Gelatin

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chia-Jenn; Robert D. Tanner; Malaney, George W.

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, industrial fermentation researchers have shifted their attention from liquid to solid and semisolid culture conditions. We converted liquid cultures to the semisolid mode by adding high levels of gelatin. Previous studies on liquid cultures have revealed the inhibitory activity of mineral salts, such as NaCl, on the fermentation of sugars by yeasts. We made a kinetic study of the effects of 1 to 5% (wt/vol) NaCl on the alcoholic fermentations of glucose by Saccharomyces cerev...

  17. Natural gas pyrolysis in the melt of sodium chlorides

    OpenAIRE

    Тарасов, Вадим Юрьевич

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main component for nitrogen fertilizers production, hydrogenation processes of oil products and other reagents in organic, inorganic, and metallurgical production. The only large-capacity process in the industry is a multistage catalytic vaporous conversion of natural gas. It is possible to reduce raw materials, energy, capital expenditures, and to solve environmental problems of hydrogen production, if only the ideology of raw materials processing is changed. The articl...

  18. Expanding Spectrum of Sodium Potassium Chloride Co-transporters in the Pathophysiology of Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Kaur, Aalamjeet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal

    2015-01-01

    Sodium potassium chloride co-transporter (NKCC) belongs to cation-dependent chloride co-transporter family, whose activation allows the entry of Na(+), K(+) and 2Cl(-) inside the cell. It acts in concert with K(+) Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC), which extrudes K(+) and Cl(-) ions from cell. NKCC1 is widely distributed throughout the body, while NKCC2 is exclusively present in kidney. Protein kinase A, protein kinase C, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase, oxidative stress responsive kinases, With No K=lysine kinase and protein phosphatase type 1 control the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of key threonine residues of in regulatory domain of NKCC1. The selective inhibitors of NKCC1 including bumetanide and furosemide are conventionally employed as diuretics. However, recent studies have indicated that NKCC1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fragile X syndrome, autism and schizophrenia. The inhibitors of NKCC1 are shown to produce anxiolytic effects; attenuate cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal injury; produce antiepileptic effects and attenuate neuropathic pain. In the early developing brain, GABAA activation primarily produces excitatory actions due to high NKCC1/KCC2 ratio. However, as the development progresses, the ratio of NKCC1/KCC2 ratio reverses and there is switch in the polarity of GABAA actions and latter acquires the inhibitory actions. The recapitulation of developmental-like state during pathological state may be associated with increase in the expression and functioning of NKCC1, which decreases the strength of inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. The present review describes the expanding role and mechanism of NKCC1 in the pathophysiology of different diseases. PMID:26411965

  19. Na+/HCO3- Cotransport in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidler U

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In a search for the HCO(3(- supply mechanisms to the enterocyte we cloned and sequenced an intestinal subtype of the Na(+HCO(3(- cotransporter isoform I (dNBC1, which turned out to be identical to the pancreatic NBC1 subtype (pNBC1. Within the intestine, we found particularly high NBC1 expression levels in the duodenum and proximal colon. Experiments with stripped rabbit duodenum in Ussing-chambers revealed that Na(+HCO(3(- cotransport (NBC and CO(2 hydration/Na(+/H(+ exchange were equally important duodenal HCO(3(- supply pathways and were both upregulated during cAMP-mediated secretion. In the proximal colon, however, HCO(3(- secretion was low but NBC1 expression even higher than in the duodenum. Ussing-chamber experiments with an NBC-specific inhibitor revealed that NBC, coupled to basolateral Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchange, was an important alternative Cl(- supply pathway to Na(+K(+2Cl(- cotransport (NKCC during cAMP-stimulated colonic Cl(- secretion. To investigate the functional integrity of anion uptake pathways in the absence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, we fluorometrically assessed NBC and NKCC transport rates and cell volume before and during forskolin-stimulation in isolated colonic crypts from normal and CFTR (-/- mice. Although forskolin stimulation decreased cell volume only in normal, not in CFTR (-/- crypts, it activated NBC and NKCC to a similar degree in both normal and CFTR (-/- crypts. We conclude that, depending on the intestinal segment, NBC1 plays an important role in basolateral HCO(3(- or Cl(- uptake. Expression and activation by cAMP is preserved in CFTR (-/- intestine.

  20. DAPAGLIFLOZIN: SELECTIVE SODIUM-GLUCOSE CO-TRANSPORTER-2 INHIBITOR IN TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Pemminati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dapagliflozin is a promising new drug that targets the so far untapped renal glucose reabsorption. By inhibiting sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2 which is mainly localized in the S1 segment of the proximal tubule, Dapagliflozin promotes renal glucose excretion and reduces hyperglycemia in an insulin-independent manner. Dapagliflozin also produces pronounced weight loss which may be an advantage in patients on sulfonylureas and insulin. Dapagliflozin has the potential to be used as monotherapy, as well as in combination with all approved antidiabetic agents.

  1. Tracers for monitoring the activity of sodium/glucose cotransporters in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Ernest M; Barrio, Jorge R; Hirayama, Bruce A; Kepe, Vladimir

    2014-09-30

    Radiolabeled tracers for sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), their synthesis, and their use are provided. The tracers are methyl or ethyl pyranosides having an equatorial hydroxyl group at carbon-2 and a C 1 preferred conformation, radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124I, or free hexoses radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124. Also provided are in vivo and in vitro techniques for using these and other tracers as analytical and diagnostic tools to study glucose transport, in health and disease, and to evaluate therapeutic interventions.

  2. Regulation of the type Mb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter expression in the intestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin WANG; Yulong YIN

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) plays important roles in growth, development, bone mineralization, energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, cell signaling, and acid-base regulation. The rate of intestinal absorption of Pi is a major determinant of Pi homeostasis. The type lib sodium- dependent Pi cotransporter (NaPi-Iib) is responsible for intestinal Pi absorption. Many physiological factors regulate the rate of Pi absorption via modulating the expression of NaPi-Iib in the intestine. In this review, we summarize the role of these factors in the regulation of NaPi-Iib expression in the intestine.

  3. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  4. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a “good person,” who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production. PMID:27730088

  5. N-Glucosides as human sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (hSGLT2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasuo; Kawanishi, Eiji; Koga, Yuichi; Sakamaki, Shigeki; Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ueta, Kiichiro; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Minoru; Nomura, Sumihiro

    2013-10-15

    Inhibition of renal sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) increases urinary glucose excretion (UGE), and thus reduces blood glucose levels in hyperglycemia. A series of N-glucosides was synthesized for biological evaluation as human SGLT2 (hSGLT2) inhibitors. Among these compounds, N-glucoside 9d possessing an indole core structure showed good in vitro activity (IC50=7.1 nM against hSGLT2). Furthermore, 9d exhibited favorable in vivo potency with regard to UGE in rats based on good pharmacokinetic profiles. PMID:23999047

  6. Regulation of the human Na+-dependent glucose cotransporter hSGLT2

    OpenAIRE

    Ghezzi, Chiara; Wright, Ernest M.

    2012-01-01

    The human Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 is expressed mainly in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule where it is considered to be responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption. Phosphorylation profiling has revealed that SGLT2 exists in a phosphorylated state in the rat renal proximal tubule cortex, so we decided to investigate the regulation of human SGLT2 (hSGLT2) by protein kinases. hSGLT2 was expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, and the activity of the protein was me...

  7. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition and the insulin: Glucagon ratio: Unexplored dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Patil, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a novel class of glucose-lowering drugs which act by inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose from the kidneys. Their effect on insulin and glucagon levels has recently been studied but is not fully explained. This communication proposes various hypotheses: A direct effect of SGLT-2 inhibition on the alpha cell receptors, a paracrine or intra-islet mediated effect on alpha cell sensitivity to glucose, and a calorie restriction mimetic action, to explain the impact of these drugs on the insulin glucagon ratio. PMID:25932403

  8. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition and the insulin: Glucagon ratio: Unexplored dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of glucose-lowering drugs which act by inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose from the kidneys. Their effect on insulin and glucagon levels has recently been studied but is not fully explained. This communication proposes various hypotheses: A direct effect of SGLT-2 inhibition on the alpha cell receptors, a paracrine or intra-islet mediated effect on alpha cell sensitivity to glucose, and a calorie restriction mimetic action, to explain the impact of these drugs on the insulin glucagon ratio.

  9. Glucose transport by human renal Na+/d-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, Charles S.; Lu, Chuan; Loo, Donald D. F.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Voss, Andrew A.; Wright, Ernest M.

    2010-01-01

    The human Na+/d-glucose cotransporter 2 (hSGLT2) is believed to be responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule. Since blocking reabsorption increases urinary glucose excretion, hSGLT2 has become a novel drug target for Type 2 diabetes treatment. Glucose transport by hSGLT2 was studied at 37°C in human embryonic kidney 293T cells using whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. We compared hSGLT2 with hSGLT1, the transporter in the straight proximal...

  10. Implantation of a left ventricular assist device in patients with a complex apical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Meindert; Verwey, Harriette F; Haeck, Marlieke L A; Holman, Eduard R; Schalij, Martin J; Klautz, Robert J M

    2012-12-01

    Implantation of a left ventricular assist device can be challenging in patients with an altered apical anatomy after cardiac surgery or as the result of the presence of a calcified apical aneurysm. In this paper we present 2 cases with a challenging apical anatomy and introduce a new surgical technique facilitating left ventricular assist device implantation in these patients.

  11. Through-flow of water in leaves of a submerged plant is influenced by the apical opening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity......Submerged plant, apical opening, hydathode, Sparganium, hydraulic architecture, leaf specific conductivity...

  12. Modelling apical constriction in epithelia using elastic shell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth Wyn; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    Apical constriction is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which embryonic tissue is deformed, giving rise to the shape and form of the fully-developed organism. The mechanism involves a contraction of fibres embedded in the apical side of epithelial tissues, leading to an invagination or folding of the cell sheet. In this article the phenomenon is modelled mechanically by describing the epithelial sheet as an elastic shell, which contains a surface representing the continuous mesh formed from the embedded fibres. Allowing this mesh to contract, an enhanced shell theory is developed in which the stiffness and bending tensors of the shell are modified to include the fibres' stiffness, and in which the active effects of the contraction appear as body forces in the shell equilibrium equations. Numerical examples are presented at the end, including the bending of a plate and a cylindrical shell (modelling neurulation) and the invagination of a spherical shell (modelling simple gastrulation). PMID:19859751

  13. Transient apical dyskinesia with a pacemaker: Electrocardiographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Gil, Iván J; Feltes, Gisela I; Mejía-Rentería, Hernán D; Biagioni, Corina; De Agustín, J Alberto; Vivas, David; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Transient apical dyskinesia syndromes present features similar to acute coronary syndromes, but with normal coronary arteries and rapid complete resolution of wall motion alterations. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of typical chest pain at rest after her brother's death. She had had a pacemaker implanted in 2001. Troponin levels were elevated and apical hypokinesia was shown by ventriculography and echocardiography, with normal coronary arteries. Evolving ECG alterations were observed in spite of the continued pacing rhythm. All these alterations were fully resolved after discharge. This case shows that, even in the presence of a pacemaker, evolving ECG alterations can be observed in Takotsubo syndrome. PMID:25840647

  14. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  15. Apical pressures developed by needles for canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, C E; Eleazer, P D; Downs, K E; Scheetz, J P

    2002-04-01

    Drying instrumented canals with pressurized air may result in patient morbidity or even fatality. Low pressure and side vent needles have been suggested to lessen the danger. This study observed apical pressures from different needles inserted deeply into small round and ovoid canals as instrumentation progressed. Low-pressure (5 psi) air was injected through the needles, and apical pressures were recorded after each instrument. Pressures varied greatly within each test group. Generalities that can be drawn are that binding the needle within the canal gives higher pressures than with the needle slightly short of binding and that pressures were higher with apexes instrumented to size 30 and higher. With the needle tightly bound, neither needle size, needle design, nor canal shape resulted in statistically significant mean pressure differences. With the needle slightly withdrawn, larger bore needles gave higher pressures than small diameter needles. Caution is advised with the clinical use of pressurized air in the drying of root canals. PMID:12043877

  16. Pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of endodontic failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P N R

    2004-01-01

    Apical periodontitis is a sequel to endodontic infection and manifests itself as the host defense response to microbial challenge emanating from the root canal system. It is viewed as a dynamic encounter between microbial factors and host defenses at the interface between infected radicular pulp and periodontal ligament that results in local inflammation, resorption of hard tissues, destruction of other periapical tissues, and eventual formation of various histopathological categories of apical periodontitis, commonly referred to as periapical lesions. The treatment of apical periodontitis, as a disease of root canal infection, consists of eradicating microbes or substantially reducing the microbial load from the root canal and preventing re-infection by orthograde root filling. The treatment has a remarkably high degree of success. Nevertheless, endodontic treatment can fail. Most failures occur when treatment procedures, mostly of a technical nature, have not reached a satisfactory standard for the control and elimination of infection. Even when the highest standards and the most careful procedures are followed, failures still occur. This is because there are root canal regions that cannot be cleaned and obturated with existing equipments, materials, and techniques, and thus, infection can persist. In very rare cases, there are also factors located within the inflamed periapical tissue that can interfere with post-treatment healing of the lesion. The data on the biological causes of endodontic failures are recent and scattered in various journals. This communication is meant to provide a comprehensive overview of the etio-pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and the causes of failed endodontic treatments that can be visualized in radiographs as asymptomatic post-treatment periapical radiolucencies. PMID:15574679

  17. Enlargement of the apical gap after laser root resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme P. S.; Paradella, Thais C.; Munin, Egberto; Mello, Jose B.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

    2000-11-01

    An apical filling material should establish, as perfect as possible, the hermetic sealing of an apical cavity. However, a gap is formed between the filling material (gutta-percha) and the root canal wall. The egress of irritants into the root canal system to the periapical tissues is considered the principal cause of fails in apicoectomy and retro-filling, being assumed that irritants penetrate mainly through the gap located between the gutta-percha and the dentin. In this paper, we report the observation of an enlargement of the apical gap, after laser apicoectomy, comparing to conventional apicoectomy. The samples were divided into groups, and the conventional apicoectomy group, together with the Er:YAG laser group (400 mJ/10 Hz) produced both similar results, being the gap unaltered. On the other hand, the samples that were irradiated with the Er:YAG laser, followed by Nd:YAG laser irradiation (1.5 W/10 Hz) presented a larger gap, conclusions that were drawn from Scanning Electronic Microscope analysis. The enlargement of the gap was due to the fusion of the dentin on the border, close to the gutta-percha. This pronounced behavior might have been caused by the surface discontinuity, imposing a non-homogeneous condition, in relation to heat propagation, existing many clinical applications of these observations.

  18. Nanomaterials-Based Approaches for the Modulation of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hee Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HCO3- and fluid secretion are major functions of all epithelia, and alterations in HCO3- secretion by sodium bicarbonate cotransporters are associated with many epithelial diseases, such as renal, ocular, and dental abnormalities. Electrolyte and fluid exits are synergistically mediated by the intracellular second messengers, cAMP and Ca2+, and this raises the possibility that ion transporters are involved in simple secretion and more complicated forms of regulation. Evidence indicates that HCO3- transport is regulated by the assemblage of Na+-HCO3- cotransporters (NBCs into complexes by multiple regulatory factors. Recently the specific regulatory functions of factors that interact with NBCe1, especially NBCe1-B, have been elucidated. In this review, I focus on the structural characteristics of electrogenic NBCe1, pathophysiology of NBCe1, and molecular mechanisms responsible for transporter regulation. Moreover I propose the possibility to apply nanomaterials combined with regulatory factors for modulating the activity of NBC transporters as a potential development of therapeutic drug.

  19. Novel molecular variants of the Na-Cl cotransporter gene are responsible for Gitelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastroianni, N.; De Fusco, M.; Casari, G. [Univsersita` di Milano (Italy)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    A hereditary defect of the distal tubule accounts for the clinical features of Gitelman syndrome (GS), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypocalciuria. Recently, we cloned the cDNA coding for the human Na-Cl thiazide-sensitive cotransporter (TSC; also known as {open_quotes}NCCT{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}SLC12A3{close_quotes}) as a possible candidate for GS, and Simon et al., independently, described rotation in patients with GS. Now, we show 12 additional mutations consistent with a loss of function of the Na-Cl cotransporter in GS. Two missense replacements, R09W and P349L, are common to both studies and could represent ancient mutations. The other mutations include three deletions, two insertions, and six missense mutations. When all mutations from both studies are considered, missense mutations seem to be more frequently localized within the intracellular domains of the molecule, rather than in transmembrane or extracellular domains. One family, previously reported as a GS form with dominant inheritance, has proved to be recessive, with the affected child being a compound heterozygote. A highly informative intragenic tetranucleotide marker, useful for molecular diagnostic studies, has been identified at the acceptor splice site of exon 9. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Ovarian hormones and prolactin increase renal NaCl cotransporter phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Ramírez, Victoria; Bautista-Pérez, Rocío; Rafael, Chloe; Castañeda-Bueno, María; Meade, Patricia; de Los Heros, Paola; Arroyo-Garza, Isidora; Bernard, Valérie; Binart, Nadine; Bobadilla, Norma A; Hadchouel, Juliette; Zambrano, Elena; Gamba, Gerardo

    2015-04-15

    Unique situations in female physiology require volume retention. Accordingly, a dimorphic regulation of the thiazide-sensitive Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) has been reported, with a higher activity in females than in males. However, little is known about the hormones and mechanisms involved. Here, we present evidence that estrogens, progesterone, and prolactin stimulate NCC expression and phosphorylation. The sex difference in NCC abundance, however, is species dependent. In rats, NCC phosphorylation is higher in females than in males, while in mice both NCC expression and phosphorylation is higher in females, and this is associated with increased expression and phosphorylation of full-length STE-20 proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK). Higher expression/phosphorylation of NCC was corroborated in humans by urinary exosome analysis. Ovariectomy in rats resulted in decreased expression and phosphorylation of the cotransporter and promoted the shift of SPAK isoforms toward the short inhibitory variant SPAK2. Conversely, estradiol or progesterone administration to ovariectomized rats restored NCC phosphorylation levels and shifted SPAK expression and phosphorylation towards the full-length isoform. Estradiol administration to male rats induced a significant increase in NCC phosphorylation. NCC is also modulated by prolactin. Administration of this peptide hormone to male rats induced increased phosphorylation of NCC, an effect that was observed even using the ex vivo kidney perfusion strategy. Our results indicate that estradiol, progesterone, and prolactin, the hormones that are involved in sexual cycle, pregnancy and lactation, upregulate the activity of NCC.

  1. Calcium hydroxide induced apical barrier in fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellore K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of trauma to an immature permanent incisor is a challenge, especially when the pulp is necrotic. The aim of this study is to discuss the management of fractured maxillary right and left central incisors with immature root apex. Radiographic evaluation revealed that the tooth 11 had convergent apical walls, whereas tooth 21 had parallel apical walls; both the incisors were treated with pure calcium hydroxide paste to induce apical development. Follow-up clinical and radiographic examinations confirmed apical barrier at 3 months. Radiograph of tooth 11 with convergent roots showed continued apical development, whereas tooth 21 showed apical bridging, following which root canal was completed in both the teeth. Therefore, in view of the simplicity of this method, we believe that calcium hydroxide can be reemphasized as one of the treatment alternatives for fractured nonvital immature permanent incisors to induce apical barrier.

  2. Contribution of Na+,HCO3--cotransport to cellular pH control in human breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtkjer, Ebbe; Moreira, José; Mele, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    H-sensitive fluorophores, we showed that Na(+) ,HCO(3) (-) -cotransport is the predominant mechanism of acid extrusion and is inhibited 34 ± 9% by 200 µM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid in human primary breast carcinomas. At intracellular pH (pH(i) ) levels >6.6, CO(2) /HCO(3) (-) -dependent mechanisms...

  3. Occurrence of the Transition of Apical Architecture and Expression Patterns of Related Genes during Conversion of Apical Meristem Identity in G2 Pea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Yong Wang; Qing Li; Ke-Ming Cui; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2009-01-01

    G2 pea exhibits an apical senescence delaying phenotype under short-day (SD) conditions; however, the structural basis for its apical development is still largely unknown. In the present study, the apical meristem of SD-grown G2 pea plants underwent a transition from vegetative to indeterminate inflorescence meristem, but the apical meristem of long-day (LD)-grown G2 pea plants would be further converted to determinate floral meristem. Both SD signal and GA3 treatment enhanced expression of the putative calcium transporter PPF1, and pea homologs of TFL1 (LF and DET), whereas LD signal suppressed their expression at 60 d post-flowering compared with those at 40 d post-flowering. Both PPF1 and LF expressed at the vegetative and reproductive phases in SD-grown apical buds, but floral initiation obviously increased the expression level of PPF1 compared with the unchanged expression level of LF from 40 to 60 d post-flowering. In addition, although the floral initiation significantly enhanced the expression levels of PPF1 and DET, DET was mainly expressed after floral initiation in SD-grown apical buds. Therefore, the main structural difference between LD- and SD-grown apical meristem in G2 pea lies in whether their apical indeterminate inflorescence medstem could be converted to the determinate structure.

  4. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified. PMID:2458472

  5. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  6. SEM investigation of Er:YAG laser apical preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎlǎbuc, Cosmin; Todea, Carmen; Locovei, Cosmin; RǎduÅ£ǎ, Aurel

    2016-03-01

    Endodontic surgery involves the incision and flap elevation, the access to the root tip, its resection, the cavity retrograde preparation and filling it with biocompatible material that provides a good seal of the apex[1]. Apicoectomy is compulsory in endodontic surgery. The final stage involves the root retropreparation and the carrying out of the retrograde obturation. In order to perform the retrograde preparation the endodontist can use various tools such as lowspeed conventional handpieces, sonic and ultrasonic equipment. The ideal depth of the preparation should be 3 mm, exceeding this value may affect the long-term success of the obturation [2]. Resection at the depth of 3 mm reduces apical ramifications by 98% and lateral root canals by 93%. The ultrasonic retropreparation has numerous advantages compared to the dental drill. Firstly, the cavity will be in the axis of the tooth which implies a minimum destruction of the root canal morphology. The preparations are precise, and the cutting pattern is perpendicular to the long axis of the root, the advantage being the reduction in the number of dentinal tubules exposed at the resected area [3]. Therefore, the retrograde filling is the procedure when an inert and non-toxic material is compacted in the apically created cavity.[4,5]. The Er:YAG laser is the most common wavelength indicated for dental hard tissue preparation. Its natural selectivity offers a significant advantage compared to the conventional hard tissue preparation [6-9].The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the quality of Er:YAG laser apical third preparation using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), in comparison with the conventional ultrasonic method.

  7. 高渗氯化钠羟乙基淀粉40注射液联合控制性降压对脑膜瘤手术影响%Effect of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection combined with blood pressure control on cerebral oxygen metabolism in patients with meningioma during surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义轩; 马传根; 宋冬梅; 李爱香; 刘星; 刁玉领

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxylethyl starch 40 injection(HH40) combined with blood pressure control on cerebral oxygen metabolism in meningioma patients during surgery. Methods Forty patients were randomly divided into observation group (H group) and control group (C group), 20 patients in each group. Meningioma was removed in patients under general anesthesia with their blood pressure controlled. Patients in H group were infused with HH4O(8ml/kg) for 30min while those in C group were infused with 6% hydroxyethyl starch (8ml/kg) for 30min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and central venous pressure (CVP) were recorded, respectively, before HH40 infusion(T0), 15(T1) and 60(T2) after HH40 infusion, 60min(T3) before completion of the surgery and at the time when the surgery was completed(T4). Blood samples were collected from radial artery and jugular vein bulb for detection of Na+, K+ and pH, analysis of blood gas, and measurement of Da-jvO2 and CERO2. Hct and Hb were detected at T0-T4. Volumes of infused blood, loss of blood and urine were recorded. Results The Da-jvO2 and CERO2 were significantly lower in H group than in C group at T3-T4. Conclusion HH40 combined with blood pressure control is safely for metabolism patients during surgery.%目的 探讨静注高渗氯化钠羟乙基淀粉40注射液(HH40)联合控制性降压对脑膜瘤切除术患者术中脑氧代谢的影响.方法 择期行脑膜瘤切除术患者40例,随机分为观察组(H组)和对照组(C组),两组均施行全麻和控制性降压;H组输注HH40 8ml/kg,30min内输完;C组输注6%羟乙基淀粉,方法同H组,监测并记录输注前即刻(T0)、输注后15(T1)、60(T2)、术毕前60min(T3)和术毕时(T4)平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、中心静脉压(CVP),采集颈静脉球部和桡动脉血测定血浆Na+、K+、pH,进行血气分析,并计算T0、T2-4时脑动脉-静脉氧含量差(Da-jvO2)、脑氧摄取率(CERO2);分别于T0

  8. The human Na+-glucose cotransporter is a molecular water pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, A; Klaerke, D A; Loo, D D;

    1998-01-01

    + and sugar to the uphill transport of water, indicative of secondary active transport of water. 5. Unstirred layer effects were ruled out on the basis of experiments on oocytes treated with gramicidin or other ionophores. Na+ currents maintained by ionophores did not lead to any initial water movements. 6......1. The human Na+-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The transport activity, given by the Na+ current, was monitored as a clamp current and the concomitant flux of water followed optically as the change in oocyte volume. 2. When glucose was added to the bathing...... solution there was an abrupt increase in clamp current and an immediate swelling of the oocyte. The transmembrane transport of two Na+ ions and one sugar molecule was coupled, within the protein itself, to the influx of 210 water molecules. 3. This stoichiometry was constant and independent of the external...

  9. Ipragliflozin: A novel sodium-glucose cotransporter 2inhibitor developed in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsuyoshi Ohkura

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitioninduces glucosuria and decreases blood glucose levelsin diabetic patients and lowers hypoglycemic risk.SGLT1 is expressed in the kidney and intestine; SGLT1inhibition causes abdominal symptoms such as diarrheaand reduces incretin secretion. Therefore, SGLT2selectivity is important. Ipragliflozin is highly selectivefor SGLT2. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), urinaryglucose excretion increased to 90 g/24 h after 28 d oftreatment with ipragliflozin 300 mg/d. Twelve weeksof ipragliflozin 50 mg/d vs placebo reduced glycatedhemoglobin and body weight by 0.65% and 0.66kg, respectively, in Western T2DM patients, and by1.3% and 1.89 kg, respectively, in Japanese patients.Ipragliflozin (highly selective SGLT2 inhibitor) improvesglycemic control and reduces body weight andlowers hypoglycemic risk and abdominal symptoms.Ipragliflozin can be a novel anti-diabetic and antiobesityagent.

  10. Selamento apical proporcionado por diferentes cimentos endodônticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlel Tristão Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To have success in endodontic treatment it is necessary that the sealing airtight as possible of the root canal system, with suitable material such as gutta-percha and sealer. There are sealers of different compositions, which should allow the sealing of the root canal system, preventing recontamination place and favoring the success of endodontic therapy. In this study were evaluated the apical microleakage after obturation using different root canal sealers widely employed in the market, with different compositions. For this study, 85 single rooted teeth premolars which have removed their crowns and root canals prepared and filled using four types of cement: AH Plus, Endofill, Acroseal and Real Seal SE. All samples were sealed and submitted to microleakage with Indian ink; longitudinal cuts made on both sides of the tooth and cleaved; apical images were obtained. The areas of dye penetration were measured on a computer using specific software and subjected to statistical analysis. It was concluded that the Acroseal ® showed the highest mean microleakage with no statistically significant difference in relation to the RealSeal SE®, but with significant differences compared to Endofill ® and AHPlus ®.

  11. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Michael Morin; Coady, Michael J.; Rikard Blunck; Jean-Yves Lapointe

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on ...

  12. Calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing for teeth with apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Dewiyani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Root canal infection and periapical diseases are caused by bacteria and their products. Long term infection may spread bacteria throughout the root canal system. Apical periodontitis caused by infectious microbe that persistent in root canals can cause radiographic and histopathology periapical changes. Chemomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing then are recommended to be conducted and used in between visits to eliminate microbes in root canals. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 can be used as intracanal dressing since it can be used as musical physical defense barrier to eliminate re-infection in root canal and to disturb nutrition supply for bacterial development. Purpose: The aim of this study is observe the effectiveness of Ca(OH2 in treating endodontic teeth with apical periodontitis. Cases: Case 1 and 3 are about patients whose left posterior mandibular teeth had spontaneous intermittent pain. Case 2 is about a patient whose left posterior maxillary teeth had gingival abscess and fracture history. Based on the radiographic examination, it was known that the filling of root canal was incomplete and there was radiolucency in the apical area. Case management: The cases were treated with triad endodontics, which involves preparation, disinfection by using 2.5% NaOCl as irrigation substance and calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing, and then the filling of root canal with gutta percha and endomethasone root canal cement. Evaluations were conducted one month, 12 months, and 24 months after the treatment. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide is effective to be used as intracanal dressing in apical periodontitis cases.Latar belakang: Infeksi saluran akar dan penyakit periapeks disebabkan oleh mikroba dan produknya. Infeksi yang berlangsung lama memungkinkan bakteri masuk ke dalam seluruh sistem saluran akar. Periodontitis apikal disebabkan oleh infeksi persisten mikroba di dalam sistem saluran akar disertai perubahan radiografik dan

  13. A restricted set of apical proteins recycle through the trans-Golgi network in MDCK cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Brändli, A W; Simons, K

    1989-01-01

    Sorting of newly synthesized proteins destined for the apical plasma membrane takes place in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in MDCK cells. This process is most likely receptor mediated and requires components that recycle between both compartments. We have developed an assay to detect apical proteins that recycle through the sialyltransferase-containing TGN. Cell surface glycoproteins were exogalactosylated apically using a mutant cell line derived from MDCK, MDCKII-RCAr. The mutant exhibits i...

  14. Apical localization of PMCA2w/b is enhanced in terminally polarized MDCK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Antalffy, Géza; Caride, Ariel J.; Pászty, Katalin; Hegedus, Luca; Padanyi, Rita; STREHLER, EMANUEL E.; Enyedi, Ágnes

    2011-01-01

    The “w” splice forms of PMCA2 localize to distinct membrane compartments such as the apical membrane of the lactating mammary epithelium, the stereocilia of inner ear hair cells or the post-synaptic density of hippocampal neurons. Previous studies indicated that PMCA2w/b was not fully targeted to the apical domain of MDCK cells but distributed more evenly to the lateral and apical membrane compartments. Overexpression of the apical scaffold protein NHERF2, however, greatly increased the amoun...

  15. Apical ammonium inhibition of cAMP-stimulated secretion in T84 cells is bicarbonate dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Roger T; Best, Alison; Crawford, Oscar R; Xu, Jie; Soleimani, Manoocher; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2005-10-01

    Normal human colonic luminal (NH(4)(+)) concentration ([NH(4)(+)]) ranges from approximately 10 to 100 mM. However, the nature of the effects of NH(4)(+) on transport, as well as NH(4)(+) transport itself, in colonic epithelium is poorly understood. We elucidate here the effects of apical NH(4)(+) on cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretion in colonic T84 cells. In HEPES-buffered solutions, 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) had no significant effect on cAMP-stimulated current. In contrast, 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) reduced current within 5 min to 61 +/- 4% in the presence of 25 mM HCO(3)(-). Current inhibition was not simply due to an increase in extracellular K(+)-like cations, in that the current magnitude was 95 +/- 5% with 10 mM apical K(+) and 46 +/- 3% with 10 mM apical NH(4)(+) relative to that with 5 mM apical K(+). We previously demonstrated that inhibition of Cl(-) secretion by basolateral NH(4)(+) occurs in HCO(3)(-)-free conditions and exhibits anomalous mole fraction behavior. In contrast, apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of current in HCO(3)(-) buffer did not show anomalous mole fraction behavior and followed the absolute [NH(4)(+)] in K(+)-NH(4)(+) mixtures, where K(+) concentration + [NH(4)(+)] = 10 mM. The apical NH(4)(+) inhibitory effect was not prevented by 100 microM methazolamide, suggesting no role for apical carbonic anhydrase. However, apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of current was prevented by 10 min of pretreatment of the apical surface with 500 microM DIDS, 100 microM 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS), or 25 microM niflumic acid, suggesting a role for NH(4)(+) action through an apical anion exchanger. mRNA and protein for the apical anion exchangers SLC26A3 [downregulated in adenoma (DRA)] and SLC26A6 [putative anion transporter (PAT1)] were detected in T84 cells by RT-PCR and Northern and Western blots. DRA and PAT1 appear to associate with CFTR in the apical membrane. We conclude that the HCO(3)(-) dependence of apical NH(4)(+) inhibition of secretion is

  16. Prognostic factors in apical surgery with root-end filling: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Jensen, Storgård

    2010-01-01

    Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root-end fill......Apical surgery has seen continuous development with regard to equipment and surgical technique. However, there is still a shortage of evidence-based information regarding healing determinants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review clinical articles on apical surgery with root...

  17. com e sem remoção do delta apical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Mello

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the apex cut and apical fusion by Nd:YAG laser at apical surgery. 24 human canines were endodontic treated and randomly divided into two groups. In A group the apicoectomy was performed at 90 degrees and 3mm from the apex extreme; in B group the apex was kept. Both groups were irradiated by Nd:YAG laser (10Hz, 150mJ, 60s. The results showed less infiltration to A group (p<0,001. When Nd:YAG laser apical fusion after apicoectomy were performed at the parameters of this study, best apical isolation is obtained.

  18. Phosphate and Vascular Calcification: Emerging Role of the Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Cotransporter PiT-1

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Wei Ling; Festing, Maria H; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is a risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in kidney disease as well as in the general population. Elevated phosphate levels drive vascular calcification, in part, by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) gene expression, function, and fate. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, is necessary for phosphate-induced VSMC osteochondrogenic phenotype change and calcification, and has recently been shown to have une...

  19. Empagliflozin: a new sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Neumiller, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and hyperglycemia is often poorly controlled despite a number of therapeutic options. Unlike previously available agents, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer an insulin-independent mechanism for improving blood glucose levels, since they promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE) by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidney. In addition to glucose control, SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with weight loss and blood pr...

  20. The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin does not prolong QT interval in a thorough QT (TQT) study

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, Arne; Brand, Tobias; Macha, Sreeraj; Breithaupt-Groegler, Kerstin; Simons, Gudrun; Walter, Beate; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empagliflozin is a potent, selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor in development as an oral antidiabetic treatment. This QT interval study assessed potential effects of empagliflozin on ventricular repolarisation and other electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters. Methods A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-dose, double-blind, five-period crossover study incorporating a novel double-placebo period design to reduce sample size, while maintaining full statistical p...

  1. Sodium Glucose Co-transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Targeting the Kidney to Improve Glycemic Control in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Although hyperglycemia is a key therapeutic focus in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), many patients experience sub-optimal glycemic control. Current glucose-lowering agents involve the targeting of various body organs. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors target the kidney, reduce renal glucose reabsorption, and increase urinary glucose elimination, thus lowering glucose blood levels. This review examines some of the key efficacy and safety d...

  2. Restricted Feeding Phase Shifts Clock Gene and Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) Expression in Rats1–4

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali; Rhoads, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The intestine exhibits striking diurnal rhythmicity in glucose uptake, mediated by the sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT1); however, regulatory pathways for these rhythms remain incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that SGLT1 rhythmicity is linked to the circadian clock. To investigate this, we examined rhythmicity of Sglt1 and individual clock genes in rats that consumed food ad libitum (AL). We further compared phase shifts of Sglt1 and clock genes in a second group of rats followin...

  3. New potential sodium-glucose co-transporters sugar-based inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Ana Rita Xavier de

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Química (Química Orgânica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 A small library of C-glucosyl dihydrochalcones and their aglycones, chalcones and dihydrochalcones, were synthesized aiming at preparing new C-glucosyl analogues of phlorizin, a well-known non-selective sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitor, bearing different substituents on the dihydrochalcone moiety. Chalcones were prepared by conventional aldol condensation methods and also by microwa...

  4. Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Plays as a Physiological Glucose Sensor and Regulates Cellular Contractility in Rat Mesangial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Masanori Wakisaka; Tetsuhiko Nagao; Mototaka Yoshinari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mesangial cells play an important role in regulating glomerular filtration by altering their cellular tone. We report the presence of a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) in rat mesangial cells. This study in rat mesangial cells aimed to evaluate the expression and role of SGLT2. Methods The SGLT2 expression in rat mesangial cells was assessed by Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Changes in the mesangial cell surface area at different gluc...

  5. Cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii Hook. apical meristems by droplet vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanka, M; Panis, B; Bach, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the geophyte giant snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii Hook.) that guarantees a high rate of survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. The excised apical meristems were obtained from cultures of in vitro grown bulb scales. Using a vitrification procedure and optimizing the duration of the exposure to the loading solution (LS), meristem post-rewarm survival rates higher than 90 percent were achieved. Also regrowth percentages were very high, ranging from 87 to 91 percent. After optimizing the time of exposure to the plant vitrification solution (PVS2), the survival rate was between 83 and 97 percent. During post-rewarm regeneration, good growth recovery was as high as 76 percent; however, hyperhydration and callusing were also observed. The results demonstrate that cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii germplasm seems to be feasible. PMID:23435704

  6. Case of cheilitis granulomatosa associated with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tomoko; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Sowa, Junko; Ishii, Masamitsu; Teramae, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Koutetsu

    2008-02-01

    The etiology of cheilitis granulomatosa is unknown. In some cases, rapid improvement and/or complete elimination of swelling of the lips after dental treatment has been reported. Here, we describe another case of improvement following dental treatment. A 57-year-old woman had developed asymptomatic swelling of the lower lip 2 months previously. Histological examination revealed non-caseous giant cell granulomas. Neither facial nerve palsy nor fissuring of the tongue was present. Patch testing for metal allergy revealed only mild irritation to zinc ion. Although topical corticosteroid ointment and oral tranilast for 4 months were ineffective, rapid and remarkable improvement of the swelling was noted soon after treatment of two lesions of apical periodontitis. Thorough examination for foci of infection is necessary when treating a patient with cheilitis granulomatosa. PMID:18271809

  7. Cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii Hook. apical meristems by droplet vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanka, M; Panis, B; Bach, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the geophyte giant snowdrop (Galanthus elwesii Hook.) that guarantees a high rate of survival and plant regeneration after cryopreservation. The excised apical meristems were obtained from cultures of in vitro grown bulb scales. Using a vitrification procedure and optimizing the duration of the exposure to the loading solution (LS), meristem post-rewarm survival rates higher than 90 percent were achieved. Also regrowth percentages were very high, ranging from 87 to 91 percent. After optimizing the time of exposure to the plant vitrification solution (PVS2), the survival rate was between 83 and 97 percent. During post-rewarm regeneration, good growth recovery was as high as 76 percent; however, hyperhydration and callusing were also observed. The results demonstrate that cryopreservation of Galanthus elwesii germplasm seems to be feasible.

  8. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an 123I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from 123I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  9. Serious arrhythmias in patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okishige, Kaoru; Sasano, Tetsuo; Yano, Kei; Azegami, Kouji; Suzuki, Kou; Itoh, Kuniyasu [Yokohama Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We report cases of serious arrhythmias associated with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM). Thirty-one patients were referred to our institute to undergo further assessment of their AHCM from 1988 to 1999. Three patients with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia demonstrated an {sup 123}I-MIBG regional reduction in the tracer uptake. In two patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), the findings from {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging revealed regional sympathetic denervation in the inferior and lateral regions. Electrophysiologic study demonstrated reproducible induction of VF in aborted sudden death and presyncopal patients, resulting in the need for an implantable defibrillator device and amiodarone in each patient. Patients with refractory atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response suffered from serious congestive heart failure. A prudent assessment and strategy in patients with this disease would be indispensable in avoiding a disastrous outcome. (author)

  10. Effect of Size-Selective Retention on the Cotransport of Hydroxyapatite and Goethite Nanoparticles in Saturated Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-07-21

    Attributable to their nanoscale size and slow phosphorus (P) release kinetics, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) are increasingly advocated as a promising P nanofertilizer. Additionally, HANPs have been extensively used to remediate soils, groundwater, and nuclear wastewaters contaminated with metals and radionuclides. Increasing application of HANPs for agronomic and environmental advantages will expedite their dissemination in subsurface environments. Because the biogeochemical cycling of P is intimately coupled with iron, it is anticipated that HANPs and released P from HANPs interact with iron oxides, particularly naturally occurring goethite nanoparticles (GNPs) because of their nanoscale size and high reactivity toward P. Here, we investigated the cotransport and retention of HANPs and GNPs in water-saturated sand columns under environmentally relevant transport conditions (pH and natural organic matter type and concentration). Our results indicated that the "size-selective retention", i.e., preferential retention of larger particles near the column inlet and elution of smaller particles occurred during cotransport of HANPs and GNPs, and the cotransport of both NPs is highly sensitive to solution chemistry that determines NPs dissolution, homo- and heteroaggregation, and co- and competitive-retention. These findings have important insights into application of HANPs as a promising P nanofertilizer and an in situ amendment for contaminated site remediation.

  11. Oral microbiota species in acute apical endodontic abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Noelle; Flamiatos, Erin; Kawasaki, Kellie; Kim, Namgu; Carriere, Charles; Phan, Brian; Joseph, Raphael; Strauss, Shay; Kohli, Richie; Choi, Dongseok; Craig Baumgartner, J.; Sedgley, Christine; Maier, Tom; Machida, Curtis A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Acute apical abscesses are serious endodontic diseases resulting from pulpal infection with opportunistic oral microorganisms. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the oral microbiota in patients (N=18) exhibiting acute apical abscesses, originating from the demographic region in Portland, Oregon. The study hypothesis is that abscesses obtained from this demographic region may contain unique microorganisms not identified in specimens from other regions. Design Endodontic abscesses were sampled from patients at the Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) School of Dentistry. DNA from abscess specimens was subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using 16S rRNA gene-specific primers and Cy3-dCTP labeling. Labeled DNA was then applied to microbial microarrays (280 species) generated by the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray Laboratory (Forsyth Institute, Cambridge, MA). Results The most prevalent microorganisms, found across multiple abscess specimens, include Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Atopobium rimae, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. The most abundant microorganisms, found in highest numbers within individual abscesses, include F. nucleatum, P. micra, Streptococcus Cluster III, Solobacterium moorei, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas endodontalis. Strong bacterial associations were identified between Prevotella multisaccharivorax, Acidaminococcaceae species clone DM071, Megasphaera species clone CS025, Actinomyces species clone EP053, and Streptococcus cristatus (all with Spearman coefficients >0.9). Conclusions Cultivable and uncultivable bacterial species have been identified in endodontic abscesses obtained from the Portland, Oregon demographic region, and taxa identifications correlated well with other published studies, with the exception of Treponema and Streptococcus cristae, which were not commonly

  12. 高渗氯化钠羟乙基淀粉40注射液预扩容对母婴血浆胶体渗透压的影响%Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection on plasma colloid osmotic pressure during cesarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱慧琛; 忻纪华; 范逸辰; 何征宇; 何振洲; 王祥瑞

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察高渗氯化钠羟乙基淀粉40注射液(HSH40)预扩容对母婴血浆胶体渗透压(COP)的影响.方法 选择择期行剖宫产术的产妇80例,随机分为两组,每组40例.HSH40组预先静脉滴注HSH40 4 mL/kg,平衡液组预先静脉滴注乳酸钠林格注射液4 mL/kg.监测并记录入手术室时(T0)、预充量静脉滴注完即刻(T1)、预充量静脉滴注后30 min(T2)、胎儿娩出时(T3)、术毕(T4)的心率和血压,并采集各时间点产妇的静脉血及胎儿娩出尚未建立呼吸时的脐动、静脉血检测血浆COP.结果 两组产妇的年龄、体重、麻醉诱导至胎儿娩出时间、子宫切开至胎儿娩出时间和手术时间的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).与平衡液组同时间点比较,HSH40组在T1、T2、T3时间点的血浆COP水平均显著升高(P值均<0.05);与同组T0时间点比较,两组在T2、T3、T4时间点的血浆COP水平均显著降低(P值均<0.05);两组间脐动、静脉血血浆COP水平的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).HSH40组产妇的低血压发生率为12.5%显著低于平衡液组的27.5% (P<0.05).两组间新生儿出生后1和5min Apgar评分的差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).结论 HSH40预扩容有利于维持产妇术中血浆COP和血流动力学的稳定,且对胎儿血浆COP无影响.%Objective To observe the preloading effects of hypertonic sodium chloride hydroxyethyl starch 40 injection (HSH40) on plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) during cesarean section. Methods Eighty patients scheduled for cesarean section under spinal-epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups (n = 40). HSH40 (4 mL/kg, group H) or Ringer solution (4 mL/kg, group L) was injected for preloading. Blood samples were taken to measure the levels of COP and hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and blood pressure) before infusion (T0), at the end of infusion (T1) and 30 mins after infusion (T2), at delivery of baby (T3) and the

  13. Sodium chloride added to transport water and physiological responses of Matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Teleost: Characidae Adição de cloreto de sódio à água de transporte e respostas fisiológicas do matrinxã Brycon amazonicus(Teleost: Characidae

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    Elisabeth Criscuolo Urbinati

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of salt to the water has been used to mitigate stress and improve survival in fishes. This study investigated the effects of sodium chloride (0.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/l on levels of plasma cortisol, glucose, tryacilglycerol, total protein, hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte number, liver glycogen and lipid, and muscle lipid in adult matrinxã(Brycon amazonicum after a 4-h transport and during a 96-h recovery period. Fish were sampled before and after transport, and 24 and 96 h of the recovery period. Plasma cortisol was higher than initial condition immediately after transportation, except in fish transported in 3.0 and 6.0 g/l of salt. A similar pattern was observed for blood glucose but fish transported in water with 0.0, 1.0 and 3.0 g/l of salt needed more than 24 h to return to the initial condition. Liver glycogen was lower after transport in fish not exposed to salt. Hemoglobin, erythrocyte number, total plasma protein and liver lipid did not change during the experiment but hematocrit was lower after transport in all treatments and returned to pre-transport values in 24 h. Reductions of muscle lipid and plasma tryacilglycerol were observed during the recovery period in fish from all treatments. The results show that 6.0 g/l NaCl added to the transport water reduce the stress responses and a 96-h recovery period is needed if no salt is used to mitigate the stress.A adição de sal à água tem sido utilizada para a mitigação de estresse e aumento da taxa de sobrevivência em peixes. O presente estudo avaliou o efeito do cloreto de sódio (0,0; 1,0; 3,0 e 6.0 g/l nas concentrações de cortisol plasmático, glicemia, triglicerídios, proteínas total plasmática, hematócrito, hemoglobina, número de eritrócitos, glicogênio e lipídio hepáticos, e lipídio muscular em matrinxã Brycon amazonicum adultos após quatro horas de transporte e durante período de recuperação de 96 h. Amostras foram coletadas antes e depois do

  14. Clinical potential of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes

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    Kim Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoojin Kim, Ambika R BabuDivision of Endocrinology, John Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County and Rush University, Chicago, IL, USABackground: The kidney plays an important role in glucose metabolism, and has been considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2 mediates most of the glucose reabsorption from the proximal renal tubule. Inhibition of SGLT2 leads to glucosuria and provides a unique mechanism to lower elevated blood glucose levels in diabetes. The purpose of this review is to explore the physiology of SGLT2 and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors which have clinical data in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: We performed a PubMed search using the terms "SGLT2" and "SGLT2 inhibitor" through April 10, 2012. Published articles, press releases, and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered.Results: SGLT2 inhibitors correct a novel pathophysiological defect, have an insulin-independent action, are efficacious with glycosylated hemoglobin reduction ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, promote weight loss, have a low incidence of hypoglycemia, complement the action of other antidiabetic agents, and can be used at any stage of diabetes. They are generally well tolerated. However, due to side effects, such as repeated urinary tract and genital infections, increased hematocrit, and decreased blood pressure, appropriate patient selection for drug initiation and close monitoring after initiation will be important. Results of ongoing clinical studies of the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on diabetic complications and cardiovascular safety are crucial to determine the risk-benefit ratio. A recent decision by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency has recommended approval of dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as an adjunct to diet and exercise, in combination with other glucose-lowering medicinal products, including

  15. Aquaporin-2: COOH terminus is necessary but not sufficient for routing to the apical membrane.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, P.M.T.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Savelkoul, P.J.M.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Raak, M.M.J.P. van; Jennings, M.L.; Muth, T.R.; Rajendran, V.; Caplan, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Renal regulation of mammalian water homeostasis is mediated by the aquaporin-1 (AQP1) water channel, which is expressed in the apical and basolateral membranes of proximal tubules and descending limbs of Henle, and aquaporin-2 (AQP2), which is redistributed from intracellular vesicles to the apical

  16. Mechanisms of apical-basal axis orientation and epithelial lumen positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, Arend W.; Bryant, David M.; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2015-01-01

    In epithelial cells, the polarized orientation of the apical-basal axis determines the position of the apical lumen and, thereby, the collective tubular tissue architecture. From recent studies employing 3D cell cultures, animal models, and patient material, a model is emerging in which the orientat

  17. Developmental Corneal Innervation: Interactions between Nerves and Specialized Apical Corneal Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilus, James K.; Linsenmayer, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    During developmental innervation of the chicken cornea, nerves interact with apical corneal epithelial cells to form synapse-like structures. In addition, these apical epithelial cells express class III β-tubulin, an isoform of β-tubulin generally thought to be neuron specific.

  18. Diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio em substituição ao cloreto de sódio na dieta de frangos de corte - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020 Diferent levels of sodium formate in replacement of sodium chloride in broiler diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i3.6020

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    Everton Krabbe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do formiato de sódio como fonte desse mineral na dieta de frangos de corte, comparando-o com o cloreto de sódio. Utilizaram-se 690 fêmeas de corte Ross, que receberam água e alimentação à vontade, divididas em cinco tratamentos e seis repetições, tendo cada repetição 23 aves. Os tratamentos consistiram: T1 (controle, T2 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia, T3 (formiato de sódio com 0,20% de Na+ sem cloreto de amônia, T4 (formiato de sódio com 0,16% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia e T5 (formiato de sódio com 0,12% de Na+ com cloreto de amônia. O cloreto de amônia foi adicionado em alguns tratamentos para se equilibrar o balanço eletrolítico das dietas. Os dados foram analisados, utilizando-se Anova 5%, teste de Tukey com comparação de médias duas a duas. Observou-se que os diferentes níveis de formiato de sódio não comprometeram o desempenho das aves nem as variáveis de carcaça, mesmo quando o cloreto de amônia foi incluído. Com isso, conclui-se que o formiato de sódio pode ser utilizado como fonte desse mineral para substituir o cloreto de sódio em dietas de frangos de corte.This study aimed to evaluate the use of sodium formate as a source of sodium in replacement of sodium chloride for broilers. A total of 690 female Ross broiler chickens were divided into five treatments with 6 replicates each. Each replicate had 23 birds. Treatments consisted of: T1 (control, T2 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ with ammonium chloride, T3 (sodium formate 0.20%Na+ without ammonium chloride, T4 (sodium formate 0.16%Na+ with ammonium chloride and T5 (sodium formate 0.12%Na+ without ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride was added to some of the treatments to balance the electrolyte balance of the diets. Data were analyzed using ANOVA 5%. Means were separated using Tukey test.The use of sodium formate had no effect on performance and carcass traits of broilers. These results indicate that

  19. Efeitos da solução salina hipertônica a 7,5% em glicose a 5% nas concentrações séricas de sódio, cloreto e potássio de eqüinos com hipovolemia induzida Effects of 7,5% hypertonic saline in 5% glucose on serum levels of sodium, chloride and potassium in induced hypovolemic horses

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    A.I. Bordin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de soluções salinas isotônica e hipertônica em eqüinos hipovolêmicos sobre as concentrações séricas de sódio, cloreto e potássio e freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (FR. Quinze eqüinos machos com peso entre 390 e 475kg e idades entre quatro e 18 anos foram submetidos à retirada de sangue correspondente a 2% do peso corporal e distribuídos em três grupos de igual número: o grupo GSH recebeu solução hipertônica de NaCl a 7,5% em glicose a 5%; o GSI, solução isotônica de NaCl a 0,9%; e o GC não foi tratado. Os eletrólitos séricos foram avaliados antes (T0, após a retirada de sangue (T1 e após a infusão das soluções, entre 20 e 30 minutos (T2, entre 60 e 70 minutos (T3 e entre 120 e 130 minutos (T4. Após T0, houve elevação da FC e da FR, e as concentrações séricas de Na, Cl, K permaneceram inalteradas. Após a infusão, houve melhora das variáveis clínicas em GSI e GSH, em relação ao GC. Quanto a T3 e T4, os valores de Na em T2 do GSH foram maiores, e os de Cl e de K não se alteraram. As soluções hipertônica e isotônica são seguras na correção da hipovolemia induzida e não produzem alteração eletrolítica significativa.The effect of isotonic and hypertonic solutions on serum levels of sodium, chloride and potassium and cardiac (CR and respiratory rates (RR of hypovolemic horses were studied. Fifteen horses weighting from 390 to 475kg, aging from four to 18-years-old were submitted to bleeding of 2% of body weight and divided in three groups: 7.5% NaCl hypertonic saline in 5% glucose (GSH, 0.9% NaCl isotonic saline and control group (GC. Serum electrolytes were evaluated before (T0 and after bleeding (T1 and after the administration of the solutions between 20 and 30 minutes (T2, 60 and 70 minutes (T3 and 120 and 130 minutes (T4. After T0, CR and RR increased while serum sodium, chloride, potassium were not affected. After the treatment, the clinical variables

  20. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for a putative choline co-transporter from Limulus CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Cao, Z; Newkirk, R F; Ivy, M T; Townsel, J G

    2001-05-01

    It is well documented that the sodium dependent, hemicholinium-3 sensitive, high affinity choline co-transporter is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and is essential to cholinergic transmission. Until recently this transporter had eluded cloning. Okuda et al. (2000. Nature Neurosci. 3, 120-125) recently reported the successful cloning of the choline co-transporter in Caenorhabditis elegans (CHO-1) and rat (CHT1). We report herein the cloning of the choline co-transporter in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Through the use of a series of degenerate primers selected from consensus sequences of CHO-1 and CHT1, we generated two probes that were used to search a Limulus cDNA library produced from central nervous system (CNS) tissue. The full length nucleotide sequence of the Limulus homolog consists of 3368 bp which includes an open reading frame (ORF) that predicts a protein of 579 amino acids and two non-translation regions (NTR), one at the 3' end and the other at the 5' end. The amino acid sequence has 46% identity with rat CHT1 and 50% identity with both CHO-1 in C. elegans and the recently cloned human co-transporter (hCHT; Apparsundaram et al., 2000. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 276, 862-867; Okuda and Haga, 2000. FEBS Lett. 484, 92-97). Hydropathy plot analysis predicts the Limulus choline co-transporter (LChCoT) to have thirteen transmembrane domains (TMD), with the N-terminus oriented extracellularly and the C-terminus oriented intracellularly. Northern blot analyses using cDNA probes designed from LChCoT cDNA sequences revealed its distribution specifically in central nervous system structures. On the other hand it was not found in non-nervous tissues. The successful cloning of LChCoT, which was shown to be a member of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter family (SLGT), should prove useful in the determination of its physiological regulation, including its intracellular trafficking. PMID:11368908

  1. Effect of master apical file size and taper on irrigation and cleaning of the apical third of curved canals.

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    Nahid Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Canal preparation generates a substantial amount of debris and smear layer (SL. The size and taper of the Master Apical File (MAF affects on penetration of irrigants and subsequently canal cleaning efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MAF size and taper on penetration of irrigants to the apical third of curved mesiobuccal (MB canals of mandibular first molars.Eighty-nine human mandibular first molars were divided into one control group (n=5 without rotary instrumentation and 6 experimental groups (n=14 each that were prepared with the following RaCe rotary files as MAF: 25.04 (group1, 25.06 (group 2, 30.04 (group 3, 30.06 (group 4, 35.04 (group 5 and 35.06 (group 6. All the experimental groups were rinsed with 2 ml of 17 % EDTA followed by 2 ml of 5.25% NaOCl. Debridement of the MB canals was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (P<0.05.Group 6 (MAF=35.06 showed 100% acceptable debridement. This rate was 92.9% for MAF=35.04. In group 4 (MAF=30.06 smear layer (SL was removed in the three-forth of the samples and debris was removed in 92.9% of them. Acceptable debridement was not achieved in most samples of groups 1 and 2 (25.04 and 25.06, respectively and the mentioned two groups had statistically significant difference in this respect with the other groups (P<0.05.Based on this study, 30.06 may be considered as the minimum MAF size for acceptable debridement.

  2. Assessment of Root Morphology and Apices of First and Second Maxillary Molars in Tehran Population

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    Mandana Naseri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Objective: This study aimed to assess the possible variations in root canal anatomy and topography of the apices of first and second maxillary molars. Materials and methods: A total of 67 first and second maxillary permanent molars were collected. Access cavity was prepared and 2% methylene blue was injected. The teeth were demineralized by 5% nitric acid and cleared with methyl salicylate. Specimens were evaluated under stereomicroscopy and analyzed using the sample t-test. Results: Based on Vertucci’s classification, the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars was type I in 87.5% and type IV in 12.5% of the cases. The mesiobuccal root of second maxillary molars was type I in 60%, type II in 8.6%, type IV in 25.7% and type V in 5.7% of cases. In maxillary first and second molars, the distobuccal and palatal roots were type I in 100% of the cases. The distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen was 0.21±0.09 mm, the distance from the apical constriction tothe anatomic apex was 0.44±0.19 mm and the distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15±0.15 mm. The mean percentage of delta prevalence was 3.2% in both teeth. Conclusion: The mean distance of the apical foramen and apical constriction from the anatomic apex was less than 0.6 and 1.2 mm, respectively. In maxillary first and second molars, the mean distance of the apical constriction from the apical foramen and anatomic apex was 0.21 and 0.44, respectively and the mean distance of the apical foramen from the anatomic apex was 0.15 mm

  3. Evaluation of apical subtype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebed, Kalie Y; Al Adham, Raed I; Bishu, Kalkidan; Askew, J Wells; Klarich, Kyle W; Araoz, Philip A; Foley, Thomas A; Glockner, James F; Nishimura, Rick A; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2014-09-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) is an uncommon variant of HC. We sought to characterize cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among apical HC patients. This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients with a diagnosis of apical HC who underwent cardiac MRI examinations at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from August 1999 to October 2011. Clinical and demographic data at the time of cardiac MRI study were abstracted. Cardiac MRI study and 2-dimensional echocardiograms performed within 6 months of the cardiac MRI were reviewed; 96 patients with apical HC underwent cardiac MRI examinations. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were 130.7 ± 39.1 ml and 44.2 ± 20.9 ml, respectively. Maximum LV thickness was 19 ± 5 mm. Hypertrophy extended beyond the apex into other segments in 57 (59.4%) patients. Obstructive physiology was seen in 12 (12.5%) and was more common in the mixed apical phenotype than the pure apical (19.3 vs 2.6%, p = 0.02). Apical pouches were noted in 39 (40.6%) patients. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in 70 (74.5%) patients. LGE was associated with severe symptoms and increased maximal LV wall thickness. In conclusion, cardiac MRI is well suited for studying the apical form of HC because of difficulty imaging the cardiac apex with standard echocardiography. Cardiac MRI is uniquely suited to delineate the presence or absence of an apical pouch and abnormal myocardial LGE that may have implications in the natural history of apical HM. In particular, the presence of abnormal LGE is associated with clinical symptoms and increased wall thickness. PMID:25037678

  4. Apical Ca2+-activated potassium channels in mouse parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassy, Janos; Won, Jong Hak; Begenisich, Ted B; Yule, David I

    2012-02-01

    Ca(2+) activation of Cl and K channels is a key event underlying stimulated fluid secretion from parotid salivary glands. Cl channels are exclusively present on the apical plasma membrane (PM), whereas the localization of K channels has not been established. Mathematical models have suggested that localization of some K channels to the apical PM is optimum for fluid secretion. A combination of whole cell electrophysiology and temporally resolved digital imaging with local manipulation of intracellular [Ca(2+)] was used to investigate if Ca(2+)-activated K channels are present in the apical PM of parotid acinar cells. Initial experiments established Ca(2+)-buffering conditions that produced brief, localized increases in [Ca(2+)] after focal laser photolysis of caged Ca(2+). Conditions were used to isolate K(+) and Cl(-) conductances. Photolysis at the apical PM resulted in a robust increase in K(+) and Cl(-) currents. A localized reduction in [Ca(2+)] at the apical PM after photolysis of Diazo-2, a caged Ca(2+) chelator, resulted in a decrease in both K(+) and Cl(-) currents. The K(+) currents evoked by apical photolysis were partially blocked by both paxilline and TRAM-34, specific blockers of large-conductance "maxi-K" (BK) and intermediate K (IK), respectively, and almost abolished by incubation with both antagonists. Apical TRAM-34-sensitive K(+) currents were also observed in BK-null parotid acini. In contrast, when the [Ca(2+)] was increased at the basal or lateral PM, no increase in either K(+) or Cl(-) currents was evoked. These data provide strong evidence that K and Cl channels are similarly distributed in the apical PM. Furthermore, both IK and BK channels are present in this domain, and the density of these channels appears higher in the apical versus basolateral PM. Collectively, this study provides support for a model in which fluid secretion is optimized after expression of K channels specifically in the apical PM.

  5. Renal glucose handling in diabetes and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition

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    Resham Raj Poudel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a major role in glucose homeostasis through its utilization, gluconeogenesis, and reabsorption via sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs. The defective renal glucose handling from upregulation of SGLTs, mainly the SGLT2, plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genetic mutations in a SGLT2 isoform that results in benign renal glycosuria, as well as clinical studies with SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes support the potential of this approach. These studies indicate that inducing glycosuria by suppressing SGLT2 can reduce plasma glucose and A1c levels, as well as decrease weight, resulting in improved β-cell function and enhanced insulin sensitivity in liver and muscle. Because the mechanism of SGLT2 inhibition is independent of insulin secretion and sensitivity, these agents can be combined with other antidiabetic agents, including exogenous insulin. This class represents a novel therapeutic approach with potential for the treatment of both type 2 and type 1 diabetes.

  6. Abnormal expression of cerebrospinal fluid cation chloride cotransporters in patients with Rett syndrome.

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    Sofia Temudo Duarte

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rett Syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder caused mainly by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. The relevance of MeCP2 for GABAergic function was previously documented in animal models. In these models, animals show deficits in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Neuronal Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs play a key role in GABAergic neuronal maturation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor is implicated in the regulation of CCCs expression during development. Our aim was to analyse the expression of two relevant CCCs, NKCC1 and KCC2, in the cerebrospinal fluid of Rett syndrome patients and compare it with a normal control group. METHODS: The presence of bumetanide sensitive NKCC1 and KCC2 was analysed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from a control pediatric population (1 day to 14 years of life and from Rett syndrome patients (2 to 19 years of life, by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: Both proteins were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and their levels are higher in the early postnatal period. However, Rett syndrome patients showed significantly reduced levels of KCC2 and KCC2/NKCC1 ratio when compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced KCC2/NKCC1 ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid of Rett Syndrome patients suggests a disturbed process of GABAergic neuronal maturation and open up a new therapeutic perspective.

  7. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with insulin in type 2 diabetes: Clinical perspectives

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    Mathew John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of type 2 diabetes is a challenging problem. Most subjects with type 2 diabetes have progression of beta cell failure necessitating the addition of multiple antidiabetic agents and eventually use of insulin. Intensification of insulin leads to weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycemia. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are a class of antihyperglycemic agents which act by blocking the SGLT2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney. They have potential benefits in terms of weight loss and reduction of blood pressure in addition to improvements in glycemic control. Further, one of the SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin has proven benefits in reducing adverse cardiovascular (CV outcomes in a CV outcome trial. Adding SGLT2 inhibitors to insulin in subjects with type 2 diabetes produced favorable effects on glycemic control without the weight gain and hypoglycemic risks associated with insulin therapy. The general risks of increased genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, volume, and osmosis-related adverse effects in these subjects were similar to the pooled data of individual SGLT2 inhibitors. There are subsets of subjects with type 2 diabetes who may have insulin deficiency, beta cell autoimmunity, or is prone to diabetic ketoacidosis. In these subjects, SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution to prevent the rare risks of ketoacidosis.

  8. Sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors – A new class of old drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Aneeta; Kudyar, Surbhi; Gupta, Anil K.; Kudyar, Rattan P.; Malhotra, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitors are a new class of drugs which are used in the pharmacotherapy of Type-II diabetes, which happens to be a major risk factor for developing both micro as well as macro-vascular complications. These drugs inhibit the glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT, which exhibits a novel and promising mechanism of action by promoting the urinary glucose excretion hence providing a basis of therapeutic intervention. Results of SGLT-II inhibitors are very encouraging as there is a significant elevation of GLP-1 level, which forms the basis of relevance in treatment of diabetes. It targets the HbA1C and keeps a check on its levels. It also exerts other positive benefits such as weight loss, reduction in blood glucose levels, reduction in blood pressure and improvement in insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction: All contributing to effective glycemic control. SGLT inhibition will develop as effective modality as it has the capability of inhibiting reabsorption of greater percentage of filtered glucose load. PMID:26539362

  9. Blocking effect of colloids on arsenate adsorption during co-transport through saturated sand columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Guo, Huaming; Lei, Mei; Wan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hanzhi; Feng, Xiaojuan; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun

    2016-06-01

    Transport of environmental pollutants through porous media is influenced by colloids. Co-transport of As(V) and soil colloids at different pH were systematically investigated by monitoring breakthrough curves (BTCs) in saturated sand columns. A solute transport model was applied to characterize transport and retention sites of As(V) in saturated sand in the presence of soil colloids. A colloid transport model and the DLVO theory were used to reveal the mechanism and hypothesis of soil colloid-promoted As(V) transport in the columns. Results showed that rapid transport of soil colloids, regulated by pH and ionic strength, promoted As(V) transport by blocking As(V) adsorption onto sand, although soil colloids had low adsorption for As(V). The promoted transport was more significant at higher concentrations of soil colloids (between 25 mg L(-1) and 150 mg L(-1)) due to greater blocking effect on As(V) adsorption onto the sand surfaces. The blocking effect of colloids was explained by the decreases in both instantaneous (equilibrium) As adsorption and first-order kinetic As adsorption on the sand surface sites. The discovery of this blocking effect improves our understanding of colloid-promoted As transport in saturated porous media, which provides new insights into role of colloids, especially colloids with low As adsorption capacity, in As transport and mobilization in soil-groundwater systems. PMID:27017140

  10. The Sodium Glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 Is an Extremely Efficient Facilitator of Passive Water Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhova, Liudmila; Horner, Andreas; Ollinger, Nicole; Siligan, Christine; Pohl, Peter

    2016-04-29

    The small intestine is void of aquaporins adept at facilitating vectorial water transport, and yet it reabsorbs ∼8 liters of fluid daily. Implications of the sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in either pumping water or passively channeling water contrast with its reported water transporting capacity, which lags behind that of aquaporin-1 by 3 orders of magnitude. Here we overexpressed SGLT1 in MDCK cell monolayers and reconstituted the purified transporter into proteoliposomes. We observed the rate of osmotic proteoliposome deflation by light scattering. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy served to assess (i) SGLT1 abundance in both vesicles and plasma membranes and (ii) flow-mediated dilution of an aqueous dye adjacent to the cell monolayer. Calculation of the unitary water channel permeability, pf, yielded similar values for cell and proteoliposome experiments. Neither the absence of glucose or Na(+), nor the lack of membrane voltage in vesicles, nor the directionality of water flow grossly altered pf Such weak dependence on protein conformation indicates that a water-impermeable occluded state (glucose and Na(+) in their binding pockets) lasts for only a minor fraction of the transport cycle or, alternatively, that occlusion of the substrate does not render the transporter water-impermeable as was suggested by computational studies of the bacterial homologue vSGLT. Although the similarity between the pf values of SGLT1 and aquaporin-1 makes a transcellular pathway plausible, it renders water pumping physiologically negligible because the passive flux would be orders of magnitude larger. PMID:26945065

  11. [Canagliflozin (Invokana): kidney SGLT2 cotransporter inhibitor for treating type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2014-12-01

    Canagliflozin is an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) that are present in renal tubules. This specific insulin-independent mechanism promotes glucosuria, which results in a reduction in fasting and postprandial glycaemia and a decrease of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). Furthermore, canagliflozin promotes weight loss and lowers arterial (mainly systolic) blood pressure. Its efficacy is decreased in patients with renal insufficiency and the treatment should be stopped if estimated glomerular filtration rate is below 45 ml/min/1.73 m2. Both the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin have been investigated in 24 to 104-week controlled trials versus placebo or versus an active comparator (glimepiride or sitagliptin). The mean reduction in HbA(1c) averages 0.75% when added to other treatments, as compared to placebo. The 100 mg dose is as active as sitagliptin 100 mg while the 300 mg canagliflozin dose is even more efficacious. Adverse events are mostly mycotic genital infections and more rarely mild urinary tract infections. Caution is required in elderly patients and the risk of volume depletion should be checked (hypotension). Hypoglycaemia may occur only in patients already treated with an insulin-secreting agent or insulin. Canagliflozin is commercialized under the trade name Invokana, at the doses of 100 mg and 300 mg once daily, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Peripheral motor neuropathy is associated with defective kinase regulation of the KCC3 cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Flores, Bianca; Bharucha-Goebel, Diana; Zhang, Jinwei; Donkervoort, Sandra; Hegde, Madhuri; Hussain, Gulnaz; Duran, Daniel; Liang, Bo; Sun, Dandan; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Delpire, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Using exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation (c.2971A>G; T991A) in SLC12A6, the gene encoding the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC3, in a patient with an early-onset, progressive, and severe peripheral neuropathy primarily affecting motor neurons. Normally, the WNK kinase-dependent phosphorylation of T(991) tonically inhibits KCC3; however, cell swelling triggers Thr(991) dephosphorylation to activate the transporter and restore cell volume. KCC3 T991A mutation in patient cells abolished Thr(991) phosphorylation, resulted in constitutive KCC3 activity, and compromised cell volume homeostasis. KCC3(T991A/T991A) mutant mice exhibited constitutive KCC3 activity and recapitulated aspects of the clinical, electrophysiological, and histopathological findings of the patient. These results suggest that the function of the peripheral nervous system depends on finely tuned, kinase-regulated KCC3 activity and implicate abnormal cell volume homeostasis as a previously unreported mechanism of axonal degeneration. PMID:27485015

  13. Direct control of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)-cotransport protein (NKCC1) expression with aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bo; Frisina, Robert D; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Sokolowski, Bernd; Walton, Joseph P

    2014-01-01

    Sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter (NKCC1) proteins play important roles in Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in key physiological systems, including cardiac, vascular, renal, nervous, and sensory systems. NKCC1 levels and functionality are altered in certain disease states, and tend to decline with age. A sensitive, effective way of regulating NKCC1 protein expression has significant biotherapeutic possibilities. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if the naturally occurring hormone aldosterone (ALD) could regulate NKCC1 protein expression. Application of ALD to a human cell line (HT-29) revealed that ALD can regulate NKCC1 protein expression, quite sensitively and rapidly, independent of mRNA expression changes. Utilization of a specific inhibitor of mineralocorticoid receptors, eplerenone, implicated these receptors as part of the ALD mechanism of action. Further experiments with cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor) and MG132 (proteasome inhibitor) revealed that ALD can upregulate NKCC1 by increasing protein stability, i.e., reducing ubiquitination of NKCC1. Having a procedure for controlling NKCC1 protein expression opens the doors for therapeutic interventions for diseases involving the mis-regulation or depletion of NKCC1 proteins, for example during aging.

  14. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacologic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Atsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Yokono, Masanori; Imamura, Masakazu; Kurosaki, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 offer a novel approach to treating type 2 diabetes by reducing hyperglycaemia via increased urinary glucose excretion. In the present study, the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan were investigated and compared. Based on findings in normal and diabetic mice, the six drugs were classified into two categories, long-acting: ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, and intermediate-acting: tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin. Long-acting SGLT2 inhibitors exerted an antihyperglycemic effect with lower variability of blood glucose level via a long-lasting increase in urinary glucose excretion. In addition, ipragliflozin and luseogliflozin exhibited superiority over the others with respect to fast onset of pharmacological effect. Duration and onset of the pharmacologic effects seemed to be closely correlated with the pharmacokinetic properties of each SGLT2 inhibitor, particularly with respect to high distribution and long retention in the target organ, the kidney. While all six SGLT2 inhibitors were significantly effective in increasing urinary glucose excretion and reducing hyperglycemia, our findings suggest that variation in the quality of daily blood glucose control associated with duration and onset of pharmacologic effects of each SGLT2 inhibitor might cause slight differences in rates of improvement in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26970780

  15. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Possible Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects Beyond Glucose Lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Adachi, Hiroki; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Sako, Akahito

    2016-01-01

    The new drug for type 2 diabetes, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is reversible inhibitor of SGLT-2, leading to reduction of renal glucose reabsorption and decrease of plasma glucose, in an insulin-independent manner. In addition to glucose control, the management of coronary risk factors is very important for patients with diabetes. Here we reviewed published articles about the possible anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond glucose lowering of the SGLT-2 inhibitors. We searched by using Pubmed, and found 770 published articles about SGLT-2 inhibitors. Among 10 kinds of SGLT-2 inhibitors, the number of published articles about dapagliflozin was the greatest among SGLT-2 inhibitors. Since SGLT-2 inhibitors have similar chemical structures, we concentrated on the published articles about dapagliflozin. SGLT-2 inhibitors are proved to be significantly associated with weight loss and reduction of blood pressure by a relatively large number of studies. The studies investigating effects of dapagliflozin on visceral fat, insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, inflammation and adipocytokines are very limited. An influence of increase in glucagon secretion by SGLT-2 inhibitors on metabolic risk factors remains unknown. PMID:26668677

  16. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and euglycemic ketoacidosis: Wisdom of hindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are newly approved class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which reduces blood glucose through glucouresis via the kidney, independent, and irrespective of available pancreatic beta-cells. Studies conducted across their clinical development program found, a modest reduction in glycated hemoglobin ranging from -0.5 to -0.8%, without any significant hypoglycemia. Moreover, head-to-head studies versus active comparators yielded comparable efficacy. Interestingly, weight and blood pressure reduction were additionally observed, which was not only consistent but significantly superior to active comparators, including metformin, sulfonylureas, and dipeptydylpeptide-4 inhibitors. Indeed, these additional properties makes this class a promising oral anti-diabetic drug. Surprisingly, a potentially fatal unwanted side effect of diabetic ketoacidosis has been noted with its widespread use, albeit rarely. Nevertheless, this has created a passé among the clinicians. This review is an attempt to pool those ketosis data emerging with SGLT-2i, and put a perspective on its implicated mechanism. PMID:26693421

  17. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with insulin in type 2 diabetes: Clinical perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mathew; Gopinath, Deepa; Jagesh, Rejitha

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes is a challenging problem. Most subjects with type 2 diabetes have progression of beta cell failure necessitating the addition of multiple antidiabetic agents and eventually use of insulin. Intensification of insulin leads to weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycemia. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of antihyperglycemic agents which act by blocking the SGLT2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney. They have potential benefits in terms of weight loss and reduction of blood pressure in addition to improvements in glycemic control. Further, one of the SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin has proven benefits in reducing adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in a CV outcome trial. Adding SGLT2 inhibitors to insulin in subjects with type 2 diabetes produced favorable effects on glycemic control without the weight gain and hypoglycemic risks associated with insulin therapy. The general risks of increased genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, volume, and osmosis-related adverse effects in these subjects were similar to the pooled data of individual SGLT2 inhibitors. There are subsets of subjects with type 2 diabetes who may have insulin deficiency, beta cell autoimmunity, or is prone to diabetic ketoacidosis. In these subjects, SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution to prevent the rare risks of ketoacidosis. PMID:26904465

  18. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and euglycemic ketoacidosis: Wisdom of hindsight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i are newly approved class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which reduces blood glucose through glucouresis via the kidney, independent, and irrespective of available pancreatic beta-cells. Studies conducted across their clinical development program found, a modest reduction in glycated hemoglobin ranging from −0.5 to −0.8%, without any significant hypoglycemia. Moreover, head-to-head studies versus active comparators yielded comparable efficacy. Interestingly, weight and blood pressure reduction were additionally observed, which was not only consistent but significantly superior to active comparators, including metformin, sulfonylureas, and dipeptydylpeptide-4 inhibitors. Indeed, these additional properties makes this class a promising oral anti-diabetic drug. Surprisingly, a potentially fatal unwanted side effect of diabetic ketoacidosis has been noted with its widespread use, albeit rarely. Nevertheless, this has created a passé among the clinicians. This review is an attempt to pool those ketosis data emerging with SGLT-2i, and put a perspective on its implicated mechanism.

  19. Sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors - A new class of old drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Aneeta; Kudyar, Surbhi; Gupta, Anil K; Kudyar, Rattan P; Malhotra, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitors are a new class of drugs which are used in the pharmacotherapy of Type-II diabetes, which happens to be a major risk factor for developing both micro as well as macro-vascular complications. These drugs inhibit the glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT, which exhibits a novel and promising mechanism of action by promoting the urinary glucose excretion hence providing a basis of therapeutic intervention. Results of SGLT-II inhibitors are very encouraging as there is a significant elevation of GLP-1 level, which forms the basis of relevance in treatment of diabetes. It targets the HbA1C and keeps a check on its levels. It also exerts other positive benefits such as weight loss, reduction in blood glucose levels, reduction in blood pressure and improvement in insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction: All contributing to effective glycemic control. SGLT inhibition will develop as effective modality as it has the capability of inhibiting reabsorption of greater percentage of filtered glucose load. PMID:26539362

  20. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and genital and urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakaki, Richard F

    2016-05-01

    Coincident with the high and increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a growing armamentarium of antidiabetes medications has been introduced to target different organ systems that play a role in the pathophysiology of T2D. Among these, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors were introduced in the United States in 2013 as a new treatment option to address the hyperglycemia associated with T2D. SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glucosuria, alleviation of hyperglycemia, and modest weight loss and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The SGLT-2 inhibitors have been linked to an increased incidence of genital mycotic infections and, to a lesser extent, urinary tract infections, which may limit their utility in some patients. This review examines the prevalence, recurrence rates, treatment options, and responses to treatment of genital and urinary tract infections in patients with T2D receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors, with the aim of guiding clinicians in the most effective use of these agents for the treatment of hyperglycemia. PMID:26982554

  1. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitors: Effects on Renal and Intestinal Glucose Transport: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Sunder; Polidori, David; Zambrowicz, Brian; Henry, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease with disabling micro- and macrovascular complications that lead to excessive morbidity and premature mortality. It affects hundreds of millions of people and imposes an undue economic burden on populations across the world. Although insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects play a major role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, several other metabolic defects contribute to the initiation/worsening of the diabetic state. Prominent among these is increased renal glucose reabsorption, which is maladaptive in patients with diabetes. Instead of an increase in renal glucose excretion, which could ameliorate hyperglycemia, there is an increase in renal glucose reabsorption, which helps sustain hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors are novel antidiabetes agents that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and promote glucosuria, thereby leading to reductions in plasma glucose concentrations. In this article, we review the long journey from the discovery of the glucosuric agent phlorizin in the bark of the apple tree through the animal and human studies that led to the development of the current generation of SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:26604280

  2. Prolactin regulates transcription of the ion uptake Na+/Cl- cotransporter (ncc) gene in zebrafish gill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breves, Jason P.; Serizier, Sandy B.; Goffin, Vincent; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a well-known regulator of ion and water transport within osmoregulatory tissues across vertebrate species, yet how PRL acts on some of its target tissues remains poorly understood. Using zebrafish as a model, we show that ionocytes in the gill directly respond to systemic PRL to regulate mechanisms of ion uptake. Ion-poor conditions led to increases in the expression of PRL receptor (prlra), Na+/Cl− cotransporter (ncc; slc12a10.2), Na+/H+ exchanger (nhe3b; slc9a3.2), and epithelial Ca2+ channel (ecac; trpv6) transcripts within the gill. Intraperitoneal injection of ovine PRL (oPRL) increased ncc and prlra transcripts, but did not affect nhe3b or ecac. Consistent with direct PRL action in the gill, addition of oPRL to cultured gill filaments stimulated ncc in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect blocked by a pure human PRL receptor antagonist (Δ1-9-G129R-hPRL). These results suggest that PRL signaling through PRL receptors in the gill regulates the expression of ncc, thereby linking this pituitary hormone with an effector of Cl− uptake in zebrafish for the first time.

  3. Comparison of apical sealing and periapical extrusion of the ThermaFil obturation technique with and without MTA as an apical barrier: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the conventional ThermaFil obturation technique and ThermaFil obturation with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA as an apical barrier, with regard to apical sealing and extrusion. Materials and Methods: Twenty extracted human canines were instrumented using a crown-down technique and divided into two groups. The experimental group was obturated using ThermaFil obturation with MTA as an apical barrier and the control group was obturated using the conventional ThermaFil obturation technique. AH Plus sealer was used in both the groups. Apical extrusion was recorded. Teeth of both the groups were coated with nail polish, except for the apical 3 mm. After 24 h, they were suspended in black India ink for 48 h. Canines were decalcified, rendered transparent, and linear dye penetration was measured under ×40 stereomicroscope. Results: There was a significant extrusion noticed in conventional ThermaFil obturation technique. Frequency of extrusion of sealer and/or gutta-percha was supposed to be evaluated using χ² test, but since the values of the samples of ThermaFil plus MTA group were zero, statistical analysis could not be conducted, whereas linear dye leakage was calculated with Mann-Whitney U test because the distribution was abnormal. Conclusion: Although ThermaFil plus MTA group showed microleakage, extrusion of sealer and the core material was prevented in comparison with conventional ThermaFil obturation technique. It is advantageous to use MTA as an apical plug as there is no fear of apical extrusion and the root canal system can then be packed three dimensionally against this barrier using any thermoplasticized gutta-percha obturation technique.

  4. The apical complex provides a regulated gateway for secretion of invasion factors in Toxoplasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Katris

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The apical complex is the definitive cell structure of phylum Apicomplexa, and is the focus of the events of host cell penetration and the establishment of intracellular parasitism. Despite the importance of this structure, its molecular composition is relatively poorly known and few studies have experimentally tested its functions. We have characterized a novel Toxoplasma gondii protein, RNG2, that is located at the apical polar ring--the common structural element of apical complexes. During cell division, RNG2 is first recruited to centrosomes immediately after their duplication, confirming that assembly of the new apical complex commences as one of the earliest events of cell replication. RNG2 subsequently forms a ring, with the carboxy- and amino-termini anchored to the apical polar ring and mobile conoid, respectively, linking these two structures. Super-resolution microscopy resolves these two termini, and reveals that RNG2 orientation flips during invasion when the conoid is extruded. Inducible knockdown of RNG2 strongly inhibits host cell invasion. Consistent with this, secretion of micronemes is prevented in the absence of RNG2. This block, however, can be fully or partially overcome by exogenous stimulation of calcium or cGMP signaling pathways, respectively, implicating the apical complex directly in these signaling events. RNG2 demonstrates for the first time a role for the apical complex in controlling secretion of invasion factors in this important group of parasites.

  5. Copper directs ATP7B to the apical domain of hepatic cells via basolateral endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasae, Lydia K; Schell, Michael J; Hubbard, Ann L

    2014-12-01

    Physiologic Cu levels regulate the intracellular location of the Cu ATPase ATP7B. Here, we determined the routes of Cu-directed trafficking of endogenous ATP7B in the polarized hepatic cell line WIF-B and in the liver in vivo. Copper (10 µm) caused ATP7B to exit the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in vesicles, which trafficked via large basolateral endosomes to the apical domain within 1 h. Although perturbants of luminal acidification had little effect on the TGN localization of ATP7B in low Cu, they blocked delivery to the apical membrane in elevated Cu. If the vesicular proton-pump inhibitor bafilomycin-A1 (Baf) was present with Cu, ATP7B still exited the TGN, but accumulated in large endosomes located near the coverslip, in the basolateral region. Baf washout restored ATP7B trafficking to the apical domain. If ATP7B was staged apically in high Cu, Baf addition promoted the accumulation of ATP7B in subapical endosomes, indicating a blockade of apical recycling, with concomitant loss of ATP7B at the apical membrane. The retrograde pathway to the TGN, induced by Cu removal, was far less affected by Baf than the anterograde (Cu-stimulated) case. Overall, loss of acidification-impaired Cu-regulated trafficking of ATP7B at two main sites: (i) sorting and exit from large basolateral endosomes and (ii) recycling via endosomes near the apical membrane. PMID:25243755

  6. Evaluation of the distortion rate of panoramic and peri apical radiographs in erupted third molar inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panoramic and peri apical radiographs are normally used in impacted third molar teeth surgeries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the distortion of the erupted third molar teeth on panoramic and peri apical radiographs. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 radiographs were obtained of 22 patients (age range, 18-24 years) referred to the faculty of dentistry for orthodontic treatment. A plaster cast was prepared and panoramic radiography was taken for all patients to plan the orthodontic treatment and peri apical radiography was taken for investigation of tooth structure details. Therefore, a total of 66 views and samples were studied by two methods: 1) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of the third molar and occlusal plane. 2) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of second and third molar. Finally, 132 records were evaluated by one individual. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the mean position of the third molar on panoramic, peri apical radiographs and the casts. However, measurements of the third molars on peri apical radiographs were slightly closer to the measurements of the casts compared to the panoramic radiographs. Conclusion: Distortion does not have a specific effect on the diagnosis of the position of the third erupted molars by peri apical or panoramic radiographs, though various studies have shown that these radiographs have an amount of distortion and peri apical radiographical distortion is less than that in panoramic radiography.

  7. Apical constriction initiates new bud formation during monopodial branching of the embryonic chicken lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2013-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis sculpts the airway epithelium of the lung into a tree-like structure to conduct air and promote gas exchange after birth. In the avian lung, a series of buds emerges from the dorsal surface of the primary bronchus via monopodial branching to form the conducting airways; anatomically, these buds are similar to those formed by domain branching in the mammalian lung. Here, we show that monopodial branching is initiated by apical constriction of the airway epithelium, and not by differential cell proliferation, using computational modeling and quantitative imaging of embryonic chicken lung explants. Both filamentous actin and phosphorylated myosin light chain were enriched at the apical surface of the airway epithelium during monopodial branching. Consistently, inhibiting actomyosin contractility prevented apical constriction and blocked branch initiation. Although cell proliferation was enhanced along the dorsal and ventral aspects of the primary bronchus, especially before branch formation, inhibiting proliferation had no effect on the initiation of branches. To test whether the physical forces from apical constriction alone are sufficient to drive the formation of new buds, we constructed a nonlinear, three-dimensional finite element model of the airway epithelium and used it to simulate apical constriction and proliferation in the primary bronchus. Our results suggest that, consistent with the experimental results, apical constriction is sufficient to drive the early stages of monopodial branching whereas cell proliferation is dispensable. We propose that initial folding of the airway epithelium is driven primarily by apical constriction during monopodial branching of the avian lung. PMID:23824575

  8. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station.

  9. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author)

  10. Emergence of an Apical Epithelial Cell Surface In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedzinski, Jakub; Hannezo, Edouard; Tu, Fan; Biro, Maté; Wallingford, John B

    2016-01-11

    Epithelial sheets are crucial components of all metazoan animals, enclosing organs and protecting the animal from its environment. Epithelial homeostasis poses unique challenges, as addition of new cells and loss of old cells must be achieved without disrupting the fluid-tight barrier and apicobasal polarity of the epithelium. Several studies have identified cell biological mechanisms underlying extrusion of cells from epithelia, but far less is known of the converse mechanism by which new cells are added. Here, we combine molecular, pharmacological, and laser-dissection experiments with theoretical modeling to characterize forces driving emergence of an apical surface as single nascent cells are added to a vertebrate epithelium in vivo. We find that this process involves the interplay between cell-autonomous actin-generated pushing forces in the emerging cell and mechanical properties of neighboring cells. Our findings define the forces driving this cell behavior, contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of epithelial homeostasis. PMID:26766441

  11. Obturating teeth with wide open apices using mineral trioxide aggregate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, H

    2002-07-01

    The conventional approach in handling a tooth with a wide open apex requiring endodontic treatment is by means of a procedure called apexification. The objective of treatment is to introduce calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile water or local anaesthetic into the root canal to create a hard-tissue-like formation or an apical plug to prevent extrusion of filling materials during obturation of teeth with wide open apices. This procedure may take anything from 6 months to 2 years. In 1999 a new material called mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced to the dental profession for clinical use which has the ability to create an apical plug within a few weeks.

  12. Potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 interacts with Vav2 to synchronize the cell volume decrease response with cell protrusion dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3 causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC, a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.

  13. Nonclinical safety of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanffy, Matthew S; Stachlewitz, Robert F; van Tongeren, Susan; Knight, Brian; Sharp, Dale E; Ku, Warren; Hart, Susan Emeigh; Blanchard, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Empagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of the renal tubular sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, was developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nonclinical safety of empagliflozin was studied in a battery of tests to support global market authorization. Safety pharmacology studies indicated no effect of empagliflozin on measures of respiratory or central nervous system function in rats or cardiovascular safety in telemeterized dogs. In CD-1 mouse, Wistar Han rat, or beagle dogs up to 13, 26, or 52 weeks of treatment, respectively, empagliflozin exhibited a toxicity profile consistent with secondary supratherapeutic pharmacology related to glucose loss and included decreased body weight and body fat, increased food consumption, diarrhea, dehydration, decreased serum glucose and increases in other serum parameters reflective of increased protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, and electrolyte imbalances, and urinary changes such as polyuria and glucosuria. Microscopic changes were consistently observed in kidney and included tubular nephropathy and interstitial nephritis (dog), renal mineralization (rat) and tubular epithelial cell karyomegaly, single cell necrosis, cystic hyperplasia, and hypertrophy (mouse). Empagliflozin was not genotoxic. Empagliflozin was not carcinogenic in female mice or female rats. Renal adenoma and carcinoma were induced in male mice only at exposures 45 times the maximum clinical dose. These tumors were associated with a spectrum of nonneoplastic changes suggestive of a nongenotoxic, cytotoxic, and cellular proliferation-driven mechanism. In male rats, testicular interstitial cell tumors and hemangiomas of the mesenteric lymph node were observed; both tumors are common in rats and are unlikely to be relevant to humans. These studies demonstrate the nonclinical safety of empagliflozin.

  14. Glucose affects monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) 1 expression during mouse preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sarah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Pantaleon, Marie; Kaye, Peter L

    2006-03-01

    Cleavage-stage embryos have an absolute requirement for pyruvate and lactate, but as the morula compacts, it switches to glucose as the preferred energy source to fuel glycolysis. Substrates such as glucose, amino acids, and lactate are moved into and out of cells by facilitated diffusion. In the case of lactate and pyruvate, this occurs via H+-monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) proteins. To clarify the role of MCT in development, transport characteristics for DL-lactate were examined, as were mRNA expression and protein localisation for MCT1 and MCT3, using confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence in freshly collected and cultured embryos. Blastocysts demonstrated significantly higher affinity for DL-lactate than zygotes (Km 20 +/- 10 vs 87 +/- 35 mmol lactate/l; P = 0.03 by linear regression) but was similar for all stages. For embryos derived in vivo and those cultured with glucose, MCT1 mRNA was present throughout preimplantation development, protein immunoreactivity appearing diffuse throughout the cytoplasm with brightest intensity in the outer cortical region of blastomeres. In expanding blastocysts, MCT1 became more prominent in the cytoplasmic cortex of blastomeres, with brightest intensity in the polar trophectoderm. Without glucose, MCT1 mRNA was not expressed, and immunoreactivity dramatically reduced in intensity as morulae died. MCT3 mRNA and immunoreactivity were not detected in early embryos. The differential expression of MCT1 in the presence or absence of glucose demonstrates that it is important in the critical regulation of pH and monocarboxylate transport during preimplantation development, and implies a role for glucose in the control of MCT1, but not MCT3, expression. PMID:16514190

  15. [EMPAGLIFLOZIN (JARDIANCE) :Nw SGLT2 COTRANSPORTER INHIBITOR FOR TREATING TYPE 2 DIABETES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, A J

    2015-09-01

    Empagliflozin is a new inhibitor of sodiumglucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Its specific action inhibits glucose reabsorption in renal tubules and thus promotes glucosuria. This effect results in a reduction in fasting and postprandial glycaemia and a decrease of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(Ic)), independently of insulin. Furthermore, calorie urinary loss promotes weight reduction and osmotic diuresis lowers arterial blood pressure. The efficacy of empagliflozin increases according to the level of hyperglycaemia but decreases in patients with renal insufficiency. In 24 to 104-week controlled trials versus placebo, empagliflozin reduces HbA(1c) (approximately 0.8%), without hypoglycaemia (except in patients already treated with insulin or sulphonylureas). This improvement in glucose control is rather similar to that observed with active comparators (metformin, glimepiride or sitagliptin), with the advantage for empagliflozin of reducing body weight (approximately 2 kg) and blood pressure (systolic approximately 4 mm Hg and diastolic approximately 2 mm Hg). Empagliflozin has shown a cardiovascular protection in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. Mycotic genital infections occur more frequently, especially in women, while a negligible increase in mild urinary tract infections may be observed. The risk of hypotension and volume depletion is low, although it should be carefully checked in more fragile and at risk patients. Empagliflozin (Jardiance), which is commercialized at the doses of 10 mg and 25 mg once daily, is indicated for the treatment of T2DM and reimbursed in Belgium with conditions as add-on to a background glucose-lowering therapy.

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2014-03-01

    Empagliflozin is an orally active, potent and selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), currently in clinical development to improve glycaemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT2 inhibitors, including empagliflozin, are the first pharmacological class of antidiabetes agents to target the kidney in order to remove excess glucose from the body and, thus, offer new options for T2DM management. SGLT2 inhibitors exert their effects independently of insulin. Following single and multiple oral doses (0.5-800 mg), empagliflozin was rapidly absorbed and reached peak plasma concentrations after approximately 1.33-3.0 h, before showing a biphasic decline. The mean terminal half-life ranged from 5.6 to 13.1 h in single rising-dose studies, and from 10.3 to 18.8 h in multiple-dose studies. Following multiple oral doses, increases in exposure were dose-proportional and trough concentrations remained constant after day 6, indicating a steady state had been reached. Oral clearance at steady state was similar to corresponding single-dose values, suggesting linear pharmacokinetics with respect to time. No clinically relevant alterations in pharmacokinetics were observed in mild to severe hepatic impairment, or in mild to severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease. Clinical studies did not reveal any relevant drug-drug interactions with several other drugs commonly prescribed to patients with T2DM, including warfarin. Urinary glucose excretion (UGE) rates were higher with empagliflozin versus placebo and increased with dose, but no relevant impact on 24-h urine volume was observed. Increased UGE resulted in proportional reductions in fasting plasma glucose and mean daily glucose concentrations.

  17. Age-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Kyu eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB, with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in postnatal day 7, 10 and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.

  18. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Cotransport Inhibition on Polycystic Kidney Disease Progression in PCK Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Kapoor

    Full Text Available The sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA induces glucosuria and osmotic diuresis via inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption. Since increased diuresis retards the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD, we investigated the effect of DAPA in the PCK rat model of PKD. DAPA (10 mg/kg/d or vehicle was administered by gavage to 6 week old male PCK rats (n=9 per group. Renal function, albuminuria, kidney weight and cyst volume were assessed after 6 weeks of treatment. Treatment with DAPA markedly increased glucose excretion (23.6 ± 4.3 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/d and urine output (57.3 ± 6.8 vs 19.3 ± 0.8 ml/d. DAPA-treated PCK rats had higher clearances for creatinine (3.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.6 ± 0.2 ml/min and BUN (1.7 ± 0.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.1 ml/min after 3 weeks, and developed a 4-fold increase in albuminuria. Ultrasound imaging and histological analysis revealed a higher cyst volume and a 23% higher total kidney weight after 6 weeks of DAPA treatment. At week 6 the renal cAMP content was similar between DAPA and vehicle, and staining for Ki67 did not reveal an increase in cell proliferation. In conclusion, the inhibition of glucose reabsorption with the SGLT2-specific inhibitor DAPA caused osmotic diuresis, hyperfiltration, albuminuria and an increase in cyst volume in PCK rats. The mechanisms which link glucosuria to hyperfiltration, albuminuria and enhanced cyst volume in PCK rats remain to be elucidated.

  19. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Cotransport Inhibition on Polycystic Kidney Disease Progression in PCK Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Sarika; Rodriguez, Daniel; Riwanto, Meliana; Edenhofer, Ilka; Segerer, Stephan; Mitchell, Katharyn; Wüthrich, Rudolf P

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA) induces glucosuria and osmotic diuresis via inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption. Since increased diuresis retards the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), we investigated the effect of DAPA in the PCK rat model of PKD. DAPA (10 mg/kg/d) or vehicle was administered by gavage to 6 week old male PCK rats (n=9 per group). Renal function, albuminuria, kidney weight and cyst volume were assessed after 6 weeks of treatment. Treatment with DAPA markedly increased glucose excretion (23.6 ± 4.3 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/d) and urine output (57.3 ± 6.8 vs 19.3 ± 0.8 ml/d). DAPA-treated PCK rats had higher clearances for creatinine (3.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.6 ± 0.2 ml/min) and BUN (1.7 ± 0.1 vs 1.2 ± 0.1 ml/min) after 3 weeks, and developed a 4-fold increase in albuminuria. Ultrasound imaging and histological analysis revealed a higher cyst volume and a 23% higher total kidney weight after 6 weeks of DAPA treatment. At week 6 the renal cAMP content was similar between DAPA and vehicle, and staining for Ki67 did not reveal an increase in cell proliferation. In conclusion, the inhibition of glucose reabsorption with the SGLT2-specific inhibitor DAPA caused osmotic diuresis, hyperfiltration, albuminuria and an increase in cyst volume in PCK rats. The mechanisms which link glucosuria to hyperfiltration, albuminuria and enhanced cyst volume in PCK rats remain to be elucidated.

  20. Enhanced expression of potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlócai, Mária R; Wittner, Lucia; Tóth, Kinga; Maglóczky, Zsófia; Katarova, Zoja; Rásonyi, György; Erőss, Loránd; Czirják, Sándor; Halász, Péter; Szabó, Gábor; Payne, John A; Kaila, Kai; Freund, Tamás F

    2016-09-01

    Synaptic reorganization in the epileptic hippocampus involves altered excitatory and inhibitory transmission besides the rearrangement of dendritic spines, resulting in altered excitability, ion homeostasis, and cell swelling. The potassium-chloride cotransporter-2 (KCC2) is the main chloride extruder in neurons and hence will play a prominent role in determining the polarity of GABAA receptor-mediated chloride currents. In addition, KCC2 also interacts with the actin cytoskeleton which is critical for dendritic spine morphogenesis, and for the maintenance of glutamatergic synapses and cell volume. Using immunocytochemistry, we examined the cellular and subcellular levels of KCC2 in surgically removed hippocampi of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and compared them to control human tissue. We also studied the distribution of KCC2 in a pilocarpine mouse model of epilepsy. An overall increase in KCC2-expression was found in epilepsy and confirmed by Western blots. The cellular and subcellular distributions in control mouse and human samples were largely similar; moreover, changes affecting KCC2-expression were also alike in chronic epileptic human and mouse hippocampi. At the subcellular level, we determined the neuronal elements exhibiting enhanced KCC2 expression. In epileptic tissue, staining became more intense in the immunopositive elements detected in control tissue, and profiles with subthreshold expression of KCC2 in control samples became labelled. Positive interneuron somata and dendrites were more numerous in epileptic hippocampi, despite severe interneuron loss. Whether the elevation of KCC2-expression is ultimately a pro- or anticonvulsive change, or both-behaving differently during ictal and interictal states in a context-dependent manner-remains to be established.

  1. Skeletal muscle sodium glucose co-transporters in older adults with type 2 diabetes undergoing resistance training

    OpenAIRE

    Castaneda, Francisco; Layne, Jennifer E.; Castaneda, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    We examined the expression of the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter system (hSGLT3) in skeletal muscle of Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. Subjects (65±8 yr) were randomized to resistance training (3x/wk, n=13) or standard of care (controls, n=5) for 16 weeks. Skeletal muscle hSGLT3 and GLUT4 mRNA transcript levels were determined by real time RT-PCR. hSGLT3 transcripts increased by a factor of ten following resistance training compared to control subjects (0.10, P=0.03). The...

  2. Sugar Binding Residue Affects Apparent Na+ Affinity and Transport Stoichiometry in Mouse Sodium/Glucose Cotransporter Type 3B*

    OpenAIRE

    Díez-Sampedro, Ana; Barcelona, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    SGLT1 is a sodium/glucose cotransporter that moves two Na+ ions with each glucose molecule per cycle. SGLT3 proteins belong to the same family and are described as glucose sensors rather than glucose transporters. Thus, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3) does not transport sugar, but extracellular glucose depolarizes the cell in which it is expressed. Mouse SGLT3b (mSGLT3b), although it transports sugar, has low apparent sugar affinity and partially uncoupled stoichiometry compared with SGLT1, suggesting t...

  3. Na+-d-glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 is Pivotal for Intestinal Glucose Absorption and Glucose-Dependent Incretin Secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Gorboulev, Valentin; Schürmann, Annette; Vallon, Volker; Kipp, Helmut; Jaschke, Alexander; Klessen, Dirk; Friedrich, Alexandra; Scherneck, Stephan; Rieg, Timo; Cunard, Robyn; Veyhl-Wichmann, Maike; Srinivasan, Aruna; Balen, Daniela; Breljak, Davorka; Rexhepaj, Rexhep

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the physiological role of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in small intestine and kidney, Sglt1−/− mice were generated and characterized phenotypically. After gavage of d-glucose, small intestinal glucose absorption across the brush-border membrane (BBM) via SGLT1 and GLUT2 were analyzed. Glucose-induced secretion of insulinotropic hormone (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in wild-type and Sglt1−/− mice were compared. The impact of SGLT1 on renal glucose handling was inves...

  4. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

    OpenAIRE

    León, P; MJ Ilabaca; M Alcota; FE González

    2011-01-01

    La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas v...

  5. Pulp microbiology of complete teeth with idiopathic apical lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periapical changes named as lesions, in teeth with full crown integrity and without history of trauma, do not show a clear aetiology. Objective: To determine the presence of microorganisms in pulp dental tissue will clarify the cause of its death and therefore the damage to periodontal tissues. Materials and methods: From people between 10 and 39 years old, 23 teeth were selected. The samples were taken with paper points and 0.8 sterile files, and were transported in VMGA III medium, to be processed in the following 24 hours after they were taken and sowed in Brucella-agar. Results: The most affected teeth were upper central incisors, 43.8%. From the 23 studied teeth, microbiological grow was seen on 20 teeth. The following microorganisms species were identified: Fusobacterium spp., 25%, Eubacterium spp., 15%; Peptostreptococcus spp., 10%; Campylobacter spp., 10%; gram negative enteric bacteria, 10%; Porphyromonas gingivalis, 10%; Prevotella intermedia, 5%; Eikenellia corrodens, 5%; Dialister pneumosintes, 5%; and yeasts, 5%. There was no growing evidence of Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis and Streptococcus β  hemolytic. Discussion and conclusions: Sound pulp dental tissue is sterile; an injury over it will cause its inflammation, degeneration, death and bacterial contamination. Results in the present study clearly show the presence of microorganisms in closed apical dental lesions of endodontic origin. In same manner, it was seen that a great part of microorganisms species found can be regarded as periodontal pathogens. This could suggest a management with an endodontic, a periodontic and a pharmacological combined treatment.

  6. Cotransport of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and hematite colloids in saturated porous media: Mechanistic insights from mathematical modeling and phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-11-01

    The fate and transport of individual type of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in porous media have been studied intensively and the corresponding mechanisms controlling ENPs transport and deposition are well-documented. However, investigations regarding the mobility of ENPs in the concurrent presence of another mobile colloidal phase such as naturally occurring colloids (colloid-mediated transport of ENPs) are largely lacking. Here, we investigated the cotransport and retention of engineered hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) with naturally occurring hematite colloids in water-saturated sand columns under environmentally relevant transport conditions, i.e., pH, ionic strength (IS), and flow rate. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during cotransport was explored at various ISs and flow rates to examine the mechanisms controlling the isotope fractionation of HANPs in abiotic transport processes (physical transport). During cotransport, greater mobility of both HANPs and hematite occurred at higher pHs and flow rates, but at lower ISs. Intriguingly, the mobility of both HANPs and hematite was substantially lower during cotransport than the individual transport of either, attributed primarily to greater homo- and hetero-aggregation when both particles are copresent in the suspension. The shapes of breakthrough curves (BTCs) and retention profiles (RPs) during cotransport for both particles evolved from blocking to ripening with time and from flat to hyperexponential with depth, respectively, in response to decreases in pH and flow rate, and increases in IS. The blocking BTCs and RPs that are flat or hyperexponential can be well-approximated by a one-site kinetic attachment model. Conversely, a ripening model that incorporates attractive particle-particle interaction has to be employed to capture the ripening BTCs that are impacted by particle aggregation during cotransport. A small phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation (≤ 1.8

  7. Expression of Na+/HCO3- co-transporter proteins (NBCs) in rat and human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Sodium/bicarbonate co-transport (NBC) has been suggested to have a role in muscle pH regulation. We investigated the presence of NBC proteins in rat and human muscle samples and the fibre type distribution of the identified NBCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Western blotting of muscle homogenates and...... T-tubules. The two NBCs localized in muscle have distinct fibre type distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle possesses two variants of the sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter (NBC) isoforms, which have been called NBCe1 and NBCe2....

  8. Common mechanisms of inhibition for the Na+/glucose (hSGLT1) and Na+/Cl−/GABA (hGAT1) cotransporters

    OpenAIRE

    Hirayama, Bruce A.; Díez-Sampedro, Ana; Wright, Ernest M.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophysiological methods were used to investigate the interaction of inhibitors with the human Na+/glucose (hSGLT1) and Na+/Cl−/GABA (hGAT1) cotransporters. Inhibitor constants were estimated from both inhibition of substrate-dependent current and inhibitor-induced changes in cotransporter conformation.The competitive, non-transported inhibitors are substrate derivatives with inhibition constants from 200 nM (phlorizin) to 17 mM (esculin) for hSGLT1, and 300 nM (SKF89976A) to 10 mM (baclo...

  9. Chimaerin suppresses Rac1 activation at the apical membrane to maintain the cyst structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Yagi

    Full Text Available Epithelial organs are made of a well-polarized monolayer of epithelial cells, and their morphology is maintained strictly for their proper functions. Previously, we showed that Rac1 activation is suppressed at the apical membrane in the mature organoid, and that such spatially biased Rac1 activity is required for the polarity maintenance. Here we identify Chimaerin, a GTPase activating protein for Rac1, as a suppressor of Rac1 activity at the apical membrane. Depletion of Chimaerin causes over-activation of Rac1 at the apical membrane in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, followed by luminal cell accumulation. Importantly, Chimaerin depletion did not inhibit extension formation at the basal membrane. These observations suggest that Chimaerin functions as the apical-specific Rac1 GAP to maintain epithelial morphology.

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  11. Effect of needle insertion depth and apical diameter on irrigant extrusion in simulated immature permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKSEL Hacer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the amount of irrigant extrusion in simulated immature permanent teeth when the apical diameter and needle insertion depth were varied. Thirty single-rooted maxillary incisors with straight root canals were selected. The root length was standardized to a length of 9 mm. The teeth were divided into two experimental groups according to the degree of apical enlargement (n = 15. The apices were enlarged to a diameter of 1.10 mm or 1.70 mm by using a #3 or #6 peeso reamer, respectively, to simulate immature teeth. The irrigation solution was applied 2 or 4 mm short of the working length (WL in each experimental group. The glass vial model was used for the collection of extruded irrigant beyond the root apex. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance test showed that there was no significant difference between different needle insertion depths (2 and 4 mm short of the WL in the group with an apical diameter of 1.70 mm (p > 0.05. In the group with an apical diameter of 1.10 mm, a 32% increase in irrigant extrusion was observed when the needle was positioned at 2 mm (p < 0.05. Regarding the effect of apical diameter, the group with a diameter of 1.70 mm showed more apical extrusion of the irrigant (34% increase for the needle positioned at 2 mm and 68% increase for the needle positioned at 4 mm. It was observed that the needle insertion depth and apical diameter have a significant effect on irrigant extrusion in immature permanent teeth.

  12. Comparison of Apical Axial Derotation between Adolescent Idiopathic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis with Pedicle Screw Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Hitesh N.; Suh, Seung-Woo; Srinivasalu, S.; Mehta, Satyen; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare outcomes of apical derotation with pedicle screws in idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS). Overview of Literature No information about apical derotation in NMS with pedicle screws is available. Methods We performed deformity correcting surgery using pedicle screw constructs on 12 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients (mean age 14.1 years) and 16 NMS patients (mean age 16.5 years). Preoperative, postoperative, and final fo...

  13. Cholesterol depletion of enterocytes. Effect on the Golgi complex and apical membrane trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, L L; Thorsen, Evy;

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal brush border enzymes, including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, are associated with "rafts" (membrane microdomains rich in cholesterol and sphingoglycolipids). To assess the functional role of rafts in the present work, we studied the effect of cholesterol depletion on apical......-associated. Our results implicate the Golgi complex/trans-Golgi network in raft formation and suggest a close relationship between this event and apical membrane trafficking....

  14. Apical ballooning with mid-ventricular obstruction: the many faces of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Spadotto, Veronica; ElMaghawry, Mohamed; Zorzi, Alessandro; Migliore, Federico; Marra, Martina Perazzolo

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a transient left ventricular dysfunction due to akinesia of the left-ventricular (LV) mid-apical segments (apical ballooning), which can cause severe reduction in LV systolic function. The typical clinical picture of TTC include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes consisting of mild ST-segment elevation followed by diffuse deep T-wave inversion, QTc interval prolongation and mild troponin release in the absence of significant coronary stenoses. The syndr...

  15. Cochlear outer hair cells undergo an apical circumference remodeling constrained by the hair bundle shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etournay, Raphaël; Lepelletier, Léa; Boutet de Monvel, Jacques; Michel, Vincent; Cayet, Nadège; Leibovici, Michel; Weil, Dominique; Foucher, Isabelle; Hardelin, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Christine

    2010-04-01

    Epithelial cells acquire diverse shapes relating to their different functions. This is particularly relevant for the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), whose apical and basolateral shapes accommodate the functioning of these cells as mechano-electrical and electromechanical transducers, respectively. We uncovered a circumferential shape transition of the apical junctional complex (AJC) of OHCs, which occurs during the early postnatal period in the mouse, prior to hearing onset. Geometric analysis of the OHC apical circumference using immunostaining of the AJC protein ZO1 and Fourier-interpolated contour detection characterizes this transition as a switch from a rounded-hexagon to a non-convex circumference delineating two lateral lobes at the neural side of the cell, with a negative curvature in between. This shape tightly correlates with the 'V'-configuration of the OHC hair bundle, the apical mechanosensitive organelle that converts sound-evoked vibrations into variations in cell membrane potential. The OHC apical circumference remodeling failed or was incomplete in all the mouse mutants affected in hair bundle morphogenesis that we tested. During the normal shape transition, myosin VIIa and myosin II (A and B isoforms) displayed polarized redistributions into and out of the developing lobes, respectively, while Shroom2 and F-actin transiently accumulated in the lobes. Defects in these redistributions were observed in the mutants, paralleling their apical circumference abnormalities. Our results point to a pivotal role for actomyosin cytoskeleton tensions in the reshaping of the OHC apical circumference. We propose that this remodeling contributes to optimize the mechanical coupling between the basal and apical poles of mature OHCs.

  16. 24 Hour ST Segment Analysis in Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Bode; Christof Burgdorf; Heribert Schunkert; Volkhard Kurowski

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The etiologic basis of transient left ventricular apical ballooning, a novel cardiac syndrome, is not clear. Among the proposed pathomechanisms is coronary vasospasm. Long-term ST segment analysis may detect vasospastic episodes but has not been reported. METHODS: 30 consecutive patients with transient left ventricular apical ballooning, left ventricular dysfunction and normal or near-normal coronary arteries were investigated. A 24-hour Holter ECG was obtained after emergency admi...

  17. RNG1 is a Late Marker of the Apical Polar Ring in Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Johnson Q.; de Leon, Jessica C.; Li, Catherine; Huynh, My-Hang; Beatty, Wandy; Morrissette, Naomi S.

    2010-01-01

    The asexually proliferating stages of apicomplexan parasites cause acute symptoms of diseases such as malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis. These stages are characterized by the presence of two independent microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). Centrioles are found at the poles of the intranuclear spindle. The apical polar ring (APR), a MTOC unique to apicomplexans, organizes subpellicular microtubules which impose cell shape and apical polarity on these protozoa. Here we describe th...

  18. Cotransport of H+, lactate, and H2O in porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; la Cour, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the eye transports water and lactate ions in the direction from retina to choroid. The water transport is important in maintenance of retinal adhesion and the transport of lactate ions serves to regulate the lactate levels and pH of the subretinal space....... This study investigates by means of a non-invasive technique the mechanism of coupling between transport of H(+), lactate ion, and water in the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) located in the apical (retinal) membrane of a mammalian RPE. Primary cultures of porcine RPE cells were grown to confluence...... and placed in a perfusion chamber in which the solution facing the retinal membrane could be changed rapidly. Two types of experiments were performed: Changes in cell water volume were measured by self-quenching of the fluorescent dye Calcein, and changes in intracellular pH were measured ratiometrically...

  19. Cotransport of H+, lactate, and H2O in porcine retinal pigment epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; la Cour, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    . This study investigates by means of a non-invasive technique the mechanism of coupling between transport of H(+), lactate ion, and water in the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1) located in the apical (retinal) membrane of a mammalian RPE. Primary cultures of porcine RPE cells were grown to confluence...... and placed in a perfusion chamber in which the solution facing the retinal membrane could be changed rapidly. Two types of experiments were performed: Changes in cell water volume were measured by self-quenching of the fluorescent dye Calcein, and changes in intracellular pH were measured ratiometrically...... using the fluorescent dye BCECF. In lactate-free solutions, mannitol addition to the retinal bath caused intracellular acidification and cell shrinkage, given by a single osmotic water permeability of 1.2+/-0.1 x 10(-4)cmsec(-1) (osmoll(-1))(-1). In solutions containing 50 mmoll(-1) lactate, however...

  20. Frecuencia de periodontitis apical en tratamientos endodónticos de pregrado Frequency of apical periodontitis in endodontic treatment in undergraduate

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    P León

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La periodontitis apical es una enfermedad de los tejidos periapicales de etiología bacteriana. Su tratamiento requiere erradicar los microorganismos del conducto radicular y obturarlo para lograr la reparación posterior. El objetivo de éste trabajo fue determinar la frecuencia de periodontitis apical en la población que asiste a la clínica de Endodoncia de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad de Chile y su relación con diferentes variables: diagnóstico específico, edad, sexo, agudas vs. crónicas, éxito/fracaso del tratamiento y rehabilitación post-tratamiento. Se recolectó información de 292 dientes de pacientes tratados en dicha clínica, analizándose la información de aquellos con dientes diagnosticados con algún tipo de periodontitis apical clasificándolo según la nueva nomenclatura de la asociación de endodoncia americana. La frecuencia de periodontitis apical fue de un 36.7% (92 pacientes, de los cuales un 77.8% presentaron patologías de tipo crónicas. Un 75% de los pacientes pertenecieron al sexo femenino y la 5ta década representó un 34.8% de los pacientes. El 100% de los pacientes que acudieron a control presentó éxito en sus tratamientos según variables clínico-radiográficas, mientras que la restauración más frecuente post-tratamiento fue la resina compuesta (52.4%. Dado el pequeño número de pacientes que concurrieron a la citación de control para determinar el éxito del tratamiento, esta variable debe ser considerada como preliminar. Nuestros resultados mostraron que la condición mas frecuente fue la periodontitis apical de tipo crónica, afectando más a mujeres y a la 5ta década.Apical periodontitis is a microbially induced inflammatory disease of the periapical tissues. Its treatment requires eliminating microorganism from root canal and sealing it properly to induce further tissue repair. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of apical periodontitis and its distribution by

  1. Comparison of Irrigation Penetration into the Apical Part of Canals in Hand and Rotary Instrumentations

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    M. Khabiri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The penetration of irrigating solution to the apical one third of canals and removal of debris are dependent on the final size of the instruments and instrumentation techniques used in the canals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of final instrument size, on irrigation penetration into the apical part of canals in hand K-file instrumentation versus rotary system of Hero 642.Methods and Materials: The mesiobuccal canals of 48 first mandibular molar teeth were selected for this study. The teeth were divided into 2 groups of 24 in each and the mesiobuccal canals were instrumented by hand K-file or rotary system of Hero 642 at 2 stages. After each stage, a contrast medium was injected into the canals and radiographs were taken by RVG system. The irrigation penetration was measured in radiographs by Diamax software. The data were analyzed using t – student test.Results: This study showed that instrumentation up to # 25 file is not enough for irrigation penetration into the apical area. Also by more flaring the canals, more irrigating solution penetrates into the apical part of canals (P 0 0.001, but the difference between hand and rotary systems was not statistically significant (P > 0.05.Discussion: According to this study, instrumentation up to # 30 file results in better irrigation penetration into the apical area. The flaring of the canals is essential for better cleaning and irrigation of apical area.

  2. Calcium-enriched mixture cement as artificial apical barrier: A case series

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    Ali Nosrat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to the conventional apexification using calcium hydroxide, artificial apical barrier technique is more valuable and less time consuming. This article describes successful use of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM cement as an artificial apical barrier in open apices. In this study, 13 single-rooted teeth with necrotic pulps and open apices were treated non-surgically. After copious irrigation of the root canals with NaOCl 5.25% and gentle filing, based on need for interappointment dressing, treatments were followed by CEM cement (BioniqueDent, Tehran, Iran apical plug insertion in the first or second appointment. All cases were then permanently restored. All subjects were followed until radiographic evidence of periradicular healing was seen (mean 14.5 months. Clinically, all cases were functional and asymptomatic and complete osseous healing was observed in all the teeth. Considering the biological properties of CEM cement, this new endodontic biomaterial might be appropriate to be used as artificial apical barrier in the open apex teeth.

  3. Membrane potential and proton cotransport of alanine and phosphate as affected by permeant weak acids in Lemna gibba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, B.; Ullrich-Eberius, C.I.

    1987-11-01

    The treatment of Lemna gibba plants with the weak acids (trimethylacetic acid and butyric acid), used as tools to decrease intracellular pH, induced a hyperpolarization of membrane potential, dependent on the concentration of the undissociated permeant form of the weak acid and on the value of the resting potential. Measurements were carried out both with high potential and low potential plants and the maximum values of acid induced hyperpolarization were about 35 and 71 millivolts, respectively. Weak acids influenced also the transient light-dark membrane potential changes, typical for photosynthesizing material, suggesting a dependence of these changes on an acidification of cytoplasm. In the presence of the weak acids, the membrane depolarization induced by the cotransport of alanine and phosphate with protons was reduced; the maximum reduction (about 90%) was obtained with alanine during 2 millimolar trimethylacetic acid perfusion at pH 5. A strong inhibition of the uptake rates (up to 48% for (/sup 14/C)alanine and 68% for /sup 32/P-phosphate) was obtained in the presence of the weak acids, both by decreasing the pH of the medium and by increasing the concentration of the acid. In these experimental conditions, the ATP level and O/sub 2/ uptake rates did not change significantly. These results constitute good evidence that H/sup +//solute cotransport in Lemna, already known to be dependent on the electrochemical potential difference for protons, is also strongly regulated by the cytoplasmic pH value.

  4. Identification of phlorizin binding domains in sodium-glucose cotransporter family: SGLT1 as a unique model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Mobeen; Kinne, Rolf K H

    2015-08-01

    The sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 expressed mainly in the intestine and kidney has been explored extensively for understanding the mechanism of sugar cotransport and its inhibition by a classical competitive inhibitor, phlorizin (Pz). It has been shown that inhibition of SGLT1 by Pz involves its interaction followed by major conformational changes in the Pz binding domain (PBD) in C-terminal loop 13. However, the mechanism of Pz inhibition and its interaction with other members of SGLT is not known. In this hypothesis, we performed molecular modeling of SGLT1-loop 13 with Pz and carried out primary sequence analyses and secondary structure predictions to determine qualitatively similar PBDs in C-termini of human SGLT2-4, except for vSGLT, which contains an unstructured short C-terminus. The ranking of predictions of Pz interaction strongly agrees with the following ranking of previously reported Pz inhibition: SGLT2>SGLT1>SGLT4>SGLT3>vSGLT. In addition, the sugar binding residues were found to be quite conserved among all SGLT members investigated here. Based on these preliminary analyses, we propose that other Pz-sensitive SGLTs are also inhibited via mechanism similar to SGLT1 where an aglucone of Pz, phloretin, interacts with PBD and glucoside moiety with sugar binding residues. Our hypothesis sets the stage for future analyses on investigation of Pz interaction with SGLT family and further suggests that Pz modeling may be explored to design novel inhibitors targeting several SGLT members. PMID:26086341

  5. Autosomal recessive hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria is not caused by mutations in the type II renal sodium/phosphate cotransporter gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Koul, K. Op de; Knots, E.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Monnens, L.A.H.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At present the genetic defect for autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is unknown. Type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NPT2) gene is a serious candidate for being the causative gene in either or both autosomal recessive and a

  6. Do Parameters Of Irradiation Influences The Apical Sealing Of Er:YAG Laser Apicetomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Aparecida Maria Cordeiro; dos Santos, Jean Nunes; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Failures on the sealing of the tooth apex are responsible for many failures of apical surgeries. The Er:YAG laser has been proposed as an alternative for the use of rotator instruments on surgical endodontics. 12 human extracted canines had root endodontic treatment being the apical limit was set at 1mm before the apical foramen and were distributed into 2 groups. On group I, apicectomy was performed with the Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/15 Hz). Apical cut was performed of perpendicular mode with 3mm from the apical foramen. On Group II, the same procedures and the same sequence as above was used, varying only the parameters of the Er:YAG laser (400 mJ/6 Hz). The specimens were divided into groups and fixed, by the cervical third, on wax. Impermeabilization of the residual root apical third was performed following the same procedures used in the cervical third but the residual apex was left free from the impermeabilization. After that, the roots were immersed in a 2% methylene blue solution and placed in a bacteriological oven for 48 h. The segments were visually observed and the one showing greatest level of dye leakage was selected and kept in individual container and coded accordingly. Apical staining was measured using a stereoscopic magnifying glass; a compass; and caliper. The results showed that Group I showed significantly different higher mean level of dye leakage (5.67±4.9, p<0.05). There was a significantly difference between the groups. It is concluded that the apicectomies carried out with 400 mJ/6 Hz showed the smallest infiltration value.

  7. Síndrome do balonamento apical secundário ao uso abusivo de descongestionante nasal Síndrome del abombamiento apical secundario al uso abusivo de descongestionante nasal Apical ballooning syndrome secondary to nasal decongestant abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos um caso típico de síndrome do balonamento apical em uma paciente octogenária com alteração eletrocardiográfica, de contratilidade do ventrículo esquerdo, e que apresentou recuperação da função ventricular. A paciente é portadora de rinite alérgica e fez uso excessivo de descongestionante nasal horas antes do episódio da dor.Describimos un caso típico de síndrome de abombamiento apical en una paciente octogenaria con alteración electrocardiográfica, de contractilidad del ventrículo izquierdo, y que presentó recuperación de la función ventricular. La paciente es portadora de rinitis alérgica y hace uso excesivo de descongestionante nasal horas antes del episodio del dolor.We describe a typical case of apical ballooning syndrome in an octogenarian female patient with left ventricular wall motion abnormality on electrocardiography, whose ventricular function returned to normal. The patient has allergic rhinitis and had used nasal decongestant excessively a few hours prior to the episode of pain.

  8. The potassium impermeable apical membrane of insect epithelia: a target for development of safe pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Harvey

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Columnar cell apical membranes (CCAM in series with goblet cell apical membranes (GCAM form an electroosmotic barrier separating the midgut lumen from epithelial cell cytoplasm. A unique K+ ATPase in GCAM generates three gradients across this barrier. A greater than 180 mV electrical gradient (lumen positive drives amino acid uptake through voltage-dependent K+ symports. A greater than 1000-fold [H+] gradient (lumen alkaline and a greater than 10-fold [K+] gradient (lumen concentrated are adaptations to the high tannin and high K+ content, respectively, in dietary plant material. Agents which act on the apical membrane and disrupt the PD, H+, or K+ gradients are potential insecticides. Insect sensory epithelia and mammalian stria vascularis maintain similar PD and K+ gradients but would not be exposed to ingested anti-apical membrane insecticides. Following the demonstration by Sacchi et al. that Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt induces specifically a K+ conductance increase in CCAM vesicles, we find that the K+ channel blocking agent, Ba2+, completely reverses Bt inhibition of the K+-carried short circuit current in the isolated midgut of Manduca sexta. Progress in characterizing the apical membrane includes finding that fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine binds specifically to certain GCAM polypeptides and that CCAM vesicles can be mass produced by Ca2+ or Mg2+ precipitation from Manduca sexta midgut.

  9. CAMSAP3 orients the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubule arrays in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Mika; Kobayashi, Saeko; Kawasaki, Miwa; Shioi, Go; Kaneko, Mari; Ishiuchi, Takashi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Meng, Wenxiang; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2016-01-12

    Polarized epithelial cells exhibit a characteristic array of microtubules that are oriented along the apicobasal axis of the cells. The minus-ends of these microtubules face apically, and the plus-ends face toward the basal side. The mechanisms underlying this epithelial-specific microtubule assembly remain unresolved, however. Here, using mouse intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells, we show that the microtubule minus-end binding protein CAMSAP3 (calmodulin-regulated-spectrin-associated protein 3) plays a pivotal role in orienting the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubules in epithelial cells. In these cells, CAMSAP3 accumulated at the apical cortices, and tethered the longitudinal microtubules to these sites. Camsap3 mutation or depletion resulted in a random orientation of these microtubules; concomitantly, the stereotypic positioning of the nucleus and Golgi apparatus was perturbed. In contrast, the integrity of the plasma membrane was hardly affected, although its structural stability was decreased. Further analysis revealed that the CC1 domain of CAMSAP3 is crucial for its apical localization, and that forced mislocalization of CAMSAP3 disturbs the epithelial architecture. These findings demonstrate that apically localized CAMSAP3 determines the proper orientation of microtubules, and in turn that of organelles, in mature mammalian epithelial cells. PMID:26715742

  10. In vitro study of apical leakage of root canals after different root apex resection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Franco MARQUES

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro apicalmarginal leakage of root canals after three root apex resectiontechniques.Material and methods: Thirty maxillary canines wereprepared chemo-mechanically to a size 40 master apical file, andenlarged by using Gates Glidden burs 2, 3 and 4. Teeth were obturatedby Tagger thermomechanical compaction technique and then dividedinto three groups (n = 10. The first group (GI was 3 mm apicalresected with Endo Z in high speed handpiece. The specimens of secondgroup (GII were 3 mm apical weared with Endo Z, and the third group(GIII had 3 mm apical resected with Er:YAG laser (500 impulse, 12pps and 300 mJ energy. After the apical sections, IRM cement wasplaced into the root-end cavity and teeth of each group were immersedin India ink for 5 days and submitted to decalcification and clarifying for marginal apical microleakage visualization with microscope.Results: The results showed statistically difference (p < 0.01 between GI and the other groups.Conclusion: The root apex cut using Endo Z promotes the lowest values of microleakage when used in apicoectomy.

  11. The Effect of Smear Layer on Apical Seal of Endodontically Treated Teeth

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    A Farhad

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer on apical seal of endodontically treated teeth. Methods: Sixty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=25 and two control groups (n=5. The teeth were instrumented with K–type files to size 40 and then flared. Apical patency was ensured in all teeth. 5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid was used as irrigants to remove the smear layer in the second experimental group. The experimental groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta – percha with Roth 801 sealer. The positive control group was obturated with gutta – percha without sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish and sticky wax except for the apex in the experimental groups and positive control group. The roots were completely covered in the negative control group. The samples were then immersed in India ink for 1 week at 37°C. Results: The statistical analysis of the results showed that the apical leakage was significantly increased in obturated canals with smear layer. Conclusion: The removal of smear layer might improve the long term apical seal and success of endodontically treated teeth. Keywords: Apical Seal, EDTA, Removal, Sodium Hypochlorite, Smear Layer.

  12. Midventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Apical Aneurysm: Potential for Underdiagnosis and Value of Multimodality Imaging

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    Archana Sivanandam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate a case of midventricle obstructive HCM and apical aneurysm diagnosed with appropriate use of multimodality imaging. A 75-year-old African American woman presented with a 3-day history of chest pain and dyspnea with elevated troponins. Her electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, left atrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy, prolonged QT, and occasional ectopy. After medical therapy optimization, she underwent coronary angiography for an initial diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Her coronaries were unremarkable for significant disease but her left ventriculogram showed hyperdynamic contractility of the midportion of the ventricle along with a large dyskinetic aneurysmal apical sac. A subsequent transthoracic echocardiogram provided poor visualization of the apical region of the ventricle but contrast enhancement identified an aneurysmal pouch distal to the midventricular obstruction. To further clarify the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was performed confirming the diagnosis of midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical aneurysm and fibrosis consistent with apical scar on delayed enhancement. The patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent elective implantable defibrillator placement in the ensuing months for recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and was initiated on prophylactic oral anticoagulation with warfarin for thromboembolic risk reduction.

  13. Reguladores vegetais na quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. Plant growth regulators on breaking apical dominance in papaya plants (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho avaliou os efeitos de reguladores vegetais sobre a quebra da dominância apical de mamoeiro (Carica papaya L. cv. Improved Sunrise Solo. A aplicação dos reguladores vegetais foi iniciada quando as plantas tinham seis meses de idade, totalizando três aplicações, a intervalos de sete dias, constando dos seguintes tratamentos: T1- água (testemunha; T2- GA3 250 mg L-1; T3- GA3 500 mg L-1; T4- benziladenina (BA 250 mg L-1; T5- BA 500 mg L-1; T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1; T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. Esses tratamentos foram acompanhados da remoção ou não da gema apical. Os resultados mostraram que plantas tratadas com GA3 + BA a 125 e 250 mg L-1, com e sem a remoção da gema apical, apresentaram maior número de brotações que a testemunha, a qual não apresentou nenhuma brotação das gemas laterais.The objective of this work was to study the effects of gibberelin and cytokinin on breaking apical dominance and axillary buds growth of the Carica papaya L. Papaya plants sprayed three times within a period of 7 days, with the following treatments: T1- water (control, T2- GA3 250 mg L-1, T3- GA3 500 mg L-1, T4- benzyladenine (BA 250 mg L-1, T5- BA 500 mg L-1, T6- GA3 125 mg L-1 + BA 125 mg L-1, T7- GA3 250 mg L-1 + BA 250 mg L-1. The treatments were carried out with or without removal of the apical buds. After 36 days of the last plant growth regulators application was observed lateral bud numbers, lateral buds length and lateral buds diameter. The results showed that there were a higher number of shoots in plants treated with GA3 at 125 mg L-1 + BA at 125 mg L-1 and GA3 at 250mg L-1 + BA at 250 mg L-1. The removal of the apical bud helped the sprouting of the papaya plants.

  14. Bradykinin and vasopressin stimulate Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransport in cultured endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brock, T.A.; Brugnara, C.; Canessa, M.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have characterized a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter in vascular endothelial cells (EC) cultured from different blood vessels and species that is inhibited by the diuretics furosemide and bumentanide. Inward /sup 86/Rb influx transported by the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump in cultured EC from bovine and pig aorta, bovine vena cava, and baboon cephalic vein but not in human umbilical or saphenous vein EC. External Na/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb influx is equal to furosemide or bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx. Ouabain-insensitive /sup 22/Na influx is also partially inhibited by these drugs and stimulated by increasing external K/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/. Net Na/sup +/ extrusion occurs via the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter in the absence of external K/sup +/, whereas net Na/sup +/ influx occurs at higher external K/sup +/. Maximal concentrations (100 nM) of bradykinin and vasopressin increase the initial rate of bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by approx.60 and 70%. Addition of either ethyleneglycol-bis(..beta..-aminotethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid or LaCl/sub 3/ (to block calcium influx) prevents bradykinin-stimulated /sup 86/Rb influx. When intracellular calcium is elevated using ionomycin (100 nM), a Ca/sup 2 +/ionophore, bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx increases approx.twofold. In contrast, isoproterenol (100 ..mu..M) and forskolin (50 /sup +/M), adenylate cyclase stimulators, decrease furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx. Thus in certain types of cultured EC, a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter mediates a fraction of K/sup +/ influx quantitatively as important as the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump (ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx) and appears to be modulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and cyclic nucleotides.

  15. Estudio sobre la adaptación apical de conos maestros de gutapercha en conductos radiculares instrumentados con limas Lightspeed

    OpenAIRE

    Pumarola Suñé, José; García Campaña, Ana M.; Brau Aguadé, Esteban; Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la coincidencia entre el calibre del cono maestro apical y la lima maestra apical, así como medir cualitativamente la adaptación de diferentes marcas de conos de gutapercha en el tercio apical de conductos radiculares instrumentados con limas Lightspeed. Se instrumentaron 100 conductos de molares naturales extraídos con el sistema Lightspeed. Las muestras se distribuyeron aleatoriamente en cinco grupos. Cada grupo fue obturado mediante condensación l...

  16. Tissue reaction to Endométhasone sealer in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Suzuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the response of periapical tissues to the endodontic sealer Endométhasone in root canal fillings short of or beyond the apical foramen. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty root canals of premolars and incisors of 2 mongrel dogs were used. After coronal access and pulp extirpation, the canals were instrumented up to a size 55 K-file and the apical cemental barrier was penetrated with a size 15 K-file to obtain a main apical foramen, which was widened to a size 25 K-file. The canals were irrigated with saline at each change of file. The root canals were obturated either short of or beyond the apical foramen by the lateral condensation of gutta-percha and Endométhasone, originating 2 experimental groups: G1: Endométhasone/short of the apical foramen; G2: Endométhasone/beyond the apical foramen. The animals were killed by anesthetic overdose 90 days after endodontic treatment. The individual roots were obtained and serial histological sections were prepared for histomorphological analysis (H&E and Brown & Brenn techniques under light microscopy. The following parameters were examined: closure of the apical foramen of the main root canal and apical opening of accessory canals, apical cementum resorption, intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate, presence of giant cells and thickness and organization of the apical periodontal ligament. Each parameter was scored 1 to 4, 1 being the best result and 4 the worst. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon nonparametric tests (p=0.05. RESULTS: Comparing the 2 groups, the best result (p<0.05 was obtained with root canal filling with Endométhasone short of the apical foramen but a chronic inflammatory infiltrate was present in all specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting the filling material to the root canal space apically is important to determine the best treatment outcome when Endométhasone is used as sealer.

  17. Roles of external and cellular Cl- ions on the activation of an apical electrodiffusional Cl- pathway in toad skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, J; Lacaz-Vieira, F

    1990-07-01

    This study is concerned with the short-circuit current, Isc, responses of the Cl(-)-transporting cells of toad skin submitted to sudden changes of the external Cl- concentration, [Cl]o. Sudden changes of [Cl]o, carried out under apical membrane depolarization, allowed comparison of the roles of [Cl]o and [Cl]cell on the activation of the apical Cl- pathways. Equilibration of short-circuited skins symmetrically in K-Ringer's solutions of different Cl- concentrations permitted adjustment of [Cl]cell to different levels. For a given Cl- concentration (in the range of 11.7 to 117 mM) on both sides of a depolarized apical membrane, this structure exhibits a high Cl- permeability, P(Cl)apical. On the other hand, for the same range of [Cl]cell but with [Cl]o = 0, P(Cl)apical is reduced to negligible values. These observations indicate that when the apical membrane is depolarized P(Cl)apical is modulated by [Cl]o; in the absence of external Cl- ions, intracellular Cl- is not sufficient to activate P(Cl)apical. Computer simulation shows that the fast Cl- currents induced across the apical membrane by sudden shifts of [Cl]o from a control equilibrium value strictly follow the laws of electrodiffusion. For each experimental group, the computer-generated Isc versus [( Cl]cell - [Cl]o) curve which best fits the experimental data can only be obtained by a unique pair of P(Cl)apical and Rb (resistance of the basolateral membrane), thus allowing the calculation of these parameters. The electrodiffusional behavior of the net Cl- flux across the apical membrane supports the channel nature of the apical Cl- pathways in the Cl(-)-transporting cells. Cl- ions contribute significantly to the overall conductance of the basolateral membrane even in the presence of a high K concentration in the internal solution. PMID:1698229

  18. Gibberellin Is Involved in the Regulation of Cell Death-mediated Apical Senescence in G2 Pea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Senescence is the process of programmed degradation.The G2 line of pea exhibits apical senescence-delaying phenotype under short-day(SD)conditions,but the mechanism regulating the apical senescence is still largely unknown.Gibberellin (GA)was proved to be able to delay this apical senescence phenotype in G2 pea grown under long-day(LD) conditions.Here we show that the initiation of cell death signals in the tarminal floral meristem was involved in the regulation of apical senescence in pea plants.SD signals prevented the formation of the cell death region in the apical mersitem.Moreovsr.GA3 treatment could effectively inhibit the occurrence of cell death-mediated apical senescence in LD-grown apical buds.Therefore,our data suggest that the prevention of apical senescence in SD-grown G2 pea through GA3 treatment may be largely responsible for the regulation of occurrence of the DNA fragmentation in apical meristem.

  19. Loss of apical monocilia on collecting duct principal cells impairs ATP secretion across the apical cell surface and ATP-dependent and flow-induced calcium signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovater, Michael B; Olteanu, Dragos; Hanson, Elizabeth L; Cheng, Nai-Lin; Siroky, Brian; Fintha, Attila; Komlosi, Peter; Liu, Wen; Satlin, Lisa M; Bell, P Darwin; Yoder, Bradley K; Schwiebert, Erik M

    2008-06-01

    Renal epithelial cells release ATP constitutively under basal conditions and release higher quantities of purine nucleotide in response to stimuli. ATP filtered at the glomerulus, secreted by epithelial cells along the nephron, and released serosally by macula densa cells for feedback signaling to afferent arterioles within the glomerulus has important physiological signaling roles within kidneys. In autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) mice and humans, collecting duct epithelial cells lack an apical central cilium or express dysfunctional proteins within that monocilium. Collecting duct principal cells derived from an Oak Ridge polycystic kidney (orpk ( Tg737 ) ) mouse model of ARPKD lack a well-formed apical central cilium, thought to be a sensory organelle. We compared these cells grown as polarized cell monolayers on permeable supports to the same cells where the apical monocilium was genetically rescued with the wild-type Tg737 gene that encodes Polaris, a protein essential to cilia formation. Constitutive ATP release under basal conditions was low and not different in mutant versus rescued monolayers. However, genetically rescued principal cell monolayers released ATP three- to fivefold more robustly in response to ionomycin. Principal cell monolayers with fully formed apical monocilia responded three- to fivefold greater to hypotonicity than mutant monolayers lacking monocilia. In support of the idea that monocilia are sensory organelles, intentionally harsh pipetting of medium directly onto the center of the monolayer induced ATP release in genetically rescued monolayers that possessed apical monocilia. Mechanical stimulation was much less effective, however, on mutant orpk collecting duct principal cell monolayers that lacked apical central monocilia. Our data also show that an increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) primes the ATP pool that is released in response to mechanical stimuli. It also appears that hypotonic cell swelling and

  20. Analyses of Interactions Between Heparin and the Apical Surface Proteins of Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kyousuke; Takano, Ryo; Takemae, Hitoshi; Sugi, Tatsuki; Ishiwa, Akiko; Gong, Haiyan; Recuenco, Frances C.; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Horimoto, Taisuke; Akashi, Hiroomi; Kato, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    Heparin, a sulfated glycoconjugate, reportedly inhibits the blood-stage growth of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Elucidation of the inhibitory mechanism is valuable for developing novel invasion-blocking treatments based on heparin. Merozoite surface protein 1 has been reported as a candidate target of heparin; however, to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved, we characterized the molecules that bind to heparin during merozoite invasion. Here, we show that heparin binds only at the apical tip of the merozoite surface and that multiple heparin-binding proteins localize preferentially in the apical organelles. To identify heparin-binding proteins, parasite proteins were fractionated by means of heparin affinity chromatography and subjected to immunoblot analysis with ligand-specific antibodies. All tested members of the Duffy and reticulocyte binding-like families bound to heparin with diverse affinities. These findings suggest that heparin masks the apical surface of merozoites and blocks interaction with the erythrocyte membrane after initial attachment.

  1. The apical oblique view of the clavicle: Its usefulness in neonatal and childhood trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyzed clavicular radiographs of 26 patients with a history of trauma. The apical oblique projection of the clavicle was obtained with the injured side of the patient angled 450 towards the X-ray tube and a 200 cephalad angulation of the X-ray beam. This view proved to be more informative than the routine apical anteroposterior projection. It is especially effective in detecting nondisplaced fractures of the middle third of the clavicle in neonates and children. To verify our findings, we obtained apical anteroposterior and oblique radiographs of a specimen adult of the X-ray beam, the measurements of the projected lengths of the anatomical specimen, especially those of the middle portion of the clavicle, were very close to the corresponding anatomical lengths. (orig.)

  2. Disrupting Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransporter NBCn1 (Slc4a7) delays murine breast cancer development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S; Axelsen, T V; Andersen, A P;

    2016-01-01

    Increased metabolism and insufficient blood supply cause acidic waste product accumulation in solid cancers. During carcinogenesis, cellular acid extrusion is upregulated but the underlying molecular mechanisms and their consequences for cancer growth and progression have not been established....... Genome-wide association studies have indicated a possible link between the Na(+),HCO3(-)-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) and breast cancer. We tested the functional consequences of NBCn1 knockout (KO) for breast cancer development. NBCn1 protein expression increased 2.5-fold during breast carcinogenesis...... and was responsible for the increased net acid extrusion and alkaline intracellular pH of breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. Genetic disruption of NBCn1 delayed breast cancer development: tumor latency was ~50% increased while tumor growth rate was ~65% reduced in NBCn1 KO compared with wild-type (WT...

  3. Evidence for the involvement of Ala 166 in coupling Na(+) to sugar transport through the human Na(+)/glucose cotransporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinild, A K; Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A;

    2001-01-01

    to MTSEA and MTSET, but not MTSES, abolished sugar transport. Accessibility of A166C to alkylating reagents was independent of protein conformation, indicating that the residue is always accessible from the extracellular surface. Sugar and phlorizin did not protect the residue from being alkylated......We mutated residue 166, located in the putative Na(+) transport pathway between transmembrane segments 4 and 5 of human Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1), from alanine to cysteine (A166C). A166C was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and electrophysiological methods were used to assay function....... The affinity for Na(+) was unchanged compared to that of hSGLT1, whereas the sugar affinity was reduced and sugar specificity was altered. There was a reduction in the turnover rate of the transporter, and in contrast to that of hSGLT1, the turnover rate depended on the sugar molecule. Exposure of A166C...

  4. Differential expression patterns of K(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter 2 in neurons within the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Fariba; Holló, Krisztina; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Kis, Gréta; Hegyi, Zoltán; Dócs, Klaudia; Kasugai, Yu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Antal, Miklós

    2015-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-mediated hyperpolarizing inhibition is associated with a chloride influx that depends on the inwardly directed chloride electrochemical gradient. In neurons, the extrusion of chloride from the cytosol primarily depends on the expression of an isoform of potassium-chloride cotransporters (KCC2s). KCC2 is crucial in the regulation of the inhibitory tone of neural circuits, including pain processing neural assemblies. Thus we investigated the cellular distribution of KCC2 in neurons underlying pain processing in the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats by using high-resolution immunocytochemical methods. We demonstrated that perikarya and dendrites widely expressed KCC2, but axon terminals proved to be negative for KCC2. In single ultrathin sections, silver deposits labeling KCC2 molecules showed different densities on the surface of dendritic profiles, some of which were negative for KCC2. In freeze fracture replicas and tissue sections double stained for the β3-subunit of GABAA receptors and KCC2, GABAA receptors were revealed on dendritic segments with high and also with low KCC2 densities. By measuring the distances between spots immunoreactive for gephyrin (a scaffolding protein of GABAA and glycine receptors) and KCC2 on the surface of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-immunoreactive dendrites, we found that gephyrin-immunoreactive spots were located at various distances from KCC2 cotransporters; 5.7 % of them were recovered in the middle of 4-10-µm-long dendritic segments that were free of KCC2 immunostaining. The variable local densities of KCC2 may result in variable postsynaptic potentials evoked by the activation of GABAA and glycine receptors along the dendrites of spinal neurons. PMID:25764511

  5. Iron content of ferritin modulates its uptake by intestinal epithelium: implications for co-transport of prions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunkesula Solomon RB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD in the deer and elk population has caused serious public health concerns due to its potential to infect farm animals and humans. Like other prion disorders such a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease of humans and Mad Cow Disease of cattle, CWD is caused by PrP-scrapie (PrPSc, a β-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC. Since PrPSc is sufficient to cause infection and neurotoxicity if ingested by a susceptible host, it is important to understand the mechanism by which it crosses the stringent epithelial cell barrier of the small intestine. Possible mechanisms include co-transport with ferritin in ingested food and uptake by dendritic cells. Since ferritin is ubiquitously expressed and shares considerable homology among species, co-transport of PrPSc with ferritin can result in cross-species spread with deleterious consequences. We have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal epithelial cell barrier to understand the role of ferritin in mediating PrPSc uptake and transport. In this report, we demonstrate that PrPSc and ferritin from CWD affected deer and elk brains and scrapie from sheep resist degradation by digestive enzymes, and are transcytosed across a tight monolayer of human epithelial cells with significant efficiency. Likewise, ferritin from hamster brains is taken up by mouse intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, indicating that uptake of ferritin is not limited by species differences as described for prions. More importantly, the iron content of ferritin determines its efficiency of uptake and transport by Caco-2 cells and mouse models, providing insight into the mechanism(s of ferritin and PrPSc uptake by intestinal epithelial cells.

  6. Iron content of ferritin modulates its uptake by intestinal epithelium: implications for co-transport of prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Luo, Xiu; Das, Dola; Singh, Ajay; Singh, Neena

    2010-01-01

    The spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the deer and elk population has caused serious public health concerns due to its potential to infect farm animals and humans. Like other prion disorders such a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease of humans and Mad Cow Disease of cattle, CWD is caused by PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC). Since PrPSc is sufficient to cause infection and neurotoxicity if ingested by a susceptible host, it is important to understand the mechanism by which it crosses the stringent epithelial cell barrier of the small intestine. Possible mechanisms include co-transport with ferritin in ingested food and uptake by dendritic cells. Since ferritin is ubiquitously expressed and shares considerable homology among species, co-transport of PrPSc with ferritin can result in cross-species spread with deleterious consequences. We have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal epithelial cell barrier to understand the role of ferritin in mediating PrPSc uptake and transport. In this report, we demonstrate that PrPSc and ferritin from CWD affected deer and elk brains and scrapie from sheep resist degradation by digestive enzymes, and are transcytosed across a tight monolayer of human epithelial cells with significant efficiency. Likewise, ferritin from hamster brains is taken up by mouse intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, indicating that uptake of ferritin is not limited by species differences as described for prions. More importantly, the iron content of ferritin determines its efficiency of uptake and transport by Caco-2 cells and mouse models, providing insight into the mechanism(s) of ferritin and PrPSc uptake by intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:20429907

  7. Cotransport of clay colloids and viruses through water-saturated vertically oriented columns packed with glass beads: Gravity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2016-03-01

    The cotransport of clay colloids and viruses in vertically oriented laboratory columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 were used as model viruses, and kaolinite (ΚGa-1b) and montmorillonite (STx-1b) as model clay colloids. A steady flow rate of Q=1.5 mL/min was applied in both vertical up (VU) and vertical down (VD) flow directions. In the presence of KGa-1b, estimated mass recovery values for both viruses were higher for VD than VU flow direction, while in the presence of STx-1b the opposite was observed. However, for all cases examined, the produced mass of viruses attached onto suspended clay particles were higher for VD than VU flow direction, suggesting that the flow direction significantly influences virus attachment onto clays, as well as packed column retention of viruses attached onto suspended clays. KGa-1b hindered the transport of ΦX174 under VD flow, while STx-1b facilitated the transport of ΦX174 under both VU and VD flow directions. Moreover, KGa-1b and STx-1b facilitated the transport of MS2 in most of the cases examined except of the case where KGa-1b was present under VD flow. Also, the experimental data were used for the estimation of virus surface-coverages and virus surface concentrations generated by virus diffusion-limited attachment, as well as virus attachment due to sedimentation. Both sedimentation and diffusion limited virus attachment were higher for VD than VU flow, except the case of MS2 and STx-1b cotransport. The diffusion-limited attachment was higher for MS2 than ΦΧ174 for all cases examined. PMID:26747984

  8. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizerski Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1, and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2 - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the administration of dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes, is associated with the reduction of HbA1c concentration by 0.45-1.11%. Additional benefits from the treatment with dapagliflozin are the reduction of arterial blood pressure and a permanent reduction of body weight. This outcome is related to the effect of osmotic diuresis and to the considerable loss of the glucose load by way of urine excretion. Dapagliflozin may be successfully applied in type 2 diabetes monotherapy, as well as in combined therapy (including insulin, where it is equally effective as other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Of note: serious adverse effects of dapagliflozin administration are rarely observed. What is more, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia related with the treatment occur only sporadically, most often in the course of diabetes polytherapy. The most frequent effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors are inseparably associated with the mechanism of their action (the glucuretic effect, and cover urogenital infections with a mild clinical course. At present, clinical trials are being continued of the administration of several subsequent drugs from this group, the most advanced of these being the use of canagliflozin and empagliflozin.

  9. Estudio de la filtración apical de cuatro cementos de obturación

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Cayón, Miguel; Ribot Porta, J. de; Jané Noblom, L.; Canalda Sahli, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    Los autores estudian in vitro la microfiltración apical con cuatro cementos de obturación, mediante la utilización de un colorante y técnicas de diafanización. Analizan dos cementos a base de hidróxido de calcio, y uno de ionómero de vidrio, comparándolos con un cemento clásico a base de óxido de zinc-eugenol. La filtración apical del cemento sellador Apexit fue significativamente superior a la de los cementos Sealapex y Endomethasone. No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los dem...

  10. Apical Ballooning Syndrome (Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy after Permanent Dual-Chamber Pacemaker Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Gardini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apical ballooning syndrome, also called takotsubo cardiomyopathy, has been recently reported. It may mimic acute myocardial infarction and is typically observed in postmenopausal women after stressful events. A 75-year-old female after permanent dual chamber pacemaker implant complained of chest pain with repolarization alterations suggesting acute myocardial ischemia. Echocardiography showed a left ventricle with akinesia of the apical portions and reduced global systolic function. The patient was treated with antithrombotic agents and intravenous nitrates. No coronary lesions were found at angiography. At ventriculography, a typical takotsubo-like shape of the left ventricle was observed. The clinical and echocardiographic picture normalized at discharge.

  11. Reasons for Apical Surgery Treatment in an Underserved New York City Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselgren, Gunnar; Patel, Pratik; Alhassany, Hashim; Kunzel, Carol

    2016-04-01

    Endodontic retreatment often involves remaking restorations. The total cost may steer the treatment towards surgery. The aim of this study was to retrospectively record the reasons for performing apical surgery in an economically deprived patient population. The clinical reasons (59%) for apical surgery were most common, but the nonclinical (financial) reasons (41%) emerged as a major cause. The finding that 41% of the apicoectomies were performed because of nonclinical constraints is a high figure and may not reflect the situation generally. Still, economic factors potentially play a major role in the selection of surgical versus nonsurgical endodontic retreatment. PMID:27348949

  12. Apical Localization of Sodium-Dependent Glucose Transporter SGLT1 is Maintained by Cholesterol and Microtubules

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Haruo; Aoki, Takeo; Tajika-Takahashi, Yukiko; Takata, Kuniaki

    2006-01-01

    A GFP-labeled sodium-dependent glucose transporter SGLT1 (SGLT-GFP) was transfected into MDCK cells. SGLT-GFP was localized at the apical membrane in confluent cells. When cellular cholesterol was depleted by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) treatment, the localization of SGLT-GFP gradually switched from apical to whole plasma membrane. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that the effect of MβCD appeared within 30 min, and that the transition of SGLT-GFP to the whole plasma membrane was completed with...

  13. SEALING ABILITY OF GRAY MTA ANGELUS™, CPM™ AND MBPC USED AS APICAL PLUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco; Clovis Monteiro Bramante; Roberto Brandão Garcia; Norberti Bernadineli; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, ...

  14. Cellular distribution of the renal bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter BSC-1 in the inner stripe of the outer medulla during the development of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonalker, Prajakta A; Tofovic, Stevan P; Jackson, Edwin K

    2007-12-01

    1. The renal bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (BSC-1) is expressed only in the thick ascending limb and selectively traffics from intracellular vesicles (IVs) to apical plasma membranes (PMs), where BSC-1 regulates sodium reabsorption. We showed previously that in kidneys from adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; model of essential hypertension) total protein expression of BSC-1 was higher compared with kidneys from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. However, whether this change is associated with an increased trafficking of BSC-1 from IVs to PMs is unknown. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the increase in total renal BSC-1 protein expression in SHR is accompanied by an augmented distribution of BSC-1 from IVs to PMs. 2. To test the hypothesis, we obtained renal tissue from the inner stripe of the outer medulla (ISOM; enriched in thick ascending limbs) and isolated IVs and PMs from this tissue by differential centrifugation. Total BSC-1 protein expression in ISOM and BSC-1 protein expression in ISOM IVs and PMs were measured by semiquantitative western blotting in SHR and aged-matched WKY rats at different ages and stages of hypertension. 3. At 5 weeks of age, SHR were prehypertensive (mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) 97 mmHg). At this age, both the total abundance and cellular distribution of BSC-1 were similar in ISOM from SHR and WKY rats. 4. As SHR aged, their hypertension progressed (MABP 137 and 195 mmHg at 8 and 14 weeks of age, respectively). Associated with the increase in MABP was an increase in both steady state protein levels of ISOM BSC-1 and the distribution of ISOM BSC-1 to PMs (four- and sixfold increases at 8 and 14 weeks of age, respectively, compared with age-matched WKY rats; P BSC-1 mRNA was measured and was found not to differ between SHR and WKY rat ISOM at any age or level of MABP. 6. We conclude that as SHR transition from prehypertensive to established hypertension, there is a marked

  15. Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation: a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Lambrianidis, T.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Sluis, van der L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim (i) To evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, root canal size and irrigant flow rate on the entrapment of air bubbles in the apical part of a root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation using experiments and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, (ii) to invest

  16. Formation and removal of apical vapor lock during syringe irrigation : a combined experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Kastrinakis, E.; Lambrianidis, T.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; van der Sluis, L. W. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim(i) To evaluate the effect of needle type and insertion depth, root canal size and irrigant flow rate on the entrapment of air bubbles in the apical part of a root canal (apical vapor lock) during syringe irrigation using experiments and a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, (ii) to investi

  17. Apical root resorption 6 months after initiation of fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smale, I.M.; Artun, J.; Behbehani, F.; Doppel, D.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individual predisposition might be a major reason for the observed variation in apical orthodontic root resorption. If so, resorption might be expressed during the initial stages of orthodontic therapy in patients at risk. METHODS: To explore this hypothesis, we evaluated standardized,

  18. The Effect of Calcium Hydroxide As an Intracanal Medication of The Apical Microleakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat Mohajer AR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Nowadays, calcium hydroxide is used as a dressing for canal sterilization and repair progression of apical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament on the apical microleakage of root filling.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 46 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with step-back technique to master apical file (MAF size 35. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20. In group 1, the specimens were treated with calcium hydroxide intracanal medication; and in group 2, the samples did not receive any medication. The teeth were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for one week. After that, calcium hydroxide was removed using irrigation with normal saline and reaming with MAF. The root canals were obturated with gutta- percha and AH26 sealer using lateral compaction technique. Specimens were incubated in 100% humility at 37°C for 72 hours and then immersed in India ink for 1 week. Finally, the teeth were cleared and the maximum linear dye penetration was measured under a stereomicroscope at 4X magnification. The data were analyzed by T-test and Chi-square.Results: There was no significant difference between the two experimental groups (P=0.068. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that using calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament did not influence the apical microleakage after final obturation of the root canal system.

  19. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  20. Pulp Revascularization in Immature Permanent Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura Saeki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA is a material that has been used worldwide in several clinical applications, such as apical barriers in teeth with immature apices, repair of root perforations, root-end filling, pulp capping, and pulpotomy. The purpose of this case report was to describe successful revascularization treatment of an immature mandibular right second premolar with apical periodontitis in a 9-year-old female patient. After preparing an access cavity without anesthesia, the tooth was isolated using a rubber dam and accessed. The canal was gently debrided using 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and 3% hydrogen peroxide irrigant. And then MTA was packed into the canal. X-ray photographic examination showed the dentin bridge 5 months after the revascularization procedure. Thickening of the canal wall and complete apical closure were confirmed 10 months after the treatment. In this case, MTA showed clinical and radiographic success at revascularization treatment in immature permanent tooth. The successful outcome of this case suggests that MTA is reliable and effective for endodontic treatment in the pediatric dentistry.

  1. Regenerative Endodontic Treatment versus Apical Plug in Immature Teeth: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Nosrat, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This report compares and evaluates the treatment outcomes of regenerative endodontic treatment and apical plug as two accepted treatment protocols in a pair of necrotic immature maxillary central incisors of a 12-year old female. The patient was referred complaining of a dull pain and swelling in her upper lip area. She had a history of trauma to the anterior maxilla two years earlier. Both teeth were clinically diagnosed with pulp necrosis and periapical radiographs revealed that separate periapical radiolucent lesions surrounded the immature apices of both teeth. The left and right incisors were treated with apical plug and regenerative endodontic treatment, respectively, using calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. The patient was followed-up for three years. During this period, both teeth were clinically asymptomatic and showed complete radiographic healing of the periapical lesions. The right central incisor showed root development. No tooth discoloration was evident. Apexification by apical plug placement and pulp regeneration are both reliable treatments for immature non-vital teeth. In order to choose the right treatment the advantages of either technique should be weighed against its drawbacks. CEM cement can be successfully applied for both purposes. This biomaterial causes less discoloration of the tooth. PMID:27617375

  2. Micro-CT analyses of apical enlargement and molar root canal complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Merete; Darvann, Tron Andre; Larsen, Per;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of two rotary hybrid instrumentation techniques with focus on apical enlargement in molar teeth and to quantify and visualize spatial details of instrumentation efficacy in root canals of different complexity. METHODOLOGY: Maxillary and mandibular molar teeth were...

  3. Responses of Metabolites in Soybean Shoot Apices to Changing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Sicher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean seedlings were grown in controlled environment chambers with CO2 partial pressures of 38 (ambient and 72 (elevated Pa. Five or six shoot apices were harvested from individual 21- to 24-day-old plants. Metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography and, out of 21 compounds, only sucrose and fructose increased in response to CO2 enrichment. One unidentified metabolite, Unk-21.03 decreased up to 80% in soybean apices in response to elevated CO2. Levels of Unk-21.03 decreased progressively when atmospheric CO2 partial pressures were increased from 26 to 100 Pa. Reciprocal transfer experiments showed that Unk-21.03, and sucrose in soybean apices were altered slowly over several days to changes in atmospheric CO2 partial pressures. The mass spectrum of Unk-21.03 indicated that this compound likely contained both an amino and carboxyl group and was structurally related to serine and aspartate. Our findings suggested that CO2 enrichment altered a small number of specific metabolites in soybean apices. This could be an important step in understanding how plant growth and development are affected by carbon dioxide enrichment.

  4. Right ventricular outflow and apical pacing comparably worsen the echocardioghraphic normal left ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.F. ten Cate (Tim); M.G. Scheffer (Michael); G.R. Sutherland (George); J.F. Verzijlbergen (Fred); N.M. van Hemel (Norbert)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims: A depressed left ventricular function (LVF) is sometimes observed during right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing, but any prediction of this adverse effect cannot be done. Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) pacing is thought to deteriorate LVF less frequently because of a more no

  5. Hormonal networks involved in apical hook development in darkness and their response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agustina Mazzella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In darkness, the dicot seedlings produces an apical hook as result of differential cell division and extension at opposite sides of the hypocotyl. This hook protects the apical meristem from mechanical damage during seedling emergence from the soil. In darkness, gibberellins act via the DELLA-PIF (PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs pathway, and ethylene acts via the EIN3/EIL1 (ETHYLENE INSENSITIE 3/EIN3 like 1-HLS1 (HOOKLESS 1 pathway to control the asymmetric accumulation of auxin required for apical hook formation and maintenance. These core pathways form a network with multiple points of connection. Light perception by phytochromes and cryptochromes reduces the activity of PIFs and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1 --both required for hook formation in darkness--, lowers the levels of gibberellins, and triggers hook opening as a component of the switch between heterotrophic and photoautotrophic development. Apical hook opening is thus a suitable model to study the convergence of endogenous and exogenous signals on the control of cell division and cell growth.

  6. A novel mitochondrial ATP8 gene mutation in a patient with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonckheere, A.I.; Hogeveen, M.; Nijtmans, L.G.J.; Brand, M.A.M. van den; Janssen, A.J.M.; Diepstra, J.H.S.; Brandt, FC van den; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Hol, F.A.; Hofste, T.G.; Kapusta, L.; Dillmann, U.; Shamdeen, M.G.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the biochemical and molecular genetic defect in a 16-year-old patient presenting with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and neuropathy suspected for a mitochondrial disorder. METHODS: Measurement of the mitochondrial energy-generating system (MEGS) capacity in muscle and enzyme

  7. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  8. Limited elimination of two viruses by cryotherapy of pelargonium apices related to virus distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallard, A; Mallet, R; Chevalier, M; Grapin, A

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of eradicating the pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) and pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) by cryotherapy of axillary shoot apices was investigated using five Pelargonium cultivars. Viruses were detected by DAS-ELISA and their location was determined by immunolocalization. Apex culture did not permit elimination of PFBV and only 15 percent regenerated plants of 'Stellar Artic' cultivar were ELISA PLPV-negative. Plants regenerated from cryotherapy-treated apices were tested by DAS-ELISA after a 3-month in vitro culture period. Viruses were not detected in 25 percent and 50 percent of the plants tested for PFBV and PLPV, respectively. However, immunolocalization carried out on apices originating from cryopreserved shoot tips sampled from DAS-ELISA negative plants showed that they were still virus-infected. Using immunolocalization, PFBV and PLPV could be detected in Pelargonium apices, even in the meristematic dome. However, viral particles were more numerous in basal zone cells than in meristematic cells. Our results demonstrate that PFBV and PLPV are present within meristematic cells and that cryopreservation can partly reduce the quantity of these viruses in Pelargonium plants but not eliminate them totally. Additional knowledge on localization and behaviour of viruses during cryopreservation is essential to optimize cryotherapy and plant genetic resource management.

  9. Assessment of the nonoperated root after apical surgery of the other root in mandibular molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Riccardo D; von Arx, Thomas; Gfeller, David;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: If a surgical approach is chosen to treat a multirooted tooth affected by persistent periapical pathosis, usually only the affected roots are operated on. The present study assessed the periapical status of the nonoperated root 5 years after apical surgery of the other root in mandi...

  10. Recycling endosomes in apical plasma membrane domain formation and epithelial cell polarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golachowska, Magdalena R.; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling endosomes have taken central stage in the intracellular sorting and polarized trafficking of apical and basolateral plasma membrane components. Molecular players in the underlying mechanisms are now emerging, including small GTPases, class V myosins and adaptor proteins. In particular, def

  11. Effects of ADH on the apical and basolateral membranes of toad urinary bladder epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P J; Leader, J P

    1993-11-01

    Short-circuited urinary bladders from Bufo marinus were supported on their apical surface by an agar mounting method and impaled with microelectrodes via their basolateral membrane. This arrangement provided stable and long-lasting impalements of epithelial cells and yielded reliable membrane potentials and voltage divider ratios (Ra/Rb), where Ra and Rb are apical and basolateral membrane resistances respectively. The membrane potential under short-circuit conditions (Vsc) was -51.4 +/- 2.2 mV (n = 59), while under open-circuit conditions apical membrane potential (Va) and basolateral membrane potential (Vb) were -31.0 +/- 2.4 and 59.5 +/- 2.4 mV, respectively. This yields a "well-shaped" potential profile across the toad urinary bladder, where Va is inversely related to the rate of transport, Isc. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) produced a hyperpolarisation of Vsc and Vb but had no significant effect on Va. In addition, Ra/Rb was significantly increased by ADH (4.6 +/- 0.5 to 10.2 +/- 3.6). Calculation of individual membrane resistances following the addition of amiloride showed that ADH produced a parallel decrease in Ra and Rb membrane resistance, with the observed increase in Ra/Rb being due to a greater percentage decrease in Rb than in Ra. The ability of ADH to effect parallel changes in apical and basolateral membrane conductance helps to maintain a constant cellular volume despite an increase in transepithelial transport. PMID:8309781

  12. Ultrasonic root-end preparation in apical surgery : a prospective randomized study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, Jan; Putters, Thomas; Baas, Erik M.; van Ingen, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefit of an ultrasonic device in apical surgery on the outcome of treatment. Study design. A randomized prospective design was used in a standardized treatment protocol. Patients were allocated to treatment with an ultrasonic devic

  13. Dual roles of Notch in regulation of apically restricted mitosis and apicobasal polarity of neuroepithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Shinya; Aoki, Ryo; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Tsuruoka-Kinoshita, Sachiko; Tanaka, Hideomi; Wada, Hironori; Watabe, Shugo; Tsuboi, Takashi; Masai, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2011-01-27

    How the mitosis of neuroepithelial stem cells is restricted to the apical ventricular area remains unclear. In zebrafish, the mosaic eyes(rw306) (moe/epb41l5(rw306)) mutation disrupts the interaction between the putative adaptor protein Moe and the apicobasal polarity regulator Crumbs (Crb), and impairs the maintenance of neuroepithelial apicobasal polarity. While Crb interacts directly with Notch and inhibits its activity, Moe reverses this inhibition. In the moe(rw306) hindbrain, Notch activity is significantly reduced, and the number of cells that proliferate basally away from the apical area is increased. Surprisingly, activation of Notch in the moe(rw306) mutant rescues not only the basally localized proliferation but also the aberrant neuroepithelial apicobasal polarity. We present evidence that the Crb⋅Moe complex and Notch play key roles in a positive feedback loop to maintain the apicobasal polarity and the apical-high basal-low gradient of Notch activity in neuroepithelial cells, both of which are essential for their apically restricted mitosis. PMID:21262462

  14. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  15. A systematic analysis of neonatal mouse heart regeneration after apical resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Donald Marion; O'Meara, Caitlin Claire; Ho, Nhi Ngoc; Gannon, Joseph; Cai, Lei; Lee, Richard Theodore

    2015-02-01

    The finding that neonatal mice are able to regenerate myocardium after apical resection has recently been questioned. We determined if heart regeneration is influenced by the size of cardiac resection and whether surgical retraction of the ventricular apex results in an increase in cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity. We performed moderate or large apical ventricular resections on neonatal mice and quantified scar infiltration into the left ventricular wall at 21 days post-surgery. Moderately resected hearts had 15±2% of the wall infiltrated by a collagen scar; significantly greater scar infiltration (23±4%) was observed in hearts with large resections. Resected hearts had higher levels of cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity relative to sham hearts. Surgically retracting the ventricle often resulted in fibrosis and induced cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity that were comparable to that of resected hearts. We conclude that apical resection in neonatal mice induces cardiomyocyte cell cycle activity and neomyogenesis, although scarring can occur. Surgical technique and definition of approach to assessing the extent of regeneration are both critical when using the neonatal mouse apical resection model.

  16. Sugar demand, not auxin, is the initial regulator of apical dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael G; Ross, John J; Babst, Benjamin A; Wienclaw, Brittany N; Beveridge, Christine A

    2014-04-22

    For almost a century the plant hormone auxin has been central to theories on apical dominance, whereby the growing shoot tip suppresses the growth of the axillary buds below. According to the classic model, the auxin indole-3-acetic acid is produced in the shoot tip and transported down the stem, where it inhibits bud growth. We report here that the initiation of bud growth after shoot tip loss cannot be dependent on apical auxin supply because we observe bud release up to 24 h before changes in auxin content in the adjacent stem. After the loss of the shoot tip, sugars are rapidly redistributed over large distances and accumulate in axillary buds within a timeframe that correlates with bud release. Moreover, artificially increasing sucrose levels in plants represses the expression of BRANCHED1 (BRC1), the key transcriptional regulator responsible for maintaining bud dormancy, and results in rapid bud release. An enhancement in sugar supply is both necessary and sufficient for suppressed buds to be released from apical dominance. Our data support a theory of apical dominance whereby the shoot tip's strong demand for sugars inhibits axillary bud outgrowth by limiting the amount of sugar translocated to those buds.

  17. Deep-apical tubules: dynamic lipid-raft microdomains in the brush-border region of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Pedersen, Jens; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte;

    2003-01-01

    microdomains. Deep-apical tubules were positioned close to the actin rootlets of adjacent microvilli in the terminal web region, which had a diameter of 50-100 nm, and penetrated up to 1 microm into the cytoplasm. Markers for transcytosis, IgA and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, as well as the resident...... lipid raft-containing compartments, but little is otherwise known about these raft microdomains. We therefore studied in closer detail apical lipid-raft compartments in enterocytes by immunogold electron microscopy and biochemical analyses. Novel membrane structures, deep-apical tubules, were visualized...... brush-border enzyme aminopeptidase N, were present in these deep-apical tubules. We propose that deep-apical tubules are a specialized lipid-raft microdomain in the brush-border region functioning as a hub in membrane trafficking at the brush border. In addition, the sensitivity to cholesterol depletion...

  18. CASE OF DIAGNOSIS OF APICAL FORM OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY WITH A PATIENT WITH PROGRESSIVE ANGINA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Krylova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to describe the apical form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AFHC developing under the "mask" of the ischemic heart disease not diagnosed for a long period.Materials and methods. Patient B., 73 y.o., female, was brought to the cardiology department with complains of severe pressing pain behind the breastbone caused with no apparent reason and lasting for over 4 hours. The following examination of the patient was performed: electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography (EchoCG, Holter ECG monitoring, coronary angiography (CAG, ventriculography.Results. The final diagnosis for the patient was set on the basis of the following readings: ECG data (basic rhythm – atrial fibrillation, left ventricle (LV hypertrophy, negative T-waves in leads V1–6, ST segment depression up to 1–2 mm in leads V4–6, EchoCG (hypertrophy of apical segments of the LV with decreasing of its cavity, moderate dilatation of the left atrium, intraventricular obstruction in the apical third of the LV with the maximum pressure gradient of up to 48 mm Hg., CAG (stenotic lesions of coronary arteries were found, ventriculography (LV volume is not increased, no violations of local contractility, narrowing of the LV cavity in the lower third is observed with thinning in the apex, which indicatesexpressed apical hypertrophy of the LV myocard. AFHC, apical form with moderate obstruction in the lower third of the left ventricle. Stress angina syndrome. CAG and ventriculography were main diagnostic methods that allowed setting the final diagnosis.Conclusion. The clinical case sets forth the peculiarities of diagnostics, therapy, and post-therapy management of patients with this form of AFHC.

  19. CASE OF DIAGNOSIS OF APICAL FORM OF HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY WITH A PATIENT WITH PROGRESSIVE ANGINA CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of work: to describe the apical form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AFHC developing under the "mask" of the ischemic heart disease not diagnosed for a long period.Materials and methods. Patient B., 73 y.o., female, was brought to the cardiology department with complains of severe pressing pain behind the breastbone caused with no apparent reason and lasting for over 4 hours. The following examination of the patient was performed: electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography (EchoCG, Holter ECG monitoring, coronary angiography (CAG, ventriculography.Results. The final diagnosis for the patient was set on the basis of the following readings: ECG data (basic rhythm – atrial fibrillation, left ventricle (LV hypertrophy, negative T-waves in leads V1–6, ST segment depression up to 1–2 mm in leads V4–6, EchoCG (hypertrophy of apical segments of the LV with decreasing of its cavity, moderate dilatation of the left atrium, intraventricular obstruction in the apical third of the LV with the maximum pressure gradient of up to 48 mm Hg., CAG (stenotic lesions of coronary arteries were found, ventriculography (LV volume is not increased, no violations of local contractility, narrowing of the LV cavity in the lower third is observed with thinning in the apex, which indicatesexpressed apical hypertrophy of the LV myocard. AFHC, apical form with moderate obstruction in the lower third of the left ventricle. Stress angina syndrome. CAG and ventriculography were main diagnostic methods that allowed setting the final diagnosis.Conclusion. The clinical case sets forth the peculiarities of diagnostics, therapy, and post-therapy management of patients with this form of AFHC.

  20. Apical crown technique to model canal roots. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, D; Colombo, M; Gagliani, M

    2007-09-01

    The goals of endodontic therapy are to shape and clean the root canal system in order to receive a three-dimensional and hermetic filling of the entire endodontic space. The aim of this review is to analyze the development of the different canal shaping techniques from the manual stainless-steel instruments to the recently developed rotary Ni-Ti systems. The need to provide instruments of a suitable size to reach the apex of curved root canals drove the development of preparation techniques with a greater focus on the apical part. The Crown-Down technique involves the widening of the canal orifices with Gates-Glidden drills followed by the incremental removal of organic canal contents proceeding from the canal orifice to the apical portion using manual files. Files are used from larger to smaller with no apical pressure. Nevertheless, the term ''Crown-Down'' does not define the technique in the strictest sense, nor does it provide a specific sequence for the use of instruments, but rather defines a way to use the instruments. The preparation of root canals has been revolutionised by the development of Ni-Ti alloys. The features of this alloy give instruments profound flexibility and allow the manufacture of more tapered instruments compared with traditional stainless-steel instruments. In the second part of this review, numerous examples are provided concerning the comparison between different Ni-Ti systems and their techniques for use. A Crown-Down approach provides certain advantages including early organic debris removal, the creation of a large reservoir for irrigating solutions, a straighter access to the apical region of curved canals, and greater precision with regard to the exact working length and apical size.

  1. Morphology of bacterial flora in root canals associated with apical abscesses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Huijie; Gao Chengzhi; Zhang Chengfei; Zheng Shuying; Yue Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background Apical abscess is an inflammatory process in the peri-radicular tissues caused by biofllms in the necrotic root canal systems.Therefore,a comprehensive analysis of the bacterial colonization is required for a better understanding of the pathogenesis.This study aimed to investigate the patterns of bacterial infection of root canals of teeth with apical abscesses and to determine whether histological and microbiological findings correlated with clinical conditions.Methods Eighteen samples from 18 teeth with apical pathological lesions were analyzed.Nine patients with acute apical abscesses experienced severe pain,and nine patients were asymptomatic with a sinus tract.After extraction,each affected root was divided into two halves.One half was processed for histobacteriologic analysis and examined using light microscopy,and the other half was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the patterns of microbial colonization of the root canals.Results The appearance of each sample subjected to SEM was consistent with the histobacteriologic findings despite the presence or absence of clinical symptoms.Intraradicular biofilms comprising cocci,rods,and/or filaments of amorphous materials were observed in the apical third of the main root canals in all samples.The bacterial biofilms covering the main root canal walls also penetrated the dentinal tubules to varying depths.The morphologies of biofilms varied,and a unique pattern of intraradicular infection was not identified.Conclusion Intraradicular infections formed complex and variable multispecies biofilms and their presence did not correlate with clinical symptoms.

  2. Evaluation of the endodontic apical seal after post insertion by synchrotron radiation microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commonly used methods for evaluating the endodontic apical seal, such as longitudinal and transversal section and diaphanization, show some operative difficulties and intrinsic limitation. This study suggests and describes a new method of analysis using a synchrotron radiation microtomography to analyse the root apex after post insertion, creating a three-dimensional image and analysing sections of the specimen every 5μm. The study was performed at SYRMEP beam line at the Electra Synchrotron in Trieste using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. Eleven monoradicular teeth were prepared using NiTi GT Rotary files instruments to an apical size 20 with conicity .06 and divided in four groups: in G1 (n=4) and G2 (n=2), the specimens were endodontically filled with guttapercha and a zinc-oxide sealer, in G3 (n=3) and G4 (n=2) guttapercha and a silicon-based sealer were used. An endodontic post was inserted in specimens of groups 1 and 3 following the manufacturer's instructions. Specimens were analysed using monochromatic X-rays of 32KeV. A CCD detector with pixel dimension pf 5x5μm2 was used for the acquisition process. Seven hundred and twenty projections were performed over 180o range using a high-resolution rotator. The projections were reconstructed using standard algorithms for tomographic reconstruction. The apical infiltration was evaluated by verifying if black spots were detectable on the images. The specimens of groups 3 and 4 showed a better apical seal than the ones of groups 1 and 2. Post insertion, when a ZOE-based sealer is used, increases the apical gap even if it does not seem to be clinically relevant and sufficient to be a cause of endodontic failure. The new method for analysis appeared to be effective to detect small defects in endodontic obturation, analysing guttapercha-sealer and sealer-dentin interfaces

  3. Isolation of radio-iodinated apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, H J; Edelman, I S

    1979-04-01

    The apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium were radio-iodinated with the glucose-glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase system. The covalently bound radio iodine was used as a marker during subcellular fractionation and membrane isolation. Homogenization conditions that ensured rupture of more than 80% of the cells without substantial nuclear damage were defined by Normarski optics. The nuclei were separated by differential centrifugation and the apical and basal-lateral components were resolved by differential and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The apical components yielded two radioactive bands that were identified as glycocalyx and plasma membrane labeled with 125I. The basal-lateral components yielded a hetero-disperse pattern made up of at least 3 radioactive bands, but the bulk of the activity of ouabain-sensitive ATPase comigrated with only one of these bands. The mitochondia, identified by assays for cytochrome oxidase and NADH cytochrome c reductase activities, were separated from the radio-iodine labeled by centrifugation in sucrose density gradients under isokinetic conditions. The labeled glycocalyx and the slowly migrating components of basal-lateral labeling were separated from the radio-iodinated membranes by centrifugation at 100,000 x g x 1 hr after removal of the mitochrondria by the isokinetic method. The labeled membranes were then subjected to ultracentrifugation in sucrose density gradients under isopycnic conditions; the basal-lateral membranes containing ouabain-sensitive ATP-ase were well resolved from the apical membranes by this method. These results provide a relatively rapid method of attaining partial purification of the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium. PMID:222911

  4. Activation of an apical Cl- conductance by Ca2+ ionophores in cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumsen, N J; Boucher, R C

    1989-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia express a defect in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of apical membrane Cl- channels. Recent patch-clamp studies have raised the possibility that Ca2+ -dependent mechanisms for the activation of Cl- secretion may be preserved in CF airway epithelia. To determine 1) whether intact normal (N1) and CF airway epithelia exhibit a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism for activation of Cl- secretion and 2) whether Ca2+ -dependent mechanism for activation of Cl- secretion and 2) whether Ca2+ -dependent mechanisms initiate Cl- secretion via activation of an apical membrane Cl- conductance (GCl-), nasal epithelia from N1 and CF subjects were cultured on collagen membranes, and responses to isoproterenol or Ca2- ionophores [A23187 10(-6) M; ionomycin (10(-5)M)] were measured with transepithelial and intracellular techniques. Isoproterenol induced activation of an apical membrane GCl- in N1 cultures but was ineffective in CF. In contrast, in both N1 and CF amiloride-pretreated cultures, A23187 induced an increase in the equivalent short-circuit current that was associated with an activation of an apical membrane Gc1- and was bumetanide inhibitable. A23187 addition during superfusion of the lumen with a low Cl- (3 mM) solution reduced intracellular Cl- activity of CF cells. A Ca2+ ionophore of different selectivity properties, ionomycin, was also an effective Cl- secretagogue in both N1 and CF cultures. We conclude that 1) the A23187 induced Cl- secretion via activation of an apical GCl- in N1 human nasal epithelium, and 2) in contrast to an isoproterenol-dependent path, a Ca2+ -dependent path for GCl- activation is preserved in CF epithelia. PMID:2465689

  5. Electrostatic and potential cation-pi forces may guide the interaction of extracellular loop III with Na+ and bile acids for human apical Na+-dependent bile acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Antara; Hussainzada, Naissan; Khandelwal, Akash; Swaan, Peter W

    2008-03-01

    The hASBT (human apical Na(+)-dependent bile acid transporter) constitutes a key target of anti-hypercholesterolaemic therapies and pro-drug approaches; physiologically, hASBT actively reclaims bile acids along the terminal ileum via Na(+) co-transport. Previously, TM (transmembrane segment) 7 was identified as part of the putative substrate permeation pathway using SCAM (substitute cysteine accessibility mutagenesis). In the present study, SCAM was extended through EL3 (extracellular loop 3; residues Arg(254)-Val(286)) that leads into TM7 from the exofacial matrix. Activity of most EL3 mutants was significantly hampered upon cysteine substitution, whereas ten (out of 31) were functionally inactive (<10% activity). Since only E282C lacked plasma membrane expression, EL3 amino acids predominantly fulfill critical functional roles during transport. Oppositely charged membrane-impermeant MTS (methanethiosulfonate) reagents {MTSET [(2-trimethylammonium) ethyl MTS] and MTSES [(2-sulfonatoethyl) MTS]} produced mostly similar inhibition profiles wherein only middle and descending loop segments (residues Thr(267)-Val(286)) displayed significant MTS sensitivity. The presence of bile acid substrate significantly reduced the rates of MTS modification for all MTS-sensitive mutants, suggesting a functional association between EL3 residues and bile acids. Activity assessments at equilibrative [Na(+)] revealed numerous Na(+)-sensitive residues, possibly performing auxiliary functions during transport such as transduction of protein conformational changes during translocation. Integration of these data suggests ligand interaction points along EL3 via electrostatic interactions with Arg(256), Glu(261) and probably Glu(282) and a potential cation-pi interaction with Phe(278). We conclude that EL3 amino acids are essential for hASBT activity, probably as primary substrate interaction points using long-range electrostatic attractive forces. PMID:18028035

  6. Drug-Drug Interactions with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors, New Oral Glucose-Lowering Agents for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering ar...

  7. Maternal restraint stress delays maturation of cation-chloride cotransporters and GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Veerawatananan, Bovorn; Surakul, Pornprom; Chutabhakdikul, Nuanchan

    2015-01-01

    The GABAergic synapse undergoes structural and functional maturation during early brain development. Maternal stress alters GABAergic synapses in the pup's brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults; however, the mechanism for this is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of maternal restraint stress on the development of Cation-Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) and the GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pup...

  8. Water transport by Na+-coupled cotransporters of glucose (SGLT1) and of iodide (NIS). The dependence of substrate size studied at high resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Belhage, Bo; Zeuthen, Emil

    2005-01-01

    -analogue alpha-MDG (MW 194); using the larger sugar arbutin (MW 272) this number was reduced by a factor of at least 0.86+/-0.03 (15). For the human SGLT1 the respective numbers were 234+/-12 (18) and 0.85+/-0.8 (7). For NIS, 253+/-16 (12) water molecules were cotransported for each 2 Na+ and 1 thiocyanate (SCN...

  9. Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a 27 year-old female patient with type-1-Diabetes treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor Canagliflozin

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Nimrah; Mirza, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a timely case of atypical euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetic patient treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor canagliflozin. The clinical history, physical examination findings and laboratory values are described. Other causes of acidosis such as salicylate toxicity or alcohol intoxication were excluded. Ketoacidosis resolved after increasing dextrose and insulin doses supporting the hypothesis that SGLT-2 inhibitors may lead to hypoin...

  10. In Caco-2 cells, most of the "Apical" SGLT1 resides in intracellular, microtubuli-associated vesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kipp, H.; Khoursandi, S.; Scharlau, D.; Kinne, R.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of the endogenous sodium/D-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) in polarized Caco-2 cells, a model for enterocytes. A cellular organelle fraction was separated by free flow electrophoresis and subjected to the analysis of endogenous and exogenous marker enzymes for various membrane vesicle components. Furthermore, the presence of SGLT1 was tested by an ELISA assay using newly developed epitope-specific antibodies. Thereby it was found that the major amount of SGLT1 r...

  11. Immunohistochemical features of the granulation tissue structure in the primary and secondary apical periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritsenko P.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The search of criteria of differential enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinases immunocompetent cells of granulomas in the primary and secondary apical periodontitis (AP provides information about the features of lesions of periodontal stromal component, and it can be used as the basis for future therapeutic intervention. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the cellular composition of granulation tissue, which formed during primary and secondary apical periodontitis; comparison of morphological characteristics of the structure apical granuloma with immunohistochemical indicators of markers expression of cluster of differentiation CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, CD138, CD20 and cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase 9. Methods. The study included 59 patients aged 18 to 50 years with apical periodontitis. Patients were divided into 2 clinical group: 1 – with primary periodontitis and 2 – with secondary periodontitis. For morphological studies using peryapikalnoyi granulation tissue biopsies. Results. Significant differences were found for the fractions of CD4+ T helper cells (p=0,034, r=0,321, CD20+ mature B lymphocytes (p=0,001, r=0,671, CD68+ macrophages (p=0,011, r=0,684 and CD138+ plasma cells (p=0,002, r=0,645. And, also likely decrease in the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ (p=0,002, r=0,645, by reducing the fraction of CD4+ T-helper cells, against reducing the number of leukocytes, expression of MMP-9 (p=0,04, r=0,302 and COX-2 (p=0,013, r=0,321 with secondary apical periodontitis, compared to the primary periodontitis. Conclusion. Disease progression and the beginning of the destruction of bone tissue with the formation of granulation tissue is the result of abnormal immune responses, III and IV type hypersensitivity reactions, with the formation of immune granulomas. Citation: Gritsenko PI, Samojlenko AV, Shpon’ka IS, Poslavska

  12. Adenovirus entry from the apical surface of polarized epithelia is facilitated by the host innate immune response.

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    Poornima L N Kotha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of viral-induced respiratory disease begins with an understanding of the factors that increase or decrease susceptibility to viral infection. The primary receptor for most adenoviruses is the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, a cell-cell adhesion protein normally localized at the basolateral surface of polarized epithelia and involved in neutrophil transepithelial migration. Recently, an alternate isoform of CAR, CAREx8, has been identified at the apical surface of polarized airway epithelia and is implicated in viral infection from the apical surface. We hypothesized that the endogenous role of CAREx8 may be to facilitate host innate immunity. We show that IL-8, a proinflammatory cytokine and a neutrophil chemoattractant, stimulates the protein expression and apical localization of CAREx8 via activation of AKT/S6K and inhibition of GSK3β. Apical CAREx8 tethers infiltrating neutrophils at the apical surface of a polarized epithelium. Moreover, neutrophils present on the apical-epithelial surface enhance adenovirus entry into the epithelium. These findings suggest that adenovirus evolved to co-opt an innate immune response pathway that stimulates the expression of its primary receptor, apical CAREx8, to allow the initial infection the intact epithelium. In addition, CAREx8 is a new target for the development of novel therapeutics for both respiratory inflammatory disease and adenoviral infection.

  13. Apical Plasma Membrane Proteins and Endolyn-78 Travel through a Subapical Compartment in Polarized WIF-B Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ihrke, Gudrun; Martin, Greg V.; Shanks, Michael R.; Schrader, Michael; Schroer, Trina A.; Hubbard, Ann L.

    1998-01-01

    We studied basolateral-to-apical transcytosis of three classes of apical plasma membrane (PM) proteins in polarized hepatic WIF-B cells and then compared it to the endocytic trafficking of basolaterally recycling membrane proteins. We used antibodies to label the basolateral cohort of proteins at the surface of living cells and then followed their trafficking at 37°C by indirect immunofluorescence. The apical PM proteins aminopeptidase N, 5′nucleotidase, and the polymeric IgA receptor were ef...

  14. Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nasser; Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2(SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c(Hb A1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and decrease blood pressure of approximately 4 mm Hg systolic and 2 mm Hg diastolic. These characteristics make these agents potential add-on therapy in patients with Hb A1 c levels close to 7%-8.0%, particularly if these patients are obese, hypertensive, and/or prone for hypoglycemia. Meanwhile, these drugs are limited by high frequency of genital mycotic infections. Less common adverse effects include urinary tract infections, hypotension, dizziness, and worsening renal function. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution in the elderly because of increased adverse effects, and should not be used in chronic kidney disease due to decreased or lack of efficacy and nephrotoxicity. Overall, SGLT2 inhibitors are useful addition for treatment of select groups of patients with type 2 diabetes,but their efficacy and safety need to be established in long-term clinical trials.

  15. Co-transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by motile microorganisms leads to enhanced mass transfer under diffusive conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Jakobsen, Hans H; Winding, Anne; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-04-15

    The environmental chemodynamics of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) are often rate-limited by diffusion in stagnant boundary layers. This study investigated whether motile microorganisms can act as microbial carriers that enhance mass transfer of HOCs through diffusive boundary layers. A new experimental system was developed that allows (1) generation of concentration gradients of HOCs under the microscope, (2) exposure and direct observation of microorganisms in such gradients, and (3) quantification of HOC mass transfer. Silicone O-rings were integrated into a Dunn chemotaxis chamber to serve as sink and source for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This resulted in stable concentration gradients in water (>24 h). Adding the model organism Tetrahymena pyriformis to the experimental system enhanced PAH mass transfer up to hundred-fold (benzo[a]pyrene). Increasing mass transfer enhancement with hydrophobicity indicated PAH co-transport with the motile organisms. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed such transport. The effective diffusivity of T. pyriformis, determined by video imaging microscopy, was found to exceed molecular diffusivities of the PAHs up to four-fold. Cell-bound PAH fractions were determined to range from 28% (naphthalene) to 92% (pyrene). Motile microorganisms can therefore function as effective carriers for HOCs under diffusive conditions and might significantly enhance mobility and availability of HOCs.

  16. Review. The mammalian proton-coupled peptide cotransporter PepT1: sitting on the transporter-channel fence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, David

    2009-01-27

    The proton-coupled di- and tripeptide transporter PepT1 (SLC15a1) is the major route by which dietary nitrogen is taken up from the small intestine, as well as being the route of entry for important therapeutic (pro)drugs such as the beta-lactam antibiotics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and antiviral and anti-cancer agents. PepT1 is a member of the major facilitator superfamily of 12 transmembrane domain transporter proteins. Expression studies in Xenopus laevis on rabbit PepT1 that had undergone site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved arginine residue (arginine282 in transmembrane domain 7) to a glutamate revealed that this residue played a role in the coupling of proton and peptide transport and prevented the movement of non-coupled ions during the transporter cycle. Mutations of arginine282 to other non-positive residues did not uncouple proton-peptide cotransport, but did allow additional ion movements when substrate was added. By contrast, mutations to positive residues appeared to function the same as wild-type. These findings are discussed in relation to the functional role that arginine282 may play in the way PepT1 operates, together with structural information from the homology model of PepT1 based on the Escherichia coli lactose permease crystal structure.

  17. Knockdown of the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter 2b (NPT2b suppresses lung tumorigenesis.

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    Seong-Ho Hong

    Full Text Available The sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter 2b (NPT2b plays an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis. In previous studies, we have shown that high dietary inorganic phosphate (Pi consumption in mice stimulated lung tumorigenesis and increased NPT2b expression. NPT2b has also been found to be highly expressed in human lung cancer tissues. The association of high expression of NPT2b in the lung with poor prognosis in oncogenic lung diseases prompted us to test whether knockdown of NPT2b may regulate lung cancer growth. To address this issue, aerosols that contained small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against NPT2b (siNPT2b were delivered into the lungs of K-ras (LA1 mice, which constitute a murine model reflecting human lung cancer. Our results clearly showed that repeated aerosol delivery of siNPT2b successfully suppressed lung cancer growth and decreased cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis, while facilitating apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that NPT2b plays a role lung tumorigenesis and represents a novel target for lung cancer therapy.

  18. The K–Cl Cotransporter KCC3 as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Atsushi Shiozaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to investigate the role of K–Cl cotransporter 3 (KCC3 in the regulation of cellular invasion and the clinicopathological significance of its expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC. Immunohistochemical analysis performed on 70 primary tumor samples obtained from ESCC patients showed that KCC3 was primarily found in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells. Although the expression of KCC3 in the main tumor (MT was related to several clinicopathological features, such as the pT and pN categories, it had no prognostic impact. KCC3 expression scores were compared between the MT and cancer nest (CN, and the survival rate of patients with a CN>MT score was lower than that of patients with a CN≤MT score. In addition, the survival rate of patients in whom KCC3 was expressed in the invasive front of tumor was lower than that of the patients without it. Furthermore, multivariate analysis demonstrated that the expression of KCC3 in the invasive front was one of the most important independent prognostic factors. The depletion of KCC3 using siRNAs inhibited cell migration and invasion in human ESCC cell lines. These results suggest that the expression of KCC3 in ESCC may affect cellular invasion and be related to a worse prognosis in patients with ESCC.

  19. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: Part 2. Antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Atsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Yokono, Masanori; Imamura, Masakazu; Kurosaki, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Previously we investigated the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan using normal and diabetic mice. We classified the SGLT2 inhibitors with respect to duration of action as either long-acting (ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin) or intermediate-acting (tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin). In the present study, antidiabetic effects of repeated administration of these SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetic mice were investigated. When repeatedly administered for 4 weeks, all SGLT2 inhibitors significantly exhibited antihyperglycemic, antihyperinsulinemic, and pancreas-protective effects, as well as insulin resistance-improving effects. When compared at doses producing comparable reduction in hyperglycemia across all drugs, the antidiabetic effects of ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin were more potent than those of the other four drugs, but these differences among the six drugs were not statistically significant. Further, an oral glucose tolerance test performed after repeated administration demonstrated significant improvement in glucose tolerance only with ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, implying improved insulin resistance and secretion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that, although all SGLT2 inhibitors exert antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice, these pharmacologic effects might be slightly superior with the long-acting drugs, which are able to provide favorable blood glucose control throughout the day. PMID:27430987

  20. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and blood pressure decrease: a valuable effect of a novel antidiabetic class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imprialos, Konstantinos P; Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Karagiannis, Asterios I

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major issue of public health, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) in the renal proximal tubule are a novel class of agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inhibition of the SGLT-2 results in reduced glucose reabsorption and improvement in glycemic control. Alongside glucose excretion, SGLT-2 inhibitors also have mild natriuretic and diuretic effects, combining actions of a proximal tubule diuretic and an osmotic diuretic; these properties are expected to lead to small blood pressure (BP) reductions. Clinical studies with dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, ipragliflozin, luseogliflozin, and tofogliflozin used either as monotherapy or add-on therapy and compared with placebo or active treatment have also examined the effect of these agents on BP as a secondary endpoint. Although with some differences between individual agents, all of the approved SGLT-2 inhibitors provided a mild but meaningful reduction in office SBP and DBP. Recent studies with the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring suggest that the magnitude of this BP reduction can be even greater. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and present the studies reporting the effect of approved SGLT-2 inhibitors on BP. PMID:26372321